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Sample records for binding oral p2y12

  1. The Antiplatelet Journey Thus Far: Focus On New Oral P2Y12-Inhibitors

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    Erik Lerkevang Grove

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are pivotal in the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes; the leading cause of death worldwide. The use of antiplatelet agents in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes has reduced morbidity and mortality substantially. Thus, aspirin has been a cornerstone in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes for years. However, during the last decade the P2Y12-inhibitor clopidogrel has accompanied aspirin to further improve clinical outcomes. P2Y12-inhibitors are antiplatelet agents preventing the binding of adenosine diphosphate to P2Y12-receptors on the platelet surface thus inhibiting platelet aggregation.Recently, the emergence of two new P2Y12-inhibitors, prasugrel and ticagrelor, has challenged the role of clopidogrel. Similar to clopidogrel, prasugrel is a prodrug that needs hepatic conversion to its active metabolite to provide irreversible P2Y12-inhibition. In contrast, ticagrelor is a direct-acting allosteric P2Y12-antagonist inhibiting the P2Y12-receptor reversibly. Both drugs provide a better protection against cardiovascular outcomes than clopidogrel as evidenced by large clinical trials. This benefit might partly reflect the rapid onset of action and the pronounced antiplatelet effect of these drugs compared to clopidogrel. So far, no direct comparison of prasugrel and ticagrelor has been performed, but ongoing trials will provide data to clarify the clinical role of these drugs.The present review outlines the key milestones of the history of P2Y12-inhibitors and provides an up-to-date overview and comparison of the clinical applicability of these drugs.

  2. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by AZD6140, a reversible oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, compared with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes

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    Storey, Robert F; Husted, Steen; Harrington, Robert A;

    2007-01-01

    -pretreated patients. BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel, in combination with aspirin, reduces cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, patients with poor inhibition of platelet aggregation with clopidogrel may be less well protected. AZD6140 is a reversible oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist...

  3. Characteristics of new P2Y12 inhibitors: selection of P2Y12 inhibitors in clinical practice.

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    Golino, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    The options for antithrombotic therapy have recently been expanded, facilitating optimal tailored treatment. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and an approved adenosine diphosphate P2Y12 receptor antagonist is recommended for the management of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, there are a number of controversies: which P2Y12 inhibitor to choose; how long should antiplatelet therapy be used so as to prevent thrombotic events and minimize bleeding risks; whether to use drug-eluting (DES) or bare-metal stents (BMS) and how to manage the individual variability in response to clopidogrel. Clopidogrel in combination with aspirin has been the standard dual antiplatelet regimen for ACS. The new, more potent P2Y12 inhibitors, prasugrel and ticagrelor, have shown improved antithrombotic effects compared with clopidogrel in patients with ACS (with or without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) in landmark trials, even if they were associated with an increased risk of major bleeding. Different pharmacogenetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics may explain, in part, the different pharmacologic and clinical responses to these antiplatelet agents. Importantly, both clopidogrel and prasugrel are prodrugs, i.e., they need to be converted in vivo into active metabolites that selectively and irreversibly bind the P2Y12 receptor. Unlike clopidogrel, however, common functional cytochrome P450 genetic variants do not affect prasugrel active metabolite levels or inhibition of platelet aggregation. In contrast, ticagrelor is not a prodrug (i.e., does not require hepatic metabolism to exert its antiplatelet effect) and represents the first oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist that is reversibly bound. Similar to prasugrel, ticagrelor achieves greater and more rapid inhibition of platelet function than clopidogrel. Evidence suggests that the new P2Y12 antagonists may offer improved antithrombotic effects compared with clopidogrel in selected patients for the

  4. Pharmacology of the new P2Y12 receptor inhibitors: insights on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties.

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    Ferri, Nicola; Corsini, Alberto; Bellosta, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    ticagrelor determine a faster, greater, and more consistent adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor inhibition than clopidogrel, with a near complete inhibition of platelet aggregation between 1-2 h after administration of an oral loading dose, while cangrelor shows a rapid and potent platelet inhibitory effect with intravenous infusion. Thus, the different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the P2Y(12) receptor inhibitors enable clinicians to personalize therapy according to patient-specific medical requirements for better prevention of atherothrombotic events. In the present review, we describe the pharmacological properties, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences, and the clinical efficacy of the currently available P2Y(12) receptor inhibitors. PMID:24114622

  5. The P2Y(12 antagonists, 2MeSAMP and cangrelor, inhibit platelet activation through P2Y(12/G(i-dependent mechanism.

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    Binggang Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ADP is an important physiological agonist that induces integrin activation and platelet aggregation through its receptors P2Y(1 (Gα(q-coupled and P2Y(12 (Gα(i-coupled. P2Y(12 plays a critical role in platelet activation and thrombosis. Adenosine-based P2Y(12 antagonists, 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate triethylammonium salt hydrate (2MeSAMP and Cangrelor (AR-C69931MX have been widely used to demonstrate the role of P2Y(12 in platelet function. Cangrelor is being evaluated in clinical trials of thrombotic diseases. However, a recent study reported that both 2MeSAMP and Cangrelor raise intra-platelet cAMP levels and inhibit platelet aggregation through a P2Y(12-independent mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present work, using P2Y(12 deficient mice, sought to clarify previous conflicting reports and to elucidate the mechanisms by which 2MeSAMP and Cangrelor inhibit platelet activation and thrombosis. 2MeSAMP and Cangrelor inhibited aggregation and ATP release of wild-type but not P2Y(12 deficient platelets. 2MeSAMP and Cangrelor neither raised intracellular cAMP concentrations nor induced phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP in washed human or mouse platelets. Furthermore, unlike the activators (PGI(2 and forskolin of the cAMP pathway, 2MeSAMP and Cangrelor failed to inhibit Ca(2+ mobilization, Akt phosphorylation, and Rap1b activation in P2Y(12 deficient platelets. Importantly, while injection of Cangrelor inhibited thrombus formation in a FeCl(3-induced thrombosis model in wild-type mice, it failed to affect thrombus formation in P2Y(12 deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: These data together demonstrate that 2MeSAMP and Cangrelor inhibit platelet function through the P2Y(12-dependent mechanism both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. State of affairs: Design and structure-activity relationships of reversible P2Y12 receptor antagonists.

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    Zetterberg, Fredrik; Svensson, Peder

    2016-06-15

    Myocardial infarction and stroke are the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Therefore the search for antiplatelet therapy has been in focus for the last decades, in particular the search for new P2Y12R antagonists. The first P2Y12R drug developed, clopidogrel, is a major success but there is still room for improvement with respect to bleeding profile and non-responders. These liabilities could be due to the fact that clopidogrel is a pro-drug and upon activation binds covalently to the receptor. Therefore a lot of effort has gone into identifying reversible inhibitors. One recent example is ticagrelor, which in clinical studies have been shown to be safer and even reduce rate of death from vascular events as compared head to head with clopidogrel. We here review the medicinal chemistry strategies used in the design of new reversible P2Y12R antagonists. In addition, we also present structure based design studies based on the recently published agonist and antagonist X-ray structures of P2Y12R. PMID:27133596

  7. Platelet P2Y12 is involved in murine pulmonary metastasis.

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    Yanhua Wang

    Full Text Available The involvement of platelets in tumor progression is well recognized. The depletion of circulating platelets or pharmacologic inhibitors of platelet activation decreases the metastatic potential of circulating tumor cells in metastasis mouse models. The platelet ADP receptor P2Y12 amplifies the initial hemostatic responses activated by a variety of platelet agonists and stabilizes platelet aggregation, playing a crucial role in granule secretion, integrin activation and thrombus formation. However, the relationship between P2Y12 and tumor progression is not clear. In our study, the Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC spontaneous metastatic mouse model was used to evaluate the role of P2Y12 in metastasis. The results demonstrated that P2Y12 deficiency significantly reduced pulmonary metastasis. Further studies indicated that P2Y12 deficiency diminished the ability of LLC cells to induce platelet shape change and release of active TGFβ1 by a non-contact dependent mechanism resulting in a diminished, platelet-induced EMT-like transformation of the LLC cells, and that transformation probably is a prerequisite of LLC cell metastasis. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated an obvious P2Y12 deficiency related attenuation of recruitment of VEGFR1+ bone marrow derived cell clusters, and extracellular matrix fibronectin deposition in lungs, which presumably are required for pre-metastatic niche formation. In contrast to the LLC cells, non-epithelial melanoma B16 cells induced platelet aggregation in a cell number and P2Y12-dependent manner. Also, a platelet induced EMT-like transformation of B16 cells is dependent on P2Y12. In agreement with the LLC cell model, platelet P2Y12 deficiency also results in significantly less lung metastasis in the B16 melanoma experimental metastasis model. These results demonstrate that P2Y12 is a safe drug target for anti-thrombotic therapy, and that P2Y12 may serve as a new target for inhibition of tumor metastasis.

  8. P2Y12 Platelet Receptors: Importance in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from their role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets are involved in many other biological processes such as wound healing and angiogenesis. Percutaneous coronary intervention is a highly thrombogenic procedure inducing platelets and monocytes activation through endothelial trauma and contact activation by intravascular devices. Platelet P2Y12 receptor activation by adenosine diphosphate facilitates non-ADP agonist-mediated platelet aggregation, dense granule secretion, procoagulant activity, and the phosphorylation of several intraplatelet proteins, making it an ideal drug target. However, not all compounds that target the P2Y12 receptor have similar efficacy and safety profiles. Despite targeting the same receptor, the unique pharmacologic properties of each of these P2Y12 receptor-directed compounds can lead to very different clinical effects

  9. Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets as a P2Y12 antagonist and PDE inhibitor: evidence from clinic to laboratory.

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    Liu, Lei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shenghui; Ye, Jianqin; Wen, Zhichao; Ding, Jianping; Kunapuli, Satya P; Luo, Xinping; Ding, Zhongren

    2014-10-01

    Salviae miltiorrhiza (Danshen) has been used for thousands of years in China and some other Asian countries to treat atherothrombotic diseases. Salvianolate which consists of three water-soluble ingredients purified from Salviae miltiorrhiza, has been approved by Chinese SFDA to treat coronary artery disease. So far, there is no evidence clearly showing the clinical efficiency of salvianolate and the underlying mechanism. This study is to evaluate the effects of salvianolate on platelets in patients with acute coronary syndrome and explore the underlying mechanism. We evaluated the effects of salvianolate on platelets in patients with acute coronary syndrome by measuring ADP-induced PAC-1 binding and P-selectin expression on platelets. Salvianolate significantly potentiated the antiplatelet effects of standard dual antiplatelet therapy. We also investigated the antiplatelet effects of salvianolatic acid B (Sal-B), the major component which composes 85% of salvianolate. Sal-B inhibits human platelet activation induced by multiple agonists in vitro by inhibiting phosphodiesterase (PDE) and antagonizing P2Y12 receptor. For the first time, we show the antiplatelet efficiency of salvianolate in ACS patients undergoing treatment with clopidogrel plus aspirin, and demonstrate that Sal-B, the major component of salvianolate inhibits human platelet activation via PDE inhibition and P2Y12 antagonism which may account for the clinical antiplatelet effects of salvianolate. Our results suggest that Sal-B may substitute salvianolate for clinical use. PMID:25077998

  10. Selective and rapid monitoring of dual platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists by using multiple electrode aggregometry

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    Lorenz Reinhard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor platelet inhibition by aspirin or clopidogrel has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. A reliable and facile assay to measure platelet inhibition after treatment with aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist is lacking. Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA, which is being increasingly used in clinical studies, is sensitive to platelet inhibition by aspirin and clopidogrel, but a critical evaluation of MEA monitoring of dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists is missing. Design and Methods By performing in vitro and ex vivo experiments, we evaluated in healthy subjects the feasibility of using MEA to monitor platelet inhibition of P2Y12 antagonists (clopidogrel in vivo, cangrelor in vitro and aspirin (100 mg per day in vivo, and 1 mM or 5.4 mM in vitro alone, and in combination. Statistical analyses were performed by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test, student' t-test, analysis of variance followed by the Holm-Sidak test, where appropriate. Results ADP-induced platelet aggregation in hirudin-anticoagulated blood was inhibited by 99.3 ± 1.4% by in vitro addition of cangrelor (100 nM; p 95% and 100 ± 3.2%, respectively (p in vitro or ex vivo. Oral intake of clopidogrel did not significantly reduce AA-induced aggregation, but P2Y12 blockade by cangrelor (100 nM in vitro diminished AA-stimulated aggregation by 53 ± 26% (p Conclusions Selective platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists alone and in combination can be rapidly measured by MEA. We suggest that dual anti-platelet therapy with these two types of anti-platelet drugs can be optimized individually by measuring platelet responsiveness to ADP and AA with MEA before and after drug intake.

  11. A novel series of piperazinyl-pyridine ureas as antagonists of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor.

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    Bach, Peter; Boström, Jonas; Brickmann, Kay; van Giezen, J J J; Hovland, Ragnar; Petersson, Annika U; Ray, Asim; Zetterberg, Fredrik

    2011-05-15

    A novel series of P2Y(12) antagonists for development of drugs within the antiplatelet area is presented. The synthesis of the piperazinyl-pyridine urea derivatives and their structure-activity relationships (SAR) are described. Several compounds showed P2Y(12) antagonistic activities in the sub-micromolar range. PMID:21507636

  12. P2Y12-ADP receptor antagonists: Days of future and past.

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    Laine, Marc; Paganelli, Franck; Bonello, Laurent

    2016-05-26

    Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of the therapeutic arsenal in coronary artery disease. Thanks to a better understanding in physiology, pharmacology and pharmacogenomics huge progress were made in the field of platelet reactivity inhibition thus allowing the expansion of percutaneous coronary intervention. Stent implantation requires the combination of two antiplatelet agents acting in a synergistic way. Asprin inhibit the cyclo-oxygenase pathway of platelet activation while clopidogrel is a P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist. This dual antiplatelet therapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of stented patients. However, due to pharmacological limitations of clopidogrel (interindividual variability in its biological efficacy, slow onset of action, mild platelet reactivity inhibition) ischemic recurrences remained high following stent implantation especially in acute coronary syndrome patients. Thus, more potent P2Y12-ADP receptor inhibitors were developped including prasugrel, ticagrelor and more recently cangrelor to overcome these pitfalls. These new agents reduced the rate of thrombotic events in acute coronary syndrome patients at the cost of an increased bleeding risk. The abundance in antiplatelet agents allow us to tailor our strategy based on the thrombotic/bleeding profile of each patient. Recently, the ACCOAST trial cast a doubt on the benefit of pre treatment in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The aim of the present review is to summarize the results of the main studies dealing with antiplatelet therapy in stented/acute coronary syndromes patients. PMID:27231519

  13. P2Y12-ADP receptor antagonists: Days of future and past

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    Laine, Marc; Paganelli, Franck; Bonello, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of the therapeutic arsenal in coronary artery disease. Thanks to a better understanding in physiology, pharmacology and pharmacogenomics huge progress were made in the field of platelet reactivity inhibition thus allowing the expansion of percutaneous coronary intervention. Stent implantation requires the combination of two antiplatelet agents acting in a synergistic way. Asprin inhibit the cyclo-oxygenase pathway of platelet activation while clopidogrel is a P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist. This dual antiplatelet therapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of stented patients. However, due to pharmacological limitations of clopidogrel (interindividual variability in its biological efficacy, slow onset of action, mild platelet reactivity inhibition) ischemic recurrences remained high following stent implantation especially in acute coronary syndrome patients. Thus, more potent P2Y12-ADP receptor inhibitors were developped including prasugrel, ticagrelor and more recently cangrelor to overcome these pitfalls. These new agents reduced the rate of thrombotic events in acute coronary syndrome patients at the cost of an increased bleeding risk. The abundance in antiplatelet agents allow us to tailor our strategy based on the thrombotic/bleeding profile of each patient. Recently, the ACCOAST trial cast a doubt on the benefit of pre treatment in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The aim of the present review is to summarize the results of the main studies dealing with antiplatelet therapy in stented/acute coronary syndromes patients. PMID:27231519

  14. Antipsychotic Drugs Inhibit Platelet Aggregation via P2Y1 and P2Y12 Receptors

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    Wu, Chang-Chieh; Tsai, Fu-Ming; Chen, Mao-Liang; Wu, Semon; Lee, Ming-Cheng; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Wang, Lu-Kai; Wang, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) used to treat clinical psychotic syndromes cause a variety of blood dyscrasias. APDs suppress the aggregation of platelets; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We first analyzed platelet aggregation and clot formation in platelets treated with APDs, risperidone, clozapine, or haloperidol, using an aggregometer and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Our data indicated that platelet aggregation was inhibited, that clot formation time was increased, and that clot firmness was decreased in platelets pretreated with APDs. We also examined the role two major adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12, play in ADP-mediated platelet activation and APD-mediated suppression of platelet aggregation. Our results show that P2Y1 receptor stimulation with ADP-induced calcium influx was inhibited by APDs in human and rats' platelets, as assessed by in vitro or ex vivo approach, respectively. In contrast, APDs, risperidone and clozapine, alleviated P2Y12-mediated cAMP suppression, and the release of thromboxane A2 and arachidonic acid by activated platelets decreased after APD treatment in human and rats' platelets. Our data demonstrate that each APD tested significantly suppressed platelet aggregation via different mechanisms. PMID:27069920

  15. Central P2Y12 receptor blockade alleviates inflammatory and neuropathic pain and cytokine production in rodents.

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    Horváth, Gergely; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Csölle, Cecilia; Király, Kornél; Andó, Rómeó D; Baranyi, Mária; Koványi, Bence; Máté, Zoltán; Hoffmann, Kristina; Algaier, Irina; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Von Kügelgen, Ivar; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2014-10-01

    In this study the role of P2Y12 receptors (P2Y12R) was explored in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain and in acute thermal nociception. In correlation with their activity to block the recombinant human P2Y12R, the majority of P2Y12R antagonists alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia dose-dependently, following intraplantar CFA injection, and after partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats. They also caused an increase in thermal nociceptive threshold in the hot plate test. Among the six P2Y12R antagonists evaluated in the pain studies, the selective P2Y12 receptor antagonist PSB-0739 was most potent upon intrathecal application. P2Y12R mRNA and IL-1β protein were time-dependently overexpressed in the rat hind paw and lumbar spinal cord following intraplantar CFA injection. This was accompanied by the upregulation of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in the hind paw. PSB-0739 (0.3mg/kg i.t.) attenuated CFA-induced expression of cytokines in the hind paw and of IL-1β in the spinal cord. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist MLA occluded the effect of PSB-0739 (i.t.) on pain behavior and peripheral cytokine induction. Denervation of sympathetic nerves by 6-OHDA pretreatment did not affect the action of PSB-0739. PSB-0739, in an analgesic dose, did not influence motor coordination and platelet aggregation. Genetic deletion of the P2Y12R in mice reproduced the effect of P2Y12R antagonists on mechanical hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, on acute thermal nociception and on the induction of spinal IL-1β. Here we report the robust involvement of the P2Y12R in inflammatory pain. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of P2Y12R antagonism could be mediated by the inhibition of both central and peripheral cytokine production and involves α7-receptor mediated efferent pathways. PMID:24971933

  16. Identification of endogenous surrogate ligands for human P2Y12 receptors by in silico and in vitro methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endogenous ligands acting on a human P2Y12 receptor, one of the G-protein coupled receptors, were searched by in silico screening against our own database, which contains more than 500 animal metabolites. The in silico screening using the docking software AutoDock resulted in selection of cysteinylleukotrienes (CysLTs) and 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), with high free energy changes, in addition to the known P2Y12 ligands such as 2MeSADP and ADP. These candidates were subjected to an in vitro Ca2+ assay using the CHO cells stably expressing P2Y12-G16α fusion proteins. We found that CysLTE4 and PRPP acted on the P2Y12 receptor as agonists with the EC50 values of 1.3 and 7.8 nM, respectively. Furthermore, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the P2Y, P2Y-like, and CysLT receptors based on sequence alignment followed by evolutionary analyses. The analyses showed that the P2Y12, P2Y13, P2Y14, GPR87, CysLT-1, and CysLT-2 receptors formed a P2Y-related receptor subfamily with common sequence motifs in the transmembrane regions

  17. Effects of cigarette smoking on platelet reactivity during P2Y12 inhibition in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation: results from the prospective cigarette smoking on platelet reactivity (COPTER) study.

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    Patti, Giuseppe; Polacco, Marina; Taurino, Ester; Gaudio, Carlo; Greco, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    Interaction between cigarette smoking and efficacy of oral antiplatelet drugs is not definitely elucidated. We evaluated the effects of cigarette smoking on platelet reactivity in patients receiving different oral P2Y12 antagonists after myocardial infarction (MI) and drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. Two-hundred-five consecutive current smokers receiving DES implantation after ST-segment elevation MI were enrolled. All patients were aspirin-treated and were on chronic therapy with clopidogrel (N = 59), prasugrel (N = 71) or ticagrelor (N = 75); by protocol, all patients at baseline had no high on-treatment platelet reactivity by the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. Platelet reactivity, expressed by P2Y12 reaction units (PRU), was measured in all patients at baseline (T0), after a 15-day period of smoking cessation (T1) and after further 15 days of smoking resumption (T2). In the overall population there was a modest, albeit significant, reduction of PRU values from T0 to T1 (from 173 ± 14 to 165 ± 17, P < 0.0001); resumption of cigarette smoking was associated with re-increase of platelet reactivity (from 165 ± 17 at T1 to 170 ± 17 at T2, P = 0.0002). These variations were consistent in the subgroups receiving clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor and were irrespective of the number of cigarettes smoked. In conclusion, cigarette smoking weakly influences antiplatelet effects of oral P2Y12 inhibition and this was irrespective of the type of antiplatelet agent; thus, interaction between cigarette smoking and efficacy of oral antiplatelet drugs is modest and unlikely translates into clinical effects (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02026713). PMID:26849144

  18. The reversible P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor inhibits metastasis and improves survival in mouse models of cancer.

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    Gebremeskel, Simon; LeVatte, Terry; Liwski, Robert S; Johnston, Brent; Bezuhly, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells use activated platelets to promote their proliferation and metastatic potential. Because platelet activation is largely mediated through ADP engagement of purinergic P2Y12 receptors on platelets, we investigated the potential of the reversible P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor, a clinical agent used in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, to inhibit tumor adhesion and metastasis. In B16-F10 melanoma intravenous and intrasplenic metastasis models, mice treated with a clinical dose of ticagrelor (10 mg/kg) exhibited marked reductions in lung (84%) and liver (86%) metastases. Furthermore, ticagrelor treatment improved survival compared to saline-treated animals. A similar effect was observed in a 4T1 breast cancer model, with reductions in lung (55%) and bone marrow (87%) metastases following ticagrelor treatment. In vitro, B16-F10 cells exhibited decreased interaction with platelets from ticagrelor-treated mice compared to saline-treated mice, an effect similar to that observed with blockade of glycoprotein IIbIIIa. Similarly, B16-F10 cells co-incubated with platelets from ticagrelor-treated mice exhibited reduced adhesion to endothelial monolayers compared to those co-incubated with platelets from saline-treated animals, an effect also observed in vivo. Interestingly, pretreatment of endothelial monolayers with ticagrelor did not result in reduced tumor cell adhesion. These findings support a role for P2Y12-mediated platelet activation in promoting metastases, and provide proof-of-concept for the clinical use of ticagrelor in the prevention of tumor metastasis. PMID:24798403

  19. Comparison of VerifyNow-P2Y12 test and Flow Cytometry for monitoring individual platelet response to clopidogrel. What is the cut-off value for identifying patients who are low responders to clopidogrel therapy?

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    Castelli Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine (DAT is used to prevent stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Low response to clopidogrel therapy (LR occurs, but laboratory tests have a controversial role in the identification of this condition. Methods We studied LR in patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI, all on DAT for at least 7 days, by comparing: 1 Flow cytometry (FC to measure platelet membrane expression of P-selectin (CD62P and PAC-1 binding following double stimulation with ADP and collagen type I either in the presence of prostaglandin (PG E1; 2 VerifyNow-P2Y12 test, in which results are reported as absolute P2Y12-Reaction-Units (PRU or % of inhibition (% inhibition. Results Thirty controls and 52 patients were analyzed. The median percentage of platelets exhibiting CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding by FC evaluation after stimulation in the presence of PG E1 was 25.4% (IQR: 21.4–33.1% and 3.5% (1.7–9.4%, respectively. Only 6 patients receiving DAT (11.5% had both values above the 1st quartile of controls, and were defined as LR. Evaluation of the same patients with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test revealed that the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, p 213 PRU gave the maximum accuracy for the detection of patients defined as having LR by FC. Conclusion In conclusion our findings show that a cut-off value of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU in the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test may provide the best accuracy for the identification of patients with LR.

  20. Comparison of P2Y12 receptor inhibition by clopidogrel and prasugrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

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    Haq, M M; Ahsan, C H; Amin, M N; Karim, M R; Ali, M L; Khan, S R; Chowdhury, M Z; Mansur, M; Millat, M H; Rashid, M A

    2013-12-01

    Dual antiplatelet treatment (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel is vital after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Clopidogrel and prasugrel act on P2Y12 platelet surface receptors. Both these P2Y12 inhibitors are pro-drugs and depend on cytochrome system of the liver for their conversion to active metabolite. There is growing concern regarding suboptimal response in platelet inhibition by clopidogrel. Verify Now system got approval by Federal Drug Administration, USA, for assessing platelet function as its result is almost comparable to gold standard Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA). There are no data on the prevalence of clopidogrel resistance in Bangladeshi population. Prasugrel, as an antiplatelet drug, is a newer introduction in this country. This study will show light on the efficacy of these drugs on our population especially in patients who undergo PCI where DAPT is mandatory. A total 120 (60 diabetics) patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), were alternatively given 600 mg clopidogrel loading dose (LD) followed by 75 mg maintenance dose (MD) daily or 60 mg LD of prasugrel followed by 10 mg MD daily. Five samples of blood were taken at different time intervals over a period of 2 weeks. Measurement of percent inhibition of P2Y12 was done by VerifyNow. Patients who showed less than 20% inhibition (clopidogrel resistant) at any stage were switched to prasugrel. The outcomes of clopidogrel, prasugrel and clopidogrel switched to prasugrel groups were then compared. Nearly half (46.7%) of the patients in the clopidogrel group was found resistant to the drug as opposed to none in the prasugrel group. No difference was found between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects with respect to drug resistance. Intracoronary blood samples showed high degree of platelet inhibition with prasugrel. There was a gradual decline of platelet inhibition over two weeks with prasugrel. Almost fifty percent of the population is clopidogrel resistant in our study

  1. Contemporary registries on P2Y12 inhibitors in patients with acute coronary syndromes in Europe: overview and methodological considerations.

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    Jukema, J Wouter; Lettino, Maddalena; Widimský, Petr; Danchin, Nicolas; Bardaji, Alfredo; Barrabes, Jose A; Cequier, Angel; Claeys, Marc J; De Luca, Leonardo; Dörler, Jakob; Erlinge, David; Erne, Paul; Goldstein, Patrick; Koul, Sasha M; Lemesle, Gilles; Lüscher, Thomas F; Matter, Christian M; Montalescot, Gilles; Radovanovic, Dragana; Lopez-Sendón, Jose; Tousek, Petr; Weidinger, Franz; Weston, Clive F M; Zaman, Azfar; Zeymer, Uwe

    2015-10-01

    Patient registries that document real-world clinical experience play an important role in cardiology as they complement the data from randomized controlled trials, provide valuable information on drug use and clinical outcomes, and evaluate to what extent guidelines are followed in practice. The Platelet Inhibition Registry in ACS EvalUation Study (PIRAEUS) project is an initiative of registry holders who are managing national or international registries observing patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The aim of PIRAEUS is to systematically compare and combine available information/insights from various European ACS registries with a focus on P2Y12 inhibitors. The present publication introduces the 17 participating registries in a narrative and tabular form, and describes which ACS groups and which dual antiplatelet therapies were investigated. It sets the basis for upcoming publications that will focus on effectiveness and safety of the antiplatelets used. PMID:27532447

  2. Trends in P2Y12 Inhibitor Use in Patients Referred for Invasive Evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease in Contemporary US Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihong; Plent, Stephanie; Prats, Jayne; Deliargyris, Efthymios N

    2016-05-01

    Practice in patients undergoing invasive evaluation for coronary artery disease is variable regarding choice of P2Y12 inhibitor and timing of treatment initiation and is usually dictated by institutional or even individual operator preference. Limited data are available on the actual patterns of P2Y12 inhibitor use in contemporary practice in the United States. We used electronic medical records from the Cerner "Health Facts" database of adults who underwent coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from January 2008 to June 2013 and who received a loading dose of clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor at any time from 48 hours before the start of procedure up to 6 hours after. Timing of P2Y12 inhibitor administration was categorized as >2 hours before, 0 to 2 hours before (pretreatment groups), or after the start of procedure. Results were also evaluated according to type of P2Y12 inhibitor and patient clinical presentation. A total of 37,964 patients underwent coronary angiography, and 28,306 proceeded to PCI. Pretreatment with a P2Y12 inhibitor was observed in 28% and 23% in the overall and PCI populations, respectively. Moderate variability of pretreatment rates was noted relative to clinical presentation and P2Y12 inhibitor type. Pretreatment rates remained fairly constant over time with the exception of a decreasing trend with prasugrel. In conclusion, among patients referred for invasive evaluation of coronary artery disease, P2Y12 inhibitor pretreatment was low in contemporary US practice, an observation consistent over time and for all available agents and clinical presentations. PMID:27001447

  3. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E; Carlson, Noel G; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L; Heiney, Kristina M; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI. PMID:25855780

  4. Satellite glial cell P2Y12 receptor in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in lingual neuropathic pain mechanisms in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri Ayano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R is involved in satellite glial cells (SGCs activation, indicating that P2Y12R expressed in SGCs may play functional roles in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms. However, the involvement of P2Y12R in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms is still unknown. We therefore studied the reflex to noxious mechanical or heat stimulation of the tongue, P2Y12R and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunohistochemistries in the trigeminal ganglion (TG in a rat model of unilateral lingual nerve crush (LNC to evaluate role of P2Y12R in SGC in lingual neuropathic pain. Results The head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the lateral tongue were significantly decreased in LNC-rats compared to sham-rats. These nocifensive effects were apparent on day 1 after LNC and lasted for 17 days. On days 3, 9, 15 and 21 after LNC, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-immunoreactive (IR cells significantly increased in the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branch regions of TG. On day 3 after LNC, P2Y12R expression occurred in GFAP-IR cells but not neuronal nuclei (NeuN-IR cells (i.e. neurons in TG. After 3 days of successive administration of the P2Y12R antagonist MRS2395 into TG in LNC-rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly decreased coincident with a significant reversal of the lowered head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue compared to vehicle-injected rats. Furthermore, after 3 days of successive administration of the P2YR agonist 2-MeSADP into the TG in naïve rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly increased and head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle-injected rats

  5. Clopidogrel (Plavix®), a P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, inhibits bone cell function in vitro and decreases trabecular bone in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Susanne; Brandao-Burch, Andrea; Patel, Jessal J;

    2012-01-01

    Clopidogrel (Plavix®), a selective P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, is widely prescribed to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and acts via the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Accumulating evidence now suggests that extracellular nucleotides, signalling through P2 receptors, play a...

  6. THE ROLE OF CLOPIDOGREL IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME AFTER THE EMERGENCE OF MORE POWERFUL INHIBITORS OF P2Y12 RECEPTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Gilyarevsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of P2Y12 receptor blocker clopidogrel after the introduction into clinical practice of new, more powerful and stable operating drugs belonging to this class of antiplatelet agents is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the currently used antiplatelet drugs that block the receptor P2Y12 are reviewed. On the basis of the analysis concludes that, despite the emergence of new antiplatelet agents clopidogrel, appears to be widely used for a long time in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome and / or after coronary stenting. This is primarily due to the presence of large evidence base, and confirmation of safety of long-term therapy clopidogrel.

  7. P2Y12 Inhibitor Pre-Treatment in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Decision-Analytic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunton, James; Hartshorne, Trent; Langrish, Jeremy; Chuang, Anthony; Chew, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend initiation of a P2Y12 inhibitor for all patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) at the time of diagnosis (pre-treatment); however, there are no randomized trials directly comparing pre-treatment with initiation at the time of angiography to support this practice. We explore clinical and institutional parameters potentially associated with benefit with this strategy in a decision-analytic model based on available evidence from randomised trials. A decision analysis model was constructed comparing three P2Y12 inhibitors in addition to aspirin in patients with NSTE-ACS. Based on clinical trial data, the cumulative probability of 30 day mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and major bleeding were determined, and used to calculate the net clinical benefit (NCB) with and without pre-treatment. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the relationship between NCB and baseline ischemic risk, bleeding risk, time to angiography and local surgical revascularization rates. Pre-treatment with ticagrelor and clopidogrel was associated with a greater than 50% likelihood of providing a >1% increase in 30 day NCB when baseline estimated ischemic risk exceeds 11% and 14%, respectively. Prasugrel pre-treatment did not achieve a greater than 50% probability of an increase in NCB regardless of baseline ischemic risk. Institutional surgical revascularization rates and time to coronary angiography did not correlate with the likelihood of benefit from P2Y12 pre-treatment. In conclusion, pre-treatment with P2Y12 inhibition is unlikely to be beneficial to the majority of patients presenting with NSTE-ACS. A tailored assessment of each patient’s individual ischemic and bleeding risk may identify those likely to benefit. PMID:27548237

  8. The Ratio of ADP- to TRAP-Induced Platelet Aggregation Quantifies P2Y12-Dependent Platelet Inhibition Independently of the Platelet Count

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, Christoph B.; Meyer, Melanie; Bauer, Hans; Schnabel, Katharina; Weik, Patrick; Zhou, Qian; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin; Diehl, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association of clinical factors with P2Y12-dependent platelet inhibition as monitored by the ratio of ADP- to TRAP-induced platelet aggregation and conventional ADP-induced aggregation, respectively. Background Controversial findings to identify and overcome high platelet reactivity (HPR) after coronary stent-implantation and to improve clinical outcome by tailored anti-platelet therapy exist. Monitoring anti-platelet therapy ex vivo underlies several ...

  9. Platelet reactivity after administration of third generation P2Y12-antagonists does not depend on body weight in contrast to clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Christoph B; Schnabel, Katharina; Weber, Susanne; Zhou, Qian; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin; Diehl, Philipp

    2016-07-01

    The current standard of antiplatelet therapy for patients with myocardial infarction (MI) includes the P2Y12-receptor antagonist clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor. While it has been shown that platelet reactivity after clopidogrel administration depends on factors such as body weight, it is not known if these factors have an effect on the activity of prasugrel or ticagrelor. Thus, this study aimed to analyse factors associated with high residual platelet reactivity after administration of third generation P2Y12-antagonists compared to clopidogrel. In a single centre registry the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor was investigated by aggregometry in patients after MI. To assess the overall capacity of platelet aggregation whole blood was induced with thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP; 32 µM). To specifically quantify the effect of P2Y12-antagonists, blood was stimulated with 6.4 µM adenosine diphophosphate (ADP). Relative ADP induced aggregation (r-ADP-agg) was defined as the ADP-TRAP-ratio to reflect an individual degree of P2Y12-dependent platelet inhibition. Platelet function of 238 patients was analysed [clopidogrel (n = 58), prasugrel (n = 65), ticagrelor (n = 115)]. It was found that the r-ADP-agg correlated significantly with body weight in patients after clopidogrel administration (r = 0.423; p < 0.001). In contrast, this association was not present in patients after prasugrel (r = -0.117; p = 0.354) or ticagrelor (r = -0.082; p = 0.382) administration. Comparison of the correlation coefficients showed a significant difference (p = 0.003). In contrast to clopidogrel, platelet reactivity after administration of prasugrel or ticagrelor does not depend on body weight in patients after MI. Hence, our mechanistic data support the results of large clinical trials indicating that patients with high body weight do not need to be treated with increased doses of third generation P2Y12-antagonists to achieve

  10. EVALUATION OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF PLATELET REACTIVITY ANALYSIS USING THE VERIFYNOW P2Y12 ASSAY IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dual antiplatelet therapy, including clopidogrel and aspirin, in a significant share of patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS is characterized by high level of platelet reactivity, which is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Perhaps it will make reasonable the prescription of new antiplatelet drugs, particularly the combination of ticagrelor with aspirin.Aim. To assess the cost-effectiveness of VerifyNow P2Y12 platelet reactivity testing in patients after ACS.Material and methods. The analysis was performed for patients aged 55 years after ACS by modeling based on the results of the PLATO trial considering Russian epidemiological data. The time horizon of simulation was 5 years. It was assumed that the patients were receiving either generic clopidogrel or ticagrelor for 1 year, or before maintenance treatment VerifyNow P2Y12 assay had been performed, and the patients with platelet reactivity index >230 24-48 hours after ACS were receiving ticagrelor and the remaining patients - generic clopidogrel. It was expected that after 1 year the patients would discontinue treatment with clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and hereafter additional therapeutic effect of their use would be absent. The costs of antiplatelet agents in the reference case corresponded to the weighted average price of public procurement in 2013 in Russia. The costs of treatment of complications corresponded to the compulsory health insurance rates for St. Petersburg in 2014. The cost and life expectancy were discounted at 3.5% per year.Results. The platelet reactivity test and the prescription by its results of the combination of clopidogrel plus aspirin or ticagrelor plus aspirin can prevent 5 myocardial infarction and 6 deaths per 1000 patients additionally as compared with the prescription of clopidogrel plus aspirin combination to all patients. The costs for one additional year of life as compared with the combination of clopidogrel plus aspirin

  11. EVALUATION OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF PLATELET REACTIVITY ANALYSIS USING THE VERIFYNOW P2Y12 ASSAY IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual antiplatelet therapy, including clopidogrel and aspirin, in a significant share of patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS is characterized by high level of platelet reactivity, which is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Perhaps it will make reasonable the prescription of new antiplatelet drugs, particularly the combination of ticagrelor with aspirin.Aim. To assess the cost-effectiveness of VerifyNow P2Y12 platelet reactivity testing in patients after ACS.Material and methods. The analysis was performed for patients aged 55 years after ACS by modeling based on the results of the PLATO trial considering Russian epidemiological data. The time horizon of simulation was 5 years. It was assumed that the patients were receiving either generic clopidogrel or ticagrelor for 1 year, or before maintenance treatment VerifyNow P2Y12 assay had been performed, and the patients with platelet reactivity index >230 24-48 hours after ACS were receiving ticagrelor and the remaining patients - generic clopidogrel. It was expected that after 1 year the patients would discontinue treatment with clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and hereafter additional therapeutic effect of their use would be absent. The costs of antiplatelet agents in the reference case corresponded to the weighted average price of public procurement in 2013 in Russia. The costs of treatment of complications corresponded to the compulsory health insurance rates for St. Petersburg in 2014. The cost and life expectancy were discounted at 3.5% per year.Results. The platelet reactivity test and the prescription by its results of the combination of clopidogrel plus aspirin or ticagrelor plus aspirin can prevent 5 myocardial infarction and 6 deaths per 1000 patients additionally as compared with the prescription of clopidogrel plus aspirin combination to all patients. The costs for one additional year of life as compared with the combination of clopidogrel plus aspirin

  12. Adherence to antiplatelet treatment with P2Y12 receptor inhibitors. Is there anything we can do to improve it? A systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Aldona; Obońska, Karolina; Fabiszak, Tomasz; Kubica, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Non-adherence to medication after ACS may lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and costs to the healthcare system due to elevated risk of stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction or death. Medication adherence is an issue of growing concern regarding the improvement of health system performance. Promoting medication adherence offers a rare opportunity to simultaneously improve health outcomes while reducing costs of treatment in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this systematic review was to critically discuss adherence to antiplatelet treatment with P2Y12 receptor inhibitors in CAD patients. After a systematic investigation of the literature in databases including PubMed, CENTRAL and Google Scholar, using appropriate keywords, and considering clinical randomized, prospective observational and retrospective studies, reporting on adherence to treatment with inhibitors of P2Y12 platelet receptors or educational interventions aimed to improve medication adherence in patients with CAD, seven articles were considered eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Reported adherence to clopidogrel, despite catastrophic consequences of its premature discontinuation, is low. We identified several determinants of low adherence and early discontinuation of clopidogrel. We also present data on the usefulness, utilization and credibility of different methods of medication adherence assessment, and suggest and critically discuss available interventions aimed at improvement of adherence to clopidogrel, still showing the need for innovative approaches to achieve enhanced medication adherence and improve health outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27112628

  13. Receptores plaquetários P2Y12: importância na intervenção coronariana percutânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jose de Andrade Falcão

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As plaquetas estão envolvidas em vários processos biológicos, desde o combate a agentes infecciosos até a coordenação do controle da permeabilidade vascular e angiogênese. Entretanto, o seu principal foco de ação consiste na modulação da cascata de coagulação. A intervenção coronariana percutânea é um procedimento com alto risco trombogênico, que induz a ativação plaquetária e de monócitos, devido à lesão direta do endotélio e pelo contato de estruturas trombogênicas com o sangue, levando ao aumento da atividade inflamatória, tanto no local do dano vascular coronariano como de forma sistêmica. Os receptores plaquetários P2Y12 desempenham papel central na amplificação da agregação induzida por todos os agonistas plaquetários, como a adenosina difosfato, o colágeno, tromboxano A2, adrenalina e serotonina. Por esse motivo, têm sido o principal alvo das drogas antiplaquetárias. Apesar de atuarem no mesmo receptor, características farmacocinéticas e farmacodinâmicas distintas conferem peculiaridades a cada agente.

  14. Ticagrelor: the evidence for its clinical potential as an oral antiplatelet treatment for the reduction of major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Lombo; José G Díez

    2011-01-01

    Bernardo Lombo1, José G Díez21Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Section of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine and the Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX, USAIntroduction: Ticagrelor, the first direct-acting, reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, appears to have a favorable efficacy and safety profile.Aims: To update the evidence and provide an overview of the available data on t...

  15. Ticagrelor: the evidence for its clinical potential as an oral antiplatelet treatment for the reduction of major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Lombo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Lombo1, José G Díez21Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Section of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine and the Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX, USAIntroduction: Ticagrelor, the first direct-acting, reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, appears to have a favorable efficacy and safety profile.Aims: To update the evidence and provide an overview of the available data on ticagrelor.Evidence review: Peer reviewed articles published and listed under Medline Search, and published updated guidelines for pharmacotherapies in acute coronary syndromes were reviewed.Place in therapy: Clinical evidence is increasing to support the use of new thienopyridines and the direct-acting P2Y12 receptor in the setting of acute coronary syndromes.Conclusion: The options for drugs to inhibit the platelet P2Y12 receptor for adenosine diphosphate are rapidly expanding. Ticagrelor has shown benefits in clinical trials. Its rapid onset of platelet inhibition and short half-life make it an attractive alternative to thienopyridines, especially when rapid inhibition of platelet aggregation or its quick reversal are required.Keywords: platelet, acute coronary syndromes, antiplatelet, coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, stent

  16. Ticagrelor: An investigational oral antiplatelet treatment for reduction of major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Abergel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eitan Abergel, Eugenia NikolskyHeart Institute, Rambam Health Care Campus and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: Acute coronary syndromes (ACS are the leading cause of mortality and one of the main reasons for hospital admissions in the developed nations. Due to high rates of mortality and reinfarction, ACS represent a major public health concern. Platelets play a central role in atherothrombosis, the main pathologic substrate in ACS. Sufficient inhibition of platelet aggregation is therefore one of the key targets in the treatment of ACS. Blockade of the P2Y12 subtype of adenosine diphosphate (ADP receptor on platelet cell membranes has been established as a key mechanism of platelet inhibition. Clopidogrel, an ADP receptor antagonist and a second-generation thienopyridine, has been demonstrated to be of clinical benefit in patients with ACS when added to aspirin. A delayed onset of action due to two-step conversion to the active metabolite, irreversible binding to P2Y12 receptors, and broad interindividual variability in levels of platelet response are the main limitations of clopidogrel. Prasugrel, a novel third-generation thienopyridine, provides faster and stronger inhibition of platelet aggregation than clopigodrel. However, like the active metabolite of clopidogrel, prasugrel binds irreversibly to the P2Y12 ADP receptor site, causing inhibition of platelet aggregation for the life of the platelet. Although in a randomized, double-blind trial prasugrel demonstrated superiority for multiple cardiovascular endpoints compared with standard-dose clopidogrel, it was also associated with an increased bleeding risk, including fatal bleeding. This review discusses the optimal antiplatelet regimens for management of patients with ACS, with special focus on ticagrelor, the first oral agent in a new chemical class of nonthienopyridine antiplatelet agents termed cyclopentyl-triazolo-pyrimidines. Faster and greater platelet

  17. Draft genome sequences of 18 oral streptococcus strains that encode amylase-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Haase, Elaine M; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    A number of commensal oral streptococcal species produce a heterogeneous group of proteins that mediate binding of salivary α-amylase. This interaction likely influences streptococcal colonization of the oral cavity. Here, we present draft genome sequences of several strains of oral streptococcal species that bind human salivary amylase. PMID:25999552

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of 18 Oral Streptococcus Strains That Encode Amylase-Binding Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Haase, Elaine M.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    A number of commensal oral streptococcal species produce a heterogeneous group of proteins that mediate binding of salivary α-amylase. This interaction likely influences streptococcal colonization of the oral cavity. Here, we present draft genome sequences of several strains of oral streptococcal species that bind human salivary amylase.

  19. Taking the Starch out of Oral Biofilm Formation: Molecular Basis and Functional Significance of Salivary α-Amylase Binding to Oral Streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitkova, Anna E.; Haase, Elaine M.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    α-Amylase-binding streptococci (ABS) are a heterogeneous group of commensal oral bacterial species that comprise a significant proportion of dental plaque microfloras. Salivary α-amylase, one of the most abundant proteins in human saliva, binds to the surface of these bacteria via specific surface-exposed α-amylase-binding proteins. The functional significance of α-amylase-binding proteins in oral colonization by streptococci is important for understanding how salivary components influence or...

  20. P2Y12-ADP receptor antagonists: Days of future and past

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Marc; Paganelli, Franck; Bonello, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of the therapeutic arsenal in coronary artery disease. Thanks to a better understanding in physiology, pharmacology and pharmacogenomics huge progress were made in the field of platelet reactivity inhibition thus allowing the expansion of percutaneous coronary intervention. Stent implantation requires the combination of two antiplatelet agents acting in a synergistic way. Asprin inhibit the cyclo-oxygenase pathway of platelet activation while clopidogre...

  1. Prehospital administration of P2Y12 inhibitors and early coronary reperfusion in primary PCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Ratcovich, Hanna; Biasco, Luigi;

    2015-01-01

    significantly improve coronary reperfusion as compared to prehospital loading with clopidogrel (n = 1,532) - a TIMI-flow 3 at initial angiography was absent in 71.7 %, 69.0 % and 71.5 % of patients, respectively. Major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates were low at 30 days (3.4 % to 4.0 %) and did not...

  2. Antipsychotic Drugs Inhibit Platelet Aggregation via P2Y 1 and P2Y 12 Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Chieh Wu; Fu-Ming Tsai; Mao-Liang Chen; Semon Wu; Ming-Cheng Lee; Tzung-Chieh Tsai; Lu-Kai Wang; Chun-Hua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) used to treat clinical psychotic syndromes cause a variety of blood dyscrasias. APDs suppress the aggregation of platelets; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We first analyzed platelet aggregation and clot formation in platelets treated with APDs, risperidone, clozapine, or haloperidol, using an aggregometer and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Our data indicated that platelet aggregation was inhibited, that clot formation time was increased, ...

  3. No significant effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knol, R.J.J.; Booij, J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graduate School of Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruin, K. de; Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT is a valuable diagnostic tool to discriminate Lewy body dementia from Alzheimer's dementia. To date, however, it is uncertain whether the frequently used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) by demented patients, have an effect on [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to dopamine transporters (DATs). Earlier animal studies showed a decline of DAT availability after acute intravenous injection of AChEIs. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on DAT availability in the rat brain as measured by [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Biodistribution studies were performed in Wistar rats (n = 5-16 per group). Before [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT injection, rats were injected intravenously with a single dose of the AChEI rivastigmine (2.5 mg/kg body weight) or donepezil (0.5 mg/kg), the DAT-blocker methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline. A second group was orally treated with a single dose of rivastigmine or donepezil (2.5 mg/kg), methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline before injection of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Studies were also performed in rats that were orally treated during 14 consecutive days with either rivastigmine (1 mg/kg daily), donepezil (1.5 mg/kg daily), methylphenidate (2.5 mg/kg) or saline. Brain parts were assayed in a gamma counter, and specific striatum/cerebellum ratios were calculated for the [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to DATs. No significant effects of either single intravenous, single oral or subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on striatal FP-CIT binding could be detected. Single pretreatment with methylphenidate resulted in an expected significantly lower striatal FP-CIT binding. We conclude that in rats, single intravenous and single or subchronic oral administration of the tested AChEIs does not lead to an important alteration of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to striatal DATs. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs will induce large effects on the interpretation of

  4. No significant effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on striatal [123I]FP-CIT binding in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [123I]FP-CIT SPECT is a valuable diagnostic tool to discriminate Lewy body dementia from Alzheimer's dementia. To date, however, it is uncertain whether the frequently used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) by demented patients, have an effect on [123I]FP-CIT binding to dopamine transporters (DATs). Earlier animal studies showed a decline of DAT availability after acute intravenous injection of AChEIs. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of single intravenous, single oral and subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on DAT availability in the rat brain as measured by [123I]FP-CIT. Biodistribution studies were performed in Wistar rats (n = 5-16 per group). Before [123I]FP-CIT injection, rats were injected intravenously with a single dose of the AChEI rivastigmine (2.5 mg/kg body weight) or donepezil (0.5 mg/kg), the DAT-blocker methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline. A second group was orally treated with a single dose of rivastigmine or donepezil (2.5 mg/kg), methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) or saline before injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Studies were also performed in rats that were orally treated during 14 consecutive days with either rivastigmine (1 mg/kg daily), donepezil (1.5 mg/kg daily), methylphenidate (2.5 mg/kg) or saline. Brain parts were assayed in a gamma counter, and specific striatum/cerebellum ratios were calculated for the [123I]FP-CIT binding to DATs. No significant effects of either single intravenous, single oral or subchronic oral administration of AChEIs on striatal FP-CIT binding could be detected. Single pretreatment with methylphenidate resulted in an expected significantly lower striatal FP-CIT binding. We conclude that in rats, single intravenous and single or subchronic oral administration of the tested AChEIs does not lead to an important alteration of [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal DATs. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs will induce large effects on the interpretation of [123I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in routine clinical

  5. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  6. Effects of oral contraceptives, or lanosterol, on ADP-induced aggregation and binding of 125I-fibrinogen to rat platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aggregation to ADP and the binding of 125I-fibrinogen to platelets from rats treated with oral contraceptives or normal platelets treated in vitro with lanosterol were compared to their respective controls. Both types of platelets showed a significant increase in ADP-induced aggregation and in binding of fibrinogen, indicating that the effect of oral contraceptives could be partly due to increased levels of lanosterol in platelet membrane

  7. Selectivity in progesterone and androgen receptor binding of progestagens used in oral contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative binding affinities (RBAs) of four progestational compounds (norethisterone, levonorgestrel, 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene) for the human progesterone and androgen receptors were measured in MCF-7 cytosol and intact MCF-7 cells. For the binding to the progesterone receptor, both Org 2058 and Org 3236 (or 3-keto-desogestrel) were used as labelled ligands. The following ranking (low to high) for the RBA of the nuclear (intact cells) progesterone receptor irrespective of the ligand used is found: norethisterone much less than levonorgestrel less than 3-keto-destogestrel less than gestodene. The difference between the various progestagens is significant with the exception of that between 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene, when Org 2058 is used as ligand. For the cytosolic progesterone receptor, the same order is found with the exception that similar RBAs are found for gestodene and 3-keto-desogestrel. The four progestagens clearly differ with respect to binding to the androgen receptor using dihydrotestosterone as labelled ligand in intact cells; the ranking (low to high) is: norethisterone less than 3 keto-desogestrel less than levonorgestrel and gestodene. The difference between 3-keto-desogestrel and levonorgestrel or gestodene is significant. The selectivity indices (ratio of the mean RBA for the progesterone receptor to that of androgen receptor) in intact cells are significantly higher for 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene than for levonorgestrel and norethisterone. From these results we conclude that the introduction of the 18-methyl in norethisterone (levonorgestel) increases both the binding to the progesterone and androgen receptors

  8. The role of the enzyme alpha-amylase in binding of An(III)/Ln(III) by oral ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of incorporation, radionuclides represent a serious health risk to humans due to their (radio-)toxicity. Thus, the determination of their speciation and transport on a molecular level is crucial for the understanding of the transport, metabolism, deposition and elimination in the human organisms. In case of oral ingestion of contaminated food or radioactive substances the first contact medium in the mouth is the aqueous bio-fluid saliva which contains inorganic ions (mainly Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, CO32-, PO43-) and numerous biomolecules, mainly proteins. One of the major proteins in saliva is the digestive enzyme α-amylase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the α-1,4 glycosidic linkages of polysaccharides like starch or glycogen. [1] In this study the speciation of curium(III) and europium(III) in saliva as the first contact medium at oral incorporation was investigated with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). For TRLFS measurements, fresh saliva samples from human sources have been spiked in vitro with Eu(III) or Cm(III). The identification of the dominant species was achieved by a comparison of the spectroscopic data with reference spectra obtained from synthetic saliva and the main single components of the bio-fluid. In the pH range from 6.8 to 7.4 similar spectra were obtained. With respect to reference data, the spectra indicate the formation of a ternary metal complex containing phosphate and carbonate anions and, in addition, a coordination of organic matter, namely α-amylase, to the central metal cation is suggested. To get more information about the binding behavior of α-amylase various investigations with Eu(III) as inactive analog for An(III) were carried out with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) which serves as model system for various α-amylase species. Sorption experiments showed a high affinity of Eu(III) to α-amylase in a wide pH range, namely between pH 4 and 8. The analysis of binding isotherms demonstrated

  9. The role of the enzyme alpha-amylase in binding of An(III)/Ln(III) by oral ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkleit, A.; Bernhard, G. [Institute of Resource Ecology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Division of Radiochemistry and Resource Ecology, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heller, A. [Institute of Resource Ecology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In case of incorporation, radionuclides represent a serious health risk to humans due to their (radio-)toxicity. Thus, the determination of their speciation and transport on a molecular level is crucial for the understanding of the transport, metabolism, deposition and elimination in the human organisms. In case of oral ingestion of contaminated food or radioactive substances the first contact medium in the mouth is the aqueous bio-fluid saliva which contains inorganic ions (mainly Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) and numerous biomolecules, mainly proteins. One of the major proteins in saliva is the digestive enzyme α-amylase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the α-1,4 glycosidic linkages of polysaccharides like starch or glycogen. [1] In this study the speciation of curium(III) and europium(III) in saliva as the first contact medium at oral incorporation was investigated with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). For TRLFS measurements, fresh saliva samples from human sources have been spiked in vitro with Eu(III) or Cm(III). The identification of the dominant species was achieved by a comparison of the spectroscopic data with reference spectra obtained from synthetic saliva and the main single components of the bio-fluid. In the pH range from 6.8 to 7.4 similar spectra were obtained. With respect to reference data, the spectra indicate the formation of a ternary metal complex containing phosphate and carbonate anions and, in addition, a coordination of organic matter, namely α-amylase, to the central metal cation is suggested. To get more information about the binding behavior of α-amylase various investigations with Eu(III) as inactive analog for An(III) were carried out with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) which serves as model system for various α-amylase species. Sorption experiments showed a high affinity of Eu(III) to α-amylase in a wide pH range, namely between pH 4 and 8

  10. FcRn binding is not sufficient for achieving systemic therapeutic levels of immunoglobulin G after oral delivery of enteric-coated capsules in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzammil, Salman; Mabus, John R; Cooper, Philip R; Brezski, Randall J; Bement, Courtney B; Perkinson, Rob; Huebert, Norman D; Thompson, Suzanne; Levine, Dalia; Kliwinski, Connie; Bradley, Dino; Hornby, Pamela J

    2016-06-01

    Although much speculation has surrounded intestinally expressed FcRn as a means for systemic uptake of orally administered immunoglobulin G (IgG), this has not been validated in translational models beyond neonates or in FcRn-expressing cells in vitro. Recently, IgG1 intestinal infusion acutely in anesthetized cynomolgus resulted in detectable serum monoclonal antibody (mAb) levels. In this study, we show that IgG2 has greater protease resistance to intestinal enzymes in vitro and mice in vivo, due to protease resistance in the hinge region. An IgG2 mAb engineered for FcRn binding, was optimally formulated, lyophilized, and loaded into enteric-coated capsules for oral dosing in cynomolgus. Small intestinal pH 7.5 was selected for enteric delivery based on gastrointestinal pH profiling of cynomolgus by operator-assisted IntelliCap System(®). Milling of the lyophilized IgG2 M428L FcRn-binding variant after formulation in 10 mmol/L histidine, pH 5.7, 8.5% sucrose, 0.04% PS80 did not alter the physicochemical properties nor the molecular integrity compared to the batch released in PBS. Size 3 hard gel capsules (23.2 mg IgG2 M428L ~3 mg/kg) were coated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate for rapid dissolution at pH 7.5 in small intestine and FcRn binding of encapsulated mAb confirmed. Initial capsule dosing by endoscopic delivery into the small intestine achieved 0.2 + 0.1 ng/mL (n = 5) peak at 24 h. Weekly oral capsule dosing for 6 weeks achieved levels of 0.4 + 0.2 ng/mL and, despite increasing the dose and frequency, remained below 1 ng/mL. In conclusion, lyophilized milled mAb retains FcRn binding and molecular integrity for small intestinal delivery. The low systemic exposure has demonstrated the limitations of intestinal FcRn in non-human primates and the unfeasibility of employing this for therapeutic levels of mAb. Local mAb delivery with limited systemic exposure may be sufficient as a therapeutic for intestinal diseases. PMID

  11. Expression of HIV receptors, alternate receptors and co-receptors on tonsillar epithelium: implications for HIV binding and primary oral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Diane M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary HIV infection can develop from exposure to HIV in the oral cavity. In previous studies, we have documented rapid and extensive binding of HIV virions in seminal plasma to intact mucosal surfaces of the palatine tonsil and also found that virions readily penetrated beneath the tissue surfaces. As one approach to understand the molecular interactions that support HIV virion binding to human mucosal surfaces, we have examined the distribution of the primary HIV receptor CD4, the alternate HIV receptors heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS and galactosyl ceramide (GalCer and the co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 in palatine tonsil. Results Only HS was widely expressed on the surface of stratified squamous epithelium. In contrast, HS, GalCer, CXCR4 and CCR5 were all expressed on the reticulated epithelium lining the tonsillar crypts. We have observed extensive variability, both across tissue sections from any tonsil and between tonsils, in the distribution of epithelial cells expressing either CXCR4 or CCR5 in the basal and suprabasal layers of stratified epithelium. The general expression patterns of CXCR4, CCR5 and HS were similar in palatine tonsil from children and adults (age range 3–20. We have also noted the presence of small clusters of lymphocytes, including CD4+ T cells within stratified epithelium and located precisely at the mucosal surfaces. CD4+ T cells in these locations would be immediately accessible to HIV virions. Conclusion In total, the likelihood of oral HIV transmission will be determined by macro and micro tissue architecture, cell surface expression patterns of key molecules that may bind HIV and the specific properties of the infectious inoculum.

  12. Evaluating the Risk–Benefit Profile of the Direct-Acting P2Y12 Inhibitor Ticagrelor in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Steen

    2011-01-01

    PLATelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial (NCT00391872) evaluated ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel in 18 624 patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and demonstrated a significant reduction in the risk of death from vascular causes/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke with ticagrelor (9...... in a clinical setting. Although there are limitations in directly translating trial findings to clinical practice, the findings of PLATO suggest that for every 1000 ACS patients admitted to hospital, using ticagrelor instead of clopidogrel for 12 months would result in 14 fewer deaths or 11 fewer MIs....... This review places the PLATO data in context, and assesses the role that ticagrelor may play in treating patients with ACS....

  13. PLATELET INHIBITORY ACTIVITY AND PHARAMCOKINETCS OF PRASUGREL A NOVEL THIENOPYRIDINE P2Y12 INHIBITOR: A SINGLE DOSE CROSS OVER BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY IN HEALTHY HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu Nimain Charan; P. Sri Divya; S. Ramachandran; MD. Dhana Raju

    2013-01-01

    To compare the bioavailability and bioequivalence of two prasugrel formulations one as a test and the other was the standard. The study was performed according to a randomized, open label, balanced, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, single-dose, crossover under fasting period with minimum of seven days wash-out period and was evaluated in 20(+ 2 stand by) subjects. To analyse pharmacokinetic properties, the blood samples were drawn taken up to 36 h after dosing. Plasma concentration of...

  14. PLATELET INHIBITORY ACTIVITY AND PHARAMCOKINETCS OF PRASUGREL A NOVEL THIENOPYRIDINE P2Y12 INHIBITOR: A SINGLE DOSE CROSS OVER BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY IN HEALTHY HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Nimain Charan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To compare the bioavailability and bioequivalence of two prasugrel formulations one as a test and the other was the standard. The study was performed according to a randomized, open label, balanced, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, single-dose, crossover under fasting period with minimum of seven days wash-out period and was evaluated in 20(+ 2 stand by subjects. To analyse pharmacokinetic properties, the blood samples were drawn taken up to 36 h after dosing. Plasma concentration of prasugrel was determined using liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters tmax, Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-, t1/2 and λz (Kel were tested for bioequivalence after log-transformation of data and non-parametric evaluation was done for ratios of tmax. The point estimates and 90 % confidence intervals (CI for AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Cmax for active metabolite (R-138727 were 95.82-105.18, 96.00-104.69 and 90.80-103.20 respectively. These results indicated that the two formulations of Prasugrel were bioequivalent in case of active metabolite (R-138727, thus may be prescribed interchangeably.

  15. Cell surface polypeptide CshA mediates binding of Streptococcus gordonii to other oral bacteria and to immobilized fibronectin.

    OpenAIRE

    McNab, R; Holmes, A.R.; Clarke, J M; Tannock, G W; Jenkinson, H F

    1996-01-01

    Isogenic mutants of Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (Challis) in which the genes encoding high-molecular-mass cell surface polypeptides CshA and/or CshB were inactivated were deficient in binding to four strains of Actinomyces naeslundii and two strains of Streptococcus oralis. Lactose-sensitive interactions of S. gordonii with A. naeslundii ATCC 12104 and PK606 were associated with expression of cshA but not of cshB. Lactose-insensitive interactions of S. gordonii with A. naeslundii T14V and WVU6...

  16. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-independent insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 promotes cell migration and lymph node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by requirement of integrin β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Chen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Chang, Jeffrey S; Wang, Ssu-Han; Shen, Ying-Ying; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Chang, I-Shou; Chang, Jang-Yang; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Frequent metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes leads to poor survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To understand the underlying mechanisms of lymph node metastasis, two sublines were successfully isolated from cervical lymph nodes of nude mice through in vivo selection, and identified as originating from poorly metastatic parental cells. These two sublines specifically metastasized to cervical lymph nodes in 83% of mice, whereas OEC-M1 cells did not metastasize after injection into the oral cavity. After gene expression analysis, we identified insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) as one of the significantly up-regulated genes in the sublines in comparison with their parental cells. Consistently, meta-analysis of the public microarray datasets and IGFBP3 immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased both levels of IGFBP3 mRNA and protein in human OSCC tissues when compared to normal oral or adjacent nontumorous tissues. Interestingly, the up-regulated IGFBP3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with OSCC patients with lymph node metastasis. IGFBP3 knockdown in the sublines impaired and ectopic IGFBP3 expression in the parental cells promoted migration, transendothelial migration and lymph node metastasis of orthotopic transplantation. Additionally, ectopic expression of IGFBP3 with an IGF-binding defect sustained the IGFBP3-enhanced biological functions. Results indicated that IGFBP3 regulates metastasis-related functions of OSCC cells through an IGF-independent mechanism. Furthermore, exogenous IGFBP3 was sufficient to induce cell motility and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. The silencing of integrin β1 was able to impair exogenous IGFBP3-mediated migration and ERK phosphorylation, suggesting a critical role of integrin β1 in IGFBP3-enchanced functions. PMID:26540630

  18. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or ... use Visiting the dentist regularly and practicing good oral hygiene

  19. The occlusion-derived virus envelope protein ODV-E56 is required for optimal oral infectivity but is not essential for virus binding and fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) odv-e56 gene encodes an occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-specific envelope protein, ODV-E56. To determine the role of ODV-E56 in oral infectivity, we produced recombinant EGFP-expressing AcMNPV clones (Ac69GFP-e56lacZ and AcIEGFP-e56lac...

  20. Result of oral intake of glucose by healthy subjects and patients with essential hypertension on the binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by erythrocyte receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the results of researches of binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in the patients with essential hypertension and healthy patients after glucose intake. In order to obtain full representation of the pattern of changes the serum IRI and glucose concentrations were assayed. Binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by erythrocyte receptors were determined with the method described by Gambhir (1977), modified by the authors. The modification consisted in usage of constant concentrations of iodized insulin (0.9 pg/0.1 ml) and bovine insulin (2.4 I.U./0.1 ml). Before administration of glucose and in 30, 60 and 120 minutes after, venous blood was collected from ulnar vein. All examined persons were in sitting position during the trial of glucose intake. Obtained results show, that blood insulin level in the patients with essential hypertension is statistically significantly higher than in healthy persons of similar anthropometric characteristics. Binding of 125-I-insulin to erythrocyte receptors in fasting state is statistically significantly lower. Degradation after glucose intake in the patients shows decreasing tendency, while in healthy persons-growing tendency. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  2. Oral Insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra Sanjay; Kalra Bharti; Agrawal Navneet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

  3. Oral Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Forouzandeh

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results showed that 54 cases of biopsy lesions were melanoma of oral cavity that included 7.8% of these lesions. The mean age incidence of oral melanoma was 55.5(between 26-86 years. The most prevalent sites were palate (37.1% and alveolar mucosa (20.4% and less common sites included floor of mouth. buccal mucosa and tongue.

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  5. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics > Oral Cancer > The Oral Cancer Exam The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

  10. Methylprednisolone Oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  11. Dexamethasone Oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  12. Hydrocortisone Oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  13. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  14. Oral myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Treville Pereira; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Mayura S Chande; Sudhir Bhalerao; Sandhya Tamgadge

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larv...

  15. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  16. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  17. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  18. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  19. Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Saini; Santosh Saini; Sugandha Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

  20. Oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  2. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  3. Ticagrelor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Airoldi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet drugs are the cornerstone of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. Clopidogrel and aspirin improve long-term clinical outcomes in these patients and have become a standard of care. However, many patients still experience ischemic/thrombotic events, and it appears that insufficient response to both aspirin and clopidogrel contribute to this failure. Clopidogrel is a prodrug that is metabolized in the liver to its active form. It inhibits platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP by irreversibly binding to the ADP purinergic receptor (P2Y12 on the platelet surface. Prasugrel, a novel thienopyridine, exhibits more potent antiplatelet effects with lower interpatient variability and more rapid onsetof activity. All thienopyridines, however, have pharmacological limitations, which have fueled the search for more effective non-thienopyridine P2Y12 inhibitors. Promising results have been reported with ticagrelor, the first oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist with reversible effects. Ticagrelor does not require metabolic activation. In vivo one active metabolite is formed whose potency and pharmacokinetic properties are very similar to those of the parent compound, but it probably plays a minor role in ticagrelor’s antiplatelet effects. Ticagrelor offers more rapid and more pronounced platelet inhibition than other antiplatelet agents. Furthermore, the reversibility of its effects may allow shorter periods of suspension of antiplatelet treatment prior to surgery, reducing the risk of perioperative thrombotic and hemorrhagic events. Preliminary results show a trend toward protection from coronary events and no increased risk for major bleeding compared with clopidogrel. Further investigation is needed, however, to determine the optimal dosage for minimizing bleeding risks and to evaluate its impact on outcomes in various subsets of ACS patients.

  4. Oral / response

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela; O'Neill, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The performance ‘Oral/Response’ joins an artist, Angela Bartram and a theorist, Mary O’Neill in research to analyse the dynamic, but often disjointed relationship between the live experience and its documentation by positioning both elements within the performance. Traditionally, the documentation of performance is a record left to stand for the work after the event that demonstrates an out of time viewpoint, which is a problem for ephemeral practice whose intention is to be ‘live’ and in the...

  5. Oral Haemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Singh Gill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female.

  6. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Zaura; J.M. ten Cate

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  7. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes ... step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral ... Step-by-step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You ...

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer ... Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  12. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment en español Candidiasis bucal About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a ... digestive tract can overgrow and lead to an infection. Candida overgrowth also causes diaper rash and vaginal (yeast) ...

  13. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an ...

  15. Binding Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of the binding procurement process in purchasing Aerospace Flight Battery Systems. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) requested NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to develop a set of guideline requirements document for Binding Procurement Contracts.

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral ... Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All ...

  17. Topical morphine for oral mucositis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Aagaard, Gitte; Henneberg, Steen W;

    2012-01-01

    Systemic opioids for painful chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in children often result in unsatisfactory pain relief and a high frequency of side effects. Opioids applied topically can produce analgesia by binding to opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory neurons. These receptors...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  19. Oral cavity and leprosy

    OpenAIRE

    Shambulingappa Pallagatti; Soheyl Sheikh; Anupreet Kaur; Amit Aggarwal; Ravinder Singh2

    2012-01-01

    Although leprosy involves the oral cavity in up to 60% of the patients, examination of the oral cavity in leprosy clinics or oral health science clinics is often neglected. Oral involvement in leprosy can broadly be divided into non-specific and specific lesions. In this review, we discuss various oral manifestations in leprosy patients so as to increase the awareness about this aspect among dermatologists and dental surgeons.

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ...

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by ... been diagnosed with oral cancer, this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, ...

  6. Chrysomya Bezziana Oral Myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    G S Vijay Kumar; G S Sowmya; Shivananda, S

    2011-01-01

    Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin....

  7. Essentials of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experi...

  8. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  9. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    P S Satheesh Kumar; Anita Balan; Arun Sankar; Tinky Bose

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concer...

  10. Oral health in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Duška; Brkanić Tatjana; Stojić Siniša

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Good oral health care during pregnancy is essential but often overlooked factor of dental growth as well as of other structures of oral cavity. Pregnancy is the time when conscious approach to preventive oral care should increase. Preventive measures during pregnancy Preventive measures during pregnancy mean usage of fluorides, special dietary measures and increased oral hygiene habits. Preventive measures in pregnant women have one goal: providing conditions for development of f...

  11. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  12. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly ... the tongue and lips are typical of oral candidiasis. Overview Thrush (oral candidiasis), also known as oral ...

  13. Oral Health and Swallowing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

  14. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akshaya Srikanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we discuss the various hepatocellular complications like cholestasis, benign neoplasm and hepatocellular carcinoma occurred by oral contraceptives. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 91-93

  15. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  16. Selective inhibition of nuclear factor-κB by nuclear factor-κB essential modulator-binding domain peptide suppresses the metastasis of highly metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuya; Nakayama, Hideki; Yoshitake, Yoshihiro; Irie, Atsushi; Nagata, Masashi; Kawahara, Kenta; Takamune, Yasuo; Yoshida, Ryoji; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Ogi, Hidenao; Shinriki, Satoru; Ota, Kazutoshi; Hiraki, Akimitsu; Ikebe, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Shinohara, Masanori

    2012-03-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation contributes to the development of metastasis, thus leading to a poor prognosis in many cancers, including OSCC. However, little in vivo experimental data are available about the effects of NF-κB inhibition on OSCC metastasis. OSCC sublines were established from a GFP-expressing parental cell line, GSAS, and designated GSAS/N3 and N5 according to the in vivo passage number after cervical lymph node metastasis by a serial orthotopic transplantation model. In vitro migration and invasion were assessed in these cells, and the NF-κB activities and expression of NF-κB-regulated metastasis-related molecules were also examined. In in vivo experiments, the metastasis and survival of tumor-engrafted mice were monitored. Furthermore, the effects of a selective NF-κB inhibitor, NEMO-binding domain (NBD) peptide, on metastasis in GSAS/N5-engrafted mice were assessed, and engrafted tongue tumors were immunohistochemically examined. Highly metastatic GSAS/N3 and N5 cells showed an enhanced NF-κB activity, thus contributing to increased migration, invasion, and a poor prognosis compared with the parent cells. Furthermore, the expression levels of NF-κB-regulated metastasis-related molecules, such as fibronectin, β1 integrin, MMP-1, -2, -9, and -14, and VEGF-C, were upregulated in the highly metastatic cells. The NBD peptide suppressed metastasis and tongue tumor growth in GSAS/N5-inoculated mice, and was accompanied by the downregulation of the NF-κB-regulated metastasis-related molecules in engrafted tongue tumors. Our results suggest that the selective inhibition of NF-κB activation by NBD peptide may provide an effective approach for the treatment of highly metastatic OSCC. PMID:22136381

  17. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  18. Commentary: Oral rehydration solution

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, O.

    1998-01-01

    Although it had been shown as early as 1968 that oral rehydration therapy was as effective as intravenous rehydration therapy in the treatment of dehydration due to diarrhoea, use of oral rehydration therapy was limited to rural health centres. In large urban hospitals oral rehydration therapy was held to be inferior to intravenous therapy and tended to be used only when the latter was not available. The results reported in the article by Samadi et al. in 1983 were extremely important in help...

  19. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  20. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine or...

  1. Chrysomya Bezziana oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly.

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ ... – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental ...

  3. Binding properties of Treponema denticola lipooligosaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grenier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The cell-surface lipooligosaccharide (LOS of Treponema denticola possesses several biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the binding properties of T. denticola LOS to extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, mucosal cells, and oral bacteria. Design: LOS was isolated from T. denticola and labeled with tritium. Tritium-labeled LOS was placed in ECM protein-, epithelial cell-, fibroblast-, or bacterium-coated wells of a 96-well microplate. Following incubation, unattached LOS was removed by extensive washing, and the amount of bound LOS was determined by measuring the radioactivity in the wells. Peptostreptococcus micros coated with LOS was used to stimulate fibroblasts, and the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 by the fibroblasts was determined by ELISA. Results: T. denticola LOS had a high affinity for laminin. It also bound to gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Soluble CD14 significantly increased the binding of LOS to fibroblasts. More LOS bound to P. micros than the other oral bacterial species tested. Stimulating fibroblasts with LOS-coated P. micros induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. Conclusions: Our study provided evidence that T. denticola LOS possesses the capacity to bind to ECM proteins, mucosal cells, and oral bacteria. In addition, LOS binding to bacteria may increase their pro-inflammatory potential.

  4. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  5. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  6. Oral administration of taxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malingré, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is to be preferred as this administration route is convenient to patients, reduces administration costs and facilitates the use of more chronic treatment regimens. For the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, however, low oral bioavailability has limited development

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay ... Need to Know ​​ Main Content Share This Page Facebook External link – please review our disclaimer Twitter External ...

  8. Shared Oral Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Børge; Elmelund Poulsen,, Johan; Christophersen, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    Shared Oral Care - Forebyggelse af orale sygdomme på plejecentre Introduktion og formål: Mangelfuld mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre er et alment og veldokumenteret sundhedsproblem, der kan føre til massiv udvikling af tandsygdomme, og som yderligere kan være medvirkende årsag til alvorlige...

  9. Oral environment and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer. PMID:27482300

  10. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  11. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 1 June ... hormone levels in girls with PCOS. What are oral contraceptive pills? Oral contraceptive pills contain two types of ...

  12. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  13. Oral health in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Duška

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Good oral health care during pregnancy is essential but often overlooked factor of dental growth as well as of other structures of oral cavity. Pregnancy is the time when conscious approach to preventive oral care should increase. Preventive measures during pregnancy Preventive measures during pregnancy mean usage of fluorides, special dietary measures and increased oral hygiene habits. Preventive measures in pregnant women have one goal: providing conditions for development of fetal teeth as well as preventing tooth decay in pregnant women. The optimal period for introducing preventive measures is the first trimester of pregnancy. Alterations of oral health during pregnancy Because of hormonal alterations there is an increased incidence of dental diseases: gingivitis and low salivary pH (inflammation and bleeding gums. Impact of nutrition during pregnancy on oral health Eating habits of pregnant women may lead to frequent snacking on candy or other decay-promoting foods, thereby increasing the risk of caries. However, very poor oral health, possible dental complications and their consequences to the health as well as emotional status represent very strong reasons for activation of dental health care in this period.

  14. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  15. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  16. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ ... site’s privacy policy when you follow the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide ...

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available Skip to Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes ... show: The Way We Make Progress Against Disease Research NIDCR Strategic Plan Research Results Tools for Researchers ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & ... successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by- ...

  10. Esoteric communiqué amid microbes in an oral biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental biofilms are complex and multispecies ecosystems, and its formation requires coordinated chemical signaling between different micro-organisms present in the oral cavity. During the initial stages of its formation, planktonic bacterial cells directly attach to surfaces of the oral cavity or indirectly bind to other bacterial cells. This binding occurs through co-aggregation, which is critical for the temporary retention of bacteria on dental surfaces as well as bacterial colonization. It is during this colonization that the micro-organisms are able to interact with each other. In general, interspecies interactions involve communication, typically via quorum sensing, and metabolic cooperation or competition. Interactions among species within a biofilm can be antagonistic, such as competition over nutrients and growth inhibition, or synergistic. In this review, we discuss these important interactions among oral bacteria within the dental biofilm communities and novel therapies that could inhibit pathogenic micro-organisms and disrupt biofilm.

  11. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Tanaka; Mayu Tanaka; Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important adv...

  12. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  13. Determinants of Oral Health: Does Oral Health Literacy Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Naghibi Sistani; Reza Yazdani; Jorma Virtanen; Afsaneh Pakdaman; Heikki Murtomaa

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate oral health literacy, independent of other oral health determinants, as a risk indicator for self-reported oral health. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tehran, Iran. Multiple logistic regression analysis served to estimate the predictive effect of oral health literacy on self-reported oral health status (good versus poor) controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors and tooth-brushing behavior. Results. In all, among 1031 partici...

  14. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    OpenAIRE

    Tarun Kumar; Gagan Puri; Konidena Aravinda; Neha Arora; Deepa Patil; Rajesh Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Alt...

  15. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Murat İnanç Cengiz; Seda Cengiz; Hom-Lay Wang

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferatio...

  16. Damaging Oral Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits,...

  17. Oral pregnancy tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Gondivkar, Shailesh M.; Amol Gadbail; Revant Chole

    2010-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This term is a misnomer because the lesion is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females, possibly because of the vascular effects of female hormones. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic lesion manife...

  18. Oral Precancer and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran Sudarshan; G. Sree Vijayabala

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is a well known disorder causing mortality. Even though many etiological factors have been proposed, but it is mainly due to tobacco (smoking and smokeless form). This tobacco has several carcinogenic substances which results in the formation of cancer. We represent a male patient 60 years of age with Oral cancer in the left vestibule induced due to smokeless tobacco. It was associated with leukoplakia in the left buccal mucosa. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000): 342-344

  19. Oral Precancer and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarshan, Ramachandran; Vijayabala, G. Sree

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is a well known disorder causing mortality. Even though many etiological factors have been proposed, but it is mainly due to tobacco (smoking and smokeless form). This tobacco has several carcinogenic substances which results in the formation of cancer. We represent a male patient 60 years of age with Oral cancer in the left vestibule induced due to smokeless tobacco. It was associated with leukoplakia in the left buccal mucosa.

  20. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  1. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Jimson; Balachader, N.; N Anita; Babu, R

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect imm...

  2. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  3. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  4. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin's bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world's toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female's age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  5. Graphite oral tattoo: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more f...

  6. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Pride, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

  8. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Boehm, Tobias K; Pride, David T

    2015-01-01

    The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

  9. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Edlund

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts.

  10. A simple ligand-binding assay for thyroxine-binding globulin on reusable Sephadex columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the assay of thyroxine-binding globulin on reusable Sephadex G-25 columns is described. It depends upon elution by diluted iodothyronine-free serum of protein-bound [125I]thyroxine from the columns under conditions where binding to thyroxine-binding prealbumin and albumin are abolished. It is simple, rapid and precise, and permits determinations inlarge numbers of samples. Values (mg/l; mean +- S.D.) were: normals 31.6+-5.4, hyperthyroid 28.3+-4.8, hypothyroid 40.6+-7.5, oral contraceptives 40.1+-6.8, pregnant 50.3+-5.4, cirrhotics 20.7+-4.3. Concentrations were reduced in serum heated at 56degC, while the uptake of [125I]triiodothyronine was increased. There was a significant negative correlation between thyroxine-binding globulin concentration and triiodothyronine uptake in the heated serum samples and in euthyroid subjects

  11. NMR assignment of the amylase-binding protein A from Streptococcus parasanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Zhu, Fan; Wu, Hui; Matthews, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus parasanguinis is a primary colonizer of tooth surfaces in the oral cavity. Amylase-binding protein A (AbpA) from S. parasanguinis is responsible for the recruitment of salivary amylase to bacterial surface, which plays an important role in the development of oral biofilms. Here, we describe the essentially complete NMR assignments for AbpA. PMID:25016927

  12. Oral pregnancy tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh M Gondivkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This term is a misnomer because the lesion is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females, possibly because of the vascular effects of female hormones. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic lesion manifesting as small, red erythematous growth on a pedunculated or sometimes sessile base, which is usually hemorrhagic. Although excisional surgery is the treatment of choice , some other treatment protocols such as the use of Nd:YAG laser, flash lamp pulsed dye laser, cryosurgery, intralesional injection of ethanol or corticosteroids, and sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy have been proposed. We present the case of a 25-year-old pregnant woman with large oral pyogenic granuloma.

  13. [Oral problems in divers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:15932043

  14. Oral myiasis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M H Raghunath Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

  15. Oral Myiasis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jimson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of dipteran flies. Houseflies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever they come to rest and thereby mechanically are the root cause for disease organisms. A case of oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in the maxillary anterior region in a 40-year-old patient is presented. Manual removal of maggots, and surgical debridement of wound was done followed by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic medications. A note on the identification of the larva and histopathology of the tissue is also highlighted here.

  16. Oral allergy syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeev, A. V.; M. A. Mokronosova

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is defined as a set of clinical manifestations caused by IgE-mediated allergic  reactions  that  occur  at  oral  and  pharyngeal  mucosae  in  the  patients  with  pollen  sensitization  after ingestion of certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and spices. OAS arises from cross-reactivity between specific pollen and food allergens, due to similarity of a configuration and amino acid sequence of allergenic molecules. OAS is considered as class II food allergy, ...

  17. Oral lichen planus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous dermatological disorder, with intraoral manifestation. Skin lesions prevail with oral mucosal lesions. Prevalence of lichen planus, as an oral pre-malignant lesion, is 1-2 % population. Lateral border, dorsal tongue, gingiva, hard palate and vermilion border are common sites and lesions appear as reticular, plaque-like and papular intraoral types. Skin presents with pururitic, polygonal papules. Atrophic and erosive are the known intraoral pre-malignant types. A case report is presented, which responded well to steroid therapy. (author)

  18. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Jumpei Washio; Nobuhiro Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo meta...

  19. Oral health as a predictive factor for oral mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Luiz Coracin; Paulo Sergio da Silva Santos; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Rosaura Saboya; Priscila Tavares Musqueira; Alessandra Barban; Dalton de Alencar Fischer Chamone; Frederico Luiz Dulley; Fabio Daumas Nunes

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the oral health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' oral health a...

  20. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay; Aparna; Kriti Bagri

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots) is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the m...

  1. Paracoccidioidomicosis en cavidad oral Oral cavity paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Antunes Freitas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM o blastomicosis suramericana es la micosis sistémica más importante de América latina que es relativamente común en Brasil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Argentina. Los casos esporádicos también pueden verse en algunos otros países, la cual es progresiva y con un infrecuente desenlace fatal si no es tratada a tiempo. Se considera como una enfermedad multifocal, con lesiones orales como la característica prominente. Es causada por un hongo dimórfico, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, que afecta principalmente la piel, los ganglios linfáticos, los pulmones y membranas mucosas oral, nasal y gastrointestinal. Dependiendo de la inmunidad específica del huésped, la infección puede asumir muchas formas y afecta a uno o varios órganos, llegando a ser una enfermedad grave y potencialmente fatal. Es muy importante para los profesionales de la salud de todo el mundo tener conocimiento acerca de la Paracoccidioidomicosis porque a veces la enfermedad sólo se manifiesta muchos años después de que haya abandonado la zona endémica. Para proporcionar información útil sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad se presenta caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 48 años de edad procedente de una zona rural de Juramento Brasil, por presentar múltiples úlceras dolorosas en encía y paladar de 3 meses de evolución; refiere antecedentes de fumador crónico, al examen clínico extraoral se descartan lesiones en otros órganos y al examen intraoral se observan múltiples úlceras con fondo necrótico y granulomatoso localizadas en encía y paladar. Se realizó una biopsia incisional de la lesión y el material fue enviado para estudio anatomopatológico. El informe histopatológico confirmó la impresión clínica de Paracoccidioidomicosis. El paciente fue tratado con el uso de sulfametoxazol + trimetoprima - 800/60 mg/día, vía oral, cada 12 horas durante 30 días. Las lesiones bucales desaparecieron

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website ... an endorsement by NIH or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products ...

  3. History of oral contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product. PMID:21091163

  4. Oral Supplementation of Myoinositol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, G.; Bertelsen, B.; Harbo, H.;

    1983-01-01

    28 young diabetics with short disease duration participated in a double-blind study by taking 6 g of myoinositol or placebo daily for 2 months. The aim was to demonstrate a possible beneficial effect of this compound on subclinical diabetic neuropathy. Measurement of vibratory perception threshol...... of myoinositol in their muscle tissue remained uninfluenced by oral supplementation of myoinositol....

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  6. AAS Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  7. Oral Health and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing ...

  9. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progestin-only oral contraceptives are used to prevent pregnancy. Progestin is a female hormone. It works by preventing the ... mucus and the lining of the uterus. Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ...

  11. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral contraceptives (birth-control pills) are used to prevent pregnancy. Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. ... to prevent sperm (male reproductive cells) from entering. Oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, ...

  12. Fenofibrate Suppresses Oral Tumorigenesis via Reprogramming Metabolic Processes: Potential Drug Repurposing for Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Chia-Ing; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Chia Jen; Chang, Nai Wen

    2016-01-01

    One anticancer strategy suggests targeting mitochondrial metabolism to trigger cell death through slowing down energy production from the Warburg effect. Fenofibrate is a clinical lipid-lowering agent and an effective anticancer drug. In the present study, we demonstrate that fenofibrate provided novel mechanisms for delaying oral tumor development via the reprogramming of metabolic processes. Fenofibrate induced cytotoxicity by decreasing oxygen consumption rate (OCR) that was accompanied with increasing extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and reducing ATP content. Moreover, fenofibrate caused changes in the protein expressions of hexokinase II (HK II), pyruvate kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which are associated with the Warburg effect. In addition, fenofibrate reprogrammed the metabolic pathway by interrupting the binding of HK II to VDAC. In an oral cancer mouse model, fenofibrate exhibited both preventive and therapeutic efficacy on oral tumorigenesis. Fenofibrate administration suppressed the incidence rate of tongue lesions, reduced the tumor sizes, decreased the tumor multiplicity, and decreased the immunoreactivities of VDAC and mTOR. The molecular mechanisms involved in fenofibrate's ability to delay tumor development included the down-regulation of mTOR activity via TSC1/2-dependent signaling through activation of AMPK and inactivation of Akt, or via a TSC1/2-independent pathway through direct suppression of raptor. Our findings provide a molecular rationale whereby fenofibrate exerts anticancer and additional beneficial effects for the treatment of oral cancer patients.

  13. Fenofibrate Suppresses Oral Tumorigenesis via Reprogramming Metabolic Processes: Potential Drug Repurposing for Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Chia-Ing; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Chia Jen; Chang, Nai Wen

    2016-01-01

    One anticancer strategy suggests targeting mitochondrial metabolism to trigger cell death through slowing down energy production from the Warburg effect. Fenofibrate is a clinical lipid-lowering agent and an effective anticancer drug. In the present study, we demonstrate that fenofibrate provided novel mechanisms for delaying oral tumor development via the reprogramming of metabolic processes. Fenofibrate induced cytotoxicity by decreasing oxygen consumption rate (OCR) that was accompanied with increasing extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and reducing ATP content. Moreover, fenofibrate caused changes in the protein expressions of hexokinase II (HK II), pyruvate kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which are associated with the Warburg effect. In addition, fenofibrate reprogrammed the metabolic pathway by interrupting the binding of HK II to VDAC. In an oral cancer mouse model, fenofibrate exhibited both preventive and therapeutic efficacy on oral tumorigenesis. Fenofibrate administration suppressed the incidence rate of tongue lesions, reduced the tumor sizes, decreased the tumor multiplicity, and decreased the immunoreactivities of VDAC and mTOR. The molecular mechanisms involved in fenofibrate's ability to delay tumor development included the down-regulation of mTOR activity via TSC1/2-dependent signaling through activation of AMPK and inactivation of Akt, or via a TSC1/2-independent pathway through direct suppression of raptor. Our findings provide a molecular rationale whereby fenofibrate exerts anticancer and additional beneficial effects for the treatment of oral cancer patients. PMID:27313493

  14. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  15. Oral health and institutionalised elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The main aim of this thesis was to generate initiatives promoting good oral health for institutionalised elderly. It was therefore essential to investigate how their oral health status has changed over time, whether care professionals have adequate oral care knowledge and if the oral hygiene of the institutionalised elderly can be improved in the long-term by a new quality assurance system. Methods: Several different methods were used, with both descriptive and analytical ...

  16. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka³a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20–30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having p...

  17. Oral manifestations of vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Nagarajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact . Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison′s disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1% . Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin.

  18. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  19. Social disparity and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fidela de Lima Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear reported association between social disparity and oral health, for example, between dental caries and malnutrition in children. This fact is detected in several studies, and also found amongst the Brazilian population. However, several efforts have been made to improve the quality of life of the population and to achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goals. Oral health is a branch to be improved among these goals. The Brazilian experience has been drawing the attention of authorities, insofar as there have been direct improvements in oral health through state oral health programs, and also indirect results by improving the quality of life of the population. Included within the Brazilian oral health programs are the Family Health Program and Smiling Brazil Program. The former is a global healthcare program which involves primary oral healthcare, while the latter is a specialized oral care program. Among the social programs that would indirectly improve oral health are Family Stipend and the Edmond and Lily Safra International Institute of Neuroscience of Natal (ELS-IINN. In conclusion, although oral health problems are related to socioeconomic factors, the implementation of primary oral health programs and programs to improve the population's quality of life may directly or indirectly improve the oral health scenario. This fact is being observed in Brazil, where the oral health policies have changed, and social programs have been implemented.

  20. Oral health: equity and social determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella; Petersen, Poul Erik

    This book chapter discusses the social determinants of oral health, and identifies interventions that have been, or can be, used in addressing oral health inequities (e.g. oral health promotion, education programmes, improving access to oral health care)....

  1. Plant Hormone Binding Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, Richard

    2004-01-01

    • Aims Receptors for plant hormones are becoming identified with increasing rapidity, although a frustrating number remain unknown. There have also been many more hormone‐binding proteins described than receptors. This Botanical Briefing summarizes what has been discovered about hormone binding sites, their discovery and descriptions, and will not dwell on receptor functions or activities except where these are relevant to understand binding.

  2. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, Jesper; Hietanen, J;

    2012-01-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must...... new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral...... medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide...

  3. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; Ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study...

  4. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient.

  5. Immunologically mediated oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N; Anita, N; Babu, R

    2015-04-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  6. Oral and Facial Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, David

    1988-01-01

    Diagnosis of oral and facial pain is often difficult because several anatomical structures within this small area are capable of producing similar symptoms, and pain referred from cranial or distant sites and emotional or psychiatric disturbances complicate matters further. This article summarizes some of the more common causes of orofacial pain, with the exception of disorders of the temporomandibular joint and associated musculature, which are covered in a separate article.

  7. Feline oral pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The main pathologies of the oral cavity are of utmost importance, not only by the number of exposed individuals, but also by the consequences which stems. With the development of this work, we intend to conduct a brief approach to the same, since, specifically affecting domestic felines. Feline Lymphoplasmatic Gingivostomatitis (GELF), the Feline Odontoclastic Reabsorption Lesions (LROF) Complex and gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis, have been studied, some of which are considered an enigma i...

  8. Training in oral medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewska, J M

    2001-01-01

    88 members of the UK specialty society of oral medicine were asked about career satisfaction and their views on training programmes. 70% responded (79% of consultants and all accredited trainees). Men work longer hours than women, report less control over their work and experience more stress. Although high work satisfaction is reported, nearly one-third regret their choice of specialty. Men more than women do locum work while training. Most respondents would welcome flexible training, job sh...

  9. Oral Myiasis : Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli, Roszalina; Abd Rahman, Roslan

    2002-01-01

    Myiasis occurs when living tissues of mammals are invaded by eggs or larvae of flies, mainly from the order of Diptera. Most of the previousty reported cases are in the tropics and they were usually associated with inadequate personal hygiene, sometimes with poor manual dexterity. This report describes two cases of oral myiasis in cerebral palsy patients in Seremban General Hospital, Malaysia. This article also discusses the therapeutic property of maggots and highlights the importance of ora...

  10. Oral lymphangioma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Gadelha Vasconcelos; Bruna Câmara Santos; Luciana Cristina Peixoto Lemos; Betania Fachetti Ribeiro; Déborah Pitta Paraíso Iglesias; Rodrigo Gadelha Vasconcelos; Ana Myriam Costa de Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Lymphangioma is a change of lymphatic vessels that frequently affects the head and neck region. Its occurrence at oral cavity is rare and it is most commonly identified at the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. At this location, it is clinically characterized as transparent and generally grouped vesicles, which can be red or purple. The deep lesions appear as nodular masses of variable color and superficial texture. It can be classified according to the size of vessels into thre...

  11. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature. PMID:27352462

  12. Milk and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health. PMID:21335990

  13. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D F

    1981-04-01

    Dermatologists often prescribe oral tetracycline for the control of acne, primarily, and to a much lesser extent, for the treatment of cutaneous infections. A number of the patients taking tetracycline are also taking birth control pills. A recent article in the British Medical Journal (1980;1:293) indicates that this combination can lead to a failure of the (OC) oral contraceptive. Such failure had been associated with ampicillin as well. It is believed that the mechanism for this was the disturbance in normal gut flora, with consequent effects on bacterial hydrolysis of steroid conjugates. This would interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of contraceptive steroids, resulting in a less than normal concentration of circulating steroids. It was recommended that women taking low-dose OCs take extra precautions against pregnancy during any cycle in which antibiotics are given. In regard to our care of and responsibilities to our patients, and in an era when malpractice suits for all types of reasons are more common, it certainly behooves dermatologists to recognize and be concerned about this potential consequence of prescribing oral antibiotics. PMID:7212735

  14. Oral lymphangioma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gadelha Vasconcelos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lymphangioma is a change of lymphatic vessels that frequently affects the head and neck region. Its occurrence at oral cavity is rare and it is most commonly identified at the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. At this location, it is clinically characterized as transparent and generally grouped vesicles, which can be red or purple. The deep lesions appear as nodular masses of variable color and superficial texture. It can be classified according to the size of vessels into three types: capillary, cavernous, and cystic lymphangioma. Several types of treatment have been suggested; and the most commonly used treatments are: surgical excision, application of carbon dioxide laser, cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen, and sclerosing agents. Objective and case report: To describe a case of oral lymphangioma diagnosed in a 17-year-old female patient. The lesion was presented as multiple vesicles of soft consistency with thin epithelial lining and color ranging from translucent to yellow-reddish, involving the soft palate and the left retromolar region. Incisional biopsy confirmed the hypothesis of cavernous lymphangioma. Patient was followed-up for one year without signs of lesion relapse. Conclusion: Through this clinical case report and literature review, this study emphasizes the relevance of the clinical and histopathological features that should be considered to confirm the clinical hypothesis and indicate the proper therapeutic for oral lymphangiomas.

  15. Response of Fatty Acid Synthesis Genes to the Binding of Human Salivary Amylase by Streptococcus gordonii

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitkova, Anna E.; Haase, Elaine M.; Vickerman, M Margaret; Gill, Steven R.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii, an important primary colonizer of dental plaque biofilm, specifically binds to salivary amylase via the surface-associated amylase-binding protein A (AbpA). We hypothesized that a function of amylase binding to S. gordonii may be to modulate the expression of chromosomal genes, which could influence bacterial survival and persistence in the oral cavity. Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis was performed to detect genes in S. gordonii strain CH1 that were di...

  16. Self-rated oral health status, oral health service utilization, and oral hygiene practices among adult Nigerians

    OpenAIRE

    Olusile, Adeyemi Oluniyi; Adeniyi, Abiola Adetokunbo; Orebanjo, Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Background There is scarce information available on oral health service utilization patterns and common oral hygiene practices among adult Nigerians. We conducted the 2010–2011 national oral health survey before the introduction of the national oral health policy to determine the prevalence of oral health service utilization, patterns of oral hygiene practices, and self reported oral health status, among adults in various social classes, educational strata, ethnic groups and geopolitical zone...

  17. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  18. Update of oral surgery management in orally anticoagulated patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Evrosimovska, Biljana; Pandilova, Maja; Kovacevska, Ivona; Zabokova-Bilbilova, Efka

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study is to review the evidence of different therapy approach, to highlight the areas of major concern and to suggest specific oral surgery treatment for patients on oral anticoagulants. The aim of operative treatment is to minimize the risk of hemorrhage while continuing to protect the patient against thromboembolism formation. The ordinary treatment includes the interruption of anticoagulant therapy for oral surgery interventions to prevent hemorrhage. However, this practice may...

  19. Management of oral surgery procedures in orally anticoagulated patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena

    2010-01-01

    The oral and maxillofacial surgeons are frequently asked to manage patients who are receiving oral anticoagulants. The goal of treatment is to minimize the risk of hemorrhage while continuing to protect the patient against thromboembolism formation. The ordinary treatment includes the interruption of anticoagulant therapy for oral surgery interventions to prevent hemorrhage. However, this practice may logically increase the risk of a potentially life-threatening thromboembolism. Thus, this is...

  20. Management of oral surgery procedures in oral anticoagulated patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena

    2010-01-01

    The oral and maxillofacial surgeons are frequently asked to manage patients who are receiving oral anticoagulants. The goal of treatment is to minimize the risk of hemorrhage while continuing to protect the patient against thromboembolism formation. The ordinary treatment includes the interruption of anticoagulant therapy for oral surgery interventions to prevent hemorrhage. However, this practice may logically increase the risk of a potentially life-threatening thromboembolism. Thus, this is...

  1. Oral hygiene, dentition, sexual habits and risk of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Talamini, R; Vaccarella, S; Barbone, F; Tavani, A; Vecchia, C La; Herrero, R.; Muñoz, N.; de Franceschi, S.

    2000-01-01

    In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

  2. Bladder endothelin-1 receptor binding of bosentan and ambrisentan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osano, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Yoshinari; Hayashi, Hideki; Itoh, Kunihiko; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize bladder endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor binding of clinically used ET-1 receptor antagonists by using [(125)I]ET-1. The inhibition of specific [(125)I]ET-1 binding was measured in the presence of ET-1 and its receptor antagonists. Specific binding of [(125)I]ET-1 in rat bladder was saturable and of high affinity, which characterized selective labeling of bladder ET-1 receptors. ET-1, bosentan, ambrisentan, and CI-1020 inhibited specific [(125)I]ET-1 binding in a concentration-dependent manner at nanomolar ranges of IC50. Nonlinear least squares regression analysis revealed the presence of high- and low-affinity ET-1 receptor sites for ambrisentan and CI-1020. Bosentan and ambrisentan significantly increased the dissociation constant for bladder [(125)I]ET-1 binding without affecting maximal number of binding sites (Bmax). Thus, bosentan and ambrisentan seem to bind to bladder ET-1 receptor in a competitive and reversible manner. Oral administration of bosentan caused a dose-dependent decrease in Bmax for bladder [(125)I]ET-1 binding, suggesting significant binding of bladder ET-1 receptors in vivo. A significant amount of pharmacologically relevant ET-1 receptors may exist in the bladder. These receptors may be implicated in the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract symptoms and may also be promising targets for the development of therapeutic agents. PMID:24389822

  3. A natural lipopeptide of surfactin for oral delivery of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Gao, Zhenqiu; Zhao, Xiuyun; Qi, Gaofu

    2016-07-01

    Surfactin, a natural lipopeptide produced by Bacillus, is gaining attention for potentially biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Here, surfactin was assayed for oral delivery of insulin (INS) by its ability to bind to and promote protein to penetrate through the cell membrane. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, surfactin was found to form co-precipitates with INS to protect it from acidic and enzymatic attack in the gastrointestinal tract. Further analysis by non-reductive electrophoresis showed surfactin could bind to INS forming heteropolymers. Analysis with circular dichroism, we found this binding significantly influenced the INS structure with decreased rigid α-helix and β-turn, but with increased flexible β-sheet and random coil. The change with more flexible structure was favorable for INS to penetrate through the cell membrane. Fluorescence spectra analysis also showed surfactin could lead Phe and Tyr in the inner of INS exposed outside, further promoting INS permeabilization by improving the hydrophobic-lipophilic interactions between INS and cell membrane. As a result, the effective permeability (Peff) of INS plus surfactin was 4.3 times of that of INS alone. In vivo assay showed oral INS with surfactin displayed excellent hypoglycemic effects with a relative bioavailability of 12.48% and 5.97% in diabetic mice and non-diabetic dogs, respectively. Summary, surfactin is potential for oral delivery of INS by its role as an effective protease inhibitor and permeability enhancer. PMID:26982158

  4. Python bindings for libcloudph++

    OpenAIRE

    Jarecka, Dorota; Arabas, Sylwester; Del Vento, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This technical note introduces the Python bindings for libcloudph++. The libcloudph++ is a C++ library of algorithms for representing atmospheric cloud microphysics in numerical models. The bindings expose the complete functionality of the library to the Python users. The bindings are implemented using the Boost.Python C++ library and use NumPy arrays. This note includes listings with Python scripts exemplifying the use of selected library components. An example solution for using the Python ...

  5. DNS & Bind Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Cricket

    2011-01-01

    The DNS & BIND Cookbook presents solutions to the many problems faced by network administrators responsible for a name server. Following O'Reilly's popular problem-and-solution cookbook format, this title is an indispensable companion to DNS & BIND, 4th Edition, the definitive guide to the critical task of name server administration. The cookbook contains dozens of code recipes showing solutions to everyday problems, ranging from simple questions, like, "How do I get BIND?" to more advanced topics like providing name service for IPv6 addresses. It's full of BIND configuration files that yo

  6. Python bindings for libcloudph++

    CERN Document Server

    Jarecka, Dorota; Del Vento, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This technical note introduces the Python bindings for libcloudph++. The libcloudph++ is a C++ library of algorithms for representing atmospheric cloud microphysics in numerical models. The bindings expose the complete functionality of the library to the Python users. The bindings are implemented using the Boost.Python C++ library and use NumPy arrays. This note includes listings with Python scripts exemplifying the use of selected library components. An example solution for using the Python bindings to access libcloudph++ from Fortran is presented.

  7. Nuevos anticoagulantes orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Berkovits

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thromboembolic disease (TED is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hallmark of oral long-term anticoagulant therapy has been the use of vitamin K antagonists, whose anticoagulant effect is exerted inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase. Warfarin and acenocoumarol are the most commonly used. In the last five years several new drugs for long term anticoagulation have been developed, which can inhibit single clotting factors with the purpose of improving drug therapeutic range and, ideally, minimizing bleeding risks. This review addresses the state of the art on the clinical use of inhibitors of activated factor X and thrombin.

  8. Canine and feline oral pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present a brief review of the main conditions affecting the oral cavity of dogs and cats. In recent years there has been increased attention with regard to veterinary dentistry, being several and frequent the pathologies located in the oral cavity of our pets. These diseases mainly affect the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, and may, in chronic cases, also affect vital organs. This condition could have different causes, including hereditary, conge...

  9. Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications

    OpenAIRE

    N Escudero-Castaño; M.A. Perea-García; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez,; A Bascones-Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to o...

  10. Oral complications in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications

  11. Strengthening of oral health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work with the...... newly established WHO Collaborating Centre, Kuwait University, to strengthen the development of appropriate models for primary oral health care. © 2014 P.E. Petersen, Geneva....

  12. Oral Health in Psychiatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Gurbuz; Kursat Altinbas; Erhan Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Although oral health is a major determinant of general health and quality of life, it has a low priority in the context of mental illness. Chronic mental illness and its treatment carry inherent risks for significant oral diseases. Both the disease itself and its various pharmacologic management modalities lead to a range of oral complications and side effects, with caries, periodontal disease and xerostomia being encountered most frequently. Older age, female gender, length of hospitalizatio...

  13. Oral submucous fibrosis: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Wollina U; Verma SB; Ali FM; Patil K

    2015-01-01

    Uwe Wollina,1 Shyam B Verma,2 Fareedi Mukram Ali,3 Kishor Patil4 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Nirvana Skin Clinic, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; 3Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India; 4Departments of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India Abstract: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition ca...

  14. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J;

    2008-01-01

    report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine....... Several studies have shown great interexaminer and intraexaminer variability in the assessment of the presence or absence and the grade of oral epithelial dysplasia. The Working Group considered the two class classification (no/questionable/ mild - low risk; moderate or severe - implying high risk) and...

  15. Drug Reactions in Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Derviş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both immunologic and nonimmunologic drug reactions can be seen in oral mucosa. Since considerable number of these reactions heals spontaneously without being noticed by the patients, exact frequency of the lesions is unknown. Most common lesions are xerostomia, taste disorders, mucosal ulcerations and edema. In this article, oral lesions resulting from drug intake similar to those from oral lesions of local and systemic diseases, and diagnostic problems caused by these similarities, have been reviewed.

  16. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Barbosa de Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Known as “the great imitator,” secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions.

  17. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse tes...

  18. Practical pearls for oral procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Parastoo; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    We provide an overview of clinically relevant principles of oral surgical procedures required in the workup and management of oral mucosal diseases. An understanding of the fundamental concepts of how to perform safely and effectively minor oral procedures is important to the practicing dermatologist and can minimize the need for patient referrals. This chapter reviews the principles of minor oral procedures, including incisional, excisional, and punch biopsies, as well as minor salivary gland excision. Pre- and postoperative patient care is also discussed. PMID:27343958

  19. Oral myiasis: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj T Bhagawati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a relatively rare pathology in humans caused by invasion of body tissue or cavities of living animals or humans by larvae of certain dipteran flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries, and in countries with tropical climate. Common pre-disposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, suppurative oral lesions, and in patients with neuro-psychiatric deficits. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving the anterior palate in a physically and mentally disabled 24-year-old female patient.

  20. Oral Health in Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Gurbuz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although oral health is a major determinant of general health and quality of life, it has a low priority in the context of mental illness. Chronic mental illness and its treatment carry inherent risks for significant oral diseases. Both the disease itself and its various pharmacologic management modalities lead to a range of oral complications and side effects, with caries, periodontal disease and xerostomia being encountered most frequently. Older age, female gender, length of hospitalization, duration of mental illness, psychiatric diagnosis are the most discussed predictors for adverse dental outcomes in the reviewed studies. Poor oral hygiene, higher intake of carbonates, smoking, poor perception of oral health self-needs, length of psychiatric disorder, length of psychotropic treatment, and less access to dental care pose at high risk for poor oral health among this population. This article emphasizes the importance of preventive dentistry programs to improve dental healthcare psychiatric chronic inpatients and the signifance of bridging dental health education to psychiatric rehabilitation programs. In this review, general information concerning the oral manifestations of mental illness, effect of medication of mental illness on oral health, the factors affecting oral health among this special population have been provided.

  1. Oral periopathogens and systemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costerton, John; Keller, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Management of oral biofilms allows dentists to help control the pathogens responsible for periodontal disease and decay. Increasing evidence indicates that the oral system is a portal for pathogenic microorganisms. This is a cumulative situation with systemic effects that can overcome an individual's resistance threshold, culminating in systemic sequela. New evidence indicates that controlling these oral pathogens has systemic benefits, as oral pathology is related to cardiovascular and respiratory disease, diabetes, and systemic inflammatory responses, as well as low birth weight and pre-term deliveries. Some insurance companies now cover periodontal scaling for gingivitis and periodontal disease for pregnant women and patients at risk for pregnancy. PMID:17511362

  2. [Oral jewelry: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeger, Franziska; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Oral jewelry is popular. One of the most widely spread types are so-called tooth diamonds made of composite materials which are applied to the teeth with an adhesive. Note that parents are required to sign a release form for under-aged patients in Switzerland. Tooth cap grills and gold teeth are considered status symbols within the Hip-Hop fashion scene. However, tooth ornaments favour the accumulation of plaque and can diminish the ability to articulate. With respect to jewelry in oral soft tissue especially tongue and lip piercings are of significance to dentists. Besides the systemic complications, which are mostly caused by a lack of hygiene or the failure of noting medical contraindications by the piercer, local complications occur frequently. After surgery, pain, swelling, infections as well as hemorrhages or hematomas can be observed. Long-term effects can be problematic: gingival recession can be discernes mainly in the case of lip piercings the loss of hard tooth substance in the case of tongue piercings. Because of that, conservation therapies can become indespensable. Patients wearing dental jewelry have to be aware of risks of tooth damage, and they regularly have to undergo dental check-ups. Information campaigns--for dentists as well as patients--are necessary. PMID:20112640

  3. Oral Conversations Online: Redefining Oral Competence in Synchronous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Marie-Noelle

    2004-01-01

    In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual…

  4. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J; Hadler-Olsen, E S;

    2010-01-01

    source in revisions of dental curricula throughout Europe converging towards a European Dental Curriculum. In order to render the best conditions for future curriculum revisions providing the best quality dentist we feel obliged to analyse and comment the outlines of oral pathology and oral medicine in...

  5. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S; Fairchild, R G; Watts, K P; Greenberg, D; Hannon, S J

    1980-01-01

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed. (PSB)

  6. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed

  7. DNS BIND Server Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  8. Colonic immune stimulation by targeted oral vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kathania

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, sufficient data exist to support the use of lactobacilli as candidates for the development of new oral targeted vaccines. To this end, we have previously shown that Lactobacillus gasseri expressing the protective antigen (PA component of anthrax toxin genetically fused to a dendritic cell (DC-binding peptide (DCpep induced efficacious humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses against Bacillus anthracis Sterne challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present study, we investigated the effects of a dose dependent treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing the PA-DCpep fusion protein on intestinal and systemic immune responses and confirmed its safety. Treatment of mice with different doses of L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep stimulated colonic immune responses, resulting in the activation of innate immune cells, including dendritic cells, which induced robust Th1, Th17, CD4(+Foxp3(+ and CD8(+Foxp3(+ T cell immune responses. Notably, high doses of L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep (10(12 CFU were not toxic to the mice. Treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep triggered phenotypic maturation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and macrophages. Moreover, treatment of mice with L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep enhanced antibody immune responses, including IgA, IgG(1, IgG(2b, IgG(2c and IgG(3. L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep also increased the gene expression of numerous pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and NOD-like receptors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that L. gasseri expressing PA-DCpep has substantial immunopotentiating properties, as it can induce humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses upon oral administration and may be used as a safe oral vaccine against anthrax challenge.

  9. Pharmacotherapy of Oral Mucositis with Palifermin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzepecki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis (OM is one of the most debilitating and common side effects of intensive anti-cancer treatment. OM is associated with adverse clinical and economic outcomes. In addition to its symptomatic impact, OM increases the likelihood of unplanned breaks or delays in anti-cancer treatment, reduction in dose of chemotherapy, use of feeding tube placement or total parenteral nutrition, the need for an intravenous line, opioid use and hospitalization. Palifermin is a N-truncated recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF family, which binds specifically to the human KGF receptor and induces proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells, including gastrointestinal epithelial cells, hepatocytes, type II pneumocytes, and transitional urothelial cells. It is the first agent approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory authorities around the world for use in the prevention of oral mucositis caused by high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. The following review aims to cover the recent peer-reviewed literature pertaining to the role of palifermin in the prevention of OM in different groups of patients treated with radiation therapy or chemotherapy against cancers.

  10. Expression of Galectins 1, 3 and 9 in normal oral epithelium, oral squamous papilloma, and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Thais Ayako Hossaka; Ribeiro, Daniel A.; Gustavo Focchi; Sabine André; Mariana Fernandes; Fernando Cintra Lopes Carapeto; Marcelo de Souza Silva; Celina T F Oshima

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to characterize the immunohistochemical expression of galectin 1, 3, and 9 in normal oral epithelium, oral squamous papilloma, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for galectins 1, 3, and 9 was evaluated in 8 samples of normal oral squamous epithelium, 15 samples of oral squamous papilloma, and 41 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical data were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis non-para...

  11. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Negi; Abhiney Puri; Rakhi Gupta; Rajat Nangia; Alisha Sachdeva; Megha Mittal

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue block...

  12. Pediatric soft tissue oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andres; Haberland, Christel M; Baker, Suher

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of common color changes and soft tissue oral nodular abnormalities in children and adolescents. The clinical presentation and treatment options to address these conditions are presented in a concise approach, highlighting key features relevant to the oral health care professional. PMID:24655531

  13. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits associated with oral contraception. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004; 190(4 Suppl):S5–22. [ ... oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1992; 80(4):708–714. [PubMed ...

  14. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progestin-only oral contraceptives are used to prevent pregnancy. Progestin is a female hormone. It works by preventing the release of eggs ... and the lining of the uterus. Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, ...

  15. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  16. Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Danielle Marie; Mirowski, Ginat W

    2010-01-01

    Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12), C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa. PMID:20620760

  17. Use of oral contraceptives in the management of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis GB

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gian Benedetto Melis, Marisa Orrù, Maria Francesca Marotto, Monica Pilloni, Mariagrazia Perseu, Stefano Lello, Anna Maria PaolettiClinica Ginecologica Ostetrica e di Fisiopatologia della Riproduzione Umana, Universita' di Cagliari, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Cagliari, Cagliari, ItalyAbstract: The pathogenesis of acne (the most common disorder involving the sebaceous gland originates from increased sebum production by the sebaceous gland followed by colonization of the hair follicle with Propionibacterium acnes, hyperkeratinization of the upper follicle, and release of inflammatory mediators into the skin. Androgens are the main stimulators of sebum production. Androgens originate from the gonads and adrenal glands, but can also be locally produced within the sebaceous gland from dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. In the presence of high androgen levels, which can be either a normal pattern of adolescence or a consequence of gonadal or adrenal disease, overproduction of sebum triggers the pathogenesis of acne which, mainly in adolescent women, has deleterious psychological consequences. Estrogens exert the opposite action on sebum production, probably due to the reduction of androgen availability, a direct consequence of estrogen-related increased production of hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG. The inhibition of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis induced by oral contraceptives is followed by reduced androgen production. Oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol, which has strong estrogenic activity, amplify the hypoandrogenic effect via estrogen-related stimulation of SHBG. The hypoandrogenic effect of oral contraceptives is modulated by the progestin compound. Progestins derived from 19-nortestosterone bind androgenic receptors, whereas others exert antiandrogenic properties by antagonizing the binding of androgens to their receptors, reduce 5α-reductase, and do not bind SHBG. Through this last effect, SHBG is freely

  18. Tips for Good Oral Health during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are pregnant. Getting oral health care, practicing good oral hygiene, eating healthy foods, and practicing other healthy behaviors ... provide the best care for you. Practice Good Oral Hygiene  Brush your teeth with fluoridated toothpaste twice a ...

  19. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer » Detailed Guide » What are ... how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? Oral cavity cancer, or just oral cancer, is cancer ...

  20. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  1. Precipitants of oral cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjith Raveendran; Nath, Sameera G

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancers are malignant neoplasms that affect the mouth. Oral cancer remains a major personal tragedy and public health problem. There is a very high incidence of oral cancer in Southern Asia. In India, the oral cavity is the most common site for cancer. The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas are related to tobacco, areca nut / betel quid chewing, alcoholism. Control of oral potentially malignant diseases will only be achieved by effective and comprehensive primary and secondary pre...

  2. Salivary Markers for Oral Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K; Michailidou, Evangelia Z.; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer refers to all malignancies that arise in the oral cavity, lips and pharynx, with 90% of all oral cancers being oral squamous cell carcinoma. Despite the recent treatment advances, oral cancer is reported as having one of the highest mortality ratios amongst other malignancies and this can much be attributed to the late diagnosis of the disease. Saliva has long been tested as a valuable tool for drug monitoring and the diagnosis systemic diseases among which oral cancer. The new em...

  3. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

  4. Oral melanoacanthoma: A rare case of diffuse oral pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Ashok Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of diffuse pigmentation can be alarming to the patient as well as the clinician. A histopathologic examination of a pigmented lesion is necessary in most of the cases in the oral cavity. Oral melanoacanthoma is a very rare diffuse pigmentation with no specific treatment required. It shows increased number of dendritic melanocytes in an acanthotic epithelium. We present a rare case of diffuse pigmentation in the oral cavity whose diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathology. Also immunohistochemistry was done.

  5. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  6. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    OpenAIRE

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M. S.; LeVine, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

  7. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavin B Dudhia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL. Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma.

  8. Diabetes mellitus and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

  9. Oral health promotion efficiency in the control of oral biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Nélio Jorge Veiga; Patricia Carvalho; Octávio Ribeiro; Inês Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of oral health instructions, particularly in the control of dental plaque, as well as assess the effectiveness of the reinforcement of the same instructions. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Clinic of the Portuguese Catholic University (UCP) in Viseu-Portugal from January to June 2012. Three different assessments were performed with 30 participants using the O’Leary Plaque Index and a questionnaire on oral health behavior, w...

  10. Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gen...

  11. Chronic exercise increases insulin binding in muscles but not liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been postulated that the improved glucose tolerance provoked by chronic exercise is primarily attributable to increased insulin binding in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the authors investigated the effects of progressively increased training (6 wk) on insulin binding by five hindlimb skeletal muscles and in liver. In the trained animals serum insulin levels at rest were lower either in a fed or fasted state and after an oral glucose tolerance test. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise bout sections of the liver, soleus (S), plantaris (P), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles were pooled from four to six rats. Insulin binding to plasma membranes increased in S, P, and EDL but not in WG or in liver. There were insulin binding differences among muscles. Comparison of rank orders of insulin binding data with published glucose transport data for the same muscles revealed that these parameters do not correspond well. In conclusion, insulin binding to muscle is shown to be heterogeneous and training can increase insulin binding to selected muscles but not liver

  12. Oral contraceptives and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostardi, R A; Woebkenberg, N R; Jarrett, M T

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken with volunteer females (aged 20-25) to determine the effect of OCs (oral contraceptives) on hematologic and metabolic variables during exercise. 5 of the women studied were naturally cycling and 7 were taking OCs. The women worked at 2 workloads on a bicycle ergometer at 50% and 90% of their maximal aerobic capacity during 3 different phases of their menstrual cycle. There was no better time of the month for doing the 50% or the 90% workload in either group. Heartrate for the OC group was significantly higher at the 50% maximal capacity. Results of the test indicate tha women on OCs have somewhat reduced cardiac efficiency and are ventilating more to carry out a given amount of work when compared to women who are naturally cycling. Possible explanations for the higher heart rate are put forward. The main limitation of the study is that the subject numbers involved are small and the number of cycles studied is also small. PMID:12278397

  13. As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Siqueira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that 40–60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease.

  14. Expression of E-cadherin in normal oral mucosa, in oral precancerous lesions and in oral carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Sridevi, Ugrappa; Jain, Ajay; Nagalaxmi, Velpula; Kumar, Ugrappa Vijay; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of E-cad in oral precancerous lesions and conditions and oral carcinomas in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Total of 50 samples were selected for the study and were categorized into five groups and 10 samples in each group as Group I-oral leukoplakia (OL), Group II-oral lichen planus (OLP), Group III-oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group IV-oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group V-normal oral muc...

  15. A comparison of oral and intravenous pimonidazole in canine tumors using intravenous CCI-103F as a control hypoxia marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Pimonidazole HCl is widely used in immunohistochemical analyses of hypoxia in normal and malignant tissues. The present study investigates oral administration as a means of minimizing invasiveness. Methods and Materials: Twelve dogs with confirmed malignancy received 0.5 g/m2 of pimonidazole HCl: 6 by mouth and 6 by i.v. infusion. All dogs received i.v. CCI-103F as a control. Plasma levels of pimonidazole, pimonidazole N-oxide, and CCI-103F were measured. Tumor biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, sectioned, immunostained, and analyzed for pimonidazole and CCI-103F binding. pH dependence for pimonidazole and CCI-103F binding was studied in vitro. Results: Pimonidazole and CCI-103F binding in carcinomas and sarcomas was strongly correlated for both oral and i.v. pimonidazole HCl (r 2 = 0.97). On average, the extent of pimonidazole binding exceeded that for CCI-103F by a factor of approximately 1.2, with the factor ranging from 1.0 to 1.65. Binding of both markers was pH dependent, but pimonidazole binding was greater at all values of pH. Conclusions: Oral pimonidazole HCl is effective as a hypoxia marker in spontaneously arising canine tumors. Selective cellular uptake and concomitant higher levels of binding in regions of hypoxia at the high end of pH gradients might account for the greater extent of pimonidazole binding

  16. Role of Streptococcus gordonii Amylase-Binding Protein A in Adhesion to Hydroxyapatite, Starch Metabolism, and Biofilm Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeffrey D.; Palmer, Robert J.; Kolenbrander, Paul E; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2001-01-01

    Interactions between bacteria and salivary components are thought to be important in the establishment and ecology of the oral microflora. α-Amylase, the predominant salivary enzyme in humans, binds to Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer of the tooth. Previous studies have implicated this interaction in adhesion of the bacteria to salivary pellicles, catabolism of dietary starches, and biofilm formation. Amylase binding is mediated at least in part by the amylase-binding protein A (Ab...

  17. Oral delivery of anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T;

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on the various aspects of oral delivery of anticancer drugs. The significance of oral delivery in cancer therapeutics has been highlighted which principally includes improvement in quality of life of patients and reduced health care costs. Subsequently, the challenges...... incurred in the oral delivery of anticancer agents have been especially emphasized. Sincere efforts have been made to compile the various physicochemical properties of anticancer drugs from either literature or predicted in silico via GastroPlus™. The later section of the paper reviews various emerging...... trends to tackle the challenges associated with oral delivery of anticancer drugs. These invariably include efflux transporter based-, functional excipient- and nanocarrier based-approaches. The role of drug nanocrystals and various others such as polymer based- and lipid based-nanocarriers in the...

  18. Oral candidosis in lichen planus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Kieffer-Kristensen, L; Reibel, J;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, but other Candida species cause candidosis. Candida species display significant differences in their susceptibility to antimycotic drugs. Patients with symptomatic or erythematous oral lichen planus (OLP) commonly have...

  19. ORAL MELANOMA: A FATAL ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : Oral melanomas are uncommon and similar to their cutaneous counterparts, are neoplasm that developed from melanocytic cells lying in the basal layer of the mucosa, its incidence is about 1.2 cases per 10 million inhabitants per year with a variation between 0.2% to 8% of all the melanomas and 0.5% of all the malignant neoplasias of the oral cavity.1 Oral conditions with increased melanin pigmentation are common; however, melanocytic hyperplasias are rare. The relative incidence amongst mucosal neoplasms of the head and neck had been reviewed by Hormia and Vuori2, about 7253 cases of malignancies of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts between 1953-1964, five cases of oral melanoma were found with an incidence of 0.07%

  20. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  1. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Oral Health Toolkit identifies the resources and best practices to help implement a rural Mobile Dental Services ... Health Information Hub is supported by the Health Resources and ... Human Services (HHS) under Grant Number U56RH05539 (Rural Assistance ...

  2. Selaginellatamariscina attenuates metastasis via Akt pathways in oral cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crude extracts of Selaginellatamariscina, an oriental medicinal herb, have been evidenced to treat several human diseases. This study investigated the mechanisms by which Selaginellatamariscina inhibits the invasiveness of human oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC HSC-3 cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina attenuated HSC-3 cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-metastatic activities of Selaginellatamariscina occurred at least partially because of the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activity and the down-regulation of protein expression. The expression and function of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 were regulated by Selaginellatamariscina at a transcriptional level, as shown by quantitative real-time PCR and reporter assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP data further indicated that binding of the cAMP response element-binding (CREB protein and activating protein-1 (AP-1 to the MMP-2 promoter diminished at the highest dosage level of Selaginellatamariscina. The DNA-binding activity of specificity protein 1 (SP-1 to the MMP-9 promoter was also suppressed at the same concentration. Selaginellatamariscina did not affect the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, but did inhibit the effects of gelatinase by reducing the activation of serine-threonine kinase Akt. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina may be a potent adjuvant therapeutic agent in the prevention of oral cancer.

  3. Tuberculosis involving the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Kathleen A.; McCormack, David G

    1993-01-01

    The oral cavity is a rare site for extrapulmonary tuberculosis. A case is reported of a young woman with dysphagia and oral ulceration. The original mucosal biopsy was negative on smear for acid-fast bacilli, and the patient subsequently developed pulmonary symptoms. A diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was ultimately made on open lung biopsy. Complete resolution of both mouth lesion and chest involvement occurred with standard antituberculous therapy.

  4. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Satyajitraje A Tekade

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular ...

  5. Oral phenoxymethylpenicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the human teratogenic potential of oral penicillin V: phenoxymethylpenicillin treatment during pregnancy in the large population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996. The dataset included 22......, i.e. in the critical period for most major congenital abnormalities in case-matched control pairs. Thus, treatment with oral phenoxymethylpenicillin during pregnancy presents very little if any teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  6. Oral Complications of HIV Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Leao, Jair C.; Camila M. B. Ribeiro; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Cristina Frezzini; Stephen Porter

    2009-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well...

  7. ORAL CANDIDIASIS AND HIV INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Rachana Vishnudas

    2013-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dramatically illustrates the awesome transmission capabilities of disease. Oral manifestations of HIV have been important in identification of patients harboring the HIV virus and in predicting the decline in their immune system Oral candidiasis is one of the earliest premonitory signs of HIV infection and its diagnosis may have grave prognostic implications for the eventual dev...

  8. Peran 'Oral Splint' pada Bruxisme

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia Tanzil

    2013-01-01

    Oral splints have been frequently used in the treatment of bruxism to protect teeth and periodontium from damage, but the mechanism of action and efficacy of oral splints remain controversial. It has been suggested that they can be used to treat bruxism, based on the assumption that the device can eliminate or remove occlusal interference. Currently there are no reliable data to support the assumption of occlusion as an etiologic factor for bruxism, because several other factors have a role i...

  9. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself....

  10. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Shubha Gurudath; Raghavendra Mahadev Naik; Ganapathy, K.S.; Yadavalli Guruprasad; Sujatha, D; Anuradha Pai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate and compare erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, oral cancer patients, and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: E-SOD and GPx levels were estimated in OSF, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer patients with 25 subjects in each group. The results obtained were compared with the corresponding age-/sex- matched control groups. Results: Statistically sign...

  11. Inflammatory Hyperplasia of the Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarshan, Ramachandran; Vijayabala, G. Sree; Kumar, KS Prem

    2012-01-01

    Oral inflammatory hyperplasias' are the most common oral abnormalities. It manifests as diverse signs and symptoms. It may occur in any part of the oral cavity. They occur mainly due to reactive stimulus hence these lesions are called reactive hyperplasia. Distinguishing these entities and removal of etiological factors are essential. This review illustrates the various hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Anahtar Kelimeler:

  12. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

  13. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practice for Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a party's request to make an oral presentation may be denied if such a denial is appropriate and reasonable under the circumstances. An oral presentation shall...

  14. Peran 'Oral Splint' pada Bruxisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Tanzil

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral splints have been frequently used in the treatment of bruxism to protect teeth and periodontium from damage, but the mechanism of action and efficacy of oral splints remain controversial. It has been suggested that they can be used to treat bruxism, based on the assumption that the device can eliminate or remove occlusal interference. Currently there are no reliable data to support the assumption of occlusion as an etiologic factor for bruxism, because several other factors have a role in bruxism, such as psychiatric, neurological and systemic disorders. In this paper, the mechanism of action and efficacy of oral splints in bruxism are discussed. Conclusions: although oral splint may be beneficial in protecting the dentition, the efficacy of this device in reducing bruxism is still not confirmed. There are several aspects that would support the broad usage of oral splints in the treatment of bruxism, but there are also limitations associated with each of these aspects. In conclusion, oral splints can be considered as useful adjuncts in the management of sleep bruxism but not as a definitive treatment.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i1.82

  15. Oral health promotion efficiency in the control of oral biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Jorge Veiga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of oral health instructions, particularly in the control of dental plaque, as well as assess the effectiveness of the reinforcement of the same instructions. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Clinic of the Portuguese Catholic University (UCP in Viseu-Portugal from January to June 2012. Three different assessments were performed with 30 participants using the O’Leary Plaque Index and a questionnaire on oral health behavior, with a one-month interval between each assessment. In the first assessment, all participants received the same instructions of oral hygiene and the O’Leary Plaque Index registration and the application of the questionnaire were performed; in the second assessment, a new registration of the O’Leary Index was made, but only the experimental group (n=16 received the reinforcement of oral health instructions, and in the third assessment, a new registration of the O’Leary Plaque Index was made for all the individuals (n=30. Results: Both control and experimental groups showed a decrease in the O’Leary Plaque Index, but the latter showed a more significant decrease in the last assessment: 38.19% (n=16 vs. 69.57% (n=14, p <0.05. Regarding the frequency of toothbrushing, in the experimental group, 68.8% (n=11 brushed the teeth at least twice a day, while in the control group only 57.1% (n=8 performed the same frequency of toothbrushing. In this case, statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Oral health promotion through oral hygiene instruction was effective in improving oral health behaviors, and, consequentely, the control of dental biofilm. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p117

  16. Oral health as a predictive factor for oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luiz Coracin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the oral health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' oral health and inflammatory conditions were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of oral mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these oral health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  17. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas;

    2005-01-01

    general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information...

  18. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, researc...

  19. Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Takuji Tanaka; Rikako Ishigamori

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for...

  20. Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado Castellote, Laura; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathog...

  1. Benign Papules and Nodules of Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Gürel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the more common benign oral papules and nodules of oral mucosa with emphasis on their etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, and treatment. These lesions include mucocele, traumatic fibroma, epulis, pyogenic granuloma, oral papilloma, oral warts, lymphangioma, hemangioma, lipoma, oral nevi and some soft tissue benign tumors. These benign lesions must be separated clinically and histologically from precancerous and malign neoplastic lesions. Accurate clinico-pathological diagnosis is mandatory to insure appropriate therapy.

  2. Inhibition of selectin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Jon O. (Rodeo, CA); Spevak, Wayne R. (Albany, CA); Dasgupta, Falguni (New Delhi, IN); Bertozzi, Caroline (Albany, CA)

    2001-10-09

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  3. Inhibition of selectin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J.O.; Spevak, W.R.; Dasgupta, F.; Bertozzi, C.

    1999-10-05

    This invention provides a system for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10{sup 6} fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, this system can be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  4. Inhibition of selectin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Jon O. (Rodeo, CA); Spevak, Wayne R. (Albany, CA); Dasgupta, Falguni (New Delhi, IN); Bertozzi, Caroline (Albany, CA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  5. Inhibition of selectin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J.O.; Spevak, W.R.; Dasgupta, F.; Bertozzi, C.

    1999-11-16

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10{sup 6} fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  6. Inhibition of selectin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Jon O. (Rodeo, CA); Spevak, Wayne R. (Albany, CA); Dasgupta, Falguni (New Delhi, IN); Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA)

    1999-10-05

    This invention provides a system for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, this system can be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  7. [Aphthous ulcers and oral ulcerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Loïc; Samimi, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    Aphthous ulcers are painful ulcerations located on the mucous membrane, generally in the mouth, less often in the genital area. Three clinical forms of aphthous ulcers have been described: minor aphthous ulcers, herpetiform aphthous ulcers and major aphthous ulcers. Many other conditions presenting with oral bullous or vesiculous lesions orulcerations and erosions can be mistaken for aphthous ulcers. Currently, treatment of aphthous ulcers is palliative and symptomatic. Topical treatments (topical anesthetics, topical steroids and sucralfate) are the first line therapy. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is defined by the recurrence of oral aphthous ulcers at least 4 times per year. RAS is often idiopathic but can be associated with gastro-intestinal diseases (i.e. celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases), nutritional deficiencies (iron, folates…), immune disorders (HIV infection, neutropenia) and rare syndromes. Behçet's disease is a chronic, inflammatory, disease whose main clinical feature is recurrent bipolar aphthosis. Colchicine associated with topical treatments constitutes a suitable treatment of most RAS. Thalidomide is the most effective treatment of RAS but its use is limited by frequent adverse effects. Oral ulcers can be related to a wide range of conditions that constitute the differential diagnoses of aphthous ulcers. Oral ulcers are classified into three main groups: acute ulcers with abrupt onset and short duration, recurrent ulcers (mainly due to postherpetic erythema multiforme) and chronic ulcers (with slow onset and insidious progression). Acute oral ulcers are due to trauma, bacterial infections (including acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), deep fungal infection, gastro-intestinal (namely inflammatory bowel disease) or systemic diseases. Chronic oral ulcers may be drug-induced, or due to benign or malignant tumors. Every oral solitary chronic ulcer should be biopsied to rule out squamous cell carcinoma. A solitary palatal ulcer

  8. Oral contraceptives: Pt. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This discussion of oral contraceptives (OCs) presents information on the following: types of steroidal contraception OCs, injectable contraceptive agents, implants, intravaginal rings, IUD bearing steroids, male pills, intracervical devices, contraceptive bracelets, and intranasal administration of hormones); guidelines for adolescent usage (why adolescents use OCs, common medical concerns, assessment, prescribing, educating for user effectiveness, and the length of time that the adolescent can use OCs); the marketing of OCs; attitudes toward OCs; the effect of OCs on insulin requirements in diabetes; mortality among OC users; assessing new knowledge of mortality trends and OCs; beneficial and adverse effects; sexual and psychological response to OCs; chromosomal abnormalities and OCs; ectopic pregnancies and the progestogen only pill; liver tumors and OCs; cancer and OCs; eye conditions and OCs; and postpill amenorrhea and infertility. Most adolescents choose OCs as their initial contraceptive method because it is probably the only method of which they have much knowledge. Most adolescents lack the needed level of sexual maturity and sexual sophistication to pause to insert a diaphrage or to use a condom. Another attraction of OCs is reliability. At this time 12 major companies based in 8 countries (excluding China) produce and market OCs. Basically either of 2 estrogens, ethinyl estradiol and mestranol, are used in combination with about 6 different progestogens. Attitudes vary greatly and range from total acceptance to total rejection. Despite some negative views about OC, 32.2% of Australian women in childbearing years are using OCs indicating a high degree of acceptance. The new data available indicate strongly that the hazards of using OCs are somewhat greater than previously suspected. In 1977 the Royal College of General Practitioners reported a death rate from circulatory disease which was in OC users 4.7 times that of women who had never used OCs. The

  9. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  10. A Food Effect Study of an Oral Thrombin Inhibitor and Prodrug Approach To Mitigate It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihye; Kim, Bongchan; Kim, Tae Hun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Park, Hee Dong; Chung, Kyungha; Lee, Sung-Hack; Paek, Seungyup; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Yoon, SukKyoon; Kim, Aeri

    2016-04-01

    LB30870, a new direct thrombin inhibitor, showed 80% reduction in oral bioavailability in fed state. The present study aims to propose trypsin binding as a mechanism for such negative food effect and demonstrate a prodrug approach to mitigate food effect. Effect of food composition on fed state oral bioavailability of LB30870 was studied in dogs. Various prodrugs were synthesized, and their solubility, permeability, and trypsin binding affinity were measured. LB30870 and prodrugs were subject to cocrystallization with trypsin, and the X-ray structures of cocrystals were determined. Food effect was studied in dogs for selected prodrugs. Protein or lipid meal appeared to affect oral bioavailability of LB30870 in dogs more than carbohydrate meal. Blocking both carboxyl and amidine groups of LB30870 resulted in trypsin Ki values orders of magnitude higher than that of LB30870. Prodrugs belonged to either Biopharmaceutical Classification System I, II, or III. X-ray crystallography revealed that prodrugs did not bind to trypsin, but instead their hydrolysis product at the amidine blocking group formed cocrystal with trypsin. A prodrug with significantly less food effect than LB30870 was identified. Binding of prodrugs to food components such as dietary fiber appeared to counteract the positive effect brought with the prodrug approach. Further formulation research is warranted to enhance the oral bioavailability of prodrugs. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that the negative food effect of LB30870 can be attributed to trypsin binding. Trypsin binding study is proposed as a screening tool during lead optimization to minimize food effect. PMID:26886576

  11. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-10-01

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions. PMID:26632800

  12. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. PMID:27473998

  13. Oral manifestations of acute leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukaemia is the most common form of chilhood cancer. The aim of this paper was to underline the importance of oral manifestations in children with acute leukaemia. The disease and its treatment can directly or indirectly affect oral health. Oral manifestations are gingival inflammation and enlargement. Leukaemic cells are capable of infiltrating the gingiva and the deeper periodontal tissues which leads to ulceration and infection of oral tissues. Gingival bleeding is a common sign in patients with leukaemia. Symptoms include local lymphadenopathy, mucous membrane Petechiae and ecchymoses. Cytotoxic drugs have direct effects like mucositis, involving atrophy, desquamation and ulceration of the mucosa, with increasing the risk for local and systemic infections. Leukaemia can directly influence dental care and dental treatment, while oral lesions may have life-threatening consequences. Knowledge and skills among dentists may also not be adequate to treat children with acute leukaemia. It is therefore imperative that all stomatologists be aware of dental problems that occur in leukaemia in order to be able to effectively carry out appropriate measures to mitigate these problems.

  14. Oral submucous fibrosis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Shyam B Verma,2 Fareedi Mukram Ali,3 Kishor Patil4 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Nirvana Skin Clinic, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; 3Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India; 4Departments of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India Abstract: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments. Keywords: betel nut, betel quid, oral disease, squamous cell carcinoma, tobacco, fibrosis

  15. Epigenetic Disregulation in Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Staibano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region (OSCC is one of the most common and highly aggressive malignancies worldwide, despite the fact that significant results have been achieved during the last decades in its detection, prevention and treatment. Although many efforts have been made to define the molecular signatures that identify the clinical outcome of oral cancers, OSCC still lacks reliable prognostic molecular markers. Scientific evidence indicates that transition from normal epithelium to pre-malignancy, and finally to oral carcinoma, depends on the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a multistep process. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic changes are heritable and potentially reversible. The most common examples of such changes are DNA methylation, histone modification, and small non-coding RNAs. Although several epigenetic changes have been currently linked to OSCC initiation and progression, they have been only partially characterized. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that especially aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in oral cancer. The major goal of the present paper is to review the recent literature about the epigenetic modifications contribution in early and later phases of OSCC malignant transformation; in particular we point out the current evidence of epigenetic marks as novel markers for early diagnosis and prognosis as well as potential therapeutic targets in oral cancer.

  16. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Piyusha S Patil; Pallavi Pujar; Subbareddy, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above) were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group). There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene me...

  17. Integrating Pronunciation into Oral Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鑫莹

    2013-01-01

      The usefulness of pronunciation teaching is a widely debated subject in the language teaching world. Some of the current research would suggest that teachers can make little or no difference in improving their students’pronunciation. In contrast, there is research that indicates that the teacher can make a noticeable difference if certain criteria, such as the teaching of suprasegmen⁃tals and the linking of pronunciation with oral practice, are fulfilled. This paper intends to address the practical challenges related to integrating pronunciation into oral communication. First, the central difficulty in integrating pronunciation into the speaking classroom is described. Next, all-skill principles to guide the incorporation of pronunciation into oral communication courses are suggested. Finally, possible implementation strategies that can be applied to a wide variety of instructional settings are explored.

  18. Oral medicine and the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCreary, Christine

    2011-03-15

    A focus often exists in dental practice on the maintenance and management of the dentition and the periodontium, however, conditions of the oral mucosa and orofacial pain can cause significant problems for older patients. Oral mucosal conditions are more prevalent in older patients and many orofacial pain disorders, such as burning mouth syndrome and trigeminal neuralgia, are more common in patients over the age of 50 years. Although these conditions may not be routinely managed in general practice, identification of these patients in primary care and appropriate referral will lead to more prompt and effective treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dental practitioners need to be able to identify what is considered to be within the normal physiological limits of the ageing oral tissue and hence what is abnormal and requires further investigation to facilitate appropriate referral.

  19. Oncofetal fibronectins in oral carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandel, U; Gaggero, B; Reibel, J;

    1994-01-01

    -B-containing isoform and the oncofetal FN isoform derived by O-glycosylation, in oral squamous cell carcinomas, premalignant lesions, and normal oral mucosa. A selective expression of the ED-B-containing isoform was demonstrated in close relation to the invading carcinoma (38/38), whereas there was virtually no...... staining in submucosa underlying premalignant lesions (1/11) and normal epithelium (0/5). The ED-B-containing FN showed close co-distribution and staining pattern with the oncofetal isoform derived by O-glycosylation. These results demonstrate that accumulation of FN adjacent to oral carcinomas includes...... both the ED-B-containing isoform and the isoform derived by O-glycosylation. Although both the change in primary structure and glycosylation of FN create conformational and immunologically detectable changes, the functional consequences in association with invasive carcinoma are poorly understood at...

  20. Precipitants of oral cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Raveendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancers are malignant neoplasms that affect the mouth. Oral cancer remains a major personal tragedy and public health problem. There is a very high incidence of oral cancer in Southern Asia. In India, the oral cavity is the most common site for cancer. The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas are related to tobacco, areca nut / betel quid chewing, alcoholism. Control of oral potentially malignant diseases will only be achieved by effective and comprehensive primary and secondary prevention by recognizing that the risk factors are common to most other diseases.

  1. Oral complications of HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair C. Leao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS.

  2. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadoon Nivia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  3. The Impending Oral Health Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L

    2016-04-01

    Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities. PMID:27348951

  4. Teaching Strategies for Oral Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang dongyang

    2004-01-01

    Owing to the lack of language environment, communicating in English is often regarded as one of the most difficult aspects of English learning. On the basis of considering the aims of conversation course, this paper attempts to analyze the roles of the teacher and students in class and puts forward some teaching strategies, which help students gain oral communicative competence effectively.

  5. Oral Health and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults maintaing good oral health habits. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/27/2008.

  6. Oral Assessment in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an oral assessment technique that has been used for over 20 years at the Centre of Maritime Studies and Engineering in the Faroe Islands. The technique has proven less laborious for the examiners and the students agree that this technique not only assesses their surface...

  7. Partial oral treatment of endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper; Høst, Nis; Bruun, Niels Eske;

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines for the treatment of left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) recommend 4 to 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics in clinically stabilized patients could reduce the side effects associated with intravenous treatment and shorten the length of...

  8. Transtracheal ventilation in oral surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, R M

    1983-01-01

    The use of transtracheal ventilation as a routine method of ventilation during anaesthesia for 60 patients with gross pathology requiring oral surgery is reported. Theoretical hazards of the technique and protection of the airway are discussed. There were no serious complications in this series. The technique is recommended as a simple and safe alternative to blind nasal intubation.

  9. ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

  10. Voces subalternas e historia oral

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Archila Neira

    2005-01-01

    El artículo busca relacionar los desarrollos de la historia social con los métodosligados a la historia oral, siempre pensando en el contexto latinoamericano ycolombiano. Para ello, se hace un recuento de la trayectoria historiográfica que vade la histori

  11. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  12. Oral Assessment in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an oral assessment technique that has been used for over 20 years at the Centre of Maritime Studies and Engineering in the Faroe Islands. The technique has proven less laborious for the examiners and the students agree that this technique not only assesses their surface...... learning, as written examination often does, but digs deeper into their understanding of the subject area....

  13. Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…

  14. Current management of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Ord

    2008-01-01

    @@ This presentation will summarize some of the current areas of interest in the management of oral cancer. The presentation will be divided into a brief review of epidemiology and diagnosis, with a more extensive discussion regarding the controversial areas in surgery and a review of the adjuvant roles of radiation and chemotherapy.

  15. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Medications > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  16. 4 Myths about Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging 4 Myths About Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table ... of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR). Tooth Decay Myth: Only school kids get cavities. Fact: Tooth decay ...

  17. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  18. Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chronic pain, loss of function, irreparable facial and oral disfigurement following surgery and even death. More than 8,000 people die each year from oral and pharyngeal diseases. If you use tobacco, it ...

  19. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Hashemi Pour

    2006-01-01

    Oral malignant melanoma is a rare disease. The common sites of its occurrence are the palate and gingiva with the maxillary arch being affected 80% of the time. Because of their presence at relatively obscure areas in the oral cavity, most of the malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are diagnosed at a late stage. These lesions are associated with poor prognosis. The dental clinician must therefore carefully examine the head, neck, and oral cavity, and any pigmented lesion that may ex...

  20. Inflammatory Hyperplasia of the Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran Sudarshan; G. Sree Vijayabala; KS Prem Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Oral inflammatory hyperplasias’ are the most common oral abnormalities. It manifests as diverse signs and symptoms. It may occur in any part of the oral cavity. They occur mainly due to reactive stimulus hence these lesions are called reactive hyperplasia. Distinguishing these entities and removal of etiological factors are essential. This review illustrates the various hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Anahtar Kelimeler: [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(4.000): 299-307

  1. Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relati...

  2. Tumor suppressor genes in oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak Gourish Naik; Prakruti Adhyaru; Ajit Gudigenavar

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high and is associated with many deaths. Several risk factors for the development of oral cancer are now well known, including smoking, drinking and consumption of smokeless tobacco products. Genetic predisposition to oral cancer has been found in certain cases but its components are not yet entirely clear. A number of genomic lesions accompany the transformation into oral cancer and a wealth of related results has appeared in recent literature. Tumor supp...

  3. Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient

    OpenAIRE

    Grandim Balarama Gupta Vinit; Perumal Jayavelu; Santhebachali Prakasha Shrutha

    2013-01-01

    Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immedi...

  4. Oral epithelium in diabetics: A cytomorphometric correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Nandita, K. P; Karen Boaz; Srikant, N.; Lewis, Amitha J; Nidhi Manaktala

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The study aims to establish an etiological association between diabetes and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity by cytomorphometric analysis of the oral epithelium. Study Design: Smears were obtained from three distinct oral sites - buccal mucosa, dorsum of the tongue and the floor of the mouth in ten controls and ten patients previously diagnosed with type II diabetes. The oral smears were stained with Papanicolaou SA-36 solution. An eye - piece graticule was used to obtain t...

  5. Molecular concept in human oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U. S.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in...

  6. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  7. Autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques for oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramaniam, A. Murali; Sriraman, Rajkumari; Sindhuja, P; Mohideen, Khadijah; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Muhamed Haris, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid...

  8. Assessment of relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Lalani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.

  9. Restrictions in oral functions caused by oral manifestations of epidermolysis bullosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingsma, Cornelis; Dijkstra, Pieter; Dijkstra, Janke; Duipmans, Jose C.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Dekker, Rienk

    2011-01-01

    Several forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) present oral manifestations. Blistering of the (peri) oral mucosa affects the opening of the mouth, the mobility of the tongue and lips, thereby restricting oral functions. We describe the prevalence and characteristics of oral manifestations of EB in rela

  10. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis.

  11. CLASSIFYING NODULAR LESIONS OF ORAL CAVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Bhateja

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of many lesions of the oral cavity is challenging to most cliniciansbecause of their uncommon prevalence. A number of cystic, osteodystrophic,microbial, tumor and tumor like lesions of the oral cavity are present withcharacteristic exophytic/raised surface; which makes their diagnosis and studysimpler. The present article is attempted at classifying the common nodular lesions ofthe oral cavity.

  12. Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI), an oral proficiency test used by government agencies to assess general speaking proficiency in a second language. The SOPI is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts. It begins with simple, personal…

  13. Oral Biofilm Architecture on Natural Teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijnge, Vincent; van Leeuwen, M. Barbara M.; Degener, John E.; Abbas, Frank; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmuer, Rudolf; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Juuti, Jarmo T.; François, Patrice; AlMajidi, Rana; Pietiäinen, Milla; Girard, Myriam; Lindholm, Catharina; Saller, Manfred J.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Kuusela, Pentti; Bokarewa, Maria; Schrenzel, Jacques; Kontinen, Vesa P.; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Periodontitis and caries are infectious diseases of the oral cavity in which oral biofilms play a causative role. Moreover, oral biofilms are widely studied as model systems for bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and biofilm resistance to antibiotics, due to their widespread presence and acces

  14. 40 CFR 798.2650 - Oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2650 Oral toxicity. (a) Purpose. In... testing. The subchronic oral study has been designed to permit the determination of the no-observed-effect... experimental animals to a chemical by the oral route for a part (approximately 10 percent) of a life span....

  15. 36 CFR 251.97 - Oral presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and other..., emphasize, and/or clarify information related to an appeal. Oral presentations are to be conducted in...

  16. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  17. Healthy People 2010: Oral Health Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…

  18. Oral metastases: report of 24 cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, van der RI; Buter, J.; Waal, van der I.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study patients with oral metastatic tumours for the distribution of sex and age, the oral site and histopathological type of the metastasis, the primary tumour site and length of follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who had an oral metastasis diagnosed during the period January 1970

  19. Effects of nutrition on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G A Agbelusi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition represents a summation of intake, absorption, storage and utilization of foods by the tissues. Oral tissues are one of the most sensitive indicators of nutritional state of the body. Nutritional deficiencies are associated with changes in the integrity (health and appearance of the oral structures/ tissues and these changes are frequently the first clinical signs of deficiency. Nutrition affects oral health and oral health affects nutrition. The effects of malnutrition can be seen in the oral structures in all stages of human growth and development from conception to old age. The consequence of certain oral diseases may compromise the nutrition by affecting the intake and mastication particularly in some vulnerable groups like people with severe caries, severe oral ulceration, advanced periodontal disease and the resulting edentulousness. The HIV pandemic has added another dimension to the issue of nutrition and oral health. Oral lesions are some of the earliest lesions seen in HIV/AIDS and 90% of HIV/AIDS patients will have oral lesions at a point in the course of the disease. These oral lesions are painful; disturb food intake and mastication thereby further compromising the nutrition of the affected individuals. In Africa, particularly the Sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of poverty, economic downturn and the HIV pandemic have added another dimension to the issue of food availability and nutrition. Malnutrition is a real problem in this area. This paper will examine the effects of compromised nutrition on oral health and the reverse.

  20. Oral manifestations of syphilis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Soares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is an infectious disease presenting stages associated with specific oral lesions. Therefore, health professionals should be familiar with the different syphilis oral manifestations at each stage and be prepared to refer any suspected patient for further evaluation. This report describes the most important clinical factors of each stage, emphasizing the oral manifestations.

  1. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Firriolo, Francis John; Tanaka, Takako Imai;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the current scope and status of Oral Medicine-specific software (OMSS) utilized to support clinical care, research, and education in Oral Medicine and to propose a strategy for broader implementation of OMSS within the global Oral Medicine community. STUDY DESIGN: An invitat...

  2. DNA-binding residues and binding mode prediction with binding-mechanism concerned models

    OpenAIRE

    Oyang Yen-Jen; Liu Yu-Cheng; Huang Chun-Chin; Huang Yu-Feng; Huang Chien-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Protein-DNA interactions are essential for fundamental biological activities including DNA transcription, replication, packaging, repair and rearrangement. Proteins interacting with DNA can be classified into two categories of binding mechanisms - sequence-specific and non-specific binding. Protein-DNA specific binding provides a mechanism to recognize correct nucleotide base pairs for sequence-specific identification. Protein-DNA non-specific binding shows sequence indepe...

  3. Carboplatin binding to histidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray crystal structure showing the binding of purely carboplatin to histidine in a model protein has finally been obtained. This required extensive crystallization trials and various novel crystal structure analyses. Carboplatin is a second-generation platinum anticancer agent used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Previous X-ray crystallographic studies of carboplatin binding to histidine (in hen egg-white lysozyme; HEWL) showed the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin owing to the high NaCl concentration used in the crystallization conditions. HEWL co-crystallizations with carboplatin in NaBr conditions have now been carried out to confirm whether carboplatin converts to the bromine form and whether this takes place in a similar way to the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin observed previously in NaCl conditions. Here, it is reported that a partial chemical transformation takes place but to a transplatin form. Thus, to attempt to resolve purely carboplatin binding at histidine, this study utilized co-crystallization of HEWL with carboplatin without NaCl to eliminate the partial chemical conversion of carboplatin. Tetragonal HEWL crystals co-crystallized with carboplatin were successfully obtained in four different conditions, each at a different pH value. The structural results obtained show carboplatin bound to either one or both of the N atoms of His15 of HEWL, and this particular variation was dependent on the concentration of anions in the crystallization mixture and the elapsed time, as well as the pH used. The structural details of the bound carboplatin molecule also differed between them. Overall, the most detailed crystal structure showed the majority of the carboplatin atoms bound to the platinum centre; however, the four-carbon ring structure of the cyclobutanedicarboxylate moiety (CBDC) remained elusive. The potential impact of the results for the administration of carboplatin as an anticancer agent are described

  4. Carboplatin binding to histidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanley, Simon W. M. [University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Diederichs, Kay [University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J. [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Levy, Colin [University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom); Schreurs, Antoine M. M. [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Helliwell, John R., E-mail: john.helliwell@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-29

    An X-ray crystal structure showing the binding of purely carboplatin to histidine in a model protein has finally been obtained. This required extensive crystallization trials and various novel crystal structure analyses. Carboplatin is a second-generation platinum anticancer agent used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Previous X-ray crystallographic studies of carboplatin binding to histidine (in hen egg-white lysozyme; HEWL) showed the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin owing to the high NaCl concentration used in the crystallization conditions. HEWL co-crystallizations with carboplatin in NaBr conditions have now been carried out to confirm whether carboplatin converts to the bromine form and whether this takes place in a similar way to the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin observed previously in NaCl conditions. Here, it is reported that a partial chemical transformation takes place but to a transplatin form. Thus, to attempt to resolve purely carboplatin binding at histidine, this study utilized co-crystallization of HEWL with carboplatin without NaCl to eliminate the partial chemical conversion of carboplatin. Tetragonal HEWL crystals co-crystallized with carboplatin were successfully obtained in four different conditions, each at a different pH value. The structural results obtained show carboplatin bound to either one or both of the N atoms of His15 of HEWL, and this particular variation was dependent on the concentration of anions in the crystallization mixture and the elapsed time, as well as the pH used. The structural details of the bound carboplatin molecule also differed between them. Overall, the most detailed crystal structure showed the majority of the carboplatin atoms bound to the platinum centre; however, the four-carbon ring structure of the cyclobutanedicarboxylate moiety (CBDC) remained elusive. The potential impact of the results for the administration of carboplatin as an anticancer agent are described.

  5. Primary oral leishmaniasis mimicking oral cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, A; Ruoppo, E; Mansueto, G; Mignogna, M D

    2015-04-01

    Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it. PMID:25701438

  6. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Gurudath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate and compare erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, oral cancer patients, and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: E-SOD and GPx levels were estimated in OSF, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer patients with 25 subjects in each group. The results obtained were compared with the corresponding age-/sex- matched control groups. Results: Statistically significant ( P 0.05. Oral cancer group had the lowest levels amongst the study groups. Conclusion: Imbalance in antioxidant enzyme status may be considered as one of the factors responsible for the pathogenesis of cancer and may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target to reduce the malignant transformation in oral premalignant lesions/conditions.

  7. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity. PMID:10518916

  8. Assessment of relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Afsheen Lalani; Pralhad L Dasar; Sandesh, N.; Prashant Mishra; Sandeep Kumar; Swati Balsaraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: The behavior of oral health providers toward their own oral health reflects their understanding of the importance of preventive dental procedures and of improving the oral health of their target population. Aim: This study was done with an aim to assess the relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of third and final year dental students from a Dental College in Indore City, India. Methods: A total of 137 dental students participated in th...

  9. Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Rui; Mi, Yong; Xu, Quanhong; Wu, Fang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Xue, Peng; Xiao, Gao; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yinhua; Yang, Wenbing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addre...

  10. Collagen binding to Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staphylococcus aureus can bind soluble collagen in a specific, saturable manner. We have previously shown that some variability exists in the degree of collagen binding between different strains of heat-killed, formaldehyde-fixed S. aureus which are commercially available as immunologic reagents. The present study demonstrates that live S. aureus of the Cowan 1 strain binds amounts of collagen per organism equivalent to those demonstrated previously in heat-killed, formaldehyde-fixed bacteria but has an affinity over 100 times greater, with Kd values of 9.7 X 10(-11) M and 4.3 X 10(-8) M for live and heat-killed organisms, respectively. Studies were also carried out with S. aureus killed by ionizing radiation, since this method of killing the organism seemed less likely to alter the binding moieties on the surface than did heat killing. Bacteria killed by exposure to gamma radiation bound collagen in a manner essentially indistinguishable from that of live organisms. Binding of collagen to irradiated cells of the Cowan 1 strain was rapid, with equilibrium reached by 30 min at 22 degrees C, and was fully reversible. The binding was not inhibited by fibronectin, fibrinogen, C1q, or immunoglobulin G, suggesting a binding site for collagen distinct from those for these proteins. Collagen binding was virtually eliminated in trypsin-treated organisms, indicating that the binding site has a protein component. Of four strains examined, Cowan 1 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 showed saturable, specific binding, while strains Woods and S4 showed a complete lack of binding. These results suggest that some strains of S. aureus contain high-affinity binding sites for collagen. While the number of binding sites per bacterium varied sixfold in the two collagen-binding strains, the apparent affinity was similar

  11. Multiple metastatic tumors in the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Beena; Swagatika Panda; Heera, R.; Rajeev, R.

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic lesions to the oral region are uncommon and account for approximately 1% of all malignant oral tumors. In 25% of the cases, oral metastases are found to be the first sign of the metastatic spread; and in 23% of the cases, it is the first indication of an undiscovered malignancy at a distant site. Metastases to oral soft tissues are even less frequent than jaw bones. Because of its rarity, the clinical presentation of a metastatic lesion in the oral cavity can be deceiving, leading ...

  12. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials. Herein, the focus is on oral bacteria and the oral biofilm, or dental plaque, which is a sticky layer of bacteria that forms on the teeth. Oral bacteria can be divided into good and bad bacteria, ...

  13. Manifestation of psoriasis in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz

    2016-03-01

    Despite the common prevalence of cutaneous psoriasis, the existence of manifestations in the oral cavity is subject to controversy. In this article, dermatologic psoriasis is reviewed, and a patient with generalized, symptomatic oral mucosal erythema resembling atrophic candidiasis synchronous with flare of chronic skin psoriasis is described. Diagnostic work up and therapeutic response supported that these mucosal findings were the oral counterpart of cutaneous disease. Dental providers should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of oral psoriasis, institute appropriate preventive measures, and provide palliation directed at symptomatic oral changes of psoriasis. PMID:26665263

  14. Melanin binding radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined the biodistribution an uptake by the Greene melanoma in the Syrian golden hamster with 21 radiopharmaceuticals. Maximum % uptake and the time at which this occurred are listed. It is essential to know maximum tumor to background ration and the time after injection that this occurs to determine suitability for tumor scanning. The importance of species variation deserves mention. Detection of eye melanoma in humans was quite variable whereas in hamsters it was quite easy to obtain a positive scan with a single pinhole. We then looked at brain uptake in man and found it (the brain scan) to be significant. In addition, we found a high uptake by the lung, something not found in hamsters but not entirely unsuspected of a amine, such as 123I-4,3DMQ. Finally, our clinical experience has shown us some of the vagaries of melanoma-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. This reflects the complexity of melanin and melanin-binding and points out the necessity for a more detailed analysis of the mechanisms involved in melanin binding radionuclides

  15. Strains of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces viscosus Exhibit Structurally Variant Fimbrial Subunit Proteins and Bind to Different Peptide Motifs in Salivary Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tong; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hay, Donald I.; Strömberg, Nicklas

    1999-01-01

    Oral strains of Actinomyces spp. express type 1 fimbriae, which are composed of major FimP subunits, and bind preferentially to salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (APRPs) or to statherin. We have mapped genetic differences in the fimP subunit genes and the peptide recognition motifs within the host proteins associated with these differential binding specificities. The fimP genes were amplified by PCR from Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 19246, with preferential binding to statherin, and from Act...

  16. Fatty acid solubilizer from the oral disk of the blowfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ishida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blowflies are economic pests of the wool industry and potential vectors for epidemics. The establishment of a pesticide-free, environmentally friendly blowfly control strategy is necessary. Blowflies must feed on meat in order to initiate the cascade of events that are involved in reproduction including juvenile hormone synthesis, vitellogenesis, and mating. During feeding blowflies regurgitate salivary lipase, which may play a role in releasing fatty acids from triglycerides that are found in food. However, long-chain fatty acids show low solubility in aqueous solutions. In order to solubilize and ingest the released hydrophobic fatty acids, the blowflies must use a solubilizer. METHODOLOGY: We applied native PAGE, Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and RT-PCR to characterize a protein that accumulated in the oral disk of the black blowfly, Phormia regina. In situ hybridization was carried out to localize the expression at the cellular level. A fluorescence competitive binding assay was used to identify potential ligands of this protein. CONCLUSION: A protein newly identified from P. regina (PregOBP56a belonged to the classic odorant-binding protein (OBP family. This gene was expressed in a cluster of cells that was localized between pseudotracheae on the oral disk, which are not accessory cells of the taste peg chemosensory sensilla that normally synthesize OBPs. At pH 7 and pH 6, PregOBP56a bound palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, that are mainly found in chicken meat. The binding affinity of PregOBP56a decreased at pH 5. We propose that PregOBP56a is a protein that solubilizes fatty acids during feeding and subsequently helps to deliver the fatty acids to the midgut where it may help in the process of reproduction. As such, PregOBP56a is a potential molecular target for controlling the blowfly.

  17. Characteristics of benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Xia Li; Shi-Feng Yu; Kai-Hua Sun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathological characteristics and carcinogenesis mechanism of benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa (BLOM).METHODS: The expressions of Ki-67, CD34 and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemical SP staining in 64 paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Of them, 9 were from BLOM with dysplasia, 15 from BLOM without dysplasia,15 from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 15 from oral precancerosis, and 10 from normal tissues. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis of tissue samples were also analyzed.RESULTS: The expression of Ki-67 in BLOM with dysplasia,oral precancerosis and OSCC was significantly higher than in BLOM without dysplasia and normal mucosa. The microvascular density (MVD) in BLOM with and without dysplasia, oral precancerosis, and OSCC was significantly higher than in normal mucosa. Apoptosis in BLOM and oral precancerosis was significantly higher than in OSCC and normal mucosa.CONCLUSION: Benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa has potentialities of cancerization.

  18. Diabetes mellitus and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Radhika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal secretion and metabolic action of insulin. Hyperglycemia, the key feature of this endocrine disorder causes multisystem damage leading to untoward effects in various tissues collectively referred to as "Diabetic complications". Diabetes alters the oral health to a great extent. Indeed, periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of this disease. This article gives an overview of the oral effects of diabetes with an emphasis on periodontal disease and its relationship with cardiovascular disorders and pre-term birth. Dental considerations for management of these patients and recent advances in the dental field with respect to diabetes are also highlighted.

  19. Flies blown disease - Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis, a term first introduced by Hope (1840, refers to the invasion of tissues and organs of animals and human wounds and certain body cavities by the dipteran larvae which manifests as subcutaneous furunculoid or boillike lesions. Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and a risk to the patient′s life. Higher incidence is seen in rural areas affecting the tropical and sub-tropical zones of Africa and America. Myiasis affecting the oro-dental complex is rare. Here is a case report of oral myiasis in an 18-year-old male patient who is mentally challenged with anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and periodontal disease. The lesion was treated with turpentine oil, which forced larvae out and irrigated with normal saline solution. Follow-up examination revealed complete remission and healing of the lesion.

  20. Sentinel Node in Oral Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartaglione, Girolamo; Stoeckli, Sandro J; de Bree, Remco;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Nuclear imaging plays a crucial role in lymphatic mapping of oral cancer. This evaluation represents a subanalysis of the original multicenter SENT trial data set, involving 434 patients with T1-T2, N0, and M0 oral squamous cell carcinoma. The impact of acquisition techniques, tracer...... injection timing relative to surgery, and causes of false-negative rate were assessed. METHODS: Three to 24 hours before surgery, all patients received a dose of Tc-nanocolloid (10-175 MBq), followed by lymphoscintigraphy. According to institutional protocols, all patients underwent preoperative dynamic...... with SPECT/CT. A shorter interval between tracer injection, imaging, and surgery resulted in a lower false-negative rate. At least 2 NLs have to be harvested, as this may increase the detection of lymphatic metastases....

  1. [Direct oral anticoagulant associated bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godier, A; Martin, A-C; Rosencher, N; Susen, S

    2016-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are recommended for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, they are associated with hemorrhagic complications. Management of DOAC-induced bleeding remains challenging. Activated or non-activated prothrombin concentrates are proposed, although their efficacy to reverse DOAC is uncertain. Therapeutic options also include antidotes: idarucizumab, antidote for dabigatran, has been approved for use whereas andexanet alpha, antidote for anti-Xa agents, and aripazine, antidote for all DOAC, are under development. Other options include hemodialysis for the treatment of dabigatran-associated bleeding and administration of oral charcoal if recent DOAC ingestion. DOAC plasma concentration measurement is necessary to guide DOAC reversal. We propose an update on DOAC-associated bleeding, integrating the availability of dabigatran antidote and the critical place of DOAC concentration measurements. PMID:27297642

  2. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol here. Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  3. Hamartomas of the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali

    2015-01-01

    The majority of oral diseases present as growths and masses of varied cellular origin. Such masses may include simple hyperplasia, hamartoma, choristoma, teratoma, benign or malignant neoplasms. The distinguishing features of hamartomatous lesions are not certain, and often these non-neoplastic masses are indiscreetly denoted as neoplasms without weighing their pathology or biological behaviour. Essentially, understanding the dynamics of each of these disease processes forms an integral part ...

  4. Oral health and obesity indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östberg Anna-Lena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In western Sweden, the aim was to study the associations between oral health variables and total and central adiposity, respectively, and to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors (SES, lifestyle, dental anxiety and co-morbidity. Methods The subjects constituted a randomised sample from the 1992 data collection in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden (n = 999, 38- > =78 yrs. The study comprised a clinical and radiographic examination, together with a self-administered questionnaire. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI > =30 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio (WHR > =0.80, and waist circumference >0.88 m. Associations were estimated using logistic regression including adjustments for possible confounders. Results The mean BMI value was 25.96 kg/m2, the mean WHR 0.83, and the mean waist circumference 0.83 m. The number of teeth, the number of restored teeth, xerostomia, dental visiting habits and self-perceived health were associated with both total and central adiposity, independent of age and SES. For instance, there were statistically significant associations between a small number of teeth ( Conclusions Associations were found between oral health and obesity. The choice of obesity measure in oral health studies should be carefully considered.

  5. Chimeric plant virus particles administered nasally or orally induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brennan, F.R.; Bellaby, T.; Helliwell, S.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The humoral immune responses to the D2 peptide of fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBP) of Staphylococcus aureus, expressed on the plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), were evaluated after mucosal delivery to mice. Intranasal immunization of these chimeric virus particles (CVPs), either alone or...... of CVPs to generate antibody at distant mucosal sites. IgG2a and TgG2b were the dominant IgG subclasses in sera to both CPMV and FnBP, demonstrating a bias in the response toward the T helper 1 type. The sera completely inhibited the binding of human fibronectin to the S. aureus FnBP. Oral...

  6. Competitive ligand - binding assay for thyroxine binding globulin. Comparison with TBG radioimmunoassay and T3 uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and reproducible competitive ligand binding assay has been utilized to measure serum TBG concentration. In euthyroid subjects TBG concentration (mean +- SD, mg/l) was 33.7 +- 4; hyperthyroid 24 -+ 6; T3-thyrotoxicosis 20 +- 7; hypothyroid 37 -+ 7; pregnant 67 -+ 18; post-partum period 59.8 -+ 17; oral contraceptives 45 -+ 7. The correlation of CLBA with RIA measurement of TBG was significant (p3 uptake test (p4: TBG ratio according to serum T4 and TBG concentration provided a reliable index in the assessment of thyroid function

  7. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Adhesin Unique to Oral Fusobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yiping W.; Ikegami, Akihiko; Rajanna, Chythanya; Kawsar, Hameem I.; Zhou, Yun; Li, Mei; Sojar, Hakimuddin T.; Genco, Robert J.; Kuramitsu, Howard K.; Deng, Cheri X.

    2005-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is a gram-negative anaerobe that is prevalent in periodontal disease and infections of different parts of the body. The organism has remarkable adherence properties, binding to partners ranging from eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells to extracellular macromolecules. Understanding its adherence is important for understanding the pathogenesis of F. nucleatum. In this study, a novel adhesin, FadA (Fusobacterium adhesin A), was demonstrated to bind to the surface proteins of the oral mucosal KB cells. FadA is composed of 129 amino acid (aa) residues, including an 18-aa signal peptide, with calculated molecular masses of 13.6 kDa for the intact form and 12.6 kDa for the secreted form. It is highly conserved among F. nucleatum, Fusobacterium periodonticum, and Fusobacterium simiae, the three most closely related oral species, but is absent in the nonoral species, including Fusobacterium gonidiaformans, Fusobacterium mortiferum, Fusobacterium naviforme, Fusobacterium russii, and Fusobacterium ulcerans. In addition to FadA, F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 and ATCC 49256 also encode two paralogues, FN1529 and FNV2159, each sharing 31% identity with FadA. A double-crossover fadA deletion mutant, F. nucleatum 12230-US1, was constructed by utilizing a novel sonoporation procedure. The mutant had a slightly slower growth rate, yet its binding to KB and Chinese hamster ovarian cells was reduced by 70 to 80% compared to that of the wild type, indicating that FadA plays an important role in fusobacterial colonization in the host. Furthermore, due to its uniqueness to oral Fusobacterium species, fadA may be used as a marker to detect orally related fusobacteria. F. nucleatum isolated from other parts of the body may originate from the oral cavity. PMID:16030227

  8. Effect of starch and amylase on the expression of amylase-binding protein A in Streptococcus gordonii

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitkova, A.E.; Haase, E.M.; Scannapieco, F A

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii is a common oral commensal bacterial species in tooth biofilm (dental plaque) and specifically binds to salivary amylase through the surface exposed amylase-binding protein A (AbpA). When S. gordonii cells are pretreated with amylase, amylase bound to AbpA facilitates growth with starch as a primary nutrition source. The goal of this study was to explore possible regulatory effects of starch, starch metabolites and amylase on the expression of S. gordonii AbpA. An amyla...

  9. The Application of Cooperation Principle and Politeness Principle in Oral Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石洁

    2014-01-01

    The pragmatic principle that people should comply with in communicative activities are the principles of cooperation and politeness principle. The principles of cooperation play a regulatory role in communication while politeness principle actually has a greater binding. In teaching, teachers should always teach basing on language and make students understand the Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle in pragmatics in order to improve oral communication skills.

  10. Quarkonium Binding and Entropic Force

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    A Q-Qbar bound state represents a balance between repulsive kinetic and attractive potential energy. In a hot quark-gluon plasma, the interaction potential experiences medium effects. Color screening modifies the attractive binding force between the quarks, while the increase of entropy with Q-Qbar separation gives rise to a growing repulsion. We study the role of these phenomena for in-medium Q-Qbar binding and dissociation. It is found that the relevant potential for Q-Qbar binding is the free energy F; with increasing Q-Qbar separation, further binding through the internal energy U is compensated by repulsive entropic effects.

  11. Oral cancer knowledge among Turkish dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Misirlioglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the level of oral cancer awareness and knowledge among patients referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology in Central Anatolia. Settings and Design: The study was conducted with 1,125 patients who applied to the school of dentistry for routine dental examinations. The authors collect information with a 20-item written questionnaire from the participants about oral cancer risk factors, epidemiology, etiology, and signs and symptoms. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics of demographic variables and other data were reported as means and percentages. Statistical analysis was performed by means of SPSS +11.0 statistical package. Results: Overall, only 48.9% of all patients showed awareness of oral cancer, with awareness especially poor among lower socioeconomic groups. Awareness of oral cancer risk factors and signs and symptoms did not vary significantly between men and women (P > 0.5; however, older participants (aged 40-64 years were more familiar with oral cancer signs than younger participants. More than half of all participants (56.8% were unaware of the common clinical presentations of oral cancer. Conclusions: The results of this survey showed knowledge regarding oral cancer to be quite low. Thus, educational programs are needed to increase public awareness about oral cancer, and dentists should request patients undergo examinations for oral cancer to ensure early detection.

  12. Benzo (a) pyrene induced tumorigenesity of human immortalized oral epithelial cells: transcription profiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-zhong; PAN Hong-ya; ZHENG Jia-wei; ZHOU Xiao-jian; ZHANG Ping; CHEN Wan-tao; ZHANG Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to examine and analyze the global gene expression changes during the tumorigenesis of a human immortalized oral epithelial cell line, and search for the possible genes that may play a role in the carcinogenesis of oral cancer associated with benzo (a) pyrene.Methods The human immortalized oral epithelial cells, which have been established through transfection of E6/E7 genasof human papillomavirus type 16 and proved to be non-tumorigenic in nude mice, were treated with benzo (a) pyrene.Tumorigenesity of the treated cells were examined through nude mice subcutaneous injection. The global gene expression profiles of immortalized cells and the tumorigenic cells were acquired through hybridization of a microarray of Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0. The data were analyzed using Spring 7.0 software and treated statistically using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The differentially expressed genes were classified using a Venn diagram and annotated with gene ontology. Several highlighted genes were validated in cells using a real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results There were 883 differentially expressed genes during the tumorigenesis and most of them changed expression in the early stage of tumorigenesis. These genes mainly involved in macromolecule metabolism and signal transduction,possessed the molecular function of transition metal ion binding, nucleotide binding and kinase activity; their protein products were mainly integral to membranes or localized in the nucleus and cytoskeleton. The expression patterns of IGFBP3, S100A8, MAP2K, KRT6B, GDF15, MET were validated in cells using a real-time polymerase chain reaction; the expression of IGFBP3 was further validated in clinical oral cancer specimens.Concluslona This study provides the global transcription profiling associated with the tumorigenesis of oral epithelial cells exposed to benzo (a) pyrene; IGFBP3 may play a potential role in the initiation of oral cancer related to

  13. Alcohol Binding to the Odorant Binding Protein LUSH: Multiple Factors Affecting Binding Affinities

    OpenAIRE

    Ader, Lauren; Jones, David N. M.; Lin, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Density function theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out to investigate the binding of alcohols to the odorant binding protein LUSH from Drosophila melanogaster. LUSH is one of the few proteins known to bind to ethanol at physiologically relevant concentrations and where high-resolution structural information is available for the protein bound to alcohol at these concentrations. The structures of the LUSH–alcohol complexes identify a set of specific hydrogen-bonding interactions as cr...

  14. Efficacy and safety of metformin or oral contraceptives, or both in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang YM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Young-Mo Yang, Eun Joo Choi College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an endocrinopathy that affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women throughout their lives. Women with PCOS present with heterogeneous symptoms including ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Therefore, lifelong individualized management should be considered. Pharmacological agents commonly used to manage the symptoms are metformin and oral contraceptive pills. Although these medications have been beneficial in treating PCOS symptoms, their efficacy and safety are still not entirely elucidated. This study aimed to report the efficacy and safety of metformin, oral contraceptives, or their combination in the treatment of PCOS and to define their specific individual roles.Methods: A literature search of original studies published in PubMed and Scopus was conducted to identify studies comparing metformin with oral contraceptives or evaluating the combination of both in PCOS.  Results: Eight clinical trials involving 313 patients were examined in the review. The intervention dosage of metformin ranged from 1,000 to 2,000 mg/d and that of oral contraceptives was ethinylestradiol 35 µg and cyproterone acetate 2 mg. Lower body mass index was observed with regimens including metformin, but increased body mass index was observed in monotherapy with oral contraceptives. Administration of metformin or oral contraceptives, especially as monotherapy, had a negative effect on lipid profiles. In addition, there are still uncertainties surrounding the effects of metformin or oral contraceptives in the management of insulin level, although they improved total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. In the included studies, significant side effects due to metformin or oral contraceptives were not reported.  Conclusion: The clinical trials suggest that metformin or oral

  15. [Oral microbiota: a promising predictor of human oral and systemic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era. PMID:27051943

  16. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyusha S Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group. There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene methods individually and in combination. The children were then reassessed for oral malodor 2 h later. The results were analyzed and compared. Results: Both individual oral hygiene measure or in combination of tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing; all were effective in reducing oral malodor. Significant reduction (P < 0.05 in oral malodor was seen when all three oral hygiene measures performed together. Conclusion: Oral malodor was significantly reduced after performing oral hygiene measures individually, but reduced more when used in combination.

  17. Malnutrition and its oral outcome - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheetal, Aparna; Hiremath, Vinay Kumar; Patil, Anand G; Sajjansetty, Sangmeshwar; Kumar, Sheetal R

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition affects the oral health and a poor oral health in turn, may lead to malnutrition. This interdependent relationship sees good nutritional health, thus promoting good oral health and vice versa. Malnutrition may alter the homeostasis, which can lead to disease progression of the oral cavity, reduce the resistance to the microbial biofilm and reduce the capacity of tissue healing. It may even affect the development of the oral cavity. Protein-energy malnutrition occurs when there is a deficiency of protein, energy foods or both, which are relative to a body's need. Studies have suggested that enamel hypoplasia, salivary gland hypofunction and saliva compositional changes may be the mechanisms through which the malnutrition is associated with caries, while an altered eruption timing may create a challenge in the analysis of the age specific caries rates. This paper gives an insight on the relationship of the malnutrition and the protein-energy malnutrition with the oral health status. PMID:23449967

  18. Effective Oral English Activities for ESL Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波

    2014-01-01

    Oral English has always been a major problem for Chinese Eng-lish as Second Language (ESL) students. In fact, most Chinese students do not practice oral English very often, while their reading and writing abilities have gained rapid progress. However, language is a system that includes both words and sounds for communicative use, neither of which can be neglected. While there are hundred forms of classroom activities, the usage of most effective o-ral activities has become a serious issue that an ESL teacher should focuses on. The review is based on research results on effective oral ESL activities. The research results on the factors should be considered when selecting/plan-ning oral activities and applying oral activities ESL classes.

  19. ORAL LICHEN PLANUS AND ORAL LICHENOID REACTION--AN UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotim, Zeljko; Bolanca, Zeljana; Rogulj, Ana Andabak; Andabak, Matej; Boras, Vanja Vucićević; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-12-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) are clinically and histopathologically similar diseases. Whereas OLP is a consequence of T cell mediated autoinflammatory process to a still unknown antigen, OLR might be caused by drugs, dental restorative materials and dental plaque. Pubmed was searched and 24 publications published over the last three years regarding etiology, diagnosis and malignant alteration were included in this study. Patients with OLR who have amalgam fillings near lesions should have them replaced, i.e. when possible they should be referred to patch test, as well as when drug-induced OLR are suspected. OLR lesions induced by drugs should disappear when the offending drug has been discontinued. Histology finding in OLR consists of more eosinophils, plasma cells and granulocytes in comparison to OLP lesions. Furthermore, OLP lesions showed more p53, bcl-2 and COX-2 positivity when compared to OLR. OLP is characterized by infiltration, atrophic epithelium, rete pegs and Max Joseph spaces, while deep infiltration into connective tissue and hyperkeratosis were the criteria for making the diagnosis of OLR. The number of degranulated mastocytes in the reticular layer, as well as the number of capillaries was higher in OLR in comparison to OLP. It seems that OLR are more prone to malignant alteration in comparison to OLP. PMID:27017728

  20. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    1998-06-01

    We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.

  1. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between 25 June and 28 September. The exact dates will be decided according to the preferences of the students.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  2. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between August 19 and October 4.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch.

  3. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol through the following link https://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1576796470009589::::X_STATUS,XS_COURSE_NAME,XS_PROGRAMME,XS_SUBCATEGORY,X_COURSE_ID,XS_LANGUAGE,XS_SESSION:D,,1,,4368,B, Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  4. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer from 20 August to 29 September.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  5. Kelly, Doug oral history interview

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Kelly, Doug; Interviewer: Capota, Oana; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Doug Kelly has worked a variety of jobs with the City of New Westminster, from a labourer, to a clerk, to a meter reader, and even the manager of the City Market. He describes the Market in detail, and also lists various businesses that used to occupy Columbia Street. Doug feels that the changes to the New Westminster waterfront are bringing new life to the area. This interview was conducted in conjunction with Hist451: Oral History Practicum taught at Simon Fraser University during Spring...

  6. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut. PMID:26617227

  7. Oral metastasis of chondroblastic osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Dumpala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant mesenchymal tumor, accounting for approximately 20% of sarcomas, with 5% incidence in the jaws. They present various clinical and histological aspects as well as variable disease prognosis and outcome. About 50% of all osteosarcomas are osteoblastic, 25% fibroblastic, 25% chondroblastic. Metastasis of osteosarcoma in the oral cavity is rare, and very few cases have been described so far in the literature. This article presents a metastatic case of chondroblastic osteosarcoma in the mandibular right-attached gingiva arising from 4 th rib. This case report further suggests that chondroblastic osteosarcoma has poor prognosis.

  8. Surgical navigation in oral implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert J; Bier, Jurgen

    2006-03-01

    The ability to generate 3-dimensional volumetric images of the maxillofacial area has allowed surgeons to evaluate anatomy before surgery and plan for the placement of implants in ideal positions. However, the ability to transfer that information to surgical reality has been the most challenging part of implant dentistry. With the advent of computer-assisted surgery, the surgeon may now navigate through the entire implant procedure with extremely high accuracy. A new portable laptop navigated system for oral implantology is discussed as an adjunct for complex implant cases. PMID:16569960

  9. [Oral therapy of erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummer, H

    2000-01-01

    Erectile disfunction (E. D.) is more common in older men but may affect younger men too. Diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease and hypertension are often associated with E. D. The majority of the patients are treated medically for erectile dysfunction and, recently, oral therapy has become most important since Viagra has been approved. New phosphodiesterase blockers are in preclinical evaluation since then. Phentolamine and apomorphine will become available soon for the treatment of E. D. It is important to know about the etiology of E. D. as well as the mechanisms by which drugs may improve erection in order to decide which drug is appropriate for a particular patient. PMID:10746289

  10. Oral infections and systemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Andersen, Lone;

    2003-01-01

    An association between periodontal infection and CVD has been revealed in some epidemiologic studies, whereas other studies were unable to demonstrate such an association. A link between the two diseases may be explained by shared established or nonestablished risk factors. Future studies with...... extended control of confounding factors and intervention studies may add to the understanding of a possible relationship between the diseases. In some cases, IE is caused by dental plaque bacteria. Several studies are suggestive of oral bacteria causing respiratory infection. The pathogenesis and course of...

  11. Oral health promotion at worksites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1989-01-01

    utilization of services and less restraint from fee payment structures and physical environments. The immediate benefit to the employees is easy access to dental services. In addition, work-related dental hazards can be compensated for or prevented and screening activities can be more easily organized. The...... literature is at present sparse and there are few guidelines to actual strategies for effective oral health promotion. However, elements of strategies that have been successful in various geographical and economic environments include: active involvement of the work force, the use of dental auxiliaries...

  12. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehby George L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P, on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study

  13. Communicative Testing of Oral Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利波

    2005-01-01

    The advent of the theory of communicative competence raised new issues for language teaching and testing. The importance of communicative ability is emphasized in language teaching. Therefore test that could reflect a student's communicative competence need to be constructed. Communicative testing is such a potentially effective approach.This paper is concerned with the theoretical basis of communicative testing, its distinguishing features and the construction of oral proficiency tests, so as to demonstrate how the theory of communicative testing is built into practical tests.

  14. Oral benign fibrous histiocytoma: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Menditti, Dardo; Laino, Luigi; Mezzogiorno, Antonio; Sava, Sara; Bianchi, Alexander; Caruso, Giovanni; Di Maio, Luigi; Baldi, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Fibrous histiocytoma is a benign soft tissue tumour arising as a fibrous mass everywhere in the human body. The involvement of the oral cavity is rare. We report two cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma that localized in the oral cavity. The clinical and histological features of the lesion are reported. Finally, a literature revision of this pathology at the level of the oral cavity is reported.

  15. Age and the architecture of oral mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Eid, Rasha; Sawair, Faleh; Landini, Gabriel; Saku, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Age changes affect the oral mucosa (the protective lining of the oral cavity), but few of these have been studied objectively. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyse a number of morphometric parameters of the ageing oral mucosa. The fractal dimension of the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI) was estimated in 42 samples of normal buccal mucosa to correlate any changes in their irregularity to the age of the individuals. Morphometric parameters extracted from theoretical...

  16. Oral Fluid Replacement in Severe Dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Z Nowroozi; M Sheykh Salimi; R Baradaran; N Sirazi Majd; SJ Sharifi

    1990-01-01

    In order to compare the therapeutic effect of oral versus intravenous fluid replacement, 903 pediatric patients aged 1 to 24 months with diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration were randomly selected and treated in 12 hospitals over the country. 482 patients were treated orally and 421 intravenously. Oral rehydration fluid consisted of 2 different isotonic solutions: A. "Rehydration solution" contained 40 mmol/l Na and 20 mmol/l K. this solution was administration in a quantity of 40 ml/k...

  17. Oral Candida infections--a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake L; Nair R

    1995-01-01

    Candida species are the commonest agents of oral mycoses. They cause a variety of diseases including the new variant, erythematous candidosis, which is frequently described in HIV infection. Due to these and other reasons the classification of oral candidosis has been recently revised, and further more new therapeutic regimes have been described. Hence in this article an overview of oral Candida infections is presented with special emphasis on current concepts related to classification and tr...

  18. Oral Skills Testing: A Rhetorical Task Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaraton, Anne; Riggenbach, Heidi

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the development, implementation, and evaluation of a semi-direct test of oral proficiency: the Rhetorical Task Examination (RTE). Many of the commonly used speaking instruments assess oral proficiency in terms of either discrete linguistic components-fluency, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary-or in terms of a single, global ability rating. The RTE proposes a compromise approach to rating oral skills by having two scales: one which ascertains the functional ability to...

  19. Pathogenesis and treatment of oral candidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, David; Lewis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Oral infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida and particularly Candida albicans (oral candidoses) have been recognised throughout recorded history. However, since the 1980s a clear surge of interest and associated research into these infections have occurred. This has largely been due to an increased incidence of oral candidosis over this period, primarily because of the escalation in HIV-infection and the AIDS epidemic. In addition, changes in medical practice leading to a greater use...

  20. A BRIEF REVIEW ON ORAL FILM TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ritu; Kammili Lavanya; Senthil V; Rathi Varun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current review is to enlighten present and future perspective on oral film drug delivery system. Now-a-days we observe paediatric and geriatric patients facing the problem of dysphasia due to administration of monolithic solid dosage forms, which are also seen in the case of fast dissolving tablets considering the size of the tablets. Hence oral film drug delivery is proved to be better alternative in such cases. The oral films are formulated using polymers, plasticizers, f...

  1. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by me...

  2. Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo

    OpenAIRE

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

    2011-01-01

    The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the ...

  3. Oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankari Leena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of certain dipteran flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. Herein, a case of oral myiasis in the maxillary anterior region of a 14-year-old mentally challenged boy is being reported. The myiasis was caused by the larvae of Chrysomya bezziana species. The clinical findings are presented. Etiology and the importance of oral health in special people are also discussed.

  4. Oral health in children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Dejan; Perić Tamara; Sovtić Aleksandar; Minić Predrag; Petrović Vanja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. It has been suggested that asthmatic patients may have a higher risk for oral diseases, both as a result of the medical condition and effects of medications. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the oral health status of children with asthma and to evaluate the oral health parameters according to the medications and severity of the disease. Methods. The study group consisted of 158 children with asthma and 100 healthy control subje...

  5. Oral cancer or periimplantitis: A clinical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sudhir; Rattan, Vidya; Panda, Naresh; Vaiphei, Kim; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to draw attention to a periimplantitis-like clinical presentation of oral malignancy around dental implants, a phenomenon that may develop without any associated risk factors for oral cancer. Such a benign appearance of oral malignancy may lead to delay in the diagnosis and initiation of ensuing treatment. Therefore, chronic nonhealing inflammatory lesions around dental implants should be considered as highly suspicious. PMID:26803178

  6. Oral cancer knowledge among Turkish dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Melda Misirlioglu; Rana Nalcaci; Selmi Yilmaz Yardimci; Mehmet Zahit Adisen

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine the level of oral cancer awareness and knowledge among patients referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology in Central Anatolia. Settings and Design: The study was conducted with 1,125 patients who applied to the school of dentistry for routine dental examinations. The authors collect information with a 20-item written questionnaire from the participants about oral cancer risk factors, epidemiology, etiology, and signs and symptoms. Statistical Analysis: ...

  7. ORAL CAVITY: A MIRROR TO HIV MANIFESTATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Harpreet Singh Grover; Amit Bhardwaj; Prateek Gupta

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of oral lesions have been described in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a major interest and concern to dentists and other health care workers because of the many varieties of oral lesions often associated with Human immunodeficiency virus infection. Individual’s tested seropositive for Human immunodeficiency virus infections are more susceptible to occurrence of lesions in oral cavity. This review covers the cli...

  8. ARE DIABETICS VICTIMS OF ORAL CANCER?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a serious condition with potentially devastating complications that affects the body as a whole including the oral cavity. Although DM is a global problem affecting millions of people both in the developed & the developing world, very little has been studied regarding its association with oral cancer. But recently few studies have shown a possible correlation between diabetes and oral pre malignancies. There have been studies that stated an association between po...

  9. GROUP ORAL PRESENTATION IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION B

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Nguyen, NGUYEN

    2015-01-01

    Oral presentations are becoming more and more important in language learning process, especially in the university environment. In Business Communication B course at Kanazawa Institute of Technology (KIT), students also have a chance learn how to do group oral presentation on some business-related topics and this is one of the most important parts in the assessment process of Business Communication B course. In this paper, a review of the literature will illustrate how this oral activity coul...

  10. Oral Health in South Australia - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, David S; Spencer, John; Beckwith, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Oral health in South Australia 2008 provides a comprehensive summary of the oral health of South Australian residents. This publication was developed from a range of surveys conducted by the Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health (ARCPOH) and administrative data provided by state dental services. Information provided in this publication includes data on caries experience and periodontal diseases of children and adults, tooth retention and loss among adults, access to denta...

  11. Novel antiplatelet agent ticagrelor%新型抗血小板药替卡格雷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美; 刘梅林

    2012-01-01

    Ticagrelor is the first reversible binding, direct-acting, oral adenosine diphosphate P2Y12 receptor antagonist that has a more rapid onset and more pronounced platelet inhibition than clopidogrel. On Jul 20, 2011 , the U. S. Food and Drug Administration approved ticagrelor to reduce the rate of thrombotic cardiovascular e-vents in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Ticagrelor gave a greater reduction in the death rate from cardiovascular, myocardial infarction, or stroke than clopidogrel. No significant difference in the rate of major bleeding was found between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups. After any initial dose, use with aspirin 75 ~ 100 mg·d-1. This article reviews the pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy and adverse events of ticagrelor.%替卡格雷为第一个可逆结合的、直接起效的、口服给药的血小板二磷酸腺苷P2Y12受体拮抗剂,比氯吡格雷起效更快,对血小板凝集的抑制作用更强.2011年7月20日,美国FDA批准替卡格雷用于降低急性冠脉综合征(acute coronary syndrome,ACS)患者的血栓性心血管事件的发生率.与氯吡格雷相比,替卡格雷起效更快,对血小板聚集的抑制作用更强,能显著降低心血管死亡、心肌梗死或卒中的发生率.在有效治疗的同时,替卡格雷并未显著增加主要出血事件的发生率.联合用药时,阿司匹林的维持剂量应为75 ~ 100 mg·d -1.本文对替卡格雷药理学特性、临床价值及不良反应进行综述.

  12. Oral surgery in patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, Nagi M; Shum, Jonathan W; Kessel, Ivan L; Eid, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Oral health care in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy can be complex. Care delivered by a multidisciplinary approach is timely and streamlines the allocation of resources to provide prompt care and to attain favorable outcomes. A hospital dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and a maxillofacial prosthodontist must be involved early to prevent avoidable oral complications. Prevention and thorough preparation are vital before the start of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oral complications must be addressed immediately and, even with the best management, can cause delays and interruption in treatment, with serious consequences for the outcome and prognosis. PMID:24794266

  13. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Press Releases Advertising Rate Cards Third Molar Research News April is National Facial Protection Month Raise Oral Cancer Awareness About AAOMS Board of Trustees Governing Rules & Regulations ...

  14. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762

  15. Hansen's Oral Life Histories and Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Lee

    2013-08-01

    The individual oral statement is human story based on experience. The personal experience forms unconsciousness which appears in a form of oral statement by ego that doesn't want to lose existence. Thus, the process which exposes a tormented hearts is the objectification of oneself. Through this step, oral person attains a healing. If this sort of individual oral is accrued, the undeserved personal affairs could be a history. In case of Hansen's disease patient, She could escape from negative understanding about herself and the world. Furthermore, She kept formating her values about meaningful life and future oriented value. Also, She wants to keep a record of her life. She comes to know that what she denied is actually what she should surmount over oral statement. As a result, She could attains a healing for oneself through oral statement. The oral statement made her look into she's problems. Therefore, oral statement is a self-realization. Through this, person could know what the problem is and solution. This research is about only one person, so there is need for more cases and studies. If this sort of individual oral statement is accrued, there could be a curative narration. This can suggest an curative alternative when we suffer from problem of life. The merit of this research is rendering this possibility. PMID:24005645

  16. Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  17. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  18. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lakshman Samaranayake

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast.

  19. ORAL CAVITY: A MIRROR TO HIV MANIFESTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of oral lesions have been described in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a major interest and concern to dentists and other health care workers because of the many varieties of oral lesions often associated with Human immunodeficiency virus infection. Individual’s tested seropositive for Human immunodeficiency virus infections are more susceptible to occurrence of lesions in oral cavity. This review covers the clinical and therapeutics aspects of Human immunodeficiency virus associated oral diseases. Data was collected from detailed search through research and review articles of scientific journals and magazines as well as through Pubmed and National medical library database.

  20. Interleukin-37 expression and its potential role in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Lin; Jiayi Wang; Dongjuan Liu; Sai Liu; Hao Xu; Ning Ji; Min Zhou; Xin Zeng; Dunfang Zhang; Jing Li; Qianming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) has been reported to play a significant role in innate immune response and to be involved in several kinds of cancers. However, the investigation of association between IL-37 and oral mucosa carcinogenesis hasn't been clearly established. The aim of the study was to assess IL-37 expression and explore its role in oral mucosa carcinogenesis. The expression of IL-37 increased from normal control (NC) to Oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreo...

  1. Evaluation of Podoplanin in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Patil; Kishor Patil; Suyog Tupsakhare; Mahesh Gabhane; Shrikant Sonune; Shilpa Kandalgaonkar

    2015-01-01

    Background. Recent studies have demonstrated that podoplanin was expressed in some dysplastic lesions adjacent to primary oral cancers suggesting that podoplanin expression may occur in early oral tumorigenesis and lymphangiogenesis and therefore is related to tumor growth. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of podoplanin as a biomarker for cancer risk assessment in oral leukoplakia and correlation of podoplanin expression with grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Ma...

  2. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    D Santhosh Reddy; Sivapathasundharam, B; T R Saraswathi; Sriram, G

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were stud...

  3. Prophylactic bundle for radiation-induced oral mucositis in oral or oropharyngeal cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita Y; Hayashida S; Funahara M; Umeda M; Saito T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In order to prevent and treat radiation-induced adverse events, especially oral mucositis, in patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, a prophylactic bundle, i.e., a set of oral care management procedures, is conducted and assessed. Subjects and methods: The subjects were 30 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx who underwent radiotherapy. The patients received the prophylactic bundle to prevent radiati...

  4. A 6-Week Oral Toxicity Study of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Yeong-Ok; Choi, Seuk-Keun; Shin, Seo-Ho; Koo, Kyo-Hwan; Choi, Ho-Young; Cha, Seung-Bum; Li, Yong-Chun; Yoo, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Joo-Young; Kil, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Min-Soo; Kang, Boo-Hyun; Kim, Kap-Ho; Bae, Jin-Sook

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the toxicity and target organs of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) after repeated oral administration in Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 weeks (3 administrations, once every 2 weeks). OCV is an inactivated oral cholera vaccine that contains Vibrio cholerae and confers protection against cholera caused by V. cholera serogroups O1 (Inaba and Ogawa serotypes) and O139 (strain 4260B). The animals were orally administered either OCV placebo (negative control) or OC...

  5. Oxidative stress in oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwala, A H; Krishna, M C; Mitchell, J B

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), are components of normal cellular metabolism and are required for intracellular processes as varied as proliferation, signal transduction, and apoptosis. In the situation of chronic oxidative stress, however, ROS contribute to various pathophysiologies and are involved in multiple stages of carcinogenesis. In head and neck cancers specifically, many common risk factors contribute to carcinogenesis via ROS-based mechanisms, including tobacco, areca quid, alcohol, and viruses. Given their widespread influence on the process of carcinogenesis, ROS and their related pathways are attractive targets for intervention. The effects of radiation therapy, a central component of treatment for nearly all head and neck cancers, can also be altered via interfering with oxidative pathways. These pathways are also relevant to the development of many benign oral diseases. In this review, we outline how ROS contribute to pathophysiology with a focus toward head and neck cancers and benign oral diseases, describing potential targets and pathways for intervention that exploit the role of oxidative species in these pathologic processes. PMID:25417961

  6. Halitosis: An oral microbial faction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is a widespread condition and believed to affect one-quarter of the population around the world; also, most people have this condition from time to time. Breath malodour may be an important factor in social communication, and therefore may be the origin of concern not only for a possible health condition but also for frequent psychological alterations, leading to social and personal isolation. The most conspicuous malodorous compounds are termed volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs, with hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulphide accounting for roughly 90% of the VSCs. A number of oral bacteria, especially Gram-negative anaerobic species found in the subgingival plaque, produce a diverse array of malodorous compounds as byproducts of their metabolism, including VSCs and short-chain organic acids. Assessment and management of halitosis is of paramount importance in enhancing the overall health; moreover, dentists play a significant role in combating halitosis by reducing the oral microbial stack. Thus, the aim of the present review was to describe the aetiological factors, assessment tools, and therapeutic approaches related to halitosis.

  7. Ageing, dementia and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, P

    2015-03-01

    Neurocognitive decline and delirium, frailty, incontinence, falls, hearing and vision impairment, medication compliance and pharmacokinetics, skin breakdown, impaired sleep and rest are regarded as geriatric giants by gerontologists, geriatricians and nursing home staff. As these are all interrelated in the elderly, failure to act on one can impact on the others. However, the implications of poor oral health have for too long been ignored and deserve equal status. Mouth pain can be devastating for the elderly, compound psychosocial problems, frustrate carers and nursing home staff and disrupt family dynamics. As appearance, function and comfort suffer, so may a person's self-esteem and confidence. The contributing factors for poor oral health such as rapid dental decay, acute and chronic periodontal infections and compromised systemic health on a background of a dry mouth, coupled with xerostomia-inducing medications, reduced fine motor function, declining cognition and motivation will not only lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality but also impact on quality of life. PMID:25762045

  8. Oral voriconazole and miconazole oral gel produce comparable effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of etoricoxib

    OpenAIRE

    Hynninen, Ville V.; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Laine, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The effect of topical miconazole oral gel and systemic oral voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of oral etoricoxib was studied in 12 healthy volunteers. Methods Plasma concentrations of etoricoxib, miconazole, voriconazole, and thromboxane B2 generation were followed after ingestion of 60 mg eto...

  9. 42 CFR 8.27 - Opportunity for oral presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity for oral presentation. 8.27 Section 8... Opportunity for oral presentation. (a) Electing oral presentation. If an opportunity for an oral presentation... the decisionmaking process will be substantially aided by oral presentations and arguments....

  10. Proteomic signatures of human oral epithelial cells in HIV-infected subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yohannes

    Full Text Available The oral epithelium, the most abundant structural tissue lining the oral mucosa, is an important line of defense against infectious microorganisms. HIV infected subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART are susceptible to comorbid viral, bacterial and fungal infections in the oral cavity. To provide an assessment of the molecular alterations of oral epithelia potentially associated with susceptibility to comorbid infections in such subjects, we performed various proteomic studies on over twenty HIV infected and healthy subjects. In a discovery phase two Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE analyses of human oral gingival epithelial cell (HOEC lysates were carried out; this identified 61 differentially expressed proteins between HIV-infected on HAART subjects and healthy controls. Down regulated proteins in HIV-infected subjects include proteins associated with maintenance of protein folding and pro- and anti-inflammatory responses (e.g., heat-shock proteins, Cryab, Calr, IL-1RA, and Galectin-3-binding protein as well as proteins involved in redox homeostasis and detoxification (e.g., Gstp1, Prdx1, and Ero1. Up regulated proteins include: protein disulfide isomerases, proteins whose expression is negatively regulated by Hsp90 (e.g., Ndrg1, and proteins that maintain cellular integrity (e.g., Vimentin. In a verification phase, proteins identified in the protein profiling experiments and those inferred from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were analyzed using Western blotting analysis on separate HOEC lysate samples, confirming many of the discovery findings. Additionally in HIV-infected patient samples Heat Shock Factor 1 is down regulated, which explains the reduced heat shock responses, while activation of the MAPK signal transduction cascade is observed. Overall, HAART therapy provides an incomplete immune recovery of the oral epithelial cells of the oral cavity for HIV-infected subjects, and the toxic side effects of

  11. Over-expression of 14-3-3zeta is an early event in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional and clinical significance of 14-3-3 proteins in human cancers remain largely undetermined. Earlier, we have reported differential expression of 14-3-3ζ mRNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by differential display. The clinical relevance of 14-3-3ζ protein in oral tumorigenesis was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin embedded sections of oral pre-malignant lesions (OPLs), OSCCs and histologically normal oral tissues and corroborated by Western Blotting. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were carried out to determine its association with NFκB, β-catenin and Bcl-2. Intense immunostaining of 14-3-3ζ protein was observed in 61/89 (69%) OPLs and 95/120 (79%) OSCCs. Immunohistochemistry showed significant increase in expression of 14-3-3ζ protein from normal mucosa to OPLs to OSCCs (ptrend < 0.001). Significant increase in expression of 14-3-3ζ protein was observed as early as in hyperplasia (p = 0.009), with further elevation in moderate and severe dysplasia, that was sustained in OSCCs. These findings were validated by Western blotting. Using Co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that 14-3-3ζ protein binds to NFκB, β-catenin and Bcl-2, suggesting its involvement in cellular signaling, leading to proliferation of oral cancer cells. Our findings suggest that over-expression of 14-3-3ζ is an early event in oral tumorigenesis and may have an important role in its development and progression. Thus, 14-3-3ζ may serve as an important molecular target for designing novel therapy for oral cancer

  12. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Refugio Gonzalez-Losa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%. In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.

  13. Aftas de la mucosa oral Aphthae of the oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rioboo Crespo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: El afta es la lesión vesiculosa por antonomasia. Es difícil definir un afta verdadera ya que siempre se han llamado aftas a ulceraciones y erosiones de muy diverso origen. Este monográfico revisa la bibliografía más reciente acerca de la etiopatogenia, diagnóstico y tratamiento de éstas lesiones. Material y métodos: Se han revisado los estudios publicados desde 2000 hasta el 2008 mediante Pub-Med. Resultados: Las aftas se definen como un estado vesículo-ulceroso sobre una base eritematosa y fondo amarillento y pasan por una serie de periodos. La etiología aún sigue siendo desconocida. Se le atribuye una causa multifactorial y la literatura cuenta con numerosos estudios que sugieren por un lado, una posible base genética y por otro, la existencia de unos factores predisponentes como el trauma, el estrés, determinados alimentos, desequilibrio hormonal y tabaco; se habla incluso de otros posibles factores predisponentes como la actuación de virus o bacterias, deficiencias vitamínicas y factores inmunológicos. Existen tres formas clínicas de aparición que iremos describiendo tales como las aftas menores, aftas mayores y estomatitis aftosa herpetiforme además de una serie de síndromes que cursan con aparición de aftas a nivel oral y que por ello se denominan síndromes aftosos. El desconocimiento de la etiología y la naturaleza cíclica del proceso complican el tratamiento. Se han sugerido numerosas y diversas terapias contando con una amplia literatura al respecto pero con resultados inconsistentes. El tratamiento debe ser diseñado de forma individual y sintomática y persigue unos objetivos principales: acortar el proceso, evitar recidivas y disminuir los síntomas y tamaño de las úlceras durante el brote.Background: Aphthae is a common oral disorder whose definition is difficult due to the general denomination of several ulcerations and erosions as aphthae. The aim of this monographic is to go through the

  14. [3]tetrahydrotrazodone binding. Association with serotonin binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High (17 nM) and low (603 nM) affinity binding sites for [3]tetrahydrotrazodone ([3] THT), a biologically active analogue of trazodone, have been identified in rat brain membranes. The substrate specificity, concentration, and subcellular and regional distributions of these sites suggest that they may represent a component of the serotonin transmitter system. Pharmacological analysis of [3]THT binding, coupled with brain lesion and drug treatment experiments, revealed that, unlike other antidepressants, [3] THT does not attach to either a biogenic amine transporter or serotonin binding sites. Rather, it would appear that [3]THT may be an antagonist ligand for the serotonin binding site. This probe may prove of value in defining the mechanism of action of trazodone and in further characterizing serotonin receptors

  15. Oral Delivery of Protein Drugs Bioencapsulated in Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Daniell, Henry

    2016-08-01

    Plants cells are now approved by the FDA for cost-effective production of protein drugs (PDs) in large-scale current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) hydroponic growth facilities. In lyophilized plant cells, PDs are stable at ambient temperature for several years, maintaining their folding and efficacy. Upon oral delivery, PDs bioencapsulated in plant cells are protected in the stomach from acids and enzymes but are subsequently released into the gut lumen by microbes that digest the plant cell wall. The large mucosal area of the human intestine offers an ideal system for oral drug delivery. When tags (receptor-binding proteins or cell-penetrating peptides) are fused to PDs, they efficiently cross the intestinal epithelium and are delivered to the circulatory or immune system. Unique tags to deliver PDs to human immune or nonimmune cells have been developed recently. After crossing the epithelium, ubiquitous proteases cleave off tags at engineered sites. PDs are also delivered to the brain or retina by crossing the blood-brain or retinal barriers. This review highlights recent advances in PD delivery to treat Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, hypertension, Gaucher's or ocular diseases, as well as the development of affordable drugs by eliminating prohibitively expensive purification, cold chain and sterile delivery. PMID:27378236

  16. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effec...

  17. Impact of Hydrodynamics on Oral Biofilm Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, E.; Kalmykowa, O. J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Sharma, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of S

  18. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  19. 7 CFR 2901.3 - Oral presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture... presentation. Any person seeking an adjustment under this part 2901 shall be given an opportunity to make an oral presentation of data, views and arguments in support of the request for an adjustment,...

  20. A Contextualized Approach to Describing Oral Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    Studies learners' second-language (L2) oral proficiency, incorporating an interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. Results show that the nature of the L2 oral construct is not constant. The article concludes that proficiency researchers should use dimensions empirically derived according to the specific elicitation task and audience. (53…

  1. Spezifische orale Toleranzinduktion bei Nahrungsmittelallergie im Kindesalter

    OpenAIRE

    Brewe, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy in childhood are a widespread problem and injures the quality of life. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) seems to be a promising treatmend of food allergy. Specific oral tolerance induction and elimination diet were compared with respect to efficacy rate and patterns of clinical reaction.

  2. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  3. Oral rehabilitation and management of mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today's world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  4. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia: Relevance in Oral Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Sarangarajan, R; Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Sivadas, G; Krishnaraj, R.; Sarangarajan, Anuradha; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH), a neglected entity by oral pathologist possesses utmost importance in the field of research. Of all the investigative challenges, PEH, a reactive epithelial proliferation is seen secondary to lesions with infectious, inflammatory, reactive, and degenerative origin. Small sized samples, incomplete excision, improper orientation, and dense inflammatory changes render diagnostic confront to the oral pathologist in exclusion of frankly invasive malignant l...

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells in oral reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C; Sørensen, J A; Kassem, M;

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical outcomes following intraoperative use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various oral reconstructive procedures. PubMed was searched without language restrictions from 2000 to 2011 using the search words stem cell, oral surgery, tissue engineering, sinus lift...

  6. Precancerous Lesions of the Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Gürbüz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review of oral precancerous lesions, leukoplakia, erythroleukoplakia/erythroplakia and the least common variant proliferative verrucous leukoplakia will be focused with their clinical characteristics and their potential to develop oral squamous cell carcinoma and related factors will be discussed.

  7. Radiography of oral cavity disorders [dentistry, stomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic examination in odonto-stomatology can he made easier by using intra-oral dental films and a dental X-ray machine. Parallel and bissecting angle techniques allow X-ray pictures to be taken with intra-and extra-oral films. Radiography provides information for diagnosis but it also allows the evaluation of dental treatments

  8. Application of Laser in Oral Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Zadsirjan, Saeede

    2014-01-01

    In this review collected from the literature on usage of laser in oral minor surgery based on a Medline search in the time period between the years: 2008 and 2013, the most current evidence on laser-assisted oral minor surgery is going to be surveyed.

  9. Oral contraception in Denmark 1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nadia M; Laursen, Maja; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated.......Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated....

  10. Introduction of Japanese Society of Oral Implantology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayoshi Kawazoe

    2009-01-01

    @@ In response to the significant advancement oforal implantology around the world, the JapaneseSociety of Oral Implantology (JSOI) was established in 1972. Its purpose is to promote and improve oral implantology in Japan, and introducesafe and predictable implant treatment methods.

  11. Hibernoma de cavidad oral. Una entidad infrecuente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Torres Gómez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El hibernoma es un tumor adiposo benigno que morfológicamente rememora la grasa fetal. Su presencia a nivel oral es excepcional. Presentamos un caso de hibernoma de cavidad oral, revisamos la entidad y mostramos los distintos diagnósticos diferenciales.

  12. Even small interventions can improve oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Lina; Carberry, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    When resources are scarce, authors of articles appearing in health publications have questioned the effectiveness of traditional interventions as a means of improving oral health. The experience in Delicias, Honduras, indicates that the principles of BPOC (Basic Package of Oral Care) may provide quicker and better results. PMID:24027899

  13. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; Miclăuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; Băbţan, Anida Maria; Mesaros, Anca; Crişan, Bogdan; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2016-02-01

    Oral human papillomavirus infection is rare in children, but the presence of a villous lesion with slow but continuous growth concerns parents, who need information and therapeutic solutions from the physician. All these aspects are discussed based on a case report of a 9-year-old child with an oral human papillomavirus infection. PMID:26588443

  14. Cryotherapy for oral precancers and cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan-Hang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have used cryotherapy for the treatment of oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cryotherapy is a method that locally destroys lesional tissues by freezing in situ. It can be carried out by either an "open" or a "closed" system. Lesional tissues are destroyed mainly through disruption of cell membrane, cellular dehydration, enzyme and protein damage, cell swelling and rupture, thermal shock injury to cells, damage to vasculature, and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. Cryotherapy is used frequently for the treatment of OL lesions with promising results. It can also be used to treat OVH and OVC lesions. Because OVH and OVC lesions are usually fungating and bulky, a combination therapy of shave excision and cryotherapy is needed to achieve a complete regression of the lesion. OSCCs have also been treated by cryotherapy. However, cryotherapy is not the main-stream treatment modality for OSCCs. Cryotherapy seems suitable for treatment of thin or relatively thick plaque-typed lesions such as OL lesions. By careful selection of patients, cryotherapy is a simple, safe, easy, conservative, and acceptable treatment modality for certain benign oral lesions and oral precancers. PMID:24560447

  15. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administrati...

  16. Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

  17. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi;

    2005-01-01

    high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral...... preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet...

  18. Oral delivery of proteins: progress and prognostication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rakhi B; Ahsan, Fakhrul; Khan, Mansoor A

    2002-01-01

    The delivery of proteins has gained momentum with the development of biotechnology sector that provided large-scale availability of therapeutic proteins. The availability is mostly due to the advances in recombinant DNA technology. The low oral bioavailability, however, continues to be a problem for several proteins because of their large molecular size, low permeation through biological membranes, and susceptibility to molecular changes in both biological and physical environments. The demand for effective delivery of proteins by the oral route has brought a tremendous thrust in recent years both in the scope and complexity of drug delivery technology. The important therapeutic proteins and peptides being explored for oral delivery include insulin, calcitonin, interferons, human growth hormone, glucagons, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, enkephalins, vaccines, enzymes, hormone analogs, and enzyme inhibitors. This article reviews the progress in oral delivery of these proteins, provides comments on the strategies to improve their oral bioavailability, and highlights their current market trends. PMID:12197608

  19. Islamic fasting and oral health and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Javadzadeh Blouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is a religious obligation, which can be challenging for individuals with oral conditions due to its stringent code of conduct. Moreover, food abstinence during fasting can restrict oral feeding even further in patients whose nutrition has been already compromised. Previous research has mainly concentrated on oral hygiene and gum health, disregarding orodental conditions and diseases. This highlights the importance of further research in this regard. In this paper, we intended to clarify the correlation between fasting and oral injections, bleeding following tooth extraction, and brushing to overcome common misconceptions which indicate the breach of religious disciplines under such circumstances. We also aimed to determine the grave effects of fasting on health in case of severe immunological deficiencies, chronic oral ulcers and certain drug administration protocols for those with rigid religious beliefs.

  20. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Jagadish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is a rare disease. The common sites of its occurrence are the palate and gingiva with the maxillary arch being affected 80% of the time. Because of their presence at relatively obscure areas in the oral cavity, most of the malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are diagnosed at a late stage. These lesions are associated with poor prognosis. The dental clinician must therefore carefully examine the head, neck, and oral cavity, and any pigmented lesion that may exhibit growth potential must be biopsied. This article describes a case of malignant melanoma that was present in the oral cavity and briefly reviews the relevant literature that explains the nature of this lesion.

  1. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  2. 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer Patient Health Information News ... particular strain of HPV. 66% of the time, oral cancers will be found as late stage three and ...

  3. Chapter Oral Health Advocates: A Nationwide Model for Pediatrician Peer Education and Advocacy about Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Barone, Lauren; Quinonez, Rocio B; Boulter, Suzanne; Mouradian, Wendy E

    2013-01-01

    Objective. (1) To describe an innovative program training US pediatricians to be Chapter Oral Health Advocates (COHAs). (2) To provide insight into COHAs' experiences disseminating oral health knowledge to fellow pediatricians. Patients and Methods. Interviews with 40 COHAs who responded to an email request, from a total of 64 (62% response). Transcripts were analyzed for common themes about COHA activities, facilitators, and barriers. Results. COHAs reported positive experiences at the AAP oral health training program. A subset of academic COHAs focused on legislative activity and another on resident education about oral health. Residents had an easier time adopting oral health activities while practicing pediatricians cited time constraints. COHAs provided insights into policy, barriers, and facilitators for incorporating oral health into practice. Conclusions. This report identifies factors influencing pediatricians' adoption of oral health care into practice. COHAs reported successes in training peers on integrating oral health into pediatric practice, identified opportunities and challenges to oral health implementation in primary care, and reported issues about the state of children's oral health in their communities. With ongoing support, the COHA program has a potential to improve access to preventive oral health services in the Medical Home and to increase referrals to a Dental Home. PMID:24228032

  4. Chapter Oral Health Advocates: A Nationwide Model for Pediatrician Peer Education and Advocacy about Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte W. Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. (1 To describe an innovative program training US pediatricians to be Chapter Oral Health Advocates (COHAs. (2 To provide insight into COHAs’ experiences disseminating oral health knowledge to fellow pediatricians. Patients and Methods. Interviews with 40 COHAs who responded to an email request, from a total of 64 (62% response. Transcripts were analyzed for common themes about COHA activities, facilitators, and barriers. Results. COHAs reported positive experiences at the AAP oral health training program. A subset of academic COHAs focused on legislative activity and another on resident education about oral health. Residents had an easier time adopting oral health activities while practicing pediatricians cited time constraints. COHAs provided insights into policy, barriers, and facilitators for incorporating oral health into practice. Conclusions. This report identifies factors influencing pediatricians’ adoption of oral health care into practice. COHAs reported successes in training peers on integrating oral health into pediatric practice, identified opportunities and challenges to oral health implementation in primary care, and reported issues about the state of children’s oral health in their communities. With ongoing support, the COHA program has a potential to improve access to preventive oral health services in the Medical Home and to increase referrals to a Dental Home.

  5. Oral messages improve visual search

    CERN Document Server

    Kieffer, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Input multimodality combining speech and hand gestures has motivated numerous usability studies. Contrastingly, issues relating to the design and ergonomic evaluation of multimodal output messages combining speech with visual modalities have not yet been addressed extensively. The experimental study presented here addresses one of these issues. Its aim is to assess the actual efficiency and usability of oral system messages including brief spatial information for helping users to locate objects on crowded displays rapidly. Target presentation mode, scene spatial structure and task difficulty were chosen as independent variables. Two conditions were defined: the visual target presentation mode (VP condition) and the multimodal target presentation mode (MP condition). Each participant carried out two blocks of visual search tasks (120 tasks per block, and one block per condition). Scene target presentation mode, scene structure and task difficulty were found to be significant factors. Multimodal target presenta...

  6. Oral cholecystography after alcoholic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, R J; Mallory, A; Caruthers, S B; Schaefer, J W

    1977-08-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies were done to evaluate the efficacy of oral cholecystography (OCG) performed before hospital discharge on alcoholic patients with acute pancreatitis. In the retrospective study, OCG adequately opacified the gallbladder in 21 of 26 patients (81%). Of the 5 patients with inadequate opacification, 1 was jaundiced at the time of OCG; the other 4 had OCG before resumption of solid food. In the prospective study, OCG done in nonjaundiced patients shortly after resumption of food yielded adequate opacification in 19 of 21 patients (90%) without gallstones. We conclude that in nonjaundiced alcoholic patients with acute pancreatitis not caused by gallstones, OCG performed after resumption of a solid diet and before hospital discharge is usually successful in opacifying the gallbladder. PMID:873119

  7. Dermographism in the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binmadi, Nada; Almazrooa, Soulafa

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 20 Final Diagnosis: Dermographism Symptoms: Unusual skin reaction to trauma Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Dentistry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Dermographism is a type of physical urticaria that can be induced by writing on the skin. It occurs in 2–5% of the population and is considered to be a normal physiological phenomenon. However, in a small subset of patients, it can be symptomatic and may affect the quality of life. The etiology of this disease remains unclear. Case Report: Herein, we present a case of dermographism in a 20-year-old male and discuss the involvement of the oral mucosa in this condition. Conclusions: Although this condition is well known to occur in the skin, we believe this condition is rarely discussed among dentists. All healthcare providers, especially dentists, should know its potential to cause complications during dental procedures. PMID:27324161

  8. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  9. Treatment concepts of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredell, M; Rordorf, T; Studer, G

    2012-11-01

    The mortality of oral cancer (OC) has shown only moderate improvement over recent decades. Treatment of OC remains mainly surgical with increasing contributions from radio- and chemotherapy. Early diagnosis and adequate management improves patient prognosis whilst lymphatic spread worsens the prognosis significantly. Copious extirpation of the tumour achieving tumour-free margins, as well as the effective removal of affected or suspect lymph nodes are vital steps to ensure long-term survival. Reconstructive ablities have improved to such an extent that many patients can be fully integrated in society after treatment. New modalities such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) ensures selective radiation and significantly contributes to improved quality of life. Photodynamic therapy and other targeted therapy options will play an increasingly important role in the future. PMID:23957099

  10. Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty five patients of oral cavity cancer, treated with radiation at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, during the period from March 1985 to September 1990 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 85 patients, 37 patients were treated with radiation only and 48 patients were treated with radiation following surgery And 70 patients received external irradiation only by 60Co with or without electron, the others were 7 patients for external irradiation plus interstitial implantation and 8 patients for external irradiation plus oral cone electron therapy. Primary sites were mobile tongue for 40 patients, mouth floor for 17 patients, palate for 12 patients, gingiva including retromolar trigone for 10 patients, buccal mucosa for 5 patients, and lip for 1 patient. According to pathologic classification, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (77 patients). According to AJC TNM stage, stage I + II were 28 patients and stage III + IV were 57 patients. Acturial overall survival rate at 3 years was 43.9%, 3 year survival rates were 60.9% for stage I + II, and 23.1% for stage III + IV, respectively. As a prognostic factor, primary T stage was a significant factor (p<0.01). The others, age, location, lymph node metastasis, surgery, radiation dose, and cell differentiation were not statistically significant. Among those factors, radiation plus surgery was more effective than radiation only in T3 + T4 or in any N stage although it was not statistically sufficient(p<0.1). From those results, it was conclusive that definitive radiotherapy was more effective than surgery especially in the view of pertaining of anatomical integrity and function in early stage, and radiation plus surgery was considered to be better therapeutic tool in advanced stage

  11. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  12. Oral pathology in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhvić-Urek, Miranda; Tomac-Stojmenović, Marija; Mijandrušić-Sinčić, Brankica

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) - Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) - has been increasing on a global scale, and progressively, more gastroenterologists will be included in the diagnosis and treatment of IBD. Although IBD primarily affects the intestinal tract, extraintestinal manifestations of the disease are often apparent, including in the oral cavity, especially in CD. Specific oral manifestations in patients with CD are as follows: indurate mucosal tags, cobblestoning and mucogingivitis, deep linear ulcerations and lip swelling with vertical fissures. The most common non-specific manifestations, such as aphthous stomatitis and angular cheilitis, occur in both diseases, while pyostomatitis vegetans is more pronounced in patients with UC. Non-specific lesions in the oral cavity can also be the result of malnutrition and drugs. Malnutrition, followed by anemia and mineral and vitamin deficiency, affects the oral cavity and teeth. Furthermore, all of the drug classes that are applied to the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases can lead to alterations in the oral cavity due to the direct toxic effects of the drugs on oral tissues, as well as indirect immunosuppressive effects with a risk of developing opportunistic infections or bone marrow suppression. There is a higher occurrence of malignant diseases in patients with IBD, which is related to the disease itself and to the IBD-related therapy with a possible oral pathology. Treatment of oral lesions includes treatment of the alterations in the oral cavity according to the etiology together with treatment of the primary intestinal disease, which requires adequate knowledge and a strong cooperation between gastroenterologists and specialists in oral medicine. PMID:27433081

  13. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. C. Faria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10 and Th3 (TGF-β regulatory T cells (Tregs plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-β, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral, formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy.

  14. Significance of "extravascular" protein binding for antimicrobial pharmacodynamics in an in vitro capillary model of infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, M N; Blaser, J; D. Gilbert; Zinner, S H

    1990-01-01

    The effect of protein binding in an "extravascular" space on antimicrobial pharmacodynamics was studied in an in vitro capillary model of infection. Simulated 500-mg oral doses of dicloxacillin (approximately 96% bound) or cephalexin (less than 5% bound) were administered every 6 h for four doses. A 10-fold-higher dose of dicloxacillin was also studied to determine the effect of drug concentration on the reduction of bacterial killing in the presence of protein. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 259...

  15. Windows Presentation Foundation & Data Binding

    OpenAIRE

    JANDA, Vilém

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is a course in the form of e-learning study materials for the interpretation of technology Data Binding in Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF). In the first, mostly theoretical part will be done a description and interpretation of the elements of technology, focusing on WPF Data Binding. In the second part, is available methodology and training course with their own interpretive audio-visual files for self-study. The lectures are supplemented by solved examples, and exa...

  16. Low-Level Laser Therapy for Treatment of Oral Mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    Ravina Naomi Tarigan; Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani

    2012-01-01

    Radiation and chemotherapy are the treatment options for head and neck cancer. Several side effects related to those treat-ment have been shown. Oral mucositis is a common side effect in patients undergoing those treatment. The presence of oral mucositis in these patients would influencing quality of life therefore compromising treatment outcome. The spec-trum of oral mucositis can be clinically seen as thinning of oral mucosa, oral discomfort to painful oral lesion causing mastication impair...

  17. Oral coatings: a study on the formation, clearance and perception

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, S

    2015-01-01

    Oral coatings are residues of food and beverages that coat the oral mucosa after consumption. Several studies have reported on the lubrication properties in mouth, and the after-feel and after-taste impact of oral coatings. Further, oral coatings have been suggested to influence subsequent taste perception. Although it is well known that oral coatings can influence sensory perception, there was little information available on the chemical composition and physical properties of oral coatings. ...

  18. Oral Premalignancy: New Methods of Detection and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gillenwater, Ann; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Oral carcinogenesis proceeds through a stepwise accumulation of genetic damage over time. Because the oral cavity is easy to examine and risk factors for oral cancer are known, there is great opportunity to improve patient outcomes through diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions before the development of invasive oral carcinoma. This review provides a summary of developments in detection and diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions and innovative approaches to management of early oral n...

  19. Do dentists have better oral health compared to general population: A study on oral health status and oral health behavior in Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wagle, Madhu; Trovik, Tordis A; Basnet, Purusotam; Acharya, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Dentists are considered role models by the general population in regards to oral hygiene and oral health behavior. This study aimed to access the oral health status of dentists and laypersons, and compare the dentists’ practice of preventive dentistry and oral self-care behaviors to that of the laypersons. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 472 participants (195 dentists and 277 laypersons from the general population). Their oral health/hygiene behavior was assessed using...

  20. The relationship between orality/writing in formal and public oral genres: the case of the academic conference

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo, Roxane; Schneuwly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The relations of continuity and mutual constituency between oral and written language are central to the understanding of how formal and public oral genres function in educated discursive communities, as well as to the understanding of the phenomena of literacy and the teaching-learning of languages at school. In this article we analyse a formal public oral genre – the academic conference – in terms of the relationship between orality-writing, orality-orality, and writing-writing in the const...