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Sample records for binding domain nbd94

  1. Structural determination of functional units of the nucleotide binding domain (NBD94 of the reticulocyte binding protein Py235 of Plasmodium yoelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardina Grüber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasion of the red blood cells (RBC by the merozoite of malaria parasites involves a large number of receptor ligand interactions. The reticulocyte binding protein homologue family (RH plays an important role in erythrocyte recognition as well as virulence. Recently, it has been shown that members of RH in addition to receptor binding may also have a role as ATP/ADP sensor. A 94 kDa region named Nucleotide-Binding Domain 94 (NBD94 of Plasmodium yoelii YM, representative of the putative nucleotide binding region of RH, has been demonstrated to bind ATP and ADP selectively. Binding of ATP or ADP induced nucleotide-dependent structural changes in the C-terminal hinge-region of NBD94, and directly impacted on the RBC binding ability of RH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to find the smallest structural unit, able to bind nucleotides, and its coupling module, the hinge region, three truncated domains of NBD94 have been generated, termed NBD94(444-547, NBD94(566-663 and NBD94(674-793, respectively. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy NBD94(444-547 has been identified to form the smallest nucleotide binding segment, sensitive for ATP and ADP, which became inhibited by 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan. The shape of NBD94(444-547 in solution was calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering data, revealing an elongated molecule, comprised of two globular domains, connected by a spiral segment of about 73.1 A in length. The high quality of the constructs, forming the hinge-region, NBD94(566-663 and NBD94(674-793 enabled to determine the first crystallographic and solution structure, respectively. The crystal structure of NBD94(566-663 consists of two helices with 97.8 A and 48.6 A in length, linked by a loop. By comparison, the low resolution structure of NBD94(674-793 in solution represents a chair-like shape with three architectural segments. CONCLUSIONS: These structures give the first insight into how nucleotide binding

  2. Membrane binding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic signaling and trafficking proteins are rich in modular domains that bind cell membranes. These binding events are tightly regulated in space and time. The structural, biochemical, and biophysical mechanisms for targeting have been worked out for many families of membrane binding domains. This review takes a comparative view of seven major classes of membrane binding domains, the C1, C2, PH, FYVE, PX, ENTH, and BAR domains. These domains use a combination of specific headgroup inter...

  3. On Binding Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, M.B.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I want to explore reasons for replacing Binding Theory based on the anaphor-pronoun dichotomy by a Binding Theory allowing more domains restricting/defining anaphoric dependencies. This will, thus, have consequences for the partitioning of anaphoric elements, presupposing more types of

  4. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  5. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  6. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    OpenAIRE

    Celestine N. Chi; Bach, Anders; Stromgaard, Kristian; Gianni, Stefano; Jemth, Per

    2012-01-01

    The postsynaptic density protein-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) protein domain family is one of the most common proteinprotein interaction modules in mammalian cells, with paralogs present in several hundred human proteins. PDZ domains are found in most cell types, but neuronal proteins, for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, s...

  7. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The postsynaptic density protein-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) protein domain family is one of the most common protein-protein interaction modules in mammalian cells, with paralogs present in several hundred human proteins. PDZ domains are found in most cell types, but neuronal proteins......, for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well...

  8. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  9. Structural and Histone Binding Ability Characterizations of Human PWWP Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; Tempel, Wolfram; Amaya, Maria F.; Xu, Chao; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Yanming; Min, Jinrong (Toronto); (Penn)

    2013-09-25

    The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently. The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members, implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3. PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical {beta}-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third {beta}-strands and a C-terminal {alpha}-helix bundle. Both the canonical {beta}-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones.

  10. Structural and histone binding ability characterizations of human PWWP domains.

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    Hong Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members, implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3. CONCLUSIONS: PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical β-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third β-strands and a C-terminal α-helix bundle. Both the canonical β-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web

  11. Starch-binding domain shuffling in Aspergillus niger glucoamylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Catherine A G; Fang, Tsuei-Yun; Reilly, Peter J; Ford, Clark

    2003-07-01

    Aspergillus niger glucoamylase (GA) consists mainly of two forms, GAI [from the N-terminus, catalytic domain + linker + starch-binding domain (SBD)] and GAII (catalytic domain + linker). These domains were shuffled to make RGAI (SBD + linker + catalytic domain), RGAIDeltaL (SBD + catalytic domain) and RGAII (linker + catalytic domain), with domains defined by function rather than by tertiary structure. In addition, Paenibacillus macerans cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase SBD replaced the closely related A.niger GA SBD to give GAE. Soluble starch hydrolysis rates decreased as RGAII approximately GAII approximately GAI > RGAIDeltaL approximately RGAI approximately GAE. Insoluble starch hydrolysis rates were GAI > RGAIDeltaL > RGAI > GAE approximately RGAII > GAII, while insoluble starch-binding capacities were GAI > RGAI > RGAIDeltaL > RGAII > GAII > GAE. These results indicate that: (i) moving the SBD to the N-terminus or replacing the native SBD somewhat affects soluble starch hydrolysis; (ii) SBD location significantly affects insoluble starch binding and hydrolysis; (iii) insoluble starch hydrolysis is imperfectly correlated with its binding by the SBD; and (iv) placing the P.macerans cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase SBD at the end of a linker, instead of closely associated with the rest of the enzyme, severely reduces its ability to bind and hydrolyze insoluble starch.

  12. Formyl peptide receptor chimeras define domains involved in ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, H D; Holmes, R; Vilander, L R; Adams, R R; Manzana, W; Jolley, D; Andrews, W H

    1993-02-05

    We have begun to study the structural requirements for the binding of formyl peptides to their specific receptors. As an initial approach, we constructed C5a-formyl peptide receptor chimeras. Unique (and identical) restriction sites were introduced within the transmembrane domains of these receptors that allowed for the exchange of specific areas. Four types of chimeric receptors were generated. 1) The C5a receptor was progressively substituted by the formyl peptide receptor. 2) The formyl peptide receptor was progressively substituted by the C5a receptor. 3) Specific domains of the C5a receptor were substituted by the corresponding domain of the formyl peptide receptor. 4) Specific domains of the formyl peptide receptor were replaced by the same corresponding domain of the C5a receptor. Wild type and chimeric receptors were transfected into COS 7 cells and their ability to bind formyl peptide determined, taking into account efficiency of transfection and expression of chimeric protein. Based on these results, a ligand binding model is presented in which the second, third, and fourth extracellular (and/or their transmembrane) domains together with the first transmembrane domain form a ligand binding pocket for formyl peptides. It is proposed that the amino-terminal domain plays a role by presumably providing a "lid" to the pocket. The carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail appears to modulate ligand binding by regulating receptor affinity.

  13. Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 has an interdigitated double Tudor domain with DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weibin; Wang, Jinfeng; Perrett, Sarah; Feng, Yingang

    2014-02-21

    Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1) is a tumor and leukemia suppressor that binds both methylated histone tails and DNA. Our previous studies indicated that RBBP1 possesses a Tudor domain, which cannot bind histone marks. In order to clarify the function of the Tudor domain, the solution structure of the RBBP1 Tudor domain was determined by NMR and is presented here. Although the proteins are unrelated, the RBBP1 Tudor domain forms an interdigitated double Tudor structure similar to the Tudor domain of JMJD2A, which is an epigenetic mark reader. This indicates the functional diversity of Tudor domains. The RBBP1 Tudor domain structure has a significant area of positively charged surface, which reveals a capability of the RBBP1 Tudor domain to bind nucleic acids. NMR titration and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicate that the RBBP1 Tudor domain binds both double- and single-stranded DNA with an affinity of 10-100 μM; no apparent DNA sequence specificity was detected. The DNA binding mode and key interaction residues were analyzed in detail based on a model structure of the Tudor domain-dsDNA complex, built by HADDOCK docking using the NMR data. Electrostatic interactions mediate the binding of the Tudor domain with DNA, which is consistent with NMR experiments performed at high salt concentration. The DNA-binding residues are conserved in Tudor domains of the RBBP1 protein family, resulting in conservation of the DNA-binding function in the RBBP1 Tudor domains. Our results provide further insights into the structure and function of RBBP1.

  14. Structural Dynamics of the Cereblon Ligand Binding Domain

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    Hartmann, Marcus D.; Boichenko, Iuliia; Coles, Murray; Lupas, Andrei N.; Hernandez Alvarez, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Cereblon, a primary target of thalidomide and its derivatives, has been characterized structurally from both bacteria and animals. Especially well studied is the thalidomide binding domain, CULT, which shows an invariable structure across different organisms and in complex with different ligands. Here, based on a series of crystal structures of a bacterial representative, we reveal the conformational flexibility and structural dynamics of this domain. In particular, we follow the unfolding of large fractions of the domain upon release of thalidomide in the crystalline state. Our results imply that a third of the domain, including the thalidomide binding pocket, only folds upon ligand binding. We further characterize the structural effect of the C-terminal truncation resulting from the mental-retardation linked R419X nonsense mutation in vitro and offer a mechanistic hypothesis for its irresponsiveness to thalidomide. At 1.2Å resolution, our data provide a view of thalidomide binding at atomic resolution. PMID:26024445

  15. Structural dynamics of the cereblon ligand binding domain.

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    Marcus D Hartmann

    Full Text Available Cereblon, a primary target of thalidomide and its derivatives, has been characterized structurally from both bacteria and animals. Especially well studied is the thalidomide binding domain, CULT, which shows an invariable structure across different organisms and in complex with different ligands. Here, based on a series of crystal structures of a bacterial representative, we reveal the conformational flexibility and structural dynamics of this domain. In particular, we follow the unfolding of large fractions of the domain upon release of thalidomide in the crystalline state. Our results imply that a third of the domain, including the thalidomide binding pocket, only folds upon ligand binding. We further characterize the structural effect of the C-terminal truncation resulting from the mental-retardation linked R419X nonsense mutation in vitro and offer a mechanistic hypothesis for its irresponsiveness to thalidomide. At 1.2Å resolution, our data provide a view of thalidomide binding at atomic resolution.

  16. Substrate Binding Induces Domain Movements in Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Pernille Hanne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Jensen, Kaj Frank;

    2002-01-01

    ); here we present the 2.5 Å structure of the uncomplexed apo enzyme, determined from twinned crystals. A structural analysis and comparison of the two structures of the E. coli enzyme show that binding of the inhibitor is accompanied by significant domain movements of approximately 12° around a hinge...... that crosses the active site. Hence, the ODCase dimer, which contains two active sites, may be divided in three domains: a central domain that is fixed, and two lids which independently move 12° upon binding. Corresponding analyses, presented herein, of the two Saccharomyces cerevisiae ODCase structures (with...

  17. The MLLE domain of the ubiquitin ligase UBR5 binds to its catalytic domain to regulate substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2015-09-11

    E3 ubiquitin ligases catalyze the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2-conjugating enzyme to a substrate. UBR5, homologous to the E6AP C terminus (HECT)-type E3 ligase, mediates the ubiquitination of proteins involved in translation regulation, DNA damage response, and gluconeogenesis. In addition, UBR5 functions in a ligase-independent manner by prompting protein/protein interactions without ubiquitination of the binding partner. Despite recent functional studies, the mechanisms involved in substrate recognition and selective ubiquitination of its binding partners remain elusive. The C terminus of UBR5 harbors the HECT catalytic domain and an adjacent MLLE domain. MLLE domains mediate protein/protein interactions through the binding of a conserved peptide motif, termed PAM2. Here, we characterize the binding properties of the UBR5 MLLE domain to PAM2 peptides from Paip1 and GW182. The crystal structure with a Paip1 PAM2 peptide reveals the network of hydrophobic and ionic interactions that drive binding. In addition, we identify a novel interaction of the MLLE domain with the adjacent HECT domain mediated by a PAM2-like sequence. Our results confirm the role of the MLLE domain of UBR5 in substrate recruitment and suggest a potential role in regulating UBR5 ligase activity.

  18. Computational Analysis of the Binding Specificities of PH Domains

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    Zhi Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleckstrin homology (PH domains share low sequence identities but extremely conserved structures. They have been found in many proteins for cellular signal-dependent membrane targeting by binding inositol phosphates to perform different physiological functions. In order to understand the sequence-structure relationship and binding specificities of PH domains, quantum mechanical (QM calculations and sequence-based combined with structure-based binding analysis were employed in our research. In the structural aspect, the binding specificities were shown to correlate with the hydropathy characteristics of PH domains and electrostatic properties of the bound inositol phosphates. By comparing these structure properties with sequence-based profiles of physicochemical properties, PH domains can be classified into four functional subgroups according to their binding specificities and affinities to inositol phosphates. The method not only provides a simple and practical paradigm to predict binding specificities for functional genomic research but also gives new insight into the understanding of the basis of diseases with respect to PH domain structures.

  19. Molecular Evolution of the Oxygen-Binding Hemerythrin Domain.

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    Claudia Alvarez-Carreño

    Full Text Available The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis during Precambrian times entailed the diversification of strategies minimizing reactive oxygen species-associated damage. Four families of oxygen-carrier proteins (hemoglobin, hemerythrin and the two non-homologous families of arthropodan and molluscan hemocyanins are known to have evolved independently the capacity to bind oxygen reversibly, providing cells with strategies to cope with the evolutionary pressure of oxygen accumulation. Oxygen-binding hemerythrin was first studied in marine invertebrates but further research has made it clear that it is present in the three domains of life, strongly suggesting that its origin predated the emergence of eukaryotes.Oxygen-binding hemerythrins are a monophyletic sub-group of the hemerythrin/HHE (histidine, histidine, glutamic acid cation-binding domain. Oxygen-binding hemerythrin homologs were unambiguously identified in 367/2236 bacterial, 21/150 archaeal and 4/135 eukaryotic genomes. Overall, oxygen-binding hemerythrin homologues were found in the same proportion as single-domain and as long protein sequences. The associated functions of protein domains in long hemerythrin sequences can be classified in three major groups: signal transduction, phosphorelay response regulation, and protein binding. This suggests that in many organisms the reversible oxygen-binding capacity was incorporated in signaling pathways. A maximum-likelihood tree of oxygen-binding hemerythrin homologues revealed a complex evolutionary history in which lateral gene transfer, duplications and gene losses appear to have played an important role.Hemerythrin is an ancient protein domain with a complex evolutionary history. The distinctive iron-binding coordination site of oxygen-binding hemerythrins evolved first in prokaryotes, very likely prior to the divergence of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and spread into many bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species. The later evolution of the

  20. PTEN-PDZ domain interactions: Binding of PTEN to PDZ domains of PTPN13.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotelo, N.S.; Schepens, J.T.G.; Valiente, M.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Pulido, R.

    2015-01-01

    Protein modular interactions mediated by PDZ domains are essential for the establishment of functional protein networks controlling diverse cellular functions. The tumor suppressor PTEN possesses a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM) that is recognized by a specific set of PDZ domains from scaffol

  1. Cooperative binding of copper(I) to the metal binding domains in Menkes disease protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P Y; Bonander, N; Møller, L B;

    1999-01-01

    We have optimised the overexpression and purification of the N-terminal end of the Menkes disease protein expressed in Escherichia coli, containing one, two and six metal binding domains (MBD), respectively. The domain(s) have been characterised using circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence...... spectroscopy, and their copper(I) binding properties have been determined. Structure prediction derived from far-UV CD indicates that the secondary structure is similar in the three proteins and dominated by beta-sheet. The tryptophan fluorescence maximum is blue-shifted in the constructs containing two...... and six MBDs relative to the monomer, suggesting more structurally buried tryptophan(s), compared to the single MBD construct. Copper(I) binding has been studied by equilibrium dialysis under anaerobic conditions. We show that the copper(I) binding to constructs containing two and six domains...

  2. Revised domain structure of ulvan lyase and characterization of the first ulvan binding domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Rebecca L. J.; Neumann, Marten; Fuenzalida Werner, Juan Pablo; Gröhn, Franziska; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.

    2017-01-01

    Biomass waste products from green algae have recently been given new life, as these polysaccharides have potential applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine. One such polysaccharide group called ulvans displays many different, potentially useful properties that arise from their structural versatility. Hence, performing structural analyses on ulvan is crucial for future applications. However, chemical reaction–based analysis methods cannot fully characterize ulvan and tend to alter its structure. Thus, better methods require well-characterized ulvan-degrading enzymes. Therefore, we analysed a previously sequenced ulvan lyase (GenebankTM reference number JN104480) and characterized its domains. We suggest that the enzyme consists of a shorter than previously described catalytic domain, a newly identified substrate binding domain, and a C-terminal type 9 secretion system signal peptide. By separately expressing the two domains in E. coli, we confirmed that the binding domain is ulvan specific, having higher affinity for ulvan than most lectins for their ligands (affinity constant: 105 M−1). To our knowledge, this is the first description of an ulvan-binding domain. Overall, identifying this new binding domain is one step towards engineering ulvan enzymes that can be used to characterize ulvan, e.g. through enzymatic/mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses, and help unlock its full potential. PMID:28327560

  3. Comparative structural analysis of lipid binding START domains.

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    Ann-Gerd Thorsell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein related lipid transfer (START domains are small globular modules that form a cavity where lipids and lipid hormones bind. These domains can transport ligands to facilitate lipid exchange between biological membranes, and they have been postulated to modulate the activity of other domains of the protein in response to ligand binding. More than a dozen human genes encode START domains, and several of them are implicated in a disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report crystal structures of the human STARD1, STARD5, STARD13 and STARD14 lipid transfer domains. These represent four of the six functional classes of START domains. SIGNIFICANCE: Sequence alignments based on these and previously reported crystal structures define the structural determinants of human START domains, both those related to structural framework and those involved in ligand specificity. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

  4. Domain-based small molecule binding site annotation

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    Dumontier Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate small molecule binding site information for a protein can facilitate studies in drug docking, drug discovery and function prediction, but small molecule binding site protein sequence annotation is sparse. The Small Molecule Interaction Database (SMID, a database of protein domain-small molecule interactions, was created using structural data from the Protein Data Bank (PDB. More importantly it provides a means to predict small molecule binding sites on proteins with a known or unknown structure and unlike prior approaches, removes large numbers of false positive hits arising from transitive alignment errors, non-biologically significant small molecules and crystallographic conditions that overpredict ion binding sites. Description Using a set of co-crystallized protein-small molecule structures as a starting point, SMID interactions were generated by identifying protein domains that bind to small molecules, using NCBI's Reverse Position Specific BLAST (RPS-BLAST algorithm. SMID records are available for viewing at http://smid.blueprint.org. The SMID-BLAST tool provides accurate transitive annotation of small-molecule binding sites for proteins not found in the PDB. Given a protein sequence, SMID-BLAST identifies domains using RPS-BLAST and then lists potential small molecule ligands based on SMID records, as well as their aligned binding sites. A heuristic ligand score is calculated based on E-value, ligand residue identity and domain entropy to assign a level of confidence to hits found. SMID-BLAST predictions were validated against a set of 793 experimental small molecule interactions from the PDB, of which 472 (60% of predicted interactions identically matched the experimental small molecule and of these, 344 had greater than 80% of the binding site residues correctly identified. Further, we estimate that 45% of predictions which were not observed in the PDB validation set may be true positives. Conclusion By

  5. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoseyov, Oded (Shimshon, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (North Gallilea, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  6. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1997-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  7. Pumilio Puf domain RNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Nazia; Park, Youn-Il; Choi, Sang-Bong

    2011-03-01

    Pumilio proteins are a class of RNA-binding proteins harboring Puf domains (or PUM-HD; Pumilio-Homology Domain), named after the founding members, Pumilio (from Drosophila melanogaster) and FBF (Fem-3 mRNA-Binding Factor from Caenorhabditis elegans). The domains contain multiple tandem repeats each of which recognizes one RNA base and is comprised of 35-39 amino acids. Puf domain proteins have been reported in organisms ranging from single-celled yeast to higher multicellular eukaryotes, such as humans and plants. In yeast and animals, they are involved in a variety of posttranscriptional RNA metabolism including RNA decay, RNA transport, rRNA processing and translational repression. However, their roles in plants are largely unknown. Recently, we have characterized the first member of the Puf family of RNA-binding proteins, APUM23, in Arabidopsis. Here, we discuss and summarize the diverse roles and targets of Puf proteins previously reported in other organisms and then highlight the potential regulatory roles of Puf proteins in Arabidopsis, using our recent study as an example.

  8. Evolution of function in the "two dinucleotide binding domains" flavoproteins.

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    Sunil Ojha

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural and biochemical constraints force some segments of proteins to evolve more slowly than others, often allowing identification of conserved structural or sequence motifs that can be associated with substrate binding properties, chemical mechanisms, and molecular functions. We have assessed the functional and structural constraints imposed by cofactors on the evolution of new functions in a superfamily of flavoproteins characterized by two-dinucleotide binding domains, the "two dinucleotide binding domains" flavoproteins (tDBDF superfamily. Although these enzymes catalyze many different types of oxidation/reduction reactions, each is initiated by a stereospecific hydride transfer reaction between two cofactors, a pyridine nucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD. Sequence and structural analysis of more than 1,600 members of the superfamily reveals new members and identifies details of the evolutionary connections among them. Our analysis shows that in all of the highly divergent families within the superfamily, these cofactors adopt a conserved configuration optimal for stereospecific hydride transfer that is stabilized by specific interactions with amino acids from several motifs distributed among both dinucleotide binding domains. The conservation of cofactor configuration in the active site restricts the pyridine nucleotide to interact with FAD from the re-side, limiting the flow of electrons from the re-side to the si-side. This directionality of electron flow constrains interactions with the different partner proteins of different families to occur on the same face of the cofactor binding domains. As a result, superimposing the structures of tDBDFs aligns not only these interacting proteins, but also their constituent electron acceptors, including heme and iron-sulfur clusters. Thus, not only are specific aspects of the cofactor-directed chemical mechanism conserved across the superfamily, the constraints they impose are

  9. Protein universe containing a PUA RNA-binding domain.

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    Cerrudo, Carolina S; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D; Gomez, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Here, we review current knowledge about pseudouridine synthase and archaeosine transglycosylase (PUA)-domain-containing proteins to illustrate progress in this field. A methodological analysis of the literature about the topic was carried out, together with a 'qualitative comparative analysis' to give a more comprehensive review. Bioinformatics methods for whole-protein or protein-domain identification are commonly based on pairwise protein sequence comparisons; we added comparison of structures to detect the whole universe of proteins containing the PUA domain. We present an update of proteins having this domain, focusing on the specific proteins present in Homo sapiens (dyskerin, MCT1, Nip7, eIF2D and Nsun6), and explore the existence of these in other species. We also analyze the phylogenetic distribution of the PUA domain in different species and proteins. Finally, we performed a structural comparison of the PUA domain through data mining of structural databases, determining a conserved structural motif, despite the differences in the sequence, even among eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria. All data discussed in this review, both bibliographic and analytical, corroborate the functional importance of the PUA domain in RNA-binding proteins.

  10. Structure of the microtubule-binding domain of flagellar dynein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yusuke S; Yagi, Toshiki; Harris, Sarah A; Ohki, Shin-ya; Yura, Kei; Shimizu, Youské; Honda, Shinya; Kamiya, Ritsu; Burgess, Stan A; Tanokura, Masaru

    2014-11-04

    Flagellar dyneins are essential microtubule motors in eukaryotes, as they drive the beating motions of cilia and flagella. Unlike myosin and kinesin motors, the track binding mechanism of dyneins and the regulation between the strong and weak binding states remain obscure. Here we report the solution structure of the microtubule-binding domain of flagellar dynein-c/DHC9 (dynein-c MTBD). The structure reveals a similar overall helix-rich fold to that of the MTBD of cytoplasmic dynein (cytoplasmic MTBD), but dynein-c MTBD has an additional flap, consisting of an antiparallel b sheet. The flap is positively charged and highly flexible. Despite the structural similarity to cytoplasmic MTBD, dynein-c MTBD shows only a small change in the microtubule- binding affinity depending on the registry change of coiled coil-sliding, whereby lacks the apparent strong binding state. The surface charge distribution of dynein-c MTBD also differs from that of cytoplasmic MTBD, which suggests a difference in the microtubule-binding mechanism.

  11. Ligand Binding and Conformational Changes in the Purine-Binding Riboswitch Aptamer Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeske, Jonas; Buck, Janina; Wöhnert, Jens; Schwalbe, Harald

    Riboswitches are highly structured mRNA elements that regulate gene expression upon specific binding of small metabolite molecules. The purine-binding riboswitches bind different purine ligands by forming both canonical Watson—Crick and non-canonical intermolecular base pairs, involving a variety of hydrogen bonds between the riboswitch aptamer domain and the purine ligand. Here, we summarize work on the ligand binding modes of both purine-binding aptamer domains, their con-formational characteristics in the free and ligand-bound forms, and their ligand-induced folding. The adenine- and guanine-binding riboswitch aptamer domains display different conformations in their free forms, despite nearly identical nucleotide loop sequences that form a loop—loop interaction in the ligand-bound forms. Interestingly, the stability of helix II is crucial for the formation of the loop—loop interaction in the free form. A more stable helix II in the guanine riboswitch leads to a preformed loop—loop interaction in its free form. In contrast, a less stable helix II in the adenine riboswitch results in a lack of this loop—loop interaction in the absence of ligand and divalent cations.

  12. The Relationship between Albumin-Binding Capacity of Recombinant Polypeptide and Changes in the Structure of Albumin-Binding Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormotova, E A; Gupalova, T V

    2015-07-01

    Many bacteria express surface proteins interacting with human serum albumin (HSA). One of these proteins, PAB from anaerobic bacteria, contains an albumin-binding domain consisting of 45 amino acid residues known as GA domain. GA domains are also found in G proteins isolated from human streptococcal strains (groups C and G) and of albumin-binding protein isolated from group G streptococcal strains of animal origin. The GA domain is a left-handed three-helix bundle structure in which amino acid residues of the second and third helixes are involved in albumin binding. We studied the relationship between HSA-binding activity of the recombinant polypeptide isolated from group G streptococcus of animal origin and structure of the GA domain is studied. Structural changes in GA domain significantly attenuated HAS-binding capacity of the recombinant polypeptide. Hence, affinity HSA-binding polypeptide depends on stability of GA domain structure.

  13. Escherichia coli lipoprotein binds human plasminogen via an intramolecular domain

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    Tammy eGonzalez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli lipoprotein (Lpp is a major cellular component that exists in two distinct states, bound-form and free-form. Bound-form Lpp is known to interact with the periplasmic bacterial cell wall, while free-form Lpp is localized to the bacterial cell surface. A function for surface-exposed Lpp has yet to be determined. We hypothesized that the presence of C-terminal lysines in the surface-exposed region of Lpp would facilitate binding to the host zymogen plasminogen, a protease commandeered by a number of clinically important bacteria. Recombinant Lpp was synthesized and the binding of Lpp to plasminogen, the effect of various inhibitors on this binding, and the effects of various mutations of Lpp on Lpp-plasminogen interactions were examined. Additionally, the ability of Lpp-bound plasminogen to be converted to active plasmin was analyzed. We determined that Lpp binds plasminogen via an atypical domain located near the center of mature Lpp that may not be exposed on the surface of intact E. coli according to the current localization model. Finally, we found that plasminogen bound by Lpp can be converted to active plasmin. While the consequences of Lpp binding plasminogen are unclear, these results prompt further investigation of the ability of surface exposed Lpp to interact with host molecules such as extracellular matrix components and complement regulators, and the role of these interactions in infections caused by E. coli and other bacteria.

  14. AKAP18 contains a phosphoesterase domain that binds AMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Matthew G; Smith, F Donelson; Scott, John D; Barford, David

    2008-02-01

    Protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs), defined by their capacity to target the cAMP-dependent protein kinase to distinct subcellular locations, function as molecular scaffolds mediating the assembly of multicomponent complexes to integrate and organise multiple signalling events. Despite their central importance in regulating cellular processes, little is known regarding their diverse structures and molecular mechanisms. Here, using bioinformatics and X-ray crystallography, we define a central domain of AKAP18 delta (AKAP18(CD)) as a member of the 2H phosphoesterase family. The domain features two conserved His-x-Thr motifs positioned at the base of a groove located between two lobes related by pseudo 2-fold symmetry. Nucleotide co-crystallisation screening revealed that this groove binds specifically to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'AMP) and cytosine 5'-monophosphate (5'CMP), with the affinity constant for AMP in the physiological concentration range. This is the first example of an AKAP capable of binding a small molecule. Our data generate two functional hypotheses for the AKAP18 central domain. It may act as a phosphoesterase, although we did not identify a substrate, or as an AMP sensor with the potential to couple intracellular AMP levels to PKA signalling events.

  15. Crystal Structure of the Botulinum Neurotoxin Type G Binding Domain: Insight into Cell Surface Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmark, Pål; Dong, Min; Dupuy, Jérôme; Chapman, Edwin R.; Stevens, Raymond C. (Scripps); (UW)

    2011-11-02

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) typically bind the neuronal cell surface via dual interactions with both protein receptors and gangliosides. We present here the 1.9-{angstrom} X-ray structure of the BoNT serotype G (BoNT/G) receptor binding domain (residues 868-1297) and a detailed view of protein receptor and ganglioside binding regions. The ganglioside binding motif (SxWY) has a conserved structure compared to the corresponding regions in BoNT serotype A and BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), but several features of interactions with the hydrophilic face of the ganglioside are absent at the opposite side of the motif in the BoNT/G ganglioside binding cleft. This may significantly reduce the affinity between BoNT/G and gangliosides. BoNT/G and BoNT/B share the protein receptor synaptotagmin (Syt) I/II. The Syt binding site has a conserved hydrophobic plateau located centrally in the proposed protein receptor binding interface (Tyr1189, Phe1202, Ala1204, Pro1205, and Phe1212). Interestingly, only 5 of 14 residues that are important for binding between Syt-II and BoNT/B are conserved in BoNT/G, suggesting that the means by which BoNT/G and BoNT/B bind Syt diverges more than previously appreciated. Indeed, substitution of Syt-II Phe47 and Phe55 with alanine residues had little effect on the binding of BoNT/G, but strongly reduced the binding of BoNT/B. Furthermore, an extended solvent-exposed hydrophobic loop, located between the Syt binding site and the ganglioside binding cleft, may serve as a third membrane association and binding element to contribute to high-affinity binding to the neuronal membrane. While BoNT/G and BoNT/B are homologous to each other and both utilize Syt-I/Syt-II as their protein receptor, the precise means by which these two toxin serotypes bind to Syt appears surprisingly divergent.

  16. Phosphorylation of the chromatin binding domain of KSHV LANA.

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    Crystal Woodard

    Full Text Available The Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA is expressed in all KSHV associated malignancies and is essential for maintenance of KSHV genomes in infected cells. To identify kinases that are potentially capable of modifying LANA, in vitro phosphorylation assays were performed using an Epstein Barr virus plus LANA protein microarray and 268 human kinases purified in active form from yeast. Interestingly, of the Epstein-Barr virus proteins on the array, the EBNA1 protein had the most similar kinase profile to LANA. We focused on nuclear kinases and on the N-terminus of LANA (amino acids 1-329 that contains the LANA chromatin binding domain. Sixty-three nuclear kinases phosphorylated the LANA N-terminus. Twenty-four nuclear kinases phosphorylated a peptide covering the LANA chromatin binding domain (amino acids 3-21. Alanine mutations of serine 10 and threonine 14 abolish or severely diminish chromatin and histone binding by LANA. However, conversion of these residues to the phosphomimetic glutamic acid restored histone binding suggesting that phosphorylation of serine 10 and threonine 14 may modulate LANA function. Serine 10 and threonine 14 were validated as substrates of casein kinase 1, PIM1, GSK-3 and RSK3 kinases. Short-term treatment of transfected cells with inhibitors of these kinases found that only RSK inhibition reduced LANA interaction with endogenous histone H2B. Extended treatment of PEL cell cultures with RSK inhibitor caused a decrease in LANA protein levels associated with p21 induction and a loss of PEL cell viability. The data indicate that RSK phosphorylation affects both LANA accumulation and function.

  17. Solution structure and binding specificity of the p63 DNA binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthart, Andreas; Klein, Christian; Dehner, Alexander; Coles, Murray; Gemmecker, Gerd; Kessler, Horst; Hagn, Franz

    2016-05-26

    p63 is a close homologue of p53 and, together with p73, is grouped into the p53 family of transcription factors. p63 is known to be involved in the induction of controlled apoptosis important for differentiation processes, germ line integrity and development. Despite its high homology to p53, especially within the DNA binding domain (DBD), p63-DBD does not show cooperative DNA binding properties and is significantly more stable against thermal and chemical denaturation. Here, we determined the solution structure of p63-DBD and show that it is markedly less dynamic than p53-DBD. In addition, we also investigate the effect of a double salt bridge present in p53-DBD, but not in p63-DBD on the cooperative binding behavior and specificity to various DNA sites. Restoration of the salt bridges in p63-DBD by mutagenesis leads to enhanced binding affinity to p53-specific, but not p63-specific response elements. Furthermore, we show that p63-DBD is capable of binding to anti-apoptotic BclxL via its DNA binding interface, a feature that has only been shown for p53 so far. These data suggest that all p53 family members - despite alterations in the specificity and binding affinity - are capable of activating pro-apoptotic pathways in a tissue specific manner.

  18. Starch-binding domains in the post-genome era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovic, M; Janecek, S

    2006-12-01

    Starch belongs to the most abundant biopolymers on Earth. As a source of energy, starch is degraded by a large number of various amylolytic enzymes. However, only about 10% of them are capable of binding and degrading raw starch. These enzymes usually possess a distinct sequence-structural module, the so-called starchbinding domain (SBD). In general, all carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) have been classified into the CBM families. In this sequence-based classification the individual types of SBDs have been placed into seven CBM families: CBM20, CBM21, CBM25, CBM26, CBM34, CBM41 and CBM45. The family CBM20, known also as a classical C-terminal SBD of microbial amylases, is the most thoroughly studied. The three-dimensional structures have already been determined by X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance for SBDs from five CBM families (20, 25, 26, 34 and 41), and the structure of the CBM21 has been modelled. Despite differences among the amino acid sequences, the fold of a distorted beta-barrel seems to be conserved together with a similar way of substrate binding (mainly stacking interactions between aromatic residues and glucose rings). SBDs have recently been discovered in many non-amylolytic proteins. These may, for example, have regulatory functions in starch metabolism in plants or glycogen metabolism in mammals. SBDs have also found practical uses.

  19. A novel DNA-binding domain in the Shrunken initiator-binding protein (IBP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugert, T; Werr, W

    1994-06-01

    South-western screening of lambda gt11 expression library with a fragment of the Shrunken promoter containing the initiator element resulted in cloning of a novel maize gene. The encoded initiator-binding protein (IBP1) interacts at the transcription start site of the Shrunken promoter. Analysis of the 680 amino acid (aa) long polypeptide revealed a novel bipartite DNA-binding domain at the carboxyl terminus. In its amino-terminal part, it is weakly related to Myb R-repeats but the following basic region is also essential for DNA binding. A region of similarity to the conserved 2.1 and 2.2 motifs in bacterial sigma-factors is located close to the IBP1 amino terminus. Two putative nuclear localization signals are compatible with the presence of antigenically related polypeptides in nuclear protein extracts. The IBP1 gene was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 9 (9L095); a second highly related gene IBP2 is located on the short arm of chromosome 1 (1S014). Both genes encode proteins sharing 93% similarity and are transcribed with similar activity in different plant organs. A small 82 nucleotide intron in the IBP2 transcript is found unspliced to a variable degree in different tissues. Translation of this incompletely processed transcript would result in a truncated amino-terminal polypeptide lacking the DNA-binding domain.

  20. The Receptor Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Stereotype C Binds Phosphoinositides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Varnum, Susan M.

    2012-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known for humans and animals with an extremely low LD50 of {approx} 1 ng/kg. BoNTs generally require a protein and a ganglioside on the cell membrane surface for binding, which is known as a 'dual receptor' mechanism for host intoxication. Recent studies have suggested that in addition to gangliosides, other membrane lipids such as phosphoinositides may be involved in the interactions with the receptor binding domain (HCR) of BoNTs for better membrane penetration. Here, using two independent lipid-binding assays, we tested the interactions of BoNT/C-HCR with lipids in vitro. BoNT/C-HCR was found to bind negatively charged phospholipids, preferentially phosphoinositides. Additional interactions to phosphoinositides may help BoNT/C bind membrane more tightly and transduct signals for subsequent steps of intoxication. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of host cell membrane recognition by BoNTs.

  1. Hepatitis C virus NS4B carboxy terminal domain is a membrane binding domain

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    Spaan Willy JM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV induces membrane rearrangements during replication. All HCV proteins are associated to membranes, pointing out the importance of membranes for HCV. Non structural protein 4B (NS4B has been reported to induce cellular membrane alterations like the membranous web. Four transmembrane segments in the middle of the protein anchor NS4B to membranes. An amphipatic helix at the amino-terminus attaches to membranes as well. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD of NS4B is highly conserved in Hepaciviruses, though its function remains unknown. Results A cytosolic localization is predicted for the NS4B-CTD. However, using membrane floatation assays and immunofluorescence, we now show targeting of the NS4B-CTD to membranes. Furthermore, a profile-profile search, with an HCV NS4B-CTD multiple sequence alignment, indicates sequence similarity to the membrane binding domain of prokaryotic D-lactate dehydrogenase (d-LDH. The crystal structure of E. coli d-LDH suggests that the region similar to NS4B-CTD is located in the membrane binding domain (MBD of d-LDH, implying analogy in membrane association. Targeting of d-LDH to membranes occurs via electrostatic interactions of positive residues on the outside of the protein with negative head groups of lipids. To verify that anchorage of d-LDH MBD and NS4B-CTD is analogous, NS4B-CTD mutants were designed to disrupt these electrostatic interactions. Membrane association was confirmed by swopping the membrane contacting helix of d-LDH with the corresponding domain of the 4B-CTD. Furthermore, the functionality of these residues was tested in the HCV replicon system. Conclusion Together these data show that NS4B-CTD is associated to membranes, similar to the prokaryotic d-LDH MBD, and is important for replication.

  2. Structure of the homodimeric androgen receptor ligand-binding domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Marta; Prekovic, Stefan; Gallastegui, Nerea; Helsen, Christine; Abella, Montserrat; Zielinska, Karolina; Gay, Marina; Vilaseca, Marta; Taulès, Marta; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; van Royen, Martin E.; Claessens, Frank; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a crucial role in normal physiology, development and metabolism as well as in the aetiology and treatment of diverse pathologies such as androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS), male infertility and prostate cancer (PCa). Here we show that dimerization of AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is induced by receptor agonists but not by antagonists. The 2.15-Å crystal structure of homodimeric, agonist- and coactivator peptide-bound AR-LBD unveils a 1,000-Å2 large dimerization surface, which harbours over 40 previously unexplained AIS- and PCa-associated point mutations. An AIS mutation in the self-association interface (P767A) disrupts dimer formation in vivo, and has a detrimental effect on the transactivating properties of full-length AR, despite retained hormone-binding capacity. The conservation of essential residues suggests that the unveiled dimerization mechanism might be shared by other nuclear receptors. Our work defines AR-LBD homodimerization as an essential step in the proper functioning of this important transcription factor. PMID:28165461

  3. Distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    PASTA domains (penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated domains) have been identified in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They are believed to bind β-lactam antibiotics, and be involved in peptidoglycan metabolism, although their biological function is not definitively clarified. Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, are distinct in that they undergo complex cellular differentiation and produce various antibiotics including β-lactams. This review focuses on the distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases in Actinobacteria. In Actinobacteria, PASTA domains are detectable exclusively in class A but not in class B penicillin-binding proteins, in sharp contrast to the cases in other bacteria. In penicillin-binding proteins, PASTA domains distribute independently from taxonomy with some distribution bias. Particularly interesting thing is that no Streptomyces species have penicillin-binding protein with PASTA domains. Protein kinases in Actinobacteria possess 0 to 5 PASTA domains in their molecules. Protein kinases in Streptomyces can be classified into three groups: no PASTA domain, 1 PASTA domain and 4 PASTA domain-containing groups. The 4 PASTA domain-containing groups can be further divided into two subgroups. The serine/threonine kinases in different groups may perform different functions. The pocket region in one of these subgroup is more dense and extended, thus it may be involved in binding of ligands like β-lactams more efficiently.

  4. Ligand binding to WW tandem domains of YAP2 transcriptional regulator is under negative cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Brett J; Mikles, David C; Hoang, Lawrence M; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2014-12-01

    YES-associated protein 2 (YAP2) transcriptional regulator drives a multitude of cellular processes, including the newly discovered Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, by virtue of the ability of its WW domains to bind and recruit PPXY-containing ligands to specific subcellular compartments. Herein, we employ an array of biophysical tools to investigate allosteric communication between the WW tandem domains of YAP2. Our data show that the WW tandem domains of YAP2 negatively cooperate when binding to their cognate ligands. Moreover, the molecular origin of such negative cooperativity lies in an unfavorable entropic contribution to the overall free energy relative to ligand binding to isolated WW domains. Consistent with this notion, the WW tandem domains adopt a fixed spatial orientation such that the WW1 domain curves outwards and stacks onto the binding groove of the WW2 domain, thereby sterically hindering ligand binding to both itself and its tandem partner. Although ligand binding to both WW domains disrupts such interdomain stacking interaction, they reorient themselves and adopt an alternative fixed spatial orientation in the liganded state by virtue of their ability to engage laterally so as to allow their binding grooves to point outwards and away from each other. In short, while the ability of WW tandem domains to aid ligand binding is well documented, our demonstration that they may also be subject to negative binding cooperativity represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the molecular action of this ubiquitous family of protein modules.

  5. The PIP2 binding mode of the C2 domains of rabphilin-3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaville, Pierre; Coudevylle, Nicolas; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Leonov, Andrei; Zweckstetter, Markus; Becker, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a key player in the neurotransmitter release process. Rabphilin-3A is a neuronal C2 domain tandem containing protein that is involved in this process. Both its C2 domains (C2A and C2B) are able to bind PIP2. The investigation of the interactions of the two C2 domains with the PIP2 headgroup IP3 (inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate) by NMR showed that a well-defined binding site can be described on the concave surface of each domain. The binding modes of the two domains are different. The binding of IP3 to the C2A domain is strongly enhanced by Ca(2+) and is characterized by a K(D) of 55 microM in the presence of a saturating concentration of Ca(2+) (5 mM). Reciprocally, the binding of IP3 increases the apparent Ca(2+)-binding affinity of the C2A domain in agreement with a Target-Activated Messenger Affinity (TAMA) mechanism. The C2B domain binds IP3 in a Ca(2+)-independent fashion with low affinity. These different PIP2 headgroup recognition modes suggest that PIP2 is a target of the C2A domain of rabphilin-3A while this phospholipid is an effector of the C2B domain.

  6. Structural Basis of Rnd1 Binding to Plexin Rho GTPase Binding Domains (RBDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui; Hota, Prasanta K.; Tong, Yufeng; Li, Buren; Shen, Limin; Nedyalkova, Lyudmila; Borthakur, Susmita; Kim, SoonJeung; Tempel, Wolfram; Buck, Matthias; Park, Hee-Won (Toronto); (Case Western U.-Med)

    2011-09-20

    Plexin receptors regulate cell adhesion, migration, and guidance. The Rho GTPase binding domain (RBD) of plexin-A1 and -B1 can bind GTPases, including Rnd1. By contrast, plexin-C1 and -D1 reportedly bind Rnd2 but associate with Rnd1 only weakly. The structural basis of this differential Rnd1 GTPase binding to plexin RBDs remains unclear. Here, we solved the structure of the plexin-A2 RBD in complex with Rnd1 and the structures of the plexin-C1 and plexin-D1 RBDs alone, also compared with the previously determined plexin-B1 RBD.Rnd1 complex structure. The plexin-A2 RBD {center_dot} Rnd1 complex is a heterodimer, whereas plexin-B1 and -A2 RBDs homodimerize at high concentration in solution, consistent with a proposed model for plexin activation. Plexin-C1 and -D1 RBDs are monomeric, consistent with major residue changes in the homodimerization loop. In plexin-A2 and -B1, the RBD {beta}3-{beta}4 loop adjusts its conformation to allow Rnd1 binding, whereas minimal structural changes occur in Rnd1. The plexin-C1 and -D1 RBDs lack several key non-polar residues at the corresponding GTPase binding surface and do not significantly interact with Rnd1. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements on plexin-C1 and -D1 mutants reveal that the introduction of non-polar residues in this loop generates affinity for Rnd1. Structure and sequence comparisons suggest a similar mode of Rnd1 binding to the RBDs, whereas mutagenesis suggests that the interface with the highly homologous Rnd2 GTPase is different in detail. Our results confirm, from a structural perspective, that Rnd1 does not play a role in the activation of plexin-C1 and -D1. Plexin functions appear to be regulated by subfamily-specific mechanisms, some of which involve different Rho family GTPases.

  7. Functional Diversity of Tandem Substrate-Binding Domains in ABC Transporters from Pathogenic Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulyani, Faizah; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Vujicic - Zagar, Andreja; Guskov, Albert; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter GInPQ is an essential uptake system for amino acids in gram-positive pathogens and related nonpathogenic bacteria. The transporter has tandem substrate-binding domains (SBDs) fused to each transmembrane domain, giving rise to four SBDs per functional transp

  8. Ligand Binding and Crystal Structures of the Substrate-Binding Domain of the ABC Transporter OpuA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Justina C.; Berntsson, Ronnie P-A.; Gul, Nadia; Karasawa, Akira; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W. H.; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    The ABC transporter OpuA from Lactococcus lactis transports glycine betaine upon activation by threshold values of ionic strength. In this study, the ligand binding characteristics of purified OpuA in a detergent-solubilized state and of its substrate-binding domain produced as soluble protein (OpuA

  9. Bacteriophage endolysin Lyt μ1/6: characterization of the C-terminal binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tišáková, Lenka; Vidová, Barbora; Farkašovská, Jarmila; Godány, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The gene product of orf50 from actinophage μ1/6 of Streptomyces aureofaciens is a putative endolysin, Lyt μ1/6. It has a two-domain modular structure, consisting of an N-terminal catalytic and a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). Comparative analysis of Streptomyces phage endolysins revealed that they all have a modular structure and contain functional C-terminal domains with conserved amino acids, probably associated with their binding function. A blast analysis of Lyt μ1/6 in conjunction with secondary and tertiary structure prediction disclosed the presence of a PG_binding_1 domain within the CBD. The sequence of the C-terminal domain of lyt μ1/6 and truncated forms of it were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The ability of these CBD variants fused to GFP to bind to the surface of S. aureofaciens NMU was shown by specific binding assays.

  10. The CRM domain: an RNA binding module derived from an ancient ribosome-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Klipcan, Larik; Ostersetzer, Oren; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Asakura, Yukari; Watkins, Kenneth P

    2007-01-01

    The CRS1-YhbY domain (also called the CRM domain) is represented as a stand-alone protein in Archaea and Bacteria, and in a family of single- and multidomain proteins in plants. The function of this domain is unknown, but structural data and the presence of the domain in several proteins known to interact with RNA have led to the proposal that it binds RNA. Here we describe a phylogenetic analysis of the domain, its incorporation into diverse proteins in plants, and biochemical properties of a prokaryotic and eukaryotic representative of the domain family. We show that a bacterial member of the family, Escherichia coli YhbY, is associated with pre-50S ribosomal subunits, suggesting that YhbY functions in ribosome assembly. GFP fused to a single-domain CRM protein from maize localizes to the nucleolus, suggesting that an analogous activity may have been retained in plants. We show further that an isolated maize CRM domain has RNA binding activity in vitro, and that a small motif shared with KH RNA binding domains, a conserved "GxxG" loop, contributes to its RNA binding activity. These and other results suggest that the CRM domain evolved in the context of ribosome function prior to the divergence of Archaea and Bacteria, that this function has been maintained in extant prokaryotes, and that the domain was recruited to serve as an RNA binding module during the evolution of plant genomes.

  11. Evaluation of Methyl-Binding Domain Based Enrichment Approaches Revisited.

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    Karolina A Aberg

    Full Text Available Methyl-binding domain (MBD enrichment followed by deep sequencing (MBD-seq, is a robust and cost efficient approach for methylome-wide association studies (MWAS. MBD-seq has been demonstrated to be capable of identifying differentially methylated regions, detecting previously reported robust associations and producing findings that replicate with other technologies such as targeted pyrosequencing of bisulfite converted DNA. There are several kits commercially available that can be used for MBD enrichment. Our previous work has involved MethylMiner (Life Technologies, Foster City, CA, USA that we chose after careful investigation of its properties. However, in a recent evaluation of five commercially available MBD-enrichment kits the performance of the MethylMiner was deemed poor. Given our positive experience with MethylMiner, we were surprised by this report. In an attempt to reproduce these findings we here have performed a direct comparison of MethylMiner with MethylCap (Diagenode Inc, Denville, NJ, USA, the best performing kit in that study. We find that both MethylMiner and MethylCap are two well performing MBD-enrichment kits. However, MethylMiner shows somewhat better enrichment efficiency and lower levels of background "noise". In addition, for the purpose of MWAS where we want to investigate the majority of CpGs, we find MethylMiner to be superior as it allows tailoring the enrichment to the regions where most CpGs are located. Using targeted bisulfite sequencing we confirmed that sites where methylation was detected by either MethylMiner or by MethylCap indeed were methylated.

  12. Membrane Binding and Modulation of the PDZ Domain of PICK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Simon; Madsen, Kenneth Lindegaard

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolding proteins serve to assemble protein complexes in dynamic processes by means of specific protein-protein and protein-lipid binding domains. Many of these domains bind either proteins or lipids exclusively; however, it has become increasingly evident that certain domains are capable of b...... lipids. Moreover, we review how these PDZ-membrane interactions are regulated in the case of the synaptic scaffolding protein PICK1 and how this might affect cellular localization and function....

  13. Conformational selection in the molten globule state of the nuclear coactivator binding domain of CBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Teilum, Kaare; Poulsen, Flemming M

    2010-01-01

    Native molten globules are the most folded kind of intrinsically disordered proteins. Little is known about the mechanism by which native molten globules bind to their cognate ligands to form fully folded complexes. The nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) of CREB binding protein is particul...

  14. A minimum of three motifs is essential for optimal binding of pseudomurein cell wall-binding domain of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Ram R Visweswaran

    Full Text Available We have biochemically and functionally characterized the pseudomurein cell wall-binding (PMB domain that is present at the C-terminus of the Surface (S-layer protein MTH719 from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. Chemical denaturation of the protein with guanidinium hydrochloride occurred at 3.8 M. A PMB-GFP fusion protein not only binds to intact pseudomurein of methanogenic archaea, but also to spheroplasts of lysozyme-treated bacterial cells. This binding is pH dependent. At least two of the three motifs that are present in the domain are necessary for binding. Limited proteolysis revealed a possible cleavage site in the spacing sequence between motifs 1 and 2 of the PMB domain, indicating that the motif region itself is protected from proteases.

  15. Src binds cortactin through an SH2 domain cystine-mediated linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason V; Ammer, Amanda G; Jett, John E; Bolcato, Chris A; Breaux, Jason C; Martin, Karen H; Culp, Mark V; Gannett, Peter M; Weed, Scott A

    2012-12-15

    Tyrosine-kinase-based signal transduction mediated by modular protein domains is critical for cellular function. The Src homology (SH)2 domain is an important conductor of intracellular signaling that binds to phosphorylated tyrosines on acceptor proteins, producing molecular complexes responsible for signal relay. Cortactin is a cytoskeletal protein and tyrosine kinase substrate that regulates actin-based motility through interactions with SH2-domain-containing proteins. The Src kinase SH2 domain mediates cortactin binding and tyrosine phosphorylation, but how Src interacts with cortactin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Src binds cortactin through cystine bonding between Src C185 in the SH2 domain within the phosphotyrosine binding pocket and cortactin C112/246 in the cortactin repeats domain, independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. Interaction studies show that the presence of reducing agents ablates Src-cortactin binding, eliminates cortactin phosphorylation by Src, and prevents Src SH2 domain binding to cortactin. Tandem MS/MS sequencing demonstrates cystine bond formation between Src C185 and cortactin C112/246. Mutational studies indicate that an intact cystine binding interface is required for Src-mediated cortactin phosphorylation, cell migration, and pre-invadopodia formation. Our results identify a novel phosphotyrosine-independent binding mode between the Src SH2 domain and cortactin. Besides Src, one quarter of all SH2 domains contain cysteines at or near the analogous Src C185 position. This provides a potential alternative mechanism to tyrosine phosphorylation for cysteine-containing SH2 domains to bind cognate ligands that may be widespread in propagating signals regulating diverse cellular functions.

  16. Solution structure of telomere binding domain of AtTRB2 derived from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji-Hye [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Kyung [Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heeyoun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunhee; Cheong, Chaejoon [Magnetic Resonance Team, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myeon Haeng [Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weontae, E-mail: wlee@spin.yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • We have determined solution structure of Myb domain of AtTRB2. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 is located in the N-terminal region. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 binds to plant telomeric DNA without fourth helix. • Helix 2 and 3 of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 are involved in DNA recognition. • AtTRB2 is a novel protein distinguished from other known plant TBP. - Abstract: Telomere homeostasis is regulated by telomere-associated proteins, and the Myb domain is well conserved for telomere binding. AtTRB2 is a member of the SMH (Single-Myb-Histone)-like family in Arabidopsis thaliana, having an N-terminal Myb domain, which is responsible for DNA binding. The Myb domain of AtTRB2 contains three α-helices and loops for DNA binding, which is unusual given that other plant telomere-binding proteins have an additional fourth helix that is essential for DNA binding. To understand the structural role for telomeric DNA binding of AtTRB2, we determined the solution structure of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 (AtTRB2{sub 1–64}) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the inter-molecular interaction between AtTRB2{sub 1–64} and telomeric DNA has been characterized by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and NMR titration analyses for both plant (TTTAGGG)n and human (TTAGGG)n telomere sequences. Data revealed that Trp28, Arg29, and Val47 residues located in Helix 2 and Helix 3 are crucial for DNA binding, which are well conserved among other plant telomere binding proteins. We concluded that although AtTRB2 is devoid of the additional fourth helix in the Myb-extension domain, it is able to bind to plant telomeric repeat sequences as well as human telomeric repeat sequences.

  17. Molecular determinants for the complex binding specificity of the PDZ domain in PICK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kenneth L; Beuming, Thijs; Niv, Masha Y

    2005-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) contains a single PDZ domain known to mediate interaction with the C termini of several receptors, transporters, ion channels, and kinases. In contrast to most PDZ domains, the PICK1 PDZ domain interacts with binding sequences classifiable as type I...... (terminating in (S/T)XPhi; X, any residue) as well as type II (PhiXPhi; Phi, any hydrophobic residue). To enable direct assessment of the affinity of the PICK1 PDZ domain for its binding partners we developed a purification scheme for PICK1 and a novel quantitative binding assay based on fluorescence...... polarization. Our results showed that the PICK1 PDZ domain binds the type II sequence presented by the human dopamine transporter (-WLKV) with an almost 15-fold and >100-fold higher affinity than the type I sequences presented by protein kinase Calpha (-QSAV) and the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (-DSLL...

  18. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Boonyodying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  19. Trimerization of the HIV Transmembrane Domain in Lipid Bilayers Modulates Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, Timothy M; Baksh, Michael M; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Fiedler, Jason D; Sligar, Stephen G; Finn, M G; Zwick, Michael B; Dawson, Philip E

    2016-02-18

    The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV gp41 is an established target of antibodies that neutralize a broad range of HIV isolates. To evaluate the role of the transmembrane (TM) domain, synthetic MPER-derived peptides were incorporated into lipid nanoparticles using natural and designed TM domains, and antibody affinity was measured using immobilized and solution-based techniques. Peptides incorporating the native HIV TM domain exhibit significantly stronger interactions with neutralizing antibodies than peptides with a monomeric TM domain. Furthermore, a peptide with a trimeric, three-helix bundle TM domain recapitulates the binding profile of the native sequence. These studies suggest that neutralizing antibodies can bind the MPER when the TM domain is a three-helix bundle and this presentation could influence the binding of neutralizing antibodies to the virus. Lipid-bilayer presentation of viral antigens in Nanodiscs is a new platform for evaluating neutralizing antibodies.

  20. Structure and carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) binding of the Set2 SRI domain that couples histone H3 Lys36 methylation to transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojnic, Erika; Simon, Bernd; Strahl, Brian D; Sattler, Michael; Cramer, Patrick

    2006-01-06

    During mRNA elongation, the SRI domain of the histone H3 methyltransferase Set2 binds to the phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II. The solution structure of the yeast Set2 SRI domain reveals a novel CTD-binding fold consisting of a left-handed three-helix bundle. NMR titration shows that the SRI domain binds an Ser2/Ser5-phosphorylated CTD peptide comprising two heptapeptide repeats and three flanking NH2-terminal residues, whereas a single CTD repeat is insufficient for binding. Residues that show strong chemical shift perturbations upon CTD binding cluster in two regions. Both CTD tyrosine side chains contact the SRI domain. One of the tyrosines binds in the region with the strongest chemical shift perturbations, formed by the two NH2-terminal helices. Unexpectedly, the SRI domain fold resembles the structure of an RNA polymerase-interacting domain in bacterial sigma factors (domain sigma2 in sigma70).

  1. IQGAP Proteins Reveal an Atypical Phosphoinositide (aPI) Binding Domain with a Pseudo C2 Domain Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Miles J.; Gray, Alexander; Schenning, Martijn; Agacan, Mark; Tempel, Wolfram; Tong, Yufeng; Nedyalkova, Lyudmila; Park, Hee-Won; Leslie, Nicholas R.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.; Downes, C. Peter; Batty, Ian H. (Toronto); (Dundee)

    2012-10-16

    Class I phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinases act through effector proteins whose 3-PI selectivity is mediated by a limited repertoire of structurally defined, lipid recognition domains. We describe here the lipid preferences and crystal structure of a new class of PI binding modules exemplified by select IQGAPs (IQ motif containing GTPase-activating proteins) known to coordinate cellular signaling events and cytoskeletal dynamics. This module is defined by a C-terminal 105-107 amino acid region of which IQGAP1 and -2, but not IQGAP3, binds preferentially to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdInsP3). The binding affinity for PtdInsP3, together with other, secondary target-recognition characteristics, are comparable with those of the pleckstrin homology domain of cytohesin-3 (general receptor for phosphoinositides 1), an established PtdInsP3 effector protein. Importantly, the IQGAP1 C-terminal domain and the cytohesin-3 pleckstrin homology domain, each tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein, were both re-localized from the cytosol to the cell periphery following the activation of PI 3-kinase in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, consistent with their common, selective recognition of endogenous 3-PI(s). The crystal structure of the C-terminal IQGAP2 PI binding module reveals unexpected topological similarity to an integral fold of C2 domains, including a putative basic binding pocket. We propose that this module integrates select IQGAP proteins with PI 3-kinase signaling and constitutes a novel, atypical phosphoinositide binding domain that may represent the first of a larger group, each perhaps structurally unique but collectively dissimilar from the known PI recognition modules.

  2. The Binding of Syndapin SH3 Domain to Dynamin Proline-rich Domain Involves Short and Long Distance Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Xue, Jing; Kwan, Ann; Gamsjaeger, Roland; Wielens, Jerome; von Kleist, Lisa; Cubeddu, Liza; Guo, Zhong; Stow, Jennifer L; Parker, Michael W; Mackay, Joel P; Robinson, Phillip J

    2016-04-29

    Dynamin is a GTPase that mediates vesicle fission during synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Its long C-terminal proline-rich domain contains 13 PXXP motifs, which orchestrate its interactions with multiple proteins. The SH3 domains of syndapin and endophilin bind the PXXP motifs called Site 2 and 3 (Pro-786-Pro-793) at the N-terminal end of the proline-rich domain, whereas the amphiphysin SH3 binds Site 9 (Pro-833-Pro-836) toward the C-terminal end. In some proteins, SH3/peptide interactions also involve short distance elements, which are 5-15 amino acid extensions flanking the central PXXP motif for high affinity binding. Here we found two previously unrecognized elements in the central and the C-terminal end of the dynamin proline-rich domain that account for a significant increase in syndapin binding affinity compared with a previously reported Site 2 and Site 3 PXXP peptide alone. The first new element (Gly-807-Gly-811) is short distance element on the C-terminal side of Site 2 PXXP, which might contact a groove identified under the RT loop of the SH3 domain. The second element (Arg-838-Pro-844) is located about 50 amino acids downstream of Site 2. These two elements provide additional specificity to the syndapin SH3 domain outside of the well described polyproline-binding groove. Thus, the dynamin/syndapin interaction is mediated via a network of multiple contacts outside the core PXXP motif over a previously unrecognized extended region of the proline-rich domain. To our knowledge this is the first example among known SH3 interactions to involve spatially separated and extended long-range elements that combine to provide a higher affinity interaction.

  3. Starch‐binding domains in the CBM45 family – low‐affinity domains from glucan, water dikinase and α‐amylase involved in plastidial starch metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Baumann, Martin; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2011-01-01

    Starch‐binding domains are noncatalytic carbohydrate‐binding modules that mediate binding to granular starch. The starch‐binding domains from the carbohydrate‐binding module family 45 (CBM45, ) are found as N‐terminal tandem repeats in a small number of enzymes, primarily from photosynthesizing...... amylolytic enzymes. This suggests that low‐affinity starch‐binding domains are a recurring feature in plastidial starch metabolism, and supports the hypothesis that reversible binding, effectuated through low‐affinity interaction with starch granules, facilitates dynamic regulation of enzyme activities and...

  4. Altered Specificity of DNA-Binding Proteins with Transition Metal Dimerization Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenoud, Bernard; Schepartz, Alanna

    1993-01-01

    The bZIP motif is characterized by a leucine zipper domain that mediates dimerization and a basic domain that contacts DNA. A series of transition metal dimerization domains were used to alter systematically the relative orientation of basic domain peptides. Both the affinity and the specificity of the peptide-DNA interaction depend on domain orientation. These results indicate that the precise configuration linking the domains is important; dimerization is not always sufficient for DNA binding. This approach to studying the effect of orientation on protein function complements mutagenesis and could be used in many systems.

  5. ATP binding to p97/VCP D1 domain regulates selective recruitment of adaptors to its proximal N-domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sheng Chia

    Full Text Available p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP is a member of the AAA-ATPase family involved in many cellular processes including cell division, intracellular trafficking and extraction of misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD. It is a homohexamer with each subunit containing two tandem D1 and D2 ATPase domains and N- and C-terminal regions that function as adaptor protein binding domains. p97/VCP is directed to its many different functional pathways by associating with various adaptor proteins. The regulation of the recruitment of the adaptor proteins remains unclear. Two adaptor proteins, Ufd1/Npl4 and p47, which bind exclusively to the p97/VCP N-domain and direct p97/VCP to either ERAD-related processes or homotypic fusion of Golgi fragments, were studied here. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based assays allowed the study of binding kinetics in real time. In competition experiments, it was observed that in the presence of ATP, Ufd1/Npl4 was able to compete more effectively with p47 for binding to p97/VCP. By using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and the hexameric truncated p97/N-D1 fragment, it was shown that binding rather than hydrolysis of ATP to the proximal D1 domain strengthened the Ufd1/Npl4 association with the N-domain, thus regulating the recruitment of either Ufd1/Npl4 or p47. This novel role of ATP and an assigned function to the D1 AAA-ATPase domain link the multiple functions of p97/VCP to the metabolic status of the cell.

  6. Ca2+ does not affect the binding properties of ITSN1 EH domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morderer D. Ye.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ITSN1 is an endocytic scaffold protein implicated in synaptic functioning. Ca2+ is known to be important for endo- cytosis in both pre- and post-synaptic terminals. ITSN1 contains two EH (Eps15 homology domains which possess putative Ca2+-binding EF-hand motifs. Aim. To test the effect of Ca2+ on the EH domain binding properties. Methods. His-tag pulldown, Western blotting. Results. Addition of 1.5 mM Ca2+ does not affect the binding of the ITSN1 EH domains to the C-terminal fragment of the endocytic protein Epsin 1. Conclusions. The data obtained indicate that Ca2+ has no effect on the binding properties of the ITSN1 EH domains.

  7. On the denaturation mechanisms of the ligand binding domain of thyroid hormone receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Garcia, Wanius; Batista, Fernanda A H; Portugal, Rodrigo V; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Nakahira, Marcel; Lima, Luis M T R; Polikarpov, Igor; Skaf, Munir S

    2010-01-01

    The ligand binding domain (LBD) of nuclear hormone receptors adopts a very compact, mostly alpha-helical structure that binds specific ligands with very high affinity. We use circular dichroism spectroscopy and high-temperature molecular dynamics simulations to investigate unfolding of the LBDs of t

  8. On the Denaturation Mechanisms of the Ligand Binding Domain of Thyroid Hormone Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, Leandro; Telles de Souza, P C; Garcia, Wanius; Batista, Fernanda A H; Portugal, Rodrigo V; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Nakahira, Marcel; Lima, Luis M T R; Polikarpov, Igor; Skaf, Munir S

    2010-01-01

    The ligand binding domain (LBD) of nuclear hormone receptors adopts a very compact, mostly alpha-helical structure that binds specific ligands with very high affinity. We use circular dichroism spectroscopy and high-temperature molecular dynamics Simulations to investigate unfolding of the LBDs of t

  9. CRITERIA FOR AN UPDATED CLASSIFICATION OF HUMAN TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DNA-BINDING DOMAINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingender, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    By binding to cis-regulatory elements in a sequence-specific manner, transcription factors regulate the activity of nearby genes. Here, we discuss the criteria for a comprehensive classification of human TFs based on their DNA-binding domains. In particular, classification of basic leucine zipper (b

  10. Differential activities of cellular and viral macro domain proteins in binding of ADP-ribose metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Ahola, Tero

    2009-01-01

    Macro domain is a highly conserved protein domain found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Macro domains are also encoded by a set of positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal cells, including coronaviruses and alphaviruses. The functions of the macro domain are poorly understood, but it has been suggested to be an ADP-ribose-binding module. We have here characterized three novel human macro domain proteins that were found to reside either in the cytoplasm and nucleus [macro domain protein 2 (MDO2) and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2] or in mitochondria [macro domain protein 1 (MDO1)], and compared them with viral macro domains from Semliki Forest virus, hepatitis E virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and with a yeast macro protein, Poa1p. MDO2 specifically bound monomeric ADP-ribose with a high affinity (K(d)=0.15 microM), but did not bind poly(ADP-ribose) efficiently. MDO2 also hydrolyzed ADP-ribose-1'' phosphate, resembling Poa1p in all these properties. Ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2 did not show affinity for ADP-ribose or its derivatives, but instead bound poly(A). MDO1 was generally active in these reactions, including poly(A) binding. Individual point mutations in MDO1 abolished monomeric ADP-ribose binding, but not poly(ADP-ribose) binding; in poly(ADP-ribose) binding assays, the monomer did not compete against polymer binding. The viral macro proteins bound poly(ADP-ribose) and poly(A), but had a low affinity for monomeric ADP-ribose. Thus, the viral proteins do not closely resemble any of the human proteins in their biochemical functions. The differential activity profiles of the human proteins implicate them in different cellular pathways, some of which may involve RNA rather than ADP-ribose derivatives.

  11. Crystal structure of mouse coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its murine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Guiqing; Sun, Dawei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Qian, Zhaohui; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Li, Fang (Cornell); (UMM-MED); (Colorado)

    2011-09-28

    Coronaviruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to recognize different receptors for their cross-species transmission and host-range expansion. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) uses the N-terminal domain (NTD) of its spike protein as its receptor-binding domain. Here we present the crystal structure of MHV NTD complexed with its receptor murine carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a (mCEACAM1a). Unexpectedly, MHV NTD contains a core structure that has the same {beta}-sandwich fold as human galectins (S-lectins) and additional structural motifs that bind to the N-terminal Ig-like domain of mCEACAM1a. Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusive protein-protein interactions. Critical contacts at the interface have been confirmed by mutagenesis, providing a structural basis for viral and host specificities of coronavirus/CEACAM1 interactions. Sugar-binding assays reveal that galectin-like NTDs of some coronaviruses such as human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus bind sugars. Structural analysis and mutagenesis localize the sugar-binding site in coronavirus NTDs to be above the {beta}-sandwich core. We propose that coronavirus NTDs originated from a host galectin and retained sugar-binding functions in some contemporary coronaviruses, but evolved new structural features in MHV for mCEACAM1a binding.

  12. Ligand photo-isomerization triggers conformational changes in iGluR2 ligand binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Wolter

    Full Text Available Neurological glutamate receptors bind a variety of artificial ligands, both agonistic and antagonistic, in addition to glutamate. Studying their small molecule binding properties increases our understanding of the central nervous system and a variety of associated pathologies. The large, oligomeric multidomain membrane protein contains a large and flexible ligand binding domains which undergoes large conformational changes upon binding different ligands. A recent application of glutamate receptors is their activation or inhibition via photo-switchable ligands, making them key systems in the emerging field of optochemical genetics. In this work, we present a theoretical study on the binding mode and complex stability of a novel photo-switchable ligand, ATA-3, which reversibly binds to glutamate receptors ligand binding domains (LBDs. We propose two possible binding modes for this ligand based on flexible ligand docking calculations and show one of them to be analogues to the binding mode of a similar ligand, 2-BnTetAMPA. In long MD simulations, it was observed that transitions between both binding poses involve breaking and reforming the T686-E402 protein hydrogen bond. Simulating the ligand photo-isomerization process shows that the two possible configurations of the ligand azo-group have markedly different complex stabilities and equilibrium binding modes. A strong but slow protein response is observed after ligand configuration changes. This provides a microscopic foundation for the observed difference in ligand activity upon light-switching.

  13. Prediction of small molecule binding property of protein domains with Bayesian classifiers based on Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulashevska, Alla; Stein, Martin; Jackson, David; Eils, Roland

    2009-12-01

    Accurate computational methods that can help to predict biological function of a protein from its sequence are of great interest to research biologists and pharmaceutical companies. One approach to assume the function of proteins is to predict the interactions between proteins and other molecules. In this work, we propose a machine learning method that uses a primary sequence of a domain to predict its propensity for interaction with small molecules. By curating the Pfam database with respect to the small molecule binding ability of its component domains, we have constructed a dataset of small molecule binding and non-binding domains. This dataset was then used as training set to learn a Bayesian classifier, which should distinguish members of each class. The domain sequences of both classes are modelled with Markov chains. In a Jack-knife test, our classification procedure achieved the predictive accuracies of 77.2% and 66.7% for binding and non-binding classes respectively. We demonstrate the applicability of our classifier by using it to identify previously unknown small molecule binding domains. Our predictions are available as supplementary material and can provide very useful information to drug discovery specialists. Given the ubiquitous and essential role small molecules play in biological processes, our method is important for identifying pharmaceutically relevant components of complete proteomes. The software is available from the author upon request.

  14. Functional Equivalence of Retroviral MA Domains in Facilitating Psi RNA Binding Specificity by Gag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffiny Rye-McCurdy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses specifically package full-length, dimeric genomic RNA (gRNA even in the presence of a vast excess of cellular RNA. The “psi” (Ψ element within the 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR of gRNA is critical for packaging through interaction with the nucleocapsid (NC domain of Gag. However, in vitro Gag binding affinity for Ψ versus non-Ψ RNAs is not significantly different. Previous salt-titration binding assays revealed that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Gag bound to Ψ RNA with high specificity and relatively few charge interactions, whereas binding to non-Ψ RNA was less specific and involved more electrostatic interactions. The NC domain was critical for specific Ψ binding, but surprisingly, a Gag mutant lacking the matrix (MA domain was less effective at discriminating Ψ from non-Ψ RNA. We now find that Rous sarcoma virus (RSV Gag also effectively discriminates RSV Ψ from non-Ψ RNA in a MA-dependent manner. Interestingly, Gag chimeras, wherein the HIV-1 and RSV MA domains were swapped, maintained high binding specificity to cognate Ψ RNAs. Using Ψ RNA mutant constructs, determinants responsible for promoting high Gag binding specificity were identified in both systems. Taken together, these studies reveal the functional equivalence of HIV-1 and RSV MA domains in facilitating Ψ RNA selectivity by Gag, as well as Ψ elements that promote this selectivity.

  15. Investigation of Starch Binding Domains for Improvement of Starch degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Camilla

    dikinase (GWD). GWD kan fosforylere i C-3 og C-6 positionen i glukose enhederne i stivelse, ved en dikinase reaktion der anvender β-fosfat fra ATP. Mutanter i Arabidopsis thaliana GWD1 udviser en stivelses overskud fænotype med en lavere stivelses nedbrydnings rate, hvilket påviser en forbindelse mellem......-hydrolyserende enzymer. Den overordnede struktur fundet hos CBM20 er ifølge en homologimodellering bevaret i GWD3-SBD og bindings site 1, som er involveret i initial binding er vel bevaret både i strukturen og på sekvens niveau. Sammenlignet med andre karakteriserede CBM20, så har GWD3-SBD et mindre loop i området...

  16. Novel predicted RNA-binding domains associated with the translation machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, L; Koonin, E V

    1999-03-01

    Two previously undetected domains were identified in a variety of RNA-binding proteins, particularly RNA-modifying enzymes, using methods for sequence profile analysis. A small domain consisting of 60-65 amino acid residues was detected in the ribosomal protein S4, two families of pseudouridine synthases, a novel family of predicted RNA methylases, a yeast protein containing a pseudouridine synthetase and a deaminase domain, bacterial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases, and a number of uncharacterized, small proteins that may be involved in translation regulation. Another novel domain, designated PUA domain, after PseudoUridine synthase and Archaeosine transglycosylase, was detected in archaeal and eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases, archaeal archaeosine synthases, a family of predicted ATPases that may be involved in RNA modification, a family of predicted archaeal and bacterial rRNA methylases. Additionally, the PUA domain was detected in a family of eukaryotic proteins that also contain a domain homologous to the translation initiation factor eIF1/SUI1; these proteins may comprise a novel type of translation factors. Unexpectedly, the PUA domain was detected also in bacterial and yeast glutamate kinases; this is compatible with the demonstrated role of these enzymes in the regulation of the expression of other genes. We propose that the S4 domain and the PUA domain bind RNA molecules with complex folded structures, adding to the growing collection of nucleic acid-binding domains associated with DNA and RNA modification enzymes. The evolution of the translation machinery components containing the S4, PUA, and SUI1 domains must have included several events of lateral gene transfer and gene loss as well as lineage-specific domain fusions.

  17. Sequence diversity in the A domain of Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speziale Pietro

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA mediates adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to fibronectin, fibrinogen and elastin. We previously reported that S. aureus strain P1 encodes an FnBPA protein where the fibrinogen/elastin-binding domain (A domain is substantially divergent in amino acid sequence from the archetypal FnBPA of S. aureus NCTC8325, and that these variations created differences in antigenicity. In this study strains from multilocus sequence types (MLST that spanned the genetic diversity of S.aureus were examined to determine the extent of FnBPA A domain variation within the S. aureus population and its effect on ligand binding and immuno-crossreactivity. Results Seven different isotype forms (I – VII of the FnBPA A domain were identified which were between 66 to 76% identical in amino acid sequence in any pair-wise alignment. The fnbA allelic variants in strains of different multilocus sequence type were identified by DNA hybridization using probes specific for sequences encoding the highly divergent N3 sub-domain of different isotypes. Several isotypes were not restricted to specific clones or clonal complexes but were more widely distributed. It is highly likely that certain fnbA genes have been transferred horizontally. Residues lining the putative ligand-binding trench were conserved, which is consistent with the ability of each A domain isotype to bind immobilized fibrinogen and elastin by the dock-latch-lock mechanism. Variant amino acid residues were mapped on a three-dimensional model of the FnBPA A domain and were predicted to be surface-exposed. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant isotype I A domain bound that protein with a 4 – 7 fold higher apparent affinity compared to the A domains of isotypes II – VII, while some monoclonal antibodies generated against the isotype I A domain showed reduced or no binding to the other isotypes. Conclusion The FnBPA A domain occurs in at least 7

  18. FF domains of CA150 bind transcription and splicing factors through multiple weak interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Kulkarni, Sarang; Pawson, Tony

    2004-11-01

    The human transcription factor CA150 modulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene transcription and contains numerous signaling elements, including six FF domains. Repeated FF domains are present in several transcription and splicing factors and can recognize phosphoserine motifs in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Using mass spectrometry, we identify a number of nuclear binding partners for the CA150 FF domains and demonstrate a direct interaction between CA150 and Tat-SF1, a protein involved in the coupling of splicing and transcription. CA150 FF domains recognize multiple sites within the Tat-SF1 protein conforming to the consensus motif (D/E)(2/5)-F/W/Y-(D/E)(2/5). Individual FF domains are capable of interacting with Tat-SF1 peptide ligands in an equivalent and noncooperative manner, with affinities ranging from 150 to 500 microM. Repeated FF domains therefore appear to bind their targets through multiple weak interactions with motifs comprised of negatively charged residues flanking aromatic amino acids. The RNAPII CTD represents a consensus FF domain-binding site, contingent on generation of the requisite negative charges by phosphorylation of serines 2 and 5. We propose that CA150, through the dual recognition of acidic motifs in proteins such as Tat-SF1 and the phosphorylated CTD, could mediate the recruitment of transcription and splicing factors to actively transcribing RNAPII.

  19. The crystal structure of the FAD/NADPH-binding domain of flavocytochrome P450 BM3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Michael G; Ekanem, Idorenyin S; Roitel, Olivier; Dunford, Adrian J; Neeli, Rajasekhar; Girvan, Hazel M; Baker, George J; Curtis, Robin A; Munro, Andrew W; Leys, David

    2012-05-01

    We report the crystal structure of the FAD/NADPH-binding domain (FAD domain) of the biotechnologically important Bacillus megaterium flavocytochrome P450 BM3, the last domain of the enzyme to be structurally resolved. The structure was solved in both the absence and presence of the ligand NADP(+), identifying important protein interactions with the NADPH 2'-phosphate that helps to dictate specificity for NADPH over NADH, and involving residues Tyr974, Arg966, Lys972 and Ser965. The Trp1046 side chain shields the FAD isoalloxazine ring from NADPH, and motion of this residue is required to enable NADPH-dependent FAD reduction. Multiple binding interactions stabilize the FAD cofactor, including aromatic stacking with the adenine group from the side chains of Tyr860 and Trp854, and several interactions with FAD pyrophosphate oxygens, including bonding to tyrosines 828, 829 and 860. Mutagenesis of C773 and C999 to alanine was required for successful crystallization, with C773A predicted to disfavour intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonding. Multiangle laser light scattering analysis showed wild-type FAD domain to be near-exclusively dimeric, with dimer disruption achieved on treatment with the reducing agent dithiothreitol. By contrast, light scattering showed that the C773A/C999A FAD domain was monomeric. The C773A/C999A FAD domain structure confirms that Ala773 is surface exposed and in close proximity to Cys810, with this region of the enzyme's connecting domain (that links the FAD domain to the FMN-binding domain in P450 BM3) located at a crystal contact interface between FAD domains. The FAD domain crystal structure enables molecular modelling of its interactions with its cognate FMN (flavodoxin-like) domain within the BM3 reductase module.

  20. MARs Wars: heterogeneity and clustering of DNA-binding domains in the nuclear matrix

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    Ioudinkova E. S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. CO326 is a chicken nuclear scaffold/matrix attachment region (MAR associated with the nuclear matrix in several types of chicken cells. It contains a binding site for a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, F326. We have studied its interaction with the nuclear matrix. Methods. We have used an in vitro MAR assay with isolated matrices from chicken HD3 cells. Results. We have found that an oligonucleotide binding site for the F326 inhibits binding of the CO326 to the nuclear matrix. At the same time, the binding of heterologous MARs is enhanced. Conclusions. Taken together, these data suggest that there exist several classes of MARs and MAR-binding domains and that the MAR-binding proteins may be clustered in the nuclear matrix.

  1. Two unique ligand-binding clamps of Rhizopus oryzae starch binding domain for helical structure disruption of amylose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available The N-terminal starch binding domain of Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (RoSBD has a high binding affinity for raw starch. RoSBD has two ligand-binding sites, each containing a ligand-binding clamp: a polyN clamp residing near binding site I is unique in that it is expressed in only three members of carbohydrate binding module family 21 (CBM21 members, and a Y32/F58 clamp located at binding site II is conserved in several CBMs. Here we characterized different roles of these sites in the binding of insoluble and soluble starches using an amylose-iodine complex assay, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural bioinformatics. RoSBD induced the release of iodine from the amylose helical cavity and disrupted the helical structure of amylose type III, thereby significantly diminishing the thickness and length of the amylose type III fibrils. A point mutation in the critical ligand-binding residues of sites I and II, however, reduced both the binding affinity and amylose helix disruption. This is the first molecular model for structure disruption of the amylose helix by a non-hydrolytic CBM21 member. RoSBD apparently twists the helical amylose strands apart to expose more ligand surface for further SBD binding. Repeating the process triggers the relaxation and unwinding of amylose helices to generate thinner and shorter amylose fibrils, which are more susceptible to hydrolysis by glucoamylase. This model aids in understanding the natural roles of CBMs in protein-glycan interactions and contributes to potential molecular engineering of CBMs.

  2. Rolling adhesion of alphaL I domain mutants decorrelated from binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Lauren R; Hammer, Daniel A; Boder, Eric T

    2006-06-30

    Activated lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, alphaLbeta2 integrin) found on leukocytes facilitates firm adhesion to endothelial cell layers by binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is up-regulated on endothelial cells at sites of inflammation. Recent work has shown that LFA-1 in a pre-activation, low-affinity state may also be involved in the initial tethering and rolling phase of the adhesion cascade. The inserted (I) domain of LFA-1 contains the ligand-binding epitope of the molecule, and a conformational change in this region during activation increases ligand affinity. We have displayed wild-type I domain on the surface of yeast and validated expression using I domain specific antibodies and flow cytometry. Surface display of I domain supports yeast rolling on ICAM-1-coated surfaces under shear flow. Expression of a locked open, high-affinity I domain mutant supports firm adhesion of yeast, while yeast displaying intermediate-affinity I domain mutants exhibit a range of rolling phenotypes. We find that rolling behavior for these mutants fails to correlate with ligand binding affinity. These results indicate that unstressed binding affinity is not the only molecular property that determines adhesive behavior under shear flow.

  3. Structure of the C-terminal heme-binding domain of THAP domain containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2012-03-15

    The thanatos (the Greek god of death)-associated protein (THAP) domain is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that contains a C2-CH (Cys-Xaa{sub 2-4}-Cys-Xaa{sub 35-50}-Cys-Xaa{sub 2}-His) zinc finger that is similar to the DNA domain of the P element transposase from Drosophila. THAP-containing proteins have been observed in the proteome of humans, pigs, cows, chickens, zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans, and Xenopus. To date, there are no known THAP domain proteins in plants, yeast, or bacteria. There are 12 identified human THAP domain-containing proteins (THAP0-11). In all human THAP protein, the THAP domain is located at the N-terminus and is {approx}90 residues in length. Although all of the human THAP-containing proteins have a homologous N-terminus, there is extensive variation in both the predicted structure and length of the remaining protein. Even though the exact function of these THAP proteins is not well defined, there is evidence that they play a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation. THAP-containing proteins have also been implicated in a number of human disease states including heart disease, neurological defects, and several types of cancers. Human THAP4 is a 577-residue protein of unknown function that is proposed to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner similar to THAP1 and has been found to be upregulated in response to heat shock. THAP4 is expressed in a relatively uniform manner in a broad range of tissues and appears to be upregulated in lymphoma cells and highly expressed in heart cells. The C-terminal domain of THAP4 (residues 415-577), designated here as cTHAP4, is evolutionarily conserved and is observed in all known THAP4 orthologs. Several single-domain proteins lacking a THAP domain are found in plants and bacteria and show significant levels of homology to cTHAP4. It appears that cTHAP4 belongs to a large class of proteins that have yet to be fully

  4. Enzyme Architecture: The Activating Oxydianion Binding Domain for Orotidine 5′-Monophophate Decarboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Krisztina; Amyes, Tina L.; Richard, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase catalyzes the decarboxylation of truncated substrate (1-β-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO) to form (1-β-D-erythrofuranosyl)uracil (EU). This enzymecatalyzed reaction is activated by tetrahedral oxydianions, which bind weakly to unliganded OMPDC and tightly to the enzyme-transition state complex, with the following intrinsic oxydianion binding energies (kcal/mole): SO32−, −8.3; HPO32−, −7.7; S2O32−, −4.6; SO42−, −4.5; HOPO32−, −3.0; HOAsO32−, no activation detected. We propose that oxydianion and orotate binding domains perform complementary functions in catalysis of decarboxylation reactions. (1) The orotate binding domain carries out decarboxylation of the orotate ring. (2) The activating oxydianion binding domain has the cryptic function of utilizing binding interactions with tetrahedral inorganic oxydianions to drive an enzyme conformational change that results in the stabilization of transition states at the distant orotate domain. PMID:24274746

  5. Enzyme architecture: the activating oxydianion binding domain for orotidine 5'-monophophate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Krisztina; Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P

    2013-12-11

    Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase catalyzes the decarboxylation of truncated substrate (1-β-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid to form (1-β-D-erythrofuranosyl)uracil. This enzyme-catalyzed reaction is activated by tetrahedral oxydianions, which bind weakly to unliganded OMPDC and tightly to the enzyme-transition state complex, with the following intrinsic oxydianion binding energies (kcal/mol): SO3(2-), -8.3; HPO3(2-), -7.7; S2O3(2-), -4.6; SO4(2-), -4.5; HOPO3(2-), -3.0; HOAsO3(2-), no activation detected. We propose that the oxydianion and orotate binding domains of OMPDC perform complementary functions in catalysis of decarboxylation reactions: (1) The orotate binding domain carries out decarboxylation of the orotate ring. (2) The activating oxydianion binding domain has the cryptic function of utilizing binding interactions with tetrahedral inorganic oxydianions to drive an enzyme conformational change that results in the stabilization of transition states at the distant orotate domain.

  6. Structural Dynamics of the Glycine-binding Domain of the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolino, Drew M.; Cooper, David; Ramaswamy, Swarna; Jaurich, Henriette; Landes, Christy F.; Jayaraman, Vasanthi

    2015-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors mediate the slow component of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. These receptors are obligate heteromers containing glycine- and glutamate-binding subunits. The ligands bind to a bilobed agonist-binding domain of the receptor. Previous x-ray structures of the glycine-binding domain of NMDA receptors showed no significant changes between the partial and full agonist-bound structures. Here we have used single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to investigate the cleft closure conformational states that the glycine-binding domain of the receptor adopts in the presence of the antagonist 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA), the partial agonists 1-amino-1-cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (ACBC) and l-alanine, and full agonists glycine and d-serine. For these studies, we have incorporated the unnatural amino acid p-acetyl-l-phenylalanine for specific labeling of the protein with hydrazide derivatives of fluorophores. The single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer data show that the agonist-binding domain can adopt a wide range of cleft closure states with significant overlap in the states occupied by ligands of varying efficacy. The difference lies in the fraction of the protein in a more closed-cleft form, with full agonists having a larger fraction in the closed-cleft form, suggesting that the ability of ligands to select for these states could dictate the extent of activation. PMID:25404733

  7. Tenascin C promiscuously binds growth factors via its fifth fibronectin type III-like domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Laporte

    Full Text Available Tenascin C (TNC is an extracellular matrix protein that is upregulated during development as well as tissue remodeling. TNC is comprised of multiple independent folding domains, including 15 fibronectin type III-like (TNCIII domains. The fifth TNCIII domain (TNCIII5 has previously been shown to bind heparin. Our group has shown that the heparin-binding fibronectin type III domains of fibronectin (FNIII, specifically FNIII12-14, possess affinity towards a large number of growth factors. Here, we show that TNCIII5 binds growth factors promiscuously and with high affinity. We produced recombinant fragments of TNC representing the first five TNCIII repeats (TNCIII1-5, as well as subdomains, including TNCIII5, to study interactions with various growth factors. Multiple growth factors of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF family, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF family, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily, the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGF-BPs, and neurotrophins were found to bind with high affinity to this region of TNC, specifically to TNCIII5. Surface plasmon resonance was performed to analyze the kinetics of binding of TNCIII1-5 with TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, NT-3, and FGF-2. The promiscuous yet high affinity of TNC for a wide array of growth factors, mediated mainly by TNCIII5, may play a role in multiple physiological and pathological processes involving TNC.

  8. Modulation of oncogenic DBL activity by phosphoinositol phosphate binding to pleckstrin homology domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, C; Gao, Y; Mancini, P; Vanni, C; Porotto, M; Falasca, M; Torrisi, M R; Zheng, Y; Eva, A

    2001-06-01

    The Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) contain a region of sequence similarity consisting of a catalytic Dbl homology (DH) domain in tandem with a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. PH domains are involved in the regulated targeting of signaling molecules to plasma membranes by protein-protein and/or protein-lipid interactions. Here we show that Dbl PH domain binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate results in the inhibition of Dbl GEF activity on Rho family GTPase Cdc42. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding to the PH domain significantly inhibits the Cdc42 interactive activity of the DH domain suggesting that the DH domain is subjected to the PH domain modulation under the influence of phosphoinositides (PIPs). We generated Dbl mutants unable to interact with PIPs. These mutants retained GEF activity on Cdc42 in the presence of PIPs and showed a markedly enhanced activating potential for both Cdc42 and RhoA in vivo while displaying decreased cellular transforming activity. Immunofluorescence analysis of NIH3T3 transfectants revealed that whereas the PH domain localizes to actin stress fibers and plasma membrane, the PH mutants are no longer detectable on the plasma membrane. These results suggest that modulation of PIPs in both the GEF catalytic activity and the targeting to plasma membrane determines the outcome of the biologic activity of Dbl.

  9. The myosin-binding UCS domain but not the Hsp90-binding TPR domain of the UNC-45 chaperone is essential for function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weiming; Hutagalung, Alex H; Li, Shumin; Epstein, Henry F

    2011-09-15

    The UNC-45 family of molecular chaperones is expressed in metazoan organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. The UNC-45 protein is essential in C. elegans for early body-wall muscle cell development and A-band assembly. We show that the myosin-binding UCS domain of UNC-45 alone is sufficient to rescue lethal unc-45 null mutants arrested in embryonic muscle development and temperature-sensitive loss-of-function unc-45 mutants defective in worm A-band assembly. Removal of the Hsp90-binding TPR domain of UNC-45 does not affect rescue. Similar results were obtained with overexpression of the same fragments in wild-type nematodes when assayed for diminution of myosin accumulation and assembly. Titration experiments show that, on a per molecule basis, UCS has greater activity in C. elegans muscle in vivo than full-length UNC-45 protein, suggesting that UNC-45 is inhibited by either the TPR domain or its interaction with the general chaperone Hsp90. In vitro experiments with purified recombinant C. elegans Hsp90 and UNC-45 proteins show that they compete for binding to C. elegans myosin. Our in vivo genetic and in vitro biochemical experiments are consistent with a novel inhibitory role for Hsp90 with respect to UNC-45 action.

  10. Solution NMR structure and histone binding of the PHD domain of human MLL5.

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    Alexander Lemak

    Full Text Available Mixed Lineage Leukemia 5 (MLL5 is a histone methyltransferase that plays a key role in hematopoiesis, spermatogenesis and cell cycle progression. In addition to its catalytic domain, MLL5 contains a PHD finger domain, a protein module that is often involved in binding to the N-terminus of histone H3. Here we report the NMR solution structure of the MLL5 PHD domain showing a variant of the canonical PHD fold that combines conserved H3 binding features from several classes of other PHD domains (including an aromatic cage along with a novel C-terminal α-helix, not previously seen. We further demonstrate that the PHD domain binds with similar affinity to histone H3 tail peptides di- and tri-methylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me2 and H3K4me3, the former being the putative product of the MLL5 catalytic reaction. This work establishes the PHD domain of MLL5 as a bone fide 'reader' domain of H3K4 methyl marks suggesting that it may guide the spreading or further methylation of this site on chromatin.

  11. A substrate-induced biotin binding pocket in the carboxyltransferase domain of pyruvate carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzan, Adam D; St Maurice, Martin

    2013-07-05

    Biotin-dependent enzymes catalyze carboxyl transfer reactions by efficiently coordinating multiple reactions between spatially distinct active sites. Pyruvate carboxylase (PC), a multifunctional biotin-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the bicarbonate- and MgATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in mammalian tissues. To complete the overall reaction, the tethered biotin prosthetic group must first gain access to the biotin carboxylase domain and become carboxylated and then translocate to the carboxyltransferase domain, where the carboxyl group is transferred from biotin to pyruvate. Here, we report structural and kinetic evidence for the formation of a substrate-induced biotin binding pocket in the carboxyltransferase domain of PC from Rhizobium etli. Structures of the carboxyltransferase domain reveal that R. etli PC occupies a symmetrical conformation in the absence of the biotin carboxylase domain and that the carboxyltransferase domain active site is conformationally rearranged upon pyruvate binding. This conformational change is stabilized by the interaction of the conserved residues Asp(590) and Tyr(628) and results in the formation of the biotin binding pocket. Site-directed mutations at these residues reduce the rate of biotin-dependent reactions but have no effect on the rate of biotin-independent oxaloacetate decarboxylation. Given the conservation with carboxyltransferase domains in oxaloacetate decarboxylase and transcarboxylase, the structure-based mechanism described for PC may be applicable to the larger family of biotin-dependent enzymes.

  12. Allosteric role of the large-scale domain opening in biological catch-binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Yuriy V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2009-05-01

    The proposed model demonstrates the allosteric role of the two-domain region of the receptor protein in the increased lifetimes of biological receptor/ligand bonds subjected to an external force. The interaction between the domains is represented by a bounded potential, containing two minima corresponding to the attached and separated conformations of the two protein domains. The dissociative potential with a single minimum describing receptor/ligand binding fluctuates between deep and shallow states, depending on whether the domains are attached or separated. A number of valuable analytic expressions are derived and are used to interpret experimental data for two catch bonds. The P-selectin/P-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1 (PSGL-1) bond is controlled by the interface between the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and lectin domains of P-selectin, and the type 1 fimbrial adhesive protein (FimH)/mannose bond is governed by the interface between the lectin and pilin domains of FimH. Catch-binding occurs in these systems when the external force stretches the receptor proteins and increases the interdomain distance. The allosteric effect is supported by independent measurements, in which the domains are kept separated by attachment of another ligand. The proposed model accurately describes the experimentally observed anomalous behavior of the lifetimes of the P-selectin/PSGL-1 and FimH/mannose complexes as a function of applied force and provides valuable insights into the mechanism of catch-binding.

  13. The Crystal Structure of the Heparin-Binding Reelin-N Domain of F-Spondin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Kemin; Duquette, Mark; Liu, Jin-huan; Lawler, Jack; Wang, Jia-huai (BIDMC); (DFCI)

    2008-09-23

    The extracellular matrix protein F-spondin mediates axon guidance during neuronal development. Its N-terminal domain, termed the reelin-N domain, is conserved in F-spondins, reelins, and other extracellular matrix proteins. In this study, a recombinant human reelin-N domain has been expressed, purified, and shown to bind heparin. The crystal structure of the reelin-N domain resolved to 2.0 {angstrom} reveals a variant immunoglobulin-like fold and potential heparin-binding sites. Substantial conformational variations even in secondary structure are observed between the two chemically identical reelin-N domains in one crystallographic asymmetric unit. The variations may result from extensive, highly specific interactions across the interface of the two reelin-N domains. The calculated values of buried surface area and the interface's shape complementarity are consistent with the formation of a weak dimer. The homophilic asymmetric dimer can potentially offer advantages in binding to ligands such as glycosaminoglycans, which may, in turn, bridge the two reelin-N domains and stabilize the dimer.

  14. The conserved Tarp actin binding domain is important for chlamydial invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Jewett

    Full Text Available The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp is conserved among all pathogenic chlamydial species. Previous reports identified single C. trachomatis Tarp actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp mediated actin nucleation. A peptide antiserum specific for the Tarp actin binding domain was generated and inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and C. trachomatis entry in vivo, indicating an essential role for Tarp in chlamydial pathogenesis. Sequence analysis of Tarp orthologs from additional chlamydial species and C. trachomatis serovars indicated multiple putative actin binding sites. In order to determine whether the identified actin binding domains are functionally conserved, GST-Tarp fusions from multiple chlamydial species were examined for their ability to bind and nucleate actin. Chlamydial Tarps harbored variable numbers of actin binding sites and promoted actin nucleation as determined by in vitro polymerization assays. Our findings indicate that Tarp mediated actin binding and nucleation is a conserved feature among diverse chlamydial species and this function plays a critical role in bacterial invasion of host cells.

  15. Characterization of high affinity binding motifs for the discoidin domain receptor DDR2 in collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konitsiotis, Antonios D; Raynal, Nicolas; Bihan, Dominique; Hohenester, Erhard; Farndale, Richard W; Leitinger, Birgit

    2008-03-14

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by native triple-helical collagen. Here we have located three specific DDR2 binding sites by screening the entire triple-helical domain of collagen II, using the Collagen II Toolkit, a set of overlapping triple-helical peptides. The peptide sequence that bound DDR2 with highest affinity interestingly contained the sequence for the high affinity binding site for von Willebrand factor in collagen III. Focusing on this sequence, we used a set of truncated and alanine-substituted peptides to characterize the sequence GVMGFO (O is hydroxyproline) as the minimal collagen sequence required for DDR2 binding. Based on a recent NMR analysis of the DDR2 collagen binding domain, we generated a model of the DDR2-collagen interaction that explains why a triple-helical conformation is required for binding. Triple-helical peptides comprising the DDR2 binding motif not only inhibited DDR2 binding to collagen II but also activated DDR2 transmembrane signaling. Thus, DDR2 activation may be effected by single triple-helices rather than fibrillar collagen.

  16. Structure and lipid-binding properties of the kindlin-3 pleckstrin homology domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Tao; Kalli, Antreas C.; Naughton, Fiona B.; Yates, Luke A.; Naneh, Omar; Kozorog, Mirijam; Anderluh, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Kindlins co-activate integrins alongside talin. They possess, like talin, a FERM domain (4.1-erythrin–radixin–moiesin domain) comprising F0–F3 subdomains, but with a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain inserted in the F2 subdomain that enables membrane association. We present the crystal structure of murine kindlin-3 PH domain determined at a resolution of 2.23 Å and characterise its lipid binding using biophysical and computational approaches. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest flexibility in the PH domain loops connecting β-strands forming the putative phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PtdInsP)-binding site. Simulations with PtdInsP-containing bilayers reveal that the PH domain associates with PtdInsP molecules mainly via the positively charged surface presented by the β1–β2 loop and that it binds with somewhat higher affinity to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 compared with PtdIns(4,5)P2. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with lipid headgroups immobilised and the PH domain as an analyte indicate affinities of 300 µM for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and 1 mM for PtdIns(4,5)P2. In contrast, SPR studies with an immobilised PH domain and lipid nanodiscs as the analyte show affinities of 0.40 µM for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and no affinity for PtdIns(4,5)P2 when the inositol phosphate constitutes 5% of the total lipids (∼5 molecules per nanodisc). Reducing the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 composition to 1% abolishes nanodisc binding to the PH domain, as does site-directed mutagenesis of two lysines within the β1–β2 loop. Binding of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 by a canonical PH domain, Grp1, is not similarly influenced by SPR experimental design. These data suggest a role for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 clustering in the binding of some PH domains and not others, highlighting the importance of lipid mobility and clustering for the biophysical assessment of protein–membrane interactions. PMID:27974389

  17. Lectin Domains of Polypeptide GalNAc Transferases Exhibit Glycopeptide Binding Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johannes W; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine T-B G;

    2011-01-01

    UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide a-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) constitute a family of up to 20 transferases that initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation. The transferases are structurally composed of catalytic and lectin domains. Two modes have been identified for the selection...... of glycosylation sites by GalNAc-Ts: confined sequence recognition by the catalytic domain alone, and concerted recognition of acceptor sites and adjacent GalNAc-glycosylated sites by the catalytic and lectin domains, respectively. Thus far, only the catalytic domain has been shown to have peptide sequence...... on sequences of mucins MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6, and MUC7 as well as a random glycopeptide bead library, we examined the binding properties of four different lectin domains. The lectin domains of GalNAc-T1, -T2, -T3, and -T4 bound different subsets of small glycopeptides. These results indicate...

  18. Starch-binding domains in the CBM45 family--low-affinity domains from glucan, water dikinase and α-amylase involved in plastidial starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaring, Mikkel A; Baumann, Martin J; Abou Hachem, Maher; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Natsuko; Santelia, Diana; Sigurskjold, Bent W; Zeeman, Samuel C; Blennow, Andreas; Svensson, Birte

    2011-04-01

    Starch-binding domains are noncatalytic carbohydrate-binding modules that mediate binding to granular starch. The starch-binding domains from the carbohydrate-binding module family 45 (CBM45, http://www.cazy.org) are found as N-terminal tandem repeats in a small number of enzymes, primarily from photosynthesizing organisms. Isolated domains from representatives of each of the two classes of enzyme carrying CBM45-type domains, the Solanum tuberosumα-glucan, water dikinase and the Arabidopsis thaliana plastidial α-amylase 3, were expressed as recombinant proteins and characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to verify the conformational integrity of an isolated CBM45 domain, revealing a surprisingly high thermal stability (T(m) of 84.8 °C). The functionality of CBM45 was demonstrated in planta by yellow/green fluorescent protein fusions and transient expression in tobacco leaves. Affinities for starch and soluble cyclodextrin starch mimics were measured by adsorption assays, surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry analyses. The data indicate that CBM45 binds with an affinity of about two orders of magnitude lower than the classical starch-binding domains from extracellular microbial amylolytic enzymes. This suggests that low-affinity starch-binding domains are a recurring feature in plastidial starch metabolism, and supports the hypothesis that reversible binding, effectuated through low-affinity interaction with starch granules, facilitates dynamic regulation of enzyme activities and, hence, of starch metabolism.

  19. Structure and Notch receptor binding of the tandem WWE domain of Deltex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Mark E; Leahy, Daniel J; Barrick, Doug

    2005-11-01

    Deltex is a cytosolic effector of Notch signaling thought to bind through its N-terminal domain to the Notch receptor. Here we report the structure of the Drosophila Deltex N-terminal domain, which contains two tandem WWE sequence repeats. The WWE repeats, which adopt a novel fold, are related by an approximate two-fold axis of rotation. Although the WWE repeats are structurally distinct, they interact extensively and form a deep cleft at their junction that appears well suited for ligand binding. The two repeats are thermodynamically coupled; this coupling is mediated in part by a conserved segment that is immediately C-terminal to the second WWE domain. We demonstrate that although the Deltex WWE tandem is monomeric in solution, it forms a heterodimer with the ankyrin domain of the Notch receptor. These results provide structural and functional insight into how Deltex modulates Notch signaling, and how WWE modules recognize targets for ubiquitination.

  20. Ligand binding and crystal structures of the substrate-binding domain of the ABC transporter OpuA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina C Wolters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ABC transporter OpuA from Lactococcus lactis transports glycine betaine upon activation by threshold values of ionic strength. In this study, the ligand binding characteristics of purified OpuA in a detergent-solubilized state and of its substrate-binding domain produced as soluble protein (OpuAC was characterized. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The binding of glycine betaine to purified OpuA and OpuAC (K(D = 4-6 microM did not show any salt dependence or cooperative effects, in contrast to the transport activity. OpuAC is highly specific for glycine betaine and the related proline betaine. Other compatible solutes like proline and carnitine bound with affinities that were 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower. The low affinity substrates were not noticeably transported by membrane-reconstituted OpuA. OpuAC was crystallized in an open (1.9 A and closed-liganded (2.3 A conformation. The binding pocket is formed by three tryptophans (Trp-prism coordinating the quaternary ammonium group of glycine betaine in the closed-liganded structure. Even though the binding site of OpuAC is identical to that of its B. subtilis homolog, the affinity for glycine betaine is 4-fold higher. CONCLUSIONS: Ionic strength did not affect substrate binding to OpuA, indicating that regulation of transport is not at the level of substrate binding, but rather at the level of translocation. The overlap between the crystal structures of OpuAC from L.lactis and B.subtilis, comprising the classical Trp-prism, show that the differences observed in the binding affinities originate from outside of the ligand binding site.

  1. Stereoselective binding of mexiletine and ketoprofen enantiomers with human serum albumin domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da SHI; Yin-xiu JIN; Yi-hong TANG; Hai-hong HU; Si-yun XU; Lu-shanYU; Hui-di JIANG; Su ZENG

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the stereoselective binding of mexiletine or ketoprofen enantiomers with different recombinant domains of human serum albumin (HSA).Methods:Three domains (HSA DOM Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ) were expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 cells.Blue Sepharose 6 Fast Flow was employed to purify the recombinant HSA domains.The binding properties of the standard ligands,digitoxin,phenylbutazone and diazepam,and the chiral drugs to HSA domains were investigated using ultrafiltration.The concentrations of the standard ligands,ketoprofen and mexiletine were analyzed with HPLC.Results:The recombinant HSA domains were highly purified as shown by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses,The standard HSA ligands digitoxin,phenylbutazone and diazepam selectively binds to DOM Ⅰ,DOM Ⅱ and DOM Ⅲ,respectively.For the chiral drugs,R-ketoprofen showed a higher binding affinity toward DOM Ⅲ than S-ketoprofen,whereas S-mexiletine bound to DOM Ⅱ with a greater affinity than R-mexiletine.Conclusion:The results demonstrate that HSA DOM Ⅲ possesses the chiral recognition ability for the ketoprofen enantiomers,whereas HSA DOM Ⅱ possesses that for the mexiletine enantiomers.

  2. The high-affinity peptidoglycan binding domain of Pseudomonas phage endolysin KZ144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briers, Yves [Division of Gene Technology, Department of Biosystems, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 21, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schmelcher, Mathias; Loessner, Martin J. [Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, ETH Zuerich, Schmelzbergstrasse 7, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Hendrix, Jelle; Engelborghs, Yves [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Volckaert, Guido [Division of Gene Technology, Department of Biosystems, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 21, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lavigne, Rob, E-mail: rob.lavigne@biw.kuleuven.be [Division of Gene Technology, Department of Biosystems, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 21, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-05-29

    The binding affinity of the N-terminal peptidoglycan binding domain of endolysin KZ144 (PBD{sub KZ}), originating from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage {phi}KZ, has been examined using a fusion protein of PBD{sub KZ} and green fluorescent protein (PBD{sub KZ}-GFP). A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis of bound PBD{sub KZ}-GFP molecules showed less than 10% fluorescence recovery in the bleached area within 15 min. Surface plasmon resonance analysis confirmed this apparent high binding affinity revealing an equilibrium affinity constant of 2.95 x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1} for the PBD{sub KZ}-peptidoglycan interaction. This unique domain, which binds to the peptidoglycan of all tested Gram-negative species, was harnessed to improve the specific activity of the peptidoglycan hydrolase domain KMV36C. The chimeric peptidoglycan hydrolase (PBD{sub KZ}-KMV36C) exhibits a threefold higher specific activity than the native catalytic domain (KMV36C). These results demonstrate that the modular assembly of functional domains is a rational approach to improve the specific activity of endolysins from phages infecting Gram-negatives.

  3. Glucoamylase starch-binding domain of Aspergillus niger B1: molecular cloning and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldi, Tzur; Levy, Ilan; Shoseyov, Oded

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are protein domains located within a carbohydrate-active enzyme, with a discrete fold that can be separated from the catalytic domain. Starch-binding domains (SBDs) are CBMs that are usually found at the C-terminus in many amylolytic enzymes. The SBD from Aspergillus niger B1 (CMI CC 324262) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as an independent domain and the recombinant protein was purified on starch. The A. niger B1 SBD was found to be similar to SBD from A. kawachii, A. niger var. awamori and A. shirusami (95-96% identity) and was classified as a member of the CBM family 20. Characterization of SBD binding to starch indicated that it is essentially irreversible and that its affinity to cationic or anionic starch, as well as to potato or corn starch, does not differ significantly. These observations indicate that the fundamental binding area on these starches is essentially the same. Natural and chemically modified starches are among the most useful biopolymers employed in the industry. Our study demonstrates that SBD binds effectively to both anionic and cationic starch. PMID:12646045

  4. Secretory vesicle priming by CAPS is independent of the SNARE-bind MUN domain

    OpenAIRE

    Cuc Quynh Nguyen Truong; Dennis Nestvogel; Olga Ratai; Claudia Schirra; David R. Stevens; Nils Brose; JeongSeop Rhee; Jens Rettig

    2014-01-01

    Priming of secretory vesicles is a prerequisite for their Ca2+-dependent fusion with the plasma membrane. The key vesicle priming proteins, Munc13s and CAPSs, are thought to mediate vesicle priming by regulating the conformation of the t-SNARE syntaxin, thereby facilitating SNARE complex assembly. Munc13s execute their priming function through their MUN domain. Given that the MUN domain of Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS) also binds syntaxin, it was assumed that CAPSs pri...

  5. Atomic force microscopy study of cellulose surface interaction controlled by cellulose binding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Nigmatullin, R.; Lovitt, R.; Wright, C; Linder, M.; Nakari-Setälä, T; Gama, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    Colloidal probe microscopy has been used to study the interaction between model cellulose surfaces and the role of cellulose binding domain (CBD), peptides specifically binding to cellulose, in interfacial interaction of cellulose surfaces modified with CBDs. The interaction between pure cellulose surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solution is dominated by double layer repulsive forces with the range and magnitude of the net force dependent on electrolyte concentration. AFM imaging reve...

  6. Structures of apo IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains: effect of loop L1 on DNA binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ioannes, Pablo; Escalante, Carlos R.; Aggarwal, Aneel K. (VCU); (Mount Sinai Hospital)

    2013-11-20

    Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 are transcription factors essential in the activation of interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) gene in response to viral infections. Although, both proteins recognize the same consensus IRF binding site AANNGAAA, they have distinct DNA binding preferences for sites in vivo. The X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains (DBDs) bound to IFN-{beta} promoter elements revealed flexibility in the loops (L1-L3) and the residues that make contacts with the target sequence. To characterize the conformational changes that occur on DNA binding and how they differ between IRF family members, we have solved the X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DBDs in the absence of DNA. We found that loop L1, carrying the conserved histidine that interacts with the DNA minor groove, is disordered in apo IRF-3 but is ordered in apo IRF-7. This is reflected in differences in DNA binding affinities when the conserved histidine in loop L1 is mutated to alanine in the two proteins. The stability of loop L1 in IRF-7 derives from a unique combination of hydrophobic residues that pack against the protein core. Together, our data show that differences in flexibility of loop L1 are an important determinant of differential IRF-DNA binding.

  7. Binding of Y-box proteins to RNA: involvement of different protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomery, M; Sommerville, J

    1994-01-01

    Eukaryotic Y-box proteins are reported to interact with a wide variety of nucleic acid structures to act as transcription factors and mRNA masking proteins. The modular structure of Y-box proteins includes a highly conserved N-terminal cold-shock domain (CSD, equivalent to the bacterial cold-shock proteins) plus four basic C-terminal domains containing arginine clusters and aromatic residues. In addition, the basic domains are separated by acidic regions which contain several potential sites for serine/threonine phosphorylation. The interaction of Y-box proteins, isolated from Xenopus oocytes (FRGY2 type), with RNA molecules has been studied by UV crosslinking and protein fragmentation. We have identified two distinct binding activities. The CSD interacts preferentially with the polypurines poly(A,G) and poly(G) but not poly(A), this activity being sensitive to 5 mM MgCl2 but not to 5 mM spermidine. In the presence of 1 mM MgCl2 or 1 mM spermidine, the basic domains interact preferentially with poly(C,U), this activity being sensitive to 0.5 M NaCl. Binding of the basic domains is also sensitive to low concentrations of heparin. The basic domains can be crosslinked individually to labelled RNA. These results are discussed with reference to the various specificities noted in the binding of Y-box proteins to RNA and DNA. Images PMID:7530842

  8. SLIDE, the Protein Interacting Domain of Imitation Switch Remodelers, Binds DDT-Domain Proteins of Different Subfamilies in Chromatin Remodeling Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqiang Dong; Zheng Gao; Shujing Liu; Guang Li; Zhongnan Yang; Hai Huang; Lin Xu

    2013-01-01

    The Imitation Switch (ISWI) type adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling factors are conserved proteins in eukaryotes, and some of them are known to form stable remodeling complexes with members from a family of proteins, termed DDT-domain proteins. Although it is well documented that ISWIs play important roles in different biological processes in many eukaryotic species, the molecular basis for protein interactions in ISWI complexes has not been fully addressed. Here, we report the identification of interaction domains for both ISWI and DDT-domain proteins. By analyzing CHROMATIN REMODELING11 (CHR11) and RINGLET1 (RLT1), an Arabidopsis thaliana ISWI (AtISWI) and AtDDT-domain protein, respectively, we show that the SLIDE domain of CHR11 and the DDT domain together with an adjacent sequence of RLT1 are responsible for their binding. The Arabidopsis genome contains at least 12 genes that encode DDT-domain proteins, which could be grouped into five subfamilies based on the sequence similarity. The SLIDE domain of AtISWI is able to bind members from different AtDDT subfamilies. Moreover, a human ISWI protein SNF2H is capable of binding AtDDT-domain proteins through its SLIDE domain, suggesting that binding to DDT-domain proteins is a conserved biochemical function for the SLIDE domain of ISWIs in eukaryotes.

  9. Cross-talk between the ligand- and DNA-binding domains of estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Greene, Geoffrey L; Ravikumar, Krishnakumar M; Yang, Sichun

    2013-11-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a hormone-responsive transcription factor that contains several discrete functional domains, including a ligand-binding domain (LBD) and a DNA-binding domain (DBD). Despite a wealth of knowledge about the behaviors of individual domains, the molecular mechanisms of cross-talk between LBD and DBD during signal transduction from hormone to DNA-binding of ERα remain elusive. Here, we apply a multiscale approach combining coarse-grained (CG) and atomistically detailed simulations to characterize this cross-talk mechanism via an investigation of the ERα conformational landscape. First, a CG model of ERα is built based on crystal structures of individual LBDs and DBDs, with more emphasis on their interdomain interactions. Second, molecular dynamics simulations are implemented and enhanced sampling is achieved via the "push-pull-release" strategy in the search for different LBD-DBD orientations. Third, multiple energetically stable ERα conformations are identified on the landscape. A key finding is that estradiol-bound LBDs utilize the well-described activation helix H12 to pack and stabilize LBD-DBD interactions. Our results suggest that the estradiol-bound LBDs can serve as a scaffold to position and stabilize the DBD-DNA complex, consistent with experimental observations of enhanced DNA binding with the LBD. Final assessment using atomic-level simulations shows that these CG-predicted models are significantly stable within a 15-ns simulation window and that specific pairs of lysine residues in close proximity at the domain interfaces could serve as candidate sites for chemical cross-linking studies. Together, these simulation results provide a molecular view of the role of ERα domain interactions in response to hormone binding.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of PDZ domain binding reveals inherent functional overlap within the PDZ interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aartjan J W te Velthuis

    Full Text Available Binding selectivity and cross-reactivity within one of the largest and most abundant interaction domain families, the PDZ family, has long been enigmatic. The complete human PDZ domain complement (the PDZome consists of 267 domains and we applied here a Bayesian selectivity model to predict hundreds of human PDZ domain interactions, using target sequences of 22,997 non-redundant proteins. Subsequent analysis of these binding scores shows that PDZs can be divided into two genome-wide clusters that coincide well with the division between canonical class 1 and 2 PDZs. Within the class 1 PDZs we observed binding overlap at unprecedented levels, mediated by two residues at positions 1 and 5 of the second α-helix of the binding pocket. Eight PDZ domains were subsequently selected for experimental binding studies and to verify the basics of our predictions. Overall, the PDZ domain class 1 cross-reactivity identified here implies that auxiliary mechanisms must be in place to overcome this inherent functional overlap and to minimize cross-selectivity within the living cell. Indeed, when we superimpose PDZ domain binding affinities with gene ontologies, network topology data and the domain position within a PDZ superfamily protein, functional overlap is minimized and PDZ domains position optimally in the binding space. We therefore propose that PDZ domain selectivity is achieved through cellular context rather than inherent binding specificity.

  11. Human formyl peptide receptor ligand binding domain(s). Studies using an improved mutagenesis/expression vector reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of receptor occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, H D; Vilander, L; Andrews, W H; Holmes, R

    1994-09-09

    Recently, we reported the domain requirements for the binding of formyl peptide to its specific receptor. Based on experiments using receptor chimeras, we also postulated an importance for the amino-terminal domain of the receptor in ligand binding (Perez, H. D., Holmes, R., Vilander, L., Adams, R., Manzana, W., Jolley, D., and Andrews, W. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2292-2295). We have begun to perform a detailed analysis of the regions within the formyl peptide receptor involved in ligand binding. To address the importance of the receptor amino-terminal domain, we substituted (or inserted) hydrophilic sequences within the amino-terminal domain, expressed the receptors, and determined their ability to bind ligand. A stretch of nine amino acids next to the initial methionine was identified as crucial for receptor occupancy. A peptide containing such a sequence specifically completed binding of the ligand to the receptor. Alanine screen mutagenesis of the second extracellular domain also identified amino acids involved in ligand binding as well as a disulfide bond (Cys98 to Cys176) crucial for maintaining the binding pocket. These studies provide evidence for a novel mechanism involved in regulation of receptor occupancy. Binding of the ligand induces conformational changes in the receptor that result in the apposition of the amino-terminal domain over the ligand, providing a lid to the binding pocket.

  12. Conserved SMP domains of the ERMES complex bind phospholipids and mediate tether assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhYoung, Andrew P; Jiang, Jiansen; Zhang, Jiang; Khoi Dang, Xuan; Loo, Joseph A; Zhou, Z Hong; Egea, Pascal F

    2015-06-23

    Membrane contact sites (MCS) between organelles are proposed as nexuses for the exchange of lipids, small molecules, and other signals crucial to cellular function and homeostasis. Various protein complexes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial encounter structure (ERMES), function as dynamic molecular tethers between organelles. Here, we report the reconstitution and characterization of subcomplexes formed by the cytoplasm-exposed synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial lipid-binding protein (SMP) domains present in three of the five ERMES subunits--the soluble protein Mdm12, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident membrane protein Mmm1, and the mitochondrial membrane protein Mdm34. SMP domains are conserved lipid-binding domains found exclusively in proteins at MCS. We show that the SMP domains of Mdm12 and Mmm1 associate into a tight heterotetramer with equimolecular stoichiometry. Our 17-Å-resolution EM structure of the complex reveals an elongated crescent-shaped particle in which two Mdm12 subunits occupy symmetric but distal positions at the opposite ends of a central ER-anchored Mmm1 homodimer. Rigid body fitting of homology models of these SMP domains in the density maps reveals a distinctive extended tubular structure likely traversed by a hydrophobic tunnel. Furthermore, these two SMP domains bind phospholipids and display a strong preference for phosphatidylcholines, a class of phospholipids whose exchange between the ER and mitochondria is essential. Last, we show that the three SMP-containing ERMES subunits form a ternary complex in which Mdm12 bridges Mmm1 to Mdm34. Our findings highlight roles for SMP domains in ERMES assembly and phospholipid binding and suggest a structure-based mechanism for the facilitated transport of phospholipids between organelles.

  13. In Silico Docking, Molecular Dynamics and Binding Energy Insights into the Bolinaquinone-Clathrin Terminal Domain Binding Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed K. Abdel-Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME is a process that regulates selective internalization of important cellular cargo using clathrin-coated vesicles. Perturbation of this process has been linked to many diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative conditions. Chemical proteomics identified the marine metabolite, 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-(((1S,4aS,8aS-1,4a,5-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethylcyclohexa- 2,5-diene-1,4-dione (bolinaquinone as a clathrin inhibitor. While being an attractive medicinal chemistry target, the lack of data about bolinaquinone’s mode of binding to the clathrin enzyme represents a major limitation for its structural optimization. We have used a molecular modeling approach to rationalize the observed activity of bolinaquinone and to predict its mode of binding with the clathrin terminal domain (CTD. The applied protocol started by global rigid-protein docking followed by flexible docking, molecular dynamics and linear interaction energy calculations. The results revealed the potential of bolinaquinone to interact with various pockets within the CTD, including the clathrin-box binding site. The results also highlight the importance of electrostatic contacts over van der Waals interactions for proper binding between bolinaquinone and its possible binding sites. This study provides a novel model that has the potential to allow rapid elaboration of bolinaquinone analogues as a new class of clathrin inhibitors.

  14. Kits and methods of detection using cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  15. A Conserved Myc Protein Domain, MBIV, Regulates DNA Binding, Apoptosis, Transformation, and G2 Arrest†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Victoria H.; Chandriani, Sanjay; Whitfield, Michael L.; Cole, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The myc family of oncogenes is well conserved throughout evolution. Here we present the characterization of a domain conserved in c-, N-, and L-Myc from fish to humans, N-Myc317-337, designated Myc box IV (MBIV). A deletion of this domain leads to a defect in Myc-induced apoptosis and in some transformation assays but not in cell proliferation. Unlike other Myc mutants, MycΔMBIV is not a simple loss-of-function mutant because it is hyperactive for G2 arrest in primary cells. Microarray analysis of genes regulated by N-MycΔMBIV reveals that it is weakened for transactivation and repression but not nearly as defective as N-MycΔMBII. Although the mutated region is not part of the previously defined DNA binding domain, we find that N-MycΔMBIV has a significantly lower affinity for DNA than the wild-type protein in vitro. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation shows reduced binding of N-MycΔMBIV to some target genes in vivo, which correlates with the defect in transactivation. Thus, this conserved domain has an unexpected role in Myc DNA binding activity. These data also provide a novel separation of Myc functions linked to the modulation of DNA binding activity. PMID:16705173

  16. Conformational dynamics in substrate-binding domains influences transport in the ABC importer GlnPQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Schuurman-Wolters, Geesina; Ploetz, Evelyn; Husada, Florence; Vietrov, Ruslan; de Boer, Marijn; Cordes, Thorben; Poolman, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The conformational dynamics in ABC transporters is largely elusive. The ABC importer GlnPQ from Lactococcus lactis has different covalently linked substrate-binding domains (SBDs), thus making it an excellent model system to elucidate the dynamics and role of the SBDs in transport. We demonstrate by

  17. The Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer defines a novel superfamily of prokaryotic small-molecule binding domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Souza Robson F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer (ASRT is a small protein that has been claimed to function as a signaling molecule downstream of the cyanobacterial sensory rhodopsin. However, orthologs of ASRT have been detected in several bacteria that lack rhodopsin, raising questions about the generality of this function. Using sequence profile searches we show that ASRT defines a novel superfamily of β-sandwich fold domains. Through contextual inference based on domain architectures and predicted operons and structural analysis we present strong evidence that these domains bind small molecules, most probably sugars. We propose that the intracellular versions like ASRT probably participate as sensors that regulate a diverse range of sugar metabolism operons or even the light sensory behavior in Anabaena by binding sugars or related metabolites. We also show that one of the extracellular versions define a predicted sugar-binding structure in a novel cell-surface lipoprotein found across actinobacteria, including several pathogens such as Tropheryma, Actinomyces and Thermobifida. The analysis of this superfamily also provides new data to investigate the evolution of carbohydrate binding modes in β-sandwich domains with very different topologies. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by M. Madan Babu and Mark A. Ragan.

  18. Binding of N-methylscopolamine to the extracellular domain of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Zimčík, Pavel; El-Fakahany, Esam E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Interaction of orthosteric ligands with extracellular domain was described at several aminergic G protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The orthosteric antagonists quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and N-methylscopolamine (NMS) bind to the binding pocket of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor formed by transmembrane α-helices. We show that high concentrations of either QNB or NMS slow down dissociation of their radiolabeled species from all five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, suggesting allosteric binding. The affinity of NMS at the allosteric site is in the micromolar range for all receptor subtypes. Using molecular modelling of the M2 receptor we found that E172 and E175 in the second extracellular loop and N419 in the third extracellular loop are involved in allosteric binding of NMS. Mutation of these amino acids to alanine decreased affinity of NMS for the allosteric binding site confirming results of molecular modelling. The allosteric binding site of NMS overlaps with the binding site of some allosteric, ectopic and bitopic ligands. Understanding of interactions of NMS at the allosteric binding site is essential for correct analysis of binding and action of these ligands.

  19. The plasminogen binding site of the C-type lectin tetranectin is located in the carbohydrate recognition domain, and binding is sensitive to both calcium and lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Lorentsen, R H; Jacobsen, C

    1998-01-01

    Tetranectin, a homotrimeric protein belonging to the family of C-type lectins and structurally highly related to corresponding regions of the mannose-binding proteins, is known specifically to bind the plasminogen kringle 4 protein domain, an interaction sensitive to lysine. Surface plasmon...... resonance and isothermal calorimetry binding analyses using single-residue and deletion mutant tetranectin derivatives produced in Escherichia coli showed that the kringle 4 binding site resides in the carbohydrate recognition domain and includes residues of the putative carbohydrate binding site...

  20. Inhibition of Tcf3 binding by I-mfa domain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, L; Thirlwell, H; Miller, J R; Moon, R T; Groudine, M; Tapscott, S J

    2001-03-01

    We have determined that I-mfa, an inhibitor of several basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, and XIC, a Xenopus ortholog of human I-mf domain-containing protein that shares a highly conserved cysteine-rich C-terminal domain with I-mfa, inhibit the activity and DNA binding of the HMG box transcription factor XTcf3. Ectopic expression of I-mfa or XIC in early Xenopus embryos inhibited dorsal axis specification, the expression of the Tcf3/beta-catenin-regulated genes siamois and Xnr3, and the ability of beta-catenin to activate reporter constructs driven by Lef/Tcf binding sites. I-mfa domain proteins can regulate both the Wnt signaling pathway and a subset of bHLH proteins, possibly coordinating the activities of these two critical developmental pathways.

  1. Ligand-specific conformational changes in the alpha1 glycine receptor ligand-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Lynch, Joseph W

    2009-01-01

    indicate that channel opening is accompanied by conformational rearrangements in both beta-sheets. In an attempt to resolve ligand-dependent movements in the ligand-binding domain, we employed voltage-clamp fluorometry on alpha1 glycine receptors to compare changes mediated by the agonist, glycine......, and by the antagonist, strychnine. Voltage-clamp fluorometry involves labeling introduced cysteines with environmentally sensitive fluorophores and inferring structural rearrangements from ligand-induced fluorescence changes. In the inner beta-sheet, we labeled residues in loop 2 and in binding domain loops D and E....... At each position, strychnine and glycine induced distinct maximal fluorescence responses. The pre-M1 domain responded similarly; at each of four labeled positions glycine produced a strong fluorescence signal, whereas strychnine did not. This suggests that glycine induces conformational changes...

  2. Proteolytic dissection of Zab, the Z-DNA-binding domain of human ADAR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, T.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Kim, Y. G.; Li, L.; Brown, B. A. 2nd; Herbert, A.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Zalpha is a peptide motif that binds to Z-DNA with high affinity. This motif binds to alternating dC-dG sequences stabilized in the Z-conformation by means of bromination or supercoiling, but not to B-DNA. Zalpha is part of the N-terminal region of double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1), a candidate enzyme for nuclear pre-mRNA editing in mammals. Zalpha is conserved in ADAR1 from many species; in each case, there is a second similar motif, Zbeta, separated from Zalpha by a more divergent linker. To investigate the structure-function relationship of Zalpha, its domain structure was studied by limited proteolysis. Proteolytic profiles indicated that Zalpha is part of a domain, Zab, of 229 amino acids (residues 133-361 in human ADAR1). This domain contains both Zalpha and Zbeta as well as a tandem repeat of a 49-amino acid linker module. Prolonged proteolysis revealed a minimal core domain of 77 amino acids (positions 133-209), containing only Zalpha, which is sufficient to bind left-handed Z-DNA; however, the substrate binding is strikingly different from that of Zab. The second motif, Zbeta, retains its structural integrity only in the context of Zab and does not bind Z-DNA as a separate entity. These results suggest that Zalpha and Zbeta act as a single bipartite domain. In the presence of substrate DNA, Zab becomes more resistant to proteases, suggesting that it adopts a more rigid structure when bound to its substrate, possibly with conformational changes in parts of the protein.

  3. Stabilization of Nucleotide Binding Domain Dimers Rescues ABCC6 Mutants Associated with Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yanchao; Thibodeau, Patrick H

    2017-02-03

    ABC transporters are polytopic membrane proteins that utilize ATP binding and hydrolysis to facilitate transport across biological membranes. Forty-eight human ABC transporters have been identified in the genome, and the majority of these are linked to heritable disease. Mutations in the ABCC6 (ATP binding cassette transporter C6) ABC transporter are associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, a disease of altered elastic properties in multiple tissues. Although ∼200 mutations have been identified in pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients, the underlying structural defects associated with the majority of these are poorly understood. To evaluate the structural consequences of these missense mutations, a combination of biophysical and cell biological approaches were applied to evaluate the local and global folding and assembly of the ABCC6 protein. Structural and bioinformatic analyses suggested that a cluster of mutations, representing roughly 20% of the patient population with identified missense mutations, are located in the interface between the transmembrane domain and the C-terminal nucleotide binding domain. Biochemical and cell biological analyses demonstrate these mutations influence multiple steps in the biosynthetic pathway, minimally altering local domain structure but adversely impacting ABCC6 assembly and trafficking. The differential impacts on local and global protein structure are consistent with hierarchical folding and assembly of ABCC6. Stabilization of specific domain-domain interactions via targeted amino acid substitution in the catalytic site of the C-terminal nucleotide binding domain restored proper protein trafficking and cell surface localization of multiple biosynthetic mutants. This rescue provides a specific mechanism by which chemical chaperones could be developed for the correction of ABCC6 biosynthetic defects.

  4. Structure of the Vif-binding domain of the antiviral enzyme APOBEC3G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouno, Takahide; Luengas, Elizabeth M; Shigematsu, Megumi; Shandilya, Shivender M D; Zhang, JingYing; Chen, Luan; Hara, Mayuko; Schiffer, Celia A; Harris, Reuben S; Matsuo, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The human APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA cytosine deaminase restricts and hypermutates DNA-based parasites including HIV-1. The viral infectivity factor (Vif) prevents restriction by triggering A3G degradation. Although the structure of the A3G catalytic domain is known, the structure of the N-terminal Vif-binding domain has proven more elusive. Here, we used evolution- and structure-guided mutagenesis to solubilize the Vif-binding domain of A3G, thus permitting structural determination by NMR spectroscopy. A smaller zinc-coordinating pocket and altered helical packing distinguish the structure from previous catalytic-domain structures and help to explain the reported inactivity of this domain. This soluble A3G N-terminal domain is bound by Vif; this enabled mutagenesis and biochemical experiments, which identified a unique Vif-interacting surface formed by the α1-β1, β2-α2 and β4-α4 loops. This structure sheds new light on the Vif-A3G interaction and provides critical information for future drug development.

  5. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Jaslyn E M M; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Gysel, Kira

    2015-01-01

    LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multi......LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement...... of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering...... solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers...

  6. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jaslyn E. M. M. [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Midtgaard, Søren Roi [University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gysel, Kira [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Sørensen, Kasper K.; Jensen, Knud J. [University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.blaise@cpbs.cnrs.fr [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-03-01

    The crystal and solution structures of the T. thermophilus NlpC/P60 d, l-endopeptidase as well as the co-crystal structure of its N-terminal LysM domains bound to chitohexaose allow a proposal to be made regarding how the enzyme recognizes peptidoglycan. LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers. By combining the structural information with the three-dimensional model of peptidoglycan, a model suggesting how protein dimerization enhances the recognition of peptidoglycan is proposed.

  7. Assembly of custom TALE-type DNA binding domains by modular cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbitzer, Robert; Elsaesser, Janett; Hausner, Jens; Lahaye, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) DNA binding proteins show tremendous potential as molecular tools for targeted binding to any desired DNA sequence. Their DNA binding domain consists of tandem arranged repeats, and due to this repetitive structure it is challenging to generate designer TALEs (dTALEs) with user-defined specificity. We present a cloning approach that facilitates the assembly of multiple repeat-encoding DNA fragments that translate into dTALEs with pre-defined DNA binding specificity. This method makes use of type IIS restriction enzymes in two sequential cut-ligase reactions to build dTALE repeat arrays. We employed this modular approach for generation of a dTALE that differentiates between two highly similar DNA sequences that are both targeted by the Xanthomonas TALE, AvrBs3. These data show that this modular assembly system allows rapid generation of highly specific TALE-type DNA binding domains that target binding sites of predefined length and sequence. This approach enables the rapid and flexible production of dTALEs for gene regulation and genome editing in routine and high-throughput applications.

  8. Lectin domains of polypeptide GalNAc transferases exhibit glycopeptide binding specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Johannes W; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine T-B G; Meldal, Morten; Holmér, Andreas P; Blixt, Ola; Cló, Emiliano; Levery, Steven B; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2011-09-16

    UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) constitute a family of up to 20 transferases that initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation. The transferases are structurally composed of catalytic and lectin domains. Two modes have been identified for the selection of glycosylation sites by GalNAc-Ts: confined sequence recognition by the catalytic domain alone, and concerted recognition of acceptor sites and adjacent GalNAc-glycosylated sites by the catalytic and lectin domains, respectively. Thus far, only the catalytic domain has been shown to have peptide sequence specificity, whereas the primary function of the lectin domain is to increase affinity to previously glycosylated substrates. Whether the lectin domain also has peptide sequence selectivity has remained unclear. Using a glycopeptide array with a library of synthetic and recombinant glycopeptides based on sequences of mucins MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6, and MUC7 as well as a random glycopeptide bead library, we examined the binding properties of four different lectin domains. The lectin domains of GalNAc-T1, -T2, -T3, and -T4 bound different subsets of small glycopeptides. These results indicate an additional level of complexity in the initiation step of O-glycosylation by GalNAc-Ts.

  9. Identification of MDP (muramyl dipeptide)-binding key domains in NOD2 (nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-2) receptor of Labeo rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, Jitendra; Swain, Banikalyan; Sahoo, Bikash R; Dikhit, Manas R; Basu, Madhubanti; Mahapatra, Abhijit S; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

    2013-08-01

    In lower eukaryotes-like fish, innate immunity contributed by various pattern recognition receptor (PRR) plays an essential role in protection against diseases. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 is a cytoplasmic PRR that recognizes MDP (muramyl dipeptide) of the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as ligand and activates signalling to induce innate immunity. Hypothesizing a similar NOD2 signalling pathway of higher eukaryotes, the peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) of rohu (Labeo rohita) was stimulated with MDP. The data of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed MDP-mediated inductive expression of NOD2 and its down-stream molecule RICK/RIP2 (receptor-interacting serine-threonine protein kinase-2). This observation suggested the existence of MDP-binding sites in rohu NOD2 (rNOD2). To investigate it, 3D model of ligand-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region of rNOD2 (rNOD2-LRR) was constructed following ab initio and threading approaches in I-TASSER web server. Structural refinement of the model was performed by energy minimization, and MD (molecular dynamics) simulation was performed in GROMACS (Groningen Machine for Chemical Simulations). The refined model of rNOD2-LRR was validated through SAVES, ProSA, ProQ, WHAT IF and MolProbity servers, and molecular docking with MDP was carried out in GOLD 4.1. The result of docking identified LRR3-7 comprising Lys820, Phe821, Asn822, Arg847, Gly849, Trp877, Trp901 and Trp931 as MDP-binding critical amino acids in rNOD2. This is the first study in fish to provide an insight into the 3D structure of NOD2-LRR region and its important motifs that are expected to be engaged in MDP binding and innate immunity.

  10. Promiscuous and specific phospholipid binding by domains in ZAC, a membrane-associated Arabidopsis protein with an ARF GAP zinc finger and a C2 domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R B; Lykke-Andersen, K; Frandsen, G I

    2000-01-01

    containing the ZAC-C2 domain bind anionic phospholipids non-specifically, with some variance in Ca2+ and salt dependence. Similar assays demonstrated specific affinity of the ZAC N-terminal region (residues 1-174) for phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate (PI-3-P). Binding was dependent in part on an intact...... zinc finger motif, but proteins containing only the zinc finger domain (residues 1-105) did not bind PI-3-P. Recombinant ZAC possessed GTPase-activating activity on Arabidopsis ARF proteins. These data identify a novel PI-3-P-binding protein region and thereby provide evidence...

  11. Evolutionary history of redox metal-binding domains across the tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Arye; Bromberg, Yana; Falkowski, Paul G; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2014-05-13

    Oxidoreductases mediate electron transfer (i.e., redox) reactions across the tree of life and ultimately facilitate the biologically driven fluxes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur on Earth. The core enzymes responsible for these reactions are ancient, often small in size, and highly diverse in amino acid sequence, and many require specific transition metals in their active sites. Here we reconstruct the evolution of metal-binding domains in extant oxidoreductases using a flexible network approach and permissive profile alignments based on available microbial genome data. Our results suggest there were at least 10 independent origins of redox domain families. However, we also identified multiple ancient connections between Fe2S2- (adrenodoxin-like) and heme- (cytochrome c) binding domains. Our results suggest that these two iron-containing redox families had a single common ancestor that underwent duplication and divergence. The iron-containing protein family constitutes ∼50% of all metal-containing oxidoreductases and potentially catalyzed redox reactions in the Archean oceans. Heme-binding domains seem to be derived via modular evolutionary processes that ultimately form the backbone of redox reactions in both anaerobic and aerobic respiration and photosynthesis. The empirically discovered network allows us to peer into the ancient history of microbial metabolism on our planet.

  12. The two distinctive metal ion binding domains of the wheat metallothionein Ec-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroza, Estevão A; Kaabi, Ali Al; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Wellenreuther, Gerd; Freisinger, Eva

    2009-03-01

    Metallothioneins are small cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role, among others, in the homeostasis of essential metal ions such as Zn(II) and Cu(I). Recently, we could show that wheat E(c)-1 is coordinating its six Zn(II) ions in form of metal-thiolate clusters analogously to the vertebrate metallothioneins. Specifically, two Zn(II) ions are bound in the N-terminal and four in the C-terminal domain. In the following, we will present evidence for the relative independence of the two domains from each other with respect to their metal ion binding abilities, and uncover three intriguing peculiarities of the protein. Firstly, one Zn(II) ion of the N-terminal domain is relative resistant to complete replacement with Cd(II) indicating the presence of a Zn(II)-binding site with increased stability. Secondly, the C-terminal domain is able to coordinate an additional fifth metal ion, though with reduced affinity, which went undetected so far. Finally, reconstitution of apoE(c)-1 with an excess of Zn(II) shows a certain amount of sub-stoichiometrically metal-loaded species. The possible relevance of these finding for the proposed biological functions of wheat E(c)-1 will be discussed. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on both, the full-length and the truncated protein, provide final evidence for His participation in metal ion binding.

  13. Structure of the Taz2 domain of p300: insights into ligand binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Maria, E-mail: mariami@mail.nih.gov [Protein Structure Section, Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201 (United States); Dauter, Zbigniew [Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cherry, Scott; Tropea, Joseph E. [Protein Purification Core, Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201 (United States); Wlodawer, Alexander [Protein Structure Section, Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The crystal structure of the Taz2 zinc-finger domain of the human p300 transcriptional coactivator was determined using the anomalous diffraction signal of the bound Zn ions. Crystal contacts suggested a possible novel mode of Taz2–peptide ligand interactions. CBP and its paralog p300 are histone acetyl transferases that regulate gene expression by interacting with multiple transcription factors via specialized domains. The structure of a segment of human p300 protein (residues 1723–1836) corresponding to the extended zinc-binding Taz2 domain has been investigated. The crystal structure was solved by the SAD approach utilizing the anomalous diffraction signal of the bound Zn ions. The structure comprises an atypical helical bundle stabilized by three Zn ions and closely resembles the solution structures determined previously for shorter peptides. Residues 1813–1834 from the current construct form a helical extension of the C-terminal helix and make extensive crystal-contact interactions with the peptide-binding site of Taz2, providing additional insights into the mechanism of the recognition of diverse transactivation domains (TADs) by Taz2. On the basis of these results and molecular modeling, a hypothetical model of the binding of phosphorylated p53 TAD1 to Taz2 has been proposed.

  14. Fibronectin Growth Factor-Binding Domains Are Required for Fibroblast Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fubao; Ren, Xiang-Dong; Pan, Zhi; Macri, Lauren; Zong, Wei-Xing; Tonnesen, Marcia G.; Rafailovich, Miriam; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Clark, Richard A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is required for embryogenesis, morphogenesis, and wound repair, and its Arg–Gly–Asp-containing central cell-binding domain (CCBD) is essential for mesenchymal cell survival and growth. Here, we demonstrate that FN contains three growth factor-binding domains (FN-GFBDs) that bind platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), a potent fibroblast survival and mitogenic factor. These sites bind PDGF-BB with dissociation constants of 10–100 nm. FN-null cells cultured on recombinant CCBD (FNIII8–11) without a FN-GFBD demonstrated minimal metabolism and underwent autophagy at 24 hours, followed by apoptosis at 72 hours, even in the presence of PDGF-BB. In contrast, FN-null cells plated on FNIII8–11 contiguous with FN-GFBD survived without, and proliferated with, PDGF-BB. FN-null cell survival on FNIII8–11 and noncontiguous arrays of FN-GFBDs required these domains to be adsorbed on the same surface, suggesting the existence of a mesenchymal cell-extracellular matrix synapse. Thus, fibroblast survival required GF stimulation in the presence of a FN-GFBD, as well as adhesion to FN through the CCBD. The findings that fibroblast survival is dependent on FN-GFBD underscore the critical importance of pericellular matrix for cell survival and have significant implications for cutaneous wound healing and regeneration. PMID:20811396

  15. Domain-Swapped Dimers of Intracellular Lipid-Binding Proteins: Evidence for Ordered Folding Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Zahra; Nossoni, Zahra; Wang, Wenjing; Santos, Elizabeth M; Kramer, Kevin; McCornack, Colin; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak; Geiger, James H

    2016-09-06

    Human Cellular Retinol Binding Protein II (hCRBPII), a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family, is a monomeric protein responsible for the intracellular transport of retinol and retinal. Herein we report that hCRBPII forms an extensive domain-swapped dimer during bacterial expression. The domain-swapped region encompasses almost half of the protein. The dimer represents a novel structural architecture with the mouths of the two binding cavities facing each other, producing a new binding cavity that spans the length of the protein complex. Although wild-type hCRBPII forms the dimer, the propensity for dimerization can be substantially increased via mutation at Tyr60. The monomeric form of the wild-type protein represents the thermodynamically more stable species, making the domain-swapped dimer a kinetically trapped entity. Hypothetically, the wild-type protein has evolved to minimize dimerization of the folding intermediate through a critical hydrogen bond (Tyr60-Glu72) that disfavors the dimeric form.

  16. Change in allosteric network affects binding affinities of PDZ domains: analysis through perturbation response scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nevin Gerek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The allosteric mechanism plays a key role in cellular functions of several PDZ domain proteins (PDZs and is directly linked to pharmaceutical applications; however, it is a challenge to elaborate the nature and extent of these allosteric interactions. One solution to this problem is to explore the dynamics of PDZs, which may provide insights about how intramolecular communication occurs within a single domain. Here, we develop an advancement of perturbation response scanning (PRS that couples elastic network models with linear response theory (LRT to predict key residues in allosteric transitions of the two most studied PDZs (PSD-95 PDZ3 domain and hPTP1E PDZ2 domain. With PRS, we first identify the residues that give the highest mean square fluctuation response upon perturbing the binding sites. Strikingly, we observe that the residues with the highest mean square fluctuation response agree with experimentally determined residues involved in allosteric transitions. Second, we construct the allosteric pathways by linking the residues giving the same directional response upon perturbation of the binding sites. The predicted intramolecular communication pathways reveal that PSD-95 and hPTP1E have different pathways through the dynamic coupling of different residue pairs. Moreover, our analysis provides a molecular understanding of experimentally observed hidden allostery of PSD-95. We show that removing the distal third alpha helix from the binding site alters the allosteric pathway and decreases the binding affinity. Overall, these results indicate that (i dynamics plays a key role in allosteric regulations of PDZs, (ii the local changes in the residue interactions can lead to significant changes in the dynamics of allosteric regulations, and (iii this might be the mechanism that each PDZ uses to tailor their binding specificities regulation.

  17. RNA-binding domain in the nucleocapsid protein of gill-associated nidovirus of penaeid shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumporn Soowannayan

    Full Text Available Gill-associated virus (GAV infects Penaeus monodon shrimp and is the type species okavirus in the Roniviridae, the only invertebrate nidoviruses known currently. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs using His(6-tagged full-length and truncated proteins were employed to examine the nucleic acid binding properties of the GAV nucleocapsid (N protein in vitro. The EMSAs showed full-length N protein to bind to all synthetic single-stranded (ssRNAs tested independent of their sequence. The ssRNAs included (+ and (- sense regions of the GAV genome as well as a (+ sense region of the M RNA segment of Mourilyan virus, a crustacean bunya-like virus. GAV N protein also bound to double-stranded (dsRNAs prepared to GAV ORF1b gene regions and to bacteriophage M13 genomic ssDNA. EMSAs using the five N protein constructs with variable-length N-terminal and/or C-terminal truncations localized the RNA binding domain to a 50 amino acid (aa N-terminal sequence spanning Met(11 to Arg(60. Similarly to other RNA binding proteins, the first 16 aa portion of this sequence was proline/arginine rich. To examine this domain in more detail, the 18 aa peptide (M(11PVRRPLPPQPPRNARLI(29 encompassing this sequence was synthesized and found to bind nucleic acids similarly to the full-length N protein in EMSAs. The data indicate a fundamental role for the GAV N protein proline/arginine-rich domain in nucleating genomic ssRNA to form nucleocapsids. Moreover, as the synthetic peptide formed higher-order complexes in the presence of RNA, the domain might also play some role in protein/protein interactions stabilizing the helical structure of GAV nucleocapsids.

  18. Secretory Vesicle Priming by CAPS Is Independent of Its SNARE-Binding MUN Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuc Quynh Nguyen Truong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Priming of secretory vesicles is a prerequisite for their Ca2+-dependent fusion with the plasma membrane. The key vesicle priming proteins, Munc13s and CAPSs, are thought to mediate vesicle priming by regulating the conformation of the t-SNARE syntaxin, thereby facilitating SNARE complex assembly. Munc13s execute their priming function through their MUN domain. Given that the MUN domain of Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS also binds syntaxin, it was assumed that CAPSs prime vesicles through the same mechanism as Munc13s. We studied naturally occurring splice variants of CAPS2 in CAPS1/CAPS2-deficient cells and found that CAPS2 primes vesicles independently of its MUN domain. Instead, the pleckstrin homology domain of CAPS2 seemingly is essential for its priming function. Our findings indicate a priming mode for secretory vesicles. This process apparently requires membrane phospholipids, does not involve the binding or direct conformational regulation of syntaxin by MUN domains of CAPSs, and is therefore not redundant with Munc13 action.

  19. Secretory vesicle priming by CAPS is independent of its SNARE-binding MUN domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Truong, Cuc Quynh; Nestvogel, Dennis; Ratai, Olga; Schirra, Claudia; Stevens, David R; Brose, Nils; Rhee, JeongSeop; Rettig, Jens

    2014-11-06

    Priming of secretory vesicles is a prerequisite for their Ca(2+)-dependent fusion with the plasma membrane. The key vesicle priming proteins, Munc13s and CAPSs, are thought to mediate vesicle priming by regulating the conformation of the t-SNARE syntaxin, thereby facilitating SNARE complex assembly. Munc13s execute their priming function through their MUN domain. Given that the MUN domain of Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS) also binds syntaxin, it was assumed that CAPSs prime vesicles through the same mechanism as Munc13s. We studied naturally occurring splice variants of CAPS2 in CAPS1/CAPS2-deficient cells and found that CAPS2 primes vesicles independently of its MUN domain. Instead, the pleckstrin homology domain of CAPS2 seemingly is essential for its priming function. Our findings indicate a priming mode for secretory vesicles. This process apparently requires membrane phospholipids, does not involve the binding or direct conformational regulation of syntaxin by MUN domains of CAPSs, and is therefore not redundant with Munc13 action.

  20. ALOG domains: provenance of plant homeotic and developmental regulators from the DNA-binding domain of a novel class of DIRS1-type retroposons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Lakshminarayan M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the Arabidopsis LSH1 and Oryza G1 (ALOG family of proteins have been shown to function as key developmental regulators in land plants. However, their precise mode of action remains unclear. Using sensitive sequence and structure analysis, we show that the ALOG domains are a distinct version of the N-terminal DNA-binding domain shared by the XerC/D-like, protelomerase, topoisomerase-IA, and Flp tyrosine recombinases. ALOG domains are distinguished by the insertion of an additional zinc ribbon into this DNA-binding domain. In particular, we show that the ALOG domain is derived from the XerC/D-like recombinases of a novel class of DIRS-1-like retroposons. Copies of this element, which have been recently inactivated, are present in several marine metazoan lineages, whereas the stramenopile Ectocarpus, retains an active copy of the same. Thus, we predict that ALOG domains help establish organ identity and differentiation by binding specific DNA sequences and acting as transcription factors or recruiters of repressive chromatin. They are also found in certain plant defense proteins, where they are predicted to function as DNA sensors. The evolutionary history of the ALOG domain represents a unique instance of a domain, otherwise exclusively found in retroelements, being recruited as a specific transcription factor in the streptophyte lineage of plants. Hence, they add to the growing evidence for derivation of DNA-binding domains of eukaryotic specific TFs from mobile and selfish elements.

  1. Phenylalanine binding is linked to dimerization of the regulatory domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengnan; Roberts, Kenneth M; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2014-10-28

    Analytical ultracentrifugation has been used to analyze the oligomeric structure of the isolated regulatory domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase. The protein exhibits a monomer-dimer equilibrium with a dissociation constant of ~46 μM; this value is unaffected by the removal of the 24 N-terminal residues or by phosphorylation of Ser16. In contrast, phenylalanine binding (Kd = 8 μM) stabilizes the dimer. These results suggest that dimerization of the regulatory domain of phenylalanine hydroxylase is linked to allosteric activation of the enzyme.

  2. Phage Endolysin: A Way To Understand A Binding Function Of C-Terminal Domains A Mini Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jarábková Veronika; Tišáková Lenka; Godány Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Endolysins are bacteriophage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases, which are synthesized in the end of phage reproduction cycle, in an infected host cell. Usually, for endolysins from phages that infect Gram-positive bacteria, a modular structure is typical. Therefore, these are composed of at least two separate functional domains: an N-terminal catalytic domain (EAD) and a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). Specific ligand recognition of CBDs and following peptidoglycan (PG) binding most...

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of PDZ Domain Binding Reveals Inherent Functional Overlap within the PDZ Interaction Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Veldhuis, A.J.W.; Sakalis, P.A.; Fowler, D.A.; Bagowski, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Binding selectivity and cross-reactivity within one of the largest and most abundant interaction domain families, the PDZ family, has long been enigmatic. The complete human PDZ domain complement (the PDZome) consists of 267 domains and we applied here a Bayesian selectivity model to predict hundred

  4. α-Helical domain is essential for antimicrobial activity of high mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 2 (HMGN2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun FENG; Ning HUANG; Qi WU; Lang BAO; Bo-yao WANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the antimicrobial spectrum and functional structure of high mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 2 (HMGN2). Methods: OMIGA protein structure software was used to analyze the two-dimensional structure of HMGN2. Synthetic short peptides were generated for studying the relationship between function and structure. Prokaryotic expression vectors were constructed for the holo-HMGN2 and its helical domain. Their E coli-based products were also prepared for antimicrobial testing. The antimicrobial assay included minimal effective concentration, minimal inhibitory concentration, and minimal bactericidal concentration. Results: OMIGA protein structure software analysis revealed a transmembrane α-helical structure (the putative antimicrobial domain) located from position 18 to 48 of the HMGN2 protein sequence. The antimicrobial assay showed that the MIC of the recombinant holo-HMGN2 against E coli ML-35p (an ampicillin-resistance strain), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were 12.5, 25, and 100 mg/L, respectively. Against the same microorganisms, the MIC of the synthetic HMGN2 α-helical domain were 12.5, 25,and 100 mg/L, respectively, that is, the same as with the recombinant form of HMGN2. In contrast, recombinant holo-HMGN2 was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The synthetic N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of HMGN2 had no antimicrobial activity against E coli ML-35p, P aeruginosa ATCC 27853 or C albicans ATCC 10231. Conclusion: HMGN2 showed potent antimicrobial activity against E coli ML-35p, P aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and, to some extent, against C albicans ATCC 10231, but was inactive against S aureus ATCC 25923 in these assay systems. Its α-helical structure may be essential for the antimicrobial activity of HMGN2.

  5. Structural fold, conservation and Fe(II) binding of the intracellular domain of prokaryote FeoB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Kuo-Wei; Chang, Yi-Wei; Eng, Edward T.; Chen, Jai-Hui; Chen, Yi-Chung; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Dong, Gang; Spasov, Krasimir A.; Unger, Vinzenz M.; Huang, Tai-huang (Yale-MED); (Perutz Lab); (AS); (NTHU-Taiwan)

    2010-09-17

    FeoB is a G-protein coupled membrane protein essential for Fe(II) uptake in prokaryotes. Here, we report the crystal structures of the intracellular domain of FeoB (NFeoB) from Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpNFeoB) and Pyrococcus furiosus (PfNFeoB) with and without bound ligands. In the structures, a canonical G-protein domain (G domain) is followed by a helical bundle domain (S-domain), which despite its lack of sequence similarity between species is structurally conserved. In the nucleotide-free state, the G-domain's two switch regions point away from the binding site. This gives rise to an open binding pocket whose shallowness is likely to be responsible for the low nucleotide-binding affinity. Nucleotide binding induced significant conformational changes in the G5 motif which in the case of GMPPNP binding was accompanied by destabilization of the switch I region. In addition to the structural data, we demonstrate that Fe(II)-induced foot printing cleaves the protein close to a putative Fe(II)-binding site at the tip of switch I, and we identify functionally important regions within the S-domain. Moreover, we show that NFeoB exists as a monomer in solution, and that its two constituent domains can undergo large conformational changes. The data show that the S-domain plays important roles in FeoB function.

  6. Guanine nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain mediates the allosteric inhibition of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M.; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Balsera, Mónica; Chagoyen, Mónica; de Pereda, José M.; Revuelta, José L.

    2015-11-01

    Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) plays key roles in purine nucleotide metabolism and cell proliferation. Although IMPDH is a widely studied therapeutic target, there is limited information about its physiological regulation. Using Ashbya gossypii as a model, we describe the molecular mechanism and the structural basis for the allosteric regulation of IMPDH by guanine nucleotides. We report that GTP and GDP bind to the regulatory Bateman domain, inducing octamers with compromised catalytic activity. Our data suggest that eukaryotic and prokaryotic IMPDHs might have developed different regulatory mechanisms, with GTP/GDP inhibiting only eukaryotic IMPDHs. Interestingly, mutations associated with human retinopathies map into the guanine nucleotide-binding sites including a previously undescribed non-canonical site and disrupt allosteric inhibition. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms of the allosteric regulation of enzymes mediated by Bateman domains and provide a molecular basis for certain retinopathies, opening the door to new therapeutic approaches.

  7. Identification of binding peptides of the ADAM15 disintegrin domain using phage display

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing Wu; Min-Chen Wu; Lian-Fen Zhang; Jian-Yong Lei; Lei Feng; Jian Jin

    2009-06-01

    ADAM15 plays an important role in tumour development by interacting with integrins. In this study, we investigated the target peptides of the ADAM15 disintegrin domain. First, we successfully produced the recombinant human ADAM15 disintegrin domain (RADD) that could inhibit melanoma cell adhesion by using Escherichia coli. Second, four specific binding peptides (peptides A, B, C, and D) were selected using a phage display 12-mer peptide library. The screening protocol involved 4 rounds of positive panning on RADD and 2 rounds of subtractive selection with streptavidin. By using the BLAST software and a relevant protein database, integrin v3 was found to be homologous to peptide A. Synthetic peptide A had a highly inhibitory effect on RADD–integrin v3 binding. The results demonstrate the potential application of short peptides for disrupting high-affinity ADAM–integrin interactions.

  8. Guanine nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain mediates the allosteric inhibition of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M.; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Balsera, Mónica; Chagoyen, Mónica; de Pereda, José M.; Revuelta, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) plays key roles in purine nucleotide metabolism and cell proliferation. Although IMPDH is a widely studied therapeutic target, there is limited information about its physiological regulation. Using Ashbya gossypii as a model, we describe the molecular mechanism and the structural basis for the allosteric regulation of IMPDH by guanine nucleotides. We report that GTP and GDP bind to the regulatory Bateman domain, inducing octamers with compromised catalytic activity. Our data suggest that eukaryotic and prokaryotic IMPDHs might have developed different regulatory mechanisms, with GTP/GDP inhibiting only eukaryotic IMPDHs. Interestingly, mutations associated with human retinopathies map into the guanine nucleotide-binding sites including a previously undescribed non-canonical site and disrupt allosteric inhibition. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms of the allosteric regulation of enzymes mediated by Bateman domains and provide a molecular basis for certain retinopathies, opening the door to new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26558346

  9. Specific and Modular Binding Code for Cytosine Recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R.; Li, Chunhua; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; Wang, Zefeng (NIH); (Beijing U); (UNC)

    2011-10-28

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

  10. Specific and modular binding code for cytosine recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R; Li, Chunhua; Hall, Traci M Tanaka; Wang, Zefeng

    2011-07-29

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

  11. Expression and Purification of the Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Receptor-binding Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛猛; 徐俊杰; 李冰; 董大勇; 宋小红; 郭强; 赵剑; 陈薇

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to express the receptor-binding domain of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in E. coli. Signal sequence of the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of E. coli was attached to the 5' end of the gene encoding protective antigen receptor-binding domain (the 4th domain of PA, PALM). The plasmid carrying the fusion gene was then transformed into E. coli and induced to express recombinant PAlM by IFFG. The recombinant protein was purified by chromatography and then identified by N-terrainal sequencing and Western blot. The recombinant protein, about 10% of the total bacterial protein in volume, was secreted to the periplasmic space of the cell. After a purification procedure including ionexchange chromatography and gel filtration, about 10 mg of homogenous recombinant PAD4 was obtained from 1 L culture. Data from N-terminal sequencing suggested that the amino acid sequence of recombinant PAD4 was identical with its natural counterpart. And the result of Western blot showed the recombinant protein could bind with anti-PA serum from rabbit. High level secreted expression of PAD4 was obtained in E. coli. The results reported here are parts of a continuing research to evaluate PAD4 as a potential drug for anthrax therapy or a candidate of new vaccine.

  12. Characterization of the Receptor-binding Domain of Ebola Glycoprotein in Viral Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jizhen Wang; Balaji Manicassamy; Michael Caffrey; Lijun Rong

    2011-01-01

    Ebola virus infection causes severe hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates with high mortality.Viral entry/infection is initiated by binding of glycoprotein GP protein on Ebola virion to host cells,followed by fusion of virus-cell membrane also mediated by GP.Using an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based pseudotyping system,the roles of 41 Ebola GP1 residues in the receptor-binding domain in viral entry were studied by alanine scanning substitutions.We identified that four residues appear to be involved in protein folding/structure and four residues are important for viral entry.An improved entry interference assay was developed and used to study the role of these residues that are important for viral entry.It was found that R64 and K95 are involved in receptor binding.In contrast,some residues such as I170 are important for viral entry,but do not play a major role in receptor binding as indicated by entry interference assay and/or protein binding data,suggesting that these residues are involved in post-binding steps of viral entry.Furthermore,our results also suggested that Ebola and Marburg viruses share a common cellular molecule for entry.

  13. Phage Display Derived IgNAR V Region Binding Domains for Therapeutic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubah, Obinna C; Barelle, Caroline J; Buschhaus, Magdalena J; Porter, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Phage display technology has revolutionized the science of drug discovery by transforming the generation and manipulation of ligands, such as antibody fragments, enzymes, and peptides. The basis of this technology is the expression of recombinant proteins or peptides fused to a phage coat protein, and subsequent isolation of ligands based on a variety of catalytic, physicochemical/binding kinetic and/or biological characteristics. An incredible number of diagnostic and therapeutic domains have been successfully isolated using phage display technology. The variable domain of the New Antigen Receptors (VNAR) found in cartilaginous fish, is also amenable to phage display selection. Whilst not an antibody, VNARs are unquestionable the oldest (450 million years), and smallest antigen binding, single-domains so far identified in the vertebrate kingdom. Their role as an integral part of the adaptive immune system of sharks has been well established, enhancing our understanding of the evolutionary origins of humoral immunity and the unusual but divergent ancestry of the VNARs themselves. VNARs exhibit remarkable physicochemical properties, such as small size, stability in extreme conditions, solubility, molecular flexibility, high affinity and selectivity for target. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the important role phage display has played in the isolation and characterization of potent therapeutic and diagnostic VNAR domains.

  14. A Novel Protein Interaction between Nucleotide Binding Domain of Hsp70 and p53 Motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asita Elengoe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, protein interaction of Homo sapiens nucleotide binding domain (NBD of heat shock 70 kDa protein (PDB: 1HJO with p53 motif remains to be elucidated. The NBD-p53 motif complex enhances the p53 stabilization, thereby increasing the tumor suppression activity in cancer treatment. Therefore, we identified the interaction between NBD and p53 using STRING version 9.1 program. Then, we modeled the three-dimensional structure of p53 motif through homology modeling and determined the binding affinity and stability of NBD-p53 motif complex structure via molecular docking and dynamics (MD simulation. Human DNA binding domain of p53 motif (SCMGGMNR retrieved from UniProt (UniProtKB: P04637 was docked with the NBD protein, using the Autodock version 4.2 program. The binding energy and intermolecular energy for the NBD-p53 motif complex were −0.44 Kcal/mol and −9.90 Kcal/mol, respectively. Moreover, RMSD, RMSF, hydrogen bonds, salt bridge, and secondary structure analyses revealed that the NBD protein had a strong bond with p53 motif and the protein-ligand complex was stable. Thus, the current data would be highly encouraging for designing Hsp70 structure based drug in cancer therapy.

  15. Tailor-made ezrin actin binding domain to probe its interaction with actin in-vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Shrivastava

    Full Text Available Ezrin, a member of the ERM (Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin protein family, is an Actin-plasma membrane linker protein mediating cellular integrity and function. In-vivo study of such interactions is a complex task due to the presence of a large number of endogenous binding partners for both Ezrin and Actin. Further, C-terminal actin binding capacity of the full length Ezrin is naturally shielded by its N-terminal, and only rendered active in the presence of Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2 or phosphorylation at the C-terminal threonine. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for the design, expression and purification of constructs, combining the Ezrin C-terminal actin binding domain, with functional elements such as fusion tags and fluorescence tags to facilitate purification and fluorescence microscopy based studies. For the first time, internal His tag was employed for purification of Ezrin actin binding domain based on in-silico modeling. The functionality (Ezrin-actin interaction of these constructs was successfully demonstrated by using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy. This design can be extended to other members of the ERM family as well.

  16. Binding Moral Foundations and the Narrowing of Ideological Conflict to the Traditional Morality Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Osborne, Danny; Soto, Christopher J; Greaves, Lara M; Sibley, Chris G; Lelkes, Yphtach

    2016-09-01

    Moral foundations theory (MFT) posits that binding moral foundations (purity, authority, and ingroup loyalty) are rooted in the need for groups to promote order and cohesion, and that they therefore underlie political conservatism. We present evidence that binding foundations (and the related construct of disgust sensitivity) are associated with lower levels of ideological polarization on political issues outside the domain of moral traditionalism. Consistent support for this hypothesis was obtained from three large American Internet-based samples and one large national sample of New Zealanders (combined N = 7,874). We suggest that when political issues do not have inherent relevance to moral traditionalism, binding foundations promote a small centrist shift away from ideologically prescribed positions, and that they do so out of desire for national uniformity and cohesion.

  17. Characterization of the target DNA sequence for the DNA-binding domain of zinc finger protein 191

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoyue Wang; Ruilin Sun; Guoxiang Liu; Minghui Yao; Jian Fei; Hebai Shen

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the DNA-binding properties of transcription factors are important in searching for the downstream genes regulated by these factors. In the present study, we report on the DNA-binding property of a Cys2His2-type transcription factor, zinc finger protein 191 (Zfp191), which has been newly found to play a significant role in mice.By constructing a fusion protein containing the DNA-binding domain of Zfp191,we characterized target DNA by determining the protein's binding specificity and dependence on zinc.The data showed that the DNA-binding domain of Zfp191can specifically bind to the TCAT repeat motif and that there is a cooperative effect among the target DNA's multiple binding sites.Furthermore,the binding reaction is dependent on zinc.This work provides a foundation for further studies on the role of Zfp191 in gene regulation and development.

  18. Structural and binding properties of the PASTA domain of PonA2, a key penicillin binding protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvanese, Luisa; Falcigno, Lucia; Maglione, Cira; Marasco, Daniela; Ruggiero, Alessia; Squeglia, Flavia; Berisio, Rita; D'Auria, Gabriella

    2014-07-01

    PonA2 is one of the two class A penicillin binding proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis. It plays a complex role in mycobacterial physiology and is spotted as a promising target for inhibitors. PonA2 is involved in adaptation of M. tuberculosis to dormancy, an ability which has been attributed to the presence in its sequence of a C-terminal PASTA domain. Since PASTA modules are typically considered as β-lactam antibiotic binding domains, we determined the solution structure of the PASTA domain from PonA2 and analyzed its binding properties versus a plethora of potential binders, including the β-lactam antibiotics, two typical muropeptide mimics, and polymeric peptidoglycan. We show that, despite a high structural similarity with other PASTA domains, the PASTA domain of PonA2 displays different binding properties, as it is not able to bind muropeptides, or β-lactams, or polymeric peptidoglycan. These results indicate that the role of PASTA domains cannot be generalized, as their specific binding properties strongly depend on surface residues, which are widely variable.

  19. THUMP--a predicted RNA-binding domain shared by 4-thiouridine, pseudouridine synthases and RNA methylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, L; Koonin, E V

    2001-04-01

    Sequence profile searches were used to identify an ancient domain in ThiI-like thiouridine synthases, conserved RNA methylases, archaeal pseudouridine synthases and several uncharacterized proteins. We predict that this domain is an RNA-binding domain that adopts an alpha/beta fold similar to that found in the C-terminal domain of translation initiation factor 3 and ribosomal protein S8.

  20. Plasticity of BRCA2 function in homologous recombination: genetic interactions of the PALB2 and DNA binding domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Siaud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The breast cancer suppressor BRCA2 is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity in mammalian cells through its role in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR. Human BRCA2 is 3,418 amino acids and is comprised of multiple domains that interact with the RAD51 recombinase and other proteins as well as with DNA. To gain insight into the cellular function of BRCA2 in HR, we created fusions consisting of various BRCA2 domains and also introduced mutations into these domains to disrupt specific protein and DNA interactions. We find that a BRCA2 fusion peptide deleted for the DNA binding domain and active in HR is completely dependent on interaction with the PALB2 tumor suppressor for activity. Conversely, a BRCA2 fusion peptide deleted for the PALB2 binding domain is dependent on an intact DNA binding domain, providing a role for this conserved domain in vivo; mutagenesis suggests that both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA binding activities in the DNA binding domain are required for its activity. Given that PALB2 itself binds DNA, these results suggest alternative mechanisms to deliver RAD51 to DNA. In addition, the BRCA2 C terminus contains both RAD51-dependent and -independent activities which are essential to HR in some contexts. Finally, binding the small peptide DSS1 is essential for activity when its binding domain is present, but not when it is absent. Our results reveal functional redundancy within the BRCA2 protein and emphasize the plasticity of this large protein built for optimal HR function in mammalian cells. The occurrence of disease-causing mutations throughout BRCA2 suggests sub-optimal HR from a variety of domain modulations.

  1. Control of intramolecular interactions between the pleckstrin homology and Dbl homology domains of Vav and Sos1 regulates Rac binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B; Shu, X; Day, G J; Han, J; Krishna, U M; Falck, J R; Broek, D

    2000-05-19

    Vav and Sos1 are Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which activate Rho family GTPases in response to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase products. A pleckstrin homology domain adjacent to the catalytic Dbl homology domain via an unknown mechanism mediates the effects of phosphoinositides on guanine nucleotide exchange activity. Here we tested the possibility that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase substrates and products control an interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain and the Dbl homology domain, thereby explaining the inhibitory effects of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase substrates and stimulatory effects of the products. Binding studies using isolated fragments of Vav and Sos indicate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase substrate promotes the binding of the pleckstrin homology domain to the Dbl homology domain and blocks Rac binding to the DH domain, whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase products disrupt the Dbl homology/pleckstrin homology interactions and permit Rac binding. Additionally, Lck phosphorylation of Vav, a known activating event, reduces the affinities between the Vav Dbl homology and pleckstrin homology domains and permits Rac binding. We also show Vav activation in cells, as monitored by phosphorylation of Vav, Vav association with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, and Vav guanine nucleotide exchange activity, is blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. These results suggest the molecular mechanisms for activation of Vav and Sos1 require disruption of inhibitory intramolecular interactions involving the pleckstrin homology and Dbl homology domains.

  2. Substrate Specificity and Ionic Regulation of GlnPQ from Lactococcus lactis. An ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter with Four Extracytoplasmic Substrate-Binding Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Poolman, Bert

    2005-01-01

    We report on the functional characterization of GlnPQ, an ATP-binding cassette transporter with four extracytoplasmic substrate-binding domains. The first predicted transmembrane helix of GlnP was cleaved off in the mature protein and most likely serves as the signal sequence for the extracytoplasmi

  3. Relationship of Structure and Function of DNA-Binding Domain in Vitamin D Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yan Wan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While the structure of the DNA-binding domain (DBD of the vitamin D receptor (VDR has been determined in great detail, the roles of its domains and how to bind the motif of its target genes are still under debate. The VDR DBD consists of two zinc finger modules and a C-terminal extension (CTE, at the end of the C-terminal of each structure presenting α-helix. For the first zinc finger structure, N37 and S-box take part in forming a dimer with 9-cis retinoid X receptor (RXR, while V26, R50, P-box and S-box participate in binding with VDR response elements (VDRE. For the second zinc finger structure, P61, F62 and H75 are essential in the structure of the VDR homodimer with the residues N37, E92 and F93 of the downstream of partner VDR, which form the inter-DBD interface. T-box of the CTE, especially the F93 and I94, plays a critical role in heterodimerization and heterodimers–VDRE binding. Six essential residues (R102, K103, M106, I107, K109, and R110 of the CTE α-helix of VDR construct one interaction face, which packs against the DBD core of the adjacent symmetry mate. In 1,25(OH2D3-activated signaling, the VDR-RXR heterodimer may bind to DR3-type VDRE and ER9-type VDREs of its target gene directly resulting in transactivation and also bind to DR3-liked nVDRE of its target gene directly resulting in transrepression. Except for this, 1α,25(OH2D3 ligand VDR-RXR may bind to 1αnVDRE indirectly through VDIR, resulting in transrepression of the target gene. Upon binding of 1α,25(OH2D3, VDR can transactivate and transrepress its target genes depending on the DNA motif that DBD binds.

  4. Application of Celluspots peptide arrays for the analysis of the binding specificity of epigenetic reading domains to modified histone tails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhayalan Arunkumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic reading domains are involved in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin state by interacting with histones in a post-translational modification specific manner. A detailed knowledge of the target modifications of reading domains, including enhancing and inhibiting secondary modifications, will lead to a better understanding of the biological signaling processes mediated by reading domains. Results We describe the application of Celluspots peptide arrays which contain 384 histone peptides carrying 59 post translational modifications in different combinations as an inexpensive, reliable and fast method for initial screening for specific interactions of reading domains with modified histone peptides. To validate the method, we tested the binding specificities of seven known epigenetic reading domains on Celluspots peptide arrays, viz. the HP1ß and MPP8 Chromo domains, JMJD2A and 53BP1 Tudor domains, Dnmt3a PWWP domain, Rag2 PHD domain and BRD2 Bromo domain. In general, the binding results agreed with literature data with respect to the primary specificity of the reading domains, but in almost all cases we obtained additional new information concerning the influence of secondary modifications surrounding the target modification. Conclusions We conclude that Celluspots peptide arrays are powerful screening tools for studying the specificity of putative reading domains binding to modified histone peptides.

  5. Conformational control of the binding of the transactivation domain of the MLL protein and c-Myb to the KIX domain of CREB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Nihal Korkmaz

    Full Text Available The KIX domain of CBP is a transcriptional coactivator. Concomitant binding to the activation domain of proto-oncogene protein c-Myb and the transactivation domain of the trithorax group protein mixed lineage leukemia (MLL transcription factor lead to the biologically active ternary MLL∶KIX∶c-Myb complex which plays a role in Pol II-mediated transcription. The binding of the activation domain of MLL to KIX enhances c-Myb binding. Here we carried out molecular dynamics (MD simulations for the MLL∶KIX∶c-Myb ternary complex, its binary components and KIX with the goal of providing a mechanistic explanation for the experimental observations. The dynamic behavior revealed that the MLL binding site is allosterically coupled to the c-Myb binding site. MLL binding redistributes the conformational ensemble of KIX, leading to higher populations of states which favor c-Myb binding. The key element in the allosteric communication pathways is the KIX loop, which acts as a control mechanism to enhance subsequent binding events. We tested this conclusion by in silico mutations of loop residues in the KIX∶MLL complex and by comparing wild type and mutant dynamics through MD simulations. The loop assumed MLL binding conformation similar to that observed in the KIX∶c-Myb state which disfavors the allosteric network. The coupling with c-Myb binding site faded, abolishing the positive cooperativity observed in the presence of MLL. Our major conclusion is that by eliciting a loop-mediated allosteric switch between the different states following the binding events, transcriptional activation can be regulated. The KIX system presents an example how nature makes use of conformational control in higher level regulation of transcriptional activity and thus cellular events.

  6. A specific domain in alpha-catenin mediates binding to beta-catenin or plakoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, O; Krohn, M; Kemler, R

    1997-08-01

    The E-cadherin-catenin adhesion complex has been the subject of many structural and functional studies because of its importance in development, normal tissue function and carcinogenesis. It is well established that the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin binds either beta-catenin or plakoglobin, which both can assemble alpha-catenin into the complex. Recently we have identified an alpha-catenin binding site in beta-catenin and plakoglobin and postulated, based on sequence analysis, that these protein-protein interactions are mediated by a hydrophobic interaction mechanism. Here we have now identified the reciprocal complementary binding site in alpha-catenin which mediates its interaction with beta-catenin and plakoglobin. Using in vitro association assays with C-terminal truncations of alpha-catenin expressed as recombinant fusion proteins, we found that the N-terminal 146 amino acids are required for this interaction. We then identified a peptide of 27 amino acids within this sequence (amino acid positions 117-143) which is necessary and sufficient to bind beta-catenin or plakoglobin. As shown by mutational analysis, hydrophobic amino acids within this binding site are important for the interaction. The results described here, together with our previous work, give strong support for the idea that these proteins associate by hydrophobic interactions of two alpha-helices.

  7. Zinc-induced interaction of the metal-binding domain of amyloid-β peptide with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmeleva, Svetlana A; Mezentsev, Yuri V; Kozin, Sergey A; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Ivanov, Alexis S; Bodoev, Nikolay V; Makarov, Alexander A; Radko, Sergey P

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of the 16-mer synthetic peptide (Aβ16), which represents the metal-binding domain of the amyloid-β with DNA, was studied employing the surface plasmon resonance technique. It has been shown that Aβ16 binds to the duplex DNA in the presence of zinc ions and thus the metal-binding domain can serve as a zinc-dependent DNA-binding site of the amyloid-β. The interaction of Aβ16 with DNA most probably depends on oligomerization of the peptide and is dominated by interaction with phosphates of the DNA backbone.

  8. The intervening domain from MeCP2 enhances the DNA affinity of the methyl binding domain and provides an independent DNA interaction site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Lanuza, Pilar M.; Morales-Chueca, Ignacio; Jorge-Torres, Olga C.; Vega, Sonia; Abian, Olga; Esteller, Manel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) preferentially interacts with methylated DNA and it is involved in epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodelling. Mutations in MeCP2 are linked to Rett syndrome, the leading cause of intellectual retardation in girls and causing mental, motor and growth impairment. Unstructured regions in MeCP2 provide the plasticity for establishing interactions with multiple binding partners. We present a biophysical characterization of the methyl binding domain (MBD) from MeCP2 reporting the contribution of flanking domains to its structural stability and dsDNA interaction. The flanking disordered intervening domain (ID) increased the structural stability of MBD, modified its dsDNA binding profile from an entropically-driven moderate-affinity binding to an overwhelmingly enthalpically-driven high-affinity binding. Additionally, ID provided an additional site for simultaneously and autonomously binding an independent dsDNA molecule, which is a key feature linked to the chromatin remodelling and looping activity of MeCP2, as well as its ability to interact with nucleosomes replacing histone H1. The dsDNA interaction is characterized by an unusually large heat capacity linked to a cluster of water molecules trapped within the binding interface. The dynamics of disordered regions together with extrinsic factors are key determinants of MeCP2 global structural properties and functional capabilities. PMID:28139759

  9. Defining the erythrocyte binding domains of Plasmodium vivax tryptophan rich antigen 33.5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Bora

    Full Text Available Tryptophan-rich antigens play important role in host-parasite interaction. One of the Plasmodium vivax tryptophan-rich antigens called PvTRAg33.5 had earlier been shown to be predominantly of alpha helical in nature with multidomain structure, induced immune responses in humans, binds to host erythrocytes, and its sequence is highly conserved in the parasite population. In the present study, we divided this protein into three different parts i.e. N-terminal (amino acid position 24-106, middle (amino acid position 107-192, and C-terminal region (amino acid position 185-275 and determined the erythrocyte binding activity of these fragments. This binding activity was retained by the middle and C-terminal fragments covering 107 to 275 amino acid region of the PvTRAg33.5 protein. Eight non-overlapping peptides covering this 107 to 275 amino acid region were then synthesized and tested for their erythrocyte binding activity to further define the binding domains. Only two peptides, peptide P4 (at 171-191 amino acid position and peptide P8 (at 255-275 amino acid position, were found to contain the erythrocyte binding activity. Competition assay revealed that each peptide recognizes its own erythrocyte receptor. These two peptides were found to be located on two parallel helices at one end of the protein in the modelled structure and could be exposed on its surface to form a suitable site for protein-protein interaction. Natural antibodies present in the sera of the P. vivax exposed individuals or the polyclonal rabbit antibodies against this protein were able to inhibit the erythrocyte binding activity of PvTRAg33.5, its fragments, and these two synthetic peptides P4 and P8. Further studies on receptor-ligand interaction might lead to the development of the therapeutic reagent.

  10. Identification of collagen binding domain residues that govern catalytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Margarita; Xu, Xiaoping; Robichaud, Trista K; Pal, Sanjay; Fields, Gregg B; Steffensen, Bjorn

    2012-01-01

    An innovative approach to enhance the selectivity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors comprises targeting these inhibitors to catalytically required substrate binding sites (exosites) that are located outside the catalytic cleft. In MMP-2, positioning of collagen substrate molecules occurs via a unique fibronectin-like domain (CBD) that contains three distinct modular collagen binding sites. To characterize the contributions of these exosites to gelatinolysis by MMP-2, seven MMP-2 variants were generated with single, or concurrent double and triple alanine substitutions in the three fibronectin type II modules of the CBD. Circular dichroism spectroscopy verified that recombinant MMP-2 wild-type (WT) and variants had the same fold. Moreover, the MMP-2 WT and variants had the same activity on a short FRET peptide substrate that is hydrolyzed independently of CBD binding. Among single-point variants, substitution in the module 3 binding site had greatest impact on the affinity of MMP-2 for gelatin. Simultaneous substitutions in two or three CBD modules further reduced gelatin binding. The rates of gelatinolysis of MMP-2 variants were reduced by 20-40% following single-point substitutions, by 60-75% after double-point modifications, and by >90% for triple-point variants. Intriguingly, the three CBD modules contributed differentially to cleavage of dissociated α-1(I) and α-2(I) collagen chains. Importantly, kinetic analyses (k(cat)/K(m)) revealed that catalysis of a triple-helical FRET peptide substrate by MMP-2 relied primarily on the module 3 binding site. Thus, we have identified three collagen binding site residues that are essential for gelatinolysis and constitute promising targets for selective inhibition of MMP-2.

  11. Identification of the Calmodulin-Binding Domains of Fas Death Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss J Chang

    Full Text Available The extrinsic apoptotic pathway is initiated by binding of a Fas ligand to the ectodomain of the surface death receptor Fas protein. Subsequently, the intracellular death domain of Fas (FasDD and that of the Fas-associated protein (FADD interact to form the core of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC, a crucial step for activation of caspases that induce cell death. Previous studies have shown that calmodulin (CaM is recruited into the DISC in cholangiocarcinoma cells and specifically interacts with FasDD to regulate the apoptotic/survival signaling pathway. Inhibition of CaM activity in DISC stimulates apoptosis significantly. We have recently shown that CaM forms a ternary complex with FasDD (2:1 CaM:FasDD. However, the molecular mechanism by which CaM binds to two distinct FasDD motifs is not fully understood. Here, we employed mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, biophysical, and biochemical methods to identify the binding regions of FasDD and provide a molecular basis for the role of CaM in Fas-mediated apoptosis. Proteolytic digestion and mass spectrometry data revealed that peptides spanning residues 209-239 (Fas-Pep1 and 251-288 (Fas-Pep2 constitute the two CaM-binding regions of FasDD. To determine the molecular mechanism of interaction, we have characterized the binding of recombinant/synthetic Fas-Pep1 and Fas-Pep2 peptides with CaM. Our data show that both peptides engage the N- and C-terminal lobes of CaM simultaneously. Binding of Fas-Pep1 to CaM is entropically driven while that of Fas-Pep2 to CaM is enthalpically driven, indicating that a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic forces contribute to the stabilization of the FasDD-CaM complex. Our data suggest that because Fas-Pep1 and Fas-Pep2 are involved in extensive intermolecular contacts with the death domain of FADD, binding of CaM to these regions may hinder its ability to bind to FADD, thus greatly inhibiting the initiation of apoptotic signaling

  12. Cryptic DNA-binding domain in the C terminus of RNA polymerase II general transcription factor RAP30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S; Garrett, K P; Conaway, R C; Conaway, J W

    1994-10-11

    The C terminus of mammalian transcription factor RAP30 has been found to be a cryptic DNA-binding domain strikingly similar to the C-terminal DNA-binding domain present in conserved region 4 of members of the sigma 70 family of bacterial sigma factors. This RAP30 domain shares strongest sequence similarity with the DNA-binding domain present in region 4 of Bacillus subtilis sporulation-specific sigma K. Like the region 4 DNA-binding activity of Escherichia coli sigma 70, the RAP30 C-terminal DNA binding activity is masked in intact RAP30 but is readily detectable when the RAP30 C terminus is expressed as a fusion protein. Consistent with a role for RAP30 DNA-binding activity in transcription, mutations that abolish DNA binding also abolish transcription. Therefore, RAP30 may function at least in part through the action of an evolutionarily ancient DNA-binding domain that first appeared prior to the divergence of bacteria and eukaryotes.

  13. Crystal structure of the actin binding domain of the cyclase-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodatko, Tetyana; Fedorov, Alexander A; Grynberg, Marcin; Patskovsky, Yury; Rozwarski, Denise A; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Aronoff-Spencer, Eliah; Kondraskina, Elena; Irving, Tom; Godzik, Adam; Almo, Steven C

    2004-08-24

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP or Srv2p) is a modular actin monomer binding protein that directly regulates filament dynamics and has been implicated in a number of complex developmental and morphological processes, including mRNA localization and the establishment of cell polarity. The crystal structure of the C-terminal dimerization and actin monomer binding domain (C-CAP) reveals a highly unusual dimer, composed of monomers possessing six coils of right-handed beta-helix flanked by antiparallel beta-strands. Domain swapping, involving the last two strands of each monomer, results in the formation of an extended dimer with an extensive interface. This structural and biochemical characterization provides new insights into the organization and potential mechanistic properties of the multiprotein assemblies that integrate dynamic actin processes into the overall physiology of the cell. An unanticipated finding is that the unique tertiary structure of the C-CAP monomer provides a structural model for a wide range of molecules, including RP2 and cofactor C, proteins involved in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and tubulin maturation, respectively, as well as several uncharacterized proteins that exhibit very diverse domain organizations. Thus, the unusual right-handed beta-helical fold present in C-CAP appears to support a wide range of biological functions.

  14. Characterization of the Duffy-Binding-Like Domain of Plasmodium falciparum Blood-Stage Antigen 332

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Nilsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on Pf332, a major Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigen, have largely been hampered by the cross-reactive nature of antibodies generated against the molecule due to its high content of repeats, which are present in other malaria antigens. We previously reported the identification of a conserved domain in Pf332 with a high degree of similarity to the Duffy-binding-like (DBL domains of the erythrocyte-binding-like (EBL family. We here describe that antibodies towards Pf332-DBL are induced after repeated exposure to P. falciparum and that they are acquired early in life in areas of intense malaria transmission. Furthermore, a homology model of Pf332-DBL was found to be similar to the structure of the EBL-DBLs. Despite their similarities, antibodies towards Pf332-DBL did not display any cross-reactivity with EBL-proteins as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blotting, and peptide microarray. Thus the DBL domain is an attractive region to use in further studies on the giant Pf332 molecule.

  15. Controlled Aggregation and Increased Stability of β-Glucuronidase by Cellulose Binding Domain Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonjung; Kwon, Kil Koang; Fu, Yaoyao; Kim, Haseong; Lee, Hyewon; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jung, Heungchae; Lee, Seung-Goo

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) are protein domains with cellulose-binding activity, and some act as leaders in the localization of cellulosomal scaffoldin proteins to the hydrophobic surface of crystalline cellulose. In this study, we found that a CBD fusion enhanced and improved soluble β-glucuronidase (GusA) enzyme properties through the formation of an artificially oligomeric state. First, a soluble CBD fused to the C-terminus of GusA (GusA-CBD) was obtained and characterized. Interestingly, the soluble GusA-CBD showed maximum activity at higher temperatures (65°C) and more acidic pH values (pH 6.0) than free GusA did (60°C and pH 7.5). Moreover, the GusA-CBD enzyme showed higher thermal and pH stabilities than the free GusA enzyme did. Additionally, GusA-CBD showed higher enzymatic activity in the presence of methanol than free GusA did. Evaluation of the protease accessibility of both enzymes revealed that GusA-CBD retained 100% of its activity after 1 h incubation in 0.5 mg/ml protease K, while free GusA completely lost its activity. Simple fusion of CBD as a single domain may be useful for tunable enzyme states to improve enzyme stability in industrial applications. PMID:28099480

  16. The Bacillus subtilis flagellar regulatory protein sigma D: overproduction, domain analysis and DNA-binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y F; Helmann, J D

    1995-06-16

    Flagellar biosynthesis requires an alternative sigma (sigma) subunit of RNA polymerase to allow recognition of the promoters for flagellin and other late genes of the flagellar regulon. We have now overproduced and characterized Bacillus subtilis sigma D: the prototype of the sigma 28 family of flagellar sigma factors. Limited protease digestion studies indicate that sigma D contains an amino-terminal domain, comprising conserved regions 1.2 and 2, and a carboxyl-terminal domain containing conserved regions 3.2 and 4. The protease-sensitive region between these two domains correlates with a region of very low sequence conservation among bacterial sigma factors. Unlike the primary sigma factor, sigma D binds to DNA. In non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the sigma D-DNA complex has an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 1 microM. Binding of sigma D to the promoter for flagellin, PD-6, appears to lead to an altered DNA structure near the -35 and -10 recognition elements as detected by DNase I footprinting and by the enhanced reactivity of several bases to dimethylsulfate.

  17. Molecular analysis of collagen binding by the human discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2. Identification of collagen binding sites in DDR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitinger, Birgit

    2003-05-09

    The widely expressed mammalian discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), DDR1 and DDR2, are unique among receptor tyrosine kinases in that they are activated by the extracellular matrix protein collagen. Various collagen types bind to and activate the DDRs, but the molecular details of collagen recognition have not been well defined. In this study, recombinant extracellular domains of DDR1 and DDR2 were produced to explore DDR-collagen binding in detail. In solid phase assays, both DDRs bound collagen I with high affinity. DDR1 recognized collagen I only as a dimeric and not as a monomeric construct, indicating a requirement for receptor dimerization in the DDR1-collagen interaction. The DDRs contain a discoidin homology domain in their extracellular domains, and the isolated discoidin domain of DDR2 bound collagen I with high affinity. Furthermore, the discoidin domain of DDR2, but not of DDR1, was sufficient for transmembrane receptor signaling. To map the collagen binding site within the discoidin domain of DDR2, mutant constructs were created, in which potential surface-exposed loops in DDR2 were exchanged for the corresponding loops of functionally unrelated discoidin domains. Three spatially adjacent surface loops within the DDR2 discoidin domain were found to be critically involved in collagen binding of the isolated DDR2 extracellular domain. In addition, the same loops were required for collagen-dependent receptor activation. It is concluded that the loop region opposite to the polypeptide chain termini of the DDR2 discoidin domain constitutes the collagen recognition site.

  18. Crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of mortalin, the mitochondrial Hsp70 chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amick, Joseph; Schlanger, Simon E; Wachnowsky, Christine; Moseng, Mitchell A; Emerson, Corey C; Dare, Michelle; Luo, Wen-I; Ithychanda, Sujay S; Nix, Jay C; Cowan, J A; Page, Richard C; Misra, Saurav

    2014-06-01

    Mortalin, a member of the Hsp70-family of molecular chaperones, functions in a variety of processes including mitochondrial protein import and quality control, Fe-S cluster protein biogenesis, mitochondrial homeostasis, and regulation of p53. Mortalin is implicated in regulation of apoptosis, cell stress response, neurodegeneration, and cancer and is a target of the antitumor compound MKT-077. Like other Hsp70-family members, Mortalin consists of a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and a substrate-binding domain. We determined the crystal structure of the NBD of human Mortalin at 2.8 Å resolution. Although the Mortalin nucleotide-binding pocket is highly conserved relative to other Hsp70 family members, we find that its nucleotide affinity is weaker than that of Hsc70. A Parkinson's disease-associated mutation is located on the Mortalin-NBD surface and may contribute to Mortalin aggregation. We present structure-based models for how the Mortalin-NBD may interact with the nucleotide exchange factor GrpEL1, with p53, and with MKT-077. Our structure may contribute to the understanding of disease-associated Mortalin mutations and to improved Mortalin-targeting antitumor compounds.

  19. The Influence of Adnectin Binding on the Extracellular Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E.; Doyle, Michael L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.

    2014-12-01

    The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here, the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography.

  20. A New Metal Binding Domain Involved in Cadmium, Cobalt and Zinc Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Aaron T. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Barupala, Dulmini [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Stemmler, Timothy L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Rosenzweig, Amy C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-07-20

    In the P1B-ATPases, which couple cation transport across membranes to ATP hydrolysis, are central to metal homeostasis in all organisms. An important feature of P1B-ATPases is the presence of soluble metal binding domains (MBDs) that regulate transport activity. Only one type of MBD has been characterized extensively, but bioinformatics analyses indicate that a diversity of MBDs may exist in nature. Here we report the biochemical, structural and functional characterization of a new MBD from the Cupriavidus metallidurans P1B-4-ATPase CzcP (CzcP MBD). The CzcP MBD binds two Cd2+, Co2+ or Zn2+ ions in distinct and unique sites and adopts an unexpected fold consisting of two fused ferredoxin-like domains. Both in vitro and in vivo activity assays using full-length CzcP, truncated CzcP and several variants indicate a regulatory role for the MBD and distinct functions for the two metal binding sites. Moreover, these findings elucidate a previously unknown MBD and suggest new regulatory mechanisms for metal transport by P1B-ATPases.

  1. Cyclic nucleotide binding and structural changes in the isolated GAF domain of Anabaena adenylyl cyclase, CyaB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Hassan Biswas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GAF domains are a large family of regulatory domains, and a subset are found associated with enzymes involved in cyclic nucleotide (cNMP metabolism such as adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. CyaB2, an adenylyl cyclase from Anabaena, contains two GAF domains in tandem at the N-terminus and an adenylyl cyclase domain at the C-terminus. Cyclic AMP, but not cGMP, binding to the GAF domains of CyaB2 increases the activity of the cyclase domain leading to enhanced synthesis of cAMP. Here we show that the isolated GAFb domain of CyaB2 can bind both cAMP and cGMP, and enhanced specificity for cAMP is observed only when both the GAFa and the GAFb domains are present in tandem (GAFab domain. In silico docking and mutational analysis identified distinct residues important for interaction with either cAMP or cGMP in the GAFb domain. Structural changes associated with ligand binding to the GAF domains could not be detected by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET experiments. However, amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS experiments provided insights into the structural basis for cAMP-induced allosteric regulation of the GAF domains, and differences in the changes induced by cAMP and cGMP binding to the GAF domain. Thus, our findings could allow the development of molecules that modulate the allosteric regulation by GAF domains present in pharmacologically relevant proteins.

  2. The conserved WW-domain binding sites in Dystroglycan C-terminus are essential but partially redundant for Dystroglycan function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatsenko, A S; Kucherenko, M M; Pantoja, M;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dystroglycan (Dg) is a transmembrane protein that is a part of the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) which connects the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. The C-terminal end of Dg contains a number of putative SH3, SH2 and WW domain binding sites. The most C-terminal ......BACKGROUND: Dystroglycan (Dg) is a transmembrane protein that is a part of the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) which connects the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. The C-terminal end of Dg contains a number of putative SH3, SH2 and WW domain binding sites. The most C......-terminal PPXY motif has been established as a binding site for Dystrophin (Dys) WW-domain. However, our previous studies indicate that both Dystroglycan PPXY motives, WWbsI and WWbsII can bind Dystrophin protein in vitro. RESULTS: We now find that both WW binding sites are important for maintaining full Dg...

  3. Structural characterisation of the native fetuin-binding protein Scilla campanulata agglutinin: a novel two-domain lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L M; Reynolds, C D; Rizkallah, P J; Allen, A K; Van Damme, E J; Donovan, M J; Peumans, W J

    2000-02-18

    The three-dimensional structure of a 244-residue, multivalent, fetuin-binding lectin, SCAfet, isolated from bluebell (Scilla campanulata) bulbs, has been solved at 3.3 A resolution by molecular replacement using the coordinates of the 119-residue, mannose-binding lectin, SCAman, also from bluebell bulbs. Unlike most monocot mannose-binding lectins, such as Galanthus nivalis agglutinin from snowdrop bulbs, which fold into a single domain, SCAfet contains two domains with approximately 55% sequence identity, joined by a linker peptide. Both domains are made up of a 12-stranded beta-prism II fold, with three putative carbohydrate-binding sites, one on each subdomain. SCAfet binds to the complex saccharides of various animal glycoproteins but not to simple sugars.

  4. Strategy to target the substrate binding site of SET domain protein methyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kong T; Li, Fengling; Poda, Gennadiy; Smil, David; Vedadi, Masoud; Schapira, Matthieu

    2013-03-25

    Protein methyltransferases (PMTs) are a novel gene family of therapeutic relevance involved in chromatin-mediated signaling and other biological mechanisms. Most PMTs are organized around the structurally conserved SET domain that catalyzes the methylation of a substrate lysine. A few potent chemical inhibitors compete with the protein substrate, and all are anchored in the channel recruiting the methyl-accepting lysine. We propose a novel strategy to design focused chemical libraries targeting the substrate binding site, where a limited number of warheads each occupying the lysine-channel of multiple enzymes would be decorated by different substituents. A variety of sequence and structure-based approaches used to analyze the diversity of the lysine channel of SET domain PMTs support the relevance of this strategy. We show that chemical fragments derived from published inhibitors are valid warheads that can be used in the design of novel focused libraries targeting other PMTs.

  5. Peptides identify multiple hotspots within the ligand binding domain of the TNF receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennick Michael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hotspots are defined as the minimal functional domains involved in protein:protein interactions and sufficient to induce a biological response. Results Here we describe the use of complex and high diversity phage display libraries to isolate peptides (called Hotspot Ligands or HSPLs which sub-divide the ligand binding domain of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2; p75 into multiple hotspots. We have shown that these libraries could generate HSPLs which not only subdivide hotspots on protein and non-protein targets but act as agonists or antagonists. Using this approach, we generated peptides which were specific for human TNFR2, could be competed by the natural ligands, TNFα and TNFβ and induced an unexpected biological response in a TNFR2-specific manner. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the dissection of the TNFR2 into biologically active hotspots with the concomitant identification of a novel and unexpected biological activity.

  6. Expression of LIM-domain binding protein (ldb) genes during zebrafish embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, R; Kobayashi, M; Tomita, T; Dawid, I B

    1998-02-01

    LIM homeodomain proteins are developmental regulators whose functions depend on synergism with LIM domain binding proteins (Ldb proteins). We have isolated four members of the ldb gene family from the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Ldb1, Ldb2 and Ldb3 share 95%, 73% and 62% amino acid identity with mouse Ldb1, respectively. In overlay assays, Ldb proteins bind LIM homeodomain proteins and LMO1, but not zyxin or MLP. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed that zebrafish ldb1 is expressed ubiquitously from gastrulation onward. Ldb2 is ubiquitous at gastrulation, and later is found in many but not all tissues, especially the anterior central nervous system (CNS) and vasculature. Ldb3 mRNA was expressed primarily in the anterior CNS.

  7. Structural domains in NADPH: Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases involved in catalysis and substrate binding. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timko, Michael P.

    1999-09-24

    Until recently little direct information was available about specific structural determinants within the light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) required for substrate and cofactor binding, catalytic activity, and thylakoid membrane localization. Based on our previous DOE-funded studies, during the past year we brought to fruition a number of ongoing experiments, initiated several new avenues of investigations, and overall have made considerable progress towards establishing the basic structural parameters governing POR function. Our studies to date have defined residues and domains involved in substrate and cofactor binding and catalysis, and elaborated on the mechanism for membrane localization of POR in developing plastids. Our results and their significance, as well as our work in progress, are detailed.

  8. Recognition of methylated DNA through methyl-CpG binding domain proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Xueqing; Ma, Wen; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key regulatory control route in epigenetics, involving gene silencing and chromosome inactivation. It has been recognized that methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins play an important role in interpreting the genetic information encoded by methylated DNA (mDNA). Although...... the function of MBD proteins has attracted considerable attention and is well characterized, the mechanism underlying mDNA recognition by MBD proteins is still poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that the methyl-CpG dinucleotides are recognized at the MBD-mDNA interface by two MBD arginines...... and by strengthening the interaction between mDNA and MBD proteins. Free-energy perturbation calculations also show that methylation yields favorable contribution to the binding free energy for MBD-mDNA complex....

  9. Chimeric Plant Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Gene with a Neural Visinin-Like Calcium-Binding Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shameekumar; Takezawa, D.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium, a universal second messenger, regulates diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. Ca-2(+) and Ca-2(+)/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphorylation play a pivotal role in amplifying and diversifying the action of Ca-2(+)- mediated signals. A chimeric Ca-2(+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) gene with a visinin-like Ca-2(+)- binding domain was cloned and characterized from lily. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 520 amino acids. The predicted structure of CCaMK contains a catalytic domain followed by two regulatory domains, a calmodulin-binding domain and a visinin-like Ca-2(+)-binding domain. The amino-terminal region of CCaMK contains all 11 conserved subdomains characteristic of serine/threonine protein kinases. The calmodulin-binding region of CCaMK has high homology (79%) to alpha subunit of mammalian Ca-2(+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. The calmodulin-binding region is fused to a neural visinin-like domain that contains three Ca-2(+)-binding EF-hand motifs and a biotin-binding site. The Escherichia coli-expressed protein (approx. 56 kDa) binds calmodulin in a Ca-2(+)-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ca-45-binding assays revealed that CCaMK directly binds Ca-2(+). The CCaMK gene is preferentially expressed in developing anthers. Southern blot analysis revealed that CCaMK is encoded by a single gene. The structural features of the gene suggest that it has multiple regulatory controls and could play a unique role in Ca-2(+) signaling in plants.

  10. Rotary and unidirectional metal shadowing of VAT: localization of the substrate-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockel, B; Guckenberger, R; Gross, H; Tittmann, P; Baumeister, W

    2000-11-01

    AAA-ATPases have important roles in manifold cellular processes. VAT (valosine-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum), a hexameric archaeal member of this family, has the tripartite domain structure N-D1-D2 that is characteristic of many members of this family. N, the N-terminal domain of 20.5 kDa, has been implicated in substrate binding. We have applied rotary and unidirectional shadowing to VAT and an N-terminally deleted mutant, VAT(Delta N), in order to map the location of this domain. For the analysis of data derived from unidirectionally shadowed samples we used a new approach combining eigenvector analysis with surface relief reconstruction. Averages of rotary shadowed particles as well as relief reconstructions map the N-terminal domains to the periphery of the hexameric complex and reveal their bipartite structure. Thus, this method appears to be well suited to study the conformational changes that occur during the functional cycle of the protein.

  11. p53 Requires an Intact C-Terminal Domain for DNA Binding and Transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a critical role in mediating cellular response to a wide range of environmental stresses. p53 regulates these processes mainly by acting as a short-lived DNA binding protein that stimulates transcription from numerous genes involved in cell cycle arrest, programmed cell death, and other processes. To investigate the importance of C-terminal domain of p53, we generated a series of deletion and point mutations in this region and analyzed their effects on p53 trans...

  12. Degradation of LIM domain-binding protein three during processing of Spanish dry-cured ham

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Extensive proteolysis takes place during the processing of dry-cured ham due to the action of muscle peptidases. The aim of this work was to study the degradation of LIM domain binding protein 3 (LDB3), which is located at the Z-lines of the sarcomere, at different times during the Spanish dry-cured ham processing (2, 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 9 months). A total of 107 peptides have been identified by mass spectrometry, most of them generated from the first region of the protein sequence (position 1-9...

  13. The receptor binding domain of MERS-CoV: the dawn of vaccine and treatment development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Jin-Chun; Feng, Ling; Bao, Jin-Ku

    2014-03-01

    The newly emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is becoming another "SARS-like" threat to the world. It has an extremely high death rate (∼50%) as there is no vaccine or efficient therapeutics. The identification of the structures of both the MERS-CoV receptor binding domain (RBD) and its complex with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), raises the hope of alleviating this currently severe situation. In this review, we examined the molecular basis of the RBD-receptor interaction to outline why/how could we use MERS-CoV RBD to develop vaccines and antiviral drugs.

  14. Analysis of a mutation affecting the specificity domain for prohead binding of the bacteriophage lambda terminase.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Genetic studies have identified a specificity domain for prohead binding in the C-terminal 32 amino acids of gpA, the large subunit of bacteriophage lambda terminase (S. Frackman, D. A. Siegele, and M. Feiss, J. Mol. Biol. 180:283-300, 1984). In the present work, an amber mutation, Aam42, in the fifth-to-last codon of the A gene was found to be lethal in nonsuppressing hosts. The mutation, expected to generate gpA lacking the last five amino acids, caused the production of a terminase that cu...

  15. Structure-Based Design of a Periplasmic Binding Protein Antagonist that Prevents Domain Closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrok, M. Jack; Zhu, Yimin; Forest, Katrina T.; Kiessling, Laura L.; (UW)

    2009-07-31

    Many receptors undergo ligand-induced conformational changes to initiate signal transduction. Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are bacterial receptors that exhibit dramatic conformational changes upon ligand binding. These proteins mediate a wide variety of fundamental processes including transport, chemotaxis, and quorum sensing. Despite the importance of these receptors, no PBP antagonists have been identified and characterized. In this study, we identify 3-O-methyl-D-glucose as an antagonist of glucose/galactose-binding protein and demonstrate that it inhibits glucose chemotaxis in E. coli. Using small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray crystallography, we show that this antagonist acts as a wedge. It prevents the large-scale domain closure that gives rise to the active signaling state. Guided by these results and the structures of open and closed glucose/galactose-binding protein, we designed and synthesized an antagonist composed of two linked glucose residues. These findings provide a blueprint for the design of new bacterial PBP inhibitors. Given the key role of PBPs in microbial physiology, we anticipate that PBP antagonists will have widespread uses as probes and antimicrobial agents.

  16. Ephemeral Protein Binding to DNA Shapes Stable Nuclear Bodies and Chromatin Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackley, Chris A; Liebchen, Benno; Michieletto, Davide; Mouvet, Francois; Cook, Peter R; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2017-03-28

    Fluorescence microscopy reveals that the contents of many (membrane-free) nuclear bodies exchange rapidly with the soluble pool while the underlying structure persists; such observations await a satisfactory biophysical explanation. To shed light on this, we perform large-scale Brownian dynamics simulations of a chromatin fiber interacting with an ensemble of (multivalent) DNA-binding proteins able to switch between an "on" (binding) and an "off" (nonbinding) state. This system provides a model for any DNA-binding protein that can be posttranslationally modified to change its affinity for DNA (e.g., through phosphorylation). Protein switching is a nonequilibrium process, and it leads to the formation of clusters of self-limiting size, where individual proteins in a cluster exchange with the soluble pool with kinetics similar to those seen in photobleaching experiments. This behavior contrasts sharply with that exhibited by nonswitching proteins, which are permanently in the on-state; when these bind to DNA nonspecifically, they form clusters that grow indefinitely in size. To explain these findings, we propose a mean-field theory from which we obtain a scaling relation between the typical cluster size and the protein switching rate. Protein switching also reshapes intrachromatin contacts to give networks resembling those seen in topologically associating domains, as switching markedly favors local (short-range) contacts over distant ones. Our results point to posttranslational modification of chromatin-bridging proteins as a generic mechanism driving the self-assembly of highly dynamic, nonequilibrium, protein clusters with the properties of nuclear bodies.

  17. The SARS Coronavirus S Glycoprotein Receptor Binding Domain: Fine Mapping and Functional Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiaodong

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The entry of the SARS coronavirus (SCV into cells is initiated by binding of its spike envelope glycoprotein (S to a receptor, ACE2. We and others identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD by using S fragments of various lengths but all including the amino acid residue 318 and two other potential glycosylation sites. To further characterize the role of glycosylation and identify residues important for its function as an interacting partner of ACE2, we have cloned, expressed and characterized various soluble fragments of S containing RBD, and mutated all potential glycosylation sites and 32 other residues. The shortest of these fragments still able to bind the receptor ACE2 did not include residue 318 (which is a potential glycosylation site, but started at residue 319, and has only two potential glycosylation sites (residues 330 and 357. Mutation of each of these sites to either alanine or glutamine, as well as mutation of residue 318 to alanine in longer fragments resulted in the same decrease of molecular weight (by approximately 3 kDa suggesting that all glycosylation sites are functional. Simultaneous mutation of all glycosylation sites resulted in lack of expression suggesting that at least one glycosylation site (any of the three is required for expression. Glycosylation did not affect binding to ACE2. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the fragment S319–518 resulted in the identification of ten residues (K390, R426, D429, T431, I455, N473, F483, Q492, Y494, R495 that significantly reduced binding to ACE2, and one residue (D393 that appears to increase binding. Mutation of residue T431 reduced binding by about 2-fold, and mutation of the other eight residues – by more than 10-fold. Analysis of these data and the mapping of these mutations on the recently determined crystal structure of a fragment containing the RBD complexed to ACE2 (Li, F, Li, W, Farzan, M, and Harrison, S. C., submitted suggested the existence of two hot

  18. Interfacial binding and aggregation of lamin A tail domains associated with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Yaron, Peter N; Qin, Zhao; Shenoy, Siddharth; Buehler, Markus J; Lösche, Mathias; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2014-12-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a premature aging disorder associated with the expression of ∆50 lamin A (∆50LA), a mutant form of the nuclear structural protein lamin A (LA). ∆50LA is missing 50 amino acids from the tail domain and retains a C-terminal farnesyl group that is cleaved from the wild-type LA. Many of the cellular pathologies of HGPS are thought to be a consequence of protein-membrane association mediated by the retained farnesyl group. To better characterize the protein-membrane interface, we quantified binding of purified recombinant ∆50LA tail domain (∆50LA-TD) to tethered bilayer membranes composed of phosphatidylserine and phosphocholine using surface plasmon resonance. Farnesylated ∆50LA-TD binds to the membrane interface only in the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) at physiological ionic strength. At extremely low ionic strength, both the farnesylated and non-farnesylated forms of ∆50LA-TD bind to the membrane surface in amounts that exceed those expected for a densely packed protein monolayer. Interestingly, the wild-type LA-TD with no farnesylation also associates with membranes at low ionic strength but forms only a single layer. We suggest that electrostatic interactions are mediated by charge clusters with a net positive charge that we calculate on the surface of the LA-TDs. These studies suggest that the accumulation of ∆50LA at the inner nuclear membrane observed in cells is due to a combination of aggregation and membrane association rather than simple membrane binding; electrostatics plays an important role in mediating this association.

  19. Homodimerization enhances both sensitivity and dynamic range of the ligand-binding domain of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryany, Eugene; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa; Liu, Jian; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2016-12-01

    Cooperativity in ligand binding is a key emergent property of protein oligomers. Positive cooperativity (higher affinity for subsequent binding events than for initial binding) is frequent. However, the symmetrically homodimeric ligand-binding domain (LBD) of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 exhibits negative cooperativity. To investigate its origin and functional significance, we measured the response to glutamate in vitro of wild-type and C140S LBD as a function of the extent of dimerization. Our results indicate that homodimerization enhances the affinity of the first, but not the second, binding site, relative to the monomer, giving the dimeric receptor both greater sensitivity and a broader dynamic range.

  20. Kinase Associated-1 Domains Drive MARK/PAR1 Kinases to Membrane Targets by Binding Acidic Phospholipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Schmitz, Karl R.; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Slochower, David; Janmey, Paul A.; Lemmon, Mark A. (UPENN-MED)

    2011-09-28

    Phospholipid-binding modules such as PH, C1, and C2 domains play crucial roles in location-dependent regulation of many protein kinases. Here, we identify the KA1 domain (kinase associated-1 domain), found at the C terminus of yeast septin-associated kinases (Kcc4p, Gin4p, and Hsl1p) and human MARK/PAR1 kinases, as a membrane association domain that binds acidic phospholipids. Membrane localization of isolated KA1 domains depends on phosphatidylserine. Using X-ray crystallography, we identified a structurally conserved binding site for anionic phospholipids in KA1 domains from Kcc4p and MARK1. Mutating this site impairs membrane association of both KA1 domains and intact proteins and reveals the importance of phosphatidylserine for bud neck localization of yeast Kcc4p. Our data suggest that KA1 domains contribute to coincidence detection, allowing kinases to bind other regulators (such as septins) only at the membrane surface. These findings have important implications for understanding MARK/PAR1 kinases, which are implicated in Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and autism.

  1. Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, A E; Confalonieri, S; Doria, M;

    1997-01-01

    EH is a recently identified protein-protein interaction domain found in the signal transducers Eps15 and Eps15R and several other proteins of yeast nematode. We show that EH domains from Eps15 and Eps15R bind in vitro to peptides containing an asparagine-proline-phenylalanine (NPF) motif. Direct...

  2. On the role of the two extracytoplasmic substrate-binding domains in the ABC transporter OpuA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans-Oldehinkel, E; Poolman, B

    2003-01-01

    Members of two transporter families of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily use two or even four extracytoplasmic substrate-binding domains (SBDs) for transport. We report on the role of the two SBDs in the translocation cycle of the ABC transporter OpuA from Lactococcus lactis. Heterooligomer

  3. Role of solution conformation and flexibility of short peptide ligands that bind to the p56(lck) SH2 domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J; de Mol, Nico J; Bultinck, Patrick; Kemmink, Johan; Hilbers, Hans W; Liskamp, Rob M J; Dekker, Frank

    2003-01-01

    A general approach in drug design is making ligands more rigid in order to avoid loss in conformational entropy (deltaS(conf)) upon receptor binding. We hypothesized that in the high affinity binding of pYEEI peptide ligands to the p56(lck) SH2 domain this loss in deltaS(conf) might be diminished du

  4. Trp[superscript 2313]-His[superscript 2315] of Factor VIII C2 Domain Is Involved in Membrane Binding Structure of a Complex Between the C[subscript 2] Domain and an Inhibitor of Membrane Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhuo; Lin, Lin; Yuan, Cai; Nicolaes, Gerry A.F.; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J.; Furie, Bruce; Furie, Barbara; Huang, Mingdong (Harvard-Med); (UAH); (Maastricht); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2010-11-03

    Factor VIII (FVIII) plays a critical role in blood coagulation by forming the tenase complex with factor IXa and calcium ions on a membrane surface containing negatively charged phospholipids. The tenase complex activates factor X during blood coagulation. The carboxyl-terminal C2 domain of FVIII is the main membrane-binding and von Willebrand factor-binding region of the protein. Mutations of FVIII cause hemophilia A, whereas elevation of FVIII activity is a risk factor for thromboembolic diseases. The C2 domain-membrane interaction has been proposed as a target of intervention for regulation of blood coagulation. A number of molecules that interrupt FVIII or factor V (FV) binding to cell membranes have been identified through high throughput screening or structure-based design. We report crystal structures of the FVIII C2 domain under three new crystallization conditions, and a high resolution (1.15 {angstrom}) crystal structure of the FVIII C2 domain bound to a small molecular inhibitor. The latter structure shows that the inhibitor binds to the surface of an exposed {beta}-strand of the C2 domain, Trp{sup 2313}-His{sup 2315}. This result indicates that the Trp{sup 2313}-His{sup 2315} segment is an important constituent of the membrane-binding motif and provides a model to understand the molecular mechanism of the C2 domain membrane interaction.

  5. Crystal structures of starch binding domain from Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase in complex with isomaltooligosaccharide: insights into polysaccharide binding mechanism of CBM21 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chen-Hsi; Li, Kun-Mou; Lin, Shih-Wei; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr; Jiang, Ting-Ying; Sun, Yuh-Ju

    2014-06-01

    Glucoamylases are responsible for hydrolysis of starch and polysaccharides to yield β-D-glucose. Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (RoGA) is composed of an N-terminal starch binding domain (SBD) and a C-terminal catalytic domain connected by an O-glycosylated linker. Two carbohydrate binding sites in RoSBD have been identified, site I is created by three highly conserved aromatic residues, Trp47, Tyr83, and Tyr94, and site II is built up by Tyr32 and Phe58. Here, the two crystal structures of RoSBD in complex with only α-(1,6)-linked isomaltotriose (RoSBD-isoG3) and isomaltotetraose (RoSBD-isoG4) have been determined at 1.2 and 1.3 Å, respectively. Interestingly, site II binding is observed in both complexes, while site I binding is only found in the RoSBD-isoG4 complex. Hence, site II acts as the recognition binding site for carbohydrate and site I accommodates site II to bind isoG4. Site I participates in sugar binding only when the number of glucosyl units of oligosaccharides is more than three. Taken together, two carbohydrate binding sites in RoSBD cooperate to reinforce binding mode of glucoamylase with polysaccharides as well as the starch.

  6. Direct binding of specific AUF1 isoforms to tandem zinc finger domains of tristetraprolin (TTP) family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, Vishram P; Zucconi, Beth E; Wilson, Gerald M; Blackshear, Perry J

    2012-02-17

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is the prototype of a family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins that can bind to AU-rich elements in mRNAs and promote their decay. TTP binds to mRNA through its central tandem zinc finger domain; it then promotes mRNA deadenylation, considered to be the rate-limiting step in eukaryotic mRNA decay. We found that TTP and its related family members could bind to certain isoforms of another AU-rich element-binding protein, HNRNPD/AUF1, as well as a related protein, laAUF1. The interaction domain within AUF1p45 appeared to be a C-terminal "GY" region, and the interaction domain within TTP was the tandem zinc finger domain. Surprisingly, binding of AUF1p45 to TTP occurred even with TTP mutants that lacked RNA binding activity. In cell extracts, binding of AUF1p45 to TTP potentiated TTP binding to ARE-containing RNA probes, as determined by RNA gel shift assays; AUF1p45 did not bind to the RNA probes under these conditions. Using purified, recombinant proteins and a synthetic RNA target in FRET assays, we demonstrated that AUF1p45, but not AUF1p37, increased TTP binding affinity for RNA ∼5-fold. These data suggest that certain isoforms of AUF1 can serve as "co-activators" of TTP family protein binding to RNA. The results raise interesting questions about the ability of AUF1 isoforms to regulate the mRNA binding and decay-promoting activities of TTP and its family members as well as the ability of AUF1 proteins to serve as possible physical links between TTP and other mRNA decay proteins and structures.

  7. Ubiquitin regulates caspase recruitment domain-mediated signaling by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins NOD1 and NOD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Heul, Aaron M; Fowler, C Andrew; Ramaswamy, S; Piper, Robert C

    2013-03-08

    NOD1 and NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors that activate inflammation and autophagy. These pathways rely on the caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) within the receptors, which serve as protein interaction platforms that coordinately regulate immune signaling. We show that NOD1 CARD binds ubiquitin (Ub), in addition to directly binding its downstream targets receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2) and autophagy-related protein 16-1 (ATG16L1). NMR spectroscopy and structure-guided mutagenesis identified a small hydrophobic surface of NOD1 CARD that binds Ub. In vitro, Ub competes with RIP2 for association with NOD1 CARD. In vivo, we found that the ligand-stimulated activity of NOD1 with a mutant CARD lacking Ub binding but retaining ATG16L1 and RIP2 binding is increased relative to wild-type NOD1. Likewise, point mutations in the tandem NOD2 CARDs at positions analogous to the surface residues defining the Ub interface on NOD1 resulted in loss of Ub binding and increased ligand-stimulated NOD2 signaling. These data suggest that Ub binding provides a negative feedback loop upon NOD-dependent activation of RIP2.

  8. Structural analysis of the intracellular domain of (pro)renin receptor fused to maltose-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli; Michael Garavito, R

    2011-04-22

    The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which regulates blood pressure and cardiovascular function. The integral membrane protein PRR contains a large extracellular domain (∼310 amino acids), a single transmembrane domain (∼20 amino acids) and an intracellular domain (∼19 amino acids). Although short, the intracellular (IC) domain of the PRR has functionally important roles in a number of signal transduction pathways activated by (pro)renin binding. Meanwhile, together with the transmembrane domain and a small portion of the extracellular domain (∼30 amino acids), the IC domain is also involved in assembly of V(0) portion of the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase). To better understand structural and multifunctional roles of the PRR-IC, we report the crystal structure of the PRR-IC domain as maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion proteins at 2.0Å (maltose-free) and 2.15Å (maltose-bound). In the two separate crystal forms having significantly different unit-cell dimensions and molecular packing, MBP-PRR-IC fusion protein was found to be a dimer, which is different with the natural monomer of native MBP. The PRR-IC domain appears as a relatively flexible loop and is responsible for the dimerization of MBP fusion protein. Residues in the PRR-IC domain, particularly two tyrosines, dominate the intermonomer interactions, suggesting a role for the PRR-IC domain in protein oligomerization.

  9. The role of the Zn(II binding domain in the mechanism of E. coli DNA topoisomerase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse-Dinh Yuk-Ching

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I binds three Zn(II with three tetracysteine motifs which, together with the 14 kDa C-terminal region, form a 30 kDa DNA binding domain (ZD domain. The 67 kDa N-terminal domain (Top67 has the active site tyrosine for DNA cleavage but cannot relax negatively supercoiled DNA. We analyzed the role of the ZD domain in the enzyme mechanism. Results Addition of purified ZD domain to Top67 partially restored the relaxation activity, demonstrating that covalent linkage between the two domains is not necessary for removal of negative supercoils from DNA. The two domains had similar affinities to ssDNA. However, only Top67 could bind dsDNA with high affinity. DNA cleavage assays showed that the Top67 had the same sequence and structure selectivity for DNA cleavage as the intact enzyme. DNA rejoining also did not require the presence of the ZD domain. Conclusions We propose that during relaxation of negatively supercoiled DNA, Top67 by itself can position the active site tyrosine near the junction of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA for cleavage. However, the interaction of the ZD domain with the passing single-strand of DNA, coupled with enzyme conformational change, is needed for removal of negative supercoils.

  10. BS69/ZMYND11 C-Terminal Domains Bind and Inhibit EBNA2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Harter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2 plays an important role in driving immortalization of EBV-infected B cells through regulating the expression of many viral and cellular genes. We report a structural study of the tumor suppressor BS69/ZMYND11 C-terminal region, comprised of tandem coiled-coil-MYND domains (BS69CC-MYND, in complex with an EBNA2 peptide containing a PXLXP motif. The coiled-coil domain of BS69 self-associates to bring two separate MYND domains in close proximity, thereby enhancing the BS69 MYND-EBNA2 interaction. ITC analysis of BS69CC-MYND with a C-terminal fragment of EBNA2 further suggests that the BS69CC-MYND homodimer synergistically binds to the two EBNA2 PXLXP motifs that are respectively located in the conserved regions CR7 and CR8. Furthermore, we showed that EBNA2 interacts with BS69 and down-regulates its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in EBV-infected B cells. Ectopic BS69CC-MYND is recruited to viral target promoters through interactions with EBNA2, inhibits EBNA2-mediated transcription activation, and impairs proliferation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Substitution of critical residues in the MYND domain impairs the BS69-EBNA2 interaction and abolishes the BS69 inhibition of the EBNA2-mediated transactivation and LCL proliferation. This study identifies the BS69 C-terminal domains as an inhibitor of EBNA2, which may have important implications in development of novel therapeutic strategies against EBV infection.

  11. Myosin VI regulates actin structure specialization through conserved cargo-binding domain sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Isaji

    Full Text Available Actin structures are often stable, remaining unchanged in organization for the lifetime of a differentiated cell. Little is known about stable actin structure formation, organization, or maintenance. During Drosophila spermatid individualization, long-lived actin cones mediate cellular remodeling. Myosin VI is necessary for building the dense meshwork at the cones' fronts. We test several ideas for myosin VI's mechanism of action using domain deletions or site-specific mutations of myosin VI. The head (motor and globular tail (cargo-binding domains were both needed for localization at the cone front and dense meshwork formation. Several conserved partner-binding sites in the globular tail previously identified in vertebrate myosin VI were critical for function in cones. Localization and promotion of proper actin organization were separable properties of myosin VI. A vertebrate myosin VI was able to localize and function, indicating that functional properties are conserved. Our data eliminate several models for myosin VI's mechanism of action and suggest its role is controlling organization and action of actin assembly regulators through interactions at conserved sites. The Drosophila orthologues of interaction partners previously identified for vertebrate myosin VI are likely not required, indicating novel partners mediate this effect. These data demonstrate that generating an organized and functional actin structure in this cell requires multiple activities coordinated by myosin VI.

  12. Receptor-binding domain of ephrin-A1: production in bacterial expression system and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, O V; Sharonov, G V; Tikhonov, R V; Kolosov, P M; Astapova, M V; Yakimov, S A; Tagvey, A I; Korchagina, A A; Bocharova, O V; Wulfson, A N; Feofanov, A V; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2012-12-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands, the ephrins, perform an important regulatory function in tissue organization, as well as participate in malignant transformation of cells. Ephrin-A1, a ligand of A class Eph receptors, is a modulator of tumor growth and progression, and the mechanism of its action needs detailed investigation. Here we report on the development of a system for bacterial expression of an ephrin-A1 receptor-binding domain (eA1), a procedure for its purification, and its renaturation with final yield of 50 mg/liter of culture. Functional activity of eA1 was confirmed by immunoblotting, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry. It is shown that monomeric non-glycosylated receptor-binding domain of ephrin-A1 is able to activate cellular EphA2 receptors, stimulating their phosphorylation. Ligand eA1 can be used to study the features of ephrin-A1 interactions with different A class Eph receptors. The created expression cassette is suitable for the development of ligands with increased activity and selectivity and experimental systems for the delivery of cytotoxins into tumor cells that overexpress EphA2 or other class A Eph receptors.

  13. Hydrophobic side chain dynamics of a glutamate receptor ligand binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, Alexander S; Oswald, Robert E

    2010-03-26

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate much of the fast excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The extracellular ligand binding core (S1S2) of the GluR2 subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors can be produced as a soluble protein with properties essentially identical to the corresponding domain in the intact, membrane-bound protein. Using a variety of biophysical techniques, much has been learned about the structure and dynamics of S1S2 and the relationship between its ligand-induced conformational changes and the function of the receptor. It is clear that dynamic processes are essential to the function of ionotropic glutamate receptors. We have isotopically labeled side chain methyls of GluR2 S1S2 and used NMR spectroscopy to study their dynamics on the ps-ns and mus-ms time scales. Increased disorder is seen in regions that are part of the key dimer interface in the intact protein. When glutamate is bound, the degree of ps-ns motion is less than that observed with other ligands, suggesting that the physiological agonist binds to a preformed binding site. At the slower time scales, the degree of S1S2 flexibility induced by ligand binding is greatest for willardiine partial agonists, least for antagonists, and intermediate for full agonists. Notable differences among bound ligands are in the region of the protein that forms a hinge between two lobes that close upon agonist binding, and along the beta-sheet in Lobe 2. These motions provide clues as to the functional properties of partial agonists and to the conformational changes associated with lobe closure and channel activation.

  14. RNA-binding Domain of the Key Structural Protein P7 for the Rice dwarf virus Particle Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-Xiong ZHONG; Yan-Wei SHEN; Toshihiro OMURA

    2005-01-01

    The Rice dwarf virus (RDV) P7 structural protein is the key protein in the RDV particle assembly. The P7 protein was digested partially or completely by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease and/or Pseudomonas fragi Asp-N protease. The molecular mass and the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the polypeptide fragments of the P7 protein were determined by SDS-PAGE and the Edman degradation method,respectively. Then the polypeptides were located in the deduced amino acid sequence of the RDV P7 protein based on the nucleotide sequence information, with the knowledge of the specific cleavage sites of the Staphylococcus aureus V8 and Pseudomonasfragi Asp-N protease, and the two RNA-binding domains in the P7 protein were identified. Domain 1 was located in the residue 128-249 containing 122 amino acids and domain 2 was located in the residue 325-355 containing 31 amino acids. Thus, these two domains may play an important role in the virus particle assembly by contributing to the packaging of viral dsRNAs inside the particles. The two domains may be novel RNA-binding domains, because no amino acid sequences highly similar to the conservative sequences of known dsRNA-binding domains reported so far. The similarity between the motif of domain 1 and the motif of the DNA-binding protein suggests that the DNA-binding activity of the RDV P7 protein may be due to this sequence. The similarity between the motif of domain 1 and the motif of the RNA polymerase domain suggests that the P7 protein may also play a role in RNA synthesis,besides its function in the assembly and subsequent packaging of viral dsRNA into core particles.

  15. Docking Studies of Binding of Ethambutol to the C-Terminal Domain of the Arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Salgado-Moran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding of ethambutol to the C-terminal domain of the arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied. The analysis was performed using an in silico approach in order to find out, by docking calculations and energy descriptors, the conformer of Ethambutol that forms the most stable complex with the C-terminal domain of arabinosyltransferase. The complex shows that location of the Ethambutol coincides with the cocrystallization ligand position and that amino acid residues ASH1051, ASN740, ASP1052, and ARG1055 should be critical in the binding of Ethambutol to C-terminal domain EmbC.

  16. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, Stefano [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Campos-Olivas, Ramon [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Duchateau, Phillippe [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Montoya, Guillermo, E-mail: guillermo.montoya@cpr.ku.dk [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Crystal structures of BurrH and the BurrH–DNA complex are reported. DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin β (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing.

  17. ErbB3/HER3 intracellular domain is competent to bind ATP and catalyze autophosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fumin; Telesco, Shannon E.; Liu, Yingting; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Lemmon, Mark A. (UPENN); (UPENN-MED)

    2010-06-21

    ErbB3/HER3 is one of four members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER) or ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family. ErbB3 binds neuregulins via its extracellular region and signals primarily by heterodimerizing with ErbB2/HER2/Neu. A recently appreciated role for ErbB3 in resistance of tumor cells to EGFR/ErbB2-targeted therapeutics has made it a focus of attention. However, efforts to inactivate ErbB3 therapeutically in parallel with other ErbB receptors are challenging because its intracellular kinase domain is thought to be an inactive pseudokinase that lacks several key conserved (and catalytically important) residues - including the catalytic base aspartate. We report here that, despite these sequence alterations, ErbB3 retains sufficient kinase activity to robustly trans-autophosphorylate its intracellular region - although it is substantially less active than EGFR and does not phosphorylate exogenous peptides. The ErbB3 kinase domain binds ATP with a K{sub d} of approximately 1.1 {micro}M. We describe a crystal structure of ErbB3 kinase bound to an ATP analogue, which resembles the inactive EGFR and ErbB4 kinase domains (but with a shortened {alpha}C-helix). Whereas mutations that destabilize this configuration activate EGFR and ErbB4 (and promote EGFR-dependent lung cancers), a similar mutation conversely inactivates ErbB3. Using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations, we delineate a reaction pathway for ErbB3-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer that does not require the conserved catalytic base and can be catalyzed by the 'inactive-like'configuration observed crystallographically. These findings suggest that ErbB3 kinase activity within receptor dimers may be crucial for signaling and could represent an important therapeutic target.

  18. The heparin-binding site in tetranectin is located in the N-terminal region and binding does not involve the carbohydrate recognition domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentsen, R H; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Caterer, N R

    2000-01-01

    in three exons. Exon 3 encodes the carbohydrate recognition domain, which binds to kringle 4 in plasminogen at low levels of Ca(2+). Exon 2 encodes an alpha-helix, which is necessary and sufficient to govern the trimerization of tetranectin by assembling into a triple-helical coiled-coil structural element......Tetranectin is a homotrimeric plasma and extracellular-matrix protein that binds plasminogen and complex sulphated polysaccharides including heparin. In terms of primary and tertiary structure, tetranectin is related to the collectin family of Ca(2+)-binding C-type lectins. Tetranectin is encoded....... Here we show that the heparin-binding site in tetranectin resides not in the carbohydrate recognition domain but within the N-terminal region, comprising the 16 amino acid residues encoded by exon 1. In particular, the lysine residues in the decapeptide segment KPKKIVNAKK (tetranectin residues 6...

  19. The nucleotide-binding domain of NLRC5 is critical for nuclear import and transactivation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, Torsten B. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Li, Amy; Liu, Yuen-Joyce [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Gagnon, Etienne [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Institut de Recherche en Immunologie et Cancerologie, Departement de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada H3T1J4 (Canada); Kobayashi, Koichi S., E-mail: Koichi_Kobayashi@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NLRC5 requires an intact NLS for its function as MHC class I transactivator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear presence of NLRC5 is required for MHC class I induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleotide-binding controls nuclear import and transactivation activity of NLRC5. -- Abstract: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II are crucial for the function of the human adaptive immune system. A member of the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat) protein family, NLRC5, has recently been identified as a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I and related genes. While a 'master regulator' of MHC class II genes, CIITA, has long been known, NLRC5 specifically associates with and transactivates the proximal promoters of MHC class I genes. In this study, we analyzed the molecular requirements of NLRC5 nuclear import and transactivation activity. We show that NLRC5-mediated MHC class I gene induction requires an intact nuclear localization signal and nuclear distribution of NLRC5. In addition, we find that the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of NLRC5 is critical not only for nuclear translocation but also for the transactivation of MHC class I genes. Changing the cellular localization of NLRC5 is likely to immediately impact MHC class I expression as well as MHC class I-mediated antigen presentation. NLRC5 may thus provide a promising target for the modulation of MHC class I antigen presentation, especially in the setting of transplant medicine.

  20. Hinderin, a five-domains protein including coiled-coil motifs that binds to SMC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiselli Giancarlo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structural maintenance of chromosome proteins SMC1 and SMC3 play an important role in the maintenance of chromosomal integrity by preventing the premature separation of the sister chromatids at the onset of anaphase. The two proteins are constitutive components of the multimeric complex cohesin and form dimers by interacting at their central globular regions. Results In order to identify proteins that by binding to SMC3 may interfere with the protein dimerization process, a human cDNA library was screened by the yeast two-hybrid system by using the hinge region of SMC3 as bait. This has lead to the identification of Hinderin, a novel five domains protein including two coiled-coil motifs and sharing a strikingly structural similarity to the SMC family of proteins. Hinderin is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. Orthologue forms of the protein are present in other vertebrates but not in lower organisms. A mapping of the interaction sites revealed that the N- and C-terminal globular domains mediate the binding of Hinderin to SMC3. Hinderin/SMC3 complexes could be recovered by immunoprecipitation from cell lysates using an anti-SMC3 antibody, thus demonstrating that the two proteins interact in vivo. On the contrary, Hinderin did not interact with SMC1. In vivo the rate of SMC1/SMC3 interaction was decreased by the ectopic expression of Hinderin. Conclusions Hinderin is a novel binding partner of SMC3. Based on its ability to modulate SMC1/SMC3 interaction we postulate that Hinderin affects the availability of SMC3 to engage in the formation of multimeric protein complexes.

  1. Thermodynamics of Calcium binding to the Calmodulin N-terminal domain to evaluate site-specific affinity constants and cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccia, Maria Rosa; Sauge-Merle, Sandrine; Lemaire, David; Brémond, Nicolas; Pardoux, Romain; Blangy, Stéphanie; Guilbaud, Philippe; Berthomieu, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is an essential Ca(II)-dependent regulator of cell physiology. To understand its interaction with Ca(II) at a molecular level, it is essential to examine Ca(II) binding at each site of the protein, even if it is challenging to estimate the site-specific binding properties of the interdependent CaM-binding sites. In this study, we evaluated the site-specific Ca(II)-binding affinity of sites I and II of the N-terminal domain by combining site-directed mutagenesis and spectrofluorimetry. The mutations had very low impact on the protein structure and stability. We used these binding constants to evaluate the inter-site cooperativity energy and compared it with its lower limit value usually reported in the literature. We found that site I affinity for Ca(II) was 1.5 times that of site II and that cooperativity induced an approximately tenfold higher affinity for the second Ca(II)-binding event, as compared to the first one. We further showed that insertion of a tryptophan at position 7 of site II binding loop significantly increased site II affinity for Ca(II) and the intra-domain cooperativity. ΔH and ΔS parameters were studied by isothermal titration calorimetry for Ca(II) binding to site I, site II and to the entire N-terminal domain. They showed that calcium binding is mainly entropy driven for the first and second binding events. These findings provide molecular information on the structure-affinity relationship of the individual sites of the CaM N-terminal domain and new perspectives for the optimization of metal ion binding by mutating the EF-hand loops sequences.

  2. The Leptospiral Antigen Lp49 is a Two-Domain Protein with Putative Protein Binding Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Giuseppe,P.; Oliveira Neves, F.; Nascimento, A.; Gomes Guimaraes, B.

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease that affects populations worldwide. Currently available vaccines have limited effectiveness and therapeutic interventions are complicated by the difficulty in making an early diagnosis of leptospirosis. The genome of Leptospira interrogans was recently sequenced and comparative genomic analysis contributed to the identification of surface antigens, potential candidates for development of new vaccines and serodiagnosis. Lp49 is a membrane-associated protein recognized by antibodies present in sera from early and convalescent phases of leptospirosis patients. Its crystal structure was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction using selenomethionine-labelled crystals and refined at 2.0 Angstroms resolution. Lp49 is composed of two domains and belongs to the all-beta-proteins class. The N-terminal domain folds in an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, whereas the C-terminal domain presents a seven-bladed beta-propeller fold. Structural analysis of Lp49 indicates putative protein-protein binding sites, suggesting a role in Leptospira-host interaction. This is the first crystal structure of a leptospiral antigen described to date.

  3. StAR-related lipid transfer domain protein 5 binds primary bile acids[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Danny; Lorin, Aurélien; Lefebvre, Andrée; Frappier, Vincent; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael; Lavigne, Pierre; LeHoux, Jean-Guy

    2012-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins are involved in the nonvesicular intracellular transport of lipids and sterols. The STARD1 (STARD1 and STARD3) and STARD4 subfamilies (STARD4–6) have an internal cavity large enough to accommodate sterols. To provide a deeper understanding on the structural biology of this domain, the binding of sterols to STARD5, a member of the STARD4 subfamily, was monitored. The SAR by NMR [1H-15N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC)] approach, complemented by circular dichroism (CD) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), was used. Titration of STARD5 with cholic (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), leads to drastic perturbation of the 1H-15N HSQC spectra and the identification of the residues in contact with those ligands. The most perturbed residues in presence of ligands are lining the internal cavity of the protein. Ka values of 1.8·10−4 M−1 and 6.3·104 M−1 were measured for CA and CDCA, respectively. This is the first report of a START domain protein in complex with a sterol ligand. Our original findings indicate that STARD5 may be involved in the transport of bile acids rather than cholesterol. PMID:23018617

  4. Conserved C-terminal nascent peptide binding domain of HYPK facilitates its chaperone-like activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swasti Raychaudhuri; Rachana Banerjee; Subhasish Mukhopadhyay; Nitai P Bhattacharyya

    2014-09-01

    Human HYPK (Huntingtin Yeast-two-hybrid Protein K) is an intrinsically unstructured chaperone-like protein with no sequence homology to known chaperones. HYPK is also known to be a part of ribosome-associated protein complex and present in polysomes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the evolutionary influence on HYPK primary structure and its impact on the protein’s function. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed 105 orthologs of human HYPK from plants, lower invertebrates to mammals. C-terminal part of HYPK was found to be particularly conserved and to contain nascent polypeptide-associated alpha subunit (NPAA) domain. This region experiences highest selection pressure, signifying its importance in the structural and functional evolution. NPAA domain of human HYPK has unique amino acid composition preferring glutamic acid and happens to be more stable from a conformational point of view having higher content of -helices than the rest. Cell biology studies indicate that overexpressed C-terminal human HYPK can interact with nascent proteins, co-localizes with huntingtin, increases cell viability and decreases caspase activities in Huntington’s disease (HD) cell culture model. This domain is found to be required for the chaperone-like activity of HYPK in vivo. Our study suggested that by virtue of its flexibility and nascent peptide binding activity, HYPK may play an important role in assisting protein (re)folding.

  5. Thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of ligand binding to the purine riboswitch aptamer domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sunny D; Stoddard, Colby D; Wise, Sarah J; Batey, Robert T

    2006-06-09

    Riboswitches are cis-acting genetic regulatory elements found commonly in bacterial mRNAs that consist of a metabolite-responsive aptamer domain coupled to a regulatory switch. Purine riboswitches respond to intracellular concentrations of either adenine or guanine/hypoxanthine to control gene expression. The aptamer domain of the purine riboswitch contains a pyrimidine residue (Y74) that forms a Watson-Crick base-pairing interaction with the bound purine nucleobase ligand that discriminates between adenine and guanine. We sought to understand the structural basis of this specificity and the mechanism of ligand recognition by the purine riboswitch. Here, we present the 2,6-diaminopurine-bound structure of a C74U mutant of the xpt-pbuX guanine riboswitch, along with a detailed thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of nucleobase recognition by both the native and mutant riboswitches. These studies demonstrate clearly that the pyrimidine at position 74 is the sole determinant of purine riboswitch specificity. In addition, the mutant riboswitch binds adenine and adenine derivatives well compared with the guanine-responsive riboswitch. Under our experimental conditions, 2,6-diaminopurine binds the RNA with DeltaH=-40.3 kcal mol(-1), DeltaS=-97.6 cal mol(-1)K(-1), and DeltaG=-10.73 kcal mol(-1). A kinetic determination of the slow rate (0.15 x 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) and 2.1 x 10(5)mM(-1)s(-1) for 2-aminopurine binding the adenine-responsive mutant riboswitch and 7-deazaguanine-binding guanine riboswitch, respectively) of association under varying experimental conditions allowed us to propose a mechanism for ligand recognition by the purine riboswitch. A conformationally dynamic unliganded state for the binding pocket is stabilized first by the Watson-Crick base pairing between the ligand and Y74, and by the subsequent ordering of the J2/3 loop, enclosing the ligand within the three-way junction.

  6. Tight attachment of chitin-binding-domain-tagged proteins to surfaces coated with acetylated chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Michael P; Cao, Donghui; Myers, Rebecca V; Moyle, William R

    2004-04-15

    Several excellent procedures for trapping tagged proteins have been devised, but many of these are expensive, cannot be used outside a limited pH range, fail to work in the presence of chaotropic agents, or are difficult to use. The chitin binding domain (CBD) of Bacillus circulans chitinase, which binds to chitin matrices prepared from inexpensive reagents isolated from crab shells, is an alternative tag that can be used under a variety of pH and denaturing conditions. Kits based on the interaction between the CBD and the chitin beads are available commercially. Here, we show that simultaneous treatment of microtiter plates with chitosan, a deacetylated form of chitin, and acetic anhydride produces a surface-bound film of chitin that also interacts tightly with the CBD. Chitin-coated microtiter well plates captured a CBD-tagged heterodimeric human glycoprotein hormone analog directly from mammalian cell culture media, even when present in trace amounts. Binding to the surface was stable in sodium dodecylsulfate and reversed only partially at low pH or in 8M urea at 37 degrees C. This technique appears well suited to surface attachment and permits biochemical or other analyses of molecules that can be tagged with a CBD.

  7. Discovery of novel potent ΔF508-CFTR correctors that target the nucleotide binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolczyk, Norbert; Fritsch, Janine; Norez, Caroline; Servel, Nathalie; da Cunha, Melanie Faria; Bitam, Sara; Kupniewska, Anna; Wiszniewski, Ludovic; Colas, Julien; Tarnowski, Krzysztof; Tondelier, Danielle; Roldan, Ariel; Saussereau, Emilie L; Melin-Heschel, Patricia; Wieczorek, Grzegorz; Lukacs, Gergely L; Dadlez, Michal; Faure, Grazyna; Herrmann, Harald; Ollero, Mario; Becq, Frédéric; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Edelman, Aleksander

    2013-10-01

    The deletion of Phe508 (ΔF508) in the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of CFTR is the most common mutation associated with cystic fibrosis. The ΔF508-CFTR mutant is recognized as improperly folded and targeted for proteasomal degradation. Based on molecular dynamics simulation results, we hypothesized that interaction between ΔF508-NBD1 and housekeeping proteins prevents ΔF508-CFTR delivery to the plasma membrane. Based on this assumption we applied structure-based virtual screening to identify new low-molecular-weight compounds that should bind to ΔF508-NBD1 and act as protein-protein interaction inhibitors. Using different functional assays for CFTR activity, we demonstrated that in silico-selected compounds induced functional expression of ΔF508-CFTR in transfected HeLa cells, human bronchial CF cells in primary culture, and in the nasal epithelium of homozygous ΔF508-CFTR mice. The proposed compounds disrupt keratin8-ΔF508-CFTR interaction in ΔF508-CFTR HeLa cells. Structural analysis of ΔF508-NBD1 in the presence of these compounds suggests their binding to NBD1. We conclude that our strategy leads to the discovery of new compounds that are among the most potent correctors of ΔF508-CFTR trafficking defect known to date.

  8. Identification and Preparation of a Novel Chemokine Receptor-Binding Domain in the Cytoplasmic Regulator FROUNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Akihiro; Yoshinaga, Sosuke; Yunoki, Kaori; Ezaki, Soichiro; Yano, Kotaro; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Toda, Etsuko; Terashima, Yuya; Matsushima, Kouji; Terasawa, Hiroaki

    2017-03-24

    FROUNT is a cytoplasmic protein that binds to the membrane-proximal C-terminal regions (Pro-Cs) of chemokine receptors, CCR2 and CCR5. The FROUNT-chemokine receptor interactions play a pivotal role in the migration of inflammatory immune cells, indicating the potential of FROUNT as a drug target for inflammatory diseases. To provide the foundation for drug development, structural information of the Pro-C binding region of FROUNT is desired. Here, we defined the novel structural domain (FNT-CB), which mediates the interaction with the chemokine receptors. A recombinant GST-tag-fused FNT-CB protein expression system was constructed. The protein was purified by affinity chromatography and then subjected to in-gel protease digestion of the GST-tag. The released FNT-CB was further purified by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified FNT-CB adopts a helical structure, as indicated by CD. NMR line-broadening indicated that weak aggregation occurred at sub-millimolar concentrations, but the line-broadening was mitigated by using a deuterated sample in concert with transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy. The specific binding of FNT-CB to CCR2 Pro-C was confirmed by the fluorescence-based assay. The improved NMR spectral quality and the retained functional activity of FNT-CB support the feasibility of further structural and functional studies targeted at the anti-inflammatory drug development.

  9. Crystal structure of the sugar binding domain of the archaeal transcriptional regulator TrmB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Michael; Lee, Sung-Jae; Diederichs, Kay; Boos, Winfried; Welte, Wolfram

    2006-04-21

    TrmB is an alpha-glucoside-sensing transcriptional regulator controlling two operons encoding maltose/trehalose and maltodextrin ABC transporters of Pyrococcus furiosus. The crystal structure of an N-terminal truncated derivative of TrmB (amino acids 2-109 deleted; TrmB(delta2-109)) was solved at 1.5 A resolution. This protein has lost its DNA binding domain but has retained its sugar recognition site. The structure represents a novel sugar-binding fold. TrmB(delta2-109) bound maltose, glucose, sucrose, and maltotriose, exhibiting Kd values of 6.8, 25, 34, and 160 microM, respectively. TrmB(delta2-109) behaved as a monomer in dilute buffer solution in contrast to the full-length protein, which is a dimer. Co-crystallization with bound maltose identified a binding site involving seven amino acid residues: Ser229, Asn305, Gly320, Met321, Val324, Ile325, and Glu326. Six of these residues interact with the nonreducing glucosyl residue of maltose. The nonreducing glucosyl residue is shared by all substrates bound to TrmB, suggesting it as a common recognition motif.

  10. Analysis of a mutation affecting the specificity domain for prohead binding of the bacteriophage lambda terminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippy, J; Feiss, M

    1992-02-01

    Genetic studies have identified a specificity domain for prohead binding in the C-terminal 32 amino acids of gpA, the large subunit of bacteriophage lambda terminase (S. Frackman, D. A. Siegele, and M. Feiss, J. Mol. Biol. 180:283-300, 1984). In the present work, an amber mutation, Aam42, in the fifth-to-last codon of the A gene was found to be lethal in nonsuppressing hosts. The mutation, expected to generate gpA lacking the last five amino acids, caused the production of a terminase that cut cos efficiently both in vivo and in vitro but was defective in DNA packaging. lambda Aam42 lysates contained unused proheads, consistent with a defect in prohead binding. Aam42 terminase was more strongly dependent than wild-type terminase on gpFI, the catalyst of prohead binding. Like wild-type terminase, Aam42 terminase did not cut cos in vivo when prohead assembly was blocked by a mutation in one of the genes encoding the prohead.

  11. SPECIFIC INTERACTION ACTING AT A CELLULOSE-BINDING DOMAIN/CELLULOSE INTERFACE FOR PAPERMAKING APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Yokota

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific and strong cellulose-binding characteristics were utilized for promoting retention of additives in contaminated papermaking systems. Cellulose-binding domain (CBD of cellulase derived from Trichoderma viride was separated by digestion with papain, and then introduced into anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM through a condensation reaction using water-soluble carbodiimide. The CBD-modified A-PAM (CBD-A-PAM showed good retention on pulp fibers, resulting in high tensile strength paper sheets. The effect remained almost unchanged in the presence of model interfering substances such as ligninsulfonate and Ca2+ ions, whereas commercial cationic paper-strengthening polymer became ineffective. The cellulose-binding force of CBD was quantitatively determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM in the liquid state. Histidine-tagged CBD protein was obtained using Escherichia coli via an expression of CBD derived from Cellulomonas fimi, and immobilized on a gold-coated AFM probe. A strong attractive force was detected only at a CBD/cellulose interface, even when Ca2+ ions were present in high concentration. Direct estimation of CBD affinity for cellulose substrate by AFM would provide significant information on the interfacial interactions useful for the functional design of papermaking additives.

  12. The Runt domain of AML1 (RUNX1) binds a sequence-conserved RNA motif that mimics a DNA element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Junichi; Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Amano, Ryo; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kozu, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    AML1 (RUNX1) is a key transcription factor for hematopoiesis that binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. Aberrations in the AML1 gene are frequently found in human leukemia. To better understand AML1 and its potential utility for diagnosis and therapy, we obtained RNA aptamers that bind specifically to the AML1 Runt domain. Enzymatic probing and NMR analyses revealed that Apt1-S, which is a truncated variant of one of the aptamers, has a CACG tetraloop and two stem regions separated by an internal loop. All the isolated aptamers were found to contain the conserved sequence motif 5′-NNCCAC-3′ and 5′-GCGMGN′N′-3′ (M:A or C; N and N′ form Watson–Crick base pairs). The motif contains one AC mismatch and one base bulged out. Mutational analysis of Apt1-S showed that three guanines of the motif are important for Runt binding as are the three guanines of RDE, which are directly recognized by three arginine residues of the Runt domain. Mutational analyses of the Runt domain revealed that the amino acid residues used for Apt1-S binding were similar to those used for RDE binding. Furthermore, the aptamer competed with RDE for binding to the Runt domain in vitro. These results demonstrated that the Runt domain of the AML1 protein binds to the motif of the aptamer that mimics DNA. Our findings should provide new insights into RNA function and utility in both basic and applied sciences. PMID:23709277

  13. Collagen binding specificity of the discoidin domain receptors: Binding sites on collagens II and III and molecular determinants for collagen IV recognition by DDR1

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huifang; Raynal, Nicolas; Stathopoulos, Stavros; Myllyharju, Johanna; Farndale, Richard W.; Leitinger, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2 are cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by triple-helical collagen. While normal DDR signalling regulates fundamental cellular processes, aberrant DDR signalling is associated with several human diseases. We previously identified GVMGFO (O is hydroxyproline) as a major DDR2 binding site in collagens I–III, and located two additional DDR2 binding sites in collagen II. Here we extend these studies to the homologous DDR1 and the...

  14. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals binding residues for the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surface glycoprotein (SU, gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV must bind to a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4, to invade CD4+ cells. Plasmodium vivax uses the Duffy Binding Protein (DBP to bind the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC and invade reticulocytes. Results Variable loop 3 (V3 of HIV-1 SU and domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax DBP share a sequence similarity. The site of amino acid sequence similarity was necessary, but not sufficient, for DARC binding and contained a consensus heparin binding site essential for DARC binding. Both HIV-1 and P. vivax can be blocked from binding to their chemokine receptors by the chemokine, RANTES and its analog AOP-RANTES. Site directed mutagenesis of the heparin binding motif in members of the DBP family, the P. knowlesi alpha, beta and gamma proteins abrogated their binding to erythrocytes. Positively charged residues within domain 1 are required for binding of P. vivax and P. knowlesi erythrocyte binding proteins. Conclusion A heparin binding site motif in members of the DBP family may form part of a conserved erythrocyte receptor binding pocket.

  15. Structural basis underlying CAC RNA recognition by the RRM domain of dimeric RNA-binding protein RBPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplova, Marianna; Farazi, Thalia A; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (designated RBPMS) is a higher vertebrate mRNA-binding protein containing a single RNA recognition motif (RRM). RBPMS has been shown to be involved in mRNA transport, localization and stability, with key roles in axon guidance, smooth muscle plasticity, as well as regulation of cancer cell proliferation and migration. We report on structure-function studies of the RRM domain of RBPMS bound to a CAC-containing single-stranded RNA. These results provide insights into potential topologies of complexes formed by the RBPMS RRM domain and the tandem CAC repeat binding sites as detected by photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation. These studies establish that the RRM domain of RBPMS forms a symmetrical dimer in the free state, with each monomer binding sequence-specifically to all three nucleotides of a CAC segment in the RNA bound state. Structure-guided mutations within the dimerization and RNA-binding interfaces of RBPMS RRM on RNA complex formation resulted in both disruption of dimerization and a decrease in RNA-binding affinity as observed by size exclusion chromatography and isothermal titration calorimetry. As anticipated from biochemical binding studies, over-expression of dimerization or RNA-binding mutants of Flag-HA-tagged RBPMS were no longer able to track with stress granules in HEK293 cells, thereby documenting the deleterious effects of such mutations in vivo.

  16. Characterization and functional analysis of the calmodulin-binding domain of Rac1 GTPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xu

    Full Text Available Rac1, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, has been shown to promote formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge of motile cells and affect cell migration. We previously demonstrated that calmodulin can bind to a region in the C-terminal of Rac1 and that this interaction is important in the activation of platelet Rac1. Now, we have analyzed amino acid residue(s in the Rac1-calmodulin binding domain that are essential for the interaction and assessed their functional contribution in Rac1 activation. The results demonstrated that region 151-164 in Rac1 is essential for calmodulin binding. Within the 151-164 region, positively-charged amino acids K153 and R163 were mutated to alanine to study impact on calmodulin binding. Mutant form of Rac1 (K153A demonstrated significantly reduced binding to calmodulin while the double mutant K153A/R163A demonstrated complete lack of binding to calmodulin. Thrombin or EGF resulted in activation of Rac1 in CHRF-288-11 or HeLa cells respectively and W7 inhibited this activation. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that higher amount of CaM was associated with Rac1 during EGF dependent activation. In cells expressing mutant forms of Rac1 (K153A or K153A/R163A, activation induced by EGF was significantly decreased in comparison to wild type or the R163A forms of Rac1. The lack of Rac1 activation in mutant forms was not due to an inability of GDP-GTP exchange or a change in subcelllular distribution. Moreover, Rac1 activation was decreased in cells where endogenous level of calmodulin was reduced using shRNA knockdown and increased in cells where calmodulin was overexpressed. Docking analysis and modeling demonstrated that K153 in Rac1 interacts with Q41 in calmodulin. These results suggest an important role for calmodulin in the activation of Rac1 and thus, in cytoskeleton reorganization and cell migration.

  17. Sequence-specific long range networks in PSD-95/discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domains tune their binding selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Stefano; Haq, S Raza; Montemiglio, Linda C; Jürgens, Maike C; Engström, Åke; Chi, Celestine N; Brunori, Maurizio; Jemth, Per

    2011-08-05

    Protein-protein interactions mediated by modular protein domains are critical for cell scaffolding, differentiation, signaling, and ultimately, evolution. Given the vast number of ligands competing for binding to a limited number of domain families, it is often puzzling how specificity can be achieved. Selectivity may be modulated by intradomain allostery, whereby a remote residue is energetically connected to the functional binding site via side chain or backbone interactions. Whereas several energetic pathways, which could mediate intradomain allostery, have been predicted in modular protein domains, there is a paucity of experimental data to validate their existence and roles. Here, we have identified such functional energetic networks in one of the most common protein-protein interaction modules, the PDZ domain. We used double mutant cycles involving site-directed mutagenesis of both the PDZ domain and the peptide ligand, in conjunction with kinetics to capture the fine energetic details of the networks involved in peptide recognition. We performed the analysis on two homologous PDZ-ligand complexes and found that the energetically coupled residues differ for these two complexes. This result demonstrates that amino acid sequence rather than topology dictates the allosteric pathways. Furthermore, our data support a mechanism whereby the whole domain and not only the binding pocket is optimized for a specific ligand. Such cross-talk between binding sites and remote residues may be used to fine tune target selectivity.

  18. Implications of Human Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) Channel Gating from Menthol Binding Studies of the Sensing Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Parthasarathi; Hilton, Jacob K; Sisco, Nicholas J; Van Horn, Wade D

    2016-01-12

    The transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channel is the primary cold sensor in humans. TRPM8 is gated by physiologically relevant cold temperatures and chemical ligands that induce cold sensations, such as the analgesic compound menthol. Characterization of TRPM8 ligand-gated channel activation will lead to a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that underlie TRPM8 function. Here, the direct binding of menthol to the isolated hTRPM8 sensing domain (transmembrane helices S1-S4) is investigated. These data are compared with two mutant sensing domain proteins, Y745H (S2 helix) and R842H (S4 helix), which have been previously identified in full length TRPM8 to be menthol insensitive. The data presented herein show that menthol specifically binds to the wild type, Y745H, and R842H TRPM8 sensing domain proteins. These results are the first to show that menthol directly binds to the TRPM8 sensing domain and indicates that Y745 and R842 residues, previously identified in functional studies as crucial to menthol sensitivity, do not affect menthol binding but instead alter coupling between the sensing domain and the pore domain.

  19. The NH2-terminal php domain of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli replicase binds the epsilon proofreading subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Anna; McHenry, Charles S

    2006-05-05

    The alpha subunit of the replicase of all bacteria contains a php domain, initially identified by its similarity to histidinol phosphatase but of otherwise unknown function (Aravind, L., and Koonin, E. V. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 3746-3752). Deletion of 60 residues from the NH2 terminus of the alpha php domain destroys epsilon binding. The minimal 255-residue php domain, estimated by sequence alignment with homolog YcdX, is insufficient for epsilon binding. However, a 320-residue segment including sequences that immediately precede the polymerase domain binds epsilon with the same affinity as the 1160-residue full-length alpha subunit. A subset of mutations of a conserved acidic residue (Asp43 in Escherichia coli alpha) present in the php domain of all bacterial replicases resulted in defects in epsilon binding. Using sequence alignments, we show that the prototypical gram+ Pol C, which contains the polymerase and proofreading activities within the same polypeptide chain, has an epsilon-like sequence inserted in a surface loop near the center of the homologous YcdX protein. These findings suggest that the php domain serves as a platform to enable coordination of proofreading and polymerase activities during chromosomal replication.

  20. The conserved WW-domain binding sites in Dystroglycan C-terminus are essential but partially redundant for Dystroglycan function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng W-M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dystroglycan (Dg is a transmembrane protein that is a part of the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC which connects the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. The C-terminal end of Dg contains a number of putative SH3, SH2 and WW domain binding sites. The most C-terminal PPXY motif has been established as a binding site for Dystrophin (Dys WW-domain. However, our previous studies indicate that both Dystroglycan PPXY motives, WWbsI and WWbsII can bind Dystrophin protein in vitro. Results We now find that both WW binding sites are important for maintaining full Dg function in the establishment of oocyte polarity in Drosophila. If either WW binding site is mutated, the Dg protein can still be active. However, simultaneous mutations in both WW binding sites abolish the Dg activities in both overexpression and loss-of-function oocyte polarity assays in vivo. Additionally, sequence comparisons of WW binding sites in 12 species of Drosophila, as well as in humans, reveal a high level of conservation. This preservation throughout evolution supports the idea that both WW binding sites are functionally required. Conclusion Based on the obtained results we propose that the presence of the two WW binding sites in Dystroglycan secures the essential interaction between Dg and Dys and might further provide additional regulation for the cytoskeletal interactions of this complex.

  1. Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Shaffer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are increasingly being used in clinical trials to treat a variety of malignant conditions and recent results with CD19-specific CARs showing complete tumor regressions has sparked the interest of researchers and the public alike. Traditional CARs have been generated using single-chain variable fragments (scFv, often derived from murine monoclonal antibodies, for antigen specificity. As the clinical experience with CAR T cells grows, so does the potential for unwanted immune responses against the foreign transgene. Strategies that may reduce the immunogenicity of CAR T cells are humanization of the scFv and the use of naturally occurring receptor ligands as antigen-binding domains. Herein, we review the experience with alternatively designed CARs that contain receptor ligands rather than scFv. While most of the experiences have been in the pre-clinical setting, clinical data is also emerging.

  2. Degradation of LIM domain-binding protein three during processing of Spanish dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Fraser, Paul D; Aristoy, María-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2014-04-15

    Extensive proteolysis takes place during the processing of dry-cured ham due to the action of muscle peptidases. The aim of this work was to study the degradation of LIM domain binding protein 3 (LDB3), which is located at the Z-lines of the sarcomere, at different times during the Spanish dry-cured ham processing (2, 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 9 months). A total of 107 peptides have been identified by mass spectrometry, most of them generated from the first region of the protein sequence (position 1-90) providing evidence for the complexity and variability of proteolytic reactions throughout the whole process of dry-curing. Methionine oxidation has been observed in several peptides by the end of the process. The potential of some of the identified peptides to be used as biomarkers of dry-cured ham processing has also been considered.

  3. Conformational dynamics in substrate-binding domains influences transport in the ABC importer GlnPQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K; Ploetz, Evelyn; Husada, Florence; Vietrov, Ruslan; de Boer, Marijn; Cordes, Thorben; Poolman, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The conformational dynamics in ABC transporters is largely elusive. The ABC importer GlnPQ from Lactococcus lactis has different covalently linked substrate-binding domains (SBDs), thus making it an excellent model system to elucidate the dynamics and role of the SBDs in transport. We demonstrate by single-molecule spectroscopy that the two SBDs intrinsically transit from open to closed ligand-free conformation, and the proteins capture their amino acid ligands via an induced-fit mechanism. High-affinity ligands elicit transitions without changing the closed-state lifetime, whereas low-affinity ligands dramatically shorten it. We show that SBDs in the closed state compete for docking onto the translocator, but remarkably the effect is strongest without ligand. We find that the rate-determining steps depend on the SBD and the amino acid transported. We conclude that the lifetime of the closed conformation controls both SBD docking to the translocator and substrate release.

  4. Maturation of shark single-domain (IgNAR) antibodies: evidence for induced-fit binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Robyn L; Dooley, Helen; Verdino, Petra; Flajnik, Martin F; Wilson, Ian A

    2007-03-23

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

  5. Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

    2007-07-13

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

  6. Thermodynamics of the ATPase cycle of GlcV, the nucleotide-binding domain of the glucose ABC transporter of Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretz, Monika G.; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea; Tampe, Robert; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; van der Does, Chris

    2006-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters drive the transport of substrates across the membrane by the hydrolysis of ATP. They typically have a conserved domain structure with two membrane-spanning domains that form the transport channel and two cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains ( NBDs) that energize the

  7. Allosteric Regulation in the Ligand Binding Domain of Retinoic Acid Receptorγ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amal, Ismail; Lutzing, Régis; Stote, Roland H.; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Rochel, Natacha; Dejaegere, Annick

    2017-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays key roles in cell differentiation and growth arrest through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which are ligand-dependent transcription factors. While the main trigger of RAR activation is the binding of RA, phosphorylation of the receptors has also emerged as an important regulatory signal. Phosphorylation of the RARγ N-terminal domain (NTD) is known to play a functional role in neuronal differentiation. In this work, we investigated the phosphorylation of RARγ ligand binding domain (LBD), and present evidence that the phosphorylation status of the LBD affects the phosphorylation of the NTD region. We solved the X-ray structure of a phospho-mimetic mutant of the LBD (RARγ S371E), which we used in molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the consequences of the S371E mutation on the RARγ structural dynamics. Combined with simulations of the wild-type LBD, we show that the conformational equilibria of LBD salt bridges (notably R387-D340) are affected by the S371E mutation, which likely affects the recruitment of the kinase complex that phosphorylates the NTD. The molecular dynamics simulations also showed that a conservative mutation in this salt bridge (R387K) affects the dynamics of the LBD without inducing large conformational changes. Finally, cellular assays showed that the phosphorylation of the NTD of RARγ is differentially regulated by retinoic acid in RARγWT and in the S371N, S371E and R387K mutants. This multidisciplinary work highlights an allosteric coupling between phosphorylations of the LBD and the NTD of RARγ and supports the importance of structural dynamics involving electrostatic interactions in the regulation of RARs activity. PMID:28125680

  8. Binding Sites for Acylated Trehalose Analogs of Glycolipid Ligands on an Extended Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of the Macrophage Receptor Mincle*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Hadar; Rambaruth, Neela D. S.; Jégouzo, Sabine A. F.; Jacobsen, Kristian M.; Djurhuus, Rasmus; Poulsen, Thomas B.; Weis, William I.; Taylor, Maureen E.; Drickamer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage receptor mincle binds to trehalose dimycolate on the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Signaling initiated by this interaction leads to cytokine production, which underlies the ability of mycobacteria to evade the immune system and also to function as adjuvants. In previous work the mechanism for binding of the sugar headgroup of trehalose dimycolate to mincle has been elucidated, but the basis for enhanced binding to glycolipid ligands, in which hydrophobic substituents are attached to the 6-hydroxyl groups, has been the subject of speculation. In the work reported here, the interaction of trehalose derivatives with bovine mincle has been probed with a series of synthetic mimics of trehalose dimycolate in binding assays, in structural studies by x-ray crystallography, and by site-directed mutagenesis. Binding studies reveal that, rather than reflecting specific structural preference, the apparent affinity of mincle for ligands with hydrophobic substituents correlates with their overall size. Structural and mutagenesis analysis provides evidence for interaction of the hydrophobic substituents with multiple different portions of the surface of mincle and confirms the presence of three Ca2+-binding sites. The structure of an extended portion of the extracellular domain of mincle, beyond the minimal C-type carbohydrate recognition domain, also constrains the way the binding domains may interact on the surface of macrophages. PMID:27542410

  9. Probing the electrostatics and pharmacological modulation of sequence-specific binding by the DNA-binding domain of the ETS family transcription factor PU.1: a binding affinity and kinetics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, Manoj; Poon, Gregory M K; Wilson, W David

    2013-05-27

    Members of the ETS family of transcription factors regulate a functionally diverse array of genes. All ETS proteins share a structurally conserved but sequence-divergent DNA-binding domain, known as the ETS domain. Although the structure and thermodynamics of the ETS-DNA complexes are well known, little is known about the kinetics of sequence recognition, a facet that offers potential insight into its molecular mechanism. We have characterized DNA binding by the ETS domain of PU.1 by biosensor-surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR analysis revealed a striking kinetic profile for DNA binding by the PU.1 ETS domain. At low salt concentrations, it binds high-affinity cognate DNA with a very slow association rate constant (≤10(5)M(-)(1)s(-)(1)), compensated by a correspondingly small dissociation rate constant. The kinetics are strongly salt dependent but mutually balance to produce a relatively weak dependence in the equilibrium constant. This profile contrasts sharply with reported data for other ETS domains (e.g., Ets-1, TEL) for which high-affinity binding is driven by rapid association (>10(7)M(-)(1)s(-)(1)). We interpret this difference in terms of the hydration properties of ETS-DNA binding and propose that at least two mechanisms of sequence recognition are employed by this family of DNA-binding domain. Additionally, we use SPR to demonstrate the potential for pharmacological inhibition of sequence-specific ETS-DNA binding, using the minor groove-binding distamycin as a model compound. Our work establishes SPR as a valuable technique for extending our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ETS-DNA interactions as well as developing potential small-molecule agents for biotechnological and therapeutic purposes.

  10. Bacterial Cellulose-Binding Domain Modulates in Vitro Elongation of Different Plant Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigel, Etai; Roiz, Levava; Goren, Raphael; Shoseyov, Oded

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant cellulose-binding domain (CBD) derived from the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium cellulovorans was found to modulate the elongation of different plant cells in vitro. In peach (Prunus persica L.) pollen tubes, maximum elongation was observed at 50 μg mL−1 CBD. Pollen tube staining with calcofluor showed a loss of crystallinity in the tip zone of CBD-treated pollen tubes. At low concentrations CBD enhanced elongation of Arabidopsis roots. At high concentrations CBD dramatically inhibited root elongation in a dose-responsive manner. Maximum effect on root hair elongation was at 100 μg mL−1, whereas root elongation was inhibited at that concentration. CBD was found to compete with xyloglucan for binding to cellulose when CBD was added first to the cellulose, before the addition of xyloglucan. When Acetobacter xylinum L. was used as a model system, CBD was found to increase the rate of cellulose synthase in a dose-responsive manner, up to 5-fold compared with the control. Electron microscopy examination of the cellulose ribbons produced by A. xylinum showed that CBD treatment resulted in a splayed ribbon composed of separate fibrillar subunits, compared with a thin, uniform ribbon in the control. PMID:9701575

  11. Prediction on the binding domain between human interleukin-6 and its receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the spatial conformations of human interleukin-6 (hIL-6) derived from nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and human interleukin-6 receptor (hIL-6R) modeled with homology modeling method using human growth hormone receptor as template, the interaction between hIL-6 and its receptor (hIL-6R) is studied with docking program according to the surface electrostatic potential analysis and spatial conformation complement. The stable region structure composed of hIL-6 and hIL-6R is obtained on the basis of molecular mechanism optimization and molecular dynamics simulation. The binding domain between hIL-6 and hIL-6R is predicted theoretically. Furthermore, the especial binding sites that influence the interaction between hIL-6 and hIL-6R are confirmed. The results lay a theoretical foundation for confirming the active regions of hIL-6 and designing novel antagonist with computer-guided techniques.

  12. Prediction on the binding domain between human interleukin-6 and its receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯健男; 任蕴芳; 沈倍奋

    2000-01-01

    Based on the spatial conformations of human interleukin-6 (hlL-6) derived from nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and human interleukin-6 receptor (hlL-6R) modeled with homology modeling method using human growth hormone receptor as template, the interaction between hlL-6 and its receptor (hIL-6R) is studied with docking program according to the surface electrostatic potential analysis and spatial conformation complement. The stable region structure composed of hlL-6 and hlL-6R is obtained on the basis of molecular mechanism optimization and molecular dynamics simulation. The binding domain between hIL-6 and hIL-6R is predicted theoretically. Furthermore, the especial binding sites that influence the interaction between hlL-6 and hlL-6R are confirmed. The results lay a theoretical foundation for confirming the active regions of hlL-6 and designing novel antagonist with computer-guided techniques.

  13. Cellulose affinity purification of fusion proteins tagged with fungal family 1 cellulose-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naohisa; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro

    2012-04-01

    N- or C-terminal fusions of red-fluorescent protein (RFP) with various fungal cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) belonging to carbohydrate binding module (CBM) family 1 were expressed in a Pichia pastoris expression system, and the resulting fusion proteins were used to examine the feasibility of large-scale affinity purification of CBD-tagged proteins on cellulose columns. We found that RFP fused with CBD from Trichoderma reesei CBHI (CBD(Tr)(CBHI)) was expressed at up to 1.2g/l in the culture filtrate, which could be directly injected into the cellulose column. The fusion protein was tightly adsorbed on the cellulose column in the presence of a sufficient amount of ammonium sulfate and was efficiently eluted with pure water. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was not captured under these conditions, whereas both BSA and the fusion protein were adsorbed on a phenyl column, indicating that the cellulose column can be used for the purification of not only hydrophilic proteins but also for hydrophobic proteins. Recovery of various fusion proteins exceeded 80%. Our results indicate that protein purification by expression of a target protein as a fusion with a fungal family 1 CBD tag in a yeast expression system, followed by affinity purification on a cellulose column, is simple, effective and easily scalable.

  14. A novel and highly specific phage endolysin cell wall binding domain for detection of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minsuk; Sim, Jieun; Kang, Taejoon; Nguyen, Hoang Hiep; Park, Hyun Kyu; Chung, Bong Hyun; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2015-09-01

    Rapid, specific and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial for public health and safety. Bacillus cereus is harmful as it causes foodborne illness and a number of systemic and local infections. We report a novel phage endolysin cell wall-binding domain (CBD) for B. cereus and the development of a highly specific and sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based B. cereus detection method using the CBD. The newly discovered CBD from endolysin of PBC1, a B. cereus-specific bacteriophage, provides high specificity and binding capacity to B. cereus. By using the CBD-modified SPR chips, B. cereus can be detected at the range of 10(5)-10(8) CFU/ml. More importantly, the detection limit can be improved to 10(2) CFU/ml by using a subtractive inhibition assay based on the pre-incubation of B. cereus and CBDs, removal of CBD-bound B. cereus, and SPR detection of the unbound CBDs. The present study suggests that the small and genetically engineered CBDs can be promising biological probes for B. cereus. We anticipate that the CBD-based SPR-sensing methods will be useful for the sensitive, selective, and rapid detection of B. cereus.

  15. A second tubulin binding site on the kinesin-13 motor head domain is important during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available Kinesin-13s are microtubule (MT depolymerases different from most other kinesins that move along MTs. Like other kinesins, they have a motor or head domain (HD containing a tubulin and an ATP binding site. Interestingly, kinesin-13s have an additional binding site (Kin-Tub-2 on the opposite side of the HD that contains several family conserved positively charged residues. The role of this site in kinesin-13 function is not clear. To address this issue, we investigated the in-vitro and in-vivo effects of mutating Kin-Tub-2 family conserved residues on the Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-13, KLP10A. We show that the Kin-Tub-2 site enhances tubulin cross-linking and MT bundling properties of KLP10A in-vitro. Disruption of the Kin-Tub-2 site, despite not having a deleterious effect on MT depolymerization, results in abnormal mitotic spindles and lagging chromosomes during mitosis in Drosophila S2 cells. The results suggest that the additional Kin-Tub-2 tubulin biding site plays a direct MT attachment role in-vivo.

  16. Concerted but Noncooperative Activation of Nucleotide and Actuator Domains of the Ca-ATPase Upon Calcium Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baowei; Mahaney, James E.; Mayer, M. Uljana; Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2008-11-25

    Calcium-dependent domain movements of the nucleotide (N) and actuator (A) domains of the SERCA2a isoform of the Ca-ATPase were assessed using constructs containing engineered tetracysteine binding motifs, which were expressed in insect High-Five cells and subsequently labeled with the biarsenical fluorophore 4’,5’-bis(1,3,2-dithoarsolan-2-yl)fluorescein (FlAsH-EDT2). Maximum catalytic function is retained in microsomes isolated from High-Five cells and labeled with FlAsH-EDT2. Distance measurements using the nucleotide analog TNP-ATP, which acts as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor from FlAsH, identify a 2.4 Å increase in the spatial separation between the N- and A-domains induced by high-affinity calcium binding; this structural change is comparable to that observed in crystal structures. No significant distance changes occur across the N-domain between FlAsH and TNP-ATP, indicating that calcium activation induces rigid body domain movements rather than intradomain conformational changes. Calcium-dependent decreases in the fluorescence of FlAsH bound respectively to either the N- or A-domains indicate coordinated and noncooperative domain movements, where both N- and A-domains domains display virtually identical calcium dependencies (i.e., Kd = 4.8 ± 0.4 μM). We suggest that occupancy of a single high-affinity calcium binding site induces the rearrangement of the A- and N-domains of the Ca-ATPase to form an intermediate state, which facilitates ATP utilization upon occupancy of the second high-affinity calcium site to enhance transport efficiency.

  17. C-type lectin-like domain and fibronectin-like type II domain of phospholipase A(2) receptor 1 modulate binding and migratory responses to collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Soichiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yosuke; Fujioka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Kazuto; Obata, Jun-ei; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2015-03-24

    Phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R) mediates collagen-dependent migration. The mechanisms by which PLA2R interacts with collagen remain unclear. We produced HEK293 cells expressing full-length wild-type PLA2R or a truncated PLA2R that lacks fibronectin-like type II (FNII) domains or several regions of C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). We show that the CTLD1-2 as well as the FNII domain of PLA2R are responsible for binding to collagen and for collagen-dependent migration. Thus, multiple regions and domains of the extracellular portion of PLA2R participate in the responses to collagen. These data suggest a potentially new mechanism for PLA2R-mediated biological response beyond that of a receptor for secretory PLA2.

  18. Influence of the hinge region and its adjacent domains on binding and signaling patterns of the thyrotropin and follitropin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schaarschmidt

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHR have a large extracellular domain (ECD divided into the leucine rich repeat (LRR domain for binding of the glycoprotein hormones and the hinge region (HinR, which connects the LRR domain with the transmembrane domain (TMD. Understanding of the activation mechanism of GPHRs is hindered by the unknown interaction of the ECD with the TMD and the structural changes upon ligand binding responsible for receptor activation. Recently, our group showed that the HinR of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR can be replaced by those of the follitropin (FSHR and lutropin receptor (LHCGR without effects on surface expression and hTSH signaling. However, differences in binding characteristics for bovine TSH at the various HinRs were obvious. To gain further insights into the interplay between LRR domain, HinR and TMD we generated chimeras between the TSHR and FSHR. Our results obtained by the determination of cell surface expression, ligand binding and G protein activation confirm the similar characteristics of GPHR HinRs but they also demonstrate an involvement of the HinR in ligand selectivity indicated by the observed promiscuity of some chimeras. While the TSHR HinR contributes to specific binding of TSH and its variants, no such contribution is observed for FSH and its analog TR4401 at the HinR of the FSHR. Furthermore, the charge distribution at the poorly characterized LRR domain/HinR transition affected ligand binding and signaling even though this area is not in direct contact with the ligand. In addition our results also demonstrate the importance of the TMD/HinR interface. Especially the combination of the TSHR HinR with the FSHR-TMD resulted in a loss of cell surface expression of the respective chimeras. In conclusion, the HinRs of GPHRs do not only share similar characteristics but also behave as ligand specific structural and functional entities.

  19. Phage Endolysin: A Way To Understand A Binding Function Of C-Terminal Domains A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarábková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endolysins are bacteriophage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases, which are synthesized in the end of phage reproduction cycle, in an infected host cell. Usually, for endolysins from phages that infect Gram-positive bacteria, a modular structure is typical. Therefore, these are composed of at least two separate functional domains: an N-terminal catalytic domain (EAD and a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD. Specific ligand recognition of CBDs and following peptidoglycan (PG binding mostly allows a rapid lytic activity of an EAD. Here we briefly characterize phage endolysin CBDs in conjuction with their domain architecture, (nonnecessity for the following lytic activity and a high/low specificity of their ligands as well. Such an overall assessment of CBDs may help to find new ways to widen opportunities in their protein design to create ‛designer recombinant endolysins’ with diverse applications.

  20. Solution structure and peptide binding of the PTB domain from the AIDA1 postsynaptic signaling scaffolding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Smirnova

    Full Text Available AIDA1 links persistent chemical signaling events occurring at the neuronal synapse with global changes in gene expression. Consistent with its role as a scaffolding protein, AIDA1 is composed of several protein-protein interaction domains. Here we report the NMR structure of the carboxy terminally located phosphotyrosine binding domain (PTB that is common to all AIDA1 splice variants. A comprehensive survey of peptides identified a consensus sequence around an NxxY motif that is shared by a number of related neuronal signaling proteins. Using peptide arrays and fluorescence based assays, we determined that the AIDA1 PTB domain binds amyloid protein precursor (APP in a similar manner to the X11/Mint PTB domain, albeit at reduced affinity (∼10 µM that may allow AIDA1 to effectively sample APP, as well as other protein partners in a variety of cellular contexts.

  1. Intramolecular Interactions and Regulation of Cofactor Binding by the Four Repressive Elements in the Caspase Recruitment Domain-containing Protein 11 (CARD11) Inhibitory Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jattani, Rakhi P; Tritapoe, Julia M; Pomerantz, Joel L

    2016-04-15

    The CARD11 signaling scaffold transmits signaling between antigen receptors on B and T lymphocytes and the transcription factor NF-κB during the adaptive immune response. CARD11 activity is controlled by an inhibitory domain (ID), which participates in intramolecular interactions and prevents cofactor binding prior to receptor triggering. Oncogenic CARD11 mutations associated with the activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma somehow perturb ID-mediated autoinhibition to confer CARD11 with the dysregulated spontaneous signaling to NF-κB that is required for the proliferation and survival of the lymphoma. Here, we investigate how the four repressive elements (REs) we have discovered in the CARD11 ID function to inhibit CARD11 activity with cooperativity and redundancy. We find that each RE contributes to the maintenance of the closed inactive state of CARD11 that predominates in the absence of receptor engagement. Each RE also contributes to the prevention of Bcl10 binding in the basal unstimulated state. RE1, RE2, and RE3 participate in intramolecular interactions with other CARD11 domains and share domain targets for binding. Remarkably, diffuse large B cell lymphoma-associated gain-of-function mutations in the caspase recruitment domain, LATCH, or coiled coil can perturb intramolecular interactions mediated by multiple REs, suggesting how single amino acid oncogenic CARD11 mutations can perturb or bypass the action of redundant inhibitory REs to achieve the level of hyperactive CARD11 signaling required to support lymphoma growth.

  2. Site-directed antibody immobilization using a protein A-gold binding domain fusion protein for enhanced SPR immunosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan-Franco, Elena; Caruz, Antonio; Pedrajas, J R; Lechuga, Laura M

    2013-04-07

    We have implemented a novel strategy for the oriented immobilization of antibodies onto a gold surface based on the use of a fusion protein, the protein A-gold binding domain (PAG). PAG consists of a gold binding peptide (GBP) coupled to the immunoglobulin-binding domains of staphylococcal protein A. This fusion protein provides an easy and fast oriented immobilization of antibodies preserving its native structure, while leaving the antigen binding sites (Fab) freely exposed. Using this immobilization strategy, we have demonstrated the performance of the immunosensing of the human Growth Hormone by SPR. A limit of detection of 90 ng mL(-1) was obtained with an inter-chip variability lower than 7%. The comparison of this method with other strategies for the direct immobilization of antibodies over gold surfaces has showed the enhanced sensitivity provided by the PAG approach.

  3. Structural and mutational analyses of the receptor binding domain of botulinum D/C mosaic neurotoxin: Insight into the ganglioside binding mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuemket, Nipawan [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshikazu [Creative Research Institution ' Sousei,' Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tsukamoto, Kentaro; Tsuji, Takao [Department of Microbiology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192 (Japan); Nakamura, Keiji; Kozaki, Shunji [Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka 598-8531 (Japan); Yao, Min [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao, E-mail: tanaka@castor.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We determined the crystal structure of the receptor binding domain of BoNT in complex with 3'-sialyllactose. {yields} An electron density derived from the 3'-sialyllactose was confirmed at the cleft in the C-terminal subdomain. {yields} Alanine site-directed mutagenesis showed that GBS and GBL are important for ganglioside binding. {yields} A cell binding mechanism, which involves cooperative contribution of two sites, was proposed. -- Abstract: Clostridium botulinum type D strain OFD05, which produces the D/C mosaic neurotoxin, was isolated from cattle killed by the recent botulism outbreak in Japan. The D/C mosaic neurotoxin is the most toxic of the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) characterized to date. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the receptor binding domain of BoNT from strain OFD05 in complex with 3'-sialyllactose at a resolution of 3.0 A. In the structure, an electron density derived from the 3'-sialyllactose was confirmed at the cleft in the C-terminal subdomain. Alanine site-directed mutagenesis showed the significant contribution of the residues surrounding the cleft to ganglioside recognition. In addition, a loop adjoining the cleft also plays an important role in ganglioside recognition. In contrast, little effect was observed when the residues located around the surface previously identified as the protein receptor binding site in other BoNTs were substituted. The results of cell binding analysis of the mutants were significantly correlated with the ganglioside binding properties. Based on these observations, a cell binding mechanism of BoNT from strain OFD05 is proposed, which involves cooperative contribution of two ganglioside binding sites.

  4. Carbohydrate Binding Module 74 is a novel starch binding domain associated with large and multi-domain α-amylase enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Vincent; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-01-01

    Microbacterium aurum B8.A is a bacterium that originates from a potato starch-processing plant and employs a GH13 α-amylase (MaAmyA) enzyme that forms pores in potato starch granules. MaAmyA is a large and multi-modular protein that contains a novel domain at its C-terminus (Domain 2). Deletion of D

  5. Binding domains of Bacillus anthracis phage endolysins recognize cell culture age-related features on the bacterial surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskaleva, Elena E; Mundra, Ruchir V; Mehta, Krunal K; Pangule, Ravindra C; Wu, Xia; Glatfelter, Willing S; Chen, Zijing; Dordick, Jonathan S; Kane, Ravi S

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriolytic enzymes often possess a C-terminal binding domain that recognizes specific motifs on the bacterial surface and a catalytic domain that cleaves covalent linkages within the cell wall peptidoglycan. PlyPH, one such lytic enzyme of bacteriophage origin, has been reported to be highly effective against Bacillus anthracis, and can kill up to 99.99% of the viable bacteria. The bactericidal activity of this enzyme, however, appears to be strongly dependent on the age of the bacterial culture. Although highly bactericidal against cells in the early exponential phase, the enzyme is substantially less effective against stationary phase cells, thus limiting its application in real-world settings. We hypothesized that the binding domain of PlyPH may differ in affinity to cells in different Bacillus growth stages and may be primarily responsible for the age-restricted activity. We therefore employed an in silico approach to identify phage lysins differing in their specificity for the bacterial cell wall. Specifically we focused our attention on Plyβ, an enzyme with improved cell wall-binding ability and age-independent bactericidal activity. Although PlyPH and Plyβ have dissimilar binding domains, their catalytic domains are highly homologous. We characterized the biocatalytic mechanism of Plyβ by identifying the specific bonds cleaved within the cell wall peptidoglycan. Our results provide an example of the diversity of phage endolysins and the opportunity for these biocatalysts to be used for broad-based protection from bacterial pathogens.

  6. Nucleotide binding by the widespread high-affinity cyclic di-GMP receptor MshEN domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chuan; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Tu, Zhi-Le; He, Jin; Jones, Christopher J; Sanchez, David Zamorano; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Galperin, Michael Y; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP is a bacterial second messenger regulating various cellular functions. Many bacteria contain c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes but lack known c-di-GMP receptors. Recently, two MshE-type ATPases associated with bacterial type II secretion system and type IV pilus formation were shown to specifically bind c-di-GMP. Here we report crystal structure of the MshE N-terminal domain (MshEN1-145) from Vibrio cholerae in complex with c-di-GMP at a 1.37 Å resolution. This structure reveals a unique c-di-GMP-binding mode, featuring a tandem array of two highly conserved binding motifs, each comprising a 24-residue sequence RLGxx(L/V/I)(L/V/I)xxG(L/V/I)(L/V/I)xxxxLxxxLxxQ that binds half of the c-di-GMP molecule, primarily through hydrophobic interactions. Mutating these highly conserved residues markedly reduces c-di-GMP binding and biofilm formation by V. cholerae. This c-di-GMP-binding motif is present in diverse bacterial proteins exhibiting binding affinities ranging from 0.5 μM to as low as 14 nM. The MshEN domain contains the longest nucleotide-binding motif reported to date.

  7. The molecular chaperone Hsp70 activates protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) by binding the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connarn, Jamie N; Assimon, Victoria A; Reed, Rebecca A; Tse, Eric; Southworth, Daniel R; Zuiderweg, Erik R P; Gestwicki, Jason E; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-31

    Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is auto-inhibited by intramolecular interactions with its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. Hsp90 has been shown to bind PP5 to activate its phosphatase activity. However, the functional implications of binding Hsp70 to PP5 are not yet clear. In this study, we find that both Hsp90 and Hsp70 bind to PP5 using a luciferase fragment complementation assay. A fluorescence polarization assay shows that Hsp90 (MEEVD motif) binds to the TPR domain of PP5 almost 3-fold higher affinity than Hsp70 (IEEVD motif). However, Hsp70 binding to PP5 stimulates higher phosphatase activity of PP5 than the binding of Hsp90. We find that PP5 forms a stable 1:1 complex with Hsp70, but the interaction appears asymmetric with Hsp90, with one PP5 binding the dimer. Solution NMR studies reveal that Hsc70 and PP5 proteins are dynamically independent in complex, tethered by a disordered region that connects the Hsc70 core and the IEEVD-TPR contact area. This tethered binding is expected to allow PP5 to carry out multi-site dephosphorylation of Hsp70-bound clients with a range of sizes and shapes. Together, these results demonstrate that Hsp70 recruits PP5 and activates its phosphatase activity which suggests dual roles for PP5 that might link chaperone systems with signaling pathways in cancer and development.

  8. Docking Studies of Binding of Ethambutol to the C-Terminal Domain of the Arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Salgado-Moran; Rodrigo Ramirez-Tagle; Daniel Glossman-Mitnik; Samuel Ruiz-Nieto; Pran Kishore-Deb; Marta Bunster; Francisco Lobos-Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    The binding of ethambutol to the C-terminal domain of the arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied. The analysis was performed using an in silico approach in order to find out, by docking calculations and energy descriptors, the conformer of Ethambutol that forms the most stable complex with the C-terminal domain of arabinosyltransferase. The complex shows that location of the Ethambutol coincides with the cocrystallization ligand position and that amino acid residu...

  9. Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain enhances the processivity and fidelity of Taq DNA polymerase

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain (TBD) into the distantly related thermostable Taq DNA polymerase at an analogous position in the thumb domain, converts the Taq DNA polymerase from a low processive to a highly processive enzyme. Processivity is dependent on the presence of thioredoxin. The enhancement in processivity is 20–50-fold when compared with the wild-type Taq DNA polymerase or to the recombinant polymerase in the absence of thioredoxin. The recombinant Taq...

  10. Mutations in the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene cluster in two regions of the gene.

    OpenAIRE

    McPhaul, M J; Marcelli, M; Zoppi, S; Wilson, C. M.; Griffin, J E; Wilson, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    We have analyzed the nucleotide sequence of the androgen receptor from 22 unrelated subjects with substitution mutations of the hormone-binding domain. Eleven had the phenotype of complete testicular feminization, four had incomplete testicular feminization, and seven had Reifenstein syndrome. The underlying functional defect in cultured skin fibroblasts included individuals with absent, qualitative, or quantitative defects in ligand binding. 19 of the 21 substitution mutations (90%) cluster ...

  11. Anti-HIV double variable domain immunoglobulins binding both gp41 and gp120 for targeted delivery of immunoconjugates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan B Craig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-HIV immunoconjugates targeted to the HIV envelope protein may be used to eradicate the latent reservoir of HIV infection using activate-and-purge protocols. Previous studies have identified the two target epitopes most effective for the delivery of cytotoxic immunoconjugates the CD4-binding site of gp120, and the hairpin loop of gp41. Here we construct and test tetravalent double variable domain immunoglobulin molecules (DVD-Igs that bind to both epitopes. METHODS: Synthetic genes that encode DVD-Igs utilizing V-domains derived from human anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 Abs were designed and expressed in 293F cells. A series of constructs tested different inter-V-linker domains and orientations of the two V domains. Antibodies were tested for binding to recombinant Ag and native Env expressed on infected cells, for neutralization of infectious HIV, and for their ability to deliver cytotoxic immunoconjugates to infected cells. FINDINGS: The outer V-domain was the major determinant of binding and functional activity of the DVD-Ig. Function of the inner V-domain and bifunctional binding required at least 15 AA in the inter-V-domain linker. A molecular model showing the spatial orientation of the two epitopes is consistent with this observation. Linkers that incorporated helical domains (A[EAAAK](nA resulted in more effective DVD-Igs than those based solely on flexible domains ([GGGGS](n. In general, the DVD-Igs outperformed the less effective parental antibody and equaled the activity of the more effective. The ability of the DVD-Igs to deliver cytotoxic immunoconjugates in the absence of soluble CD4 was improved over that of either parent. CONCLUSIONS: DVD-Igs can be designed that bind to both gp120 and gp41 on the HIV envelope. DVD-Igs are effective in delivering cytotoxic immunoconjugates. The optimal design of these DVD-Igs, in which both domains are fully functional, has not yet been achieved.

  12. Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x: importance of the C-terminal penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated domains for beta-lactam binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Patrick; Todorova, Katya; Sauerbier, Julia; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2012-06-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) mutations that occur during the selection with beta-lactams are located within the central penicillin-binding/transpeptidase (TP) domain, and are believed to mediate resistance by interfering with the formation of a covalent complex of the active site serine with the antibiotic. We now investigated the effect of two point mutations found in two independently obtained laboratory mutants that are located at the surface of the TP domain with their side chains facing outside (G422D respectively R426C). They have no significant effect on resistance to cefotaxime in vivo or on binding to Bocillin™FL to the active site in vitro using purified PBP2x derivatives, thus apparently do not affect the active site directly. In contrast, in silico modeling revealed that they affect van der Waal's interactions with the PASTA1 (PBP and serine/threonine kinase associated) domain of the C-terminal extension and a noncovalent cefuroxime molecule found in the X-ray structure of an acylated PBP2x, suggesting some effect of the mutations on the interaction of the TP domain with PASTA1 and/or with the antibiotic associated with PASTA1. The effect of the PASTA domains on covalent binding of PBP2x to Bocillin FL was then investigated using a series of soluble truncated PBP2x derivatives. Deletion of 127 C-terminal residues, that is, of both PASTA domains, decreased binding dramatically by ∼90%. Surprisingly, deletion of only 40 amino acids resulted in the same phenotype, whereas the absence of 30 amino acids affected binding marginally by 10%, documenting a crucial role of the C-terminal domain for beta-lactam binding.

  13. Solution structure of the ETS domain from murine Ets-1: a winged helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, L W; Petersen, J.M.; Graves, B J; McIntosh, L. P.

    1996-01-01

    Ets-1 is the prototypic member of the ets family of transcription factors. This family is characterized by the conserved ETS domain that mediates specific DNA binding. Using NMR methods, we have determined the structure of a fragment of murine Ets-1 composed of the 85 residue ETS domain and a 25 amino acid extension that ends at its native C-terminus. The ETS domain folds into a helix-turn-helix motif on a four-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet scaffold. This structure places Ets-1 in the win...

  14. A protein-binding domain, EH, identified in the receptor tyrosine kinase substrate Eps15 and conserved in evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, W T; Schumacher, C; Salcini, A E;

    1995-01-01

    heterogeneous proteins of yeast and nematode. The EH domain spans about 70 amino acids and shows approximately 60% overall amino acid conservation. We demonstrated the ability of the EH domain to specifically bind cytosolic proteins in normal and malignant cells of mesenchymal, epithelial, and hematopoietic...... origin. These observations prompted our search for additional EH-containing proteins in mammalian cells. Using an EH domain-specific probe derived from the eps15 cDNA, we cloned and characterized a cDNA encoding an EH-containing protein with overall similarity to Eps15; we designated this protein Eps15r...

  15. GIL, a new c-di-GMP-binding protein domain involved in regulation of cellulose synthesis in enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Ahmad, Irfan; Blanka, Andrea; Schottkowski, Marco; Cimdins, Annika; Galperin, Michael Y; Römling, Ute; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to numerous enzymes involved in c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation in enterobacteria, only a handful of c-di-GMP receptors/effectors have been identified. In search of new c-di-GMP receptors, we screened the Escherichia coli ASKA overexpression gene library using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA) with fluorescently and radioisotope-labelled c-di-GMP. We uncovered three new candidate c-di-GMP receptors in E. coli and characterized one of them, BcsE. The bcsE gene is encoded in cellulose synthase operons in representatives of Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The purified BcsE proteins from E. coli, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae bind c-di-GMP via the domain of unknown function, DUF2819, which is hereby designated GIL, GGDEF I-site like domain. The RxGD motif of the GIL domain is required for c-di-GMP binding, similar to the c-di-GMP-binding I-site of the diguanylate cyclase GGDEF domain. Thus, GIL is the second protein domain, after PilZ, dedicated to c-di-GMP-binding. We show that in S. enterica, BcsE is not essential for cellulose synthesis but is required for maximal cellulose production, and that c-di-GMP binding is critical for BcsE function. It appears that cellulose production in enterobacteria is controlled by a two-tiered c-di-GMP-dependent system involving BcsE and the PilZ domain containing glycosyltransferase BcsA.

  16. X-Ray Crystal Structure of the Full Length Human Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) Reveals Features of Its Chitin Binding Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Firas; Zhao, Yuguang; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Ruiz, Francesc X.; Mitschler, André; Podjarny, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Chitinases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of chitin. Human chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is one of the two active human chitinases, involved in the innate immune response and highly expressed in a variety of diseases. CHIT1 is composed of a catalytic domain linked by a hinge to its chitin binding domain (ChBD). This latter domain belongs to the carbohydrate-binding module family 14 (CBM14 family) and facilitates binding to chitin. So far, the available crystal structures of the human chitinase CHIT1 and the Acidic Mammalian Chitinase (AMCase) comprise only their catalytic domain. Here, we report a crystallization strategy combining cross-seeding and micro-seeding cycles which allowed us to obtain the first crystal structure of the full length CHIT1 (CHIT1-FL) at 1.95 Å resolution. The CHIT1 chitin binding domain (ChBDCHIT1) structure shows a distorted β-sandwich 3D fold, typical of CBM14 family members. Accordingly, ChBDCHIT1 presents six conserved cysteine residues forming three disulfide bridges and several exposed aromatic residues that probably are involved in chitin binding, including the highly conserved Trp465 in a surface- exposed conformation. Furthermore, ChBDCHIT1 presents a positively charged surface which may be involved in electrostatic interactions. Our data highlight the strong structural conservation of CBM14 family members and uncover the structural similarity between the human ChBDCHIT1, tachycitin and house mite dust allergens. Overall, our new CHIT1-FL structure, determined with an adapted crystallization approach, is one of the few complete bi-modular chitinase structures available and reveals the structural features of a human CBM14 domain. PMID:27111557

  17. X-Ray Crystal Structure of the Full Length Human Chitotriosidase (CHIT1 Reveals Features of Its Chitin Binding Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Fadel

    Full Text Available Chitinases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of chitin. Human chitotriosidase (CHIT1 is one of the two active human chitinases, involved in the innate immune response and highly expressed in a variety of diseases. CHIT1 is composed of a catalytic domain linked by a hinge to its chitin binding domain (ChBD. This latter domain belongs to the carbohydrate-binding module family 14 (CBM14 family and facilitates binding to chitin. So far, the available crystal structures of the human chitinase CHIT1 and the Acidic Mammalian Chitinase (AMCase comprise only their catalytic domain. Here, we report a crystallization strategy combining cross-seeding and micro-seeding cycles which allowed us to obtain the first crystal structure of the full length CHIT1 (CHIT1-FL at 1.95 Å resolution. The CHIT1 chitin binding domain (ChBDCHIT1 structure shows a distorted β-sandwich 3D fold, typical of CBM14 family members. Accordingly, ChBDCHIT1 presents six conserved cysteine residues forming three disulfide bridges and several exposed aromatic residues that probably are involved in chitin binding, including the highly conserved Trp465 in a surface- exposed conformation. Furthermore, ChBDCHIT1 presents a positively charged surface which may be involved in electrostatic interactions. Our data highlight the strong structural conservation of CBM14 family members and uncover the structural similarity between the human ChBDCHIT1, tachycitin and house mite dust allergens. Overall, our new CHIT1-FL structure, determined with an adapted crystallization approach, is one of the few complete bi-modular chitinase structures available and reveals the structural features of a human CBM14 domain.

  18. Role of the two structural domains from the periplasmic Escherichia coli histidine-binding protein HisJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Byron C H; DeWolf, Timothy; Vogel, Hans J

    2013-11-01

    Escherichia coli HisJ is a type II periplasmic binding protein that functions to reversibly capture histidine and transfer it to its cognate inner membrane ABC permease. Here, we used NMR spectroscopy to determine the structure of apo-HisJ (26.5 kDa) in solution. HisJ is a bilobal protein in which domain 1 (D1) is made up of two noncontiguous subdomains, and domain 2 (D2) is expressed as the inner domain. To better understand the roles of D1 and D2, we have isolated and characterized each domain separately. Structurally, D1 closely resembles its homologous domain in apo- and holo-HisJ, whereas D2 is more similar to the holo-form. NMR relaxation experiments reveal that HisJ becomes more ordered upon ligand binding, whereas isolated D2 experiences a significant reduction in slower (millisecond to microsecond) motions compared with the homologous domain in apo-HisJ. NMR titrations reveal that D1 is able to bind histidine in a similar manner as full-length HisJ, albeit with lower affinity. Unexpectedly, isolated D1 and D2 do not interact with each other in the presence or absence of histidine, which indicates the importance of intact interdomain-connecting elements (i.e. hinge regions) for HisJ functioning. Our results shed light on the binding mechanism of type II periplasmic binding proteins where ligand is initially bound by D1, and D2 plays a supporting role in this dynamic process.

  19. Rat embryo fibroblasts require both the cell-binding and the heparin-binding domains of fibronectin for survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, J; Han, I; Lim, Y;

    2001-01-01

    . Nuclear condensation indicated apototic cell death. This was due to the decreased activity/stability of focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK) in the absence of HepII domain. A peptide in the HepII domain [peptide V, WQPPRARI (single-letter amino acid codes)], which has previously been implicated...

  20. A synthetic peptide from the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin promotes focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; McCarthy, J B; Furcht, L T;

    1993-01-01

    of focal adhesion and stress fiber formation requires additional interactions. Heparin-binding fragments of fibronectin can provide this signal. The COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin contains five separate heparin-binding amino acid sequences. We show here that all five sequences...... PRARI. The biological response to this peptide and to the COOH-terminal fragment may be mediated through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans because treatment of cells with heparinase II and III, or competition with heparin, reduces the response. Treatment with chondroitinase ABC or competition...

  1. Characterization of a novel cell wall binding domain-containing Staphylococcus aureus endolysin LysSA97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoonjee; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-01-01

    Endolysin from Staphylococcus aureus phage SA97 (LysSA97) was cloned and investigated. LysSA97 specifically lyse the staphylococcal strains and effectively disrupted staphylococcal biofilms. Bioinformatic analysis of LysSA97 revealed a novel putative cell wall binding domain (CBD) as well as two enzymatically active domains (EADs) containing cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases (CHAP, PF05257) and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Amidase-3, PF01520) domains. Comparison of 98 endolysin genes of S. aureus phages deposited in GenBank showed that they can be classified into six groups based on their domain composition. Interestingly, approximately 80.61 % of the staphylococcal endolysins have a src-homology 3 (SH3, PF08460) domain as CBD, but the remaining 19.39 %, including LysSA97, has a putative C-terminal CBD with no homology to the known CBD. The fusion protein containing green fluorescent protein and the putative CBD of LysSA97 showed a specific binding spectrum against staphylococcal cells comparable to SH3 domain (PF08460), suggesting that the C-terminal domain of LysSA97 is a novel CBD of staphylococcal endolysins.

  2. Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances the affinity for PDZ-RhoGEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Heath G; Gutowski, Stephen; Chen, Hua; Brautigam, Chad A; Chen, Zhe; Sternweis, Paul C; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-12-01

    PDZ domains are abundant protein interaction modules and typically recognize a short motif at the C terminus of their ligands, with a few residues in the motif endowing the binding specificity. The sequence-based rules, however, cannot fully account for the specificity between the vast number of PDZ domains and ligands in the cell. Plexins are transmembrane receptors that regulate processes such as axon guidance and angiogenesis. Two related guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), PDZ-RhoGEF and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG), use their PDZ domains to bind class B plexins and play critical roles in signaling. Here, we present the crystal structure of the full-length cytoplasmic region of PlexinB2 in complex with the PDZ domain of PDZ-RhoGEF. The structure reveals that, in addition to the canonical C-terminal motif/PDZ interaction, the 3D domain of PlexinB2 forms a secondary interface with the PDZ domain. Our biophysical and cell-based assays show that the secondary interface contributes to the specific interaction between plexin and PDZ-RhoGEF and to signaling by plexin in the cell. Formation of secondary interfaces may be a general mechanism for increasing affinity and specificity of modular domain-mediated interactions.

  3. Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances the affinity for PDZ–RhoGEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Heath G.; Gutowski, Stephen; Chen, Hua; Brautigam, Chad A.; Chen, Zhe; Sternweis, Paul C.; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains are abundant protein interaction modules and typically recognize a short motif at the C terminus of their ligands, with a few residues in the motif endowing the binding specificity. The sequence-based rules, however, cannot fully account for the specificity between the vast number of PDZ domains and ligands in the cell. Plexins are transmembrane receptors that regulate processes such as axon guidance and angiogenesis. Two related guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), PDZ–RhoGEF and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG), use their PDZ domains to bind class B plexins and play critical roles in signaling. Here, we present the crystal structure of the full-length cytoplasmic region of PlexinB2 in complex with the PDZ domain of PDZ–RhoGEF. The structure reveals that, in addition to the canonical C-terminal motif/PDZ interaction, the 3D domain of PlexinB2 forms a secondary interface with the PDZ domain. Our biophysical and cell-based assays show that the secondary interface contributes to the specific interaction between plexin and PDZ–RhoGEF and to signaling by plexin in the cell. Formation of secondary interfaces may be a general mechanism for increasing affinity and specificity of modular domain-mediated interactions. PMID:26627240

  4. Communication routes in ARID domains between distal residues in helix 5 and the DNA-binding loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Invernizzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ARID is a DNA-binding domain involved in several transcriptional regulatory processes, including cell-cycle regulation and embryonic development. ARID domains are also targets of the Human Cancer Protein Interaction Network. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms related to conformational changes in the family of ARID domains. Thus, we have examined their structural dynamics to enrich the knowledge on this important family of regulatory proteins. In particular, we used an approach that integrates atomistic simulations and methods inspired by graph theory. To relate these properties to protein function we studied both the free and DNA-bound forms. The interaction with DNA not only stabilizes the conformations of the DNA-binding loops, but also strengthens pre-existing paths in the native ARID ensemble for long-range communication to those loops. Residues in helix 5 are identified as critical mediators for intramolecular communication to the DNA-binding regions. In particular, we identified a distal tyrosine that plays a key role in long-range communication to the DNA-binding loops and that is experimentally known to impair DNA-binding. Mutations at this tyrosine and in other residues of helix 5 are also demonstrated, by our approach, to affect the paths of communication to the DNA-binding loops and alter their native dynamics. Overall, our results are in agreement with a scenario in which ARID domains exist as an ensemble of substates, which are shifted by external perturbation, such as the interaction with DNA. Conformational changes at the DNA-binding loops are transmitted long-range by intramolecular paths, which have their heart in helix 5.

  5. Communication routes in ARID domains between distal residues in helix 5 and the DNA-binding loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Gaetano; Tiberti, Matteo; Lambrughi, Matteo; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Papaleo, Elena

    2014-09-01

    ARID is a DNA-binding domain involved in several transcriptional regulatory processes, including cell-cycle regulation and embryonic development. ARID domains are also targets of the Human Cancer Protein Interaction Network. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms related to conformational changes in the family of ARID domains. Thus, we have examined their structural dynamics to enrich the knowledge on this important family of regulatory proteins. In particular, we used an approach that integrates atomistic simulations and methods inspired by graph theory. To relate these properties to protein function we studied both the free and DNA-bound forms. The interaction with DNA not only stabilizes the conformations of the DNA-binding loops, but also strengthens pre-existing paths in the native ARID ensemble for long-range communication to those loops. Residues in helix 5 are identified as critical mediators for intramolecular communication to the DNA-binding regions. In particular, we identified a distal tyrosine that plays a key role in long-range communication to the DNA-binding loops and that is experimentally known to impair DNA-binding. Mutations at this tyrosine and in other residues of helix 5 are also demonstrated, by our approach, to affect the paths of communication to the DNA-binding loops and alter their native dynamics. Overall, our results are in agreement with a scenario in which ARID domains exist as an ensemble of substates, which are shifted by external perturbation, such as the interaction with DNA. Conformational changes at the DNA-binding loops are transmitted long-range by intramolecular paths, which have their heart in helix 5.

  6. Copper chaperone Atox1 interacts with the metal-binding domain of Wilson's disease protein in cisplatin detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, Nataliya V; Nokhrin, Sergiy; Yu, Corey H; George, Graham N; Dmitriev, Oleg Y

    2013-08-15

    Human copper transporters ATP7B (Wilson's disease protein) and ATP7A (Menkes' disease protein) have been implicated in tumour resistance to cisplatin, a widely used anticancer drug. Cisplatin binds to the copper-binding sites in the N-terminal domain of ATP7B, and this binding may be an essential step of cisplatin detoxification involving copper ATPases. In the present study, we demonstrate that cisplatin and a related platinum drug carboplatin produce the same adduct following reaction with MBD2 [metal-binding domain (repeat) 2], where platinum is bound to the side chains of the cysteine residues in the CxxC copper-binding motif. This suggests the same mechanism for detoxification of both drugs by ATP7B. Platinum can also be transferred to MBD2 from copper chaperone Atox1, which was shown previously to bind cisplatin. Binding of the free cisplatin and reaction with the cisplatin-loaded Atox1 produce the same protein-bound platinum intermediate. Transfer of platinum along the copper-transport pathways in the cell may serve as a mechanism of drug delivery to its target in the cell nucleus, and explain tumour-cell resistance to cisplatin associated with the overexpression of copper transporters ATP7B and ATP7A.

  7. AtMBD6, a methyl CpG binding domain protein, maintains gene silencing in Arabidopsis by interacting with RNA binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Adwaita Prasad; Sharma, Amrapali; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation, mediated by double-stranded RNA, is a conserved epigenetic phenomenon that protects a genome from transposons, silences unwanted genes and has a paramount function in plant or animal development. Methyl CpG binding domain proteins are members of a class of proteins that bind to methylated DNA. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 13 methyl CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins, but the molecular/biological functions of most of these proteins are still not clear. In the present study, we identified four proteins that interact with AtMBD6. Interestingly, three of them contain RNA binding domains and are co-localized with AtMBD6 in the nucleus. The interacting partners includes AtRPS2C (a 40S ribosomal protein), AtNTF2 (nuclear transport factor 2) and AtAGO4 (Argonoute 4). The fourth protein that physically interacts with AtMBD6 is a histone-modifying enzyme, histone deacetylase 6 (AtHDA6), which is a known component of the RNA-mediated gene silencing system. Analysis of genomic DNA methylation in the atmbd6, atrps2c and atntf2 mutants, using methylation-sensitive PCR detected decreased DNA methylation at miRNA/siRNA producing loci, pseudogenes and other targets of RNA-directed DNA methylation. Our results indicate that AtMBD6 is involved in RNA-mediated gene silencing and it binds to RNA binding proteins like AtRPS2C, AtAGO4 and AtNTF2. AtMBD6 also interacts with histone deacetylase AtHDA6 that might have a role in chromatin condensation at the targets of RdDM.

  8. N-terminal GNBP homology domain of Gram-negative binding protein 3 functions as a beta-1,3-glucan binding motif in Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanna; Kwon, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ji-Won; Kurokawa, Kenji; Lee, Bok Luel

    2009-08-31

    The Toll signalling pathway in invertebrates is responsible for defense against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, leading to the expression of antimicrobial peptides via NF-kappaB-like transcription factors. Gram-negative binding protein 3 (GNBP3) detects beta-1,3-glucan, a fungal cell wall component, and activates a three step serine protease cascade for activation of the Toll signalling pathway. Here, we showed that the recombinant N-terminal domain of Tenebrio molitor GNBP3 bound to beta-1,3-glucan, but did not activate down-stream serine protease cascade in vitro. Reversely, the N-terminal domain blocked GNBP3-mediated serine protease cascade activation in vitro and also inhibited beta-1,3-glucan-mediated antimicrobial peptide induction in Tenebrio molitor larvae. These results suggest that the N-terminal GNBP homology domain of GNBP3 functions as a beta-1,3-glucan binding domain and the C-terminal domain of GNBP3 may be required for the recruitment of immediate down-stream serine protease zymogen during Toll signalling pathway activation.

  9. Increases thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase by fusion of cellulose binding domain derived from Trichoderma reesei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongekkaew, Jantaporn, E-mail: jantaporn_25@yahoo.com [Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon-Ratchathani University, Warinchumrab, Ubon-Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Ikeda, Hiroko; Iefuji, Haruyuki [Application Research Division, National Research Institute of Brewing, 3-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CSLP and fusion enzyme were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C for 120-min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme has an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase (CSLP), the cellulose-binding domain originates from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I was engineered into C-terminal region of the CSLP (CSLP-CBD). The CSLP and CSLP-CBD were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris using the strong methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and the secretion signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ({alpha} factor). The recombinant CSLP and CSLP-CBD were secreted into culture medium and estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 22 and 27 kDa, respectively. The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C and retained more than 80% of its activity after 120-min incubation at this temperature. Our results also found that the fusion of fungal exoglucanase cellulose-binding domain to CSLP is responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. This attribute should make it an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization.

  10. Functional redundancy between the transcriptional activation domains of E2A is mediated by binding to the KIX domain of CBP/p300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Christopher M; Langelaan, David N; Kirlin, Alyssa C; Chitayat, Seth; Munro, Kim; Spencer, Holly L; LeBrun, David P; Smith, Steven P

    2014-06-01

    The E-protein transcription factors play essential roles in lymphopoiesis, with E12 and E47 (hereafter called E2A) being particularly important in B cell specification and maturation. The E2A gene is also involved in a chromosomal translocation that results in the leukemogenic oncoprotein E2A-PBX1. The two activation domains of E2A, AD1 and AD2, display redundant, independent, and cooperative functions in a cell-dependent manner. AD1 of E2A functions by binding the transcriptional co-activator CBP/p300; this interaction is required in oncogenesis and occurs between the conserved ϕ-x-x-ϕ-ϕ motif in AD1 and the KIX domain of CBP/p300. However, co-activator recruitment by AD2 has not been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the first of two conserved ϕ-x-x-ϕ-ϕ motifs within AD2 of E2A interacts at the same binding site on KIX as AD1. Mutagenesis uncovered a correspondence between the KIX-binding affinity of AD2 and transcriptional activation. Although AD2 is dispensable for oncogenesis, experimentally increasing the affinity of AD2 for KIX uncovered a latent potential to mediate immortalization of primary hematopoietic progenitors by E2A-PBX1. Our findings suggest that redundancy between the two E2A activation domains with respect to transcriptional activation and oncogenic function is mediated by binding to the same surface of the KIX domain of CBP/p300.

  11. Anisotropy decay measurement of segmental dynamics of the anion binding domain in erythrocyte band 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknese, S; Rossi, M; Thevenin, B; Shohet, S B; Verkman, A S

    1995-08-22

    Time-resolved anisotropy was utilized to detect nanosecond segmental motions of the band 3 intramembrane domain. Band 3 at lysine 430 was fluorescently labeled in ghost membranes by fluorescein or eosin maleimide treatment of intact human erythrocytes followed by hypotonic lysis. Single lifetimes for fluorescein (3.8-4.1 ns) and eosin (3.2-3.4 ns) were observed. Phase-modulation measurement of anisotropy decay indicated a segmental motion model, r(t) = exp(-t/tau 1c)[r infinity + (ro-r infinity) exp(-t/tau 2c)], defined by rotational correlation times corresponding to band 3 segmental motion (tau 1c, 30-70 ns) and rapid fluorescein motion in its binding pocket (tau 2c, 200-400 ps), and a residual anisotropy (r infinity, 0.23-0.28) describing hindered fluorescein motion. In PBS at pH 7.4, tau 1c, tau 2c, and r infinity were 44 ns, 307 ps, and 0.24, respectively, predicting a steady-state anisotropy of 0.24, in agreement with the measured value of 0.23. Factors that might influence band 3 structure/dynamics were examined. Whereas pH (range 5-10) had little effect on r(t), [NaCl] addition (0-150 mM) remarkably decreased tau 1c from 68 to 44 ns. The decrease in tau 1c correlated with solution ionic strength, and did not depend on osmolality (studied by mannitol addition), or specific anion interactions (comparing Cl, Br, F, SO4, citrate). The ionic strength effect was not observed in fluorescein-labeled carbonic anhydrase and trypsin-cleaved band 3, suggesting a specific effect on intact band 3. Anisotropy decay was relatively insensitive to external lectin or internal 2,3-DPG binding, but was sensitive to temperature, membrane fluidity, urea denaturation, fluid-phase viscosity, and aldehyde fixation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Microbial starch binding domains are superior to granule bound starch synthase 1 for anchoring luciferase to potato starch granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Q.; Vincken, J.P.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial starch-binding domains (SBD) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) are proteins which are accumulated in potato starch granules. The efficiency of SBD and GBSSI for targeting active luciferase reporter proteins to granules during starch biosynthesis was compared. GBSSI or SBD sequenc

  13. N-terminal truncation enables crystallization of the receptor-binding domain of the FedF bacterial adhesin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kerpel, Maia; Van Molle, Inge [Department of Ultrastructure, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Brys, Lea [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wyns, Lode; De Greve, Henri; Bouckaert, Julie, E-mail: bouckaej@vub.ac.be [Department of Ultrastructure, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-12-01

    The N-terminal receptor-binding domain of the FedF adhesin from enterotoxigenic E. coli has been crystallized. This required the deletion of its first 14 residues, which are also cleaved off naturally. FedF is the two-domain tip adhesin of F18 fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Bacterial adherence, mediated by the N-terminal receptor-binding domain of FedF to carbohydrate receptors on intestinal microvilli, causes diarrhoea and oedema disease in newly weaned piglets and induces the secretion of Shiga toxins. A truncate containing only the receptor-binding domain of FedF was found to be further cleaved at its N-terminus. Reconstruction of this N-terminal truncate rendered FedF amenable to crystallization, resulting in crystals with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and unit-cell parameters a = 36.20, b = 74.64, c = 99.03 Å that diffracted to beyond 2 Å resolution. The binding specificity of FedF was screened for on a glycan array, exposing 264 glycoconjugates, to identify specific receptors for cocrystallization with FedF.

  14. Stimulation of chymosin secretion by simultaneous expression with chymosin-binding llama single-domain antibody fragments in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Smits, C.B.; Geus, de B.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effect of coexpression of chymosin and chymosin-binding llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) on the secretion of chymosin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. A VHH expression library containing chymosin-specific VHHs was obtained by immunization of a llama and coexpressed with

  15. Prolonged in vivo residence times of llama single-domain antibody fragments in pigs by binding to porcine immunoglobulins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Solt, van C.B.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Setten, van M.C.

    2005-01-01

    The therapeutic parenteral application of llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) is hampered by their small size, resulting in a fast elimination from the body. Here we describe a method to increase the serum half-life of VHHs in pigs by fusion to another VHH binding to porcine immunoglobulin

  16. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As demonstr

  17. Catalytic properties of two Rhizopus oryzae 99-880 glucoamylase enzymes without starch binding domains expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic properties of the two glucoamylases, AmyC and AmyD, without starch binding domains from Rhizopus oryzae strain 99-880 were heterologously expressed and purified to homogeneity. AmyC and AmyD demonstrate pH optima of 5.5 and 6.0, respectively, nearly 1 unit higher than most fungal glucoamy...

  18. Structural analysis of the intracellular domain of (pro)renin receptor fused to maltose-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University (United States); Michael Garavito, R., E-mail: garavito@msu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University (United States)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Crystal structure of the intracellular domain of (pro)renin receptor (PRR-IC) as MBP fusion protein at 2.0 A (maltose-free) and 2.15 A (maltose-bound). {yields} MBP fusion protein is a dimer in crystals in the presence and absence of maltose. {yields} PRR-IC domain is responsible for the dimerization of the fusion protein. {yields} Residues in the PRR-IC domain, particularly two tyrosines, dominate the intermolecular interactions, suggesting a role for the PRR-IC domain in PRR dimerization. -- Abstract: The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is an important component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which regulates blood pressure and cardiovascular function. The integral membrane protein PRR contains a large extracellular domain ({approx}310 amino acids), a single transmembrane domain ({approx}20 amino acids) and an intracellular domain ({approx}19 amino acids). Although short, the intracellular (IC) domain of the PRR has functionally important roles in a number of signal transduction pathways activated by (pro)renin binding. Meanwhile, together with the transmembrane domain and a small portion of the extracellular domain ({approx}30 amino acids), the IC domain is also involved in assembly of V{sub 0} portion of the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase). To better understand structural and multifunctional roles of the PRR-IC, we report the crystal structure of the PRR-IC domain as maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion proteins at 2.0 A (maltose-free) and 2.15 A (maltose-bound). In the two separate crystal forms having significantly different unit-cell dimensions and molecular packing, MBP-PRR-IC fusion protein was found to be a dimer, which is different with the natural monomer of native MBP. The PRR-IC domain appears as a relatively flexible loop and is responsible for the dimerization of MBP fusion protein. Residues in the PRR-IC domain, particularly two tyrosines, dominate the intermonomer interactions, suggesting a role for the PRR

  19. Homeodomain leucine zipper proteins bind to the phosphate response domain of the soybean VspB tripartite promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z; Sadka, A; Morishige, D T; Mullet, J E

    2001-02-01

    The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams 82) genes VspA and VspB encode vacuolar glycoprotein acid phosphatases that serve as vegetative storage proteins during seed fill and early stages of seedling growth. VspB expression is activated by jasmonates (JAs) and sugars and down-regulated by phosphate and auxin. Previous promoter studies demonstrated that VspB promoter sequences between -585 and -535 mediated responses to JA, and sequences between -535 and -401 mediated responses to sugars, phosphate, and auxin. In this study, the response domains were further delineated using transient expression of VspB promoter-beta-glucuronidase constructs in tobacco protoplasts. Sequences between -536 and -484 were identified as important for phosphate responses, whereas the region from -486 to -427 mediated sugar responses. Gel-shift and deoxyribonuclease-I footprinting assays revealed four DNA-binding sites between -611 and -451 of the soybean VspB promoter: one in the JA response domain, two in the phosphate response domain, and one binding site in the sugar response domain. The sequence CATTAATTAG present in the phosphate response domain binds soybean homeodomain leucine zipper proteins, suggesting a role for these transcription factors in phosphate-modulated gene expression.

  20. Crystal Structure of the Ligand Binding Suppressor Domain of Type 1 Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosanac, Ivan; Yamazaki, Haruka; Matsu-ura, Toru; Michikawa, Takayuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Ikura, Mitsuhiko (U. of Texas-SMED)

    2010-11-10

    Binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) to the amino-terminal region of IP{sub 3} receptor promotes Ca{sup 2+} release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Within the amino terminus, the first 220 residues directly preceding the IP{sub 3} binding core domain play a key role in IP{sub 3} binding suppression and regulatory protein interaction. Here we present a crystal structure of the suppressor domain of the mouse type 1 IP{sub 3} receptor at 1.8 {angstrom}. Displaying a shape akin to a hammer, the suppressor region contains a Head subdomain forming the {beta}-trefoil fold and an Arm subdomain possessing a helix-turn-helix structure. The conserved region on the Head subdomain appeared to interact with the IP{sub 3} binding core domain and is in close proximity to the previously proposed binding sites of Homer, RACK1, calmodulin, and CaBP1. The present study sheds light onto the mechanism underlying the receptor's sensitivity to the ligand and its communication with cellular signaling proteins.

  1. Mass spectrometry insights into a tandem ubiquitin-binding domain hybrid engineered for the selective recognition of unanchored polyubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel; Garner, Tom P; Long, Jed; Strachan, Jo; Mistry, Sharad C; Bottrill, Andrew R; Tooth, David J; Searle, Mark S; Oldham, Neil J; Layfield, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Unanchored polyubiquitin chains are emerging as important regulators of cellular physiology with diverse roles paralleling those of substrate-conjugated polyubiquitin. However tools able to discriminate unanchored polyubiquitin chains of different isopeptide linkages have not been reported. We describe the design of a linker-optimized ubiquitin-binding domain hybrid (t-UBD) containing two UBDs, a ZnF-UBP domain in tandem with a linkage-selective UBA domain, which exploits avidity effects to afford selective recognition of unanchored Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chains. Utilizing native MS to quantitatively probe binding affinities we confirm cooperative binding of the UBDs within the synthetic protein, and desired binding specificity for Lys48-linked ubiquitin dimers. Furthermore, MS/MS analyses indicate that the t-UBD, when applied as an affinity enrichment reagent, can be used to favor the purification of endogenous unanchored Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chains from mammalian cell extracts. Our study indicates that strategies for the rational design and engineering of polyubiquitin chain-selective binding in nonbiological polymers are possible, paving the way for the generation of reagents to probe unanchored polyubiquitin chains of different linkages and more broadly the 'ubiquitome'. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004059 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD004059).

  2. Structure of MERS-CoV spike receptor-binding domain complexed with human receptor DPP4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nianshuang Wang; Xuanling Shi; Liwei Jiang; Senyan Zhang; Dongli Wang; Pei Tong; Dongxing Guo

    2013-01-01

    The spike glycoprotein (S) of recently identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) targets the cellular receptor,dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4).Sequence comparison and modeling analysis have revealed a putative receptor-binding domain (RBD) on the viral spike,which mediates this interaction.We report the 3.0 (A)resolution crystal structure of MERS-CoV RBD bound to the extracellular domain of human DPP4.Our results show that MERS-CoV RBD consists of a core and a receptor-binding subdomain.The receptor-binding subdomain interacts with DPP4 p-propeller but not its intrinsic hydrolase domain.MERS-CoV RBD and related SARS-CoV RBD share a high degree of structural similarity in their core subdomains,but are notably divergent in the receptorbinding subdomain.Mutagenesis studies have identified several key residues in the receptor-binding subdomain that are critical for viral binding to DPP4 and entry into the target cell.The atomic details at the interface between MERS-CoV RBD and DPP4 provide structural understanding of the virus and receptor interaction,which can guide development of therapeutics and vaccines against MERS-CoV infection.

  3. Frizzled 7 and PIP2 binding by syntenin PDZ2 domain supports Frizzled 7 trafficking and signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea-Jimenez, Antonio Luis; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Ivarsson, Ylva; Wawrzyniak, Anna Maria; Kashyap, Rudra; Loris, Remy; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Zimmermann, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    PDZ domain-containing proteins work as intracellular scaffolds to control spatio-temporal aspects of cell signalling. This function is supported by the ability of their PDZ domains to bind other proteins such as receptors, but also phosphoinositide lipids important for membrane trafficking. Here we report a crystal structure of the syntenin PDZ tandem in complex with the carboxy-terminal fragment of Frizzled 7 and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). The crystal structure reveals a tripartite interaction formed via the second PDZ domain of syntenin. Biophysical and biochemical experiments establish co-operative binding of the tripartite complex and identify residues crucial for membrane PIP2-specific recognition. Experiments with cells support the importance of the syntenin-PIP2 interaction for plasma membrane targeting of Frizzled 7 and c-jun phosphorylation. This study contributes to our understanding of the biology of PDZ proteins as key players in membrane compartmentalization and dynamics.

  4. Binding of spermine and ifenprodil to a purified, soluble regulatory domain of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xia; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Mizuno, Satomi; Higashi, Kyohei; Füll, Christine; Fukiwake, Tomohide; Terui, Yusuke; Leewanich, Pathama; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Toida, Toshihiko; Williams, Keith; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2008-01-01

    The binding of spermine and ifenprodil to the amino terminal regulatory (R) domain of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor was studied using purified regulatory domains of the NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits, termed NR1-R, NR2A-R and NR2B-R. The R domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. The Kd values for binding of [14C]spermine to NR1-R, NR2A-R and NR2B-R were 19, 140 and 33 µM, respectively. [3H]Ifenprodil bound to NR1-R (Kd, 0.18 µM) and NR2B-R (Kd, 0.21 µ...

  5. Structural and functional studies of a large winged Z-DNA-binding domain of Danio rerio protein kinase PKZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Vinod Kumar; Kim, Doyoun; Yun, Kyunghee; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2016-07-01

    The Z-DNA-binding domain of PKZ from zebrafish (Danio rerio; drZαPKZ ) contains the largest β-wing among known Z-DNA-binding domains. To elucidate the functional implication of the β-wing, we solved the crystal structure of apo-drZαPKZ . Structural comparison with its Z-DNA-bound form revealed a large conformational change within the β-wing during Z-DNA binding. Biochemical studies of protein mutants revealed that two basic residues in the β-wing are responsible for Z-DNA recognition as well as fast B-Z transition. Therefore, the extra basic residues in the β-wing of drZαPKZ are necessary for the fast B-Z transition activity.

  6. Mutations in the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene cluster in two regions of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaul, M J; Marcelli, M; Zoppi, S; Wilson, C M; Griffin, J E; Wilson, J D

    1992-11-01

    We have analyzed the nucleotide sequence of the androgen receptor from 22 unrelated subjects with substitution mutations of the hormone-binding domain. Eleven had the phenotype of complete testicular feminization, four had incomplete testicular feminization, and seven had Reifenstein syndrome. The underlying functional defect in cultured skin fibroblasts included individuals with absent, qualitative, or quantitative defects in ligand binding. 19 of the 21 substitution mutations (90%) cluster in two regions that account for approximately 35% of the hormone-binding domain, namely, between amino acids 726 and 772 and between amino acids 826 and 864. The fact that one of these regions is homologous to a region of the human thyroid hormone receptor (hTR-beta) which is a known cluster site for mutations that cause thyroid hormone resistance implies that this localization of mutations is not a coincidence. These regions of the androgen receptor may be of particular importance for the formation and function of the hormone-receptor complex.

  7. Minimal domain of bacterial phytochrome required for chromophore binding and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, Konstantin A.; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Zakharova, Natalia I.; Emelyanov, Alexander V.; Turoverov, Konstantin K.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FP) are used to study various biological processes. Recently, a series of near-infrared (NIR) FPs based on bacterial phytochromes was developed. Finding ways to improve NIR FPs is becoming progressively important. By applying rational design and molecular evolution we have engineered R. palustris bacterial phytochrome into a single-domain NIR FP of 19.6 kDa, termed GAF-FP, which is 2-fold and 1.4-fold smaller than bacterial phytochrome-based NIR FPs and GFP-like proteins, respectively. Engineering of GAF-FP involved a substitution of 15% of its amino acids and a deletion of the knot structure. GAF-FP covalently binds two tetrapyrrole chromophores, biliverdin (BV) and phycocyanobilin (PCB). With the BV chromophore GAF-FP absorbs at 635 nm and fluoresces at 670 nm. With the PCB chromophore GAF-FP becomes blue-shifted and absorbs at 625 nm and fluoresces at 657 nm. The GAF-FP structure has a high tolerance to small peptide insertions. The small size of GAF-FP and its additional absorbance band in the violet range has allowed for designing a chimeric protein with Renilla luciferase. The chimera exhibits efficient non-radiative energy transfer from luciferase to GAF-FP, resulting in NIR bioluminescence. This study opens the way for engineering of small NIR FPs and NIR luciferases from bacterial phytochromes.

  8. DNA methylation profiling of primary neuroblastoma tumors using methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decock, Anneleen; Ongenaert, Maté; Van Criekinge, Wim; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-02-02

    Comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation studies in neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood tumor that originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system, are scarce. Recently, we profiled the DNA methylome of 102 well-annotated primary NB tumors by methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) sequencing, in order to identify prognostic biomarker candidates. In this data descriptor, we give details on how this data set was generated and which bioinformatics analyses were applied during data processing. Through a series of technical validations, we illustrate that the data are of high quality and that the sequenced fragments represent methylated genomic regions. Furthermore, genes previously described to be methylated in NB are confirmed. As such, these MBD sequencing data are a valuable resource to further study the association of NB risk factors with the NB methylome, and offer the opportunity to integrate methylome data with other -omic data sets on the same tumor samples such as gene copy number and gene expression, also publically available.

  9. Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins: multiple domains for multiple functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Thayne H; Altschuler, Sarah E; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is integral to myriad cellular functions. In eukaryotes, ssDNA is present stably at the ends of chromosomes and at some promoter elements. Furthermore, it is formed transiently by several cellular processes including telomere synthesis, transcription, and DNA replication, recombination, and repair. To coordinate these diverse activities, a variety of proteins have evolved to bind ssDNA in a manner specific to their function. Here, we review the recognition of ssDNA through the analysis of high-resolution structures of proteins in complex with ssDNA. This functionally diverse set of proteins arises from a limited set of structural motifs that can be modified and arranged to achieve distinct activities, including a range of ligand specificities. We also investigate the ways in which these domains interact in the context of large multidomain proteins/complexes. These comparisons reveal the structural features that define the range of functions exhibited by these proteins.

  10. Sperm postacrosomal WW domain-binding protein is not required for mouse egg activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satouh, Yuhkoh; Nozawa, Kaori; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-10-01

    To begin embryonic development, the zygote must resume the cell cycle correctly after stimulation by sperm-borne oocyte-activating factors (SOAFs). The postacrosomal WW domain-binding protein (PAWP) is one of the strongest SOAF candidates and is widely conserved among eutherian mammals. It has been reported that the microinjection of recombinant PAWP protein can trigger not only Ca(2+) oscillations in mammalian eggs but also intracellular Ca(2+) release in amphibian eggs. It was also suggested that PAWP is involved in the formation of high-quality spermatozoa. On the other hand, negligible SOAF activity for PAWP cRNA has also been reported. In this study, we generated PAWP null mice and examined the fertilizing ability of male mice. Electron microscopy showed no aberrant morphology in spermatogenesis. Intracytoplasmic injection of a single spermatozoon from the null mouse line showed that depletion of PAWP elicited no quantitative differences in Ca(2+) oscillations or in subsequent development of the embryos. We conclude that PAWP does not play an essential role in mouse fertilization.

  11. An adenovirus vector incorporating carbohydrate binding domains utilizes glycans for gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius W Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vectors based on human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5 continue to show promise as delivery vehicles for cancer gene therapy. Nevertheless, it has become clear that therapeutic benefit is directly linked to tumor-specific vector localization, highlighting the need for tumor-targeted gene delivery. Aberrant glycosylation of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids is a central feature of malignant transformation, and tumor-associated glycoforms are recognized as cancer biomarkers. On this basis, we hypothesized that cancer-specific cell-surface glycans could be the basis of a novel paradigm in HAdV-5-based vector targeting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a first step toward this goal, we constructed a novel HAdV-5 vector encoding a unique chimeric fiber protein that contains the tandem carbohydrate binding domains of the fiber protein of the NADC-1 strain of porcine adenovirus type 4 (PAdV-4. This glycan-targeted vector displays augmented CAR-independent gene transfer in cells with low CAR expression. Further, we show that gene transfer is markedly decreased in cells with genetic glycosylation defects and by inhibitors of glycosylation in normal cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide the initial proof-of-concept for HAdV-5 vector-mediated gene delivery based on the presence of cell-surface carbohydrates. Further development of this new targeting paradigm could provide targeted gene delivery based on vector recognition of disease-specific glycan biomarkers.

  12. Binding of PTEN to specific PDZ domains contributes to PTEN protein stability and phosphorylation by microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Miguel; Andrés-Pons, Amparo; Gomar, Beatriz; Torres, Josema; Gil, Anabel; Tapparel, Caroline; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Pulido, Rafael

    2005-08-12

    The tumor suppressor phosphatase PTEN is a key regulator of cell growth and apoptosis that interacts with PDZ domains from regulatory proteins, including MAGI-1/2/3, hDlg, and MAST205. Here we identified novel PTEN-binding PDZ domains within the MAST205-related proteins, syntrophin-associated serine/threonine kinase and MAST3, characterized the regions of PTEN involved in its interaction with distinctive PDZ domains, and analyzed the functional consequences on PTEN of PDZ domain binding. Using a panel of PTEN mutations, as well as PTEN chimeras containing distinct domains of the related protein TPTE, we found that the PTP and C2 domains of PTEN do not affect PDZ domain binding and that the C-terminal tail of PTEN (residues 350-403) provides selectivity to recognize specific PDZ domains from MAGI-2, hDlg, and MAST205. Binding of PTEN to the PDZ-2 domain from MAGI-2 increased PTEN protein stability. Furthermore, binding of PTEN to the PDZ domains from microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinases facilitated PTEN phosphorylation at its C terminus by these kinases. Our results suggest an important role for the C-terminal region of PTEN in the selective association with scaffolding and/or regulatory molecules and provide evidence that PDZ domain binding stabilizes PTEN and targets this tumor suppressor for phosphorylation by microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinases.

  13. The N-terminal hybrid binding domain of RNase HI from Thermotoga maritima is important for substrate binding and Mg2+-dependent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongruja, Nujarin; You, Dong-Ju; Kanaya, Eiko; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2010-11-01

    Thermotoga maritima ribonuclease H (RNase H) I (Tma-RNase HI) contains a hybrid binding domain (HBD) at the N-terminal region. To analyze the role of this HBD, Tma-RNase HI, Tma-W22A with the single mutation at the HBD, the C-terminal RNase H domain (Tma-CD) and the N-terminal domain containing the HBD (Tma-ND) were overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Tma-RNase HI prefers Mg(2+) to Mn(2+) for activity, and specifically loses most of the Mg(2+)-dependent activity on removal of the HBD and 87% of it by the mutation at the HBD. Tma-CD lost the ability to suppress the RNase H deficiency of an E. coli rnhA mutant, indicating that the HBD is responsible for in vivo RNase H activity. The cleavage-site specificities of Tma-RNase HI are not significantly changed on removal of the HBD, regardless of the metal cofactor. Binding analyses of the proteins to the substrate using surface plasmon resonance indicate that the binding affinity of Tma-RNase HI is greatly reduced on removal of the HBD or the mutation. These results indicate that there is a correlation between Mg(2+)-dependent activity and substrate binding affinity. Tma-CD was as stable as Tma-RNase HI, indicating that the HBD is not important for stability. The HBD of Tma-RNase HI is important not only for substrate binding, but also for Mg(2+)-dependent activity, probably because the HBD affects the interaction between the substrate and enzyme at the active site, such that the scissile phosphate group of the substrate and the Mg(2+) ion are arranged ideally.

  14. The conserved WW-domain binding sites in Dystroglycan C-terminus are essential but partially redundant for Dystroglycan function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatsenko, A S; Kucherenko, M M; Pantoja, M;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dystroglycan (Dg) is a transmembrane protein that is a part of the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) which connects the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. The C-terminal end of Dg contains a number of putative SH3, SH2 and WW domain binding sites. The most C-terminal ......BACKGROUND: Dystroglycan (Dg) is a transmembrane protein that is a part of the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) which connects the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. The C-terminal end of Dg contains a number of putative SH3, SH2 and WW domain binding sites. The most C...... function in the establishment of oocyte polarity in Drosophila. If either WW binding site is mutated, the Dg protein can still be active. However, simultaneous mutations in both WW binding sites abolish the Dg activities in both overexpression and loss-of-function oocyte polarity assays in vivo....... Additionally, sequence comparisons of WW binding sites in 12 species of Drosophila, as well as in humans, reveal a high level of conservation. This preservation throughout evolution supports the idea that both WW binding sites are functionally required. CONCLUSION: Based on the obtained results we propose...

  15. Structures of minute virus of mice replication initiator protein N-terminal domain: Insights into DNA nicking and origin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewary, Sunil K.; Liang, Lingfei; Lin, Zihan; Lynn, Annie [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Cotmore, Susan F. [Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tattersall, Peter [Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Departments of Genetics, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Zhao, Haiyan, E-mail: zhaohy@ku.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tangl@ku.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Members of the Parvoviridae family all encode a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) that directs replication of single-stranded viral DNA, packages viral DNA into capsid, and serves as a potent transcriptional activator. Here we report the X-ray structure of the minute virus of mice (MVM) NS1 N-terminal domain at 1.45 Å resolution, showing that sites for dsDNA binding, ssDNA binding and cleavage, nuclear localization, and other functions are integrated on a canonical fold of the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, including elements specific for this Protoparvovirus but distinct from its Bocaparvovirus or Dependoparvovirus orthologs. High resolution structural analysis reveals a nickase active site with an architecture that allows highly versatile metal ligand binding. The structures support a unified mechanism of replication origin recognition for homotelomeric and heterotelomeric parvoviruses, mediated by a basic-residue-rich hairpin and an adjacent helix in the initiator proteins and by tandem tetranucleotide motifs in the replication origins. - Highlights: • The structure of a parvovirus replication initiator protein has been determined; • The structure sheds light on mechanisms of ssDNA binding and cleavage; • The nickase active site is preconfigured for versatile metal ligand binding; • The binding site for the double-stranded replication origin DNA is identified; • A single domain integrates multiple functions in virus replication.

  16. S cysteine-rich (SCR) binding domain analysis of the Brassica self-incompatibility S-locus receptor kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Benjamin P; Doughty, James

    2007-01-01

    Brassica self-incompatibility, a highly discriminating outbreeding mechanism, has become a paradigm for the study of plant cell-cell communications. When self-pollen lands on a stigma, the male ligand S cysteine-rich (SCR), which is present in the pollen coat, is transmitted to the female receptor, S-locus receptor kinase (SRK). SRK is a membrane-spanning serine/threonine receptor kinase present in the stigmatic papillar cell membrane. Haplotype-specific binding of SCR to SRK brings about pollen rejection. The extracellular receptor domain of SRK (eSRK) is responsible for binding SCR. Based on sequence homology, eSRK can be divided into three subdomains: B lectin-like, hypervariable, and PAN. Biochemical analysis of these subdomains showed that the hypervariable subdomain is responsible for most of the SCR binding capacity of eSRK, whereas the B lectin-like and PAN domains have little, if any, affinity for SCR. Fine mapping of the SCR binding region of SRK using a peptide array revealed a region of the hypervariable subdomain that plays a key role in binding the SCR molecule. We show that residues within the hypervariable subdomain define SRK binding and are likely to be involved in defining haplotype specificity.

  17. Crystal structure of the MrkD1P receptor binding domain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and identification of the human collagen V binding interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Ana Toste; Johnson, Jeremiah G; Gelbel, Sebastian; Enguita, Francisco J; Clegg, Steven; Waksman, Gabriel

    2012-11-01

    Klebsiella species are members of the family enterobacteriaceae, opportunistic pathogens that are among the eight most prevalent infectious agents in hospitals. Among other virulence factors in Klebsiella, type 3 pili exhibit a unique binding pattern in the human kidney via interaction of two MrkD adhesion variants 1C1 and 1P to type IV and/or V collagen. However, very little is known about the nature of this recognition. Here we present the crystal structure of the plasmid born MrkD1P receptor domain (MrkDrd). The structure reveals a jelly-roll β-barrel fold comprising 17 β-strands very similar to the receptor domain of GafD, the tip adhesin from the F17 pilus that recognizes n-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Analysis of collagen V binding of different MrkD1P mutants revealed that two regions were responsible for its binding: a pocket, that aligns approximately with the GlcNAc binding pocket of GafD involving residues R105 and Y155, and a transversally oriented patch that spans strands β2a, β9b and β6 including residues V49, T52, V91, R102 and I136. Taken together, these data provide structural and functional insights on MrkD1P recognition of host cells, providing a tool for future development of rationally designed drugs with the prospect of blocking Klebsiella adhesion to collagen V.

  18. The thalidomide-binding domain of cereblon defines the CULT domain family and is a new member of the β-tent fold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei N Lupas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having caused one of the greatest medical catastrophies of the last century through its teratogenic side-effects, thalidomide continues to be an important agent in the treatment of leprosy and cancer. The protein cereblon, which forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase compex together with damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1 and cullin 4A, has been recently indentified as a primary target of thalidomide and its C-terminal part as responsible for binding thalidomide within a domain carrying several invariant cysteine and tryptophan residues. This domain, which we name CULT (cereblon domain of unknown activity, binding cellular ligands and thalidomide, is also found in a family of secreted proteins from animals and in a family of bacterial proteins occurring primarily in δ-proteobacteria. Its nearest relatives are yippee, a highly conserved eukaryotic protein of unknown function, and Mis18, a protein involved in the priming of centromeres for recruitment of CENP-A. Searches for distant homologs point to an evolutionary relationship of CULT, yippee, and Mis18 to proteins sharing a common fold, which consists of two four-stranded β-meanders packing at a roughly right angle and coordinating a zinc ion at their apex. A β-hairpin inserted into the first β-meander extends across the bottom of the structure towards the C-terminal edge of the second β-meander, with which it forms a cradle-shaped binding site that is topologically conserved in all members of this fold. We name this the β-tent fold for the striking arrangement of its constituent β-sheets. The fold has internal pseudosymmetry, raising the possibility that it arose by duplication of a subdomain-sized fragment.

  19. The thalidomide-binding domain of cereblon defines the CULT domain family and is a new member of the β-tent fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupas, Andrei N; Zhu, Hongbo; Korycinski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Despite having caused one of the greatest medical catastrophies of the last century through its teratogenic side-effects, thalidomide continues to be an important agent in the treatment of leprosy and cancer. The protein cereblon, which forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase compex together with damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1) and cullin 4A, has been recently indentified as a primary target of thalidomide and its C-terminal part as responsible for binding thalidomide within a domain carrying several invariant cysteine and tryptophan residues. This domain, which we name CULT (cereblon domain of unknown activity, binding cellular ligands and thalidomide), is also found in a family of secreted proteins from animals and in a family of bacterial proteins occurring primarily in δ-proteobacteria. Its nearest relatives are yippee, a highly conserved eukaryotic protein of unknown function, and Mis18, a protein involved in the priming of centromeres for recruitment of CENP-A. Searches for distant homologs point to an evolutionary relationship of CULT, yippee, and Mis18 to proteins sharing a common fold, which consists of two four-stranded β-meanders packing at a roughly right angle and coordinating a zinc ion at their apex. A β-hairpin inserted into the first β-meander extends across the bottom of the structure towards the C-terminal edge of the second β-meander, with which it forms a cradle-shaped binding site that is topologically conserved in all members of this fold. We name this the β-tent fold for the striking arrangement of its constituent β-sheets. The fold has internal pseudosymmetry, raising the possibility that it arose by duplication of a subdomain-sized fragment.

  20. Characterization of bitiscetin-2, a second form of bitiscetin from the venom of Bitis arietans : comparison of its binding site with the collagen-binding site on the von Willebrand factor A3-domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obert, B.; Romijn, R. A.; Houllier, A.; Huizinga, E. G.; Girma, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Bitiscetin, a heterodimeric snake venom protein purified from Bitis arietans, binds to the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and induces binding of this domain to platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib. We previously purified a distinct form of dimeric bitiscetin (herein called bitiscetin-

  1. Plasmodium falciparum double C2 domain protein, PfDOC2, binds to calcium when associated with membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Sophonie; Zapata-Jenks, Mónica A; Farley, Julie M; Tracy, Erin; Mayer, D C Ghislaine

    2014-09-01

    The pathogenesis of malaria is strongly correlated with secretion of the micronemes, the apical organelles which contain the adhesins required for invasion of Plasmodium falciparum into human erythrocytes. A critical event in P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion is the production of calcium transients. After entering the cell, Ca(2+) binds to soluble Ca(2+)-binding proteins, such as the double C2 domains (DOC2). Recently, deletion of a P. falciparum DOC2 protein, PfDOC2, was shown to cause impairment in microneme secretion. However, PfDOC2 remains poorly characterized. Here, we report that PfDOC2 is expressed throughout the erythrocytic cycle and demonstrate that it is associated with membrane fractions and binds to calcium when it is part of these membranous structures. In summary, we show that PfDOC2 is a calcium lipid-binding protein of the protein kinase C type of DOC2 proteins.

  2. Graph-Theoretic Models of Mutations in the Nucleotide Binding Domain 1 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra J. Knisley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common inherited diseases and is caused by a mutation in a membrane protein, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. This protein serves as a chloride channel and regulates the viscosity of mucus lining the ducts of a number of organs. Although much has been learned about the consequences of mutations on the energy landscape and the resulting disrupted folding pathway of CFTR, a level of understanding needed to correct the misfolding has not been achieved. The most common mutations of CFTR are located in one of two nucleotide binding domains, namely, the nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1. We model NBD1 using a nested graph model. The vertices in the lowest layer each represent an atom in the structure of an amino acid residue, while the vertices in the mid layer each represent the residue. The vertices in the top layer each represent a subdomain of the nucleotide binding domain. We use this model to quantify the effects of a single point mutation on the protein domain. We compare the wildtype structure with eight of the most common mutations. The graph-theoretic model provides insight into how a single point mutation can have such profound structural consequences.

  3. Collagen binding specificity of the discoidin domain receptors: binding sites on collagens II and III and molecular determinants for collagen IV recognition by DDR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huifang; Raynal, Nicolas; Stathopoulos, Stavros; Myllyharju, Johanna; Farndale, Richard W; Leitinger, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2 are cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by triple-helical collagen. While normal DDR signalling regulates fundamental cellular processes, aberrant DDR signalling is associated with several human diseases. We previously identified GVMGFO (O is hydroxyproline) as a major DDR2 binding site in collagens I-III, and located two additional DDR2 binding sites in collagen II. Here we extend these studies to the homologous DDR1 and the identification of DDR binding sites on collagen III. Using sets of overlapping triple-helical peptides, the Collagen II and Collagen III Toolkits, we located several DDR2 binding sites on both collagens. The interaction of DDR1 with Toolkit peptides was more restricted, with DDR1 mainly binding to peptides containing the GVMGFO motif. Triple-helical peptides containing the GVMGFO motif induced DDR1 transmembrane signalling, and DDR1 binding and receptor activation occurred with the same amino acid requirements as previously defined for DDR2. While both DDRs exhibit the same specificity for binding the GVMGFO motif, which is present only in fibrillar collagens, the two receptors display distinct preferences for certain non-fibrillar collagens, with the basement membrane collagen IV being exclusively recognised by DDR1. Based on our recent crystal structure of a DDR2-collagen complex, we designed mutations to identify the molecular determinants for DDR1 binding to collagen IV. By replacing five amino acids in DDR2 with the corresponding DDR1 residues we were able to create a DDR2 construct that could function as a collagen IV receptor.

  4. The First Residue of the PWWP Motif Modulates HATH Domain Binding, Stability, and Protein-Protein Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yi-Lin; Lee, Hsia-Ju; Jiang, Ingjye; Lin, Shang-Chi; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Jan; Sue, Shih-Che

    2015-07-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (hHDGF) and HDGF-related proteins (HRPs) contain conserved N-terminal HATH domains with a characteristic structural motif, namely the PWWP motif. The HATH domain has attracted attention because of its ability to bind with heparin/heparan sulfate, DNA, and methylated histone peptide. Depending on the sequence of the PWWP motif, HRP HATHs are classified into P-type (Pro-His-Trp-Pro) and A-type (Ala-His-Trp-Pro) forms. A-type HATH is highly unstable and tends to precipitate in solution. We replaced the Pro residue in P-type HATHHDGF with Ala and evaluated the influence on structure, dynamics, and ligand binding. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) hydrogen/deuterium exchange and circular dichroism (CD) measurements revealed reduced stability. Analysis of NMR backbone (15)N relaxations (R1, R2, and nuclear Overhauser effect) revealed additional backbone dynamics in the interface between the β-barrel and the C-terminal helix bundle. The β1-β2 loop, where the AHWP sequence is located, has great structural flexibility, which aids HATH-HATH interaction through the loop. A-type HATH, therefore, shows a stronger tendency to aggregate when binding with heparin and DNA oligomers. This study defines the role of the first residue of the PWWP motif in modulating HATH domain stability and oligomer formation in binding.

  5. Programmable DNA-binding proteins from Burkholderia provide a fresh perspective on the TALE-like repeat domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Orlando; Wolf, Christina; Dietze, Jörn; Elsaesser, Janett; Morbitzer, Robert; Lahaye, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The tandem repeats of transcription activator like effectors (TALEs) mediate sequence-specific DNA binding using a simple code. Naturally, TALEs are injected by Xanthomonas bacteria into plant cells to manipulate the host transcriptome. In the laboratory TALE DNA binding domains are reprogrammed and used to target a fused functional domain to a genomic locus of choice. Research into the natural diversity of TALE-like proteins may provide resources for the further improvement of current TALE technology. Here we describe TALE-like proteins from the endosymbiotic bacterium Burkholderia rhizoxinica, termed Bat proteins. Bat repeat domains mediate sequence-specific DNA binding with the same code as TALEs, despite less than 40% sequence identity. We show that Bat proteins can be adapted for use as transcription factors and nucleases and that sequence preferences can be reprogrammed. Unlike TALEs, the core repeats of each Bat protein are highly polymorphic. This feature allowed us to explore alternative strategies for the design of custom Bat repeat arrays, providing novel insights into the functional relevance of non-RVD residues. The Bat proteins offer fertile grounds for research into the creation of improved programmable DNA-binding proteins and comparative insights into TALE-like evolution.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the nucleic acid-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Pedro; Johnson, Margaret A; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Neuman, Benjamin W; Joseph, Jeremiah S; Buchmeier, Michael J; Kuhn, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-12-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a globular domain of residues 1071 to 1178 within the previously annotated nucleic acid-binding region (NAB) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has been determined, and N- and C-terminally adjoining polypeptide segments of 37 and 25 residues, respectively, have been shown to form flexibly extended linkers to the preceding globular domain and to the following, as yet uncharacterized domain. This extension of the structural coverage of nsp3 was obtained from NMR studies with an nsp3 construct comprising residues 1066 to 1181 [nsp3(1066-1181)] and the constructs nsp3(1066-1203) and nsp3(1035-1181). A search of the protein structure database indicates that the globular domain of the NAB represents a new fold, with a parallel four-strand beta-sheet holding two alpha-helices of three and four turns that are oriented antiparallel to the beta-strands. Two antiparallel two-strand beta-sheets and two 3(10)-helices are anchored against the surface of this barrel-like molecular core. Chemical shift changes upon the addition of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) identified a group of residues that form a positively charged patch on the protein surface as the binding site responsible for the previously reported affinity for nucleic acids. This binding site is similar to the ssRNA-binding site of the sterile alpha motif domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vts1p protein, although the two proteins do not share a common globular fold.

  7. Comparative genome analysis of cortactin and HS1: the significance of the F-actin binding repeat domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seggelen Vera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In human carcinomas, overexpression of cortactin correlates with poor prognosis. Cortactin is an F-actin-binding protein involved in cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell migration by promoting actin-related protein (Arp2/3 mediated actin polymerization. It shares a high amino acid sequence and structural similarity to hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 (HS1 although their functions differ considerable. In this manuscript we describe the genomic organization of these two genes in a variety of species by a combination of cloning and database searches. Based on our analysis, we predict the genesis of the actin-binding repeat domain during evolution. Results Cortactin homologues exist in sponges, worms, shrimps, insects, urochordates, fishes, amphibians, birds and mammalians, whereas HS1 exists in vertebrates only, suggesting that both genes have been derived from an ancestor cortactin gene by duplication. In agreement with this, comparative genome analysis revealed very similar exon-intron structures and sequence homologies, especially over the regions that encode the characteristic highly conserved F-actin-binding repeat domain. Cortactin splice variants affecting this F-actin-binding domain were identified not only in mammalians, but also in amphibians, fishes and birds. In mammalians, cortactin is ubiquitously expressed except in hematopoietic cells, whereas HS1 is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells. In accordance with their distinct tissue specificity, the putative promoter region of cortactin is different from HS1. Conclusions Comparative analysis of the genomic organization and amino acid sequences of cortactin and HS1 provides inside into their origin and evolution. Our analysis shows that both genes originated from a gene duplication event and subsequently HS1 lost two repeats, whereas cortactin gained one repeat. Our analysis genetically underscores the significance of the F-actin binding domain in

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies That Bind to the Ly6 Domain of GPIHBP1 Abolish the Binding of LPL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xuchen; Sleeman, Mark W; Miyashita, Kazuya;

    2016-01-01

    GPIHBP1, an endothelial cell protein, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the interstitial spaces and shuttles it to its site of action inside blood vessels. For years, studies of human GPIHBP1 have been hampered by an absence of useful antibodies. We reasoned that monoclonal antibodies (m...

  9. Crystal structure of the Candida albicans Kar3 kinesin motor domain fused to maltose-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, Caroline; Joshi, Monika [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Allingham, John S., E-mail: allinghj@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Candida albicans Kar3 motor domain structure was solved as a maltose-binding protein fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrostatic surface and part of the ATPase pocket of the motor domain differs markedly from other kinesins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MBP-Kar3 interface highlights a new site for intramolecular or intermolecular interactions. -- Abstract: In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the Kinesin-14 motor protein Kar3 (CaKar3) is critical for normal mitotic division, nuclear fusion during mating, and morphogenic transition from the commensal yeast form to the virulent hyphal form. As a first step towards detailed characterization of this motor of potential medical significance, we have crystallized and determined the X-ray structure of the motor domain of CaKar3 as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion. The structure shows strong conservation of overall motor domain topology to other Kar3 kinesins, but with some prominent differences in one of the motifs that compose the nucleotide-binding pocket and the surface charge distribution. The MBP and Kar3 modules are arranged such that MBP interacts with the Kar3 motor domain core at the same site where the neck linker of conventional kinesins docks during the 'ATP state' of the mechanochemical cycle. This site differs from the Kar3 neck-core interface in the recent structure of the ScKar3Vik1 heterodimer. The position of MBP is also completely distinct from the Vik1 subunit in this complex. This may suggest that the site of MBP interaction on the CaKar3 motor domain provides an interface for the neck, or perhaps a partner subunit, at an intermediate state of its motile cycle that has not yet been observed for Kinesin-14 motors.

  10. The D2 period of collagen II contains a specific binding site for the human discoidin domain receptor, DDR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitinger, Birgit; Steplewski, Andrzej; Fertala, Andrzej

    2004-12-03

    The human discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), DDR1 and DDR2, are expressed widely and, uniquely among receptor tyrosine kinases, activated by the extracellular matrix protein collagen. This activation is due to a direct interaction of collagen with the DDR discoidin domain. Here, we localised a specific DDR2 binding site on the triple-helical region of collagen II. Collagen II was found to be a much better ligand for DDR2 than for DDR1. As expected, DDR2 binding to collagen II was dependent on triple-helical collagen and was mediated by the DDR2 discoidin domain. Collagen II served as a potent stimulator of DDR2 autophosphorylation, the first step in transmembrane signalling. To map the DDR2 binding site(s) on collagen II, we used recombinant collagen II variants with specific deletions of one of the four repeating D periods. We found that the D2 period of collagen II was essential for DDR2 binding and receptor autophosphorylation, whereas the D3 and D4 periods were dispensable. The DDR2 binding site on collagen II was further defined by recombinant collagen II-like proteins consisting predominantly of tandem repeats of the D2 or D4 period. The D2 construct, but not the D4 construct, mediated DDR2 binding and receptor autophosphorylation, demonstrating that the D2 period of collagen II harbours a specific DDR2 recognition site. The discovery of a site-specific interaction of DDR2 with collagen II gives novel insight into the nature of the interaction of collagen II with matrix receptors.

  11. The docking domain of histone H2A is required for H1 binding and RSC-mediated nucleosome remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Manu Shubhdarshan; Syed, Sajad Hussain; Goutte-Gattat, Damien; Richard, John Lalith Charles; Montel, Fabien; Hamiche, Ali; Travers, Andrew; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Bednar, Jan; Hayes, Jeffrey J; Angelov, Dimitar; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    Histone variants within the H2A family show high divergences in their C-terminal regions. In this work, we have studied how these divergences and in particular, how a part of the H2A COOH-terminus, the docking domain, is implicated in both structural and functional properties of the nucleosome. Using biochemical methods in combination with Atomic Force Microscopy and Electron Cryo-Microscopy, we show that the H2A-docking domain is a key structural feature within the nucleosome. Deletion of this domain or replacement with the incomplete docking domain from the variant H2A.Bbd results in significant structural alterations in the nucleosome, including an increase in overall accessibility to nucleases, un-wrapping of ∼10 bp of DNA from each end of the nucleosome and associated changes in the entry/exit angle of DNA ends. These structural alterations are associated with a reduced ability of the chromatin remodeler RSC to both remodel and mobilize the nucleosomes. Linker histone H1 binding is also abrogated in nucleosomes containing the incomplete docking domain of H2A.Bbd. Our data illustrate the unique role of the H2A-docking domain in coordinating the structural-functional aspects of the nucleosome properties. Moreover, our data suggest that incorporation of a 'defective' docking domain may be a primary structural role of H2A.Bbd in chromatin.

  12. Human FAD synthase is a bi-functional enzyme with a FAD hydrolase activity in the molybdopterin binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Galluccio, Michele; Miccolis, Angelica; Leone, Piero; Eberini, Ivano; Iametti, Stefania; Indiveri, Cesare; Barile, Maria

    2015-09-25

    FAD synthase (FMN:ATP adenylyl transferase, FMNAT or FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is involved in the biochemical pathway for converting riboflavin into FAD. Human FADS exists in different isoforms. Two of these have been characterized and are localized in different subcellular compartments. hFADS2 containing 490 amino acids shows a two domain organization: the 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain, that is the FAD-forming catalytic domain, and a resembling molybdopterin-binding (MPTb) domain. By a multialignment of hFADS2 with other MPTb containing proteins of various organisms from bacteria to plants, the critical residues for hydrolytic function were identified. A homology model of the MPTb domain of hFADS2 was built, using as template the solved structure of a T. acidophilum enzyme. The capacity of hFADS2 to catalyse FAD hydrolysis was revealed. The recombinant hFADS2 was able to hydrolyse added FAD in a Co(2+) and mersalyl dependent reaction. The recombinant PAPS reductase domain is not able to perform the same function. The mutant C440A catalyses the same hydrolytic function of WT with no essential requirement for mersalyl, thus indicating the involvement of C440 in the control of hydrolysis switch. The enzyme C440A is also able to catalyse hydrolysis of FAD bound to the PAPS reductase domain, which is quantitatively converted into FMN.

  13. The NEAT Domain-Containing Proteins of Clostridium perfringens Bind Heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jocelyn M; Cheung, Jackie K; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Steer, David L; Bulach, Dieter M; Hiscox, Thomas J; Chakravorty, Anjana; Smith, A Ian; Gell, David A; Rood, Julian I; Awad, Milena M

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a pathogenic bacterium to scavenge iron from its host is important for its growth and survival during an infection. Our studies on C. perfringens gas gangrene strain JIR325, a derivative of strain 13, showed that it is capable of utilizing both human hemoglobin and ferric chloride, but not human holo-transferrin, as an iron source for in vitro growth. Analysis of the C. perfringens strain 13 genome sequence identified a putative heme acquisition system encoded by an iron-regulated surface gene region that we have named the Cht (Clostridium perfringens heme transport) locus. This locus comprises eight genes that are co-transcribed and includes genes that encode NEAT domain-containing proteins (ChtD and ChtE) and a putative sortase (Srt). The ChtD, ChtE and Srt proteins were shown to be expressed in JIR325 cells grown under iron-limited conditions and were localized to the cell envelope. Moreover, the NEAT proteins, ChtD and ChtE, were found to bind heme. Both chtDE and srt mutants were constructed, but these mutants were not defective in hemoglobin or ferric chloride utilization. They were, however, attenuated for virulence when tested in a mouse myonecrosis model, although the virulence phenotype could not be restored via complementation and, as is common with such systems, secondary mutations were identified in these strains. In summary, this study provides evidence for the functional redundancies that occur in the heme transport pathways of this life threatening pathogen.

  14. Methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing reveals a prognostic methylation signature in neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decock, Anneleen; Ongenaert, Maté; Cannoodt, Robrecht; Verniers, Kimberly; De Wilde, Bram; Laureys, Geneviève; Van Roy, Nadine; Berbegall, Ana P.; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie; Bown, Nick; Clément, Nathalie; Combaret, Valérie; Haber, Michelle; Hoyoux, Claire; Murray, Jayne; Noguera, Rosa; Pierron, Gaelle; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Schulte, Johannes H.; Stallings, Ray L.; Tweddle, Deborah A.; De Preter, Katleen; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of neuroblastoma outcome prediction remains challenging. Therefore, this study aims at establishing novel prognostic tumor DNA methylation biomarkers. In total, 396 low- and high-risk primary tumors were analyzed, of which 87 were profiled using methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) sequencing for differential methylation analysis between prognostic patient groups. Subsequently, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assays were developed for 78 top-ranking differentially methylated regions and tested on two independent cohorts of 132 and 177 samples, respectively. Further, a new statistical framework was used to identify a robust set of MSP assays of which the methylation score (i.e. the percentage of methylated assays) allows accurate outcome prediction. Survival analyses were performed on the individual target level, as well as on the combined multimarker signature. As a result of the differential DNA methylation assessment by MBD sequencing, 58 of the 78 MSP assays were designed in regions previously unexplored in neuroblastoma, and 36 are located in non-promoter or non-coding regions. In total, 5 individual MSP assays (located in CCDC177, NXPH1, lnc-MRPL3-2, lnc-TREX1-1 and one on a region from chromosome 8 with no further annotation) predict event-free survival and 4 additional assays (located in SPRED3, TNFAIP2, NPM2 and CYYR1) also predict overall survival. Furthermore, a robust 58-marker methylation signature predicting overall and event-free survival was established. In conclusion, this study encompasses the largest DNA methylation biomarker study in neuroblastoma so far. We identified and independently validated several novel prognostic biomarkers, as well as a prognostic 58-marker methylation signature. PMID:26646589

  15. Quality evaluation of methyl binding domain based kits for enrichment DNA-methylation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim De Meyer

    Full Text Available DNA-methylation is an important epigenetic feature in health and disease. Methylated sequence capturing by Methyl Binding Domain (MBD based enrichment followed by second-generation sequencing provides the best combination of sensitivity and cost-efficiency for genome-wide DNA-methylation profiling. However, existing implementations are numerous, and quality control and optimization require expensive external validation. Therefore, this study has two aims: 1 to identify a best performing kit for MBD-based enrichment using independent validation data, and 2 to evaluate whether quality evaluation can also be performed solely based on the characteristics of the generated sequences. Five commercially available kits for MBD enrichment were combined with Illumina GAIIx sequencing for three cell lines (HCT15, DU145, PC3. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing data (all three cell lines and publicly available Illumina Infinium BeadChip data (DU145 and PC3 were used for benchmarking. Consistent large-scale differences in yield, sensitivity and specificity between the different kits could be identified, with Diagenode's MethylCap kit as overall best performing kit under the tested conditions. This kit could also be identified with the Fragment CpG-plot, which summarizes the CpG content of the captured fragments, implying that the latter can be used as a tool to monitor data quality. In conclusion, there are major quality differences between kits for MBD-based capturing of methylated DNA, with the MethylCap kit performing best under the used settings. The Fragment CpG-plot is able to monitor data quality based on inherent sequence data characteristics, and is therefore a cost-efficient tool for experimental optimization, but also to monitor quality throughout routine applications.

  16. Biocomputational analysis of evolutionary relationship between toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Bhardwaj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The active domains (TIR and NACHT of the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs: Toll-like receptors [TLRs] and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]-like receptors [NLR], respectively are the major hotspots of evolution as natural selection has crafted their final structure by substitution of residues over time. This paper addresses the evolutionary perspectives of the TLR and NLR genes with respect to the active domains in terms of their chronological fruition, functional diversification, and species-specific stipulation. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 full-length cds (and corresponding peptide of the domains were selected as representatives of each type of PRRs, belonging to divergent animal species, for the biocomputational analyses. The secondary and tertiary structure of the taurine TIR and NACHT domains was predicted to compare the relatedness among the domains under study. Results: Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results indicated that these host-specific PRRs formed entirely different clusters, with active domains of NLRs (NACHT evolved earlier as compared to the active domains of TLRs (TIR. Each type of TLR or NLR shows comparatively less variation among the animal species due to the specificity of action against the type of microbes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that there has been no positive selection acting on the domains associated with disease resistance which is a fitness trait indicating the extent of purifying pressure on the domains. Gene duplication could be a possible reason of genesis of similar kinds of TLRs (virus or bacteria specific.

  17. Biocomputational analysis of evolutionary relationship between toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rabia; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Shekhar; Deka, Dipak; Verma, Ramneek; Dubey, P. P.; Arora, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The active domains (TIR and NACHT) of the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs: Toll-like receptors [TLRs] and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]-like receptors [NLR], respectively) are the major hotspots of evolution as natural selection has crafted their final structure by substitution of residues over time. This paper addresses the evolutionary perspectives of the TLR and NLR genes with respect to the active domains in terms of their chronological fruition, functional diversification, and species-specific stipulation. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 full-length cds (and corresponding peptide) of the domains were selected as representatives of each type of PRRs, belonging to divergent animal species, for the biocomputational analyses. The secondary and tertiary structure of the taurine TIR and NACHT domains was predicted to compare the relatedness among the domains under study. Results: Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results indicated that these host-specific PRRs formed entirely different clusters, with active domains of NLRs (NACHT) evolved earlier as compared to the active domains of TLRs (TIR). Each type of TLR or NLR shows comparatively less variation among the animal species due to the specificity of action against the type of microbes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that there has been no positive selection acting on the domains associated with disease resistance which is a fitness trait indicating the extent of purifying pressure on the domains. Gene duplication could be a possible reason of genesis of similar kinds of TLRs (virus or bacteria specific). PMID:27956772

  18. Identification of multiple binding sites for the THAP domain of the Galileo transposase in the long terminal inverted-repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Mar; Liu, Danxu; Ruiz, Alfredo; Chalmers, Ronald

    2013-08-01

    Galileo is a DNA transposon responsible for the generation of several chromosomal inversions in Drosophila. In contrast to other members of the P-element superfamily, it has unusually long terminal inverted-repeats (TIRs) that resemble those of Foldback elements. To investigate the function of the long TIRs we derived consensus and ancestral sequences for the Galileo transposase in three species of Drosophilids. Following gene synthesis, we expressed and purified their constituent THAP domains and tested their binding activity towards the respective Galileo TIRs. DNase I footprinting located the most proximal DNA binding site about 70 bp from the transposon end. Using this sequence we identified further binding sites in the tandem repeats that are found within the long TIRs. This suggests that the synaptic complex between Galileo ends may be a complicated structure containing higher-order multimers of the transposase. We also attempted to reconstitute Galileo transposition in Drosophila embryos but no events were detected. Thus, although the limited numbers of Galileo copies in each genome were sufficient to provide functional consensus sequences for the THAP domains, they do not specify a fully active transposase. Since the THAP recognition sequence is short, and will occur many times in a large genome, it seems likely that the multiple binding sites within the long, internally repetitive, TIRs of Galileo and other Foldback-like elements may provide the transposase with its binding specificity.

  19. Mobility of TOAC spin-labelled peptides binding to the Src SH3 domain studied by paramagnetic NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Hanna E. [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories (Netherlands); Koning, Peter E. de; Wouter Drijfhout, Jan [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion (Netherlands); Venezia, Brigida; Ubbink, Marcellus [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.ubbink@chem.leidenuniv.nl

    2008-07-15

    Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement provides a tool for studying the dynamics as well as the structure of macromolecular complexes. The application of side-chain coupled spin-labels is limited by the mobility of the free radical. The cyclic, rigid amino acid spin-label TOAC (2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid), which can be incorporated straightforwardly by peptide synthesis, provides an attractive alternative. In this study, TOAC was incorporated into a peptide derived from focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the interaction of the peptide with the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of Src kinase was studied, using paramagnetic NMR. Placing TOAC within the binding motif of the peptide has a considerable effect on the peptide-protein binding, lowering the affinity substantially. When the TOAC is positioned just outside the binding motif, the binding constant remains nearly unaffected. Although the SH3 domain binds weakly and transiently to proline-rich peptides from FAK, the interaction is not very dynamic and the relative position of the spin-label to the protein is well-defined. It is concluded that TOAC can be used to generate reliable paramagnetic NMR restraints.

  20. Porcine bocavirus NP1 negatively regulates interferon signaling pathway by targeting the DNA-binding domain of IRF9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruoxi [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fang, Liurong, E-mail: fanglr@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Zhang, Huan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xie, Lilan; Li, Yi [College of Life Science and Technology, Wuhan Institute of Bioengineering, Wuhan 430415 (China); Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-11-15

    To subvert host antiviral immune responses, many viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN signaling pathway. Porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a newly identified porcine parvovirus, has received attention because it shows clinically high co-infection prevalence with other pathogens in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) and diarrheic piglets. In this study, we screened the structural and non-structural proteins encoded by PBoV and found that the non-structural protein NP1 significantly suppressed IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) activity and subsequent IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, NP1 affected neither the activation and translocation of STAT1/STAT2, nor the formation of the heterotrimeric transcription factor complex ISGF3 (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9). Detailed analysis demonstrated that PBoV NP1 blocked the ISGF3 DNA-binding activity by combining with the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of IRF9. In summary, these results indicate that PBoV NP1 interferes with type I IFN signaling pathway by blocking DNA binding of ISGF3 to attenuate innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) NP1 interferes with the IFN α/β signaling pathway. • PBoV NP1 does not prevent STAT1/STAT2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • PBoV NP1 inhibits the DNA-binding activity of ISGF3. • PBoV NP1 interacts with the DNA-binding domain of IRF9.

  1. Epitope mapping by a Wnt-blocking antibody: evidence of the Wnt binding domain in heparan sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Xu, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Ho, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide known to modulate many important biological processes, including Wnt signaling. However, the biochemical interaction between HS and Wnt molecules is not well characterized largely due to the lack of suitable methods. To determine the Wnt binding domain in HS, we used a Wnt signaling-inhibitory antibody (HS20) and a panel of synthetic HS oligosaccharides with distinct lengths and sulfation modifications. We found that the binding of HS20 to heparan sulfate required sulfation at both the C2 position (2-O-sulfation) and C6 position (6-O-sulfation). The oligosaccharides with the greatest competitive effect for HS20 binding were between six and eight saccharide residues in length. Additionally, a four residue-long oligosaccharide could also be recognized by HS20 if an additional 3-O-sulfation modification was present. Furthermore, similar oligosaccharides with 2-O, 6-O and 3-O-sulfations showed inhibition for Wnt activation. These results have revealed that HS20 and Wnt recognize a HS structure containing IdoA2S and GlcNS6S, and that the 3-O-sulfation in GlcNS6S3S significantly enhances the binding of both HS20 and Wnt. This study provides the evidence for identifying the Wnt binding domain in HS and suggests a therapeutic approach to target the interaction of Wnt and HS in cancer and other diseases. PMID:27185050

  2. Antibody binding site mapping of SARS-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain by a combination of yeast surface display and phage peptide library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jingxue; Wen, Kun; Mou, Zhirong; Zou, Liyun; Che, Xiaoyan; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang

    2009-12-01

    The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) protein plays an important role in viral infection, and is a potential major neutralizing determinant. In this study, three hybridoma cell lines secreting specific monoclonal antibodies against the RBD of the S protein were generated and their exact binding sites were identified. Using yeast surface display, the binding sites of these antibodies were defined to two linear regions on the RBD: S(337-360) and S(380-399). Using these monoclonal antibodies in phage peptide library screening identified 10 distinct mimotopes 12 amino acids in length. Sequence comparison between native epitopes and these mimotopes further confirmed the binding sites, and revealed key amino acid residues involved in antibody binding. None of these antibodies could neutralize the murine leukemia virus pseudotyped expressing the SARS-CoV spike protein (MLV/SARS-CoV). However, these mAbs could be useful in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV due to their exclusive reactivity with SARS-CoV. Furthermore, this study established a feasible platform for epitope mapping. Yeast surface display combined with phage peptide library screening provides a convenient strategy for the identification of epitope peptides from certain antigenic proteins.

  3. Side-chain interactions form late and cooperatively in the binding reaction between disordered peptides and PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haq, S Raza; Chi, Celestine N; Bach, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    used short peptides as a model system for intrinsically disordered proteins. Linear free-energy relationships based on rate and equilibrium constants for the binding of these peptides to ordered target proteins, PDZ domains, demonstrate that native side-chain interactions form mainly after the rate......-limiting barrier for binding, in a cooperative fashion. This finding suggests that these disordered peptides first form a weak encounter complex with non-native interactions. The data do not support the recent notion that the affinities of intrinsically disordered proteins towards their targets are generally...

  4. Structural and evolutionary aspects of two families of non-catalytic domains present in starch and glycogen binding proteins from microbes, plants and animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janeček, Štefan; Svensson, Birte; MacGregor, E. Ann

    2011-01-01

    Starch-binding domains (SBDs) comprise distinct protein modules that bind starch, glycogen or related carbohydrates and have been classified into different families of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). The present review focuses on SBDs of CBM20 and CBM48 found in amylolytic enzymes from sever...

  5. Neuronal entry and high neurotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxin A require its N-terminal binding sub-domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiafu; Meng, Jianghui; Nugent, Marc; Tang, Minhong; Dolly, J Oliver

    2017-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known, due to inhibiting the neuronal release of acetylcholine and causing flaccid paralysis. Most BoNT serotypes target neurons by binding to synaptic vesicle proteins and gangliosides via a C-terminal binding sub-domain (HCC). However, the role of their conserved N-terminal sub-domain (HCN) has not been established. Herein, we created a mutant form of recombinant BoNT/A lacking HCN (rAΔHCN) and showed that the lethality of this mutant is reduced 3.3 × 10(4)-fold compared to wild-type BoNT/A. Accordingly, low concentrations of rAΔHCN failed to bind either synaptic vesicle protein 2C or neurons, unlike the high-affinity neuronal binding obtained with (125)I-BoNT/A (Kd = 0.46 nM). At a higher concentration, rAΔHCN did bind to cultured sensory neurons and cluster on the surface, even after 24 h exposure. In contrast, BoNT/A became internalised and its light chain appeared associated with the plasmalemma, and partially co-localised with vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 in some vesicular compartments. We further found that a point mutation (W985L) within HCN reduced the toxicity over 10-fold, while this mutant maintained the same level of binding to neurons as wild type BoNT/A, suggesting that HCN makes additional contributions to productive internalization/translocation steps beyond binding to neurons.

  6. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Gα) endocytosis by a cascade of ubiquitin binding domain proteins is required for sustained morphogenesis and proper mating in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Gauri; Baker, Rachael; Sacks, Carly M; Torres, Matthew P; Dohlman, Henrik G

    2014-05-23

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are well known to transmit signals from cell surface receptors to intracellular effector proteins. There is growing appreciation that G proteins are also present at endomembrane compartments, where they can potentially interact with a distinct set of signaling proteins. Here, we examine the cellular trafficking function of the G protein α subunit in yeast, Gpa1. Gpa1 contains a unique 109-amino acid insert within the α-helical domain that undergoes a variety of posttranslational modifications. Among these is monoubiquitination, catalyzed by the NEDD4 family ubiquitin ligase Rsp5. Using a newly optimized method for G protein purification together with biophysical measures of structure and function, we show that the ubiquitination domain does not influence enzyme activity. By screening a panel of 39 gene deletion mutants, each lacking a different ubiquitin binding domain protein, we identify seven that are necessary to deliver Gpa1 to the vacuole compartment including four proteins (Ede1, Bul1, Ddi1, and Rup1) previously not known to be involved in this process. Finally, we show that proper endocytosis of the G protein is needed for sustained cellular morphogenesis and mating in response to pheromone stimulation. We conclude that a cascade of ubiquitin-binding proteins serves to deliver the G protein to its final destination within the cell. In this instance and in contrast to the previously characterized visual system, endocytosis from the plasma membrane is needed for proper signal transduction rather than for signal desensitization.

  7. Solution conformation of the C-terminal domain of skeletal troponin C. Cation, trifluoperazine and troponin I binding effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabikowski, W; Dalgarno, D C; Levine, B A; Gergely, J; Grabarek, Z; Leavis, P C

    1985-08-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the cation (Mg2+, Ca2+)-dependent conformational states of the C-terminal domain of rabbit skeletal troponin C under a variety of solution conditions. Nuclear Overhauser data and paramagnetic probe observations provide definition of the configuration of this region of troponin C. Comparative study of homologous proteins identify common features of the tertiary structure relevant to the cation binding reaction. Complex formation with troponin I and the drug trifluoperazine is observed to adjust the solution conformation of the C-terminal domain of troponin C. The interactive conformational response to cation coordination and the binding of the drug and troponin I are discussed.

  8. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis high-affinity iron importer, IrtA, contains an FAD-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryndak, Michelle B; Wang, Shuishu; Smith, Issar; Rodriguez, G Marcela

    2010-02-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient not freely available to microorganisms infecting mammals. To overcome iron deficiency, bacteria have evolved various strategies including the synthesis and secretion of high-affinity iron chelators known as siderophores. The siderophores produced and secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, exomycobactins, compete for iron with host iron-binding proteins and, together with the iron-regulated ABC transporter IrtAB, are required for the survival of M. tuberculosis in iron deficient conditions and for normal replication in macrophages and in mice. This study further characterizes the role of IrtAB in M. tuberculosis iron acquisition. Our results demonstrate a role for IrtAB in iron import and show that the amino terminus domain of IrtA is a flavin-adenine dinucleotide-binding domain essential for iron acquisition. These results suggest a model in which the amino terminus of IrtA functions to couple iron transport and assimilation.

  9. The structure of Prp40 FF1 domain and its interaction with the crn-TPR1 motif of Clf1 gives a new insight into the binding mode of FF domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, Alexander; Wiesner, Silke; Martin-Malpartida, Pau; Ramirez-Espain, Ximena; Ruiz, Lidia; Macias, Maria J

    2006-01-06

    The yeast splicing factor Prp40 (pre-mRNA processing protein 40) consists of a pair of WW domains followed by several FF domains. The region comprising the FF domains has been shown to associate with the 5' end of U1 small nuclear RNA and to interact directly with two proteins, the Clf1 (Crooked neck-like factor 1) and the phosphorylated repeats of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (CTD-RNAPII). In this work we reported the solution structure of the first FF domain of Prp40 and the identification of a novel ligand-binding site in FF domains. By using chemical shift assays, we found a binding site for the N-terminal crooked neck tetratricopeptide repeat of Clf1 that is distinct and structurally separate from the previously identified CTD-RNAPII binding pocket of the FBP11 (formin-binding protein 11) FF1 domain. No interaction, however, was observed between the Prp40 FF1 domain and three different peptides derived from the CTD-RNAPII protein. Indeed, the equivalent CTD-RNAPII-binding site in the Prp40 FF1 domain is predominantly negatively charged and thus unfavorable for an interaction with phosphorylated peptide sequences. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree reconstructions using the FF domains of three functionally related proteins, Prp40, FBP11, and CA150, revealed that Prp40 and FBP11 are not orthologous proteins and supported the different ligand specificities shown by their respective FF1 domains. Our results also revealed that not all FF domains in Prp40 are functionally equivalent. We proposed that at least two different interaction surfaces exist in FF domains that have evolved to recognize distinct binding motifs.

  10. Loss of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding by the C-terminal Tiam-1 pleckstrin homology domain prevents in vivo Rac1 activation without affecting membrane targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Mark A; Martinu, Lenka; Rossman, Kent L; Sondek, John; Lemmon, Mark A; Chou, Margaret M

    2003-03-28

    Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family small GTPases invariably contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that immediately follows their Dbl homology (DH) domain. Although the DH domain is responsible for GEF activity, the role of the PH domain is less clear. We previously reported that PH domains from several Dbl family members bind phosphoinositides with very low affinity (K(d) values in the 10 microM range). This suggests that, unlike several other PH domains, those from Dbl proteins will not function as independent membrane-targeting modules. To determine the functional relevance of low affinity phosphoinositide binding, we mutated the corresponding PH domain from Tiam-1 to abolish its weak, specific binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. We first confirmed in vitro that phosphoinositide binding by the isolated DH/PH domain was impaired by the mutations but that intrinsic GEF activity was unaffected. We then introduced the PH domain mutations into full-length Tiam-1 and found that its ability to activate Rac1 or serum response factor in vivo was abolished. Immunofluorescence studies showed that membrane targeting of Tiam-1 was essentially unaffected by mutations in the C-terminal PH domain. Our studies therefore indicate that low affinity phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding by the C-terminal PH domain may be critical for in vivo regulation and activity of Tiam-1 but that the PH domain exerts its regulatory effects without altering membrane targeting. We suggest instead that ligand binding to the PH domain induces conformational and/or orientational changes at the membrane surface that are required for maximum exchange activity of its adjacent DH domain.

  11. N- and C-terminal domains determine differential nucleosomal binding geometry and affinity of linker histone isotypes H1(0) and H1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Payal; Brown, David T

    2012-04-01

    Eukaryotic linker or H1 histones modulate DNA compaction and gene expression in vivo. In mammals, these proteins exist as multiple isotypes with distinct properties, suggesting a functional significance to the heterogeneity. Linker histones typically have a tripartite structure composed of a conserved central globular domain flanked by a highly variable short N-terminal domain and a longer highly basic C-terminal domain. We hypothesized that the variable terminal domains of individual subtypes contribute to their functional heterogeneity by influencing chromatin binding interactions. We developed a novel dual color fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay system in which two H1 proteins fused to spectrally separable fluorescent proteins can be co-expressed and their independent binding kinetics simultaneously monitored in a single cell. This approach was combined with domain swap and point mutagenesis to determine the roles of the terminal domains in the differential binding characteristics of the linker histone isotypes, mouse H1(0) and H1c. Exchanging the N-terminal domains between H1(0) and H1c changed their overall binding affinity to that of the other variant. In contrast, switching the C-terminal domains altered the chromatin interaction surface of the globular domain. These results indicate that linker histone subtypes bind to chromatin in an intrinsically specific manner and that the highly variable terminal domains contribute to differences between subtypes. The methods developed in this study will have broad applications in studying dynamic properties of additional histone subtypes and other mobile proteins.

  12. Modification of potato starch granule structure and morphology in planta by expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, X.

    2010-01-01

    Producing starches with altered composition, structure and novel physico-chemical properties in planta by manipulating the enzymes which are involved in starch metabolism or (over)expressing heterologous enzymes has huge advantages such as broadening the range of starch applications and reducing the costs of the post-harvest starch modification. The starch binding domain (SBD) technology has been extensively explored in our lab for modifying starch in planta and producing so-called “tailored ...

  13. A conserved proline-rich region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclase-associated protein binds SH3 domains and modulates cytoskeletal localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, N L; Lila, T; Mintzer, K A; Chen, Z; Pahk, A J; Ren, R; Drubin, D G; Field, J

    1996-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyclase-associated protein (CAP or Srv2p) is multifunctional. The N-terminal third of CAP binds to adenylyl cyclase and has been implicated in adenylyl cyclase activation in vivo. The widely conserved C-terminal domain of CAP binds to monomeric actin and serves an important cytoskeletal regulatory function in vivo. In addition, all CAP homologs contain a centrally located proline-rich region which has no previously identified function. Recently, SH3 (Src homology 3) domains were shown to bind to proline-rich regions of proteins. Here we report that the proline-rich region of CAP is recognized by the SH3 domains of several proteins, including the yeast actin-associated protein Abp1p. Immunolocalization experiments demonstrate that CAP colocalizes with cortical actin-containing structures in vivo and that a region of CAP containing the SH3 domain binding site is required for this localization. We also demonstrate that the SH3 domain of yeast Abp1p and that of the yeast RAS protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc25p complex with adenylyl cyclase in vitro. Interestingly, the binding of the Cdc25p SH3 domain is not mediated by CAP and therefore may involve direct binding to adenylyl cyclase or to an unidentified protein which complexes with adenylyl cyclase. We also found that CAP homologous from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and humans bind SH3 domains. The human protein binds most strongly to the SH3 domain from the abl proto-oncogene. These observations identify CAP as an SH3 domain-binding protein and suggest that CAP mediates interactions between SH3 domain proteins and monomeric actin.

  14. Functional relationship between CABIT, SAM and 14-3-3 binding domains of GAREM1 that play a role in its subcellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Tasuku; Matsunaga, Ryota; Konishi, Hiroaki, E-mail: hkonishi@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp

    2015-08-21

    GAREM1 (Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK1) is an adaptor protein that is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is located at the N-terminal CABIT (cysteine-containing, all in Themis) domain. Here, we identified 14-3-3ε as a GAREM-binding protein, and its binding site is closely located to the NLS. This 14-3-3 binding site was of the atypical type and independent of GAREM phosphorylation. Moreover, the binding of 14-3-3 had an effect on the nuclear localization of GAREM1. Unexpectedly, we observed that the CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. This association might be inhibited by binding of 14-3-3 at the CABIT domain. Our results demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on its NLS in the CABIT domain, which is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 and the C-terminal SAM domain. We suggest that the interplay between 14-3-3, SAM domain and CABIT domain might be responsible for the distribution of GAREM1 in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • 14-3-3ε regulated the nuclear localization of GAREM1 as its binding partner. • The atypical 14-3-3 binding site of GAREM1 is located near the NLS in CABIT domain. • The CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the SAM domain in GAREM1. • Subcellular localization of GAREM1 is affected with its CABIT-SAM interaction.

  15. Rational Molecular Design of Potent PLK1 PBD Domain-binding Phosphopeptides Using Preferential Amino Acid Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xin-Li; Wang, Kui-Feng; Zhu, Feng; Pan, Zhao-Hu; Wu, Guo-Min; Zhu, Hong-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is an important regulator in diverse aspects of the cell cycle and proliferation. The protein has a highly conserved polo-box domain (PBD) present in C-terminal noncatalytic region, which exhibits a relatively broad sequence specificity in recognizing and binding phosphorylated substrates to control substrate phosphorylation by the kinase. In order to elucidate the structural basis, thermodynamic property, and biological implication underlying PBD-substrate recognition and association, a systematic amino acid preference profile of phosphopeptide interaction with PLK1 PBD domain was established via virtual mutagenesis analysis and mutation energy calculation, from which the contribution of different amino acids at each residue position of two reference phosphopeptides to domain-peptide binding was characterized comprehensively and quantitatively. With the profile, we are able to determine the favorable, neutral, and unfavorable amino acid types for each position of PBD-binding phosphopeptides, and we also explored the molecular origin of the broad sequence specificity in PBD-substrate recognition. To practice computational findings, the profile was further employed to guide rational design of potent PBD binders; three 6-mer phosphopeptides (i.e., IQSpSPC, LQSpTPF, and LNSpTPT) were successfully developed, which can efficiently target PBD domain with high affinity (Kd = 5.7 ± 1.1, 0.75 ± 0.18, and 7.2 ± 2.6 μm, resp.) as measured by a fluorescence anisotropy assay. The complex structure of PLK1 PBD domain with a newly designed, potent phosphopeptide LQSpTPF as well as diverse noncovalent chemical forces, such as H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions at the complex interface, were examined in detail to reveal the molecular mechanism of high affinity and stability of the complex system.

  16. Monitoring conformational heterogeneity of the lid of DnaK substrate-binding domain during its chaperone cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupa; Jayaraj, Gopal Gunanathan; Peter, Joshua Jebakumar; Kumar, Vignesh; Mapa, Koyeli

    2016-08-01

    DnaK or Hsp70 of Escherichia coli is a master regulator of the bacterial proteostasis network. Allosteric communication between the two functional domains of DnaK, the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and the C-terminal substrate- or peptide-binding domain (SBD) regulate its activity. X-ray crystallography and NMR studies have provided snapshots of distinct conformations of Hsp70 proteins in various physiological states; however, the conformational heterogeneity and dynamics of allostery-driven Hsp70 activity remains underexplored. In this work, we employed single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) measurements to capture distinct intradomain conformational states of a region within the DnaK-SBD known as the lid. Our data conclusively demonstrate prominent conformational heterogeneity of the DnaK lid in ADP-bound states; in contrast, the ATP-bound open conformations are homogeneous. Interestingly, a nonhydrolysable ATP analogue, AMP-PNP, imparts heterogeneity to the lid conformations mimicking the ADP-bound state. The cochaperone DnaJ confers ADP-like heterogeneous lid conformations to DnaK, although the presence of the cochaperone accelerates the substrate-binding rate by a hitherto unknown mechanism. Irrespective of the presence of DnaJ, binding of a peptide substrate to the DnaK-SBD leads to prominent lid closure. Lid closure is only partial upon binding to molten globule-like authentic cellular substrates, probably to accommodate non-native substrate proteins of varied structures.

  17. Binding Activity Difference of Anti-CD20 scFv-Fc Fusion Protein Derived from Variable Domain Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shusheng Geng; Beifen Shen; Jiannan Feng; Yan Li; Yingxun Sun; Xin Gu; Ying Huang; Yugang Wang; Xianjiang Kang; Hong Chang

    2006-01-01

    Two novel engineered antibody fragments binding to antigen CD20 were generated by fusing a murine IgM-type anti-CD20 single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) to the human IgG1 CH2 (I.e., Cγ2) and CH3 (I.e., Cγ3) domains with the human IgG1 hinge (I.e. Hγ). Given the relationship between structure and function of protein, the 3-D structures of the two engineered antibody fragments were modeled using computer-aided homology modeling method.Furthermore, the relationship between 3-D conformation and their binding activity was evaluated theoretically.Due to the change of active pocket formed by CDRs, the HL23 (VH-Linker-VL-Hγ-Cγ2-Cγ3) remained its activity because of its preserved conformation, while the binding activity of the LH23 (VL-Linker-VH-Hγ-Cγ2-Cγ3) was impaired severely. Experimental studies by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HL23 possessed significantly superior binding activity to CD20-expressing target cells than LH23. That is to say, the order of variable regions could influence the binding activity of the fusion protein to CD20+ cell lines, which was in accordance with the theoretical results. The study highlights the potential relationship between the antibody binding activity and their 3-D conformation, which appears to be worthwhile in providing direction for future antibody design of recombinant antibody.

  18. GTP Binding and Oncogenic Mutations May Attenuate Hypervariable Region (HVR)-Catalytic Domain Interactions in Small GTPase K-Ras4B, Exposing the Effector Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyong; Banerjee, Avik; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-11-27

    K-Ras4B, a frequently mutated oncogene in cancer, plays an essential role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Its C-terminal membrane-associated hypervariable region (HVR) is required for full biological activity. In the active GTP-bound state, the HVR interacts with acidic plasma membrane (PM) headgroups, whereas the farnesyl anchors in the membrane; in the inactive GDP-bound state, the HVR may interact with both the PM and the catalytic domain at the effector binding region, obstructing signaling and nucleotide exchange. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR, we aim to figure out the effects of nucleotides (GTP and GDP) and frequent (G12C, G12D, G12V, G13D, and Q61H) and infrequent (E37K and R164Q) oncogenic mutations on full-length K-Ras4B. The mutations are away from or directly at the HVR switch I/effector binding site. Our results suggest that full-length wild-type GDP-bound K-Ras4B (K-Ras4B(WT)-GDP) is in an intrinsically autoinhibited state via tight HVR-catalytic domain interactions. The looser association in K-Ras4B(WT)-GTP may release the HVR. Some of the oncogenic mutations weaken the HVR-catalytic domain association in the K-Ras4B-GDP/-GTP bound states, which may facilitate the HVR disassociation in a nucleotide-independent manner, thereby up-regulating oncogenic Ras signaling. Thus, our results suggest that mutations can exert their effects in more than one way, abolishing GTP hydrolysis and facilitating effector binding.

  19. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the STAT1 DNA-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezaki, Shunichiro; Yamada, Masafumi; Kato, Masahiko; Park, Myoung-Ja; Maruyama, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Chida, Natsuko; Ohara, Osamu; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Ariga, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency diseases characterized by chronic and recurrent Candida infections of the skin, nails, and oropharynx. Gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 were very recently shown to be responsible for autosomal-dominant or sporadic cases of CMC. The reported mutations have been exclusively localized in the coiled-coil domain, resulting in impaired dephosphorylation of STAT1. However, recent crystallographic analysis and direct mutagenesis experiments indicate that mutations affecting the DNA-binding domain of STAT1 could also lead to persistent phosphorylation of STAT1. To our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that a DNA-binding domain mutation of c.1153C>T in exon 14 (p.T385M) is the genetic cause of sporadic CMC in two unrelated Japanese patients. The underlying mechanisms involve a gain of STAT1 function due to impaired dephosphorylation as observed in the coiled-coil domain mutations.

  20. The rotaviral NSP3 protein stimulates translation of polyadenylated target mRNAs independently of its RNA-binding domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keryer-Bibens, Cecile, E-mail: cecile.keryer-bibens@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Institut de Genetique et Developpement de Rennes, 35000 Rennes (France); CNRS, UMR 6061, equipe Expression Genetique et Developpement, 35000 Rennes (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes (France); Legagneux, Vincent; Namanda-Vanderbeken, Allen [Universite de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Institut de Genetique et Developpement de Rennes, 35000 Rennes (France); CNRS, UMR 6061, equipe Expression Genetique et Developpement, 35000 Rennes (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes (France); Cosson, Bertrand [UPMC Universite de Paris 06, UMR 7150, Equipe Traduction Cycle Cellulaire et Developpement, Station Biologique de Roscoff, 29682 Roscoff (France); CNRS, UMR 7150, Station Biologique de Roscoff, 29682 Roscoff (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes (France); Paillard, Luc [Universite de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Institut de Genetique et Developpement de Rennes, 35000 Rennes (France); CNRS, UMR 6061, equipe Expression Genetique et Developpement, 35000 Rennes (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes (France); Poncet, Didier [Virologie Moleculaire et Structurale, UMR CNRS, 2472, INRA, 1157, 91198 Gif sur Yvette (France); Osborne, H. Beverley, E-mail: beverley.osborne@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Institut de Genetique et Developpement de Rennes, 35000 Rennes (France); CNRS, UMR 6061, equipe Expression Genetique et Developpement, 35000 Rennes (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes (France)

    2009-12-11

    The non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) of rotaviruses is an RNA-binding protein that specifically recognises a 4 nucleotide sequence at the 3' extremity of the non-polyadenylated viral mRNAs. NSP3 also has a high affinity for eIF4G. These two functions are clearly delimited in separate domains the structures of which have been determined. They are joined by a central domain implicated in the dimerisation of the full length protein. The bridging function of NSP3 between the 3' end of the viral mRNA and eIF4G has been proposed to enhance the synthesis of viral proteins. However, this role has been questioned as knock-down of NSP3 did not impair viral protein synthesis. We show here using a MS2/MS2-CP tethering assay that a C-terminal fragment of NSP3 containing the eIF4G binding domain and the dimerisation domain can increase the expression of a protein encoded by a target reporter mRNA in HEK 293 cells. The amount of reporter mRNA in the cells is not significantly affected by the presence of the NSP3 derived fusion protein showing that the enhanced protein expression is due to increased translation. These results show that NSP3 can act as a translational enhancer even on a polyadenylated mRNA that should be a substrate for PABP1.

  1. Identification of a positively evolving putative binding region with increased variability in posttranslational motifs in zonadhesin MAM domain 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlyn, Holger; Zischler, Hans

    2005-10-01

    Positive selection has been shown to be pervasive in sex-related proteins of many metazoan taxa. However, we are only beginning to understand molecular evolutionary processes on the lineage to humans. To elucidate the evolution of proteins involved in human reproduction, we studied the sequence evolution of MAM domains of the sperm-ligand zonadhesin in respect to single amino acid sites, solvent accessibility, and posttranslational modification. GenBank-data were supplemented by new cDNA-sequences of a representative non-human primate panel. Solvent accessibility predictions identified a probably exposed fragment of 30 amino acids belonging to MAM domain 2 (i.e., MAM domain 3 in mouse). The fragment is characterized by significantly increased rate of positively selected amino acid sites and exhibits high variability in predicted posttranslational modification, and, thus, might represent a binding region in the mature protein. At the same time, there is a significant coincidence of positively selected amino acid sites and non-conserved posttranslational motifs. We conclude that the binding specificity of zonadhesin MAM domains, especially of the presumed epitope, is achieved by positive selection at the level of single amino acid sites and posttranslational modifications, respectively.

  2. Structure of Human J-type Co-chaperone HscB Reveals a Tetracysteine Metal-binding Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitto, Eduard; Bingman, Craig A.; Bittova, Lenka; Kondrashov, Dmitry A.; Bannen, Ryan M.; Fox, Brian G.; Markley, John L.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW); (UC)

    2008-11-24

    Iron-sulfur proteins play indispensable roles in a broad range of biochemical processes. The biogenesis of iron-sulfur proteins is a complex process that has become a subject of extensive research. The final step of iron-sulfur protein assembly involves transfer of an iron-sulfur cluster from a cluster-donor to a cluster-acceptor protein. This process is facilitated by a specialized chaperone system, which consists of a molecular chaperone from the Hsc70 family and a co-chaperone of the J-domain family. The 3.0 A crystal structure of a human mitochondrial J-type co-chaperone HscB revealed an L-shaped protein that resembles Escherichia coli HscB. The important difference between the two homologs is the presence of an auxiliary metal-binding domain at the N terminus of human HscB that coordinates a metal via the tetracysteine consensus motif CWXCX(9-13)FCXXCXXXQ. The domain is found in HscB homologs from animals and plants as well as in magnetotactic bacteria. The metal-binding site of the domain is structurally similar to that of rubredoxin and several zinc finger proteins containing rubredoxin-like knuckles. The normal mode analysis of HscB revealed that this L-shaped protein preferentially undergoes a scissors-like motion that correlates well with the conformational changes of human HscB observed in the crystals.

  3. Heterogeneous dynamics in DNA site discrimination by the structurally homologous DNA-binding domains of ETS-family transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gaofei; Tolic, Ana; Bashkin, James K; Poon, Gregory M K

    2015-04-30

    The ETS family of transcription factors exemplifies current uncertainty in how eukaryotic genetic regulators with overlapping DNA sequence preferences achieve target site specificity. PU.1 and Ets-1 represent archetypes for studying site discrimination by ETS proteins because their DNA-binding domains are the most divergent in sequence, yet they share remarkably superimposable DNA-bound structures. To gain insight into the contrasting thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA recognition by these two proteins, we investigated the structure and dynamics of site discrimination by their DNA-binding domains. Electrophoretic mobilities of complexes formed by the two homologs with circularly permuted binding sites showed significant dynamic differences only for DNA complexes of PU.1. Free solution measurements by dynamic light scattering showed PU.1 to be more dynamic than Ets-1; moreover, dynamic changes are strongly coupled to site discrimination by PU.1, but not Ets-1. Interrogation of the protein/DNA interface by DNA footprinting showed similar accessibility to dimethyl sulfate for PU.1/DNA and Ets-1/DNA complexes, indicating that the dynamics of PU.1/DNA complexes reside primarily outside that interface. An information-based analysis of the two homologs' binding motifs suggests a role for dynamic coupling in PU.1's ability to enforce a more stringent sequence preference than Ets-1 and its proximal sequence homologs.

  4. The Structure of a High-Affinity Kainate Receptor: GluK4 Ligand-Binding Domain Crystallized with Kainate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Ole; Kristensen, Lise Baadsgaard; Møllerud, Stine; Frydenvang, Karla; Pickering, Darryl S; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm

    2016-09-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors play a key role in fast neurotransmission in the CNS and have been linked to several neurological diseases and disorders. One subfamily is the kainate receptors, which are grouped into low-affinity (GluK1-3) and high-affinity (GluK4-5) receptors based on their affinity for kainate. Although structures of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of all low-affinity kainate receptors have been reported, no structures of the high-affinity receptor subunits are available. Here, we present the X-ray structure of GluK4-LBD with kainate at 2.05 Å resolution, together with thermofluor and radiolabel binding affinity data. Whereas binding-site residues in GluK4 are most similar to the AMPA receptor subfamily, the domain closure and D1-D2 interlobe contacts induced by kainate are similar to the low-affinity kainate receptor GluK1. These observations provide a likely explanation for the high binding affinity of kainate at GluK4-LBD.

  5. Heteromerization of ligand binding domains of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor requires both coagonists, L-glutamate and glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, John; Mezes, Christina; Zhou, Ning; Balsara, Rashna D; Castellino, Francis J

    2015-01-27

    NMDA receptors (NMDAR) are voltage- and glutamate-gated heteromeric ion channels found at excitatory neuronal synapses, the functions of which are to mediate the mechanisms of brain plasticity and, thereby, its higher order functions. In addition to Glu, the activation of these heteromeric receptors requires Gly or d-Ser as a coagonist. However, it is not fully known as to why coagonism is required for the opening of NMDAR ion channels. We show herein that the ligand binding domains (LBD) of the GluN1 and GluN2A subunits of the NMDAR heterodimerize only when both coagonists, Glu and Gly/d-Ser, bind to their respective sites on GluN2 and GluN1. In the agonist-free state, these domains form homomeric interactions, which are disrupted by binding of their respective agonists. Also, in a heteromer formed by the LBDs, GluN2A is more sensitized to bind Glu, while the affinity of Gly for GluN1 remains unchanged. We thus provide direct evidence to show that coagonism is necessary for heteromeric pairing of LBDs, which is an essential step in forming functional ion channels in NMDARs.

  6. Thermodynamic contribution of backbone conformational entropy in the binding between SH3 domain and proline-rich motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Danyun; Shen, Qingliang; Cho, Jae-Hyun

    2017-02-26

    Biological functions of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and proteins containing intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are often mediated by short linear motifs, like proline-rich motifs (PRMs). Upon binding to their target proteins, IDPs undergo a disorder-to-order transition which is accompanied by a large conformational entropy penalty. Hence, the molecular mechanisms underlying control of conformational entropy are critical for understanding the binding affinity and selectivity of IDPs-mediated protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Here, we investigated the backbone conformational entropy change accompanied by binding of the N-terminal SH3 domain (nSH3) of CrkII and PRM derived from guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (C3G). In particular, we focused on the estimation of conformational entropy change of disordered PRM upon binding to the nSH3 domain. Quantitative characterization of conformational dynamics of disordered peptides like PRMs is limited. Hence, we combined various methods, including NMR model-free analysis, δ2D, DynaMine, and structure-based calculation of entropy loss. This study demonstrates that the contribution of backbone conformational entropy change is significant in the PPIs mediated by IDPs/IDRs.

  7. Multiscale method for modeling binding phenomena involving large objects: application to kinesin motor domains motion along microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Alper, Joshua; Alexov, Emil

    2016-03-18

    Many biological phenomena involve the binding of proteins to a large object. Because the electrostatic forces that guide binding act over large distances, truncating the size of the system to facilitate computational modeling frequently yields inaccurate results. Our multiscale approach implements a computational focusing method that permits computation of large systems without truncating the electrostatic potential and achieves the high resolution required for modeling macromolecular interactions, all while keeping the computational time reasonable. We tested our approach on the motility of various kinesin motor domains. We found that electrostatics help guide kinesins as they walk: N-kinesins towards the plus-end, and C-kinesins towards the minus-end of microtubules. Our methodology enables computation in similar, large systems including protein binding to DNA, viruses, and membranes.

  8. The carboxy-terminal domain of Dictyostelium C-module-binding factor is an independent gene regulatory entity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Lucas

    Full Text Available The C-module-binding factor (CbfA is a multidomain protein that belongs to the family of jumonji-type (JmjC transcription regulators. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, CbfA regulates gene expression during the unicellular growth phase and multicellular development. CbfA and a related D. discoideum CbfA-like protein, CbfB, share a paralogous domain arrangement that includes the JmjC domain, presumably a chromatin-remodeling activity, and two zinc finger-like (ZF motifs. On the other hand, the CbfA and CbfB proteins have completely different carboxy-terminal domains, suggesting that the plasticity of such domains may have contributed to the adaptation of the CbfA-like transcription factors to the rapid genome evolution in the dictyostelid clade. To support this hypothesis we performed DNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR measurements and found that CbfA regulates at least 160 genes during the vegetative growth of D. discoideum cells. Functional annotation of these genes revealed that CbfA predominantly controls the expression of gene products involved in housekeeping functions, such as carbohydrate, purine nucleoside/nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism. The CbfA protein displays two different mechanisms of gene regulation. The expression of one set of CbfA-dependent genes requires at least the JmjC/ZF domain of the CbfA protein and thus may depend on chromatin modulation. Regulation of the larger group of genes, however, does not depend on the entire CbfA protein and requires only the carboxy-terminal domain of CbfA (CbfA-CTD. An AT-hook motif located in CbfA-CTD, which is known to mediate DNA binding to A+T-rich sequences in vitro, contributed to CbfA-CTD-dependent gene regulatory functions in vivo.

  9. Free energetics of rigid body association of ubiquitin binding domains: a biochemical model for binding mediated by hydrophobic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Di; Ou, Shuching; Patel, Sandeep

    2014-07-01

    Weak intermolecular interactions, such as hydrophobic associations, underlie numerous biomolecular recognition processes. Ubiquitin is a small protein that represents a biochemical model for exploring thermodynamic signatures of hydrophobic association as it is widely held that a major component of ubiquitin's binding to numerous partners is mediated by hydrophobic regions on both partners. Here, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with the Adaptive Biasing Force sampling method to compute potentials of mean force (the reversible work, or free energy, associated with the binding process) to investigate the thermodynamic signature of complexation in this well-studied biochemical model of hydrophobic association. We observe that much like in the case of a purely hydrophobic solute (i.e., graphene, carbon nanotubes), association is favored by entropic contributions from release of water from the interprotein regions. Moreover, association is disfavored by loss of enthalpic interactions, but unlike in the case of purely hydrophobic solutes, in this case protein-water interactions are lost and not compensated for by additional water-water interactions generated upon release of interprotein and moreso, hydration, water. We further find that relative orientations of the proteins that mutually present hydrophobic regions of each protein to its partner are favored over those that do not. In fact, the free energy minimum as predicted by a force field based method recapitulates the experimental NMR solution structure of the complex.

  10. Structural and functional analysis of slit and heparin binding to immunoglobulin-like domains 1 and 2 of Drosophila Robo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Noémi; Howitt, Jason A; Hussain, Sadaf-Ahmahni; Hohenester, Erhard

    2008-06-06

    Recognition of the secreted protein Slit by transmembrane receptors of the Robo family provides important signals in the development of the nervous system and other organs, as well as in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans serve as essential co-receptors in Slit-Robo signaling. Previous studies have shown that the second leucinerich repeat domain of Slit, D2, binds to the N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains of Robo, IG1-2. Here we present two crystal structures of Drosophila Robo IG1-2, one of which contains a bound heparin-derived oligosaccharide. Using structure-based mutagenesis of a Robo IG1-5 construct we identified key Slit binding residues (Thr-74, Phe-114, Arg-117) forming a conserved patch on the surface of IG1; mutation of similarly conserved residues in IG2 had no effect on Slit binding. Mutation of conserved basic residues in IG1 (Lys-69, Arg-117, Lys-122, Lys-123), but not in IG2, reduced binding of Robo IG1-5 to heparin, in full agreement with the Robo-heparin co-crystal structure. Our collective results, together with a recent crystal structure of a minimal human Slit-Robo complex ( Morlot, C., Thielens, N. M., Ravelli, R. B., Hemrika, W., Romijn, R. A., Gros, P., Cusack, S., and McCarthy, A. A. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 14923-14928 ), reveal a contiguous HS/heparin binding surface extending across the Slit-Robo interface. Based on the size of this composite binding site, we predict that at least five HS disaccharide units are required to support Slit-Robo signaling.

  11. AtMBD6, a methyl CpG binding domain protein, maintains gene silencing in Arabidopsis by interacting with RNA binding proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ADWAITA PRASAD PARIDA; AMRAPALI SHARMA; ARUN KUMAR SHARMA

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation, mediated by double-stranded RNA, is a conserved epigenetic phenomenon that protects a genome fromtransposons, silences unwanted genes and has a paramount function in plant or animal development. Methyl CpG bindingdomain proteins are members of a class of proteins that bind tomethylated DNA. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes13 methyl CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins, but themolecular/biological functions of most of these proteins are still notclear. In the present study, we identified four proteins that interact with AtMBD6. Interestingly, three of them contain RNAbinding domains and are co-localized with AtMBD6 in the nucleus. The interacting partners includes AtRPS2C (a 40Sribosomal protein), AtNTF2 (nuclear transport factor 2) and AtAGO4 (Argonoute 4). The fourth protein that physicallyinteracts with AtMBD6 is a histone-modifying enzyme, histone deacetylase 6 (AtHDA6), which is a known component ofthe RNA-mediated gene silencing system. Analysis of genomic DNA methylation in the atmbd6, atrps2c and atntf2mutants, using methylation-sensitive PCR detected decreased DNA methylation at miRNA/siRNA producing loci,pseudogenes and other targets of RNA-directed DNA methylation. Our results indicate that AtMBD6 is involved inRNA-mediated gene silencing and it binds to RNA binding proteins like AtRPS2C, AtAGO4 and AtNTF2. AtMBD6 alsointeracts with histone deacetylase AtHDA6 that might have a role in chromatin condensation at the targets of RdDM.

  12. The matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 cleaves laminin receptor at two distinct sites between the transmembrane domain and laminin binding sequence within the extracellular domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tosikazu AMANO; Olivia KWAK; Liezhen FU; Anastasia MARSHAK; Yun-Bo SHI

    2005-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) stromelysin-3 (ST3) has long been implicated to play an important role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. However,like other MMPs, the molecular basis of ST3 function in vivo remains unclear due to the lack of information on its physiological substrates. Furthermore, ST3 has only weak activities toward all tested ECM proteins. Using thyroid hormone-dependent Xenopus laevis metamorphosis as a model, we demonstrated previously that ST3 is important for apoptosis and tissue morphogenesis during intestinal remodeling. Here, we used yeast two-hybrid screen with mRNAs from metamorphosing tadpoles to identify potential substrate of ST3 during development. We thus isolated the 37 kd laminin receptor precursor (LR). We showed that LR binds to ST3 in vitro and can be cleaved by ST3 at two sites,distinct from where other MMPs cleave. Through peptide sequencing, we determined that the two cleavage sites are in the extracellular domain between the transmembrane domain and laminin binding sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these cleavage sites are conserved in human LR. These results together with high levels of human LR and ST3 expression in carcinomas suggest that LR is a likely in vivo substrate of ST3 and that its cleavage by ST3 may alter cell-extracellular matrix interaction, thus, playing a role in mediating the effects of ST3 on cell fate and behavior observed during development and pathogenesis.

  13. The hemopexin and O-glycosylated domains tune gelatinase B/MMP-9 bioavailability via inhibition and binding to cargo receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Steen, Philippe E; Van Aelst, Ilse; Hvidberg, Vibeke;

    2006-01-01

    with a compact three-dimensional structure. The OG and hemopexin domains have no influence on the cleavage efficiency of MMP-9 substrates. In contrast, the hemopexin domain contains a binding site for the cargo receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1). Furthermore, megalin/LRP-2...... domains down-regulate the bioavailability of active MMP-9 and the interactions with the cargo receptors are proposed to be the original function of hemopexin domains in MMPs....

  14. Peptide-based antibodies against glutathione-binding domains suppress superoxide production mediated by mitochondrial complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfeng; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Rawale, Sharad; Chen, Chun-An; Zweier, Jay L; Kaumaya, Pravin T P; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2010-01-29

    Complex I (NQR) is a critical site of superoxide (O2-*) production and the major host of redox protein thiols in mitochondria. In response to oxidative stress, NQR-derived protein thiols at the 51- and 75-kDa subunits are known to be reversibly S-glutathionylated. Although several glutathionylated domains from NQR 51 and 75 kDa have been identified, their roles in the regulatory functions remain to be explored. To gain further insights into protein S-glutathionylation of complex I, we used two peptides of S-glutathionylated domain ((200)GAGAYICGEETALIESIEGK(219) of 51-kDa protein and (361)VDSDTLCTEEVFPTAGAGTDLR(382) of 75-kDa protein) as chimeric epitopes incorporating a "promiscuous" T-cell epitope to generate two polyclonal antibodies, AbGSCA206 and AbGSCB367. Binding of AbGSCA206 and AbGSCB367 inhibited NQR-mediated O2-* generation by 37 and 57%, as measured by EPR spin-trapping. To further provide an appropriate control, two peptides of non-glutathionylated domain ((21)SGDTTAPKKTSFGSLKDFDR(40) of 51-kDa peptide and (100)WNILTNSEKTKKAREGVMEFL(120) of 75-kDa peptide) were synthesized as chimeric epitopes to generate two polyclonal antibodies, Ab51 and Ab75. Binding of A51 did not affect NQR-mediated generation to a significant level. However, binding of Ab75 inhibited NQR-mediated O2-*generation by 35%. None of AbGSCA206, AbGSCB367, Ab51, or Ab75 showed an inhibitory effect on the electron transfer activity of NQR, suggesting that antibody binding to the glutathione-binding domain decreased electron leakage from the hydrophilic domain of NQR. When heart tissue homogenates were immunoprecipitated with Ab51 or Ab75 and probed with an antibody against glutathione, protein S-glutathionylation was enhanced in post-ischemic myocardium at the NQR 51-kDa subunit, but not at the 75-kDa subunit, indicating that the 51-kDa subunit of flavin subcomplex is more sensitive to oxidative stress resulting from myocardial infarction.

  15. An activating mutation reveals a second binding mode of the integrin α2 I domain to the GFOGER motif in collagens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Carafoli

    Full Text Available The GFOGER motif in collagens (O denotes hydroxyproline represents a high-affinity binding site for all collagen-binding integrins. Other GxOGER motifs require integrin activation for maximal binding. The E318W mutant of the integrin α2β1 I domain displays a relaxed collagen specificity, typical of an active state. E318W binds more strongly than the wild-type α2 I domain to GMOGER, and forms a 2:1 complex with a homotrimeric, collagen-like, GFOGER peptide. Crystal structure analysis of this complex reveals two E318W I domains, A and B, bound to a single triple helix. The E318W I domains are virtually identical to the collagen-bound wild-type I domain, suggesting that the E318W mutation activates the I domain by destabilising the unligated conformation. E318W I domain A interacts with two collagen chains similarly to wild-type I domain (high-affinity mode. E318W I domain B makes favourable interactions with only one collagen chain (low-affinity mode. This observation suggests that single GxOGER motifs in the heterotrimeric collagens V and IX may support binding of activated integrins.

  16. Regions outside the DNA-binding domain are critical for proper in vivo specificity of an archetypal zinc finger transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdach, Jon; Funnell, Alister P W; Mak, Ka Sin; Artuz, Crisbel M; Wienert, Beeke; Lim, Wooi F; Tan, Lit Yeen; Pearson, Richard C M; Crossley, Merlin

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are often regarded as being composed of a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a functional domain. The two domains are considered separable and autonomous, with the DBD directing the factor to its target genes and the functional domain imparting transcriptional regulation. We examined an archetypal zinc finger (ZF) TF, Krüppel-like factor 3 with an N-terminal domain that binds the corepressor CtBP and a DBD composed of three ZFs at its C-terminus. We established a system to compare the genomic occupancy profile of wild-type Krüppel-like factor 3 with two mutants affecting the N-terminal functional domain: a mutant unable to contact the cofactor CtBP and a mutant lacking the entire N-terminal domain, but retaining the ZFs intact. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing was used to assess binding across the genome in murine embryonic fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, we observe that mutations in the N-terminal domain generally reduced binding, but there were also instances where binding was retained or even increased. These results provide a clear demonstration that the correct localization of TFs to their target genes is not solely dependent on their DNA-contact domains. This informs our understanding of how TFs operate and is of relevance to the design of artificial ZF proteins.

  17. Crystal structure of the functional region of Uro-adherence factor A from Staphylococcus saprophyticus reveals participation of the B domain in ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Eriko; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Makoto; Shouji, Yuko; Ohta, Toshiko; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2011-02-01

    Staphylococci use cell wall-anchored proteins as adhesins to attach to host tissues. Staphylococcus saprophyticus, a uropathogenic species, has a unique cell wall-anchored protein, uro-adherence factor A (UafA), which shows erythrocyte binding activity. To investigate the mechanism of adhesion by UafA, we determined the crystal structure of the functional region of UafA at 1.5 Å resolution. The structure was composed of three domains, designated as the N2, N3, and B domains, arranged in a triangular relative configuration. Hemagglutination inhibition assay with domain-truncated mutants indicated that both N and B domains were necessary for erythrocyte binding. Based on these results, a novel manner of ligand binding in which the B domain acts as a functional domain was proposed as the adhesion mechanism of S. saprophyticus.

  18. Inositol Pentakisphosphate Isomers Bind PH Domains with Varying Specificity and Inhibit Phosphoinositide Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Jackson; S Al-Saigh; C Schultz; M Junop

    2011-12-31

    PH domains represent one of the most common domains in the human proteome. These domains are recognized as important mediators of protein-phosphoinositide and protein-protein interactions. Phosphoinositides are lipid components of the membrane that function as signaling molecules by targeting proteins to their sites of action. Phosphoinositide based signaling pathways govern a diverse range of important cellular processes including membrane remodeling, differentiation, proliferation and survival. Myo-Inositol phosphates are soluble signaling molecules that are structurally similar to the head groups of phosphoinositides. These molecules have been proposed to function, at least in part, by regulating PH domain-phosphoinositide interactions. Given the structural similarity of inositol phosphates we were interested in examining the specificity of PH domains towards the family of myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomers. In work reported here we demonstrate that the C-terminal PH domain of pleckstrin possesses the specificity required to discriminate between different myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomers. The structural basis for this specificity was determined using high-resolution crystal structures. Moreover, we show that while the PH domain of Grp1 does not possess this high degree of specificity, the PH domain of protein kinase B does. These results demonstrate that some PH domains possess enough specificity to discriminate between myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomers allowing for these molecules to differentially regulate interactions with phosphoinositides. Furthermore, this work contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting myo-inositol phosphates as regulators of important PH domain-phosphoinositide interactions. Finally, in addition to expanding our knowledge of cellular signaling, these results provide a basis for developing tools to probe biological pathway.

  19. Inositol pentakisphosphate isomers bind PH domains with varying specificity and inhibit phosphoinositide interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Carsten

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PH domains represent one of the most common domains in the human proteome. These domains are recognized as important mediators of protein-phosphoinositide and protein-protein interactions. Phosphoinositides are lipid components of the membrane that function as signaling molecules by targeting proteins to their sites of action. Phosphoinositide based signaling pathways govern a diverse range of important cellular processes including membrane remodeling, differentiation, proliferation and survival. Myo-Inositol phosphates are soluble signaling molecules that are structurally similar to the head groups of phosphoinositides. These molecules have been proposed to function, at least in part, by regulating PH domain-phosphoinositide interactions. Given the structural similarity of inositol phosphates we were interested in examining the specificity of PH domains towards the family of myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomers. Results In work reported here we demonstrate that the C-terminal PH domain of pleckstrin possesses the specificity required to discriminate between different myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomers. The structural basis for this specificity was determined using high-resolution crystal structures. Moreover, we show that while the PH domain of Grp1 does not possess this high degree of specificity, the PH domain of protein kinase B does. Conclusions These results demonstrate that some PH domains possess enough specificity to discriminate between myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomers allowing for these molecules to differentially regulate interactions with phosphoinositides. Furthermore, this work contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting myo-inositol phosphates as regulators of important PH domain-phosphoinositide interactions. Finally, in addition to expanding our knowledge of cellular signaling, these results provide a basis for developing tools to probe biological pathways.

  20. Betaglycan has two independent domains required for high affinity TGF-β binding: proteolytic cleavage separates the domains and inactivates the neutralizing activity of the soluble receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Valentín; Vilchis-Landeros, M. Magdalena; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Huang, Tao; Villarreal, Maria M.; Hinck, Andrew P.; López-Casillas, Fernando; Montiel, Jose-Luis

    2009-01-01

    Summary Betaglycan is a co-receptor for members of the TGF-β superfamily. Mutagenesis has identified two ligand binding regions, one at the membrane-distal and the other at the membrane-proximal half of the betaglycan ectodomain. Here we show that partial plasmin digestion of soluble betaglycan produces two proteolysis-resistant fragments of 45 and 55 kDa, consistent with the predicted secondary structure, which indicates an intervening non-structured linker region separating the highly structured N- and C-terminal domains. Amino terminal sequencing indicates that the 45 and 55 kDa fragments correspond, respectively, to the membrane-distal and -proximal regions. Plasmin treatment of membrane betaglycan results in the production of equivalent proteolysis-resistant fragments. The 45 and 55 kDa fragments, as well as their recombinant soluble counterparts, Sol Δ10 and Sol Δ11, bind TGF-β, nonetheless, compared to intact soluble betaglycan, have severely diminished ability to block TGF-β activity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis indicates that soluble betaglycan has Kds in the low nanomolar range for the three TGF-β isoforms, while those for Sol Δ10 and Sol Δ11 are 1 – 2 orders of magnitude higher. SPR analysis further shows that the Kds of Sol Δ11 are not changed in the presence of Sol Δ10, indicating that the high affinity of soluble betaglycan is a consequence of tethering of the domains together. Overall, these results, suggest that betaglycan ectodomain exhibits a bi-lobular structure in which each lobule folds independently, binds TGF-β through distinct non-overlapping interfaces, and that linker modification may be an approach to improve soluble betaglycan’s TGF-β neutralizing activity. PMID:19842711

  1. Structural Insights into the Functional Role of the Hcn Sub-domain of the Receptor-Binding Domain of the Botulinum Neurotoxin Mosaic Serotype C/D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gardberg, Anna; Edwards, Tom E.; Sankaran, Banumathi; Robinson, Howard; Varnum, Susan M.; Buchko, Garry W.

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the causative agent of the deadly neuroparalytic disease botulism, is the most poisonous protein known for humans. Produced by different strains of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, BoNT effects cellular intoxication via a multistep mechanism executed by the three modules of the activated protein. Endocytosis, the first step of cellular intoxication, is triggered by the ~50 kDa, heavy-chain receptor-binding module (HCR) that is specific for a ganglioside and a protein receptor on neuronal cell surfaces. This dual receptor recognition mechanism between BoNT and the host cell’s membrane is well documented and occurs via specific intermolecular interactions with the C-terminal sub-domain, Hcc, of BoNT-HCR. The N-terminal sub-domain of BoNT-HCR, Hcn, comprises ~50% of BoNT-HCR and adopts a B-sheet jelly roll fold. While suspected in assisting cell surface recognition, no unambiguous function for the Hcn sub-domain in BoNT has been indentified. To obtain insights into the potential function of the Hcn sub-domain in BoNT, the first crystal structure of a BoNT with an organic ligand bound to the Hcn sub-domain has been obtained. Here, we describe the crystal structure of BoNT/CD-HCR determined at 1.70 Å resolution with a tetraethylene glycol (PG4) molecule bound in an hydrophobic cleft between B-strands in the B-sheet jelly fold roll of the Hcn sub-domain. The molecule is completely engulfed in the cleft, making numerous hydrophobic (Y932, S959, W966, and D1042) and hydrophilic (S935, W977, L979, N1013, and I1066) contacts with the protein’s side chain and backbone that may mimic in vivo interactions with the phospholipid membranes on neuronal cell surfaces. A sulfate ion was also observed bound to residues T1176, D1177, K1196, and R1243 in the Hcc sub-domain of BoNT/CD-HCR. In the crystal structure of a similar protein, BoNT/D-HCR, a sialic acid

  2. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the bacteriophage CUS-3 virion reveal a conserved coat protein I-domain but a distinct tailspike receptor-binding domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parent, Kristin N., E-mail: kparent@msu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Tang, Jinghua; Cardone, Giovanni [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Gilcrease, Eddie B. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Janssen, Mandy E.; Olson, Norman H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Casjens, Sherwood R., E-mail: sherwood.casjens@path.utah.edu [University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Baker, Timothy S., E-mail: tsb@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); University of California, San Diego, Division of Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA, 92093 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    CUS-3 is a short-tailed, dsDNA bacteriophage that infects serotype K1 Escherichia coli. We report icosahedrally averaged and asymmetric, three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions of the CUS-3 virion. Its coat protein structure adopts the “HK97-fold” shared by other tailed phages and is quite similar to that in phages P22 and Sf6 despite only weak amino acid sequence similarity. In addition, these coat proteins share a unique extra external domain (“I-domain”), suggesting that the group of P22-like phages has evolved over a very long time period without acquiring a new coat protein gene from another phage group. On the other hand, the morphology of the CUS-3 tailspike differs significantly from that of P22 or Sf6, but is similar to the tailspike of phage K1F, a member of the extremely distantly related T7 group of phages. We conclude that CUS-3 obtained its tailspike gene from a distantly related phage quite recently. - Highlights: • Asymmetric and symmetric three-dimensional reconstructions of phage CUS-3 are presented. • CUS-3 major capsid protein has a conserved I-domain, which is found in all three categories of “P22-like phage”. • CUS-3 has very different tailspike receptor binding domain from those of P22 and Sf6. • The CUS-3 tailspike likely was acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

  3. Phosphate-binding pocket in Dicer-2 PAZ domain for high-fidelity siRNA production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Suresh K; Fukunaga, Ryuya

    2016-12-06

    The enzyme Dicer produces small silencing RNAs such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In Drosophila, Dicer-1 produces ∼22-24-nt miRNAs from pre-miRNAs, whereas Dicer-2 makes 21-nt siRNAs from long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). How Dicer-2 precisely makes 21-nt siRNAs with a remarkably high fidelity is unknown. Here we report that recognition of the 5'-monophosphate of a long dsRNA substrate by a phosphate-binding pocket in the Dicer-2 PAZ (Piwi, Argonaute, and Zwille/Pinhead) domain is crucial for the length fidelity, but not the efficiency, in 21-nt siRNA production. Loss of the length fidelity, meaning increased length heterogeneity of siRNAs, caused by point mutations in the phosphate-binding pocket of the Dicer-2 PAZ domain decreased RNA silencing activity in vivo, showing the importance of the high fidelity to make 21-nt siRNAs. We propose that the 5'-monophosphate of a long dsRNA substrate is anchored by the phosphate-binding pocket in the Dicer-2 PAZ domain and the distance between the pocket and the RNA cleavage active site in the RNaseIII domain corresponds to the 21-nt pitch in the A-form duplex of a long dsRNA substrate, resulting in high-fidelity 21-nt siRNA production. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanism by which Dicer-2 produces 21-nt siRNAs with a remarkably high fidelity for efficient RNA silencing.

  4. A Fab-Selective Immunoglobulin-Binding Domain from Streptococcal Protein G with Improved Half-Life Extension Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Unverdorben

    Full Text Available Half-life extension strategies have gained increasing interest to improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of protein therapeutics. Recently, we established an immunoglobulin-binding domain (IgBD from streptococcal protein G (SpGC3 as module for half-life extension. SpGC3 is capable of binding to the Fc region as well as the CH1 domain of Fab arms under neutral and acidic conditions.Using site-directed mutagenesis, we generated a Fab-selective mutant (SpGC3Fab to avoid possible interference with the FcRn-mediated recycling process and improved its affinity for mouse and human IgG by site-directed mutagenesis and phage display selections. In mice, this affinity-improved mutant (SpGC3FabRR conferred prolonged plasma half-lives compared with SpGC3Fab when fused to small recombinant antibody fragments, such as single-chain Fv (scFv and bispecific single-chain diabody (scDb. Hence, the SpGC3FabRR domain seems to be a suitable fusion partner for the half-life extension of small recombinant therapeutics.The half-life extension properties of SpGC3 can be retained by restricting binding to the Fab fragment of serum immunoglobulins and can be improved by increasing binding activity. The modified SpGC3 module should be suitable to extend the half-life of therapeutic proteins and, thus to improve therapeutic activity.

  5. The lid domain of Caenorhabditis elegans Hsc70 influences ATP turnover, cofactor binding and protein folding activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    Full Text Available Hsc70 is a conserved ATP-dependent molecular chaperone, which utilizes the energy of ATP hydrolysis to alter the folding state of its client proteins. In contrast to the Hsc70 systems of bacteria, yeast and humans, the Hsc70 system of C. elegans (CeHsc70 has not been studied to date.We find that CeHsc70 is characterized by a high ATP turnover rate and limited by post-hydrolysis nucleotide exchange. This rate-limiting step is defined by the helical lid domain at the C-terminus. A certain truncation in this domain (CeHsc70-Δ545 reduces the turnover rate and renders the hydrolysis step rate-limiting. The helical lid domain also affects cofactor affinities as the lidless mutant CeHsc70-Δ512 binds more strongly to DNJ-13, forming large protein complexes in the presence of ATP. Despite preserving the ability to hydrolyze ATP and interact with its cofactors DNJ-13 and BAG-1, the truncation of the helical lid domain leads to the loss of all protein folding activity, highlighting the requirement of this domain for the functionality of the nematode's Hsc70 protein.

  6. Use of recombinant cellulose-binding domains of Trichoderma reesei cellulase as a selective immunocytochemical marker for cellulose in protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Markus; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Linder, Ewert

    2002-05-01

    Some unicellular organisms are able to encyst as a protective response to a harmful environment. The cyst wall usually contains chitin as its main structural constituent, but in some cases, as in Acanthamoeba, it consists of cellulose instead. Specific cytochemical differentiation between cellulose and chitin by microscopy has not been possible, due to the similarity of their constituent beta-1,4-linked hexose backbones. Thus, various fluorescent brightening agents and lectins bind to both cellulose and chitin. We have used a recombinant cellulose-binding protein consisting of two cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) from Trichoderma reesei cellulases linked together in combination with monoclonal anticellulase antibodies and anti-mouse immunoglobulin fluorescein conjugate to specifically stain cellulose in the cysts of Acanthamoeba strains for fluorescence microscopy imaging. Staining was observed in ruptured cysts and frozen sections of cysts but not in intact mature cysts. No staining reaction was observed with the chitin-containing cyst walls of Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba dispar, or Pneumocystis carinii. Thus, the recombinant CBD can be used as a marker to distinguish between cellulose and chitin. Thirteen of 25 environmental or clinical isolates of amoebae reacted in the CBD binding assay. All 13 isolates were identified as Acanthamoeba spp. Five isolates of Hartmannella and seven isolates of Naegleria tested negative in the CBD binding assay. Whether cyst wall cellulose really is a unique property of Acanthamoeba spp. among free-living amoebae, as suggested by our findings, remains to be shown in more extensive studies.

  7. NMR study of Ni2+ binding to the H-N-H endonuclease domain of colicin E9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, J. P.; Whittaker, S. B.; Davy, S. L.; Kühlmann, U. C.; Pommer, A. J.; Hemmings, A. M.; James, R.; Kleanthous, C.; Moore, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Ni2+ affinity columns are widely used for protein purification, but they carry the risk that Ni2+ ions may bind to the protein, either adventitiously or at a physiologically important site. Dialysis against ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is normally used to remove metal ions bound adventitiously to proteins; however, this approach does not always work. Here we report that a bacterial endonuclease, the DNase domain of colicin E9, binds Ni2+ acquired from Ni2+ affinity columns, and appears to bind [Ni(EDTA)(H2O)n]2- at low ionic strength. NMR was used to detect the presence of both Ni2+ coordinated to amino acid side chains and [Ni(EDTA)(H2O)N]2-. Dialysis against > or =0.2 M NaCl was required to remove the [Ni(EDTA)(H2O)n]2-. The NMR procedure we have used to characterize the presence of Ni2+ and [Ni(EDTA)(H2O)n]2- should be applicable to other proteins where there is the possibility of binding paramagnetic metal ions that are present to expedite protein purification. In the present case, the binding of Ni2+ seems likely to be physiologically relevant, and the NMR data complement recent X-ray crystallographic evidence concerning the number of histidine ligands to bound Ni2+. PMID:10452617

  8. The Drosophila tissue-specific factor Grainyhead contains novel DNA-binding and dimerization domains which are conserved in the human protein CP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uv, A E; Thompson, C R; Bray, S J

    1994-06-01

    We have mapped the regions in the Drosophila melanogaster tissue-specific transcription factor Grainyhead that are required for DNA binding and dimerization. These functional domains correspond to regions conserved between Grainyhead and the vertebrate transcription factor CP2, which we show has similar activities. The identified DNA-binding domain is large (263 amino acids) but contains a smaller core that is able to interact with DNA at approximately 400-fold lower affinity. The major dimerization domain is located in a separate region of the protein and is required to stabilize the interactions with DNA. Our data also suggest that Grainyhead activity can be modulated by an N-terminal inhibitory domain.

  9. Generation and characterization of a tetraspanin CD151/integrin α6β1-binding domain competitively binding monoclonal antibody for inhibition of tumor progression in HCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Lu; Kang, Qiang; Liu, Li-Xin; Xie, Nan; Shen, Zao-Zhuo; Hu, Mei-Yu; Cao, Ya; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Shi, Guo-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that tetraspanin CD151 plays multiple roles in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by forming a functional complex with integrin α6β1. Herein, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that dissociates the CD151/integrin α6β1 complex, and we evaluated its bioactivity in HCCs. A murine mAb, tetraspanin CD151 (IgG1, called CD151 mAb 9B), was successfully generated against the CD151-integrin α6β1 binding site of CD151 extracellular domains. Co-immunoprecipitation using CD151 mAb 9B followed by Western blotting detected a 28 kDa protein. Both immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining showed a good reactivity of CD151 mAb 9B in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of HCC cells, as well as in liver cells. In vitro assays demonstrated that CD151 mAb 9B could inhibit neoangiogenesis and both the mobility and the invasiveness of HCC cells. An in vivo assay showed that CD151 mAb 9B inhibited tumor growth potential and HCC cells metastasis. We successfully produced a CD151 mAb 9B targeting the CD151/integrin α6β1-binding domain, which not only can displayed good reactivity to the CD151 antigen but also prevented tumor progression in HCC. PMID:26756217

  10. Review of the Third Domain Receptor Binding Fragment of Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP): Plausible Binding of AFP to Lysophospholipid Receptor Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizejewski, G J

    2016-01-31

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a 69 kD fetal- and tumor-associated single-chain glycoprotein belonging to the albuminoid gene family. AFP functions as a carrier/transport molecule as well as a growth regulator and has been utilized as a clinical biomarker for both fetal defects and cancer growth. Lysophospholipids (LPLs) are plasma membrane-derived bioactive lipid signaling mediators composed of a small molecular weight single acyl carbon chain (palmitic, oleic acid) attached to a polar headgroup; they range in molecular mass from 250-750 daltons. The LPLs consist of either sphingosine-1-phosphate or lysophosphatidic acid, and mostly their choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol derivatives. They are present only in vertebrates. These bioactive paracrine lipid mediators are ubiquitously distributed in tissues and are released from many different cell types (platelets, macrophages, monocytes, etc.) involved in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. The LPLs bind to four different classes of G-protein coupled receptors described herein which transduce a multiple of cell effects encompassing activities such as morphogenesis, neural development, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis. The identification of potential binding sites of LPL receptors on the AFP third domain receptor binding fragment were derived by computer modeling analysis. It is conceivable, but not proven, that AFP might bind not only to the LPL receptors, but also to LPLs themselves since AFP binds medium and long chain fatty acids. It is proposed that some of the activities ascribed to AFP in the past might be due in part to the presence of bound LPLs and/or their receptors.

  11. Long-term memory consolidation: The role of RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Indulekha P; Ramaswami, Mani

    2016-10-11

    Long-term and short-term memories differ primarily in the duration of their retention. At a molecular level, long-term memory (LTM) is distinguished from short-term memory (STM) by its requirement for new gene expression. In addition to transcription (nuclear gene expression) the translation of stored mRNAs is necessary for LTM formation. The mechanisms and functions for temporal and spatial regulation of mRNAs required for LTM is a major contemporary problem, of interest from molecular, cell biological, neurobiological and clinical perspectives. This review discusses primary evidence in support for translational regulatory events involved in LTM and a model in which different phases of translation underlie distinct phases of consolidation of memories. However, it focuses largely on mechanisms of memory persistence and the role of prion-like domains in this defining aspect of long-term memory. We consider primary evidence for the concept that Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding (CPEB) protein enables the persistence of formed memories by transforming in prion-like manner from a soluble monomeric state to a self-perpetuating and persistent polymeric translationally active state required for maintaining persistent synaptic plasticity. We further discuss prion-like domains prevalent on several other RNA-binding proteins involved in neuronal translational control underlying LTM. Growing evidence indicates that such RNA regulatory proteins are components of mRNP (RiboNucleoProtein) granules. In these proteins, prion-like domains, being intrinsically disordered, could mediate weak transient interactions that allow the assembly of RNP granules, a source of silenced mRNAs whose translation is necessary for LTM. We consider the structural bases for RNA granules formation as well as functions of disordered domains and discuss how these complicate the interpretation of existing experimental data relevant to general mechanisms by which prion-domain containing RBPs

  12. Calcium binding by the PKD1 domain regulates interdomain flexibility in Vibrio cholerae metalloprotease PrtV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Aaron; Rompikuntal, Pramod; Björn, Erik; Stier, Gunter; Wai, Sun N; Sauer-Eriksson, A Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, releases several virulence factors including secreted proteases when it infects its host. These factors attack host cell proteins and break down tissue barriers and cellular matrix components such as collagen, laminin, fibronectin, keratin, elastin, and they induce necrotic tissue damage. The secreted protease PrtV constitutes one virulence factors of V. cholerae. It is a metalloprotease belonging to the M6 peptidase family. The protein is expressed as an inactive, multidomain, 102 kDa pre-pro-protein that undergoes several N- and C-terminal modifications after which it is secreted as an intermediate variant of 81 kDa. After secretion from the bacteria, additional proteolytic steps occur to produce the 55 kDa active M6 metalloprotease. The domain arrangement of PrtV is likely to play an important role in these maturation steps, which are known to be regulated by calcium. However, the molecular mechanism by which calcium controls proteolysis is unknown. In this study, we report the atomic resolution crystal structure of the PKD1 domain from V. cholera PrtV (residues 755-838) determined at 1.1 Å. The structure reveals a previously uncharacterized Ca(2+)-binding site located near linker regions between domains. Conformational changes in the Ca(2+)-free and Ca(2+)-bound forms suggest that Ca(2+)-binding at the PKD1 domain controls domain linker flexibility, and plays an important structural role, providing stability to the PrtV protein.

  13. Receptor-binding domain of SARS-Cov spike protein: Soluble expression in purification and functional characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Chen; Lin Miao; Jia-Ming Li; Yan-Ying Li; Qing-Yu Zhu; Chang-Lin Zhou; Hong-Qing Fang; Hui-Peng Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To find a soluble and functional recombinant receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-Cov), and to analyze its receptor binding ability.METHODS: Three fusion tags (glutathione S-transferase,GST; thioredoxin, Trx; maltose-binding protein, MBP),which preferably contributes to increasing solubility and to facilitating the proper folding of heteroprotein, were used to acquire the soluble and functional expression of RBD protein in Escherichia coli( BL21( DE3 ) and Rosetta-gamiB(DE3) strains). The receptor binding ability of the purified soluble RBD protein was then detected by ELISA and flow cytometry assay.RESULTS: RBD of SARS-Cov spike protein was expressed as inclusion body when fused as TrxA tag form in both BL21 (DE3) and Rosetta-gamiB (DE3) under many different cultures and induction conditions. And there was no visible expression band on SDS-PAGE when RBD was expressed as MBP tagged form. Only GST tagged RBD was soluble expressed in BL21(DE3), and the protein was purified by AKTA Prime Chromatography system. The ELISA data anti-RBD mouse monoclonal antibody 1A5. Further flow cytometry assay demonstrated the high efficiency of RBD's binding ability to ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2)positive Vero E6 cell. And ACE2 was proved as a cellular receptor that meditated an initial-affinity interaction with SARS-Cov spike protein. The geometrical mean of GST and respectively.CONCLUSION: In this paper, we get sufficient soluble N terminal GST tagged RBD protein expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3); data from ELISA and flow cytometry assay demonstrate that the recombinant protein is functional and binding to ACE2 positive Vero E6 cell efficiently. And the recombinant RBD derived from E. coli can be used to developing subunit vaccine to block S protein binding with receptor and to neutralizing SARS-Cov infection.

  14. Biochemical and Immunological Characterization of Truncated Fragments of the Receptor-Binding Domains of C. difficile Toxin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hsin Huang

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen responsible for opportunistic infections in hospitals worldwide and is the main cause of antibiotic-associated pseudo-membranous colitis and diarrhea in humans. Clostridial toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB specifically bind to unknown glycoprotein(s on the surface of epithelial cells in the host intestine, disrupting the intestinal barrier and ultimately leading to acute inflammation and diarrhea. The C-terminal receptor-binding domain (RBD of TcdA, which is responsible for the initial binding of the toxin to host glycoproteins, has been predicted to contain 7 potential oligosaccharide-binding sites. To study the specific roles and functions of these 7 putative lectin-like binding regions, a consensus sequence of TcdA RBD derived from different C. difficile strains deposited in the NCBI protein database and three truncated fragments corresponding to the N-terminal (residues 1-411, middle (residues 296-701, and C-terminal portions (residues 524-911 of the RBD (F1, F2 and F3, respectively were designed and expressed in Escherichia coli. In this study, the recombinant RBD (rRBD and its truncated fragments were purified, characterized biologically and found to have the following similar properties: (a are capable of binding to the cell surface of both Vero and Caco-2 cells; (b possess Toll-like receptor agonist-like adjuvant activities that can activate dendritic cell maturation and increase the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines; and (c function as potent adjuvants in the intramuscular immunization route to enhance immune responses against weak immunogens. Although F1, F2 and F3 have similar repetitive amino acid sequences and putative oligosaccharide-binding domains, they do not possess the same biological and immunological properties: (i TcdA rRBD and its fragments bind to the cell surface, but only TcdA rRBD and F3 internalize into Vero cells within 15 min; (ii the fragments exhibit various levels

  15. The HhH2/NDD domain of the Drosophila Nod chromokinesin-like protein is required for binding to chromosomes in the oocyte nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Hawley, R Scott

    2005-12-01

    Nod is a chromokinesin-like protein that plays a critical role in segregating achiasmate chromosomes during female meiosis. The C-terminal half of the Nod protein contains two putative DNA-binding domains. The first of these domains, known as the HMGN domain, consists of three tandemly repeated high-mobility group N motifs. This domain was previously shown to be both necessary and sufficient for binding of the C-terminal half of Nod to mitotic chromosomes in embryos. The second putative DNA-binding domain, denoted HhH(2)/NDD, is a helix-hairpin-helix(2)/Nod-like DNA-binding domain. Although the HhH(2)/NDD domain is not required or sufficient for chromosome binding in embryos, several well-characterized nod mutations have been mapped in this domain. To characterize the role of the HhH(2)/NDD domain in mediating Nod function, we created a series of UAS-driven transgene constructs capable of expressing either a wild-type Nod-GFP fusion protein or proteins in which the HhH(2)/NDD domain had been altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Although wild-type Nod-GFP localizes to the oocyte chromosomes and rescues the segregation defect in nod mutant oocytes, two of three proteins carrying mutants in the HhH(2)/NDD domain fail to either rescue the nod mutant phenotype or bind to oocyte chromosomes. However, these mutant proteins do bind to the polytene chromosomes in nurse-cell nuclei and enter the oocyte nucleus. Thus, even though the HhH(2)/NDD domain is not essential for chromosome binding in other cell types, it is required for chromosome binding in the oocyte. These HhH(2)/NDD mutants also block the localization of Nod to the posterior pole of stage 9-10A oocytes, a process that is thought to facilitate the interaction of Nod with the plus ends of microtubules (Cui et al. 2005). This observation suggests that the Nod HhH2/NDD domain may play other roles in addition to binding Nod to meiotic chromosomes.

  16. Impact of the [delta]F508 Mutation in First Nucleotide-binding Domain of Human Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator on Domain Folding and Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Hal A.; Zhao, Xun; Wang, Chi; Sauder, J. Michael; Rooney, Isabelle; Noland, Brian W.; Lorimer, Don; Kearins, Margaret C.; Conners, Kris; Condon, Brad; Maloney, Peter C.; Guggino, William B.; Hunt, John F.; Emtage, Spencer (SG); (Columbia); (JHU)

    2010-07-19

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), commonly the deletion of residue Phe-508 (DeltaF508) in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), which results in a severe reduction in the population of functional channels at the epithelial cell surface. Previous studies employing incomplete NBD1 domains have attributed this to aberrant folding of DeltaF508 NBD1. We report structural and biophysical studies on complete human NBD1 domains, which fail to demonstrate significant changes of in vitro stability or folding kinetics in the presence or absence of the DeltaF508 mutation. Crystal structures show minimal changes in protein conformation but substantial changes in local surface topography at the site of the mutation, which is located in the region of NBD1 believed to interact with the first membrane spanning domain of CFTR. These results raise the possibility that the primary effect of DeltaF508 is a disruption of proper interdomain interactions at this site in CFTR rather than interference with the folding of NBD1. Interestingly, increases in the stability of NBD1 constructs are observed upon introduction of second-site mutations that suppress the trafficking defect caused by the DeltaF508 mutation, suggesting that these suppressors might function indirectly by improving the folding efficiency of NBD1 in the context of the full-length protein. The human NBD1 structures also solidify the understanding of CFTR regulation by showing that its two protein segments that can be phosphorylated both adopt multiple conformations that modulate access to the ATPase active site and functional interdomain interfaces.

  17. [Cloning and expression of a single human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable domain with vascular endothelial growth factor binding activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Liu, Siguo; Wu, Yi; Zili, M; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Jianquan; Cheng, Guoxiang

    2010-11-01

    In the application of therapeutic antibodies, large molecular weight of antibodies is always a problem that prevents them from penetrating into tissues or binding to antigenic determinants. To overcome this problem, we investigated the function of the heavy chain variable domain of a monoclonal anti-VEGF human IgM antibody derived from the Five-Feature Translocus Mice. We cloned the cDNA of the heavy chain variable domain, which was then inserted into pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification and renaturation of the denatured recombinant protein, we obtained a 16 kDa antibody fragment, which is named as rhVVH. By immunoassaying its VEGF-binding capability in vitro, we proved that rhVVH retains this activity as the complete IgM. Importantly, rhVVH is shown to inhibit the HUVEC cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results indicate that the single heavy chain variable domain might inherit part of the biological function of the complete IgM antibody, which provided a valuable potential in further research on antibody miniaturisation.

  18. The SMAD-binding domain of SKI: a hotspot for de novo mutations causing Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Dorien; Doyle, Alexander J; Oswald, Gretchen; Sparks, Elizabeth; Myers, Loretha; Willems, Patrick J; Mansour, Sahar; Simpson, Michael A; Frysira, Helena; Maat-Kievit, Anneke; Van Minkelen, Rick; Hoogeboom, Jeanette M; Mortier, Geert R; Titheradge, Hannah; Brueton, Louise; Starr, Lois; Stark, Zornitza; Ockeloen, Charlotte; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Blair, Ed; Hobson, Emma; Hurst, Jane; Maystadt, Isabelle; Destrée, Anne; Girisha, Katta M; Miller, Michelle; Dietz, Harry C; Loeys, Bart; Van Laer, Lut

    2015-02-01

    Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is a rare, systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by craniofacial, skeletal, and cardiovascular manifestations that show a significant overlap with the features observed in the Marfan (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). A distinguishing observation in SGS patients is the presence of intellectual disability, although not all patients in this series present this finding. Recently, SGS was shown to be due to mutations in the SKI gene, encoding the oncoprotein SKI, a repressor of TGFβ activity. Here, we report eight recurrent and three novel SKI mutations in eleven SGS patients. All were heterozygous missense mutations located in the R-SMAD binding domain, except for one novel in-frame deletion affecting the DHD domain. Adding our new findings to the existing data clearly reveals a mutational hotspot, with 73% (24 out of 33) of the hitherto described unrelated patients having mutations in a stretch of five SKI residues (from p.(Ser31) to p.(Pro35)). This implicates that the initial molecular testing could be focused on mutation analysis of the first half of exon 1 of SKI. As the majority of the known mutations are located in the R-SMAD binding domain of SKI, our study further emphasizes the importance of TGFβ signaling in the pathogenesis of SGS.

  19. Improving the glycosyltransferase activity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens glycogen synthase by fusion of N-terminal starch binding domains (SBDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Mariana; Wayllace, Nahuel Z; Valdez, Hugo A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Busi, María V

    2013-10-01

    Glycogen and starch, the major storage carbohydrate in most living organisms, result mainly from the action of starch or glycogen synthases (SS or GS, respectively, EC 2.4.1.21). SSIII from Arabidopsis thaliana is an SS isoform with a particular modular organization: the C-terminal highly conserved glycosyltransferase domain is preceded by a unique specific region (SSIII-SD) which contains three in tandem starch binding domains (SBDs, named D1, D2 and D3) characteristic of polysaccharide degrading enzymes. N-terminal SBDs have a probed regulatory role in SSIII activity, showing starch binding ability and modulating the catalytic properties of the enzyme. On the other hand, GS from Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a simple primary structure organization, characterized only by the highly conserved glycosyltransferase domain and lacking SBDs. To further investigate the functional role of A. thaliana SSIII-SD, three chimeric proteins were constructed combining the SBDs from A. thaliana with the GS from A. tumefaciens. Recombinant proteins were expressed in and purified to homogeneity from Escherichia coli cells in order to be kinetically characterized. Furthermore, we tested the ability to restore in vivo glycogen biosynthesis in transformed E. coli glgA(-) cells, deficient in GS. Results show that the D3-GS chimeric enzyme showed increased capacity of glycogen synthesis in vivo with minor changes in its kinetics parameters compared to GS.

  20. Ephemeral protein binding to DNA shapes stable nuclear bodies and chromatin domains

    CERN Document Server

    Brackley, C A; Michieletto, D; Mouvet, F; Cook, P R; Marenduzzo, D

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy reveals that the contents of many (membrane-free) nuclear "bodies" exchange rapidly with the soluble pool whilst the underlying structure persists; such observations await a satisfactory biophysical explanation. To shed light on this, we perform large-scale Brownian dynamics simulations of a chromatin fiber interacting with an ensemble of (multivalent) DNA-binding proteins; these proteins switch between two states -- active (binding) and inactive (non-binding). This system provides a model for any DNA-binding protein that can be modified post-translationally to change its affinity for DNA (e.g., like the phosphorylation of a transcription factor). Due to this out-of-equilibrium process, proteins spontaneously assemble into clusters of self-limiting size, as individual proteins in a cluster exchange with the soluble pool with kinetics like those seen in photo-bleaching experiments. This behavior contrasts sharply with that exhibited by "equilibrium", or non-switching, proteins that exis...

  1. A heme-binding domain controls regulation of ATP-dependent potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Mark J; Kapetanaki, Sofia M; Chernova, Tatyana; Jamieson, Andrew G; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme; Moody, Peter C E; Mitcheson, John S; Davies, Noel W; Schmid, Ralf; Raven, Emma L; Storey, Nina M

    2016-04-01

    Heme iron has many and varied roles in biology. Most commonly it binds as a prosthetic group to proteins, and it has been widely supposed and amply demonstrated that subtle variations in the protein structure around the heme, including the heme ligands, are used to control the reactivity of the metal ion. However, the role of heme in biology now appears to also include a regulatory responsibility in the cell; this includes regulation of ion channel function. In this work, we show that cardiac KATP channels are regulated by heme. We identify a cytoplasmic heme-binding CXXHX16H motif on the sulphonylurea receptor subunit of the channel, and mutagenesis together with quantitative and spectroscopic analyses of heme-binding and single channel experiments identified Cys628 and His648 as important for heme binding. We discuss the wider implications of these findings and we use the information to present hypotheses for mechanisms of heme-dependent regulation across other ion channels.

  2. How cholesterol interacts with membrane proteins: an exploration of cholesterol-binding sites including CRAC, CARC and tilted domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eFantini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells contains several types of lipids displaying high biochemical variability in both their apolar moiety (e.g. the acyl chain of glycerolipids and their polar head (e.g. the sugar structure of glycosphingolipids. Among these lipids, cholesterol is unique because its biochemical variability is almost exclusively restricted to the oxidation of its polar -OH group. Although generally considered the most rigid membrane lipid, cholesterol can adopt a broad range of conformations due to the flexibility of its isooctyl chain linked to the polycyclic sterane backbone. Moreover, cholesterol is an asymmetric molecule displaying a planar face and a rough  face. Overall, these structural features open up a number of possible interactions between cholesterol and membrane lipids and proteins, consistent with the prominent regulatory functions that this unique lipid exerts on membrane components. The aim of this review is to describe how cholesterol interacts with membrane lipids and proteins at the molecular/atomic scale, with special emphasis on transmembrane domains of proteins containing either the consensus cholesterol-binding motifs CRAC and CARC or a tilted peptide. Despite their broad structural diversity, all these domains bind cholesterol through common molecular mechanisms, leading to the identification of a subset of amino acid residues that are overrepresented in both linear and three-dimensional membrane cholesterol-binding sites.

  3. Hsp70 oligomerization is mediated by an interaction between the interdomain linker and the substrate-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco A Aprile

    Full Text Available Oligomerization in the heat shock protein (Hsp 70 family has been extensively documented both in vitro and in vivo, although the mechanism, the identity of the specific protein regions involved and the physiological relevance of this process are still unclear. We have studied the oligomeric properties of a series of human Hsp70 variants by means of nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy and quantitative size exclusion chromatography. Our results show that Hsp70 oligomerization takes place through a specific interaction between the interdomain linker of one molecule and the substrate-binding domain of a different molecule, generating dimers and higher-order oligomers. We have found that substrate binding shifts the oligomerization equilibrium towards the accumulation of functional monomeric protein, probably by sequestering the helical lid sub-domain needed to stabilize the chaperone: substrate complex. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role of chaperone oligomerization as a mechanism for regulating the availability of the active monomeric form of the chaperone and for the control of substrate binding and release.

  4. Targeting Cell Membrane Lipid Rafts by Stoichiometric Functionalization of Gold Nanoparticles With a Sphingolipid-Binding Domain Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramelle, David; Nieves, Daniel; Brun, Benjamin; Kraut, Rachel S; Fernig, David G

    2015-04-22

    A non-membrane protein-based nanoparticle agent for the tracking of lipid rafts on live cells is produced by stoichiometric functionalization of gold nanoparticles with a previously characterized sphingolipid- and cell membrane microdomain-binding domain peptide (SBD). The SBD peptide is inserted in a self-assembled monolayer of peptidol and alkane thiol ethylene glycol, on gold nanoparticles surface. The stoichiometric functionalization of nanoparticles with the SBD peptide, essential for single molecule tracking, is achieved by means of non-affinity nanoparticle purification. The SBD-nanoparticles have remarkable long-term resistance to electrolyte-induced aggregation and ligand-exchange and have no detectable non-specific binding to live cells. Binding and diffusion of SBD-nanoparticles bound to the membrane of live cells is measured by real-time photothermal microscopy and shows the dynamics of sphingolipid-enriched microdomains on cells membrane, with evidence for clustering, splitting, and diffusion over time of the SBD-nanoparticle labeled membrane domains. The monofunctionalized SBD-nanoparticle is a promising targeting agent for the tracking of lipid rafts independently of their protein composition and the labelling requires no prior modification of the cells. This approach has potential for further functionalization of the particles to manipulate the organization of, or targeting to microdomains that control signaling events and thereby lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutics.

  5. Hsp70 Oligomerization Is Mediated by an Interaction between the Interdomain Linker and the Substrate-Binding Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Francesco A.; Dhulesia, Anne; Stengel, Florian; Roodveldt, Cintia; Benesch, Justin L. P.; Tortora, Paolo; Robinson, Carol V.; Salvatella, Xavier; Dobson, Christopher M.; Cremades, Nunilo

    2013-01-01

    Oligomerization in the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 family has been extensively documented both in vitro and in vivo, although the mechanism, the identity of the specific protein regions involved and the physiological relevance of this process are still unclear. We have studied the oligomeric properties of a series of human Hsp70 variants by means of nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy and quantitative size exclusion chromatography. Our results show that Hsp70 oligomerization takes place through a specific interaction between the interdomain linker of one molecule and the substrate-binding domain of a different molecule, generating dimers and higher-order oligomers. We have found that substrate binding shifts the oligomerization equilibrium towards the accumulation of functional monomeric protein, probably by sequestering the helical lid sub-domain needed to stabilize the chaperone: substrate complex. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role of chaperone oligomerization as a mechanism for regulating the availability of the active monomeric form of the chaperone and for the control of substrate binding and release. PMID:23840795

  6. Comparison of Ensemble and Single Molecule Methods for Particle Characterization and Binding Analysis of a PEGylated Single-Domain Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Lumelle A; Obenauer-Kutner, Linda; Kaur, Parminder; Yamniuk, Aaron P; Tamura, James; Jaffe, Neil; O'Mara, Brian W; Lindsay, Stuart; Doyle, Michael; Bryson, James

    2015-12-01

    Domain antibodies (dAbs) are single immunoglobulin domains that form the smallest functional unit of an antibody. This study investigates the behavior of these small proteins when covalently attached to the polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety that is necessary for extending the half-life of a dAb. The effect of the 40 kDa PEG on hydrodynamic properties, particle behavior, and receptor binding of the dAb has been compared by both ensemble solution and surface methods [light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), surface Plasmon resonance (SPR)] and single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods (topography, recognition imaging, and force microscopy). The large PEG dominates the properties of the dAb-PEG conjugate such as a hydrodynamic radius that corresponds to a globular protein over four times its size and a much reduced association rate. We have used AFM single-molecule studies to determine the mechanism of PEG-dependent reductions in the effectiveness of the dAb observed by SPR kinetic studies. Recognition imaging showed that all of the PEGylated dAb molecules are active, suggesting that some may transiently become inactive if PEG sterically blocks binding. This helps explain the disconnect between the SPR, determined kinetically, and the force microscopy and ITC results that demonstrated that PEG does not change the binding energy.

  7. Elucidating the domain architecture and functions of non-core RAG1: The capacity of a non-core zinc-binding domain to function in nuclear import and nucleic acid binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Shuying

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The repertoire of the antigen-binding receptors originates from the rearrangement of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genetic loci in a process known as V(DJ recombination. The initial site-specific DNA cleavage steps of this process are catalyzed by the lymphoid specific proteins RAG1 and RAG2. The majority of studies on RAG1 and RAG2 have focused on the minimal, core regions required for catalytic activity. Though not absolutely required, non-core regions of RAG1 and RAG2 have been shown to influence the efficiency and fidelity of the recombination reaction. Results Using a partial proteolysis approach in combination with bioinformatics analyses, we identified the domain boundaries of a structural domain that is present in the 380-residue N-terminal non-core region of RAG1. We term this domain the Central Non-core Domain (CND; residues 87-217. Conclusions We show how the CND alone, and in combination with other regions of non-core RAG1, functions in nuclear localization, zinc coordination, and interactions with nucleic acid. Together, these results demonstrate the multiple roles that the non-core region can play in the function of the full length protein.

  8. Structural Studies of the Alzheimer's Amyloid Precursor Protein Copper-Binding Domain Reveal How It Binds Copper Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, G.K.-W.; Adams, J.J.; Harris, H.H.; Boas, J.F.; Curtain, C.C.; Galatis, D.; Master, C.L.; Barnham, K.J.; McKinstry, W.J.; Cappai, R.; Parker, M.W.; /Sydney U.

    2007-07-09

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia. Amyloid {beta} peptide (A {beta}), generated by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is central to AD pathogenesis. APP can function as a metalloprotein and modulate copper (Cu) transport, presumably via its extracellular Cu-binding domain (CuBD). Cu binding to the CuBD reduces A{beta} levels, suggesting that a Cu mimetic may have therapeutic potential. We describe here the atomic structures of apo CuBD from three crystal forms and found they have identical Cu-binding sites despite the different crystal lattices. The structure of Cu[2+]-bound CuBD reveals that the metal ligands are His147, His151, Tyrl68 and two water molecules, which are arranged in a square pyramidal geometry. The site resembles a Type 2 non-blue Cu center and is supported by electron paramagnetic resonance and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies. A previous study suggested that Met170 might be a ligand but we suggest that this residue plays a critical role as an electron donor in CuBDs ability to reduce Cu ions. The structure of Cu[+]-bound CuBD is almost identical to the Cu[2+]-bound structure except for the loss of one of the water ligands. The geometry of the site is unfavorable for Cu[+], thus providing a mechanism by which CuBD could readily transfer Cu ions to other proteins.

  9. IAPs contain an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin-binding domain that regulates NF-kappaB as well as cell survival and oncogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Darding, Maurice; Miasari, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to target proteins influences various cellular processes, including DNA repair, NF-kappaB signalling and cell survival. The most common mode of regulation by ubiquitin-conjugation involves specialized ubiquitin-binding proteins that bind to ubiquitylated...... found that the UBA domain is essential for the oncogenic potential of cIAP1, to maintain endothelial cell survival and to protect cells from TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the UBA domain is required for XIAP and cIAP2-MALT1 to activate NF-kappaB. Our data suggest that the UBA domain of cIAP2......-MALT1 stimulates NF-kappaB signalling by binding to polyubiquitylated NEMO. Significantly, 98% of all cIAP2-MALT1 fusion proteins retain the UBA domain, suggesting that ubiquitin-binding contributes to the oncogenic potential of cIAP2-MALT1 in MALT lymphoma. Our data identify IAPs as ubiquitin...

  10. Structure of the second RRM domain of Nrd1, a fission yeast MAPK target RNA binding protein, and implication for its RNA recognition and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Ayaho; Kanaba, Teppei [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minamiosawa 1-1, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Satoh, Ryosuke [Institute of Microbial Chemistry, 3-14-23 Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku 141-0021, Tokyo (Japan); Fujiwara, Toshinobu [Institute of Microbial Chemistry, 3-14-23 Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku 141-0021, Tokyo (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3-1 Tanabe-dori, Mizuho-ku,Nagoya 467-8603 (Japan); Ito, Yutaka [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minamiosawa 1-1, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Sugiura, Reiko [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacogenomics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Mishima, Masaki, E-mail: mishima-masaki@tmu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minamiosawa 1-1, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Solution structure of the second RRM of Nrd1 was determined. •RNA binding site of the second RRM was estimated. •Regulatory mechanism of RNA binding by phosphorylation is discussed. -- Abstract: Negative regulator of differentiation 1 (Nrd1) is known as a negative regulator of sexual differentiation in fission yeast. Recently, it has been revealed that Nrd1 also regulates cytokinesis, in which physical separation of the cell is achieved by a contractile ring comprising many proteins including actin and myosin. Cdc4, a myosin II light chain, is known to be required for cytokinesis. Nrd1 binds and stabilizes Cdc4 mRNA, and thereby suppressing the cytokinesis defects of the cdc4 mutants. Interestingly, Pmk1 MAPK phosphorylates Nrd1, resulting in markedly reduced RNA binding activity. Furthermore, Nrd1 localizes to stress granules in response to various stresses, and Pmk1 phosphorylation enhances the localization. Nrd1 consists of four RRM domains, although the mechanism by which Pmk1 regulates the RNA binding activity of Nrd1 is unknown. In an effort to delineate the relationship between Nrd1 structure and function, we prepared each RNA binding domain of Nrd1 and examined RNA binding to chemically synthesized oligo RNA using NMR. The structure of the second RRM domain of Nrd1 was determined and the RNA binding site on the second RRM domain was mapped by NMR. A plausible mechanism pertaining to the regulation of RNA binding activity by phosphorylation is also discussed.

  11. Serine 77 in the PDZ domain of PICK1 is a protein kinase Cα phosphorylation site regulated by lipid membrane binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) contains an N-terminal protein binding PDZ domain and a C-terminal lipid binding BAR domain. PICK1 plays a key role in several physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms governing...... the activity of PICK1 itself. Here we show that PICK1 is a substrate in vitro both for PKCα (protein kinase Cα), as previously shown, and for CaMKIIα (Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα). By mutation of predicted phosphorylation sites, we identify Ser77 in the PDZ domain as a major phosphorylation...... for optimal phosphorylation. Binding of PKCα to the PICK1 PDZ domain was not required for phosphorylation, but a PDZ domain peptide ligand reduced the overall level of phosphorylation ~30%. The phosphomimic S77D reduced the extent of cytosolic clustering of eYFP-PICK1 in COS7 cells and thereby conceivably its...

  12. The role of Y84 on domain 1 and Y87 on domain 2 of Paragonimus westermani taurocyamine kinase: Insights on the substrate binding mechanism of a trematode phosphagen kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarilla, Blanca R; Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Uda, Kouji; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Acosta, Luz P; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    The two-domain taurocyamine kinase (TK) from Paragonimus westermani was suggested to have a unique substrate binding mechanism. We performed site-directed mutagenesis on each domain of this TK and compared the kinetic parameters Km(Tc) and Vmax with that of the wild-type to determine putative amino acids involved in substrate recognition and binding. Replacement of Y84 on domain 1 and Y87 on domain 2 with R resulted in the loss of activity for the substrate taurocyamine. Y84E mutant has a dramatic decrease in affinity and activity for taurocyamine while Y87E has completely lost catalytic activity. Substituting H and I on the said positions also resulted in significant changes in activity. Mutation of the residues A59 on the GS region of domain 1 also caused significant decrease in affinity and activity while mutation on the equivalent position on domain 2 resulted in complete loss of activity.

  13. Multiple actin binding domains of Ena/VASP proteins determine actin network stiffening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Brian S; van der Meulen, Stef; Noguera, Philippe; Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; Plastino, Julie; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2012-11-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (Ena/VASP) is an actin binding protein, important for actin dynamics in motile cells and developing organisms. Though VASP's main activity is the promotion of barbed end growth, it has an F-actin binding site and can form tetramers, and so could additionally play a role in actin crosslinking and bundling in the cell. To test this activity, we performed rheology of reconstituted actin networks in the presence of wild-type VASP or mutants lacking the ability to tetramerize or to bind G-actin and/or F-actin. We show that increasing amounts of wild-type VASP increase network stiffness up to a certain point, beyond which stiffness actually decreases with increasing VASP concentration. The maximum stiffness is 10-fold higher than for pure actin networks. Confocal microscopy shows that VASP forms clustered actin filament bundles, explaining the reduction in network elasticity at high VASP concentration. Removal of the tetramerization site results in significantly reduced bundling and bundle clustering, indicating that VASP's flexible tetrameric structure causes clustering. Removing either the F-actin or the G-actin binding site diminishes VASP's effect on elasticity, but does not eliminate it. Mutating the F-actin and G-actin binding site together, or mutating the F-actin binding site and saturating the G-actin binding site with monomeric actin, eliminates VASP's ability to increase network stiffness. We propose that, in the cell, VASP crosslinking confers only moderate increases in linear network elasticity, and unlike other crosslinkers, VASP's network stiffening activity may be tuned by the local concentration of monomeric actin.

  14. Using molecular principal axes for structural comparison: determining the tertiary changes of a FAB antibody domain induced by antigenic binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman B David

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of different protein x-ray structures has previously been made in a number of different ways; for example, by visual examination, by differences in the locations of secondary structures, by explicit superposition of structural elements, e.g. α-carbon atom locations, or by procedures that utilize a common symmetry element or geometrical feature of the structures to be compared. Results A new approach is applied to determine the structural changes that an antibody protein domain experiences upon its interaction with an antigenic target. These changes are determined with the use of two different, however comparable, sets of principal axes that are obtained by diagonalizing the second-order tensors that yield the moments-of-geometry as well as an ellipsoidal characterization of domain shape, prior to and after interaction. Determination of these sets of axes for structural comparison requires no internal symmetry features of the domains, depending solely upon their representation in three-dimensional space. This representation may involve atomic, Cα, or residue centroid coordinates. The present analysis utilizes residue centroids. When the structural changes are minimal, the principal axes of the domains, prior to and after interaction, are essentially comparable and consequently may be used for structural comparison. When the differences of the axes cannot be neglected, but are nevertheless slight, a smaller relatively invariant substructure of the domains may be utilized for comparison. The procedure yields two distance metrics for structural comparison. First, the displacements of the residue centroids due to antigenic binding, referenced to the ellipsoidal principal axes, are noted. Second, changes in the ellipsoidal distances with respect to the non-interacting structure provide a direct measure of the spatial displacements of the residue centroids, towards either the interior or exterior of the domain

  15. Dishevelled binds the Discs large 'Hook' domain to activate GukHolder-dependent spindle positioning in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Garcia

    Full Text Available Communication between cortical cell polarity cues and the mitotic spindle ensures proper orientation of cell divisions within complex tissues. Defects in mitotic spindle positioning have been linked to various developmental disorders and have recently emerged as a potential contributor to tumorigenesis. Despite the importance of this process to human health, the molecular mechanisms that regulate spindle orientation are not fully understood. Moreover, it remains unclear how diverse cortical polarity complexes might cooperate to influence spindle positioning. We and others have demonstrated spindle orientation roles for Dishevelled (Dsh, a key regulator of planar cell polarity, and Discs large (Dlg, a conserved apico-basal cell polarity regulator, effects which were previously thought to operate within distinct molecular pathways. Here we identify a novel direct interaction between the Dsh-PDZ domain and the alternatively spliced "I3-insert" of the Dlg-Hook domain, thus establishing a potential convergent Dsh/Dlg pathway. Furthermore, we identify a Dlg sequence motif necessary for the Dsh interaction that shares homology to the site of Dsh binding in the Frizzled receptor. Expression of Dsh enhanced Dlg-mediated spindle positioning similar to deletion of the Hook domain. This Dsh-mediated activation was dependent on the Dlg-binding partner, GukHolder (GukH. These results suggest that Dsh binding may regulate core interdomain conformational dynamics previously described for Dlg. Together, our results identify Dlg as an effector of Dsh signaling and demonstrate a Dsh-mediated mechanism for the activation of Dlg/GukH-dependent spindle positioning. Cooperation between these two evolutionarily-conserved cell polarity pathways could have important implications to both the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in animals.

  16. Mass spectrometric identification of proteins that interact through specific domains of the poly(A) binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Roy; Denis, Clyde L; Zhang, Chongxu; Nielsen, Maria E O; Chiang, Yueh-Chin; Kierkegaard, Morten; Wang, Xin; Lee, Darren J; Andersen, Jens S; Yao, Gang

    2012-09-01

    Poly(A) binding protein (PAB1) is involved in a number of RNA metabolic functions in eukaryotic cells and correspondingly is suggested to associate with a number of proteins. We have used mass spectrometric analysis to identify 55 non-ribosomal proteins that specifically interact with PAB1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because many of these factors may associate only indirectly with PAB1 by being components of the PAB1-mRNP structure, we additionally conducted mass spectrometric analyses on seven metabolically defined PAB1 deletion derivatives to delimit the interactions between these proteins and PAB1. These latter analyses identified 13 proteins whose associations with PAB1 were reduced by deleting one or another of PAB1's defined domains. Included in this list of 13 proteins were the translation initiation factors eIF4G1 and eIF4G2, translation termination factor eRF3, and PBP2, all of whose previously known direct interactions with specific PAB1 domains were either confirmed, delimited, or extended. The remaining nine proteins that interacted through a specific PAB1 domain were CBF5, SLF1, UPF1, CBC1, SSD1, NOP77, yGR250c, NAB6, and GBP2. In further study, UPF1, involved in nonsense-mediated decay, was confirmed to interact with PAB1 through the RRM1 domain. We additionally established that while the RRM1 domain of PAB1 was required for UPF1-induced acceleration of deadenylation during nonsense-mediated decay, it was not required for the more critical step of acceleration of mRNA decapping. These results begin to identify the proteins most likely to interact with PAB1 and the domains of PAB1 through which these contacts are made.

  17. Common exonic missense variants in the C2 domain of the human KIBRA protein modify lipid binding and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duning, K; Wennmann, D O; Bokemeyer, A; Reissner, C; Wersching, H; Thomas, C; Buschert, J; Guske, K; Franzke, V; Flöel, A; Lohmann, H; Knecht, S; Brand, S-M; Pöter, M; Rescher, U; Missler, M; Seelheim, P; Pröpper, C; Boeckers, T M; Makuch, L; Huganir, R; Weide, T; Brand, E; Pavenstädt, H; Kremerskothen, J

    2013-06-18

    The human KIBRA gene has been linked to human cognition through a lead intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs17070145) that is associated with episodic memory performance and the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unknown how this relates to the function of the KIBRA protein. Here, we identified two common missense SNPs (rs3822660G/T [M734I], rs3822659T/G [S735A]) in exon 15 of the human KIBRA gene to affect cognitive performance, and to be in almost complete linkage disequilibrium with rs17070145. The identified SNPs encode variants of the KIBRA C2 domain with distinct Ca(2+) dependent binding preferences for monophosphorylated phosphatidylinositols likely due to differences in the dynamics and folding of the lipid-binding pocket. Our results further implicate the KIBRA protein in higher brain function and provide direction to the cellular pathways involved.

  18. Common exonic missense variants in the C2 domain of the human KIBRA protein modify lipid binding and cognitive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duning, K; Wennmann, D O; Bokemeyer, A; Reissner, C; Wersching, H; Thomas, C; Buschert, J; Guske, K; Franzke, V; Flöel, A; Lohmann, H; Knecht, S; Brand, S-M; Pöter, M; Rescher, U; Missler, M; Seelheim, P; Pröpper, C; Boeckers, T M; Makuch, L; Huganir, R; Weide, T; Brand, E; Pavenstädt, H; Kremerskothen, J

    2013-01-01

    The human KIBRA gene has been linked to human cognition through a lead intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs17070145) that is associated with episodic memory performance and the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unknown how this relates to the function of the KIBRA protein. Here, we identified two common missense SNPs (rs3822660G/T [M734I], rs3822659T/G [S735A]) in exon 15 of the human KIBRA gene to affect cognitive performance, and to be in almost complete linkage disequilibrium with rs17070145. The identified SNPs encode variants of the KIBRA C2 domain with distinct Ca2+ dependent binding preferences for monophosphorylated phosphatidylinositols likely due to differences in the dynamics and folding of the lipid-binding pocket. Our results further implicate the KIBRA protein in higher brain function and provide direction to the cellular pathways involved. PMID:23778582

  19. Crystal structure of the FK506 binding domain of human FKBP25 in complex with FK506.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ajit; Rajan, Sreekanth; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2016-04-01

    Human FKBP25 (hFKBP25) is a nuclear immunophilin and interacts with several nuclear proteins, hence involving in many nuclear events. Similar to other FKBPs, FK506 binding domain (FKBD) of hFKBP25 also binds to immunosuppressive drugs such as rapamycin and FK506, albeit with a lower affinity for the latter. The molecular basis underlying this difference in affinity could not be addressed due to the lack of the crystal structure of hFKBD25 in complex with FK506. Here, we report the crystal structure of hFKBD25 in complex with FK506 determined at 1.8 Å resolution and its comparison with the hFKBD25-rapamycin complex, bringing out the microheterogeneity in the mode of interaction of these drugs, which could possibly explain the lower affinity for FK506.

  20. Homology modelling of the core domain of the endogenous lectin comitin: structural basis for its mannose-binding specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, A; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Rougé, P

    1999-03-01

    The N-terminal core domain of comitin from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum has been modelled from the X-ray coordinates of the monocot mannose-binding lectin from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis). Docking experiments performed on the three-dimensional model showed that two of the three mannose-binding sites of the comitin monomer are functional. They are located at both ends of the comitin dimer whereas the actin-interacting region occurs in the central hinge region where both monomers are non covalently associated. This distribution is fully consistent with the bifunctional character of comitin which is believed to link the Golgi vesicles exhibiting mannosylated membrane glycans to the actin cytoskeleton in the cell.

  1. Crystal Structure of 12-Lipoxygenase Catalytic-Domain-Inhibitor Complex Identifies a Substrate-Binding Channel for Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shu; Mueser, Timothy C.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Funk, Jr., Max O. (Toledo); (Vanderbilt)

    2014-10-02

    Lipoxygenases are critical enzymes in the biosynthesis of families of bioactive lipids including compounds with important roles in the initiation and resolution of inflammation and in associated diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Crystals diffracting to high resolution (1.9 {angstrom}) were obtained for a complex between the catalytic domain of leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase and the isoform-specific inhibitor, 4-(2-oxapentadeca-4-yne)phenylpropanoic acid (OPP). In the three-dimensional structure of the complex, the inhibitor occupied a new U-shaped channel open at one end to the surface of the protein and extending past the redox-active iron site that is essential for catalysis. In models, the channel accommodated arachidonic acid, defining the binding site for the substrate of the catalyzed reaction. There was a void adjacent to the OPP binding site connecting to the surface of the enzyme and providing a plausible access channel for the other substrate, oxygen.

  2. Entropy-driven binding of opioid peptides induces a large domain motion in human dipeptidyl peptidase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Gustavo A; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Viertlmayr, Roland; Dong, Aiping; Binter, Alexandra; Abramic, Marija; Macheroux, Peter; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Gruber, Karl

    2012-04-24

    Opioid peptides are involved in various essential physiological processes, most notably nociception. Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is one of the most important enkephalin-degrading enzymes associated with the mammalian pain modulatory system. Here we describe the X-ray structures of human DPP III and its complex with the opioid peptide tynorphin, which rationalize the enzyme's substrate specificity and reveal an exceptionally large domain motion upon ligand binding. Microcalorimetric analyses point at an entropy-dominated process, with the release of water molecules from the binding cleft ("entropy reservoir") as the major thermodynamic driving force. Our results provide the basis for the design of specific inhibitors that enable the elucidation of the exact role of DPP III and the exploration of its potential as a target of pain intervention strategies.

  3. Structure of the RNA polymerase core-binding domain of sigma(54) reveals a likely conformational fracture point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunmi; Doucleff, Michaeleen; Wemmer, David E

    2009-07-03

    Transcription initiation by bacterial sigma(54)-RNA polymerase requires a conformational change of the holopolymerase-DNA complex, driven by an enhancer-binding protein. Although structures of the core polymerase and the more common sigma(70) factor have been determined, little is known about the structure of the sigma(54) variant. We report here the structure of an Aquifex aeolicus sigma(54) domain (residues 69-198), which binds core RNA polymerase. The structure is composed of two distinct subdomains held together by a small, conserved hydrophobic interface that appears to act as a fracture point in the structure. The N-terminal, four-helical subdomain has a negative surface and conserved residues that likely contact the core polymerase, while the C-terminal, three-helical bundle has a strongly positive patch that could contact DNA. Sequence conservation indicates that these structural features are conserved and are important for the role of sigma(54) in the polymerase complex.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary studies of the DNA-binding domain Za from ADAR1 complexed to left-handed DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, T; Shafer, K; Lowenhaupt, K; Hanlon, E; Herbert, A; Rich, A

    1999-07-01

    The proteolytically defined Z-DNA binding domain Za of human adenosine deaminase type 1 (hADAR1) has been crystallized in complex with the DNA oligomer d(TCGCGCG). The crystals were obtained from a solution containing ammonium sulfate as precipitating agent and belong to the tetragonal space group P4212. A complete diffraction data set has been collected to a resolution of 2.4 A. The unit-cell dimensions are a = b = 85.9, c = 71.3 A. A Raman spectrum of the complex indicates that the DNA in the complex adopts the left-handed Z conformation.

  5. Virus Spread and Immune Response Following Anterior Chamber Inoculation of HSV-1 Lacking the Beclin-Binding Domain (BBD)

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Ming; Covar, Jason; Zhang, Nancy Y.; Chen, Wen; Marshall, Brendan; Mo, Juan; Atherton, Sally S.

    2013-01-01

    The autophagy response induced by HSV-1 infection is antagonized by the Beclin-binding domain (BBD). The purpose of this study was to determine if lack of the BBD affects viral spread and immune response in the eyes and brain. Our results showed that lack of the BBD increases autophagy response and activation of NLRP3 imflammasome, which in turn induces a more rapid innate immune response mediated by macrophage/microglia and NK cells in the injected eye, limiting virus replication and retinal...

  6. The crystal structure of the signature domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein: implications for collagen, glycosaminoglycan and integrin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kemin; Duquette, Mark; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lawler, Jack

    2009-08-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), or thrombospondin-5 (TSP-5), is a secreted glycoprotein that is important for growth plate organization and function. Mutations in COMP cause two skeletal dysplasias, pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (EDM1). In this study, we determined the structure of a recombinant protein that contains the last epidermal growth factor repeat, the type 3 repeats and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of COMP to 3.15-A resolution limit by X-ray crystallography. The CTD is a beta-sandwich that is composed of 15 antiparallel beta-strands, and the type 3 repeats are a contiguous series of calcium binding sites that associate with the CTD at multiple points. The crystal packing reveals an exposed potential metal-ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) on one edge of the beta-sandwich that is common to all TSPs and may serve as a binding site for collagens and other ligands. Disease-causing mutations in COMP disrupt calcium binding, disulfide bond formation, intramolecular interactions, or sites for potential ligand binding. The structure presented here and its unique molecular packing in the crystal identify potential interactive sites for glycosaminoglycans, integrins, and collagens, which are key to cartilage structure and function.

  7. Mapping the structural and dynamical features of multiple p53 DNA binding domains: insights into loop 1 intrinsic dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Lukman

    Full Text Available The transcription factor p53 regulates cellular integrity in response to stress. p53 is mutated in more than half of cancerous cells, with a majority of the mutations localized to the DNA binding domain (DBD. In order to map the structural and dynamical features of the DBD, we carried out multiple copy molecular dynamics simulations (totaling 0.8 μs. Simulations show the loop 1 to be the most dynamic element among the DNA-contacting loops (loops 1-3. Loop 1 occupies two major conformational states: extended and recessed; the former but not the latter displays correlations in atomic fluctuations with those of loop 2 (~24 Å apart. Since loop 1 binds to the major groove whereas loop 2 binds to the minor groove of DNA, our results begin to provide some insight into the possible mechanism underpinning the cooperative nature of DBD binding to DNA. We propose (1 a novel mechanism underlying the dynamics of loop 1 and the possible tread-milling of p53 on DNA and (2 possible mutations on loop 1 residues to restore the transcriptional activity of an oncogenic mutation at a distant site.

  8. Azadirachtin interacts with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding domain of its receptors and inhibits TNF-induced biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Kumar, Pankaj; Nagarajaram, Hampathalu A; Manna, Sunil K

    2010-02-19

    The role of azadirachtin, an active component of a medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), on TNF-induced cell signaling in human cell lines was investigated. Azadirachtin blocks TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and also expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes such as adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase 2. Azadirachtin inhibits the inhibitory subunit of NF-kappaB (IkappaB alpha) phosphorylation and thereby its degradation and RelA (p65) nuclear translocation. It blocks IkappaB alpha kinase (IKK) activity ex vivo, but not in vitro. Surprisingly, azadirachtin blocks NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in transfected cells with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)2, TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), IKK, or p65, but not with TNFR, suggesting its effect is at the TNFR level. Azadirachtin blocks binding of TNF, but not IL-1, IL-4, IL-8, or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with its respective receptors. Anti-TNFR antibody or TNF protects azadirachtin-mediated down-regulation of TNFRs. Further, in silico data suggest that azadirachtin strongly binds in the TNF binding site of TNFR. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin modulates cell surface TNFRs thereby decreasing TNF-induced biological responses. Thus, azadirachtin exerts an anti-inflammatory response by a novel pathway, which may be beneficial for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  9. Structure of N-Terminal Domain of NPC1 Reveals Distinct Subdomains for Binding and Transfer of Cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyock Joo; Abi-Mosleh, Lina; Wang, Michael L.; Deisenhofer, Johann; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Infante, Rodney E.; (UTSMC)

    2010-09-21

    LDL delivers cholesterol to lysosomes by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Exit of cholesterol from lysosomes requires two proteins, membrane-bound Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) and soluble NPC2. NPC2 binds cholesterol with its isooctyl side chain buried and its 3{beta}-hydroxyl exposed. Here, we describe high-resolution structures of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NPC1 and complexes with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol. NPC1(NTD) binds cholesterol in an orientation opposite to NPC2: 3{beta}-hydroxyl buried and isooctyl side chain exposed. Cholesterol transfer from NPC2 to NPC1(NTD) requires reorientation of a helical subdomain in NPC1(NTD), enlarging the opening for cholesterol entry. NPC1 with point mutations in this subdomain (distinct from the binding subdomain) cannot accept cholesterol from NPC2 and cannot restore cholesterol exit from lysosomes in NPC1-deficient cells. We propose a working model wherein after lysosomal hydrolysis of LDL-cholesteryl esters, cholesterol binds NPC2, which transfers it to NPC1(NTD), reversing its orientation and allowing insertion of its isooctyl side chain into the outer lysosomal membranes.

  10. VAM-1: a new member of the MAGUK family binds to human Veli-1 through a conserved domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, T C; Marfatia, S M; Bryant, P J; Pack, S; Zhuang, Z; O'Brien, J E; Lin, L; Hanada, T; Chishti, A H

    2001-04-16

    The MAGUKs (membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologues) constitute a family of peripheral membrane proteins that function in tumor suppression and receptor clustering by forming multiprotein complexes containing distinct sets of transmembrane, cytoskeletal, and cytoplasmic signaling proteins. Here, we report the characterization of the human vam-1 gene that encodes a novel member of the p55 subfamily of MAGUKs. The complete cDNA sequence of VAM-1, tissue distribution of its mRNA, genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and Veli-1 binding properties are presented. The vam-1 gene is composed of 12 exons and spans approx. 115 kb. By fluorescence in situ hybridization the vam-1 gene was localized to 7p15-21, a chromosome region frequently disrupted in some human cancers. VAM-1 mRNA was abundant in human testis, brain, and kidney with lower levels detectable in other tissues. The primary structure of VAM-1, predicted from cDNA sequencing, consists of 540 amino acids including a single PDZ domain near the N-terminus, a central SH3 domain, and a C-terminal GUK (guanylate kinase-like) domain. Sequence alignment, heterologous transfection, GST pull-down experiments, and blot overlay assays revealed a conserved domain in VAM-1 that binds to Veli-1, the human homologue of the LIN-7 adaptor protein in Caenorhabditis. LIN-7 is known to play an essential role in the basolateral localization of the LET-23 tyrosine kinase receptor, by linking the receptor to LIN-2 and LIN-10 proteins. Our results therefore suggest that VAM-1 may function by promoting the assembly of a Veli-1 containing protein complex in neuronal as well as epithelial cells.

  11. Evolution of a novel subfamily of nuclear receptors with members that each contain two DNA binding domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hirohisa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear receptors (NRs are important transcriptional modulators in metazoans which regulate transcription through binding to the promoter region of their target gene by the DNA binding domain (DBD and activation or repression of mRNA synthesis through co-regulators bound to the ligand binding domain (LBD. NRs typically have a single DBD with a LBD. Results Three nuclear receptors named 2DBD-NRs, were identified from the flatworm Schistosoma mansoni that each possess a novel set of two DBDs in tandem with a LBD. They represent a novel NR modular structure: A/B-DBD-DBD-hinge-LBD. The 2DBD-NRs form a new subfamily of NRs, VII. By database mining, 2DBD-NR genes from other flatworm species (Schmidtea mediterranea and Dugesia japonica, from Mollusks (Lottia gigantean and from arthropods (Daphnia pulex were also identified. All 2DBD-NRs possess a P-box sequence of CEACKK in the first DBD, which is unique to 2DBD-NRs, and a P-box sequence of CEGCKG in the second DBD. Phylogenetic analyses of both DBD and ligand binding domain sequences showed that 2DBD-NR genes originate from a common two DBD-containing ancestor gene. A single 2DBD-NR orthologue was found in Arthropoda, Platyhelminths and Mollusca. Subsequent 2DBD-NR gene evolution in Mollusks and Platyhelminths involved gene duplication. Chromosome localization of S. mansoni 2DBD-NR genes by Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH suggests that 2DBD-NR genes duplicated on different chromosomes in the Platyhelminths. Dimerization of Sm2DBDα indicates that 2DBD-NRs may act as homodimers, suggesting either that two repeats of a half-site are necessary for each DBD of 2DBD-NRs to bind to its target gene, or that each 2DBD-NR can recognize multiple sites. Conclusion 2DBD-NRs share a common ancestor gene which possessed an extra DBD that likely resulted from a recombination event. After the split of the Arthropods, Mollusks and Platyhelminths, 2DBD-NR underwent a recent duplication in a

  12. Mutational analysis of the prohead binding domain of the large subunit of terminase, the bacteriophage lambda DNA packaging enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, A; Feiss, M

    1995-01-13

    Terminase, the DNA packaging enzyme of bacteriophage lambda, is made up of two subunits, gpNul and gpA, the products of the Nu1 and A genes. The activities of terminase include DNA binding, cos cleavage and prohead binding. Specificity domains within the structure of terminase have previously been defined by genetic studies of lambda-21 hybrids. The prohead binding domain of terminase is localized to the last 32 amino acid residues of gpA. Mutations in the prohead binding domain of gpA were constructed by introducing the corresponding amino acids from gp2, the gpA analog of bacteriophage 21. The last five residues of gpA can be replaced with little effect on the burst size of lambda. A phage with a replacement of the last six residues of gpA with the corresponding residues of gp2 was unable to form plaques, indicating that the sixth-to-last residues of gpA is crucial for prohead binding. Site-specific mutagenesis of the sixth-to-last position of gpA indicated that the sixth-to-last residue of gpA must be hydrophobic, of the seven amino acids tested, only isoleucine and valine can substitute for leucine at this position. Although the last five residues of gp2 were functional when they replaced the last five residues of gpA, two results indicated that the last five residues of gpA functioned better than the corresponding residues of gp2. First, the presence of a valine residue at the sixth-to-last position of gpA allowed plaque formation, whereas replacement of the last six residues of gpA with those of gp2, which substitutes a valine residue at the sixth-to-last position, was lethal. The second set of results indicating that the last five residues of gpA function better than the gp2 residues were obtained by study of revertants of lethal substitution mutations. In constructing the replacement mutations, a short linker was inserted into the C terminus of the A gene; this insertion created a short duplication of the end of the A gene, so that the normal C

  13. Affinity between TBC1D4 (AS160 phosphotyrosine-binding domain and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase cytoplasmic domain measured by isothermal titration calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangYoun Park*, Keon Young Kim, Sunmin Kim & Young Seok Yu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of circulating glucose into the cells happens via the insulin-mediated signalling pathway, which translocates the glucosetransporter 4 (GLUT4 vesicles from the intracellular compartmentto the plasma membrane. RabㆍGTPases are involvedin this vesicle trafficking, where RabㆍGTPase-activatingproteins (RabGAP enhance the GTP to GDP hydrolysis.TBC1D4 (AS160 and TBC1D1 are functional RabGAPs in theadipocytes and the skeletonal myocytes, respectively. Theseproteins contain two phosphotyrosine-binding domains (PTBsat the amino-terminus of the catalytic RabGAP domain. Thesecond PTB has been shown to interact with the cytoplasmicregion of the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP of theGLUT4 vesicle. In this study, we quantitatively measured the∼μM affinity (KD between TBC1D4 PTB and IRAP using isothermaltitration calorimetry, and further showed that IRAP residues1-49 are the major region mediating this interaction. Wealso demonstrated that the IRAP residues 1-15 are necessarybut not sufficient for the PTB interaction.

  14. A novel role for fibronectin type I domain in the regulation of human hematopoietic cell adhesiveness through binding to follistatin domains of FLRG and follistatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguer-Satta, Véronique; Forissier, Stéphanie; Bartholin, Laurent; Martel, Sylvie; Jeanpierre, Sandrine; Bachelard, Elodie; Rimokh, Ruth

    2006-02-15

    FLRG and follistatin belong to the family of follistatin proteins involved in the regulation of various biological effects, such as hematopoiesis, mediated by their binding to activin and BMP, both members of the TGFbeta family. To further characterize the function of FLRG, we searched for other possible functional partners using a yeast two-hybrid screen. We identified human fibronectin as a new partner for both FLRG and follistatin. We also demonstrated that their physical interaction is mediated by type I motifs of fibronectin and follistatin domains. We then analyzed the biological consequences of these protein interactions on the regulation of hematopoiesis. For the first time, we associated a biological effect with the regulation of human hematopoietic cell adhesiveness of both the type I motifs of fibronectin and the follistatin domains of FLRG and follistatin. Indeed, we observed a significant and specific dose-dependent increase of cell adhesion to fibronectin in the presence of FLRG or follistatin, using either a human hematopoietic cell line or primary cells. In particular, we observed a significantly increased adhesion of immature hematopoietic precursors (CFC, LTC-IC). Altogether these results highlight a new mechanism by which FLRG and follistatin regulate human hematopoiesis.

  15. Existence of different but overlapping IgG- and IgM-binding sties on the globular domain of human C1q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatarova, A.S.; Rouseva, M.; Roumenina, L.T.;

    2006-01-01

    C1q is the first subcomponent of the classical complement pathway that binds antigen-bound IgG or IgM and initiates complement activation via association of serine proteases C1r and C1s. The globular domain of C1q (gC1q), which is the ligand-recognition domain, is a heterotrimeric structure compo...

  16. Disease-associated mutations in the actin-binding domain of filamin B cause cytoplasmic focal accumulations correlating with disease severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Philip B; Morgan, Tim; Alanay, Yasemin;

    2012-01-01

    repeats surrounding the flexible hinge 1 region of the FLNB rod domain. Despite being positioned in domains that bind actin, it is unknown if these mutations perturb cytoskeletal structure. Expression of several full-length FLNB constructs containing ABD mutations resulted in the appearance of actin...

  17. Can any lessons be learned from the ambiguous glycan binding of PfEMP1 domains?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Nielsen, Morten A; Salanti, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulating in the placenta and has dire consequences for both mother and child. The multi-domain antigen VAR2CSA confers specific adhesion of IEs to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) in the placenta, an...

  18. Ligand binding to the PDZ domains of postsynaptic density protein 95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toto, Angelo; Pedersen, Søren W; Karlsson, O Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Cellular scaffolding and signalling is generally governed by multidomain proteins, where each domain has a particular function. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) is involved in synapse formation and is a typical example of such a multidomain protein. Protein-protein interactions of PSD-95 ...

  19. The ligand-binding domain of the cell surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ploug, M; Patthy, L;

    1991-01-01

    part of the intact receptor, probably including the whole sequence 1-87, and contained N-linked carbohydrate. After detergent phase separation in the Triton X-114 system, the fragment was present in the water phase where its binding activity could be demonstrated in the absence of the rest...... applications in interfering with cell-surface plasmin-mediated proteolysis....

  20. NMR studies of the GTP/GDP binding domain of translation initiation factor IF2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tishchenko, Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2005-01-01

    Translation Initiation Factor 2 (IF2) plays an important role in the initiation stage of bacterial protein biosynthesis. This protein binds both fMet-tRNA and 30S ribosomal subunit in the presence of GTP, and it stimulates the formation of the 70S initiation complex. The NMR samples of the 15N-, 15N

  1. Assembly of the central domain of the 30S ribosomal subunit: roles for the primary binding ribosomal proteins S15 and S8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Indu; Culver, Gloria M

    2003-07-01

    Assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit occurs in a highly ordered and sequential manner. The ordered addition of ribosomal proteins to the growing ribonucleoprotein particle is initiated by the association of primary binding proteins. These proteins bind specifically and independently to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Two primary binding proteins, S8 and S15, interact exclusively with the central domain of 16S rRNA. Binding of S15 to the central domain results in a conformational change in the RNA and is followed by the ordered assembly of the S6/S18 dimer, S11 and finally S21 to form the platform of the 30S subunit. In contrast, S8 is not part of this major platform assembly branch. Of the remaining central domain binding proteins, only S21 association is slightly dependent on S8. Thus, although S8 is a primary binding protein that extensively contacts the central domain, its role in assembly of this domain remains unclear. Here, we used directed hydroxyl radical probing from four unique positions on S15 to assess organization of the central domain of 16S rRNA as a consequence of S8 association. Hydroxyl radical probing of Fe(II)-S15/16S rRNA and Fe(II)-S15/S8/16S rRNA ribonucleoprotein particles reveal changes in the 16S rRNA environment of S15 upon addition of S8. These changes occur predominantly in helices 24 and 26 near previously identified S8 binding sites. These S8-dependent conformational changes are consistent with 16S rRNA folding in complete 30S subunits. Thus, while S8 binding is not absolutely required for assembly of the platform, it appears to affect significantly the 16S rRNA environment of S15 by influencing central domain organization.

  2. Structures of the activator of K. pneumonia biofilm formation, MrkH, indicates PilZ domains involved in c-di-GMP and DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Maria A; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of Klebsiella pneumonia is linked to the bacteria's ability to form biofilms. Mannose-resistant Klebsiella-like (Mrk) hemagglutinins are critical for K pneumonia biofilm development, and the expression of the genes encoding these proteins is activated by a 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP)-regulated transcription factor, MrkH. To gain insight into MrkH function, we performed structural and biochemical analyses. Data revealed MrkH to be a monomer with a two-domain architecture consisting of a PilZ C-domain connected to an N domain that unexpectedly also harbors a PilZ-like fold. Comparison of apo- and c-di-GMP-bound MrkH structures reveals a large 138° interdomain rotation that is induced by binding an intercalated c-di-GMP dimer. c-di-GMP interacts with PilZ C-domain motifs 1 and 2 (RxxxR and D/NxSxxG) and a newly described c-di-GMP-binding motif in the MrkH N domain. Strikingly, these c-di-GMP-binding motifs also stabilize an open state conformation in apo MrkH via contacts from the PilZ motif 1 to residues in the C-domain motif 2 and the c-di-GMP-binding N-domain motif. Use of the same regions in apo structure stabilization and c-di-GMP interaction allows distinction between the states. Indeed, domain reorientation by c-di-GMP complexation with MrkH, which leads to a highly compacted structure, suggests a mechanism by which the protein is activated to bind DNA. To our knowledge, MrkH represents the first instance of specific DNA binding mediated by PilZ domains. The MrkH structures also pave the way for the rational design of inhibitors that target K pneumonia biofilm formation.

  3. AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domain deficient mice develop normally but have an abnormal response to β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Spindler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA and D (PKD and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  4. The 1.7 A X-ray crystal structure of the porcine factor VIII C2 domain and binding analysis to anti-human C2 domain antibodies and phospholipid surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caileen M Brison

    Full Text Available The factor VIII C2 domain is essential for binding to activated platelet surfaces as well as the cofactor activity of factor VIII in blood coagulation. Inhibitory antibodies against the C2 domain commonly develop following factor VIII replacement therapy for hemophilia A patients, or they may spontaneously arise in cases of acquired hemophilia. Porcine factor VIII is an effective therapeutic for hemophilia patients with inhibitor due to its low cross-reactivity; however, the molecular basis for this behavior is poorly understood. In this study, the X-ray crystal structure of the porcine factor VIII C2 domain was determined, and superposition of the human and porcine C2 domains demonstrates that most surface-exposed differences cluster on the face harboring the "non-classical" antibody epitopes. Furthermore, antibody-binding results illustrate that the "classical" 3E6 antibody can bind both the human and porcine C2 domains, although the inhibitory titer to human factor VIII is 41 Bethesda Units (BU/mg IgG versus 0.8 BU/mg IgG to porcine factor VIII, while the non-classical G99 antibody does not bind to the porcine C2 domain nor inhibit porcine factor VIII activity. Further structural analysis of differences between the electrostatic surface potentials suggest that the C2 domain binds to the negatively charged phospholipid surfaces of activated platelets primarily through the 3E6 epitope region. In contrast, the G99 face, which contains residue 2227, should be distal to the membrane surface. Phospholipid binding assays indicate that both porcine and human factor VIII C2 domains bind with comparable affinities, and the human K2227A and K2227E mutants bind to phospholipid surfaces with similar affinities as well. Lastly, the G99 IgG bound to PS-immobilized factor VIII C2 domain with an apparent dissociation constant of 15.5 nM, whereas 3E6 antibody binding to PS-bound C2 domain was not observed.

  5. Structure of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of human androgen receptor in complex with a selective modulator LGD2226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Xiao-qin; Li, He; Liang, Kai-ni [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Miner, Jeffrey N.; Hong, Mei; Kallel, E. Adam; Oeveren, Arjan van; Zhi, Lin [Discovery Research, Ligand Pharmaceuticals Inc., 10275 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Jiang, Tao, E-mail: x-ray@sun5.ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2006-11-01

    Crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain of androgen receptor in complex with LGD2226. The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-inducible steroid hormone receptor that mediates androgen action, determining male sexual phenotypes and promoting spermatogenesis. As the androgens play a dominant role in male sexual development and function, steroidal androgen agonists have been used clinically for some years. However, there is a risk of potential side effects and most steroidal androgens cannot be dosed orally, which limits the use of these substances. 1,2-Dihydro-6-N,N-bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) amino-4-trifluoromethyl-2-quinolinone (LGD2226) is a synthetic nonsteroidal ligand and a novel selective AR modulator. The crystal structure of the complex of LGD2226 with the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (AR LBD) at 2.1 Å was solved and compared with the structure of the AR LBD–R1881 complex. It is hoped that this will aid in further explaining the selectivity of LGD2226 observed in in vitro and in vivo assays and in developing more selective and effective therapeutic agents.

  6. Induced alignment and measurement of dipolar couplings of an SH2 domain through direct binding with filamentous phage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlke Ojennus, Deanna; Mitton-Fry, Rachel M.; Wuttke, Deborah S. [University of Colorado, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    1999-06-15

    Large residual {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H dipolar couplings have been measured in a Src homology II domain aligned at Pf1 bacteriophage concentrations an order of magnitude lower than used for induction of a similar degree of alignment of nucleic acids and highly acidic proteins. An increase in {sup 1} H and {sup 15}N protein linewidths and a decrease in T{sub 2} and T{sub 1}{rho} relaxation time constants implicates a binding interaction between the protein and phage as the mechanism of alignment. However, the associated increased linewidth does not preclude the accurate measurement of large dipolar couplings in the aligned protein. A good correlation is observed between measured dipolar couplings and predicted values based on the high resolution NMR structure of the SH2 domain. The observation of binding-induced protein alignment promises to broaden the scope of alignment techniques by extending their applicability to proteins that are able to interact weakly with the alignment medium.

  7. Regulation of Active DNA Demethylation by a Methyl-CpG-Binding Domain Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Active DNA demethylation plays crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, active DNA demethylation is initiated by the ROS1 subfamily of 5-methylcytosine-specific DNA glycosylases via a base excision repair mechanism. Recently, IDM1 and IDM2 were shown to be required for the recruitment of ROS1 to some of its target loci. However, the mechanism(s by which IDM1 is targeted to specific genomic loci remains to be determined. Affinity purification of IDM1- and IDM2- associating proteins demonstrated that IDM1 and IDM2 copurify together with two novel components, methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 7 (MBD7 and IDM2-like protein 1 (IDL1. IDL1 encodes an α-crystallin domain protein that shows high sequence similarity with IDM2. MBD7 interacts with IDM2 and IDL1 in vitro and in vivo and they form a protein complex associating with IDM1 in vivo. MBD7 directly binds to the target loci and is required for the H3K18 and H3K23 acetylation in planta. MBD7 dysfunction causes DNA hypermethylation and silencing of reporter genes and a subset of endogenous genes. Our results suggest that a histone acetyltransferase complex functions in active DNA demethylation and in suppression of gene silencing at some loci in Arabidopsis.

  8. A Novel C2-Domain Phospholipid-Binding Protein,OsPBP1.Is Required for Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Qiang Yang; Ying Lai; Mei-Na Li; Wen-Ying Xu; Yong-Biao Xue

    2008-01-01

    Pollen fertility is a crucial factor for successful pollination and essential for seed formation.Recent studies have suggested that a diverse range of internal and external factors,signaling components and their related pathways are likely involved in pollen fertility.Here,we reporta single C2-domain containing protein.OsPBPl.initially identified through cDNA microarray analysis.OsP8P1 is a single copy gene and preferentially expressed in pistil and pollen but downregulated by pollination.OsPBP1 had a calcium concentration-dependent phospholipid-binding activity and was localized mainly in cytoplasm and nucleus,but translocated onto the plasma membrane in response to an intracellular Ca2+increase.Pollen grains of antisense OsPBP1 transgenic Iines were largely nonviable.germinated poorly in vitro and of low fertility,OsPBP1 protein was localized in a region peripheral to pollen wall and vesicles of elongating pollen tube.and its repressed expression reduced substantially this association and led to alteration of microfilament polymerization during pollen germination.Taken together,these results indicate that OsPBP1 is a novel functional C2-domain phosphoIipids-binding protein that is required for pollen fertility likely by regulating Ca2+ and phospholipid signaling pathways.

  9. Regulation of the heavy metal pump AtHMA4 by a metal-binding autoinhibitory domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lone; Roed, Maria Dalgaard; Zhang, Yang;

    Heavy metal pumps, or P1B ATPases, are important for heavy metal homeostasis in most cells. In general, these pumps contain extended N- and/or C-termini with one or more metal-binding domains (MBDs), but the role of the extended termini is still not clear. The Arabidopsis thaliana Zn2+-ATPase At......HMA4 contains a very long C-terminus with 13 cysteine pairs and an 11 amino acid residue long histidine stretch at the end. To ascertain the role of the potentially metal-binding domains in the C-terminus of AtHMA4, the C-terminal region alone was expressed in yeast. This resulted in increased Zn......, numerous C-terminal deletion mutants were generated. Removal of the His-stretch at the C-terminal end resulted in an increased tolerance of yeast towards Zn compared to full-length AtHMA4. This Zn tolerance was gradually increased with removal of additional residues from the C-terminus. Based on expression...

  10. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein 2B from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Mototsugu, E-mail: mototsugu-yamada@meiji.co.jp; Watanabe, Takashi; Baba, Nobuyoshi; Miyara, Takako; Saito, Jun; Takeuchi, Yasuo [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd, 760 Morooka-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 222-8567 (Japan)

    2008-04-01

    The selenomethionyl-substituted transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2B from S. pneumoniae was isolated from a limited proteolysis digest of the soluble form of recombinant PBP 2B and then crystallized. MAD data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2B from Streptococcus pneumoniae catalyzes the cross-linking of peptidoglycan precursors that occurs during bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis. A selenomethionyl (SeMet) substituted PBP 2B transpeptidase domain was isolated from a limited proteolysis digest of a soluble form of recombinant PBP 2B and then crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 86.39, c = 143.27 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution using the BL32B2 beamline at SPring-8. The asymmetric unit contains one protein molecule and 63.7% solvent.

  11. Construction of TNF-binding proteins by grafting hypervariable regions of F10 antibody on human fibronectin domain scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaya, L E; Shingarova, L N; Kryukova, E A; Boldyreva, E F; Yakimov, S A; Guryanova, S V; Novoseletsky, V N; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. To study the possibility of constructing TNF-binding proteins by grafting hypervariable regions of immunoglobulins (CDR), we have replaced amino acid sequences of loops from the tenth type III domain of human fibronectin ((10)Fn3) by amino acid sequences of CDR from the light and heavy chains of the anti-TNF antibody F10. The assessment of TNF-binding properties of the resulting proteins by ELISA has revealed the highest activity of Hd3 containing sequences CDR-H1 and CDR-H2 of the antibody F10 and of Hd2 containing sequences CDR-H1 and CDR-H3. The proteins constructed by us on the fibronectin domain scaffold specifically bound TNF during Western blotting and also weakened its cytotoxic effect on L929 line cells. The highest neutralizing activity was demonstrated by the proteins Hd2 and Hd3, which induced, respectively, 10- and 50-fold increase in the EC(50) of TNF.

  12. An immunogenic, surface-exposed domain of Haemophilus ducreyi outer membrane protein HgbA is involved in hemoglobin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepluev, Igor; Afonina, Galyna; Fusco, William G; Leduc, Isabelle; Olsen, Bonnie; Temple, Brenda; Elkins, Christopher

    2009-07-01

    HgbA is the sole TonB-dependent receptor for hemoglobin (Hb) acquisition of Haemophilus ducreyi. Binding of Hb to HgbA is the initial step in heme acquisition from Hb. To better understand this step, we mutagenized hgbA by deletion of each of the 11 putative surface-exposed loops and expressed each of the mutant proteins in trans in host strain H. ducreyi FX547 hgbA. All mutant proteins were expressed, exported, and detected on the surface by anti-HgbA immunoglobulin G (IgG). Deletion of sequences in loops 5 and 7 of HgbA abolished Hb binding in two different formats. In contrast, HgbA proteins containing deletions in the other nine loops retained the ability to bind Hb. None of the clones expressing mutant proteins were able to grow on plates containing low concentrations of Hb. Previously we demonstrated in a swine model of chancroid infection that an HgbA vaccine conferred complete protection from a challenge infection. Using anti-HgbA IgG from this study and the above deletion mutants, we show that loops 4, 5, and 7 of HgbA were immunogenic and surface exposed and that IgG directed against loops 4 and 5 blocked Hb binding. Furthermore, loop 6 was cleaved by protease on intact H. ducreyi, suggesting surface exposure. These data implicate a central domain of HgbA (in respect to the primary amino acid sequence) as important in Hb binding and suggest that this region of the molecule might have potential as a subunit vaccine.

  13. Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin domain II loop 1 as the binding site of Tenebrio molitor cadherin repeat CR12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Navarrete, Fernando; Gómez, Isabel; Peña, Guadalupe; Amaro, Itzel; Ortíz, Ernesto; Becerril, Baltazar; Ibarra, Jorge E; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins exert their toxic effect by specific recognition of larval midgut proteins leading to oligomerization of the toxin, membrane insertion and pore formation. The exposed domain II loop regions of Cry toxins have been shown to be involved in receptor binding. Insect cadherins have shown to be functionally involved in toxin binding facilitating toxin oligomerization. Here, we isolated a VHH (VHHA5) antibody by phage display that binds Cry3Aa loop 1 and competed with the binding of Cry3Aa to Tenebrio molitor brush border membranes. VHHA5 also competed with the binding of Cry3Aa to a cadherin fragment (CR12) that was previously shown to be involved in binding and toxicity of Cry3Aa, indicating that Cry3Aa binds CR12 through domain II loop 1. Moreover, we show that a loop 1 mutant, previously characterized to have increased toxicity to T. molitor, displayed a correlative enhanced binding affinity to T. molitor CR12 and to VHHA5. These results show that Cry3Aa domain II loop 1 is a binding site of CR12 T. molitor cadherin.

  14. Phosphorylation of the PCNA binding domain of the large subunit of replication factor C by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibits DNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maga, G; Mossi, R; Fischer, R

    1997-01-01

    that the PCNA binding domain is phosphorylated by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme required for cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The DNA binding domain, on the other hand, is not phosphorylated. Phosphorylation by CaMKII reduces the binding of PCNA to RF......Replication factor C (RF-C) is a heteropentameric protein essential for DNA replication and DNA repair. It is a molecular matchmaker required for loading of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp onto double-strand DNA and for PCNA-dependent DNA synthesis by DNA polymerases...

  15. Preliminary Molecular Dynamic Simulations of the Estrogen Receptor Alpha Ligand Binding Domain from Antagonist to Apo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian E. Roitberg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptors (ER are known as nuclear receptors. They exist in the cytoplasm of human cells and serves as a DNA binding transcription factor that regulates gene expression. However the estrogen receptor also has additional functions independent of DNA binding. The human estrogen receptor comes in two forms, alpha and beta. This work focuses on the alpha form of the estrogen receptor. The ERα is found in breast cancer cells, ovarian stroma cells, endometrium, and the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that exposure to DDE, a metabolite of DDT, and other pesticides causes conformational changes in the estrogen receptor. Before examining these factors, this work examines the protein unfolding from the antagonist form found in the 3ERT PDB crystal structure. The 3ERT PDB crystal structure has the estrogen receptor bound to the cancer drug 4-hydroxytamoxifen. The 4-hydroxytamoxifen ligand was extracted before the simulation, resulting in new conformational freedom due to absence of van der Waals contacts between the ligand and the receptor. The conformational changes that result expose the binding clef of the co peptide beside Helix 12 of the receptor forming an apo conformation. Two key conformations in the loops at either end of the H12 are produced resulting in the antagonist to apo conformation transformation. The results were produced over a 42ns Molecular Dynamics simulation using the AMBER FF99SB force field.

  16. RBI, a one-domain alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor with completely independent binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskos, K; Huber-Wunderlich, M; Glockshuber, R

    1996-11-11

    The bifunctional inhibitor from Ragi (Eleusine coracana Gaertneri) (RBI) is the only member of the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family that inhibits both trypsin and alpha-amylase. Here, we show that both enzymes simultaneously and independently bind to RBI. The recently solved three-dimensional NMR structure of RBI has revealed that the inhibitor possesses a hitherto unknown fold for serine proteinase and alpha-amylase inhibitors. Despite its different fold, RBI obeys the standard mechanism observed for most protein inhibitors of serine proteinases and is a strong, competitive inhibitor of bovine trypsin (Ki = 1.2 +/- 0.2 nM). RBI is also a competitive inhibitor of porcine alpha-amylase (Ki = 11 +/- 2 nM) when a disaccharide is used as a substrate of alpha-amylase. However, the inhibition mode becomes complex when larger (> or = 7 saccharide units) alpha-amylase substrates are used. A second saccharide binding site on porcine alpha-amylase may enable larger oligosaccharides to displace RBI from its binding site in an intramolecular reaction.

  17. Fusion of binding domains to Thermobifida cellulosilytica cutinase to tune sorption characteristics and enhancing PET hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribitsch, Doris; Yebra, Antonio Orcal; Zitzenbacher, Sabine; Wu, Jing; Nowitsch, Susanne; Steinkellner, Georg; Greimel, Katrin; Doliska, Ales; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Gruber, Christian C; Gruber, Karl; Schwab, Helmut; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin; Acero, Enrique Herrero; Guebitz, Georg M

    2013-06-10

    A cutinase from Thermomyces cellullosylitica (Thc_Cut1), hydrolyzing the synthetic polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET), was fused with two different binding modules to improve sorption and thereby hydrolysis. The binding modules were from cellobiohydrolase I from Hypocrea jecorina (CBM) and from a polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis (PBM). Although both binding modules have a hydrophobic nature, it was possible to express the proteins in E. coli . Both fusion enzymes and the native one had comparable kcat values in the range of 311 to 342 s(-1) on pNP-butyrate, while the catalytic efficiencies kcat/Km decreased from 0.41 s(-1)/ μM (native enzyme) to 0.21 and 0.33 s(-1)/μM for Thc_Cut1+PBM and Thc_Cut1+CBM, respectively. The fusion enzymes were active both on the insoluble PET model substrate bis(benzoyloxyethyl) terephthalate (3PET) and on PET although the hydrolysis pattern was differed when compared to Thc_Cut1. Enhanced adsorption of the fusion enzymes was visible by chemiluminescence after incubation with a 6xHisTag specific horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled probe. Increased adsorption to PET by the fusion enzymes was confirmed with Quarz Crystal Microbalance (QCM-D) analysis and indeed resulted in enhanced hydrolysis activity (3.8× for Thc_Cut1+CBM) on PET, as quantified, based on released mono/oligomers.

  18. Amino Terminal Region of Dengue Virus NS4A Cytosolic Domain Binds to Highly Curved Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Fu; Schwarten, Melanie; Hoffmann, Silke; Willbold, Dieter; Sklan, Ella H; Koenig, BerndW

    2015-07-21

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an important human pathogen causing millions of disease cases and thousands of deaths worldwide. Non-structural protein 4A (NS4A) is a vital component of the viral replication complex (RC) and plays a major role in the formation of host cell membrane-derived structures that provide a scaffold for replication. The N-terminal cytoplasmic region of NS4A(1-48) is known to preferentially interact with highly curved membranes. Here, we provide experimental evidence for the stable binding of NS4A(1-48) to small liposomes using a liposome floatation assay and identify the lipid binding sequence by NMR spectroscopy. Mutations L6E;M10E were previously shown to inhibit DENV replication and to interfere with the binding of NS4A(1-48) to small liposomes. Our results provide new details on the interaction of the N-terminal region of NS4A with membranes and will prompt studies of the functional relevance of the curvature sensitive membrane anchor at the N-terminus of NS4A.

  19. [Prospects of application of the chitin-binding domains to isolation and purification of recombinant proteins by affinity chromatography: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, D V; Lopatin, S A; Varlamov, V P

    2009-01-01

    Properties of substrate-binding domains, some parameters of affinity sorbents, and a number of other special features that were necessary to take into account during creation of chromatographic system for isolation and purification of proteins with incorporated chitin-binding domain were discussed in this review. This method was shown to be successfully used along with metal-chelate affinity chromatography. The metal-chelate affinity chromatography with the use of polyhistidine peptides as affinity labels is successfully applied to isolation, purification, and investigation of recombinant proteins. However, this system had some disadvantages. At present, scientists attracted more and more attention to substrate-binding domains, including those chitin-binding, because they had a number of advantages being used as affinity label.

  20. Chimeric VLPs with GII.3 P2 domain in a backbone of GII.4 VP1 confers novel HBGA binding ability.