WorldWideScience

Sample records for binding competitive

  1. Competitive Binding of Natural Amphiphiles with Graphene Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Slaven; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Chen, Pengyu; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the transformation of graphene derivatives by natural amphiphiles is essential for elucidating the biological and environmental implications of this emerging class of engineered nanomaterials. Using rapid discrete-molecular-dynamics simulations, we examined the binding of graphene and graphene oxide with peptides, fatty acids, and cellulose, and complemented our simulations by experimental studies of Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Specifically, we established a connection between the differential binding and the conformational flexibility, molecular geometry, and hydrocarbon content of the amphiphiles. Importantly, our dynamics simulations revealed a Vroman-like competitive binding of the amphiphiles for the graphene oxide substrate. This study provides a mechanistic basis for addressing the transformation, evolution, transport, biocompatibility, and toxicity of graphene derivatives in living systems and the natural environment.

  2. Competitive protein binding analysis for thyroxine using Sephadex column (Tetralute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of competitive protein binding analysis of thyroxine (T4) using Tetralute kit was evaluated. The net retention was decreased when the procedure of competition and separation was performed at a higher temperature but the final T4-I values were constant when the standard and test sera were treated identically. Coefficient of variation (C.V.) was 4% (within-assay) and 6% (between-assay) respectively. However, the T4-I values of pooled serum for quality control were slightly lower in earlier experiments in which correction factors (1.03--1.62 in 18 out of 21 assays) were necessary. T4-I values were determined by the Tetralute in 155 cases. They were as follows: 4.9+-0.8 μg/dl (euthyroid subjects), 6.4+-1.2 μg/dl (cord serum), 7.1+-1.1 μg/dl (pregnant women). 9.0+-3.6 μg/dl (trophoblastic disease), 13.3+-4.8 μg/dl (Graves' disease), 6.3+-1.6 μg/dl (Plummer's disease), 4-I values determined by Tetralute and Res-O-Mat T4 (r=0.96). Following oral administration of Telepaque the serum protein-bound iodine was markedly elevated, while the T4-I determined by Tetralute did not change. In vitro addition of diphenylhydantoin (500 μg/ml), salicylate (4 mg/ml) and phenobarbital (1 mg/ml) had no or little effect on T4 determination by Tetralute. A high concentration of benzbromarone (0.1 mg/ml) caused a higher value of T4-I determined by Tetralute when added to a TBG solution but there was only a slight increase when it was added to serum. (auth.)

  3. Screening for oligonucleotide binding affinity by a convenient fluorescence competition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J G; Liu, X; Balasubramanian, S

    1999-09-01

    A competitive homogeneous quenched fluorescence assay system is described for the high throughput screening of DNA conjugates that bind to single-stranded DNA. Fluorescence signal is generated by competitive binding of the sample molecule to a target strand labelled with a quencher probe, which is otherwise hybridised to a complementary strand containing a fluorescent probe. Thus fluorescence generated is related to the affinity of the sample. Competitive analysis of a number of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates gave data that correlated well with the corresponding UV melting data. The assay will be useful for screening of large numbers of potential single-stranded binding molecules.

  4. A simple new competition assay for heparin binding in serum applied to multivalent PAMAM dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, Stephen M; Posocco, Paola; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Pricl, Sabrina; Rodríguez-López, Julián; Smith, David K

    2013-05-25

    We report a competition assay using our recently reported dye Mallard Blue, which allows us to identify synthetic heparin binders in competitive media, including human serum - using this we gain insight into the ability of PAMAM dendrimers to bind heparin, with the interesting result that low-generation G2-PAMAM is the preferred heparin binder.

  5. Tropomyosin-binding properties modulate competition between tropomodulin isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpan, Mert; Moroz, Natalia A; Gray, Kevin T; Cooper, Dillon A; Diaz, Christian A; Kostyukova, Alla S

    2016-06-15

    The formation and fine-tuning of cytoskeleton in cells are governed by proteins that influence actin filament dynamics. Tropomodulin (Tmod) regulates the length of actin filaments by capping the pointed ends in a tropomyosin (TM)-dependent manner. Tmod1, Tmod2 and Tmod3 are associated with the cytoskeleton of non-muscle cells and their expression has distinct consequences on cell morphology. To understand the molecular basis of differences in the function and localization of Tmod isoforms in a cell, we compared the actin filament-binding abilities of Tmod1, Tmod2 and Tmod3 in the presence of Tpm3.1, a non-muscle TM isoform. Tmod3 displayed preferential binding to actin filaments when competing with other isoforms. Mutating the second or both TM-binding sites of Tmod3 destroyed its preferential binding. Our findings clarify how Tmod1, Tmod2 and Tmod3 compete for binding actin filaments. Different binding mechanisms and strengths of Tmod isoforms for Tpm3.1 contribute to their divergent functional capabilities.

  6. Tropomyosin-binding properties modulate competition between tropomodulin isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpan, Mert; Moroz, Natalia A; Gray, Kevin T; Cooper, Dillon A; Diaz, Christian A; Kostyukova, Alla S

    2016-06-15

    The formation and fine-tuning of cytoskeleton in cells are governed by proteins that influence actin filament dynamics. Tropomodulin (Tmod) regulates the length of actin filaments by capping the pointed ends in a tropomyosin (TM)-dependent manner. Tmod1, Tmod2 and Tmod3 are associated with the cytoskeleton of non-muscle cells and their expression has distinct consequences on cell morphology. To understand the molecular basis of differences in the function and localization of Tmod isoforms in a cell, we compared the actin filament-binding abilities of Tmod1, Tmod2 and Tmod3 in the presence of Tpm3.1, a non-muscle TM isoform. Tmod3 displayed preferential binding to actin filaments when competing with other isoforms. Mutating the second or both TM-binding sites of Tmod3 destroyed its preferential binding. Our findings clarify how Tmod1, Tmod2 and Tmod3 compete for binding actin filaments. Different binding mechanisms and strengths of Tmod isoforms for Tpm3.1 contribute to their divergent functional capabilities. PMID:27091317

  7. Chemokine cooperativity is caused by competitive glycosaminoglycan binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaar, F.; Offenbeek, J. van; Lee, M. van der; Lith, L.H. van; Watts, A.O.; Rops, A.L.; Aguilar, D.C.; Ziarek, J.J.; Vlag, J. van der; Handel, T.M.; Volkman, B.F.; Proudfoot, A.E.; Vischer, H.F.; Zaman, G.J.; Smit, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines comprise a family of secreted proteins that activate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and thereby control the migration of leukocytes during inflammation or immune surveillance. The positional information required for such migratory behavior is governed by the binding of chemokines t

  8. Spectroscopic probe of the competitive binding of ethidium bromide and neomycin to DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Medini Kanta; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    1995-03-01

    The three spectroscopic changes of ethidium bromide (EB) on its binding to DNA, namely red-shift of the νmax, enhancement of fluorescence and induced dichroism are utilized to study the competitive binding of neomycin (NMC) and EB to DNA. Reversion of νmax, decrease in fluorescence and reduction of dichroism of DNA-EB on addition of NMC shows that the binding of NMC and EB to DNA is competitive in nature, over a limited concentration of the polymer. The binding constant of EB-DNA falls from 4.00 × 10 6 to 2.27 × 10 4 1 mol -1 in the presence of added NMC.

  9. Microdialysis-liquid chromatographic study on competitive binding of drugs to protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海林; 邹汉法; 张玉奎

    1997-01-01

    A new method to determine the interaction between drug and protein has been developed by utilizing the technique of microdialysis sampling with the ketoprofen and the human serum albumin (HSA) as the model of drug and protein.Two kinds of binding sites of HSA to ketoprofen have been observed.The binding constants and number of binding sites obtained by the Scatchard equation are 0.799,3.18×106 mol-1 L and 2.15,2.01×105 mol-1 L,respectively The displacement binding of drugs to HSA has also been studied.The strong displacement of competitive binding of ibuprofen with ketoprofen to HSA was observed,which means that the primary binding site of HSA to ketoprofen and that to ibuprofen are the same.However,only a weaker displacement of warfarin for the association of ketoprofen with HSA was observed,which may suggest that the primary binding site of HSA to ketoprofen is different from that to warfarin.Such a displacement effect for competitive binding of drugs to HSA was explained by the displacement model i

  10. Anti Zn antibodies: cross reactivity and competitive binding with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarada, N C; Thamaraiselvi, K; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2008-01-15

    Monoclonal antibodies of IgM class, specific to IDA-Zn were used for evaluating their Zn(2+) binding efficiency in the presence of trace metal ions such as Cr(3+) Cr(6+), Cu(2+) and Cd(2+). In the present work, antibody raised against the hapten IDA-Zn(II) was pre-incubated with different metal ions and the binding capacity to the specific hapten was tested using ELISA and immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) techniques. IMAC was carried out with the free antibody and antibody pre-incubated with selected heavy metal ions using Sepharose IDA-Zn(2+) column and the same samples were tested using a hapten specific ELISA with non-protein hapten carrier. Different effects were observed after pre-incubation with metal ions. Cr(3+) exhibited synergistic binding where as antagonism was detected with Cd(2+). The synergistic effect observed with Cr(3+) suggests involvement of binding sites other than that of zinc and conformational changes that result from Cr(3+) binding. It is probable that, this binding event also increases the accessibility of the zinc binding sites on IgM. On the same lines, the antagonism observed with Cd(2+) could be attributed to structural changes resulting in reduced accessibility to zinc binding sites. In case of Cr(6+), no appreciable change in binding to IDA-Zn was observed while Cu(2+) showed competitive binding.

  11. High-affinity dextromethorphan binding sites in guinea pig brain. II. Competition experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craviso, G L; Musacchio, J M

    1983-05-01

    Binding of dextromethorphan (DM) to guinea pig brain is stereoselective, since levomethorphan is 20 times weaker than DM in competing for DM sites. In general, opiate agonists and antagonists as well as their corresponding dextrorotatory isomers are weak competitors for tritiated dextromethorphan ([3H]DM) binding sites and display IC50 values in the micromolar range. In contrast, several non-narcotic, centrally acting antitussives are inhibitory in the nanomolar range (IC50 values for caramiphen, carbetapentane, dimethoxanate, and pipazethate are 25 nM, 9 nM, 41 nM, and 190 nM, respectively). Other antitussives, such as levopropoxyphene, chlophedianol, and fominoben, have poor affinity for DM sites whereas the antitussive noscapine enhances DM binding by increasing the affinity of DM for its central binding sites. Additional competition studies indicate that there is no correlation of DM binding with any of the known or putative neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. DM binding is also not related to tricyclic antidepressant binding sites or biogenic amine uptake sites. However, certain phenothiazine neuroleptics and typical and atypical antidepressants inhibit binding with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Moreover, the anticonvulsant drug diphenylhydantoin enhances DM binding in a manner similar to that of noscapine. Preliminary experiments utilizing acid extracts of brain have not demonstrated the presence of an endogenous ligand for DM sites. The binding characteristics of DM sites studied in rat and mouse brain indicate that the relative potencies of several antitussives to inhibit specific DM binding vary according to species. High-affinity, saturable, and stereoselective [3H]DM binding sites are present in liver homogenates, but several differences have been found for these peripheral binding sites and those described for brain. Although the nature of central DM binding sites is not known, the potent interaction of several classes of centrally

  12. Competitive interactions of ligands and macromolecular crowders with maltose binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Miklos

    Full Text Available Cellular signaling involves a cascade of recognition events occurring in a complex environment with high concentrations of proteins, polysaccharides, and other macromolecules. The influence of macromolecular crowders on protein binding affinity through hard-core repulsion is well studied, and possible contributions of protein-crowder soft attraction have been implicated recently. Here we present direct evidence for weak association of maltose binding protein (MBP with a polysaccharide crowder Ficoll, and that this association effectively competes with the binding of the natural ligand, maltose. Titration data over wide ranges of maltose and Ficoll concentrations fit well with a three-state competitive binding model. Broadening of MBP (1H-(15N TROSY spectra by the addition of Ficoll indicates weak protein-crowder association, and subsequent recovery of sharp NMR peaks upon addition of maltose indicates that the interactions of the crowder and the ligand with MBP are competitive. We hypothesize that, in the Escherichia coli periplasm, the competitive interactions of polysaccharides and maltose with MBP could allow MBP to shuttle between the peptidoglycan attached to the outer membrane and the ATP-binding cassette transporter in the inner membrane.

  13. Competitive inhibition of [3H]dexamethasone binding to mammary glucocorticoid receptor by leupeptin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitory effect of leupeptin on [3H]dexamethasone binding to the glucocorticoid receptor from lactating goat mammary cytosol has been studied. Leupeptin (10 mM) caused a significant (about 35%) inhibition of [3H]dexamethasone binding to glucocorticoid receptor. Binding inhibition is further increased following filtration of unlabeled cytosolic receptor through a Bio-Gel A 0.5-m column. Binding inhibition was partially reversed by monothioglycerol at 10 mM concentration. A double reciprocal plot revealed that leupeptin appears to be a competitive inhibitor of [3H]dexamethasone binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. Low salt sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that the leupeptin-treated sample formed a slightly larger (approximately 9 S) receptor complex (leupeptin-free complex sediments at 8 S)

  14. Electrochemical survey of the chain length influence in phytochelatins competitive binding by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Rui; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2010-11-01

    Multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to voltammetric data obtained in the analysis of the competitive binding of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins [(gammaGlu-Cys)(n)-Gly, PC(n), n=2-5] by Cd(2+). The displacements between ligands and chain length influence on the competitive binding of PC(n) toward Cd(2+) were investigated. The analysis of the resulting pure voltammograms and concentration profiles of the resolved components suggests that ligands containing more thiol groups are able to displace the shortest chain ligands from their metal complexes, whereas the opposite does not happen. However, when the length of the chain surpasses that of PC(3), the binding capacity of the molecule still increases (i.e., it can bind more metal ions), but the position and shape of the voltammetric signals practically rest unchanged. This suggests that at this level, the stability of metal binding could depend more on the nature of the binding sites separately than on the quantity of the sites (i.e., the chain length).

  15. Determination of thyroxine concentration in serum by competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarized the kits in commercial level used for the determination of thyroxine concentration in serum by competitive protein binding assay, and described the recent tendency. Using the kits in commercial level such as Tetrasorb, Res-O-Mat T4, Thyopac-4 and Tetralute, extraction of thyroxine, culture of 125I-thyroxine of thyroxine-binding-globulin, separation of free 125I-thyroxine from thyroxine-binding-globulin binding 125I-thyroxine, and calculation of thyroxine concentration were explained, and strong or weak points of these kits were examined. Although normal value showed a little difference in the four kits, they reflected well the thyroid function and would be able to be clinically applied. In addition, Res-O-Mat Effective Thyroxine Ratio Test was recently improved to measure free thyroxine index and thyroxine concentration at the same time, and the effectiveness of the test was also explained. (Kanao, N.)

  16. Competitive ligand - binding assay for thyroxine binding globulin. Comparison with TBG radioimmunoassay and T3 uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and reproducible competitive ligand binding assay has been utilized to measure serum TBG concentration. In euthyroid subjects TBG concentration (mean +- SD, mg/l) was 33.7 +- 4; hyperthyroid 24 -+ 6; T3-thyrotoxicosis 20 +- 7; hypothyroid 37 -+ 7; pregnant 67 -+ 18; post-partum period 59.8 -+ 17; oral contraceptives 45 -+ 7. The correlation of CLBA with RIA measurement of TBG was significant (p3 uptake test (p4: TBG ratio according to serum T4 and TBG concentration provided a reliable index in the assessment of thyroid function

  17. Enhanced Activity of Topical Hydrocortisone by Competitive Binding of Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Erik T; Wu, Whei-Mei; Chandran, V Ravi; Bodor, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis of sensitive areas such as the face, particularly in children, is a difficult disease to treat as the standard therapeutic, topical steroids, is contraindicated for this application in children. Hydrocortisone (HC) can be used in these instances because it has been shown to be safe, but is often ineffective as it is a relatively weak steroid, especially at over-the-counter concentrations. To enhance the local topical activity of HC, the terminal inactive metabolite of prednisolone, Δ(1)-cortienic acid (Δ(1)-CA), is added to HC, as Δ(1)-CA preferentially binds transcortin, liberating more HC to elicit its therapeutic effect. Skin blanching studies, which are used to evaluate the potency of topical steroids, were employed to assess the ability of Δ(1)-CA to enhance the activity of HC. The results demonstrate that Δ(1)-CA, when applied in combination with HC, does indeed potentiate the vasoconstriction effect of topically applied HC, while having no effect alone. Thus, addition of the inert prednisolone metabolite Δ(1)-CA can increase the therapeutic effect of over-the-counter concentrations of HC when applied topically. PMID:27179671

  18. Competitive binding of viral E2 protein and mammalian core-binding factor to transcriptional control sequences of human papillomavirus type 8 and bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, H. M.; Steger, G; Pfister, H

    1997-01-01

    The promoter P7535 of human papillomavirus type 8 and the promoter P7185 of bovine papillomavirus type 1 are negatively regulated by viral E2 proteins via the promoter proximal binding sites P2 and BS1, respectively. Mutations of these E2 binding sites can reduce basal promoter activity. This suggests binding of a transcription-stimulating factor and may indicate that repression by E2 is due to competitive binding of viral and cellular proteins. A computer search revealed putative binding sit...

  19. Competition for DNA binding sites using Promega DNA IQ™ paramagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, Chantal J; De Moors, Anick

    2012-09-01

    The Promega DNA IQ™ system is easily amenable to automation and has been an integral part of standard operating procedures for many forensic laboratories including those of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) since 2004. Due to some failure to extract DNA from samples that should have produced DNA using our validated automated DNA IQ™-based protocol, the competition for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ magnetic beads was more closely examined. Heme from heavily blooded samples interfered slightly with DNA binding. Increasing the concentration of Proteinase K during lysis of these samples did not enhance DNA recovery. However, diluting the sample lysate following lysis prior to DNA extraction overcame the reduction in DNA yield and preserved portions of the lysates for subsequent manual or automated extraction. Dye/chemicals from black denim lysates competed for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ beads and significantly reduced DNA recovery. Increasing the size or number of black denim cuttings during lysis had a direct adverse effect on DNA yield from various blood volumes. The dilution approach was successful on these samples and permitted the extraction of high DNA yields. Alternatively, shortening the incubation time for cell lysis to 30 min instead of the usual overnight at 56 °C prevented competition from black denim dye/chemicals and increased DNA yields.

  20. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2000-01-01

    Competition has been modelled in the literature in a number of ways.What do these different parametrizations of competition have in common?For instance, it turns out that it is not always the case that a rise in competition reduces price cost margins, industry wide profits or concentration.All param

  1. Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.

    2000-01-01

    Competition has been modelled in the literature in a number of ways.What do these different parametrizations of competition have in common?For instance, it turns out that it is not always the case that a rise in competition reduces price cost margins, industry wide profits or concentration.All parametrizations of competition, considered here, have two features in common.First, the reallocation effect: a rise in competition raises the profits of a firm relative to the profits of a less efficie...

  2. Comparing the Affinity of GTPase-binding Proteins using Competition Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rosalind C; Bass, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    In this protocol we demonstrate a method for comparing the competition between GTPase-binding proteins. Such an approach is important for determining the binding capabilities of GTPases for two reasons: The fact that all interactions involve the same face of the GTPases means that binding events must be considered in the context of competitors, and the fact that the bound nucleotide must also be controlled means that conventional approaches such as immunoprecipitation are unsuitable for GTPase biochemistry. The assay relies on the use of purified proteins. Purified Rac1 immobilized on beads is used as the bait protein, and can be loaded with GDP, a non-hydrolyzable version of GTP or left nucleotide free, so that the signaling stage to be investigated can be controlled. The binding proteins to be investigated are purified from mammalian cells, to allow correct folding, by means of a GFP tag. Use of the same tag on both proteins is important because not only does it allow rapid purification and elution, but also allows detection of both competitors with the same antibody during elution. This means that the relative amounts of the two bound proteins can be determined accurately.

  3. Competition between transferrin and the serum ligands citrate and phosphate for the binding of aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wesley R; Wang, Zhepeng; Hamada, Yahia Z

    2003-05-19

    A key issue regarding the speciation of Al(3+) in serum is how well the ligands citric acid and phosphate can compete with the iron transport protein serum transferrin for the aluminum. Previous studies have attempted to measure binding constants for each ligand separately, but experimental problems make it very difficult to obtain stability constants with the accuracy required to make a meaningful comparison between these ligands. In this study, effective binding constants for Al-citrate and Al-phosphate at pH 7.4 have been determined using difference UV spectroscopy to monitor the direct competition between these ligands and transferrin. The analysis of this competition equilibrium also includes the binding of citrate and phosphate as anions to apotransferrin. The effective binding constants are 10(11.59) for the 1:1 Al-citrate complexes and 10(14.90) for the 1:2 Al-citrate complexes. The effective binding constant for the 1:2 Al-phosphate complex is 10(12.02). No 1:1 Al-phosphate complex was detected. Speciation calculations based on these effective binding constants indicate that, at serum concentrations of citrate and phosphate, citrate will be the primary low-molecular-mass ligand for aluminum. Formal stability constants for the Al-citrate system have also been determined by potentiometric methods. This equilibrium system is quite complex, and information from both electrospray mass spectrometry and difference UV experiments has been used to select the best model for fitting the potentiometric data. The mass spectra contain peaks that have been assigned to complexes having aluminum:citrate stoichiometries of 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 2:3, and 3:3. The difference UV results were used to determine the stability constant for Al(H(-1)cta)-, which was then used in the least-squares fitting of the potentiometric data to determine stability constants for Al(Hcta)+, Al(cta), Al(cta)2(3-), Al(H(-1)cta)(cta)(4-), Al2(H(-1)cta)2(2-), and Al3(H(-1)cta)3(OH)(4-).

  4. Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  5. Competitive binding of phenylbutazone and colchicine to serum albumin in multidrug therapy: A spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułkowska, A.; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Zubik-Skupień, I.; Temba, E.; Pentak, D.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2008-06-01

    The binding sites for phenylbutazone and colchicine were identified in tertiary structure of bovine and human serum albumin with the use of spectrofluorescence analysis. It was found that phenylbutazone has two binding sites in both sera albumins (HSA and BSA), while colchicine has one binding site in BSA as well as in HSA. The comparison of the quenching effect of BSA and HSA fluorescence by phenylbutazone and colchicine allows us to identify subdomain IIA in protein as the binding site for these two drugs. In this subdomain tryptophan 214 is located. The participation of tyrosyl and tryptophanyl residues of protein was also estimated in the drug-albumin complex. The comparison of quenching of fluorescence of HSA and BSA excited at 280 nm with that at 295 nm allowed us to state that the participation of tyrosyl residues of albumin in the phenylbutazone-serum albumin interaction is significant. The analysis of quenching of fluorescence of BSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that phenylbutazone does not affect the complex formed between colchicine and BSA. Similarly, colchicine has no effect on the Phe-BSA complex. However marked differences were observed for the complex with HSA. On the basis of Ka and KQ values it was concluded that colchicine may probably cause displacement of phenylbutazone from its complex with serum albumin (SA). Static and dynamic quenching for the binary and ternary systems is also discussed. The competition of phenylbutazone and colchicine in binding to serum albumin should be taken into account in the multi-drug therapy.

  6. Computational fragment-based binding site identification by ligand competitive saturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgun Guvench

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based drug discovery using NMR and x-ray crystallographic methods has proven utility but also non-trivial time, materials, and labor costs. Current computational fragment-based approaches circumvent these issues but suffer from limited representations of protein flexibility and solvation effects, leading to difficulties with rigorous ranking of fragment affinities. To overcome these limitations we describe an explicit solvent all-atom molecular dynamics methodology (SILCS: Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation that uses small aliphatic and aromatic molecules plus water molecules to map the affinity pattern of a protein for hydrophobic groups, aromatic groups, hydrogen bond donors, and hydrogen bond acceptors. By simultaneously incorporating ligands representative of all these functionalities, the method is an in silico free energy-based competition assay that generates three-dimensional probability maps of fragment binding (FragMaps indicating favorable fragment:protein interactions. Applied to the two-fold symmetric oncoprotein BCL-6, the SILCS method yields two-fold symmetric FragMaps that recapitulate the crystallographic binding modes of the SMRT and BCOR peptides. These FragMaps account both for important sequence and structure differences in the C-terminal halves of the two peptides and also the high mobility of the BCL-6 His116 sidechain in the peptide-binding groove. Such SILCS FragMaps can be used to qualitatively inform the design of small-molecule inhibitors or as scoring grids for high-throughput in silico docking that incorporate both an atomic-level description of solvation and protein flexibility.

  7. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bridoux

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political arena

  8. Competitive counterion complexation allows the true host : guest binding constants from a single titration by ionic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessêgo, Márcia; Basílio, Nuno; Muñiz, M Carmen; García-Río, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Counterion competitive complexation is a background process currently ignored by using ionic hosts. Consequently, guest binding constants are strongly affected by the design of the titration experiments in such a way that the results are dependent on the guest concentration and on the presence of added salts, usually buffers. In the present manuscript we show that these experimental difficulties can be overcome by just considering the counterion competitive complexation. Moreover a single titration allows us to obtain not only the true binding constants but also the stoichiometry of the complex showing the formation of 1 : 1 : 1 (host : guest : counterion) complexes. The detection of high stoichiometry complexes is not restricted to a single titration experiment but also to a displacement assay where both competitive and competitive-cooperative complexation models are taken into consideration. PMID:27278457

  9. Development of a competitive fluorescence-based synaptosome binding assay for brevetoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Jennifer R; Jacocks, Henry M; Baden, Daniel G; Bourdelais, Andrea J

    2012-09-01

    Brevetoxins are a family of ladder-frame polyether toxins produced during blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Inhalation of brevetoxins aerosolized by wind and wave action can lead to asthma-like symptoms in beach goers. Consumption of either shellfish or finfish exposed to K. brevis blooms can lead to the development of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. The toxic effects of brevetoxins are due to activation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) in cell membranes. Binding of brevetoxin analogs and competitors to site 5 on these channels has historically been measured using a radioligand competition assay that is fraught with difficulty, including slow analysis time, production of radioactive waste, and cumbersome and expensive methods associated with the generation of radioactive labeled ligands. In this study, we describe the development of a novel fluorescent synaptosome binding assay for the brevetoxin receptor. BODIPY(®)-conjugated to PbTx-2 was used as the labeled ligand. The BODIPY(®)-PbTx-2 conjugate was found to displace [(3)H]-PbTx-3 from its binding site on VSSCs on rat brain synaptosomes with an equilibrium inhibition constant of 0.11 nM. We have shown that brevetoxin A and B analogs are all able to compete for binding with the fluorescent ligand. Most importantly, this assay was validated against the current site 5 receptor binding assay standard, the radioligand receptor assay for the brevetoxin receptor using [(3)H]-PbTx-3 as the labeled ligand. The fluorescence based assay yielded equilibrium inhibition constants comparable to the radioligand assay for all brevetoxin analogs. The fluorescence based assay was quicker, far less expensive, and did not generate radioactive waste or need radioactive facilities. As such, this fluorescence-based assay can be used to replace the current radioligand assay for site 5 on voltage-sensitive sodium channels and will be a vital tool for future experiments examining the binding affinity of

  10. Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕思思

    2007-01-01

    <正> The term competition reminds me of asoul-stirring fight between a mother monkeyand a crocodile,The crocodile caught her babywhen the baby was drinking water in a pool,Inthe end,the mother got her baby,but herbaby’s body only,She lost her child forever,just for a mouthful of water.Such is competition,cruel and merciless,But if we see the other side of the coin,we’ll

  11. An ELISA Based Binding and Competition Method to Rapidly Determine Ligand-receptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syedbasha, Mohameedyaseen; Linnik, Janina; Santer, Deanna; O'Shea, Daire; Barakat, Khaled; Joyce, Michael; Khanna, Nina; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Houghton, Michael; Egli, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of signaling pathways requires detailed knowledge regarding ligand-receptor interaction. This article describes two fast and reliable point-by-point protocols of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the investigation of ligand-receptor interactions: the direct ligand-receptor interaction assay (LRA) and the competition LRA. As a case study, the ELISA based analysis of the interaction between different lambda interferons (IFNLs) and the alpha subunit of their receptor (IL28RA) is presented: the direct LRA is used for the determination of dissociation constants (KD values) between receptor and IFN ligands, and the competition LRA for the determination of the inhibitory capacity of an oligopeptide, which was designed to compete with the IFNLs at their receptor binding site. Analytical steps to estimate KD and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values are described. Finally, the discussion highlights advantages and disadvantages of the presented method and how the results enable a better molecular understanding of ligand-receptor interactions.

  12. Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihan, Charles E.

    1991-03-01

    Competition is defined as a spirited, sometimes ruthless, engagement of rivals such as in a race, a match, or an effort by one person to sell goods or services to customers in the marketplace of another. Sound familiar? If you will bear with me for a few minutes, I would like to examine competitiveness on a more global basis with emphasis on the rules of the game. You may be thinking that more often than not the competitive arena is relatively small and far from global, and its consequences are singularly influential on a trivial document called the P & L. However, with the newly established freedom of a major segment of the world population and with the industrial capability formerly known as Communist moving into what has heretofore been "our" limited arena, the competition could get very brisk. Brisk, and perhaps ruthless, unless we work together to try to establish an international industrial policy that is truly based on equality of competitive opportunity for all.

  13. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  14. Fluorescence analysis of competition of phenylbutazone and methotrexate in binding to serum albumin in combination treatment in rheumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    Combination of several drugs is often necessary especially during long-them therapy. The competition between drugs can cause a decrease of the amount of a drug bound to albumin. This results in an increase of the free, biological active fraction of the drug. The aim of the presented study was to describe the competition between phenylbutazone (Phe) and methotrexate (MTX), two drugs recommended for the treatment of rheumatology in binding to bovine (BSA) and human (HSA) serum albumin in the high affinity binding site. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of drugs on the protein fluorescence and to define the binding and quenching properties of drugs-serum albumin complexes. The effect of the displacement of one drug from the complex of the other with serum albumin has been described on the basis of the comparison of the quenching curves and binding constants for the binary and ternary systems. The conclusion that both Phe and MTX form a binding site in the same subdomain (IIA) points to the necessity of using a monitoring therapy owning to the possible increase of the uncontrolled toxic effects.

  15. Fluorescence competition assay for the assessment of ATP binding to an isolated domain of Na+, K(+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, M; Plásek, J; Amler, E

    2004-01-01

    An equation allowing estimation of the dissociation constant for binding of a non-fluorescent ligand to the enzyme is presented that is based on the competitive replacement of the ligand by its fluorescent analog. We derived an explicit formula for the probe fluorescence intensity, which is suitable for nonlinear least-squares analysis. We used this formula to evaluate the binding of ATP to the large cytoplasmic loop of Na+,K(+)-ATPase. The estimated value of KD (6.2+/- 0.7 mM) is comparable with the results from other laboratories for similar constructs obtained by a different method.

  16. Machine learning competition in immunology – Prediction of HLA class I binding peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Bradley, Phil;

    2011-01-01

    of peptide binding, therefore, determines the accuracy of the overall method. Computational predictions of peptide binding to HLA, both class I and class II, use a variety of algorithms ranging from binding motifs to advanced machine learning techniques ( [Brusic et al., 2004] and [Lafuente and Reche, 2009...

  17. In vivo detection of molybdate-binding proteins using a competition assay with ModE in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Jochen; Meyer zu Berstenhorst, Sonja; Vödisch, Bernd; Mendel, Ralf R; Schwarz, Günter; Boxer, David H

    2003-01-21

    Molybdenum is an important trace element as it forms the essential part of the active site in all molybdenum-containing enzymes. We have designed an assay for the in vivo detection of molybdate binding to proteins in Escherichia coli. The assay is based on (i). the molybdate-dependent transcriptional regulation of the moa operon by the ModE protein, and (ii). the competition for molybdate between ModE and other molybdate-binding proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli. We were able to verify in vivo molybdate binding to three different bacterial proteins that are known to bind molybdate. This sensitive in vivo system allows the testing of different proteins for molybdate binding under in vivo conditions and will facilitate the identification of other cellular factors needed for molybdate binding. As a first example, we examined the eukaryotic protein Cnx1 that is involved in the last step of molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in plants, and show that it is able to compete with ModE for molybdate in a molybdopterin-dependent fashion.

  18. Competitive binding of transcription factors drives Mendelian dominance in regulatory genetic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Adam H.; Johnson, Norman A.; Tulchinsky, Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    We report a new mechanism for allelic dominance in regulatory genetic interactions that we call binding dominance. We investigated a biophysical model of gene regulation, where the fractional occupancy of a transcription factor (TF) on the cis-regulated promoter site it binds to is determined by binding energy (-{\\Delta}G) and TF concentration. Transcription and gene expression proceed when the TF is bound to the promoter. In diploids, individuals may be heterozygous at the cis-site, at the T...

  19. Semi-automated competitive protein binding analysis of serum thyroxine on reusable Sephadex columns and its advantages over radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, N M

    1976-06-01

    Competitive protein-binding analysis of serum thyroxine on small, reusable, Sephadex columns has been further studied and improved. The improved, semi-automated procedure results in reduced working time and costs. It has also been established that triiodothyronine crossreacts only 1/6 to 1/9 as well as thyroxine, and can be ignored because it represents only about 1/80 of the total serum iodothyronine content. The economic and methodological advantages of the improved method over radioammunoassay and other displacement assays are discussed.

  20. Inhibition of CK2 Activity by TCDD via Binding to ATP-competitive Binding Site of Catalytic Subunit:Insight from Computational Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xian-jin; CANNISTRARO Salvatore; BIZZARRI Anna-rita; ZENG Yi; CHEN Wei-zu; WANG Cun-xin

    2013-01-01

    Alternative mechanisms of toxic effects induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD),instead of the binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor(AhR),have been taken into consideration.It has been recently shown that TCDD reduces rapidly the activity of CK2(casein kinase Ⅱ) both in vivo and in vitro.It is found that TCDD has high molecular similarities to the known inhibitors of CK2 catalytic subunit(CK2α).This suggests that TCDD could also be an ATP-competitive inhibitor of CK2α.In this work,docking TCDD to CK2 was carried out based on the two structures of CK2α from maize and human,respectively.The binding free energies of the predicted CK2α-TCDD complexes estimated by the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area(MM/PBSA) method are from -85.1 kJ/mol to-114.3 kJ/mol for maize and are from-96.1 kJ/mol to-118.2 kJ/mol for human,which are comparable to those estimated for the known inhibitor and also ATP with CK2α.The energetic analysis also reveals that the van der Waals interaction is the dominant contribution to the binding free energy.These results are also useful for designing new drugs for a target of overexpressing CK2 in cancers.

  1. Lynx1 and Aβ1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M;

    2016-01-01

    Lynx1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain by regulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). It is not known to which extent Lynx1 can bind to endogenous nAChR subunits in the brain or how this interaction is affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology. We apply affinity purification...

  2. A competition assay for DNA binding using the fluorescent probe ANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian A; Kneale, G Geoff

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique frequently employed to study protein-nucleic acid interactions. Often, the intrinsic fluorescence emission spectrum of tryptophan residues in a nucleic-acid-binding protein is strongly perturbed upon interaction with a target DNA or RNA. These spectral changes can then be exploited in order to construct binding isotherms and the extract equilibrium association constant together with the stoichiometry of an interaction. However, when a protein contains many tryptophan residues that are not located in the proximity of the nucleic-acid-binding site, changes in the fluorescence emission spectrum may not be apparent or the magnitude too small to be useful. Here, we make use of an extrinsic fluorescence probe, the environmentally sensitive fluorophore 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid (1,8-ANS). Displacement by DNA of 1,8-ANS molecules from the nucleic-acid-binding site of the Type I modification methylase EcoR124I results in red shifting and an intensity decrease of the 1,8-ANS fluorescence emission spectrum. These spectral changes have been used to investigate the interaction of EcoR124I with DNA target recognition sequences.

  3. Inclusion complex formation of ionic liquids with 4-sulfonatocalixarenes studied by competitive binding of berberine alkaloid fluorescent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskolczy, Zsombor; Biczók, László

    2009-07-01

    A clinically important natural isoquinoline alkaloid, berberine, was used as a fluorescent probe to study the encapsulation of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (C nMIm +) type ionic liquids in 4-sulfonato-substituted calix[4]arene (SCX4) and calix[6]arene (SCX6) at pH 2. Addition of ionic liquids to the aqueous solution of berberine-SCXn inclusion complexes brought about considerable fluorescence intensity diminution due to the extrusion of berberine from the macrocycle into the aqueous phase by the competitive inclusion of C nMIm + cation. The lengthening of the aliphatic side chain of the imidazolium moiety diminished the equilibrium constant of complexation with SCX4, but enhanced the stability of SCX6 complexes. Larger binding strength was found for SCX4.

  4. Molecular determinants of non-competitive antagonist binding to the mouse GPRC6A receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Helene; Gorojankina, Tatiana; Rice, Nadejda;

    2009-01-01

    Calindol antagonist activity but was without effect on NPS2143 inhibitory response. In summary, these data suggest that Calindol is primarily anchored through an H-bond to E816(7.39) in TM7 and highlight important local differences at the level of the CaSR and GPRC6A allosteric binding pockets. We have...... identified the first antagonists of GPRC6A that could represent new tools to analyze GPRC6A functions and serve as chemical leads for the development of more specific modulators....

  5. PUMA promotes Bax translocation by competitive binding to Bcl-Xl during UV-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Xing, Da; Wu, Yinyuan; Liu, Lei

    2008-02-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can induce apoptosis through both the membrane death receptor and the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways as DNA-damaging agents. PUMA, a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein, plays an essential role in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Bax, also a Bcl-2 family member, translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membrane during UV-induced apoptosis. However, the regulation of Bax activation induced by UV irradiation remains poorly understood. In this study, the FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) technique was used to study the interactions of Bax, Bcl-Xl, and PUMA in ASTC-a-1 cells. The results show that Bax translocated from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membrane at about 7 h after UV irradiation, and the translocation can not be blocked completely when overexpressed Bcl-xl. Moreover, The interaction of Bax and Bcl-Xl weakened markedly. In addition, Co-immunoprecipitation shows that PUMA released Bax by directly binding to Bcl-XL after UV irradiation in ASTC-a-1 cells. Taken together, these results indicated that PUMA can promote Bax translocation by binding to Bcl-Xl during UV-induced apoptosis.

  6. Magnetic levitation as a platform for competitive protein-ligand binding assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Nathan D; Soh, Siowling; Mirica, Katherine A; Whitesides, George M

    2012-07-17

    This paper describes a method based on magnetic levitation (MagLev) that is capable of indirectly measuring the binding of unlabeled ligands to unlabeled protein. We demonstrate this method by measuring the affinity of unlabeled bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) for a variety of ligands (most of which are benzene sulfonamide derivatives). This method utilizes porous gel beads that are functionalized with a common aryl sulfonamide ligand. The beads are incubated with BCA and allowed to reach an equilibrium state in which the majority of the immobilized ligands are bound to BCA. Since the beads are less dense than the protein, protein binding to the bead increases the overall density of the bead. This change in density can be monitored using MagLev. Transferring the beads to a solution containing no protein creates a situation where net protein efflux from the bead is thermodynamically favorable. The rate at which protein leaves the bead for the solution can be calculated from the rate at which the levitation height of the bead changes. If another small molecule ligand of BCA is dissolved in the solution, the rate of protein efflux is accelerated significantly. This paper develops a reaction-diffusion (RD) model to explain both this observation, and the physical-organic chemistry that underlies it. Using this model, we calculate the dissociation constants of several unlabeled ligands from BCA, using plots of levitation height versus time. Notably, although this method requires no electricity, and only a single piece of inexpensive equipment, it can measure accurately the binding of unlabeled proteins to small molecules over a wide range of dissociation constants (K(d) values within the range from ~10 nM to 100 μM are measured easily). Assays performed using this method generally can be completed within a relatively short time period (20 min-2 h). A deficiency of this system is that it is not, in its present form, applicable to proteins with molecular weight greater

  7. Competition of aluminium on iron binding site in the biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum toxicity has been recognized in many ways, when exposure to heavy metals is prolonged, renal function is limited or a previously accumulated bone burden is released in stress and illness. Aluminum is generally found in +3 oxidation state, so sometimes it competes for the binding sites of Fe(III) in the biological system. If the concentration of Aluminum exceeds above the normal, it inhibits the absorption of Iron and Iron deficiency leads to diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer. The complex formations of Al(III) and Fe(III) with salicylic hydroxamate were studied potentiometrically at different temperatures and data were subjected to computer programs. The stability constant (log beta) values and thermodynamic stabilities were calculated. It was found that salicylic hydroxamate forms 1:1 complex at pH 3 and 1: 2 complex at pH 4 with Al(III) and Fe(III), respectively. The stability constant (log beta) and thermodynamic stabilities of Al(III) salicylic hydroxamate complexes are close to Fe(III) salicylic hydroxamate complexes. (author)

  8. Development and optimization of a competitive binding assay for the galactophilic low affinity lectin LecA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Ines; Rikker, Sebastian; Hauck, Dirk; Ponader, Daniela; Boden, Sophia; Sommer, Roman; Hartmann, Laura; Titz, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    Infections with the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa result in a high mortality among immunocompromised patients and those with cystic fibrosis. The pathogen can switch from planktonic life to biofilms, and thereby shields itself against antibiotic treatment and host immune defense to establish chronic infections. The bacterial protein LecA, a C-type lectin, is a virulence factor and an integral component for biofilm formation. Inhibition of LecA with its carbohydrate ligands results in reduced biofilm mass, a potential Achilles heel for treatment. Here, we report the development and optimization of a fluorescence polarization-based competitive binding assay with LecA for application in screening of potential inhibitors. As a consequence of the low affinity of d-galactose for LecA, the fluorescent ligand was optimized to reduce protein consumption in the assay. The assay was validated using a set of known inhibitors of LecA and IC50 values in good agreement with the known Kd values were obtained. Finally, we employed the optimized assay to screen sets of synthetic thio-galactosides and natural blood group antigens and report their structure-activity relationship. In addition, we evaluated a multivalent fluorescent assay probe for LecA and report its applicability in an inhibition assay. PMID:27488655

  9. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer.

  10. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer. PMID:27156192

  11. Detection of DNA damage by Escherichia coli UvrB-binding competition assay is limited by the stability of the UvrB-DNA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, M N; Allan, J M; Garner, R C

    1997-07-01

    To investigate the use of UvrB-binding to detect DNA damage, mobility shift gel electrophoresis was used to detect binding of UvrB protein to a 136 bp DNA fragment that was randomly adducted with aflatoxin B1 8,9-epoxide and end-labelled with 32P. After polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the shifted band that contained DNA bound by UvrB was quantified as a percentage of total radioactive substrate DNA. This method was applied to analyse plasmid DNA that was adducted with various DNA modifying agents in vitro. These adducts competed for UvrB-binding to the labelled substrate. By competing for UvrB-binding with 10 ng of plasmid DNA that was adducted with known levels of aflatoxin B1, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, or benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, UvrB competition could be quantified for DNA adducted with between one adduct in 10(2) and one adduct in 10(5) normal nucleotides. However, plasmid DNA exposed to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or methylene blue + visible light, did not compete for UvrB-binding, even though the presence of UvrABC sensitive sites were confirmed on this DNA by a UvrABC incision assay. Mono-adducted 96-bp DNA substrates, which contained an internal 32P-label and either a single apurinic site, aflatoxin B1-guanine adduct, O6-methylguanine, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine or non-adducted guanine, were also used as substrates for UvrA- and UvrB-binding to examine the stability of UvrB-DNA complexes with specific adducts. Under similar conditions used for the competition assay, significant UvrB-binding was seen only for the aflatoxin adducted substrate. These results suggest that stability of UvrB-binding varies greatly between bulky and non-bulky adducts. It was also found that rat liver DNA from untreated rats inhibited UvrB-binding to the substrate DNA in the competition assay, to a degree that was equivalent to competition with plasmid adducted at one adduct in 10(3) normal nucleotides.

  12. Principles of a competitive binding assay for the study of the interactions of poorly water-soluble ligands with their soluble binding partners. Application to bilirubin with the use of Sephadex G-10 as a competitive adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, J A; Kinnaert, M; Michiels, G; Heirwegh, K P

    1988-01-01

    1. A generally applicable method is described for obtaining experimental data on the interactions between a poorly water-soluble ligand and soluble binding factors, with the use of chemically inert solid adsorbent. The equilibrium distribution of the ligand between the liquid phase containing the soluble binders and the adsorbent must be measured and knowledge of the binding isotherm of the adsorbent is required. Procedures are given for the calculation of the binding parameters. 2. The method has been applied to quantify the interactions of bilirubin with serum and liver cytosol from the rat, Sephadex G-10 serving as the competing adsorbent. Reversible adsorption keeps the concentration of the free ligand low, thereby preventing formation of colloidal bilirubin. The sensitivity of the procedure accommodates the rather high binding affinities by which bilirubin generally interacts with its specific binding proteins. 3. The binding activities of serum and liver cytosol are of comparable magnitude. Binding of bilirubin by rat serum can be described by two independent binding sites, the affinities of which differ by two orders of magnitude. Only the site with the higher affinity appears to be of physiological importance. The major bilirubin-binding sites of rat liver cytosol seem to contribute equally to the overall binding activity of this preparation, provided that GSH is present. PMID:2449176

  13. Different sensitivities to competitive inhibition of benzodiazepine receptor binding of {sup 11}C-iomazenil and {sup 11}C-flumazenil in rhesus monkey brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Osamu; Hosoi, Rie; Kobayashi, Kaoru [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Itoh, Takashi; Gee, A.; Suzuki, Kazutoshi

    2001-04-01

    The in vivo binding kinetics of {sup 11}C-iomazenil were compared with those of {sup 11}C-flumazenil binding in rhesus monkey brain. The monkey was anesthetized with ketamine and intravenously injected with either {sup 11}C-iomazenil or {sup 11}C-flumazenil in combination with the coadministration of different doses of non-radioactive flumazenil (0, 5 and 20 {mu}g/kg). The regional distribution of {sup 11}C-iomazenil in the brain was similar to that of {sup 11}C-flumazenil, but the sensitivity of {sup 11}C-iomazenil binding to competitive inhibition by non-radioactive flumazenil was much less than that of {sup 11}C-flumazenil binding. A significant reduction in {sup 11}C-flumazenil binding in the cerebral cortex was observed with 20 {mu}g/kg of flumazenil, whereas a relatively smaller inhibition of {sup 11}C-iomazenil binding in the same region was observed with the same dose of flumazenil. These results suggest that {sup 11}C-flumazenil may be a superior radiotracer for estimating benzodiazepine receptor occupancy in the intact brain. (author)

  14. Effects of competitive red blood cell binding and reduced hematocrit on the blood and plasma levels of (/sup 14/C)Indapamide in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettieri, J.T.; Portelli, S.T.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of chlorthalidone and acetazolamide on the red blood cell binding of indapamide were investigated. Both drugs caused a substantial decrease in the amount of indapamide bound to the erythrocytes in vitro. This effect was demonstrated by a change in the indapamide blood/plasma ratio from approximately 6 in control samples, to a value of 1 when either of the displacing agents was added. Coadministration of acetazolamide with /sup 14/C-labeled indapamide to rats, resulted in a 5-fold drop in the blood levels of total radioactivity, relative to rats dosed with (/sup 14/C)indapamide alone. Concomitantly, there was a 2-fold increase in the plasma levels of total radioactivity after acetazolamide coadministration. In rats whose hematocrits had been reduced by extensive bleeding, there were only minor alterations in the blood/plasma partitioning of (/sup 14/C)indapamide. Thus, chlorthalidone and acetazolamide were able to displace indapamide from erythrocytes in vitro and in vivo, possibly by competition at a carbonic anhydrase binding site. The pharmacokinetics of drugs which are extensively bound to erythrocytes may be significantly altered by the presence of other agents capable of competitive binding.

  15. An ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates the Uptake of α-(1,6)-Linked Dietary Oligosaccharides in Bifidobacterium and Correlates with Competitive Growth on These Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejby, Morten; Fredslund, Folmer; Andersen, Joakim Mark; Vujičić Žagar, Andreja; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andersen, Thomas Lars; Svensson, Birte; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2016-09-16

    The molecular details and impact of oligosaccharide uptake by distinct human gut microbiota (HGM) are currently not well understood. Non-digestible dietary galacto- and gluco-α-(1,6)-oligosaccharides from legumes and starch, respectively, are preferentially fermented by mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the human gut. Here we show that the solute binding protein (BlG16BP) associated with an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter from the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 binds α-(1,6)-linked glucosides and galactosides of varying size, linkage, and monosaccharide composition with preference for the trisaccharides raffinose and panose. This preference is also reflected in the α-(1,6)-galactoside uptake profile of the bacterium. Structures of BlG16BP in complex with raffinose and panose revealed the basis for the remarkable ligand binding plasticity of BlG16BP, which recognizes the non-reducing α-(1,6)-diglycoside in its ligands. BlG16BP homologues occur predominantly in bifidobacteria and a few Firmicutes but lack in other HGMs. Among seven bifidobacterial taxa, only those possessing this transporter displayed growth on α-(1,6)-glycosides. Competition assays revealed that the dominant HGM commensal Bacteroides ovatus was out-competed by B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 in mixed cultures growing on raffinose, the preferred ligand for the BlG16BP. By comparison, B. ovatus mono-cultures grew very efficiently on this trisaccharide. These findings suggest that the ABC-mediated uptake of raffinose provides an important competitive advantage, particularly against dominant Bacteroides that lack glycan-specific ABC-transporters. This novel insight highlights the role of glycan transport in defining the metabolic specialization of gut bacteria. PMID:27502277

  16. The proto-oncoprotein KR-POK represses transcriptional activation of CDKN1A by MIZ-1 through competitive binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K M; Choi, W I; Koh, D I; Kim, Y J; Jeon, B N; Yoon, J H; Lee, C E; Kim, S H; Oh, J; Hur, M W

    2012-03-15

    The BTB/POZ family of proteins has been implicated in multiple biological processes, including tumourigenesis, DNA damage responses and cell cycle progression and development. MIZ-1 (Myc-interacting zinc-finger protein 1) is known to activate transcription of CDKN1A. We recently found that a kidney cancer-related POK transcription factor, KR-POK, is highly expressed in kidney, brain and bone marrow cancer tissues and is a potential proto-oncoprotein. Mouse Kr-pok represses transcription of the CDKN1A by acting on the proximal promoter. The BiFC/FRET assay, co-immunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase-fusion protein pull-down assay indicate that MIZ-1 and Kr-pok interact via their POZ domains. Oligoucleotide pull-down assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that MIZ-1 binds to the proximal GC-box#3 (bp, -55 to -63) and the MIZ-1-binding elements, MRE-A (bp, -90 to -64) and MRE-B (bp, -27 to -17). Interestingly, MIZ-1 also binds to the distal p53-binding elements. Kr-pok binds to the proximal GC-box#1 (bp, -95 to -100) and #3 (bp, -55 to -63) relatively strongly. It also shows weak binding to the MREs and the distal p53-binding elements. Kr-pok competes with MIZ-1 in binding to these elements and represses transcription by inhibiting MIZ-1/p300 recruitment, which decreases the acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Our data indicate that Kr-pok stimulates cell proliferation by interfering with the function of MIZ-1 in CDKN1A gene transcription using a mechanism that is radically different from other MIZ-1-interacting proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma 6, c-Myc and Gfi-1.

  17. Competitive Binding Sites of a Ruthenium Arene Anticancer Complex on Oligonucleotides Studied by Mass Spectrometry: Ladder-Sequencing versus Top-Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kui; Hu, Wenbing; Luo, Qun; Li, Xianchan; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Sadler, Peter J.; Wang, Fuyi

    2013-03-01

    We report identification of the binding sites for an organometallic ruthenium anticancer complex [( η 6-biphenyl)Ru(en)Cl][PF6] ( 1; en = ethylenediamine) on the 15-mer single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), 5'-CTCTCTX7G8Y9CTTCTC-3' [X = Y = T ( I); X = C and Y = A ( II); X = A and Y = T ( III); X = T and Y = A ( IV)] by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in conjunction with enzymatic digestion or tandem mass spectrometry (top-down MS). ESI-MS combined with enzymatic digestion (termed MS-based ladder-sequencing), is effective for identification of the thermodynamically-favored G-binding sites, but not applicable to determine the thermodynamically unstable T-binding sites because the T-bound adducts dissociate during enzymatic digestion. In contrast, top-down MS is efficient for localization of the T binding sites, but not suitable for mapping ruthenated G bases, due to the facile fragmentation of G bases from ODN backbones prior to the dissociation of the phosphodiester bonds. The combination of the two MS approaches reveals that G8 in each ODN is the preferred binding site for 1, and that the T binding sites of 1 are either T7 or T11 on I and IV, and either T6 or T11 on II and III, respectively. These findings not only demonstrate for the first time that T-bases in single-stranded oligonucleotides are kinetically competitive with guanine for such organoruthenium complexes, but also illustrate the relative merits of the combination of ladder-sequencing and top-down MS approaches to elucidate the interactions of metal anticancer complexes with DNA.

  18. Competitive binding-based optical DNA mapping for fast identification of bacteria--multi-ligand transfer matrix theory and experimental applications on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Adam N; Emilsson, Gustav; Nyberg, Lena K; Noble, Charleston; Stadler, Liselott Svensson; Fritzsche, Joachim; Moore, Edward R B; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate a single DNA molecule optical mapping assay able to resolve a specific Escherichia coli strain from other strains. The assay is based on competitive binding of the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 and the AT-specific antibiotic netropsin. The optical map is visualized by stretching the DNA molecules in nanofluidic channels. We optimize the experimental conditions to obtain reproducible barcodes containing as much information as possible. We implement a multi-ligand transfer matrix method for calculating theoretical barcodes from known DNA sequences. Our method extends previous theoretical approaches for competitive binding of two types of ligands to many types of ligands and introduces a recursive approach that allows long barcodes to be calculated with standard computer floating point formats. The identification of a specific E. coli strain (CCUG 10979) is based on mapping of 50-160 kilobasepair experimental DNA fragments onto the theoretical genome using the developed theory. Our identification protocol introduces two theoretical constructs: a P-value for a best experiment-theory match and an information score threshold. The developed methods provide a novel optical mapping toolbox for identification of bacterial species and strains. The protocol does not require cultivation of bacteria or DNA amplification, which allows for ultra-fast identification of bacterial pathogens.

  19. A novel method to measure HLA-DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHC class II molecules based on peptide binding competition assay and differential IC(50) determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liusong; Stern, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    HLA-DM (DM) functions as a peptide editor that mediates the exchange of peptides loaded onto MHCII molecules by accelerating peptide dissociation and association kinetics. The relative DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHCII molecules correlates with antigen presentation and immunodominance hierarchy, and measurement of DM-susceptibility has been a key effort in this field. Current assays of DM-susceptibility, based on differential peptide dissociation rates measured for individually labeled peptides over a long time base, are difficult and cumbersome. Here, we present a novel method to measure DM-susceptibility based on peptide binding competition assays performed in the presence and absence of DM, reported as a delta-IC(50) (change in 50% inhibition concentration) value. We simulated binding competition reactions of peptides with various intrinsic and DM-catalyzed kinetic parameters and found that under a wide range of conditions the delta-IC(50) value is highly correlated with DM-susceptibility as measured in off-rate assay. We confirmed experimentally that DM-susceptibility measured by delta-IC(50) is comparable to that measured by traditional off-rate assay for peptides with known DM-susceptibility hierarchy. The major advantage of this method is that it allows simple, fast and high throughput measurement of DM-susceptibility for a large set of unlabeled peptides in studies of the mechanism of DM action and for identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes.

  20. Ethanol potently and competitively inhibits binding of the alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 to α4/6β3δ GABAA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchar, H. Jacob; Chutsrinopkun, Panida; Meera, Pratap; Supavilai, Porntip; Sieghart, Werner; Wallner, Martin; Olsen, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    Although GABAA receptors have long been implicated in mediating ethanol (EtOH) actions, receptors containing the “nonsynaptic” δ subunit only recently have been shown to be uniquely sensitive to EtOH. Here, we show that δ subunit-containing receptors bind the imidazo-benzodiazepines (BZs) flumazenil and Ro15-4513 with high affinity (Kd < 10 nM), contrary to the widely held belief that these receptors are insensitive to BZs. In immunopurified native cerebellar and recombinant δ subunit-containing receptors, binding of the alcohol antagonist [3H]Ro15-4513 is inhibited by low concentrations of EtOH (Ki ≈ 8 mM). Also, Ro15-4513 binding is inhibited by BZ-site ligands that have been shown to reverse the behavioral alcohol antagonism of Ro15-4513 (i.e., flumazenil, β-carbolinecarboxylate ethyl ester (β-CCE), and N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG7142), but not including any classical BZ agonists like diazepam). Experiments that were designed to distinguish between a competitive and allosteric mechanism suggest that EtOH and Ro15-4513 occupy a mutually exclusive binding site. The fact that only Ro15-4513, but not flumazenil, can inhibit the EtOH effect, and that Ro15-4513 differs from flumazenil by only a single group in the molecule (an azido group at the C7 position of the BZ ring) suggest that this azido group in Ro15-4513 might be the area that overlaps with the alcohol-binding site. Our findings, combined with previous observations that Ro15-4513 is a behavioral alcohol antagonist, suggest that many of the behavioral effects of EtOH at relevant physiological concentrations are mediated by EtOH/Ro15-4513-sensitive GABAA receptors. PMID:16581914

  1. Generation and characterization of a tetraspanin CD151/integrin α6β1-binding domain competitively binding monoclonal antibody for inhibition of tumor progression in HCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Lu; Kang, Qiang; Liu, Li-Xin; Xie, Nan; Shen, Zao-Zhuo; Hu, Mei-Yu; Cao, Ya; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Shi, Guo-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that tetraspanin CD151 plays multiple roles in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by forming a functional complex with integrin α6β1. Herein, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that dissociates the CD151/integrin α6β1 complex, and we evaluated its bioactivity in HCCs. A murine mAb, tetraspanin CD151 (IgG1, called CD151 mAb 9B), was successfully generated against the CD151-integrin α6β1 binding site of CD151 extracellular domains. Co-immunoprecipitation using CD151 mAb 9B followed by Western blotting detected a 28 kDa protein. Both immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining showed a good reactivity of CD151 mAb 9B in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of HCC cells, as well as in liver cells. In vitro assays demonstrated that CD151 mAb 9B could inhibit neoangiogenesis and both the mobility and the invasiveness of HCC cells. An in vivo assay showed that CD151 mAb 9B inhibited tumor growth potential and HCC cells metastasis. We successfully produced a CD151 mAb 9B targeting the CD151/integrin α6β1-binding domain, which not only can displayed good reactivity to the CD151 antigen but also prevented tumor progression in HCC. PMID:26756217

  2. Agrobacterium uses a unique ligand-binding mode for trapping opines and acquiring a competitive advantage in the niche construction on plant host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available By modifying the nuclear genome of its host, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces the development of plant tumours in which it proliferates. The transformed plant tissues accumulate uncommon low molecular weight compounds called opines that are growth substrates for A. tumefaciens. In the pathogen-induced niche (the plant tumour, a selective advantage conferred by opine assimilation has been hypothesized, but not experimentally demonstrated. Here, using genetics and structural biology, we deciphered how the pathogen is able to bind opines and use them to efficiently compete in the plant tumour. We report high resolution X-ray structures of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP NocT unliganded and liganded with the opine nopaline (a condensation product of arginine and α-ketoglurate and its lactam derivative pyronopaline. NocT exhibited an affinity for pyronopaline (K(D of 0.6 µM greater than that for nopaline (KD of 3.7 µM. Although the binding-mode of the arginine part of nopaline/pyronopaline in NocT resembled that of arginine in other PBPs, affinity measurement by two different techniques showed that NocT did not bind arginine. In contrast, NocT presented specific residues such as M117 to stabilize the bound opines. NocT relatives that exhibit the nopaline/pyronopaline-binding mode were only found in genomes of the genus Agrobacterium. Transcriptomics and reverse genetics revealed that A. tumefaciens uses the same pathway for assimilating nopaline and pyronopaline. Fitness measurements showed that NocT is required for a competitive colonization of the plant tumour by A. tumefaciens. Moreover, even though the Ti-plasmid conjugal transfer was not regulated by nopaline, the competitive advantage gained by the nopaline-assimilating Ti-plasmid donors led to a preferential horizontal propagation of this Ti-plasmid amongst the agrobacteria colonizing the plant-tumour niche. This work provided structural and genetic evidences to

  3. Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 protein SEC11 is a competitive and dynamic modulator of SNARE binding and SYP121-dependent vesicle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Rucha; Grefen, Christopher; Bayne, Robert; Honsbein, Annegret; Köhler, Tim; Kioumourtzoglou, Dimitrios; Williams, Mary; Bryant, Nia J; Blatt, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana Qa-SNARE SYP121 (=SYR1/PEN1) drives vesicle traffic at the plasma membrane of cells throughout the vegetative plant. It facilitates responses to drought, to the water stress hormone abscisic acid, and to pathogen attack, and it is essential for recovery from so-called programmed stomatal closure. How SYP121-mediated traffic is regulated is largely unknown, although it is thought to depend on formation of a fusion-competent SNARE core complex with the cognate partners VAMP721 and SNAP33. Like SYP121, the Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 protein SEC11 (=KEULE) is expressed throughout the vegetative plant. We find that SEC11 binds directly with SYP121 both in vitro and in vivo to affect secretory traffic. Binding occurs through two distinct modes, one requiring only SEC11 and SYP121 and the second dependent on assembly of a complex with VAMP721 and SNAP33. SEC11 competes dynamically for SYP121 binding with SNAP33 and VAMP721, and this competition is predicated by SEC11 association with the N terminus of SYP121. These and additional data are consistent with a model in which SYP121-mediated vesicle fusion is regulated by an unusual "handshaking" mechanism of concerted SEC11 debinding and rebinding. They also implicate one or more factors that alter or disrupt SEC11 association with the SYP121 N terminus as an early step initiating SNARE complex formation.

  4. Transformer 2β and miR-204 regulate apoptosis through competitive binding to 3' UTR of BCL2 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Y; Nishida, K; Kajita, K; Satake, Y; Akaike, Y; Fujita, K; Kano, S; Masuda, K; Rokutan, K

    2015-05-01

    RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Human transformer 2β (Tra2β) is a serine/arginine-rich-like protein splicing factor and is now implicated to have wide-ranging roles in gene expression as an RNA-binding protein. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) with an anti-Tra2β antibody and microarray analysis identified a subset of Tra2β-associated mRNAs in HCT116 human colon cancer cells, many of which encoded cell death-related proteins including Bcl-2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2). Tra2β knockdown in HCT116 cells decreased Bcl-2 expression and induced apoptosis. Tra2β knockdown accelerated the decay of BCL2α mRNA that encodes Bcl-2 and full-length 3' UTR, while it did not affect the stability of BCL2β mRNA having a short, alternatively spliced 3' UTR different from BCL2α 3' UTR. RIP assays with anti-Tra2β and anti-Argonaute 2 antibodies, respectively, showed that Tra2β bound to BCL2α 3' UTR, and that Tra2β knockdown facilitated association of miR-204 with BCL2α 3' UTR. The consensus sequence (GAA) for Tra2β-binding lies within the miR-204-binding site of BCL2 3' UTR. Mutation of the consensus sequence canceled the binding of Tra2β to BCL2 3' UTR without disrupting miR-204-binding to BCL2 3' UTR. Transfection of an anti-miR-204 or introduction of three-point mutations into the miR-204-binding site increased BCL2 mRNA and Bcl-2 protein levels. Inversely, transfection of precursor miR-204 reduced their levels. Experiments with Tra2β-silenced or overexpressed cells revealed that Tra2β antagonized the effects of miR-204 and upregulated Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, TRA2β mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in 22 colon cancer tissues compared with paired normal tissues and positively correlated with BCL2 mRNA expression. Tra2β knockdown in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) increased their sensitivity to anticancer drugs. Taken together, our findings suggest that Tra2β regulates apoptosis by

  5. Slow-binding and competitive inhibition of 8-amino-7-oxopelargonate synthase, a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme involved in biotin biosynthesis, by substrate and intermediate analogs. Kinetic and binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploux, O; Breyne, O; Carillon, S; Marquet, A

    1999-01-01

    8-Amino-7-oxopelargonate synthase catalyzes the first committed step of biotin biosynthesis in micro-organisms and plants. Because inhibitors of this pathway might lead to antibacterials or herbicides, we have undertaken an inhibition study on 8-amino-7-oxopelargonate synthase using six different compounds. d-Alanine, the enantiomer of the substrate of this pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme was found to be a competitive inhibitor with respect to l-alanine with a Ki of 0.59 mm. The fact that this inhibition constant was four times lower than the Km for l-alanine was interpreted as the consequence of the inversion-retention stereochemistry of the catalyzed reaction. Schiff base formation between l or d-alanine and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, in the active site of the enzyme, was studied using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. It was found that l and d-alanine form an external aldimine with equilibrium constants K = 4.1 mm and K = 37.8 mm, respectively. However, the equilibrium constant for d-alanine aldimine formation dramatically decreased to 1.3 mm in the presence of saturating concentration of pimeloyl-CoA, the second substrate. This result strongly suggests that the binding of pimeloyl-CoA induces a conformational change in the active site, and we propose that this new topology is complementary to d-alanine and to the putative reaction intermediate since they both have the same configuration. (+/-)-8-Amino-7-oxo-8-phosphonononaoic acid (1), the phosphonate derivative of the intermediate formed during the reaction, was our most potent inhibitor with a Ki of 7 microm. This compound behaved as a reversible slow-binding inhibitor, competitive with respect to l-alanine. Kinetic investigation showed that this slow process was best described by a one-step mechanism (mechanism A) with the following rate constants: k1 = 0.27 x 103 m-1.s-1, k2 = 1.8 s-1 and half-life for dissociation t1/2 = 6.3 min. The binding of compound 1 to the enzyme was also studied using

  6. Albumin-coated SPIONs: an experimental and theoretical evaluation of protein conformation, binding affinity and competition with serum proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siming; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Minelli, Caterina; Faraudo, Jordi; Roig, Anna; Laromaine, Anna

    2016-07-01

    The variety of nanoparticles (NPs) used in biological applications is increasing and the study of their interaction with biological media is becoming more important. Proteins are commonly the first biomolecules that NPs encounter when they interact with biological systems either in vitro or in vivo. Among NPs, super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show great promise for medicine. In this work, we study in detail the formation, composition, and structure of a monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on SPIONs. We determine, both by molecular simulations and experimentally, that ten molecules of BSA form a monolayer around the outside of the SPIONs and their binding strength to the SPIONs is about 3.5 × 10-4 M, ten times higher than the adsorption of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the same SPIONs. We elucidate a strong electrostatic interaction between BSA and the SPIONs, although the secondary structure of the protein is not affected. We present data that supports the strong binding of the BSA monolayer on SPIONs and the properties of the BSA layer as a protein-resistant coating. We believe that a complete understanding of the behavior and morphology of BSA-SPIONs and how the protein interacts with SPIONs is crucial for improving NP surface design and expanding the potential applications of SPIONs in nanomedicine.The variety of nanoparticles (NPs) used in biological applications is increasing and the study of their interaction with biological media is becoming more important. Proteins are commonly the first biomolecules that NPs encounter when they interact with biological systems either in vitro or in vivo. Among NPs, super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show great promise for medicine. In this work, we study in detail the formation, composition, and structure of a monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on SPIONs. We determine, both by molecular simulations and experimentally, that ten molecules of BSA form a monolayer around the

  7. Influence of cooling rate on the ability of frozen-thawed sperm to bind to heterologous zona pellucida, as assessed by competitive in vitro binding assays in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and tigrina (Leopardus tigrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudi, D L K; Jewgenow, K; Pukazhenthi, B S; Spercoski, K M; Santos, A S; Reghelin, A L S; Candido, M V; Javorouski, M L; Müller, G; Morais, R N

    2008-01-15

    We evaluated the influence of two cooling rates (from 25 to 5 degrees C) on post-thaw function of frozen sperm in ocelots (Leopardus pardalis; n=3 males) and tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus; n=4 males). Seven normospermic (>70% normal sperm) electroejaculates from each species were diluted with a 4% glycerol freezing medium, divided into two aliquots, and assigned to one of two cooling rates: fast or slow (0.7 or 0.16 degrees C/min, respectively). Sperm motility index (SMI) and percentage of sperm with an intact acrosome were assessed before freezing and after thawing, and the ability of sperm to bind to the zona pellucida of IVM domestic cat oocytes were assessed in a competitive in vitro sperm-binding assay. Regardless of the cooling rate, frozen-thawed sperm from both species exhibited a SMI of 50; approximately 20 and approximately 32% of post-thaw sperm had an intact acrosome in ocelots and tigrinas, respectively (P<0.05). The mean (+/-S.E.M.) number of sperm bound per oocyte was higher for fast-cooled (8.5+/-1.3) than slow-cooled (2.5+/-0.3; P<0.01) ocelot sperm. In contrast, more tigrina sperm bound to domestic cat oocytes when cooled slowly versus quickly (5.8+/-0.9 versus 2.7+/-0.4, P<0.05). In conclusion, cryopreservation decreased sperm function in both species, and the oocyte-binding assay was the most efficient method to detect functional differences in post-thaw sperm. PMID:17977588

  8. Effects of an endurance cycling competition on resting serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, J; Lopez-Calderon, A; Hoyos, J; Martin-Velasco, A; Villa, G; Villanua, M; Lucia, A

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine whether consecutive bouts of intense endurance exercise over a three week period alters serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and/or its binding proteins. Methods—Seventeen professional cyclists (mean (SEM) VO2MAX, 74.7 (2.1) ml/kg/min; age, 27 (1) years) competing in a three week tour race were selected as subjects. Blood samples were collected at each of the following time points: t0 (control, before the start of competition), t1 (end of first week), and t3 (end of third week). Serum levels of both total and free IGF-I and IGF binding proteins 1 and 3 (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3) were measured in each of the samples. Cortisol levels were measured in nine subjects. Results—A significant (p<0.01) increase was found in total IGF-I and IGFBP-1 at both t1 and t3 compared with to (IGF-I: 110.9 (17.7), 186.8 (12.0), 196.9 (14.7) ng/ml at t0, t1, and t3 respectively; IGFBP-1: 54.6 (6.6), 80.6 (8.0), and 89.2 (7.9) ng/ml at t0, t1, and t3 respectively). A significant (p<0.01) decrease was noted in free IGF-I at t3 compared with both to and t1 (t0: 0.9 (0.1) ng/ml; t1: 0.9 (0.1) ng/ml; t3: 0.7 (0.1) ng/ml); in contrast, IGFBP-3 levels remained stable throughout the race. Conclusions—It would appear that the increase in circulating levels of both IGF-I and its binding protein IGFBP-1 is a short term (one week) endocrine adaptation to endurance exercise. After three weeks of training, total IGF-I and IGFBP-1 remained stable, whereas free IGF-I fell below starting levels. Key Words: cycling; insulin-like growth factor; exercise; endurance; binding proteins PMID:11579061

  9. Application of the local-bulk partitioning and competitive binding models to interpret preferential interactions of glycine betaine and urea with protein surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felitsky, Daniel J; Record, M Thomas

    2004-07-20

    Two thermodynamic models have been developed to interpret the preferential accumulation or exclusion of solutes in the vicinity of biopolymer surface and the effects of these solutes on protein processes. The local-bulk partitioning model treats solute (and water) as partitioning between the region at/or near the protein surface (the local domain) and the bulk solution. The solvent exchange model analyzes a 1:1 competition between water and solute molecules for independent surface sites. Here we apply each of these models to interpret thermodynamic data for the interactions of urea and the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine; GB) with the surface exposed in unfolding the marginally stable lacI HTH DNA binding domain. The partition coefficient K(P) quantifying accumulation of urea at this protein surface (K(P) approximately equal 1.1) is only weakly dependent on urea concentration up to 6 M urea. However, K(P) quantifying exclusion of GB from the vicinity of this protein surface increases from 0.83 (extrapolated to 0 M GB) to 1.0 (indicating that local and bulk GB concentrations are equal) at 4 M GB (activity > 40 M). We interpret the significant concentration dependence of K(P) for GB, predicted to be general for excluded, nonideal solutes such as GB, as a modest (8%) attenuation of the GB concentration dependence of solute nonideality in the local domain relative to that in the bulk solution. Above 4 M, K(P) for the interaction of GB with the surface exposed in protein unfolding is predicted to exceed unity, which explains the maximum in thermal stability observed for RNase and lysozyme at 4 M GB (Santoro, M. M., Liu, Y. F., Khan, S. M. A., Hou, L. X., and Bolen, D. W. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 5278-5283). Both thermodynamic models provide good two-parameter fits to GB and urea data for lacI HTH unfolding over a wide concentration range. The solute partitioning model allows for a full spectrum of attenuation effects in the local domain

  10. Fluorescence competition assay for the assessment of green leaf volatiles and trans-β-farnesene bound to three odorant-binding proteins in the wheat aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Yin, Jiao; Deng, Sisi; Li, Kebin; Cao, Yazhong

    2012-06-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are important parts of insect olfactory systems, and sensitive olfaction is vital for phytophagous insects in host foraging. Electrophysiological studies are helpful in understanding olfactory sensing in Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), but the functions of odorant-binding proteins in this insect are poorly understood. In this study, we used fluorescence competition assays to measure the binding specificities of SaveOBPs. The results showed that both SaveOBP2 and SaveOBP3 were superior to SaveOBP7 in binding green leaf volatiles. It was unexpected that SaveOBP7 bound trans-β-farnesene strongly, which was known as alarm pheromone of this species. Host volatiles were recognized much more easily by SaveOBP2, and the observed binding activity of SaveOBP2 equaled for tested green leaf volatiles. Our results imply that SaveOBP7 might play a more important role in aphid alarm pheromone discrimination.

  11. [{sup 123}I]Iodobenzamide binding to the rat dopamine D{sub 2} receptor in competition with haloperidol and endogenous dopamine - an in vivo imaging study with a dedicated small animal SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Larisch, Rolf; Wirrwar, Andreas; Jamdjeu-Noune, Marlyse; Antke, Christina; Beu, Markus; Mueller, Hans-Wilhelm [Heinrich-Heine University, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schramm, Nils [Research Center Juelich, Central Laboratory for Electronics, Juelich (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    This study assessed [{sup 123}I]iodobenzamide binding to the rat dopamine D{sub 2} receptor in competition with haloperidol and endogenous dopamine using a high-resolution small animal SPECT. Subsequent to baseline quantifications of D{sub 2} receptor binding, imaging studies were performed on the same animals after pre-treatment with haloperidol and methylphenidate, which block D{sub 2} receptors and dopamine transporters, respectively. Striatal baseline equilibrium ratios (V{sub 3}{sup ''}) of [{sup 123}I]iodobenzamide binding were 1.42{+-}0.31 (mean{+-}SD). After pre-treatment with haloperidol and methylphenidate, V{sub 3}{sup ''} values decreased to 0.54{+-}0.46 (p<0.0001) and 0.98{+-}0.48 (p=0.009), respectively. The decrease in [{sup 123}I]iodobenzamide binding induced by pre-treatment with haloperidol reflects D{sub 2} receptor blockade, whereas the decrease in receptor binding induced by pre-treatment with methylphenidate can be interpreted in terms of competition between [{sup 123}I]IBZM and endogenous dopamine. Findings show that multiple in vivo measurements of [{sup 123}I]iodobenzamide binding to D{sub 2} receptors in competition with exogenous and endogenous ligands are feasible in the same animal. This may be of future relevance for the in vivo evaluation of novel radioligands as well as for studying the interrelations between pre- and/or postsynaptic radioligand binding and different levels of endogenous dopamine. (orig.)

  12. Competitive binding inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses the secreted aspartyl proteinase of Candida albicans as an antigenic marker for diagnosis of disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christine J; Hurst, Steven F; Reiss, Errol

    2003-09-01

    The secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) of Candida albicans have been implicated as virulence factors associated with adherence and tissue invasion. The potential use of proteinases as markers of invasive candidiasis led us to develop a competitive binding inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Sap in clinical specimens. Daily serum and urine specimens were collected from rabbits that had been immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and cortisone acetate and infected intravenously with 10(7) C. albicans blastoconidia. Disseminated infection was confirmed by organ culture and histopathology. Although ELISA inhibition was observed when serum specimens from these rabbits were used, more significant inhibition, which correlated with disease progression, occurred when urine specimens were used. Urine collected as early as 1 day after infection resulted in significant ELISA inhibition (mean inhibition +/- standard error [SE] compared with preinfection control urine, 15.7% +/- 2.7% [P ELISA results. Dissemination to the kidney and spleen occurred in one rabbit challenged by intragastric inoculation, and urine from this rabbit demonstrated significant inhibition in the ELISA (mean inhibition +/- SE by day 3 after infection, 32.9% +/- 2.7% [P test sensitivity was 83%, the specificity was 92%, the positive predictive value was 84%, the negative predictive value was 91%, and the efficiency was 89% (166 urine samples from 33 rabbits tested). The specificity, positive predictive value, and efficiency could be increased to 97, 95, and 92%, respectively, if at least two positive test results were required for a true positive designation. The ELISA was sensitive and specific for the detection of Sap in urine specimens from rabbits with disseminated C. albicans infection, discriminated between colonization and invasive disease, reflected disease progression and severity, and has the potential to be a noninvasive means to diagnose disseminated candidiasis.

  13. Effects of an endurance cycling competition on resting serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3

    OpenAIRE

    Chicharro, J; Lopez-Calderon, A; Hoyos, J; Martin-Velasco, A; Villa, G; Villanua, M; Lucia, A

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine whether consecutive bouts of intense endurance exercise over a three week period alters serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and/or its binding proteins.

  14. Competitive binding of postsynaptic density 95 and Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein kinase Ⅱ to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B in rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan-jie MENG; Jun GUO; Bo SONG; Xue-bo YAN; Guang-yi ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interactions among postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95), Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein kinase Ⅱα (CaMKⅡα), and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) during ischemia and reperfusion in hippocampus of rats. METHODS: Brain ischemia was induced by four-vessel occlusion procedure in rats. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting were performed to study the interactions and phosphorylation of proteins. The association-dissociation of PSD-95 and CaMKⅡα to and from N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor induced by ischemia and reperfusion and the effects of 1-[N,O-bis-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenyl-piperazine (KN-62, a selective inhibitor of CaMKⅡ) on these protein interactions were investigated. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting were performed for the studies of interactions among proteins. RESULTS: The alternations of the binding level of PSD-95 and CaMKⅡα to NR2B during ischemia and reperfusion demonstrated the negative correlation to each other. Pre-administration of KN62 through both cerebral ventricles inhibited the 10 min ischemia-induced increase of the binding of PSD-95 to NR2B and, on the contrary, promoted the binding of CaMKⅡα to NR2B. CONCLUSION: PSD-95 competes with CaMKⅡ to bind to NR2B during ischemia and reperfusion in rat hippocampus.

  15. Competitive binding exchange between alkali metal ions (K+, Rb+, and Cs+) and Na+ ions bound to the dimeric quadruplex [d(G4T4G4)]2: a 23Na and 1H NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesare Marincola, Flaminia; Virno, Ada; Randazzo, Antonio; Mocci, Francesca; Saba, Giuseppe; Lai, Adolfo

    2009-12-01

    A comparative study of the competitive cation exchange between the alkali metal ions K+, Rb+, and Cs+ and the Na+ ions bound to the dimeric quadruplex [d(G4T4G4)]2 was performed in aqueous solution by a combined use of the 23Na and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The titration data confirm the different binding affinities of these ions for the G-quadruplex and, in particular, major differences in the behavior of Cs+ as compared to the other ions were found. Accordingly, Cs+ competes with Na+ only for the binding sites at the quadruplex surface (primarily phosphate groups), while K+ and Rb+ are also able to replace sodium ions located inside the quadruplex. Furthermore, the 1H NMR results relative to the CsCl titration evidence a close approach of Cs+ ions to the phosphate groups in the narrow groove of [d(G4T4G4)]2. Based on a three-site exchange model, the 23Na NMR relaxation data lead to an estimate of the relative binding affinity of Cs+ versus Na+ for the quadruplex surface of 0.5 at 298 K. Comparing this value to those reported in the literature for the surface of the G-quadruplex formed by 5'-guanosinemonophosphate and for the surface of double-helical DNA suggests that topology factors may have an important influence on the cation affinity for the phosphate groups on DNA.

  16. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  17. Pop competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Cellino; Anna Soci

    2002-01-01

    Very few economic terms are used as much as competitiveness in economics. This article deals with the different meanings of competitiveness, at the level of a firm, at the level of the local area, and at the level of the country. It analyzes the problems of consistency among the available definitions and among the indicators used to measurecompetitiveness.

  18. Competitiveness factors

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Liliana-Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Porter's theory supports the idea that, despite the globalization of production and trade, the competitive advantage is created in a national framework, nations, through their institutional, natural, cultural, economic characteristics ultimately determining the development of certain economic activities. The factors considered by Porter as determinants for the competitive advantage are grouped in four categories, the linkages between them being important as well

  19. Competition Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  20. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  1. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  2. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  3. The microtubule-stabilizing agent discodermolide competitively inhibits the binding of paclitaxel (Taxol) to tubulin polymers, enhances tubulin nucleation reactions more potently than paclitaxel, and inhibits the growth of paclitaxel-resistant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, R J; Giannakakou, P; Gunasekera, S P; Longley, R E; Day, B W; Hamel, E

    1997-10-01

    The lactone-bearing polyhydroxylated alkatetraene (+)-discodermolide, which was isolated from the sponge Discodermia dissoluta, induces the polymerization of purified tubulin with and without microtubule-associated proteins or GTP, and the polymers formed are stable to cold and calcium. These effects are similar to those of paclitaxel (Taxol), but discodermolide is more potent. We confirmed that these properties represent hypernucleation phenomena; we obtained lower tubulin critical concentrations and shorter polymers with discodermolide than paclitaxel under a variety of reaction conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrated that discodermolide is a competitive inhibitor with [3H]paclitaxel in binding to tubulin polymer, with an apparent Ki value of 0.4 microM. Multidrug-resistant human colon and ovarian carcinoma cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein, which are 900- and 2800-fold resistant to paclitaxel, respectively, relative to the parental lines, retained significant sensitivity to discodermolide (25- and 89-fold more resistant relative to the parental lines). Ovarian carcinoma cells that are 20-30-fold more resistant to paclitaxel than the parental line on the basis of expression of altered beta-tubulin polypeptides retained nearly complete sensitivity to discodermolide. The effects of discodermolide on the reorganization of the microtubules of Potorous tridactylis kidney epithelial cells were examined at different times. Intracellular microtubules were reorganized into bundles in interphase cells much more rapidly after discodermolide treatment compared with paclitaxel treatment. A variety of spindle aberrations were observed after treatment with both drugs. The proportions of the different types of aberration were different for the two drugs and changed with the length of drug treatment.

  4. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  5. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  6. Competitive Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Spiegler

    2014-01-01

    I present a simple framework for modeling two-firm market competition when consumer choice is "frame-dependent", and firms use costless "marketing messages" to influence the consumer's frame. This framework embeds several recent models in the "behavioral industrial organization" literature. I identify a property that consumer choice may satisfy, which extends the concept of Weighted Regularity due to Piccione and Spiegler (2012), and provide a characterization of Nash equilibria under this pr...

  7. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  8. The future of competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Gary; Jensen, Boris Brorman; Miessen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition.......We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition....

  9. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  10. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  11. Probing the aglycon binding site of a b-glucosidase: a collection of C-1-modified 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-mannitol derivatives and their structure-activity relationships as competitive inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrodnigg, Tanja; Diness, Frederik; Gruber, Christoph;

    2004-01-01

    A range of new C-1 modified derivatives of the powerful glucosidase inhibitor 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-mannitol has been synthesised and their biological activities probed with the b-glucosidase from Agrobacterium sp. Ki values are compared with those of previously prepared close relatives. Findings...... suggest dramatic effects exerted by the aglycon binding site on substrate/inhibitor binding....

  12. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition....

  13. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) represses transcription of the tumor suppressor Rb gene via binding competition with Sp1 and recruitment of co-repressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Choong-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-11-28

    FBI-1 (also called Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a BTB/POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a proto-oncogenic protein, which represses tumor suppressor ARF gene transcription. The expression of FBI-1 is increased in many cancer tissues. We found that FBI-1 potently represses transcription of the Rb gene, a tumor suppressor gene important in cell cycle arrest. FBI-1 binds to four GC-rich promoter elements (FREs) located at bp -308 to -188 of the Rb promoter region. The Rb promoter also contains two Sp1 binding sites: GC-box 1 (bp -65 to -56) and GC-box 2 (bp -18 to -9), the latter of which is also bound by FBI-1. We found that FRE3 (bp -244 to -236) is also a Sp1 binding element. FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene not only by binding to the FREs, but also by competing with Sp1 at the GC-box 2 and the FRE3. By binding to the FREs and/or the GC-box, FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene through its POZ-domain, which recruits a co-repressor-histone deacetylase complex and deacetylates histones H3 and H4 at the Rb gene promoter. FBI-1 inhibits C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation by repressing Rb gene expression. PMID:18801742

  14. Competition and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Begazo, Tania; Nyman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    A literature review shows competition policy reforms can deliver benefits for the poorest households and improve income distribution. A lack of competition in food markets hurts the poorest households the most. Competition in input markets and between buyers helps farmers and small businesses. And more competitive markets bolster job growth over the longer term. More research is needed, ho...

  15. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Michael E.; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  16. Securitization, Competition and Monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, J-H; Breton, R.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the impact of loan securitization on competition in the loan market. Using a dynamic loan market competition model where borrowers face both exogenous and endogenous costs to switch between banks, we uncover a competition softening effect of securitization that allows banks to extract rents in the primary loan market. By reducing monitoring incentives, securitization mitigates winner’s curse effects in future stages of competition thereby decreasing ex ante competition for initial ...

  17. Methods of Measuring Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Podaºcã Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Any approach to measuring competitiveness and competitive advantages must take account of one hand of the covered analysis: microeconomic, mezoeconomic, macroeconomic, and on the other hand that they are the result of many variables that are interconditioned directly or indirectly. Measurement methods attempt to quantify the impact of competitiveness and the variables considered relevant. Among all methods of measuring global competitiveness stands Global Competitiveness Index and Economic Fr...

  18. Evaluating competitiveness of airports - Airport competitiveness index

    OpenAIRE

    Grancay, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces a concept of airport competitiveness index. The index consists of numerous indicators grouped into four categories: market potential, infrastructure, charges and recent traffic results. Another important factor we take into account is safety. We find that from the selected sample the most competitive airports are Singapore Changi, New York Kennedy, Newark Liberty and Dubai International. U.S. and South-East Asian airports in general are among the most competitive.

  19. COMPETITIVENESS AND SUPPORTING THE BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mester Liana-Eugenia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness designates efficiency, productivity, success, adaptability, quality products, optimum costs. Competitiveness is a complex concept which defines the ability of a firm or country to cope with actual or potential competition companies or countries on a particular market, on the world market respectively and it is synonymous with economic efficiency; competitiveness reflects a certain state of the economic activity arising from a certain resource consumption in order to achieve economic goods. Supporting the national competitiveness and flexibility is aimed at a sustained increase in productivity relying on the diversification and the innovation of the domestic industrial base. The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012 ranks Romania as the 77th out of 142 assessed economies. Romania has access to a large market and free trade area, which makes it attractive for many foreign companies, but Romania needs a coherent economic policy that changes the approach used today - from the traditionalist design of restructuring following the resources and, therefore, related to the comparative advantage to finding solutions that stimulate the activities based on knowledge and information so that they allow the emphasis of the competitive advantages. This paper aims to identify the factors and reasons that gave rise to the level of competitiveness for some activities or fields of activities from the economy of Romania during the reporting period, as well as the possibilities that would lead to increasing and supporting the competitiveness of the national economy.

  20. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  1. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) Represses Transcription of the Tumor Suppressor Rb Gene via Binding Competition with Sp1 and Recruitment of Co-repressors*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Choong-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-01-01

    FBI-1 (also called Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a BTB/POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a proto-oncogenic protein, which represses tumor suppressor ARF gene transcription. The expression of FBI-1 is increased in many cancer tissues. We found that FBI-1 potently represses transcription of the Rb gene, a tumor suppressor gene important in cell cycle arrest. FBI-1 binds to four GC-rich promoter elements (FREs) located at ...

  2. Competitive strategy : Sorrin Puutarha

    OpenAIRE

    Haaristo, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The thesis handles the fresh food product industry in Finland and especially one company operating in the industry and its competitive position. Sorrin Puutarha manufactures ready-to-use fresh cut salad bag, which is sold in the grocery stores. The objective of the thesis was to find competitive advantages of the case company. Once the competitive advantages were identified the purpose was to choose a fitting competitive strategy that would strengthen those advantages. The field study was con...

  3. Strategizing for Intense Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, William; Bourgeois, Ernest J., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines trend toward more aggressive student recruiting strategies by colleges and universities, applying a model that assesses five competitive forces-cause and effect of competition, the expanding marketplace, substitute products, buyer power, and supplier power, and examines various strategies for dealing with these competitive forces, such as…

  4. A computational model for feature binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI ZhiWei; SHI ZhongZhi; LIU Xi; SHI ZhiPing

    2008-01-01

    The "Binding Problem" is an important problem across many disciplines, including psychology, neuroscience, computational modeling, and even philosophy. In this work, we proposed a novel computational model, Bayesian Linking Field Model, for feature binding in visual perception, by combining the idea of noisy neuron model, Bayesian method, Linking Field Network and competitive mechanism.Simulation Experiments demonstrated that our model perfectly fulfilled the task of feature binding in visual perception and provided us some enlightening idea for future research.

  5. A computational model for feature binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The "Binding Problem" is an important problem across many disciplines, including psychology, neuroscience, computational modeling, and even philosophy. In this work, we proposed a novel computational model, Bayesian Linking Field Model, for feature binding in visual perception, by combining the idea of noisy neuron model, Bayesian method, Linking Field Network and competitive mechanism. Simulation Experiments demonstrated that our model perfectly fulfilled the task of feature binding in visual perception and provided us some enlightening idea for future research.

  6. Binding Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of the binding procurement process in purchasing Aerospace Flight Battery Systems. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) requested NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to develop a set of guideline requirements document for Binding Procurement Contracts.

  7. Hotel Competitiveness Measurement Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Katalin Juhasz-Dora

    2015-01-01

    Competitiveness is becoming a very common expression used in business administration. The definition and its application still raises some questions due to the complexity of its meaning. The role of the measurement of competitiveness and its effect on performance and profitability is increasing in the field of hospitality and tourism as well. The measurement of hotel competitiveness is a current issue in business life due to globalization, sharing economy and the change in the consumber habit...

  8. Platform Competition in Telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Church, Jeffrey; Gandal, Neil

    2004-01-01

    In this Paper we consider the economics of platform competition in telecommunications. Platform competition occurs when different, sometimes incompatible, technologies compete to provide telecommunications services to end-users. Battles between competing technologies have been an important feature of telecommunications in the last twenty or so years. Examples of platform competition in telecommunications include wireless vs. wireline networks, competing wireless options, such as satellite vs....

  9. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... by forming firms capable of expanding internationally. At the level of subsidiaries as providing institutional back up for these firms' abilities to fight for survival and growth within the frame of rivalling subsidiaries of the MNC. The article discusses at these two levels the comparative institutional...

  10. Salary cuts and competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Haliassos, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There is a prevalent view outside Greece that promotion of competitiveness is tantamount with price reductions for Greek goods and services. Massive horizontal salary cuts appear, at first, to promote competitiveness by reducing unit labor costs and to reduce fiscal deficits by reducing the wage bill of the public sector. Upon closer look, however, horizontal salary cuts have been much greater than needed for Greek competitiveness, providing an alibi vis a vis the Troika for reforms that are ...

  11. COMPETITIVENESS OF SMES

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2015-01-01

    The main reason for addressing competitiveness at SMEs level is that, ultimately, the meso or macro level competitiveness is generated at the enterprises level, the main actors of economic life. It is one of the most used levels of analysis in the literature, due to the special interest shown by companies in their competitive assessment of the situation by referring to direct competitors, using tools that easily lends itself to comparisons between companies (benchmarking is one of the most us...

  12. Competition Policy in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Estrada Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    The CFC faces significant challenges from cartel activity, prevailing regulatory restrictions on competition, and exclusionary practices undertaken by some of the most powerful corporations in Mexico.

  13. Effect of water coordination on competition between π and non-π cation binding sites in aromatic amino acids: L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and L-tryptophan Li+, Na +, and K+ complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remko, Milan; Šoralová, Stanislava

    2012-04-01

    Quantum chemistry methods have been applied to charged complexes of the alkali metals Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) with the aromatic amino acids (AAAs) phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Trp). The geometries of 72 different complexes (Phe·M, Tyr·M, Trp·M, M is Li(+), Na(+), or K(+)) were completely optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of density functional theory. The solvent effect on the geometry and stability of individual complexes was studied by making use of a microsolvation model. The interaction enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of nine different complexes of the systems Phe·M, Tyr·M, and Trp·M (M is Li(+), Na(+), or K(+)) were also determined at the B3LYP density functional level of theory. The calculated Gibbs binding energies of the M(+)-AAA complexes follow the order Phe < Tyr < Trp for all three metal cations studied. Among the three AAAs studied, the indole ring of Trp is the best π donor for alkali metal cations. Our calculations demonstrated the existence of strong cation-π interactions between the alkali metals and the aromatic side chains of the three AAAs. These AAAs comprise about 8% of all known protein sequences. Thus, besides the potential for hydrogen-bond interaction, aromatic residues of Phe, Tyr, and Trp show great potential for π-donor interactions. The existence of cation-π interaction in proteins has also been demonstrated experimentally. However, more complex experimental studies of metal cation-π interaction in diverse biological systems will no doubt lead to more exact validation of these investigations.

  14. Short run pricing in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the need for more responsive, competitive and decentralized pricing strategies forced upon the industry by deregulation, this study reviewed the type of electricity pricing required to coordinate a competitive wholesale electricity market over time periods typically of the order of one hour. It was found that nodal spot pricing can provide a straight-forward mechanism for providing the correct signals to market participants, while reflecting the costs and complexities of transmission network operation. Provided that all binding constraints are represented in the pricing model, and assuming that they are used in conjunction with long term contracts and capacity rights, such pricing can potentially deliver most of the benefits promised by perfect coordination, while allowing competition to flourish. 4 refs

  15. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  16. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  17. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...... policy, innovation, alliances, industrial policy...

  18. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structure....... On the contrary, inferences based on the x-inefficiency literature suggest the highest positive effect will be experienced by companies with inappropriate ownership structure. Our empirical analysis on a panel of Czech firms shows that the former view is supported if import competition is high...

  19. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen;

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  20. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    put under pressure. Thus, the two central actors involved inarchitectural competitions, architects and building clients, are continually influenced by such developments, interpreting and adaptingto changes according to their interests and horizons. During a project reviewing Nordic research literature...... on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... as having a positive impact on competitions. But when looking closely into the answers, these revealed diverse understandings of how and why the impact of BIM on competitions could be said to be positive. The paper sheds light on the interaction between the actors (building clients, architects and client...

  1. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The...

  2. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  3. FameLab competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Are you 18 to 35 years old and studying or working in science in Switzerland? Are you passionate about your job and keen on exciting public imagination with a vision of the 21st century of science? Then this competition is for you!   For more information, check out http://www.famelab.ch/ or http://famelab.org/ or write to info@famelab.ch. Read more about the Famelab competition in this Bulletin article.  

  4. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Zaharia; Mirela Dogaru

    2011-01-01

    Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative...

  5. Takeover Defenses and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Martijn Cremers; Vinay Nair; Urs Peyer

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction between takeover defenses and product market competition. We find that firms in more competitive industries have more takeover defenses. This is the opposite result from what one would expect if takeover defenses always constitute an inefficient outcome that increases agency costs and managerial entrenchment. A novel explantion is provided by considering the nature of the relationship between the firm and the product (or labor) market. For firms in industrie...

  6. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  7. REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS, CONCEPTUAL ELEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Popa

    2016-01-01

    In a general sense, competitiveness is conveyed as the ability of a nation to lay the foundations and ensure an economic, social and political environment capable of sustaining the creation of added value, enabling the positioning of a country within global economy, from the perspective of comparing the performances obtained and the growth potential over time. The paper highlights the importance of increasing competitiveness of regional economy and the perspectives for their development. Ther...

  8. SUSTAINING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Noor, Nurulainy

    2007-01-01

    E.ON entrepreneurship has long been recognised as a potentially viable means for promoting and sustaining corporate competitiveness. Scholl Hammer (1982), Miller (1983), Guth and Ginsberg (1990), Nam and Slevin (1993), and Lumpkin and Dess (1996), for example, have all noted that corporate entrepreneurship can be used to improve competitive positioning and transform corporations, their markets, and industries as opportunities for clue-creating innovation are developed and exploited. However, ...

  9. Untangling healthcare competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, I C; McDaniel, R R

    1993-11-01

    Traditional approaches to competition may be inappropriate for healthcare providers. Neoclassical economics makes the implicit assumption that a single actor embodies consumption, compensation, and benefit from a transaction. In healthcare, this assumption does not hold. Instead, such actions are accomplished by three separate actors--consumers (physicians), customers (third-party payers), and clients (patients). A hospital simultaneously competes in three arenas. Hospitals compete for physicians along a technological dimension. Competition for third-party payers takes on a financial dimension. Hospitals compete for patients along a marketing dimension. Because of the complex marketplace interactions among hospital, patient, physician, and third-party payer, the role of price in controlling behavior is difficult to establish. The dynamics underlying the hospital selection decision--that is, the decision maker's expectations of services and the convenience of accessing services--must also be considered. Healthcare managers must understand the interrelationships involved in the three-pronged competitive perspective for several reasons. This perspective clarifies the multiple facets of competition a hospital faces. It also disentangles the actions previously fulfilled by the traditional single buyer. It illuminates the critical skills underlying the competition for each audience. Finally, it defines the primary criterion each audience uses in sorting among hospitals. Recognition of the multifaceted nature of competition among healthcare providers will help demystify market behavior and thereby improve internal organizational communication systems, managers' ability to focus on appropriate activities, and the hospital's ability to adapt to changing market conditions.

  10. Reflections on Competition, Competition Regulation and the Current Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert; Wigger, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Economists, politicians, business leaders and opinion makers are convinced that competition enhances efficiency and maximises social welfare. As a result conditions conducive to the maximisation of competition have been created throughout developed capitalist societies. This article explains how...... competition came to enjoy such an exalted status in Europe and then challenges conventional wisdom by bringing into focus the downsides of competition. It argues that excessive competition and neoliberal competition regulation have contributed to intensify the economic, political, social and environmental...... crises currently facing humanity. The implication of the argument is that these crises can only be solved if prevailing notions of competition and its role in society are reconsidered....

  11. Dynamic competition and binding of concepts through time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Jean-Charles; Smeding, Annique

    2015-09-01

    Models of implicit stereotypes (e.g., association of male with math or female with language) usually explain the faster responses observed for stereotype-congruent trials in the Implicit Association Test (IAT) by requiring a fundamental opposition between the male and female concepts (or math-language), limiting the decision-making dynamics to abstract dimensions. This paper introduces alternate models exploiting the sensorimotor dimensions of the IAT, which naturally account for the opposition between concepts, because typically mapped on opposite corners of the screen space and on different response actions. In addition to the emergence of the IAT effect, dynamic characteristics of the decision-making process within these models are tested against human data, obtained with a mouse-tracking adapted IAT procedure.

  12. Competitively tight graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Suh-Ryung; Park, Boram; Sano, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The competition graph of a digraph $D$ is a (simple undirected) graph which has the same vertex set as $D$ and has an edge between $x$ and $y$ if and only if there exists a vertex $v$ in $D$ such that $(x,v)$ and $(y,v)$ are arcs of $D$. For any graph $G$, $G$ together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number $k(G)$ of $G$ is the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number $k(G)$ for a graph $G$ and it has been one of the important research problems in the study of competition graphs. Opsut~[1982] suggested that the edge clique cover number $\\theta_E(G)$ should be closely related to $k(G)$ by showing $\\theta_E(G)-|V(G)|+2 \\leq k(G) \\leq \\theta_E(G)$. In this note, we study on these inequalities. We first show that for any positive integer $m$ satisfying $2 \\leq m \\leq |V(G)|$, there is a graph $G$ satisfying $k(G)=\\theta_E(G)-|V(G)|+m$ and characterize a graph $G$ satisfying $k(G)=\\...

  13. Political Failures and Intergovernmental Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hindriks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In normative public economics, intergovernmental competition is usually viewed as harmful. Although empirical support for this position does not abound, market integration has intensified competition among developed countries. In this paper we argue that when assessing welfare effects of intergovernmental competition for various forms of political failures (the public choice critique, the outcome is ambiguous and competition can be welfare improving.

  14. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  15. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    concepts on innovation and competitive advantage. Findings The company succeeded by the thorough application of a strategy that, through perfect alignment, allowed the company to reach a unique market position. However, as described in the case, it took a relatively long time and the company came close......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how Nespresso achieved competitive advantage through innovation by changing the rules of the game in its industry. Design/methodology/approach Nespresso was analyzed based on public available secondary data, in combination with related academic...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...

  16. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Competition from weeds is the most important of all biological factors that reduce agricultural crop yield. This occurs primarily because weeds use resources that would otherwise be available to the crop. The magnitude of yield loss is affected by numerous agronomic and environmental factors, most...... importantly, weed density and time of emergence relative to the crop. Practices that (1) reduce the density of weeds, (2) maximise occupation of space or uptake of resources by the crop or (3) establish an early-season size advantage of the crop over the weeds will minimise the competitive effects of weeds...... on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...

  17. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...... reconstructs how the institutionalisation of competition as a specific type of policy tool which has been used by emerging modern states to establish its authority vis-à-vis competing claims to authority. It furthermore engages in an examination of corporatist and governance based attempts to respectively curb...... and expand the use of competition as a tool for organising social processes and the implications of the se attempts for the state of statehood....

  18. Business plan competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  19. Price competition in procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market's competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs

  20. The power of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change-over from regulated monopolies to a non-regulated competitive market in the electric utility industry was discussed in terms of marketing and survival strategies for utilities it the newly competitive marketplace. The impact of low natural gas prices was prominently discussed as a danger to hydroelectricity generators because high efficiency turbine generators that are now available. Surplus power capacity in both the Canadian and US markets were discussed. The effects of independent power producers selling electricity wholesale to private utilities was also debated on account of its potential to change the role of the electric utility. The situation of the Bonneville Power Association (BPA), a self-financed government agency, as owner of 15 000 miles of transmission grid that is not allowed to own generation plants, was described. Strategies developed by BPA in an effort to adapt to the competitive market were described and were successful

  1. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This millennium, confronted with a globalization of means leading as fast as possible at certain pursued aims, highlights the importance of competitiveness from the perspective of the continuous fight against limitation of resources. In this context, the machine of life evolution and economy has got an engine named competitiveness. The rules of circulation should focus on all livings to whom, from the perspective of survival and natural, human and social life accomplishment, the well- known concept of health may be attached. At the same time, competitiveness through environment health should try to reach the convergent performances which means that any form of superior knowledge and experience should always take into consideration environment health.

  2. Price competition in procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market`s competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs.

  3. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  4. Joseph Schumpeter on Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas McCraw

    2008-01-01

    The following documents illustrate the relevance of Schumpeter’s thought to competition policy. Part I is an introduction to Schumpeter’s ideas; Part II a series of excerpts from his book, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy ; Part III a 1951 critique of his stance toward antitrust by the economist Edward S. Mason; and Part IV an evaluation of the current use of Schumpeter’s theories in discussions of competition policy.

  5. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  6. Demography and language competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Attempts to describe language competition and extinction in a mathematical way have enjoyed increased popularity recently. In this paper I review recent modeling approaches and, based on these findings, propose a model of reaction-diffusion type. I analyze the dynamics of interactions of a population with two monolingual groups and a group that is bilingual in these two languages. The results show that demographic factors, such as population growth or population dispersal, play an important role in the competition dynamic. Furthermore, I consider the impact of two strategies for language maintenance: adjusting the status of the endangered language and adjusting the availability of monolingual and bilingual educational resources. PMID:19943743

  7. Competition and social cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Libertini

    2014-01-01

    "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critic...

  8. Zinc ions bind to and inhibit activated protein C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Tianqing; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Nickolaus, Noëlle;

    2010-01-01

    fold enhanced, presumably due to the Ca2+-induced conformational change affecting the conformation of the Zn2+-binding site. The inhibition mechanism was non-competitive both in the absence and presence of Ca2+. Comparisons of sequences and structures suggested several possible sites for zinc binding...

  9. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...

  10. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  11. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit......This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how...... the institutionalization of competition as a specific type of policy tool has been used by emerging modern states to establish their authority vis-à-vis competing claims to public authority in society. The article, furthermore, engages in an examination of (neo-)corporatist and governance-based attempts both to curb...... and to expand the use of competition as a tool for organizing social processes, and the implications of these attempts for the state of statehood....

  12. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  13. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  14. On competition and banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda Adriana

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we discussed several aspects of bank behavior under imperfect competition. As we argued in chapters 1 and 2, the loss of production and growth and the suboptimal welfare level resulting from imperfections in banking can only partly be explained by transaction costs and asymmetric info

  15. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  16. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive re

  17. A Swimming Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹成兵; 邓新华

    2004-01-01

    Last Sunday, there was a swimming competition in our school. It had been a short time since I learned how to swim. Mr. Zhang, our PE teacher, said I had a gift in swimming and that competing in the game would help build up my confidence and courage. With his encouragement,I signed up for the swimming race.

  18. Competitiveness Index 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    The United States' economic performance in the world economy is compared with that of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom (the Summit 7 countries). Competitiveness is assessed by four economic indicators: standard of living, trade, manufacturing productivity, and investment. The United States continues to outinvest the…

  19. Coase Competition and Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Hal Varian

    1994-01-01

    I show that the Pigovian solution to a simple externalities problem and a particular Coasian solution can be viewed as competitive equilibria from different initial endowments. I also describe the ``compensation mechanism,'' a mechanism that implements either the Coasian or Pigovian solution as the outcome of an economically natural bargaining game.

  20. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  1. Enzyme-free colorimetric detection systems based on the DNA strand displacement competition reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhao; Birkedal, Victoria; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2016-01-01

    The strand displacement competition assay is based on the dynamic equilibrium of the competitive hybridization of two oligonucleotides (A and B) to a third oligonucleotide (S). In the presence of an analyte that binds to a specific affinity-moiety conjugated to strand B, the equilibrium shifts...

  2. Competitive teacher – competitive graduate of the higher educational institution

    OpenAIRE

    Sokhach Aleksandr Yakovlevich; Plugina Maria Ivanovna

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses issues related to education reform and setting new goals and objectives, and ensuring training of future competitive professionals by enhancing the competence and competitiveness of teachers.

  3. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-29

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  4. UNFAIR COMPETITION LAW APPROXIMATION - A NECESSITY FOR COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA IRINESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On 8th April 2014, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development published, based on a peer review analysis made in the OECD Global Forum on Competition from 27th February 2014, a report entitled "Analysis of competition policy and law in Romania" dedicated to the analysis of the evolution and competition law enforcement and competition policy in Romania. One of the relevant themes of the report was the Romanian law on unfair competition, which currently represents one of the weaknesses of the competition regime in Romania. The need for a competitive regime aligned standards developed by the international community leads inevitably to modernize legislation in this sector. Thus, a modern legal framework can ensure continuity and systematic implementation of the competition regime's reforms.

  5. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  6. Competitive Moves over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies the Red Queen theory to explain how organizations utilize various sourcing arrangements in order to compete in an evolutionary arms race where only the strongest competitors will survive. This case study incorporates competition and views sourcing strategies as a means to improve...... its viability to survive in the marketplace. The study begins with a review of sourcing literature to position the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies changed over time in response...... to the logic of competition. The case study reveals that (a) organizations are adaptive systems and capable of organizational learning to make strategic changes pertaining to sourcing arrangements; (b) organizations select the terms in which they want to compete by developing certain capabilities within...

  7. Competition in Soccer Leagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one-dimensional, then equilib......In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one......-dimensional, then equilibria in pure strategies exist, and; if the quality of players is multi-dimensional, then there need not exist equilibria in pure strategies, but equilibria in mixed strategies exist. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer...

  8. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  9. COMPETITIVENESS OF POTENTIAL INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    САБАДИРЬОВА, А.Л.; Одеський державний економічний університет; САЛАВЕЛІС, Д.Є.; Одеський державний економічний університет

    2011-01-01

     In the article the considered tendencies of forming of competitiveness of potential of enterprises industrial, factors of competitiveness of potential of enterprises at processing industry on the terms of modern market environment.

  10. Managed competition that works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caper, P

    1993-05-19

    President Clinton has advocated managed competition within a global budget as a long-term strategy for simultaneously controlling health care costs and expanding access to medical care to all Americans. This proposal is intended to show how these two seemingly conflicting goals can be simultaneously accomplished. Managed competition, as it has been conceptualized to date, is primarily a strategy for reforming the system of providing health services. To work, it must be joined with a strategy for reforming our system of financing and paying for those services and of limiting overall system capacity. "Managed Competition That Works" is a proposal that would create a single trust-funded national system of health insurance, implemented through a system of vouchers to individuals. Global budgeting would be accomplished through establishment of the voucher's value each year. The trust fund would pay health plans for all medical care by capitation, but health plans would be free to negotiate a variety of payment arrangements with physicians, hospitals, and other providers. All plans would be required to offer a standard package of benefits, but would have great flexibility in offering benefits beyond the scope of the standard package, if those benefits replace high-cost with lower-cost services or permit the plan to compete more effectively for market share. This proposal would establish firm but acceptable national budget limits; provide universal, comprehensive, and uniform insurance coverage; eliminate cost shifting; encourage competition; reward efficiency-improving innovation; greatly reduce the need for centralized micromanagement of medical care; and retain local determination and a somewhat reduced level of consumer choice. Although this proposal is written as a national plan, trust funds could be implemented at the state level, if problems associated with portability of benefits among states could be solved.

  11. Competitiveness through information

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA; Roxana SÂRBU; Elena CONDREA

    2013-01-01

    Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success...

  12. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  13. Securitization and Lending Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Frankel, David M.; Jin, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of securitization on interbank lending competition when banks see private signals of local applicants' repayment chances. If banks cannot securitize, the outcome is efficient: they lend to their most creditworthy local applicants. With securitization, banks lend also to remote applicants with strong observables in order to lessen the lemons problem they face in selling their securities. This reliance on observables is inefficient, raises the mean default risk, and may lea...

  14. Thinking About Competitive Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Allen R. Sanderson; John J. Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    Simon Rottenberg long ago noted that the nature of sports is such that competitors must be of approximately equal ability if any are to be financially successful. In recent years, sports commentators and fans, Major League Baseball itself, and even some economists have expressed growing concern about the widening disparities among team expenditures and the growing concentrations of postseason contenders and championships. In this article we compare different concepts of competitive balance, r...

  15. Competition and Car Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Molly; Hamilton, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We examine determinants of the nearly 30 percent increase in the average age of domestically produced, registered automobiles since the mid-1960s. We find that very little of the increase in car longevity is attributable to improvements in the inherent durability of cars. Rather, we find that the temporal pattern of longevity improvement is highly correlated with the level of market concentration in the auto industry. In particular, we argue that the arrival of competition in the industry led...

  16. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  17. Competition and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission have frequently raised innovation concerns as reasons to challenge mergers. This chapter surveys the economic theories of innovation incentives and considers how the theory may inform antitrust analysis for merger investigations and other conduct that involve innovation. Competition can promote innovation by reducing the value of failing to invest in research and development. However, with non-exclusive intellectual property rights...

  18. Competition among mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Maksymilian

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how mass media provide information to readers or viewers who have diverse interests. The problem of a mass medium comes from the fact that there is a constraint on how much information can be delivered. It is shown that the mass medium optimally provides information that is somewhat useful to all agents, but not perfect to anybody in particular. This benchmark model is then used to investigate competition among mass media with differentiated products. In the equilibriu...

  19. Energy and Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Dominique; Fontagné, Lionel; Martin, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    When energy prices are expected to rise over the next twenty years, it is essential that industrial innovation efforts and the supply of goods and service off erings be directed towards energy-efficient technologies. However, a more significant increase in energy prices in France than in other countries would be detrimental to the short-term competitiveness of French industry. The present Note outlines the terms of the trade-off France has to confront between reserving a significant part of i...

  20. Energy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency-related programs in two Canadian provinces are reviewed. The Ontario Ministry of Energy has implemented programs to improve industrial energy efficiency in order to contribute to future economic growth. Since 1987, the Industrial Energy Services Program provides energy audits, feasibility analysis grants, and project engineering grants for energy efficiency improvements. Results show that an industrial plant can cut its energy costs by an average of 10% with the proper help. To minimize electricity costs, Ontario Hydro has a demand management program that offers a combination of financial assistance for energy conservation measures, rate incentives, standards and regulation, and fuel substitution. Results in 1992 show 250 MW in saved and shifted load. In Alberta, a TransAlta Utilities program in supply side management has the objective of maximizing the production potential of existing plants. The resulting benefit is improved electric power production efficiency that leads to increased competitiveness. Side benefits include delay of new plant construction, reduced coal consumption, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, Canada's economic competitiveness is reviewed historically and measures to improve this competitiveness are suggested. A new national policy strategy would include gradual elimination of all import tariffs, optimization of natural resources, securing energy availability at prices at or below world levels, and becoming a leader in transportation and communications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  2. APPROACHES ON THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan PETRIŞOR; Natalia Ana STRĂIN (SILAŞ)

    2013-01-01

    Within this study, we approached the concept of "competitive intelligence" (CI), which we consider a key element for the success of a business, especially in the current period, characterized by numerous economic and financial turbulence. According to Society of Competitive Intelligence (SCIP), competitive intelligence is defined as a method of ethical and moral collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding the competitive environment, opportunities, vulnerabilities, and int...

  3. The International SAT Solver Competitions

    OpenAIRE

    Järvisalo, Matti; University of Helsinki; Le Berre, Daniel; University of Artois; Roussel, Olivier; University of Artois; Simon, Laurent; University of Paris-Sud

    2012-01-01

    The International SAT Solver Competition is today an established series of competitive events aiming at objectively evaluating the progress in state-of-the-art procedures for solving Boolean satisfiability (SAT) instances. Over the years, the competitions have significantly contributed to the fast progress in SAT solver technology that has made SAT a practical success story of computer science. This short article provides an overview of the SAT solver competitions.

  4. How (not) to measure competition

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Wiel, H.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    We discuss and apply a new measure of competition: the elasticity of a firm's profits with respect to its cost level. A higher value of this profit elasticity (PE) signals more intense competition. Using firm level data we compare PE with the most popular competition measures such as the price cost margin (PCM). We show that PE and PCM are highly correlated on average. However, PCM tends to misrepresent the development of competition over time in markets with few firms and high concentration,...

  5. FEATURES CONCERNING COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Coculescu

    2008-01-01

    Innovation and competitiveness are the main vectors of social-economic progress of every country. Starting from this general context and considering the particular context wherein Romania is, which strongly impose the growth of economic competitiveness for realize the convergence to EU countries, in this item we propose to put in evidence the kinds of competitive performance measurement. For this, we’ll study from economic development point, competitiveness index contained in Global Competiti...

  6. Measuring institutional competitiveness in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, Stefan; Scheubel, Beatrice; Walch, Florian

    2013-01-01

    While there are many methods to measure the competitiveness of an economy, most of these concepts ignore the fact that competitiveness can change because of market processes like wage negotiation but also because of political decision-making. Governments that compete with others for factors of production face the incentive to adjust key policy variables to improve their competitive position. Disentangling market-induced and politics-induced changes in competitiveness is not easy, but strongly...

  7. SMES COMPETITIVENESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Bibu Nicolae; Popovici Adina; Sala Diana

    2010-01-01

    In the related literature, there are many ways in which company competitiveness can be defined and understood. The purpose of this research is a better understanding of the SMEs competitiveness from the West Region of Romania. This study presents preliminary results of a research focussed on SMEs competitiveness. There are some positive and negative local and national factors which are influencing firms’ competitiveness. This study confirms us our presumptions. The internal and external envir...

  8. Competitive Environments and Protective Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.

    2005-01-01

    The class of two-person competition games is introduced and analyzed.For any game in this class the set of Nash equilibria is convex, equilibrium strategies are exchangeable, and all Nash equilibria lead to the same payoff vector. Competition games are compared to other competitive environments such

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility and Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    tureanu Simona-Luize

    2012-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility helps achieving different social, environmental and economic policy goals, but it can also contribute to competitiveness. This paper concentrates on how CSR could help competitiveness at level of individual enterprises. Moreover the connection between macro-level competitiveness and CSR is presented.

  10. Interspecific Resource Competition in Antelopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific or interspecific competition is then fundamentally the same: scramble competition is a good example of this type of competition. Modern ecology increasingly is faced with the question whether the data or a paper provide evidence for the statement that is made or for testing the hypo

  11. Hospital survival in a competitive environment: the competitive constituency model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehreth, J

    1993-01-01

    Organizational theory is extended to develop a method for administrators to assess hospital effectiveness in a competitive environment. First, the literature pertaining to organizational effectiveness and survival is synthesized to show the lack of consideration for the effects of competition. Second, the article integrates the effects of competition on organizational effectiveness through a competitive constituency model. A step-by-step procedure is proposed to apply the theory in an organizational setting. The model explicitly addresses differences in power relations between hospitals, their competition, and their stakeholders. The relative nature of effectiveness is explored by comparing the hospital to its competition using criteria developed through specific goals of stakeholders. The distinction between managerial and organizational effectiveness constructs is clarified. Finally, the practical application of this model is demonstrated by assessing the effectiveness of a hospital in the competitive environment of Seattle, Washington, where two hospitals have recently closed.

  12. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Sears

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, the structure of the environment is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact structural heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics and producing competitive advantages. Applying a generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between a competition's structure and its scoring dynamics. Despite wide structural variations, we find the same three-phase pattern in the tempo of events observed in many sports. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. The most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data...

  13. Recent advances in designing substrate-competitive protein kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ki-Cheol; Kim, So Yeon; Yang, Eun Gyeong

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinases play central roles in cellular signaling pathways and their abnormal phosphorylation activity is inseparably linked with various human diseases. Therefore, modulation of kinase activity using potent inhibitors is an attractive strategy for the treatment of human disease. While most protein kinase inhibitors in clinical development are mainly targeted to the highly conserved ATP-binding sites and thus likely promiscuously inhibit multiple kinases including kinases unrelated to diseases, protein substrate-competitive inhibitors are more selective and expected to be promising therapeutic agents. Most substrate-competitive inhibitors mimic peptides derived from substrate proteins, or from inhibitory domains within kinases or inhibitor proteins. In addition, bisubstrate inhibitors are generated by conjugating substrate-competitive peptide inhibitors to ATP-competitive inhibitors to improve affinity and selectivity. Although structural information on protein kinases provides invaluable guidance in designing substrate-competitive inhibitors, other strategies including bioinformatics, computational modeling, and high-throughput screening are often employed for developing specific substrate-competitive kinase inhibitors. This review focuses on recent advances in the design and discovery of substrate-competitive inhibitors of protein kinases.

  14. Competition in a Business Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J

    Competition and cooperation stabilize and structure business networks. In business research there is little focus on network based competition between firms and on how firms compete to gain network position. We review a range of conceptualizations of competition and cooperation and work towards...... a meaning of network competition and network cooperation based on goal structures within activity structures inside a firm network context. We conclude by presenting a framework to understand how network competition and cooperation are played out. We complete the paper with the opportunities for future...... research and also managerial thinking about network strategy and implementation....

  15. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitive...... scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  16. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  17. Competition, Corruption and Institutional Design

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Han Yoo

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a model to study competition and corruption with a principal-agent framework. We provide two key results on the optimal institutional design. First, in quality-only competition, corruption does no harm to the principal, but in quality-price competition, corruption negatively a¢´ects the principal. Second, with no corruption, quality-price competition is a superior institutional setting for the principal compared with quality-only competition when the principal?s net bene?t i...

  18. Analyzing binding data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey J; Neubig, Richard R

    2010-07-01

    Measuring the rate and extent of radioligand binding provides information on the number of binding sites, and their affinity and accessibility of these binding sites for various drugs. This unit explains how to design and analyze such experiments.

  19. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    of advanced offshoring, exploring what causes firms to offshore some of their more advanced tasks. Our findings indicate that while the lower cost of unskilled, labor-intensive processes is the main driver for firms that offshore less advanced tasks, the offshoring of advanced tasks is part of firms’ strategy...... to achieve international competitiveness through access to cross-border knowledge flows and foreign knowledge resources. Furthermore, offshoring of advanced manufacturing tasks seems to be more widespread and experience-based than the offshoring of advanced service tasks....

  20. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  1. Energy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The members of the Enquete Commission ''Future Energy Policy'' of the German Bundestag are introduced as well as the list of participants from industry and other organizations in the public heaving on 18 th December 1981. Then the catalogue of questions of the Enquete Commission is presented. The written answers of the 11 representatives of industry form the main part of the report. In the following the minutes of the public hearing of the Enquete Commission 'Future Energy Policy' of the German Bundestag on Friday, 18 th December 1981 on the topic of 'The Competitiveness of German economy in various energy supply structures' is presented. (UA)

  2. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  3. Rowing competitions and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  4. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sears Merritt; Aaron Clauset

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, the structure of the environment is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact structural heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics and producing competitive advantages. Applying a generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between a competition's structure and its scoring dynamics. Despite wi...

  5. [Binding to chicken liver lactatedehydrogenase (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluís, C; Bozal, J

    1976-06-01

    Some information about the lactate dehydrogenase NAD binding site has been obtained by working with coenzymes analogs of incomplete molecules. 5'AMP, 5'-ADP, ATP, 5'-c-AMP and 3'(2)-AMP inhibit chicken liver LDH activity competitively with NADH. 5"-AMP and 5'-ADP show a stronger inhibition power than ATP, suggesting that the presence of one or two phosphate groups at the 5' position of adenosine, is essential for the binding of the coenzyme analogs at the enzyme binding site. Ribose and ribose-5'-P do not appear to inhibit the LDH activity, proving that purine base lacking mononucleotides do not bind to the enzyme. 5"-ADPG inhibits LDH activity in the exactly as 5'-ADP, showing that ribose moiety may be replaced by glucose, without considerable effects on the coenzyme analog binding. 2'-desoxidenosin-5'-phosphate proves to be a poorer inhibitor of the LDH activity than 5'-AMP, indicating that an interaction between the--OH groups and the amino-acids of the LDH active center takes place. Nicotinamide does not produce any inhibition effect, while NMN and CMP induce a much weaker inhibition than the adenine analogues, thus indicating a lesser binding capacity to the enzyme. Therefore, the LDH binding site seems to show some definite specificity towards the adenina groups of the coenzyme.

  6. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...... performance, beliefs about relative performance, and risk preferences, or for beliefs only. Girls are also more altruistic and less risk taking than boys....... to that without competition. We further find that boys and girls are equally likely to self-select into competition in a verbal task, but that boys are significantly more likely to choose to compete in a mathematical task. This gender gap diminishes and becomes nonsignificant when we control for actual...

  7. Tax competition: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Božidar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax competition is increasingly attracting the attention of not only experts Although it is difficult to define precisely, grosso modo, it is actually a competition between states (jurisdictions in attracting capital (investors by tax instruments, especially tax incentives. The first recorded cases of tax competition emerged in 12th century (attracting wool weavers into regions of North Italy-Piemont. Today, tax competition has undreamt-of and very dynamic forms, both territorial and sectored. However, tax competition is accompanied not only by positive but also by rather strong negative effects. Positive effects worth mentioning are the following: 1. control of power, 2. innovations, and 3. incentives. However, negative effects, embodied in "unfair tax competition", provoke a range of unwanted and important distortions in international trade. All of them arise from requirements and wants of tax payers (especially companies to minimize or evade their tax obligations, on the one hand, as well as.

  8. Product Positioning Under Price Competition

    OpenAIRE

    S. Chan Choi; DeSarbo, Wayne S, et al; Patrick T. Harker

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a consumer-based methodology for new product pricing and positioning in the face of price competition. The price competition is modelled as a Nash equilibrium for which two complementary approaches are employed: an analytical approach of duopoly provides qualitative insights into the competitive behavior, and a numerical approach of general oligopoly provides quantitative solutions under a wide variety of market scenarios. The optimal product positioning is formulated as a...

  9. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  10. Competition in the Cryptocurrency Market

    OpenAIRE

    Gandal, Neil; Hałaburda, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    We analyze how network effects affect competition in the nascent cryptocurrency market. We do so by examining the changes over time in exchange rate data among cryptocurrencies. Specifically, we look at two aspects: (1) competition among different currencies, and (2) competition among exchanges where those currencies are traded. Our data suggest that the winner-take-all effect is dominant early in the market. During this period, when Bitcoin becomes more valuable against the U.S. dollar, it a...

  11. Competitiveness in the New Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rouvinen, Petri

    2002-01-01

    This paper devises an e-competitiveness index attempting to measure the ability of a nation to exploit information and communication technology (ICT) to the fullest. Results of the analysis show that Finland is highly specialized in ICT provision, it has good premises to exploit ICT to the fullest, but that it is not amongst the leading users of ICT. – Internet ; ICT ; IT ; new economy ; competitiveness ; e-competitiveness

  12. NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS - SCENARIOS FOR ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Herciu, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Competitiveness remains a continuous concern of nations in any stage of development, from factor based economy to innovation based economy. The present paper aims to emphasize the current level of national competitiveness of Romania, on one hand, and to identify possible ways to improve the current level by building scenarios in order to eliminate the uncertainty, on the other hand. The paper proposes four scenarios for increase GCI (growth competitiveness index) and four scenarios from pessi...

  13. Knowledge Resources and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Gomezelj Omerzel; Rune Ellemose Gulev

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses some definitions of knowledge as a potential source of competitive advantage. It reviews the literature pertaining to the assessment of knowledge assets. According to the resource-based view, which links the competitive advantage of organizations with resources and capabilities that are firm-specific, and difficult to imitate or substitute, a firm’s competitive advantage is built on a set of strategically relevant resources (Barney 1991; Grant 1991; Peteraf 1993). When fir...

  14. Tax Competition through Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Beckmann

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, 1 analyse the competitive behaviour of benevolent governments in the presence of (capital) income tax evasion when information exchange is not possible. My approach is to introduce a cost of evasion function into an otherwise standard tax competition model and to explore three variants of the basic tax competition cum evasion game. Two distinct justifications for tax harmonisation emerge. First, harmonisation of taxation at the source can be supported with the usual spil...

  15. Competition Effects of Supermarket Services

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Alessandro; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of in-store services on retail food prices, supermarket competition, and demand using fluid milk as a case study. It is shown that higher-service supermarkets charge higher milk prices essentially because of an increase in market power due to differentiation of service offering. Results show that different types of services impact milk prices differently, that upscale food-retailers face stronger competition in newer services, and that service competition re...

  16. INNOVATION STRATEGIES AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Companies today operate in a very dynamic, uncertain and competitive environment. They compete in "nicety" that are so small but so important. Companies are trying to achieve competitive advantage in order to help them obtain a better and a stable position in the marketplace. The best way for companies to achieve a competitive advantage is through innovation. This paper addresses the meaning of innovation what does innovation present, types of innovation specifically discussing the right way ...

  17. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xishu; Zuidwijk, Rob; Koster, René; Dekker, Rommert

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can either choose to plan its investments proactively, taking into account possible responses from the other firm, or decide to respond reactively to the competition. In both cases, the optimal decision at...

  18. Mapping your competitive position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  19. Competitive adsorption, displacement, and transport of organic matter on iron oxide: II. Displacement and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Baohua; Mehlhorn, Tonia L.; Liang, Liyuan; McCarthy, John F.

    1996-08-01

    The competitive interactions between organic matter compounds and mineral surfaces are poorly understood, yet these interactions may play a significant role in the stability and co-transport of mineral colloids and/or environmental contaminants. In this study, the processes of competitive adsorption, displacement, and transport of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM) are investigated with several model organic compounds in packed beds of iron oxide-coated quartz columns. Results demonstrated that strongly-binding organic compounds are competitively adsorbed and displace those weakly-bound organic compounds along the flow path. Among the four organic compounds studied, polyacrylic acid (PAA) appeared to be the most competitive, whereas SR-NOM was more competitive than phthalic and salycylic acids. The transport of SR-NOM is found to involve a complex competitive interaction and displacement of different NOM subcomponents. A diffuse adsorption and sharp desorption front (giving an appearance of irreversible adsorption) of the SR-NOM breakthrough curves are explained as being a result of the competitive time-dependent adsorption and displacement processes between different organic components within the SR-NOM. The stability and transport of iron oxide colloids varied as one organic component competitively displaces another. Relatively large quantities of iron oxide colloids are transported when the more strongly-binding PAA competitively displaces the weakly-binding SR-NOM or when SR-NOM competitively displaces phthalic and salicylic acids. Results of this study suggest that the chemical composition and hence the functional behavior of NOM (e.g., in stabilizing mineral colloids and in complexing contaminants) can change along its flow path as a result of the dynamic competitive interactions between heterogeneous NOM subcomponents. Further studies are needed to better define and quantify these NOM components as well as their roles in contaminant partitioning

  20. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals a functional heparin binding motif involved in binding to the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV surface glycoprotein gp120 (SU, gp120 and the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP bind to chemokine receptors during infection and have a site of amino acid sequence similarity in their binding domains that often includes a heparin binding motif (HBM. Infection by either pathogen has been found to be inhibited by polyanions. Results Specific polyanions that inhibit HIV infection and bind to the V3 loop of X4 strains also inhibited DBP-mediated infection of erythrocytes and DBP binding to the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC. A peptide including the HBM of PvDBP had similar affinity for heparin as RANTES and V3 loop peptides, and could be specifically inhibited from heparin binding by the same polyanions that inhibit DBP binding to DARC. However, some V3 peptides can competitively inhibit RANTES binding to heparin, but not the PvDBP HBM peptide. Three other members of the DBP family have an HBM sequence that is necessary for erythrocyte binding, however only the protein which binds to DARC, the P. knowlesi alpha protein, is inhibited by heparin from binding to erythrocytes. Heparitinase digestion does not affect the binding of DBP to erythrocytes. Conclusion The HBMs of DBPs that bind to DARC have similar heparin binding affinities as some V3 loop peptides and chemokines, are responsible for specific sulfated polysaccharide inhibition of parasite binding and invasion of red blood cells, and are more likely to bind to negative charges on the receptor than cell surface glycosaminoglycans.

  1. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Africa competitiveness report 2011 comes out as the world emerges from the most significant financial and economic crisis in generations. While many advanced economies are still struggling to get their economies back on a solid footing, Africa has, for the most part, weathered the storm remarkably well. The Africa competitiveness report focuses on harnessing Africa's underutilized reso...

  2. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  3. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  4. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  5. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  6. How (Not) to Measure Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.; van der Wiel, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new measure of competition: the elasticity of a firm’s profits with respect to its cost level. A higher value of this profit elasticity (PE) signals more intense competi- tion. Using firm-level data we compare PE with the most popular competition measures such as the price cost margin

  7. Competitive dimensions of human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.

  8. Essays on competition in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters of a theoretical nature, all related to the topic of competition in the financial sector. The first chapter studies how competition for talented workers induces banks to set variable wage schemes, and how these wage schemes can lead to excessive risk. The secon

  9. Competition in european electric market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity prices in Western Europe have dropped in recent years, especially for large industrial clients, as a result of liberalisation and the introduction of competition. This article, however, reflects on the conditions required for effective competition. A number of currently overlooked issues are emerging, which could bring to a substantial rise in electricity prices in the future

  10. A Survey of Robotic Competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Balogh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of robotic competitions all over the world, their short history and present state is given. Contests are classified according to their difficulty and conditions. Typical competition categories, also with interesting robot constructions are described. Sense, advantages and disadvantages of contests are discussed, especially concerning educational purposes. At the same time, our experiences with organising the contest Istrobot are presented.

  11. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can eith

  12. A Learning Software Design Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Simon; Hokanson, Brad; Bernhardt, Paul; Johnson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the University of Minnesota Learning Software Design Competition, focusing on its goals and emphasis on innovation. Describes the review process to evaluate and judge the software, lists the winners, identifies a new class of educational software, and outlines plans for future competitions. (Author/LRW)

  13. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Frenken; S. van Terwisga; T. Verburg; G. Burghouwt

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are rela

  14. HETEROGENEOUS RECEPTOR-BINDING OF CLASSICAL QUATERNARY MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS .1. BOVINE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; ENSING, K; INTHOUT, WG; DEZEEUW, RA; ZAAGSMA, J

    1991-01-01

    In competition experiments with the teritiary radioligand [H-3]dexetimide, classical quaternary muscarinic antagonists like ipratropium bromide and N-methylscopolamine bromide distinguished two muscarinic binding sites in bovine brain (total brain minus cerebellum) membranes, in contrast to their te

  15. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  16. May the Best Molecule Win: Competition ESI Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Laughlin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has become invaluable in the characterization of macromolecular biological systems such as nucleic acids and proteins. Recent advances in the field of mass spectrometry and the soft conditions characteristic of electrospray ionization allow for the investigation of non-covalent interactions among large biomolecules and ligands. Modulation of genetic processes through the use of small molecule inhibitors with the DNA minor groove is gaining attention as a potential therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the development of a competition method using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to probe the interactions of multiple DNA sequences with libraries of minor groove binding molecules. Such an approach acts as a high-throughput screening method to determine important information including the stoichiometry, binding mode, cooperativity, and relative binding affinity. In addition to small molecule-DNA complexes, we highlight other applications in which competition mass spectrometry has been used. A competitive approach to simultaneously investigate complex interactions promises to be a powerful tool in the discovery of small molecule inhibitors with high specificity and for specific, important DNA sequences.

  17. Driving Competitiveness Through Servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana;

    Servitization, or adding services to the manufactured product, has become a strategy for increasing financial margins, getting closer to the customer and prolonging product lives. This is especially applicable to Western hemisphere companies in their efforts to compete with companies from low cos...... for the company. This booklet is produced to serve as a documentation of a research project together with industry on how servitization can be a strategy to enhance the competitiveness of manufacturing firms.......Servitization, or adding services to the manufactured product, has become a strategy for increasing financial margins, getting closer to the customer and prolonging product lives. This is especially applicable to Western hemisphere companies in their efforts to compete with companies from low cost...... countries and emerging economies. It is our hope that this booklet can assist managers to analyze and plan a servitization strategy. The text is brief and comprehensive to supplement a workshop, but can also be used separately as a quick guide on steps to follow for a manager when considering servitization...

  18. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  19. Energy levy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of regulating levies is that the consumption of products that have negative effects on the environment will be reduced. The income of the levies can be reimbursed to the civilians and companies via tax reduction. One of the impacts of the implementation of energy levies is the negative effect on the competitive position of the Dutch industry and businesses. In this report attention is paid to the micro-economic consequences of energy levies. The flows of fifteen production processes and the position of these processes in the market have been analyzed systematically. The impacts of energy levies on these product flows are investigated. The sectors that have been analyzed are the services sector (mainly determined by households), the agricultural food sector, the transportation sector, and the basic industry (mostly energy-intensive industries). In order to determine the sensitivity of the height of the energy levy three variants were investigated: 25%, 50% and 100% surcharge on the present energy costs. The variants are combined with three geographic levy ranges: national, European and global. 21 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Customer-driven competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro's customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro's Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro's franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro's system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation

  1. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or...

  2. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  3. Marketing Aspect of Banking Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieizviestna Olena V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the need for application of marketing tools in order to improve competitiveness and competitive advantages of banks. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the relationship between the competitiveness of the commercial bank and its share in the banking market has been discovered. In the process of studying the integration of the strategy of maximizing customer satisfaction in the practice of strategic competition in the banking market there was presented the author’s position regarding the need to take into account the structure of the customer loyalty, as it is it that helps to properly distribute the bank’s marketing efforts. It has been proved that the technology of bank marketing should not only include the systems of identifying customer needs, creation of new financial products, but also contribute to the formation of the multi-factor strategic model of competitive strategy of the bank competitive development. It has been proposed to use the SWOT-analysis in order to effectively manage the bank’s competitiveness.

  4. A very competitive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drop in oil barrel prices results in 8 to 10 billions in savings for French companies, i.e. as much as the tax credit for competitiveness and employment. This article analyses how the different sectors take benefit of this saving due to lower oil prices. It outlines that this decrease has been very profitable for the refining sector which exhibited historic margins. As far as the chemistry sector is concerned, costs are reduced but profits are less important as this decrease compensates the decrease of the euro with respect to the dollar. The plastic industry does not take profit as it comes at the end of value chain where other actors already took their benefits. Therefore, there is no profit in agriculture as far as plastic products and fertilizers are concerned. On the opposite, the decrease of marine fuel has been profitable to the fishing sector as well as to the sea transport sector. As far as road transport is concerned the fuel price decrease is reflected in resale prices, and the oil price decrease had therefore no impact, or only for few days. It's not the case for air transport where companies took benefit of this decrease. In this respect, a second article outlines that airline companies have learned lessons from previous oil price counter-shock to adapt their strategies. The last article addresses the general situation of industry which exhibits a better financial health, could be boosted by a recovery of consumption. But growth is still to be confirmed by investments. A brief article notices that the profit is less important at the world level, i.e. more important in Europe than in Asia and even more than in Africa

  5. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  6. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  7. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  8. Competition for nutrient and light: stable coexistence, alternative stable states, or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankton species

  9. Competition for nutrients and light: Stable coexistence, alternative stable states or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Passarge; S. Hol; M. Escher; J. Huisman

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankto

  10. Plant Hormone Binding Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, Richard

    2004-01-01

    • Aims Receptors for plant hormones are becoming identified with increasing rapidity, although a frustrating number remain unknown. There have also been many more hormone‐binding proteins described than receptors. This Botanical Briefing summarizes what has been discovered about hormone binding sites, their discovery and descriptions, and will not dwell on receptor functions or activities except where these are relevant to understand binding.

  11. Analysis of binding heterogeneity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederlof, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    Binding heterogeneity, due to different functional groups on a reactive surface, plays an important role in the binding of small molecules or ions to many adsorbents, both in industrial processes and in natural environments. The binding heterogeneity is described by a distribution of affinity consta

  12. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.

  13. Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Manufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.

  14. Gender and competitive preferences: The role of competition size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanek, Kathrin J; Garcia, Stephen M; Tor, Avishalom

    2016-08-01

    In a series of 8 studies, we examine whether gender differences in competition entry preferences are moderated by the size of the competition. Drawing on theories of gender roles and stereotypes, we show that women, relative to men, prefer to enter smaller compared with larger competitions. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate this effect in observational data on preferences for working in differently sized firms and applying to differently sized colleges. Studies 2a and 2b replicate the effect with real behavioral decisions in different domains. We also find empirical evidence that prescriptive gender norms and stereotypes underlie this effect. In Study 3, we find experimental evidence that women and men differ in their preferences for differently sized groups under competition, but not in noncompetitive settings. Three additional experimental studies (Studies 4, 5a, and 5b) show that perceptions of comfort in small versus larger competitions underlie women's preferences. These findings suggest that women's preferences for smaller competitions may be driven by an adherence to prescriptive gender norms. We discuss the implications of the current findings for gender inequalities in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176148

  15. Competition in natural populations of Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.

    1995-01-01

    I investigated the competitive relationships between two species of Daphnia, D. galeata and D. cucullata, and their interspecific hybrid. The term hemispecific competition was introduced to describe competition between parental species and hybrids. In eutrophic Tjeukemeer both parental species were

  16. COMPETITIVE ISSUES IN BANKING: THEORETICAL APPROACHES OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Aloshyna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical concepts of bank competitiveness are studied and research approaches to the banking efficiency measurement are overviewed. Empirical models of competition in banking are considered for identifying the key factors of bank competitiveness.

  17. Analyzing radioligand binding data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey; Neubig, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Radioligand binding experiments are easy to perform, and provide useful data in many fields. They can be used to study receptor regulation, discover new drugs by screening for compounds that compete with high affinity for radioligand binding to a particular receptor, investigate receptor localization in different organs or regions using autoradiography, categorize receptor subtypes, and probe mechanisms of receptor signaling, via measurements of agonist binding and its regulation by ions, nucleotides, and other allosteric modulators. This unit reviews the theory of receptor binding and explains how to analyze experimental data. Since binding data are usually best analyzed using nonlinear regression, this unit also explains the principles of curve fitting with nonlinear regression.

  18. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-01-01

    Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Comp...

  19. Global Competitiveness Index and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Cazacu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the linkage between economic growth and competitiveness on a panel of 28 European countries, during 2006-2013. We use Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) as a measure of national competitive capacities and find that a shock in competitiveness has a positive impact on GDP developments. Nevertheless, the results show that fast economic growth has a small positive effect on competitiveness, as increasing the competitive capacity of a nation is linked to many other factor...

  20. Regional Competitiveness and Its Implications for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Daryono Soebagyo; Triyono Triyono; Yuli Tri Cahyono

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify regional competitiveness in some areas of Central Java. Regional competitiveness became one of the issues in regional development policy since the enactment of local autonomy.Measurement of regional competitiveness has been mostly done through ranking as a benchmark the competitiveness of the region. Mapping regional competitiveness in Indonesia has been made to all counties and cities, which shows the competitiveness ranking of each region. Competitivenes...

  1. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...... to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels...... and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges...

  2. Knowledge Resources and Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gomezelj Omerzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some definitions of knowledge as a potential sourceof competitive advantage. It reviews the literature pertaining to the assessmentof knowledge assets. According to the resource-based view,which links the competitive advantage of organizations with resourcesand capabilities that are firm-specific, and difficult to imitate or substitute,a firm’s competitive advantage is built on a set of strategicallyrelevant resources (Barney 1991; Grant 1991; Peteraf 1993. When firmshave access to similar resources, it is those companies that are able tomaximize the utilization of those resources that attain a competitiveadvantage. Among various strategic resources and capabilities that helpdetermine the extent of competitive advantages, a pivotal role is oftenassigned to knowledge – as both a resource in itself and an integratingfactor that makes other resources and capabilities effective – especiallyin complex and dynamic environments.

  3. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; REDDY, P; Flath, C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  4. The competitive challenge in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.A. Boot; A. Schmeits

    2005-01-01

    The increasingly competitive environment poses challenges to bankers. This paper emphasizes relationship banking as a prime source of the banks' comparative advantage. The proliferation of transaction-oriented banking (trading and financial market activities) does however seriously challenge relatio

  5. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  6. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  7. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio; Labini, Francesco Sylos

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation$-$that is, the competitiveness of its research system$-$and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is...

  8. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...... by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  9. Flavonoids with M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyyammai Swaminathan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-active compounds have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, a series of natural and synthetic flavones and flavonols was assayed in vitro for their ability to inhibit radioligand binding at human cloned M1 muscarinic receptors. Several compounds were found to possess competitive binding affinity (Ki = 40–110 µM, comparable to that of acetylcholine (Ki = 59 µM. Despite the fact that these compounds lack a positively-charged ammonium group under physiological conditions, molecular modelling studies suggested that they bind to the orthosteric site of the receptor, mainly through non-polar interactions.

  10. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-01-01

    The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of import...

  11. Understanding Competition in Spine Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-04-01

    The changing landscape from volume to value represents a natural transformation in the health care industry. Increasingly provider groups are finding themselves responding to unfamiliar market forces. Whether explicit or implicit, competition is playing a larger role for the sustainability of providers. For spine care providers who are attempting to navigate the transition from volume to value, understanding the forces that shape competition in health care can help achieve success. PMID:26925860

  12. The Effects of Tax Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan TALPOŞ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tax competition between governments is a research topic of growing importance in the context of globalization. This subject is particularly important for the European Union, characterized by a high degree of economic integration, single currency and free movement of goods, services, persons and capital. In this paper we define the concept of tax competition and we provide a review of the literature to highlight its potential effects.

  13. The Effects of Tax Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan TALPOŞ; Alexandru O. CRÂŞNEAC

    2010-01-01

    Tax competition between governments is a research topic of growing importance in the context of globalization. This subject is particularly important for the European Union, characterized by a high degree of economic integration, single currency and free movement of goods, services, persons and capital. In this paper we define the concept of tax competition and we provide a review of the literature to highlight its potential effects.

  14. Option compensation and industry competition

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, KP; Stoughton, NM

    2009-01-01

    Compensation policy has become one of the most important ingredients of corporate governance. In this paper we take a new look at the issue, by contrasting the use of options with that of stock. We do this by integrating the repricing or resetting aspect of options with that of industrial structure. We show that industry competition may play an important role in dictating which form of compensation is optimal. When aggressive competition for key professional staff is an issue, the flexibility...

  15. Competition, Takeovers and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Fredrik; Svaleryd, Helena; Vlachos, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    Theories of taste-based discrimination predict that competitive pressures will drive discriminatory behaviour out of the market. Using detailed matched employer-employee data, we analyze how firm takeovers and product market competition are related to the gender composition of the firm’s workforce and the gender wage gap. Using a difference-in-difference framework and dealing with several endogeneity concerns, we find that the share of female employees increases as a result of an ownership ch...

  16. Competitiveness of the European economy

    OpenAIRE

    Landesmann, Michael; Leitner, Sandra; Stehrer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to analyse changes of Europe’s position in global specialisation and location patterns of exporting activity within Europe by means of a number of competitiveness indicators. We consider both manufacturing as well as tradable services. The study analyses the increasing role of services–industry linkages, the differentiation in specialisation and competitiveness patterns amongst groups of EU member countries pointing to the increas...

  17. Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

    2004-01-01

    Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...

  18. Tax Competition and Public Input

    OpenAIRE

    Agnès Bénassy-Quéré; Nicolas Gobalraja; Alain Trannoy

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent and policy implications of simultaneous competition among countries on both corporate tax rates and the provision of public goods used by firms as production factors (‘public factors’). First, we derive the relevant theoretical results in a unified framework where a corporate tax is used to finance a public good that raises both household utility and firm productivity. Then, the relevance of such simultaneous competition is tested using data on foreign direct in...

  19. International Competitiveness of Sugar Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Beate; Zeddies, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    Sugar market is one of the most protected markets for agricultural products world wide. In almost every sugar producing country the sugar market is regulated in some way. With an increasing liberalization of agricultural trade in the "Millennium Round" of the WTO trade negotiations, the question of international competitiveness is of increasing importance. Based on empirical studies, in this article the competitiveness of sugar production in the most important sugar producing countries is ana...

  20. An amusement park physics competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-07-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition reveals positive effects such as the acquisition of experimentation skills and improved attitudes towards physics.

  1. Coupled and competitive eutectic growth

    OpenAIRE

    M. Trepczyńska - Łent

    2011-01-01

    A description of the competitive growth is presented in the paper. The description is associated with the competition between eutectic structure and primary phase formation. A coupled zone for the eutectic solidification is drawn in the phase diagrams. The coupled zone is shown as a range of solute concentration versus under-cooling to justify the formation of the eutectic structure, exclusively. Interface growth temperatures of the single and coupled eutectic are illustrated schematically as...

  2. International Competition: The Japanese Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    The Japanese success in international competition has attracted much attention. To date, little of this attention has addressed the role of marketing in the Japanese success. This note focuses on the Japanese approach to strategic market planning and its role in contributing to the competitive strength of Japanese enterprise.The author identifies the major elements of the Japanese approach and concludes that there is nothing new in Japanese marketing. The Japanese advantage is not in secret o...

  3. Internet service classes under competition

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbens, R.; R. Mason; Steinberg, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes competition between two Internet service providers (ISPs), either or both of which may choose to offer multiple service classes. In the model analyzed, a social planner who maximizes the total benefit from network usage and a profit maximizing monopolist will both form multiple service classes; but two networks competing to maximize profits will not. The reason is that a competition effect always outweighs a segmentation effect. Networks wish to offer multiple service clas...

  4. DXC'10 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Diagnostic Problems I and II of the Second International Diagnostic Competition. Three file formats...

  5. DXC'11 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Diagnostic Problem I of the Third International Diagnostic Competition. Three file formats are...

  6. Immunological impact of Taekwondo competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y W; Shin, K W; Paik, I-Y; Jung, W M; Cho, S-Y; Choi, S T; Kim, H D; Kim, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes in elite adolescent female athletes during Taekwondo competitions were investigated on-field. 6 female athletes (16.7 ± 0.8 year-old) volunteered and performed 5 bouts of demonstration Taekwondo competitions simulating real tournaments in intensity, duration, and break-time intervals on the same day. Blood samples were taken before, after the competitions and during the recovery, respectively. Immunological changes and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry. During the competitions, exercise intensity was 92.2 ± 3.8% (86.1~95.7) of the maximal heart rate. Blood lactate increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0165) and decreased to baseline during recovery. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood increased continuously during recovery (pTaekwondo competitions. Further large-scaled Taekwondo studies on immunologic and apoptotic changes related to oxidative stress should be performed for improving and protecting the health of adolescent athletes.

  7. In vitro DNA binding studies of Aspartame, an artificial sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2013-03-01

    A number of small molecules bind directly and selectively to DNA, by inhibiting replication, transcription or topoisomerase activity. In this work the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with Aspartame (APM), an artificial sweeteners was studied at physiological pH. DNA binding study of APM is useful to understand APM-DNA interaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and safer artificial sweeteners. The interaction was investigated using spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD). Hypochromism and red shift are shown in UV absorption band of APM. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to APM was observed and the binding constants (Kf) of DNA with APM and corresponding number of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy changes (ΔH) and entropy changes (ΔS) were calculated to be +181kJmol(-1) and +681Jmol(-1)K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Moreover, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD) results are indicative of non-intercalative DNA binding nature of APM. We suggest that APM interacts with calf thymus DNA via groove binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 5×10(+4)M(-1).

  8. Different mechanisms are involved in the antibody mediated inhibition of ligand binding to the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Høyer-Hansen, G; Rønne, E;

    1999-01-01

    Certain monoclonal antibodies are capable of inhibiting the biological binding reactions of their target proteins. At the molecular level, this type of effect may be brought about by completely different mechanisms, such as competition for common binding determinants, steric hindrance or...

  9. WTP and WTA in competitive and non-competitive environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical equivalence exists among various auction mechanisms, specifically the Second-Price-Auction (SPA, a competitive environment, and the BDM mechanism, a non-competitive environment. Yet, empirical studies suggest that behavior in these mechanisms may diverge. Our experimental study examines the WTP and the WTA of individuals by analyzing buying and selling bidding patterns both for a physical product (mugs and for two types of lotteries (regular lotteries and extreme lotteries in these two auctions mechanism: SPA and BDM. We found that the WTP in the SPA is higher than the WTP in the BDM for mugs and for regular lotteries, while the mechanisms do not differ significantly for extreme lotteries. In addition, the WTA in the SPA is lower than in the BDM for regular lotteries only. These results indicate that the WTP and WTA, as well as the WTA-WTP gap, tend to differ in the SPA and in the BDM as a result of the interaction between the competitiveness effect and other psychological effects on bidding patterns for riskless and risky assets. In addition, the current study suggests that the competitiveness effect depends not only on the type of mechanism (SPA, but also on the type of item (physical assets or lotteries and the type of lottery. In addition, the influence of the competitiveness effect may vary between buying and selling positions.

  10. Monoclonal Anti—CD4 Antibody MT310 Binds HIV-1 gp120 Binding Site on CD4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tests show the monoclonal anti—CD4 antibody (mAb) MT310 recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4 as part of its mechanism for strongly inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of CD4+ T cells. In competition tests, mAb MT310 and mAb Leu3a (an anti-CD4 mAb recognizing the gp120-binding site) all inhibited gp120-binding to CD4+ T lymphocytes, while mAb MT405 did not. This result suggests that MT310, like Leu3a, recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4. To further confirm whether MT310 recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4, we prepared rabbit anti-idiotypic antisera (Ab2) against MT310 (Ab1). The anti-idiotypic antisera against MT310 inhibited binding of MT310 and Leu3a to human CD4+ T lymphocytes, but did not block binding of MT151 with the second domain of CD4, while rabbit anti-idiotypic antisera to MT151 could block binding of itself to these cells, but could not inhibit the binding of MT310 and Leu3a, further indicating that MT310 recognized the gp120-binding site on CD4.

  11. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  12. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  13. Python bindings for libcloudph++

    OpenAIRE

    Jarecka, Dorota; Arabas, Sylwester; Del Vento, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This technical note introduces the Python bindings for libcloudph++. The libcloudph++ is a C++ library of algorithms for representing atmospheric cloud microphysics in numerical models. The bindings expose the complete functionality of the library to the Python users. The bindings are implemented using the Boost.Python C++ library and use NumPy arrays. This note includes listings with Python scripts exemplifying the use of selected library components. An example solution for using the Python ...

  14. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  15. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) Solicit at least three sources to promote competition to the maximum extent..., document the file to explain the lack of competition....

  16. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  17. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special competitions. 22.320 Section 22.320... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some... competed specifically among institutions of higher education. All such special competitions shall...

  18. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  19. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  20. Political Globalization and the Competition State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state.......Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state....

  1. Towards a Stakeholder Perspective on Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Minyu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Competitive advantage and stakeholder management are two important research streams that have attractedmuch attention during the past few decades. Distinctive approaches to studies on competitive advantage exhibitdifferences in their assumptions, units of analysis, and strategic implications; however, none of them canindividually explain the whole concept of competitive advantage. Although competitive advantage is the coreissue of strategic management in which stakeholder management is rooted...

  2. Business Plan Competitions: An Overview. CELCEE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Nicole

    This document describes business plan competitions sponsored by universities. The idea began in the early 1980s at the University of Texas when Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students created a friendly competitive activity along the lines of the law schools Moot Court competition. Later the competition became national, and then…

  3. Analysis of the competitiveness of small business

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Iveta

    2011-01-01

    The bachalorś thesis is described and characterized by a particular small business. Furthermore, its competitiveness, competitiveness analysis, and analysis of its major competitors. Based on a comparison of the chosen company to the competition is based on a proposal to improve business competitiveness and market position.

  4. DNS & Bind Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Cricket

    2011-01-01

    The DNS & BIND Cookbook presents solutions to the many problems faced by network administrators responsible for a name server. Following O'Reilly's popular problem-and-solution cookbook format, this title is an indispensable companion to DNS & BIND, 4th Edition, the definitive guide to the critical task of name server administration. The cookbook contains dozens of code recipes showing solutions to everyday problems, ranging from simple questions, like, "How do I get BIND?" to more advanced topics like providing name service for IPv6 addresses. It's full of BIND configuration files that yo

  5. Python bindings for libcloudph++

    CERN Document Server

    Jarecka, Dorota; Del Vento, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This technical note introduces the Python bindings for libcloudph++. The libcloudph++ is a C++ library of algorithms for representing atmospheric cloud microphysics in numerical models. The bindings expose the complete functionality of the library to the Python users. The bindings are implemented using the Boost.Python C++ library and use NumPy arrays. This note includes listings with Python scripts exemplifying the use of selected library components. An example solution for using the Python bindings to access libcloudph++ from Fortran is presented.

  6. Single amino acid substitutions dissociate fibrinogen-clotting and thrombomodulin-binding activities of human thrombin.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Q Y; Sheehan, J P; Tsiang, M; Lentz, S R; Birktoft, J J; Sadler, J E

    1991-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease that acts as a procoagulant by clotting fibrinogen and activating platelets and as an anticoagulant by activating protein C in a thrombomodulin-dependent reaction. Fibrinogen and thrombomodulin bind competitively to an anion-binding exosite on thrombin. We prepared recombinant normal human thrombin and mutant thrombins with single amino acid substitutions in order to localize and distinguish the fibrinogen- and thrombomodulin-binding sites. Normal and mutant thro...

  7. Retail competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions. (author)

  8. Game on: creating competitive advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Patricia; Foreman, M Shane

    2004-01-01

    Whether you are opening a new imaging center or trying to keep an existing center competitive, there are 3 critical factors: customer service, marketing, and a "what's next?" attitude. Customer service: Outstanding customer service is what sticks in the minds of referring physicians and patients. Not only does providing better service differentiate you from the competition, but it also boosts employee morale and motivates people to acquire new skills. Marketing: From the front office staff to the radiologists,promoting the center should be part of every employee's job description. Simply paying lip service to the concept of marketing will not cut it. A "what's next?" attitude: Complacency is a luxury that does not exist in today's competitive health care arena. Three facilities provide examples of how these factors applied to their success.

  9. Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details on the asp......The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details...... on the aspects of the problem, the data, and a summary of the methods used by selected top entries. We also discuss the lessons learned from this competition from the organizers’ perspective. The complete data set, including the solution data, is published along with this paper, in an effort to establish...

  10. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  11. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng;

    2014-01-01

    such as fossil fuels), mitigation and adaptation policies related to climate change, as well as climate change impacts and demographic pressures. The chapter concludes with a discussion of major research gaps, and it outlines priority research topics, including the improved analysis of interdependencies of land......Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well...... as societal well-being. This chapter discusses several emerging issues, including the effect of increased demand for nonprovisioning ecosystem services ( biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration), urbanization, bioenergy, and teleconnections. Three major types of land-use competition are discerned...

  12. GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS STRUCTURE OF TURKISH ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    TURGUTER, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    Global competition conditions are sharpening and turning into more complex structure in the world economy. Under the highly competitive conditions, Turkish economy needs to increase her competitiveness against the closest competitors. In this context, main aim of this study is to investigate the competitiveness structure of Turkish economy by considering The Global Competitiveness Report of World Economic Forum. Main result of the study is that Turkish economy has to increase her competitiven...

  13. Tax Competition - Economic and Financial Policy Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Iuliana Radu

    2013-01-01

    Tax competition, both at European and international level, is a current research topic given the current context of accelerating globalization. Subject to competition and tax competition, is increasingly important in the European Union, characterized by a high degree of economic integration, the single currency and free movement of goods, services, people and capital. In this study we aim to achieve a separation of the concept of tax competition, tax competition and to outline its potential e...

  14. Competitiveness on the International Tourism Market

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2012-01-01

    This paper comes to present and analyze the features of tourism in the main countries in Central and Western Europe, as well as the different strategies these countries adopt in order to maintain the competitiveness of the field. In the beginning, we have defined competitiveness, as the prerequisite of market success, we have analyzed its components and the main factors that determine it, as well as the competitivenesscompetitive advantage relation. During the last years, competitiveness h...

  15. THE IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Herciu

    2006-01-01

    The must uncorrupted nations are the mast competitive nations. The corruption – a very important phenomenon – is the one who make a nation to try to be competitive. In the last years the Nordic Country’s leading the top of competitiveness and the top of the uncorrupted nation. This article emphasizes the role of corruption in economic and social life with a strong impact on economic growth and competitiveness. The growth competitiveness index and the corruption perception index are the indica...

  16. Can NCLB Survive the Competitiveness Competition? Education Outlook. Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Some see the George W. Bush administration's American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) as the perfect complement to the No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) equity focus. The authors believe, however, that the prospects for synergy of these two agendas are not bright. In this essay, the authors discuss the history behind NCLB and the ACI, and argue…

  17. Ecological dumping under monopolistic competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competitive choice of emission taxes by two governments is analysed in a model of monopolistic competition with capital mobility where pollution externalities are regional. Assuming that governments have no other policy instrument apart from emission taxes at their disposal, I show that governments choose inefficiently low (high) taxes if the importance of emissions in production is small (large) relative to transport costs and the mark-up. In contrast to the previous literature, the marginal disutility of pollution is not among the parameters which separate the non-cooperative choice of emission taxes from the social planner's choice

  18. Knee pain in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeo, S A

    1999-04-01

    The high volume of training in competitive swimming results in cumulative overload injuries. Knee pain ranks second to shoulder pain as a common complaint in competitive swimmers. Most knee pain occurs on the medial side of the knee and, most commonly, in breaststroke swimmers; however, knee pain may accompany all strokes. This article reviews the incidence of knee pain, the biomechanic and anatomic factors predisposing to injury, specific injury patterns, injury diagnosis, and the treatment and prevention of injury to the knee in swimmers. PMID:10230572

  19. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  20. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S; Fairchild, R G; Watts, K P; Greenberg, D; Hannon, S J

    1980-01-01

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed. (PSB)

  1. DNS BIND Server Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  2. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  3. Tension-induced binding of semiflexible biopolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2014-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the effect of polymer tension on the collective behavior of reversibly binding cross-links. For this purpose, we employ a model of two weakly bending wormlike chains aligned in parallel by a tensile force, with a sequence of inter-chain binding sites regularly spaced along the contours. Reversible cross-links attach and detach at the sites with an affinity controlled by a chemical potential. In a mean-field approach, we calculate the free energy of the system and find the emergence of a free-energy barrier which controls the reversible (un)binding. The tension affects the conformational entropy of the chains which competes with the binding energy of the cross-links. This competition gives rise to a sudden increase in the fraction of bound sites as the tension increases. We show that this transition is related to the cross-over between weak and strong localization of a directed polymer in a pinning potential. The cross-over to the strongly bound state can be interpreted as a mechan...

  4. Quantitative assessment of factors affecting the sensitivity of a competitive immunomicroarray for pesticide detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belleville, Erik; Dufva, Hans Martin; Aamund, J.,;

    2003-01-01

    dichlobenil metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and atrazine. Free pesticide concentrations in solution are quantified by the competitive binding of fluorescence-conjugated monoclonal antibodies to either surface-immobilized pesticide hapten-protein conjugates or pesticides in solution. We investigated...

  5. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  6. Urban Competition and Urban Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    The essay gives a brief summery of Michel Foucault's 1978-1979 lectures which offers an important point of reference for a deeper understanding of the shift from liberal to neo-liberal ideas. Here he points out that neo-liberalism is an art of governemt that seeks to enforce competition. But his ...

  7. Electric power's new competitive marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, competition is limited primarily to power generation, the sale of wholesale bulk power, and fuel substitution at the point of end use. However, within the next several years, the rivalry will focus on large, energy-intensive industrial and large commercial customers. Driven by the disparity in rates among neighboring and regional utilities, large users are expected to lobby aggressively for retail wheeling and access to new supplies. New competitors will provide customers with additional supply options, forcing traditional utilities to offer better prices and or service. Competition at the point of end use also will increase as the natural gas industry develops new end-use technologies, gas utilities compete more aggressively, and some state regulatory commissions promote fuel switching as part of integrated resource planning (IRP) and demand-side management (DSM). However, as long as electric utilities are subject to cost-based rate of return regulation within price-sensitive markets, they will be a competitive disadvantage. The paper discusses the following: competitive risks by market segment, wholesale markets, industrial markets, commercial markets, residential markets, and franchise markets

  8. Raising Economic Competitiveness with Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Harry F.

    The current school reform movement has been plagued by three false assumptions. The first of these postulates that more academic requirements will strengthen the minds of students, improve their reasoning, prepare them for a rapidly changing economy, and make the U.S. economy more competitive. Although it is true that the workers of the future…

  9. The Fetish of Global Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    A number of scholars have criticised the methodological nationalism of the mainstream study of capitalist diversity for ignoring a global convergence trend triggered by global competition. This contribution agrees with this criticism but insists on the need to take the diversities into account...

  10. Competition in a Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  11. Media Competition and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piolatto, A.; Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We build a framework linking competition in the media market to political participation, media slant, and selection of politicians. Media outlets report on the ability of candidates running for office and compete for audience through their choice of slant. Citizens derive utility from foll

  12. Competitive behaviour in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Konecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article deals with the results of literature and empirical research into competitiveness and behaviour of entities in supply chains. Methods: A research hypothesis has been formulated that both partnership as well as dominance relations occur between enterprises functioning as suppliers-consignees. In order to verify the hypothesis a survey was completed in 2012. It encompassed 116 enterprises (manufacturers - 33, service providers - 32 and sellers - 24 as well as enterprises selling goods and providing services - 27 of which 54 were large, 26 medium and 36 were small enterprises. Competitive behaviour in supply chains has been identified and analysed. Furthermore, the authors intended to identify, reveal and examine possible interdependences between competitive behaviour and behaviour typical of supply chain strategies. Results and conclusions: The analysis of survey results revealed a tendency to preserve equilibrium between a chain leader and dependent enterprises. It may be easily justified in practice as on the one hand there is a need to keep the supply chain competitive and on the other hand to avoid the interruptions, which could occur as a result of elimination of dependent enterprises.

  13. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    2015-01-01

    The Africa Competitiveness Report 2015 comes out at a promising time for the continent: for 15 years growth rates have averaged over 5 percent, and rapid population growth holds the promise of a large emerging consumer market as well as an unprecedented labor force that - if leveraged - can provide significant growth opportunities. Moreover, the expansion of innovative business models, suc...

  14. Spatial competition with intermediated matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.; Webers, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial competition in commission fees between two match makers. These match makers serve as middlemen between buyers and sellers who are located uniformly on a circle. The profits of the match makers are determined by their respective market sizes. A limited willingness to p

  15. Media competition and electoral politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piolatto, A.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    We build a framework linking competition in the media market to political participation. Media outlets report on the ability of candidates running for office and compete for audience through their choice of slant. Citizens consume news only if the expected utility of being informed about candidates'

  16. Competition and Mergers among Nonprofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. I analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. I comp

  17. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA ANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of this paper is to highlight the position of the European players in the textile market and the challenges to which they are subjected. In this paper are presented ways, taking the „diamond" model of M. Porter and are adapted to the situation of the textile market. These adaptations have outlined the main existing problems and the possible solutions that can ensure the long-term competitive advantage. Gaining a competitive advantage based on innovation, the development of production and outsourcing strategies using the "diamond" model of M. Porter, we can say that is one of the viable solutions for gaining competitive advantages necessary for proper European companies to face competition from countries outside Europe. As developing countries do not meet certain environmental standards or norms of European law, but in terms of product innovation and development of new materials, they do not have the necessity for technology. We conducted an analysis of the factors that play a key role in the production of textiles, representing how they are used in the favor of European companies such investments to be supplemented can be found in how these factors act on the total costs.

  18. Credit rating dynamics and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics...

  19. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  20. Urban Competition and Urban Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    The essay gives a brief summery of Michel Foucault's 1978-1979 lectures which offers an important point of reference for a deeper understanding of the shift from liberal to neo-liberal ideas. Here he points out that neo-liberalism is an art of governemt that seeks to enforce competition. But his...

  1. Competition for cores in remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulmus, Serra Caner; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    We study competition between an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and an independently operating remanufacturer (IO). Different from the existing literature, the OEM and IO compete not only for selling their products but also for collecting returned products (cores) through their acquisition pri

  2. Future survival requires competitive skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The companies that will succeed in the global power business in 25 years will be those that best understand the productivity implications of the current power game. In the competitive free market for electricity, the inefficient will be driven out. This will include the developer that is unable to achieve higher productivity in developing and financing projects, the engineer-constructor that longs for the old risk-free, cost-plus environment and the trading company that fails to enter into new relationships with the most productive companies in the world. Also in jeopardy will be the operator who can't reduce O and M costs and the manufacturer who is unable to control overhead or labor costs. Succeeding will be all about productivity. Free market competition drives productivity improvement. In a competitive environment, companies must operate at a more efficient level. The US learned this accidentally through the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, getting us a side benefit of free market competition and lower electricity prices. In other countries the practice of socialism and its final bankruptcy forced adjustments to free market policies

  3. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  4. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social in

  5. Rates for the competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion panel consisted of Bruce Ander of Pamco Atlas, Ian Watson, Chair of the Ontario Chamber of Commerce Energy Committee, and Ken Snelson, Principal of Snelson International Energy. Ian Watson shared his membership's views on the future supply of electric power under a competitive energy system in Ontario, stressing the need for the government to instruct Ontario Hydro to bring forward a transmission rate to the Ontario Energy Board in 1997, and for legislation to allow independent buyers and sellers to contract with one another to use that transmission rate outside the control of Ontario Hydro. He also expressed concern about Ontario Hydro's anti-competitive load retention rate which was an obvious bid to retain its major customers. Ken Snelson reported on a review of the effects of competition on Canada's long-term energy outlook. He predicted that in a competitive market with full retail access, customers can expect a lot more choice; independent producers also will have many more options for selling power

  6. PETROCHINA TOPS ASIAN COMPETITIVENESS RANKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    PetroChina, the largest oil producer in China, ranks first in a competitiveness report of listed Asian enterprises recently published by the Research Institute of Boao Forum for Asia. The oil giant tops the ranks in the Asian Competitiveness: Annual Repor

  7. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  8. Review of submissions: competition impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; W. de Wit

    2015-01-01

    The Airports Commission requested ITF/SEO to provide technical assistance with analysing responses that pertain to the previous work undertaken by the ITF/SEO. This report assesses the submissions by the stakeholders in relation to competition impacts and compares them with the ITF/SEO results and t

  9. Competitiveness of the mining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is based on the upgraded study of the evaluation of competitiveness of the Colombian mining sector, carried out for the UPME, in the year 2005, with base in this study, the conditions were examined offered for Colombia for the mining industry

  10. ACHIEVING SUPPLY CHAIN COMPETITIVENESS: SOME CRITICAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Verma,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global marketplace, competitive priorities have forced organizations to change dramatically due to rising customer expectations, continually increasing competition on a world-wide scale, time and quality based competition and mass customization. The fierce competition in today’s market is led by advances in industrialtechnology, increased globalization, and tremendous improvement in information availability. With the development of information technology and economic globalization, modern competition has already become the competition among enterprises and their supply chains rather than the competition among enterprises only. In this era, the organizations are forced to rethink their operations, alliances, partnerships and strategies to cope with these and similar changes. Supply chain competitiveness has been emerged as one of the strongest tool for gaining competitive advantages. A company is competitive when it is able to create and deliver value for its customers. A supply chain is competitive if it is able to create and deliver value for its customers and its components. In the growing economy of India, supply chain competitiveness (SCC is a real solution to theproblems faced by organizations in this global environment. This paper identifies some of the supply chain competitiveness issues and presents roles of suppliers, manufacturers and distributors. Some future perspectives are then presented. The paper aims at identifying some critical issues related to supply chain competitiveness and presents roles of the major components of supply chain.

  11. Data for proteomic analysis of ATP-binding proteins and kinase inhibitor target proteins using an ATP probe

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Adachi; Marina Kishida; Shio Watanabe; Yuuki Hashimoto; Kazuna Fukamizu; Takeshi Tomonaga

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between ATP and ATP-binding proteins (ATPome) are common and are required for most cellular processes. Thus, it is clearly important to identify and quantify these interactions for understanding basic cellular mechanisms and the pathogenesis of various diseases. We used an ATP competition assay (competition between ATP and acyl-ATP probes) that enabled us to distinguish specific ATP-binding proteins from non-specific proteins (Adachi et al., 2014) [1]. As a result, we identified ...

  12. Characterization of (/sup 3/H)paroxetine binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcusson, J.O.; Bergstroem, M.E.; Eriksson, K.; Ross, S.B.

    1988-06-01

    The binding of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) uptake inhibitor (3H)paroxetine to rat cortical homogenates has been characterized. The effect of tissue concentration was examined and, with 0.75 mg wet weight tissue/ml in a total volume of 1,600 microliter, the binding was optimized with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 0.03-0.05 nM. Competition experiments with 5-HT, citalopram, norzimeldine, and desipramine revealed a high (90%) proportion of displaceable binding that fitted a single-site binding model. Fluoxetine and imipramine revealed, in addition to a high-affinity (nanomolar) site, also a low-affinity (micromolar) site representing approximately 10% of the displaceable binding. The specificity of the (3H)paroxetine binding was emphasized by the fact that 5-HT was the only active neurotransmitter bound and that the serotonin S1 and S2 antagonist methysergide was without effect on the binding. Both 5-HT- and fluoxetine-sensitive (3H)paroxetine binding was completely abolished after protease treatment, suggesting that the binding site is of protein nature. Saturation studies with 5-HT (100 microM) sensitive (3H)paroxetine binding were also consistent with a single-site binding model, and the binding was competitively inhibited by 5-HT and imipramine. The number of binding sites (Bmax) for 5-HT-sensitive (3H)paroxetine and (3H)imipramine binding was the same, indicating that the radioligands bind to the same sites. Lesion experiments with p-chloroamphetamine resulted in a binding in frontal and parietal cortices becoming undetectable and a greater than 60% reduction in the striatum and hypothalamus, indicating a selective localization on 5-HT terminals. Together these findings suggest that (3H)paroxetine specifically and selectively labels the substrate recognition site for 5-HT uptake in rat brain.

  13. CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES’ TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS AS A FACTOR OF THEIR NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan KRSTIĆ; Sonja JOVANOVIC; Tanja STANISIC

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the contribution of travel and tourism competitiveness to the global competitiveness level of the Central and East Europe (CEE) countries. The aim is to identify the correlation between the achieved travel and tourism competitiveness level (measured by the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index) and national competitiveness level on the world list (measured by the Global Competitiveness Index) in the CEE countries. Structurally, the paper is compos...

  14. Designing competitions for education in robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes design considerations for making a robot competition. Topics as level of participants, learning objective, evaluation form, task design and competition rules are treated. It is shown that careful design considering these topics are necessary for a succesful outcome of a compet......The paper describes design considerations for making a robot competition. Topics as level of participants, learning objective, evaluation form, task design and competition rules are treated. It is shown that careful design considering these topics are necessary for a succesful outcome...... of a competition. The conclusions are based on examples from more than 15 years of experience with robotic competitions....

  15. Specificity of the Cyclic GMP-Binding Activity and of a Cyclic GMP-Dependent Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Walsum, Hans van; Meer, Rob C. van der; Bulgakov, Roman; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide specificity of the cyclic GMP-binding activity in a homogenate of Dictyostelium discoideum was determined by competition of cyclic GMP derivatives with [8-3H] cyclic GMP for the binding sites. The results indicate that cyclic GMP is bound to the binding proteins by hydrogen bonds at N

  16. Demolishing the Competition: The Longitudinal Link between Competitive Video Games, Competitive Gambling, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship…

  17. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  18. A competition assay to identify amyloidogenesis inhibitors by monitoring the fluorescence emitted by the covalent attachment of a stilbene derivative to transthyretin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwook; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2011-02-15

    Herein we demonstrate that competition between candidate kinetic stabilizer binding to transthyretin (TTR) and stilbene binding to and reaction with the same thyroxine sites within TTR can be utilized to discover potent and highly selective non-covalent TTR amyloidogenesis inhibitors. We report two stilbenes, S1 and S2, for use in distinct competition assays. Each bind selectively to TTR and then chemoselectively react to form an amide bond with the Lys-15 residue of TTR, creating a fluorescent conjugate. We used 28 TTR kinetic stabilizers exhibiting a known spectrum of plasma TTR binding selectivities and TTR amyloid fibril inhibition efficacies to validate the 'TTR fluorescence conjugate competition assay'. The kinetic stabilizers competed with S1 for binding to recombinant TTR in buffer and with S2 for binding to endogenous levels of TTR in human blood serum. In both assay scenarios, we demonstrate that the lower the TTR-stilbene conjugate fluorescence after a 3 h competition, the greater the binding selectivity and potency of the candidate TTR kinetic stabilizer. These assays, particularly the assay utilizing S2 in human serum, replace two assays previously utilized to gather the same information. While not the focus of this manuscript, it is clear that the 'TTR fluorescence conjugate competition assay' could be adapted for high throughput screening applications.

  19. Modeling competition between yeast strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the strains. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.

  20. Intrapreneurship, Competition and Company Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Kocjančič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates intrapreneurship, competition and company efficiencyin large Slovenian companies in order to provide firm-level evidenceand management implications on the extent to which companiesexploit available internal business potentials. The survey data for thesample of large Slovenian companies and statistical methodology areused to analyse the association between intrapreneurship, competitionand company efficiency. The empirical results confirmed the significantimpact of the internal business potentials on the operating results of theanalysed companies. The utilization rate of internal business potentialswas only partially or ill-used, reflecting the internal potential source ofunused business opportunities as one of possible ways to improve competitiveadvantage and company efficiency. The empirical results implythe importance of long-term managerial strategy towards innovationand encouraging creativity as the basis for successful internal corporatebusiness strategy to improve competitive advantage and company efficiency.

  1. BDS thin film damage competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  2. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    of transshipments on the most important sailing routes. The proposed methods in this thesis, aimed at liner shipping network design, integrate competitiveness such that the fuel consumption per transported container is reduced without increasing the transit times.A well-designed route net is decisive for container...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  3. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  4. Neanderthal extinction by competitive exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Banks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a long history of investigation, considerable debate revolves around whether Neanderthals became extinct because of climate change or competition with anatomically modern humans (AMH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We apply a new methodology integrating archaeological and chronological data with high-resolution paleoclimatic simulations to define eco-cultural niches associated with Neanderthal and AMH adaptive systems during alternating cold and mild phases of Marine Isotope Stage 3. Our results indicate that Neanderthals and AMH exploited similar niches, and may have continued to do so in the absence of contact. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The southerly contraction of Neanderthal range in southwestern Europe during Greenland Interstadial 8 was not due to climate change or a change in adaptation, but rather concurrent AMH geographic expansion appears to have produced competition that led to Neanderthal extinction.

  5. The political economy of competition in telecommunication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    Article dealing with the regulation of telecommunications and the establishment of a competitive regime.......Article dealing with the regulation of telecommunications and the establishment of a competitive regime....

  6. COMPETITIVENESS AND UNIT LABOUR COSTS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    NAE TATIANA-ROXANA

    2009-01-01

    The present paper presents aspects related on Romanian competitiveness and its determination by unit labour cost (ULC). After reviewing the determinants of national competitiveness, it is taken into consideration the labour market as being an important de

  7. Competitive pressures on income distribution in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, H.

    1999-01-01

    to explore what perfect competition would do to income distribution in China. The research analyzes this question by determining personal income distribution under hypothetical, perfectly competitive conditions, where factors are rewarded according to their marginal productivities. Comparison with t

  8. Interspecific Resource Competition Effects on Fisheres Revenue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Schellekens, T.; Poos, J.J.; Kooten, van T.

    2012-01-01

    In many fisheries multiple species are simultaneously caught while stock assessments and fishing quota are defined at species level. Yet species caught together often share habitat and resources, resulting in interspecific resource competition. The consequences of resource competition on population

  9. DXC'09 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Industrial Track Tier 1 and Tier 2 of the First International Diagnostic Competition. Three file...

  10. SIAM 2007 Text Mining Competition dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Subject Area: Text Mining Description: This is the dataset used for the SIAM 2007 Text Mining competition. This competition focused on developing text mining...

  11. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  12. The Reinforcement Learning Competition 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrakakis, Christos; Chalmers University of Technology; Li, Guangliang; University of Amsterdam; Tziortziotis, Nikoalos; University of Ioannina

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the development of very general learning agents for arbitrary reinforcement learning problems and to provide a test-bed for the unbiased evaluation of algorithms.

  13. Network Competition and Entry Deterrence

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Joan; Valletti, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model of logit demand that extends to a multi-firm industry the traditional duopoly framework of network competition with access charges. Firstly, we show that, when incumbents do not face the threat of entry and compete in prices, they inefficiently establish the reciprocal access charge below cost. This inefficiency disappears if incumbents compete in utilities instead of prices. Secondly, we study how incumbents change their choices under the threat of entry when they determin...

  14. International Competitiveness in Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jay C.; Condie, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    The future competitiveness of U.S. wheat producers who have exported more than half their crop in recent years was analyzed. Trends in production and trade, and enterprise accounts and budgeting were used to assess the comparative costs of various competing U.S. and foreign producers. The future success of U.S. wheat producers is dependent on their own efficiency, government agricultural programs, weather, and many factors pertaining to general government policies. Relative currency values, s...

  15. Private benefits and market competition

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Thépot

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with corporate governance issues and competition policy. The impact of private benefits extraction on the values of oligopolistic firms is analyzed. Private benefits are assumed to generate costs which create price distortion on the product market. For a wide range of industry concentrations, we prove that this may affect the profit (i.e. the value) of the firms in a positive sense since the intensity of rivalry is reduced by the price distortion. Antitrust implications are d...

  16. Competitivity of biofuels in heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competitivity of indigenous fuels in heating of residential houses in comparison with imported fuels, and both electricity and district heating, has been studied in this research, ordered by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. Heating plants of residential house scale (20-1000 kW) have been investigated in the research. Only the new heating plants are included in the investigation. The heat generation calculations concerning the residential heating plants have been made for following indigenous fuels: sod peat, fuel-chips, peat and wood pellets, firewood and straw. In addition to these, the calculations have been made for light fuel-oil, electric heating, district heating and natural gas. The local energy tariffs have to be taken into account in electric heating, district heating and natural gas heating. A calculation model, based on flowsheet calculation, forms the main result of the project. By using the model it is possible to update the competitivity data rapidly. Of all the indigenous fuels, sod peat and fuel-chips appeared to be competitive with electric and district heating costs in nearly all scales investigated. The construction of the heat generation costs of solid indigenous fuels differs remarkably from those of electric and district heating. The main part of the heating costs of wood chips and sod peat is formed of fixed costs; i.e. of investment costs and of the costs of heating and control work. The energy costs are the highest costs items in electric an district heating, as well as in the oil heating. It is possible to improve the competitivity of biofuels by developing cheaper boilers and fuel processing and storage devices

  17. Competition and Mergers among Nonprofits

    OpenAIRE

    Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. I analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. I compare welfare effects of mergers between firms with the effects of mergers between nonprofits dominated by consumers, workers, suppliers, and pure donors respectively. I find that mergers both among ...

  18. Income distribution and tax competition

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Cappelen, Alexander W.

    2001-01-01

    The literature on international tax competition has shown how increased international mobility of the tax base may create a downward pressure on tax rates and give rise to increased inequality in disposable income. This paper endogenises the mobility of the tax base, explaining mobility as a function of the pre-tax income distribution. We show that increased pre-tax income inequality may reduce the ability of governments to carry out redistributive policies. Moreover, inc...

  19. Competition in the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Demary, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Sharing goods, services or knowledge is at the center of the so-called Sharing Economy. Businesses are usually based on online platforms that match demand and supply which is in many cases, but not always provided by individuals. Sharing Economy companies typically compete with traditional companies in many different markets. The main challenge of this type of competition currently is the application of the existing regulation. While incumbent firms adhere to this, Sharing Economy companies o...

  20. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social interactions. Market interaction takes place in a continuous double auction market in which one side of the market obtains the larger part of the surplus. We examine the efficiency of subsequent coop...

  1. Corporate behaviour and competitive forces

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Paranque

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a typology of the economic behaviour of French industrial companies in 1993 based on a sample of more than 7,000 companies participating in the Balance Sheet Data Centre of the Banque de France. The objective is therefore to explain how productivity and competitiveness shape a company's rate of return. Three performance levels have been put forward: the "physical" level, the "market" level and the "financial" level, corresponding respectively to labou...

  2. Climbing up the competitiveness ladder

    OpenAIRE

    Bartha, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    The development strategy of most Central and Eastern European countries involves the boosting of foreign direct investments (FDI). Even greater emphases have been put on FDI with the unfolding of the global economic crisis, as the lack of local development resources have become ever more obvious. Country competitiveness indices were created to measure the general well-being of a country’s economy. It is generally believed that the best business environment is offered by countries scoring ...

  3. Network Competition with Local Network

    OpenAIRE

    Oystein Fjeldstad; Moen, Espen R; Christian Riis

    2007-01-01

    Local network externalities are present when the network externalities associated with entering a certain network depends not only on the total number of agents in the network, but on the identity of the agents in the network. We explore the consequences of local network externalities within a framework where two networks compete on the Hotelling circle. We first show that local network externalities, in contrast to global network externalities, do not sharpen competition. Then we show that t...

  4. Functional aspects of competitive tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Luque, Gema; Sánchez Pay, Alejandro; Bazaco Belmonte, María Jesús; Moya Ramón, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Tennis is a sport that is characterized by intermittent dynamics, with intervallic moderate and high-intensity efforts due to repetitive actions of short-duration and high intensity. This review analyzes aspects such as the game's temporal structure, oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate levels, and the effects of playing in heat. Knowledge of the contextual and functional characteristics of competitive tennis provides important information for improving the design of players training progr...

  5. International Competitiveness and Environmental Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Babool, Md. Ashfaqul Islam; Michael R. Reed

    2005-01-01

    This study follows the standard factor endowment approach to explain the effects of environmental regulations on net exports in different product-based industries. It constructs an econometric model which includes factor endowments and environmental regulations to examine how strict environmental policy impact export competitiveness. Cross-sectional and time series (panel) data for 6 countries and 17 years were used in this model. In this study, capital services increase net exports in labor-...

  6. The Determinants of National Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Delgado; Christian Ketels; Porter, Michael E.; Scott Stern

    2012-01-01

    We define foundational competitiveness as the expected level of output per working-age individual that is supported by the overall quality of a country as a place to do business. The focus on output per potential worker, a broader measure of national productivity than output per current worker, reflects the dual role of workforce participation and output per worker in determining a nation's standard of living. Our framework highlights three broad and interrelated drivers of foundational compe...

  7. Competition in the electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation of the electric power industry is changing the 'personality' of utilities and the way they operate in order to survive in a more competitive marketplace. This paper will identify and discuss key issues NAC International believes will arise as the nuclear industry responds to deregulation. The regulatory treatment of such issues as retail wheeling, recovery of stranded costs, divestiture of assets and securitization will have a significant impact on how utilities, particularly those with nuclear assets, proceed into the new marketplace. While some will survive as a result of innovative thinking, cost control, and entrance into new niche markets, others will be forced to reassess their viability altogether. Increased mergers and acquisitions and early plant closures are potential consequences of these struggles. Meanwhile, innovative companies will develop and enter into new nuclear markets including most notably the acquisition of generating assets. Other key drivers that will significantly impact the competitiveness of nuclear versus other fuels will be the resolution of the nuclear waste issue, the reduction of O and M and decisions regarding whether to make expensive capital additions. Additionally, this paper will present an overview of key regulatory and legislative initiatives impacting electricity. Finally, this paper will examine the roles of regulating bodies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and state utility commissions, and will provide an outlook for further legislative and regulatory actions in this competitive environment. (author)

  8. Revised article: Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...

  9. Kinetic competition during glass formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perepezko, J.H., E-mail: perepezk@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Santhaweesuk, C.; Wang, J.Q. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Imhoff, S.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The kinetics of glass formation has been elucidated in an Fe and Au-base alloy. • A critical cooling rate range should be considered for glass formation. • Wedge casting, calorimetry and upquenching data are used to model TTT curves. - Abstract: For vitrification of an alloy melt during cooling there is a kinetic competition with the nucleation and growth of metastable and stable crystalline phases. Many of the measures of glass forming ability (GFA) attempt to capture some of the features of the kinetic competition, but the GFA metrics are static measures and the kinetic processes are dynamic in nature. In fact, the critical cooling rate for glass formation should be viewed in terms of a critical cooling rate range to acknowledge the stochastic nature of crystal nucleation behavior. Direct measurements of the critical cooling rate range confirm this behavior and also provide useful input for kinetics analysis. Usually kinetics analyses are based upon crystallization behavior that is measured either isothermally or upon heating to temperatures near the crystallization onset, T{sub x} and the results are extrapolated to much higher temperatures. This practice is based upon a number of assumptions about transport behavior in the undercooled liquid. With rapid up-quenching of amorphous samples, the high temperature crystallization behavior can be measured and used to refine the kinetics analysis and provide useful insight on the kinetic competition and glass forming ability.

  10. Competition in the electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Mel [NAC International, 655 Engineering Drive, Norcross, GA 30092 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Deregulation of the electric power industry is changing the 'personality' of utilities and the way they operate in order to survive in a more competitive marketplace. This paper will identify and discuss key issues NAC International believes will arise as the nuclear industry responds to deregulation. The regulatory treatment of such issues as retail wheeling, recovery of stranded costs, divestiture of assets and securitization will have a significant impact on how utilities, particularly those with nuclear assets, proceed into the new marketplace. While some will survive as a result of innovative thinking, cost control, and entrance into new niche markets, others will be forced to reassess their viability altogether. Increased mergers and acquisitions and early plant closures are potential consequences of these struggles. Meanwhile, innovative companies will develop and enter into new nuclear markets including most notably the acquisition of generating assets. Other key drivers that will significantly impact the competitiveness of nuclear versus other fuels will be the resolution of the nuclear waste issue, the reduction of O and M and decisions regarding whether to make expensive capital additions. Additionally, this paper will present an overview of key regulatory and legislative initiatives impacting electricity. Finally, this paper will examine the roles of regulating bodies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and state utility commissions, and will provide an outlook for further legislative and regulatory actions in this competitive environment. (author)

  11. Kinetic competition during glass formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The kinetics of glass formation has been elucidated in an Fe and Au-base alloy. • A critical cooling rate range should be considered for glass formation. • Wedge casting, calorimetry and upquenching data are used to model TTT curves. - Abstract: For vitrification of an alloy melt during cooling there is a kinetic competition with the nucleation and growth of metastable and stable crystalline phases. Many of the measures of glass forming ability (GFA) attempt to capture some of the features of the kinetic competition, but the GFA metrics are static measures and the kinetic processes are dynamic in nature. In fact, the critical cooling rate for glass formation should be viewed in terms of a critical cooling rate range to acknowledge the stochastic nature of crystal nucleation behavior. Direct measurements of the critical cooling rate range confirm this behavior and also provide useful input for kinetics analysis. Usually kinetics analyses are based upon crystallization behavior that is measured either isothermally or upon heating to temperatures near the crystallization onset, Tx and the results are extrapolated to much higher temperatures. This practice is based upon a number of assumptions about transport behavior in the undercooled liquid. With rapid up-quenching of amorphous samples, the high temperature crystallization behavior can be measured and used to refine the kinetics analysis and provide useful insight on the kinetic competition and glass forming ability

  12. Competition in public transport in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    White, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Britain offers a case in which much greater experience of competition in the public transport sector can be seen than in other European countries. Examples are drawn from this experience, showing that outcomes differ between the long-distance and local markets, price competition functioning much more effectively in the former. In many respects, the competitive bidding process may be seen as more important and extensive than direct ‘on the road’ inter-operator competition within th...

  13. Identification and estimation of territorial competition

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Grigor'evich Vazhenin; Irina Svyatoslavovna Vazhenina

    2012-01-01

    This paper formulates basic features of competition between the territories basing on the analysis of economic reality as well as on the basis of the sociological research conducted by the authors. The following components of the horizons of territorial competition in today's economic environment are identified and justified: — Competition between territories in the global economy is progressing significantly, it is expanding and improving itself; — The problem of competitive immu...

  14. Towards a universal definition of competitive intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Pellissier; Tshilidzi E. Nenzhelele

    2013-01-01

    Background: Enterprises face intense competition caused by globalisation. Consequently, enterprises look for tools that provide a competitive advantage. Competitive intelligence (CI) provides a competitive advantage to enterprises of all sizes. There are many definitions of CI but no universally accepted one.Objectives: The purpose of this research is to review the current literature on CI with the aim of identifying and analysing CI definitions to establish the commonalities and differences,...

  15. Competitive Intelligence in small and medium enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on Competitive Intelligence which is not well known in the Czech region. On the other hand, it has been a rapidly increasing discipline. The main aim of this thesis is to suggest how to use the methods of Competitive Intelligence in small and medium-sized companies. The theoretical part summarises the terminology of Competitive Intelligence. At first the strategic management is being defined, as it is the basis of practical usage of the Competitive Intelligence method...

  16. Competitiveness in the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The first challenge is to analyze the concept of "competitiveness" given the fact that in the centre of the great economic analystes' concerns lays from some time the phenomenon of competitiveness, along with the generation of competitive advantage at the organization level and, moreover, at country level. The economic science will have to be rethought, meaning that competitiveness will have to adapt to the new prospects launched today by the global economic crisis.

  17. Competition in the workplace: An experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Benndorf, Volker; Rau, Holger A.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze competition between workers in a gift-exchange experiment where two workers are hired by the same employer. In the competition treatment the two employees simultaneously choose their effort whereas in the baseline treatment competition cannot occur since there is only one employee per employer. We find that in the competition treatment employers implicitly set tournament incentives by rewarding employees who choose higher effort levels than their co-workers. Here, employees' effort...

  18. DEVELOPING THE CONCEPT OF ENTERPRISE COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinichenko, L.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of “enterprise competitiveness" has been suggested, with a definition of its innovative and adaptive characteristics as the priority, and the concept has been substantiated of enterprise competitiveness, which is based on a systemic approach and includes the key building blocks of competitiveness, such as resource, management, and product competitive advantages, as well as the principles, tools, and criteria for evaluating its implementation.

  19. Competitiveness of Belarus in world markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rybalka, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis introduces the new approach to the measurement of Belarus'competitiveness. The topicality of this research is connected with absence of Belarus in the studies of the World Economic Forum and Institute for the Management Development. The author established the following goals while running the research: to analyze the existing concepts of national competitiveness, to define the essential factors of competitiveness, to examine such tool for measurement of national competitive...

  20. Theoretical Basis Of The Company Competitiveness Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin; Nadezhda Andreyevna Belkina; Larisa Borisovna Vladykina

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the basic theoretical questions of the company competitiveness assessment. The state of modern economic thought on this issue is shown. The main factors of the company competitiveness are specified. A specific role of staff of an enterprise is revealed: on the one hand, it is a resource, on the other is a subject, resulting in productive movement all factors of competitiveness, i.e. the staff is a critical factor in the company competitiveness. The criterion of...

  1. Customer Relationship Management - Competitiveness Improvement Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Jovan Zubovic; Ivana Domazet

    2007-01-01

    On the global market competitiveness of Serbian companies is at a very low level. According to Global Competitiveness Report 2007-2008 Serbia was ranked 91. Leading country is USA, whereas the UK had lost the second and fell to ninth position. The criteria on which Global Competitiveness Report ranks 131 world countries are creation of business strategies and a quality of business environment1. Competitiveness increase of local companies’ should be assessed through holistic concept which targ...

  2. Global Markets and Time-Based Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Rancati

    2005-01-01

    Time becomes the benchmark that defines a company's strategic behaviour, extensively revamping the entire company by reinterpreting the time dimension in a different, extremely dynamic context. Marketing activities always presuppose time-based competition. From a marketing perspective, oriented to analysis of the competition, time-based competition can be defined as a strategy based on immediate response to the customer's needs. In the competitive conditions of over-supply, the time dimension...

  3. Viewpoint: Canadian competition policy: progress and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Ross

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of competition policy - in particular the economics of competition policy - in Canada today and considers its prospects going forward. It argues that: (i) the importance of competition policy has become accepted widely in Canada and indeed throughout much of the world; (ii) competition policy design and enforcement is in general well done in Canada; (iii) economists, including many Canadians, have played a central role in the development of an efficient and effe...

  4. Study on the competitive reaction between bovine serum albumin and neomycin with ponceau S as fluorescence probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Baosheng, E-mail: lbs@hbu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Medical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis, Ministry of Education, Center of Physics and Chemistry, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Xue Chunli; Wang Jing; Yang Chao; Zhao Fengli; Lv Yunkai [Key Laboratory of Medical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis, Ministry of Education, Center of Physics and Chemistry, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A competitive reaction exists between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and neomycin (NM) when ponceau S (PS) is chosen as fluorescent probe. This reaction was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The static fluorescence quenching process between BSA and PS was confirmed and the binding constant, the number of binding sites and type of interaction forces between BSA and PS were obtained. It was observed that when NM was added into BSA-PS system, the relative fluorescence intensity of BSA was recovered gradually with increase in concentration of NM, which shows that there existed competitive reaction between BSA and NM. According to competitive reaction mechanism, the equilibrium concentration of PS, the binding constant and the type of interaction forces between PS and NM were obtained.

  5. Marketing research model of competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasilya Dmitriy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To support its competitive advantages in current market conditions, each company needs to choose better ways of guaranteeing its favorable competitive position. In this regard, considerable interest lies in the structuring and algorithmization of marketing research processes that provide the information background of such choice. The article is devoted to modeling the process of marketing research of competitive environment.

  6. Ireland's Competitiveness Scorecard 2011, July 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Each year the NCC publishes a report benchmarking Ireland's competitiveness performance. Ireland's Competitiveness Scorecard (previously named Benchmarking Ireland's Performance) analyses Ireland's overall competitiveness performance across a range of statistical indicators drawn from data sources such as Forfás, OECD, Eurostat, CSO and others.

  7. 14 CFR 1260.143 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 1260.143 Section 1260.143..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.143 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  8. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  9. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  10. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  11. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  12. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  13. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, CSREES will enter...

  14. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  15. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  16. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  17. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  18. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  19. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  1. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  2. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  3. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  4. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  5. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  6. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  7. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  8. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  9. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless you use the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6 apply to acquisition...

  10. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  11. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  12. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  13. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  14. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  15. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  16. Synergetic effect of benchmarking competitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Tkachova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed the essence of synergistic competitive benchmarking. The classification of types of synergies is developed. It is determined the sources of synergies in conducting benchmarking of competitive advantages. It is proposed methodological framework definition of synergy in the formation of competitive advantage.

  17. Competitions for Showcasing Innovative and Creative Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    Competitions are recommended for identifying and providing for the exceptional talents of young people. Competitions have been a cornerstone of gifted education, putting talents to the test by enabling gifted students to showcase their abilities and receive acknowledgement and recognition for their talents. Competitions have been noted as "a…

  18. Measuring Competition: Inconsistent Definitions, Inconsistent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linick, Matthew Allen

    2014-01-01

    There is a developing literature examining how charter schools, through the effects of competition, impact performance in public school districts and district-run public schools, also known as the second-level effects of competition. What follows is an examination of how competition is measured in this literature that offers a critique of existing…

  19. How Banking Competition changed over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first detailed and world-wide investigation of the developments in banking competition during the past fiffteen years. Using the Panzar-Rosse approach, we establish significant changes over time in the competitiveness of the banking industry. The changes in competition over time ar

  20. 40 CFR 35.362 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.362 Section 35... 104(b)(3)) § 35.362 Competitive process. EPA will award Water Quality Cooperative Agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance....

  1. 40 CFR 35.342 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.342 Section 35...) § 35.342 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention State Grants to State programs through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating State applications,...

  2. 40 CFR 35.613 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.613 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.613 Competitive process. Wetlands development grants are awarded on a competitive... process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the award as a wetlands...

  3. 40 CFR 35.723 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.723 Section 35... Grants (pub.l. 105-276) § 35.723 Competitive process. EPA will award Tribal hazardous waste program... guidance. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the...

  4. 40 CFR 35.712 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.712 Section 35... Monitoring (section 28) § 35.712 Competitive process. EPA will award Toxic Substances Control Act Compliance Monitoring grants to Tribes or Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance...

  5. 40 CFR 35.661 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.661 Section 35... 6605) § 35.661 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention Grant funds to Tribes and Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating a...

  6. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8 Section... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the...

  7. Evolution of definition of competitiveness of products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Aleksandrov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigational evolution of definition of competitiveness of products, certainly the stages of his development. Classification of existent approaches is improved in relation to the estimation of competitiveness of products, found out the sources of competitive edges from position of consumer cost, marginal utility, differentiation of products, demand and supply, key competense, marketing categories and ecological approach.

  8. Methods to increase the competitiveness in industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ion STANCU; Lazarescu, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Industrial firms are different between them for their economical characteristics, competitive situations and their prospects. Industry and competitive analysis use a lot of concepts and methods for obtaining a clear image concerning the variable conditions from industry and competitive strong forces. Economical characteristics of industry are important for their strategic implications.

  9. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Competition policy is based on punishing the behavior. There are three such types of anti-competitive behavior, namely: agreements between undertakings, abuse of dominant position and mergers and other concentrations between undertakings. Recent Practice proved that this “enforcement-conduct-punishment” structure is not necessary the best way to address competition and it is high time for authorities to switch both regulation and enforcement of competition from the “classical perspective” towards concepts like “competition advocacy” and “soft power” and give competition policy a new, reshaped face.

  10. Exploring the Competitive Effects of Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Medina, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Central to the debate over school choice has been the question of how public schools respond to market-based competition. Many choice advocates suggest that competition can spur public schools to become more effective and efficient, but the evidence regarding the effect of competition from charters is comparably sparse and mixed. This article…

  11. 78 FR 26404 - New Competitive Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... New Competitive Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... 4 to the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public... Return Service Contract 4 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that...

  12. 78 FR 20360 - New Competitive Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... New Competitive Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment... Priority Mail Contract 56 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Priority...

  13. 78 FR 20697 - New Competitive Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... New Competitive Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an addition to the competitive product list... 57 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It asserts that Priority Mail Contract 57 is a...

  14. A new way to measure competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Boone

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a new way to measure competition based on firms' profits. Within a general model, we derive conditions under which this measure is monotone in competition, where competition can be intensified both through a fall in entry barriers and through more aggressive interaction betwe

  15. A New Way to Measure Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way to measure competition based on firms' profits.Within a general model, we derive conditions under which this measure is monotone in competition, where competition can be intensified both through a fall in entry barriers and through more aggressive interaction between

  16. Competitiveness and linking of emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausotter, Tobias; Steuwer, Sibyl; Taenzler, Dennis [adelphi, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The establishment of emission trading systems raises concerns among industries regarding international competitive disadvantages for the industries under an emissions cap. This study aims to assess competitiveness exposure of industrial sectors and presents policy measures to address these concerns. Moreover, the study provides a comparison of different existing approaches to competitiveness concerns proposed by regional emission trading systems. (orig.)

  17. Model Selection in Data Analysis Competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Winther, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The use of data analysis competitions for selecting the most appropriate model for a problem is a recent innovation in the field of predictive machine learning. Two of the most well-known examples of this trend was the Netflix Competition and recently the competitions hosted on the online platform...

  18. Competition Policy in an Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); H. Horn

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the setting of national competition policy in a two-country setting, emphasizing the relationship of trade to the goals of competition policy (such as the degree and nature of competition). The issues we address involve the general equilibrium distributional effects of competi

  19. The binding sites for cocaine and dopamine in the dopamine transporter overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuming, Thijs; Kniazeff, Julie; Bergmann, Marianne L;

    2008-01-01

    T. Our models suggest that the binding site for cocaine and cocaine analogs is deeply buried between transmembrane segments 1, 3, 6 and 8, and overlaps with the binding sites for the substrates dopamine and amphetamine, as well as for benztropine-like DAT inhibitors. We validated our models by detailed...... mutagenesis and by trapping the radiolabeled cocaine analog [3H]CFT in the transporter, either by cross-linking engineered cysteines or with an engineered Zn2+-binding site that was situated extracellularly to the predicted common binding pocket. Our data demonstrate the molecular basis for the competitive...

  20. A New Competitive Adsorption Isothermal Model of Heavy Metals in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Wen-Bo; YI Ai-Hua; ZHANG Zeng-Qiang; TANG Ci-Lai; ZHANG Xing-Chang; GAO Jin-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A new competitive adsorption isothermal model (CAIM) was developed for the coexistent and competitive binding of heavy metals to the soil surface.This model extended the earlier adsorption isothermal models by considering more than one kind of ion adsorption on the soil surface.It was compared with the Langmuir model using different conditions,and it was found that CAIM,which was suitable for competitive ion adsorption at the soil solid-liquid surface,had more advantages than the Langmuir model.The new competitive adsorption isothermal model was used to fit the data of heavy metal (Zn and Cd) competitive adsorption by a yellow soil at two temperatures.The results showed that CAIM was appropriate for the competitive adsorption of heavy metals on the soil surface at different temperatures.The fitted parameters of CAIM had explicit physical meaning.The model allowed for the calculation of the standard molar Gibbs free energy change,the standard molar enthalpy change,and the standard molar entropy change of the competitive adsorption of the heavy metals,Zn and Cd,by the yellow soil at two temperatures using the thermodynamic equilibrium constants.

  1. "Wanna Race?": Primary Student Preference for Competitive or Non-Competitive Singing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study compared primary student preference for competitive and non-competitive singing games. Students in three intact classes of second graders (n = 65) and three classes of fourth graders (n = 67) at one school in the USA served as subjects. After playing a pair of games, one competitive and one non-competitive, over the course of five…

  2. The Literature Review of a New Form of Competitiveness Called City Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman EROĞLU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With globalization, the rapid development of information technologies and the rapid changes in the economic structure, the country’s borders at a time increasingly depreciate and the importance of city competitiveness reveals. Although it is an ongoing debate around the world whether cities compete with each other, city competitiveness is a new form of competitiveness. Cities compete with each other to increase their competitiveness. City competitiveness is defined as having better values compared to other cities. In this study, a new form of competitiveness called city competitiveness is examined.

  3. Entropy and Equilibria in Competitive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Klimenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the applicability of thermodynamic concepts and principles to competitive systems. We show that Tsallis entropies are suitable for the characterisation of systems with transitive competition when mutations deviate from Gibbs mutations. Different types of equilibria in competitive systems are considered and analysed. As competition rules become more and more intransitive, thermodynamic analogies are eroded, and the behaviour of the system can become complex. This work analyses the phenomenon of punctuated evolution in the context of the competitive risk/benefit dilemma.

  4. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by “competition in healthcare” and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is “good” or “bad,” per se.

  5. Theoretical Basis Of The Company Competitiveness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic theoretical questions of the company competitiveness assessment. The state of modern economic thought on this issue is shown. The main factors of the company competitiveness are specified. A specific role of staff of an enterprise is revealed: on the one hand, it is a resource, on the other is a subject, resulting in productive movement all factors of competitiveness, i.e. the staff is a critical factor in the company competitiveness. The criterion of company competitiveness is proposed, on its basis, the concept of “competitive enterprise” is defined. The most well-known approaches for assessing the company competitiveness are analyzed. The author’s method of the company competitiveness assessment based on the dynamics of the integral index of competitiveness is provided. For those cases, when it is impossible to determine the proportion of products on the market, it is proposed to evaluate the company competitiveness on the profitability of its production. The article shows the experience in calculating of the company competitiveness on the proposed author’s methods.

  6. Competitiveness of Romanian Agriculture after EU Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NECULITA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine whether after joining European Union, Romanian agriculture became more competitiveness on Unique Market. Romania need significant financial help to solve various structural problems, one of the main problems being the low competitiveness in attracting European funds. Taking all the aspects into consideration, this paper trying to develop an objective analysis of the current state of Romanian agriculture competitiveness, by means of pertinent data and statistics. Competitiveness increase, not only in agriculture, has become a primordial framework of the economic development strategies of most world countries. Agriculture can be an important asset for Romania, in the battle to become more competitive to the European level. Romania should win the market share and increase its exports to the EU market. According to European officials, Romania should find gaps on an already competitive market or to become competitive on new markets.

  7. The competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Boram

    2010-01-01

    The competition graph of a digraph D is a graph which has the same vertex set as D and has an edge between x and y if and only if there exists a vertex v in D such that (x,v) and (y,v) are arcs of D. For any graph G, G together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number k(G) of a graph G is defined to be the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number k(G) for a graph G and it has been one of important research problems in the study of competition graphs to characterize a graph by its competition number. In this paper, we give the exact values of the competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs.

  8. The Competitiveness of Alternative Hydrogen Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.

    to transport services and in market competitiveness and societal competitiveness. The major societal competitive advantage of hydrogen is its convertibility to electricity and from any other source of energy. This enables a flexible use of natural gas and primary electricity as transport fuels. The major......The paper surveys the literature on the competitiveness of alternative hydrogen pathways in the transport sector. The competitiveness of the alternative systems can be differentiated in the “well-to-tank (WtT)” and “tank-to-wheel (TtW)” sections of the pathway transforming primary energy...... advantage in market competitiveness is the energy efficiency of the fuel cell. This advantage is, however, to some extent balanced by the costs associated with conversion, transport, and storage. The balance between these factors required for market competitiveness is identified....

  9. Export competitiveness of pakistani horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines Pakistan's competitiveness in export of selected horticulture commodities by employing set of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and revealed competitive advantage indices with respect to global trade. Results demonstrate that Pakistan has comparative and competitive advantage over the period under analysis and indicates a transition from comparative and competitive disadvantage to comparative and competitive advantage during the period under analysis. Tangerines, mandarins, clem have maintained relatively higher revealed comparative advantage as compared to other categories for the whole period under analysis. Onion export has revealed comparative advantage with some fluctuations over time. The research indicates that Pakistan's comparative and competitive advantages have been increasing in all the selected commodities during period under analysis which indicates the potential of horticulture exports for foreign exchange earnings. There is need to strengthen comparative and competitive advantage in horticulture sector by policy support and facilitating role by all stakeholders. (author)

  10. A Conceptual Mapping Resource Advantage Theory, Competitive Advantage Theory, and Transient Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasanta PERANGINANGIN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Competitive advantage is the main purposed of the business entity focusing on market base view. Resource advantage theorists put their concern to empowering resources development with resources based view, in the other side needs to redefining competitive advantage. All the competitive advantage are transient, concluded the end of competitive advantage. Redefining competitive advantage by selling migration and shrewdness outward. This research to emphasize innovation capability rarely appears in the future.

  11. Nursing: the hospital's competitive edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, F A; Preziosi, P

    1988-09-01

    The health care marketplace is becoming increasingly competitive. The hospital has a built-in marketing force with the nursing department, because nurses are in constant, direct contact with the customer. Nursing must identify the case mix profile of the community and focus the hospital product lines to meet community needs. The nursing department should decentralize, change, measure, and innovate the staff mix needed to operationalize these product lines. The development of nursing practice standards for the case mix will help to identify the staff mix needed and create systems to efficiently manage the product lines. Nursing management must become aware of cross-subsidization and downward skill substitution of nursing personnel. Nursing information systems must generate quality reports that invoke cost consciousness on the part of nursing staff. Quality assurance programs must become unit based and complete with frequent audits to correlate length of stay with nursing quality. Correlations must be determined between nursing productivity and case mix to determine the hospital's niche in the marketplace. The transformation of health care into a competitive business industry has created many opportunities for nursing. The health care industry's incentives for efficiency along with the decreasing demand for inpatient hospital services will be the forces driving health care toward a competitive marketplace. The hospital's nursing department should be strategically positioned to become accountable for increasing market share and enhancing quality patient outcomes. The focus has shifted from the theoretical to the tactical, which is a step in the right direction, particularly for nursing. Nursing, if strategically positioned, will not only thrive but will also excel in this chaotic environment by capturing the opportunities and being innovative. PMID:3047695

  12. TRANSITION COUNTRIES TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazmend Qorraj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the transition countries in Europe had significant benefits from the EU enlargement but the positive effects depend also from the structure of the economy and reforms of these countries. It’s important to analyze: if transition countries ensured sustainable economic reforms or just short term stability and emergent solutions. This paper will address international competitiveness which is the main challenge for the transition countries but also for the EU. First, monopoly position of some international firms in local markets and lack of creativity and innovations of the local firms, especially in Western Balkans due to lack of institutional support and non-stable business environment. The problem of creativity and lack of innovations by the firms is also a serious issue for the EU countries. The second important issue is large productivity gap. The recent global financial crisis as well as EU crises present the difficulties in the Euro zone and highlighted the interdependence of national economies and the convergence problems within European Union. The third challenge is absorption capacity for the structural and cohesion funds. The past experience of Central European countries shows that success in effectively using the EU financial and technical assistance is positively related with the success of countries on creating sustainable economic development and international competitiveness. Fourth issue is that some transition countries achieved economic growth but due to unequal distribution of welfare on these countries there is no significant reduce of unemployment and social cohesion. Last but not least the international competitiveness in most of the countries is harmed by the lack of functional institutions due to high level of corruption, inefficiency, rule of law, the lack of transparency and accountability.

  13. Nursing: the hospital's competitive edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, F A; Preziosi, P

    1988-09-01

    The health care marketplace is becoming increasingly competitive. The hospital has a built-in marketing force with the nursing department, because nurses are in constant, direct contact with the customer. Nursing must identify the case mix profile of the community and focus the hospital product lines to meet community needs. The nursing department should decentralize, change, measure, and innovate the staff mix needed to operationalize these product lines. The development of nursing practice standards for the case mix will help to identify the staff mix needed and create systems to efficiently manage the product lines. Nursing management must become aware of cross-subsidization and downward skill substitution of nursing personnel. Nursing information systems must generate quality reports that invoke cost consciousness on the part of nursing staff. Quality assurance programs must become unit based and complete with frequent audits to correlate length of stay with nursing quality. Correlations must be determined between nursing productivity and case mix to determine the hospital's niche in the marketplace. The transformation of health care into a competitive business industry has created many opportunities for nursing. The health care industry's incentives for efficiency along with the decreasing demand for inpatient hospital services will be the forces driving health care toward a competitive marketplace. The hospital's nursing department should be strategically positioned to become accountable for increasing market share and enhancing quality patient outcomes. The focus has shifted from the theoretical to the tactical, which is a step in the right direction, particularly for nursing. Nursing, if strategically positioned, will not only thrive but will also excel in this chaotic environment by capturing the opportunities and being innovative.

  14. Specific uranyl binding by macrocyclic ligands attached to resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrocyclic polydentates have attracted enormous attention from chemists because of their unique and significant characteristics of the strong and selective binding of a variety of metal ions. The metal binding is governed mostly by the size of the macroring and the nature of heteroatoms involved. The most important role of the macrocyclic structure is, in general, the so-called macrocyclic effect - to increase (making less negative) a large negative entropy change involved in the polydentate chelation. Basic strategy of uranium binding, is to design a ligand of very strong metal binding to take advantage of this macrocyclic effect, where number of chelating heteroatoms and their spatial arrangement is designed to be most appropriate for uranyl (UO22+) binding, since in natural sea water uranium is dissolved mostly in a form of uranyl carbonate. The following macrocylic ligands, hexamine, hexaketone, hexacarboxylic acid, were prepared and tested. The macrocyclic hexacarboxylic ligand was the most promising. The addition of hexacarboxylic acid to a uranyl tricarbonate solution gave a change of visible absorption due to the competitive formation of the uranyl complex. From this competitive binding, a relative formation constant was estimated to be 10-5, giving a log K/sub f/ value of 16.4 at 250C for the uranyl complex. This value is the largest among the hosts ever reported to bind uranyl ion.The selectivity of the macrocyclic hexacarboxylic ligand was also ascertained by testing with other metal cations. Results indicate that uranyl ions can be extracted efficiently from sea water using the hexacarboxylic acid ligands which are attached to a polymer insoluble in water

  15. B700, a murine melanoma-specific antigen, binds Vitamin D3; conservation of binding among albuminoid molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B700, a murine melanoma-specific antigen, is a member of the serum albumin protein family. Other members of this family include serum albumin (SMA), a-fetoprotein (AFP), vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and C700. The primary structure and biochemical functions of B700, as well as its in vivo metabolic fate are largely unknown. The authors examined the functional characteristics of MSA, AFP, and DBP, and for their ability to specifically bind [3H]-1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3. Scatchard analysis revealed a single binding site for B700 with a Kd of 51,000 M and a Bmax of 4.51 x 10-7. There is no significant difference between the Kd and Bmax values among the albuminoid proteins. However, differences in the binding sites could be distinguished by competition of the 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 with other steroids. 2nM of vitamin D3, vitamin D2, or estrogen competed for the specific binding of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 by B700 but not by DBP. The MSA binding site for 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 more closely resembles that of DBP than B700. These data indicate that the binding function of the albuminoid proteins has been conserved in the B700 melanoma antigen

  16. 2005 Solar Decathlon (Competition Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The 2005 Solar Decathlon Competition Program is distributed to Solar Decathlon visitors, media, sponsors, and the student competitors. It contains basic facts about the Solar Decathlon: what, where, when, who, and how. It is a guide for visitors to the events and workshops. It describes the 10 contests and the technologies used in the houses. It celebrates the accomplishments of the competitors and provides an opportunity for the major sponsors to describe their roles and relay their commitment to the ideals of the Solar Decathlon.

  17. Competitive Intelligence and Internet Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Knowledge Age to maintain profitability and in some cases to remain in the market, companies must focus their actions in activities such as collecting, filtering, and disseminating information about market, about competitors and their actions. Those are part of Competitive Intelligence (CI concept. In digital age, most of the information needed for CI projects is available on the web. This paper focuses on this field and presents a mix of directions that companies need to take into consideration in their CI projects in order to achieve the goals.

  18. Competitive Brand Salience

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf van der Lans; Rik Pieters; Michel Wedel

    2008-01-01

    Brand salience—the extent to which a brand visually stands out from its competitors—is vital in competing on the shelf, yet is not easy to achieve in practice. This study proposes a methodology to determine the competitive salience of brands, based on a model of visual search and eye-movement recordings collected during a brand search experiment. We estimate brand salience at the point of purchase, based on perceptual features (color, luminance, edges) and how these are influenced by consumer...

  19. Institutional Competitiveness in Media Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Anker Brink

    2005-01-01

    This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as"institutional competition in the media market" we also signal an approach that will be free of much of the traditional dogma in Danish media research: First of all, we will consider the media as a market for opinion, goods and services – not primarily a...

  20. Presentation at Innoventure Annual Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-31

    This report documents the components of the workshop presented at the recent annual competition for the Innoventure program. The goal of the workshop was to focus on the delivery of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) concepts in a hands-on experiential learning format to increase interest in national security careers at NNSA, most of which are in the STEM fields. This work is a part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant.

  1. Banking Competition and Economic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Fischer; Nicolás Inostroza; Felipe J. Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    We consider a two-period model of a banking system to explore the effects of competition on the stability and efficiency of economic activity. In the model, competing banks lend to entrepreneurs. After entrepreneurs receive the loans for their projects, there is a probability of a shock. The shock implies that a fraction of firms will default and be unable to pay back their loans. This will require banks to use their capital and reserves to pay back depositors, restricting restrict second per...

  2. Transforming for a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential elements for successful strategic marketing of electricity in the future were discussed. The elements emphasized included understanding the industry restructuring, developing appropriate business and marketing strategies, and confronting transformation challenges. How these elements are being addressed by Central Vermont, the public utility serving customers in Vermont and in New Hampshire, was described. A customer oriented culture, a flexible organization that encourages innovation, a clear marketing strategy based on the company's core competencies, a new business/product development process, strategic alliances, and a sharp eye for what the competition is doing, were considered the most important and most urgent tasks to tackle in order to ensure survival and success

  3. Binding of complement component C3b to glycoprotein gC of herpes simplex virus type 1: mapping of gC-binding sites and demonstration of conserved C3b binding in low-passage clinical isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, H M; Glorioso, J C; Cohen, G H; Hastings, J C; Harris, S L; Eisenberg, R J

    1986-01-01

    The sites on glycoprotein gC of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) which bind complement component C3b were evaluated by using anti-gC monoclonal antibodies and mutants which have alterations at defined regions of the glycoprotein. Monoclonal antibodies were incubated with HSV-1-infected cells in a competitive assay to block C3b binding. Each of 12 different monoclonals, which recognize the four major antigenic sites of gC, completely inhibited C3b binding. With this approach, no one antigen...

  4. Depletion of [3H]methyltrienolone cytosol binding in glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy (42001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to determine cytosol binding properties of [3H]methyltrienolone, a synthetic androgen, in comparison with [3]dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, under conditions of glucocorticoid excess in skeletal muscle. Male hypophysectomized rats received either seven daily subcutaneous injections of cortisone acetate (CA) (100 mg x kg-1 body wt) or the vehicle, 1% carboxymethyl cellulose. Following treatment, both [3H]dexamethansone and [3H]methyltrienolone-receptor concentrations were decreased from those in vehicle-treated rats by more than 90 and 80%, respectively, in CA-treated animals. Scatchard analysis of [3H]methyltrienolone binding in muscles of vehicle-treated animals became nonlinear at high concentrations of labeled ligand and were reanalyzed by a two-component binding model. The lower affinity, higher capacity component, which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a dexamethasone component, which was attributed to binding of methyltrienolone to a dexamethasone component, disappeared in muscles of CA-treated rats and Scatchard plots were linear. Receptor concentrations of the higher affinity lower capacity methyltrienolone component were similar in muscles of vehicle-treated and CA-treated groups. From competition studies, the high relative specificities of glucocorticoids for [3H]methyltrienolone binding in muscles of vehicle-treated animals were markedly reduced by CA treatment. In addition, the binding specificity data also showed strong competition by progesterone and methyltrienolone for [3H]dexamethasone binding and estradiol-17β for [3H]methyltrienolone binding

  5. Modification of Herbicide Binding to Photosystem II in Two Biotypes of Senecio vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Klaus; Radosevich, Steven R.; Arntzen, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    The present study compares the binding and inhibitory activity of two photosystem II inhibitors: 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (diuron [DCMU]) and 2-chloro-4-(ethylamine)-6-(isopropyl amine)-S-triazene (atrazine). Chloroplasts isolated from naturally occurring triazine-susceptible and triazine-resistant biotypes of common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) showed the following characteristics. (a) Diuron strongly inhibited photosynthetic electron transport from H2O to 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol in both biotypes. Strong inhibition by atrazine was observed only with the susceptible chloroplasts. (b) Hill plots of electron transport inhibition data indicate a noncooperative binding of one inhibitor molecule at the site of action for both diuron and atrazine. (c) Susceptible chloroplasts show a strong diuron and atrazine binding (14C-radiolabel assays) with binding constants (K) of 1.4 × 10−8 molar and 4 × 10−8 molar, respectively. In the resistant chloroplasts the diuron binding was slightly decreased (K = 5 × 10−8 molar), whereas no specific atrazine binding was detected. (d) In susceptible chloroplasts, competitive binding between radioactively labeled diuron and non-labeled atrazine was observed. This competition was absent in the resistant chloroplasts. We conclude that triazine resistance of both intact plants and isolated chloroplasts of Senecio vulgaris L. is based upon a minor modification of the protein in the photosystem II complex which is responsible for herbicide binding. This change results in a specific loss of atrazine (triazine)-binding capacity. PMID:16661120

  6. A synthetic peptide from the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin promotes focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; McCarthy, J B; Furcht, L T;

    1993-01-01

    of focal adhesion and stress fiber formation requires additional interactions. Heparin-binding fragments of fibronectin can provide this signal. The COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin contains five separate heparin-binding amino acid sequences. We show here that all five sequences...... PRARI. The biological response to this peptide and to the COOH-terminal fragment may be mediated through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans because treatment of cells with heparinase II and III, or competition with heparin, reduces the response. Treatment with chondroitinase ABC or competition...

  7. The Developmental Aspects and Origins of Competitive Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Charles W.

    The literature on competitive behavior in children is examined. Sections of the review concern the socializing process of competitiveness, evolutionary foundations, early developmental processes, the relationship between competition and aggression, gender differences, competition and cooperation, anthropological perspectives, effects of…

  8. Interactions of natural organic substances with radionuclides: competition of other complexes - experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic substances as natural organic ligands occurring in most aquifer systems could have a strong influence on the behaviour of actinides in the geosphere. Their speciation may be largely dominated by humate complexes under conditions representative of natural systems. In this paper, we focus our interest on competitive effects either with major cations occurring in natural waters (such as calcium, magnesium) or with inorganic binding sites (such as hydroxide sites from particles or mineral surfaces). The case of trivalent actinides is presented and the influence of these competition processes is discussed. (authors). 22 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  9. Institutional Competitiveness in Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as'institutional competition in the media market' we als...... in general. Not only as a channel for opinion, but as a political actor and a potential business locomotive in the so-called culture- and experience-economy.......This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as'institutional competition in the media market' we also...... signal an approach that will be free of much of the traditional dogma in Danish media research: First of all, we will consider the media as a market for opinion, goods and services - not primarily as a cultural discourse with a singular focus on public service. Secondly, we consider media activity from...

  10. Natural gas industry competitiveness study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national study on the competitiveness of the natural gas industry was undertaken by the BC Oil and Gas Commission in cooperation with, and with the encouragement of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). The objective of the study was to compare the cost competitiveness of natural gas exploration , production, gathering and processing in British Columbia to the costs of the same processes in Alberta. The study was carried out by building an 'expected case' for each gas producing area in British Columbia and Alberta by averaging past events in such specific areas as pool sizes, production profiles, loads, drilling success rates, gas compositions, land, drilling, exploration and production/gathering costs, third party production/gathering and processing fees and abandonment costs; by constructing a cash flow model for each case, calculating unit cost, and ranking cases. The report provides the details of the methodology, displays the results of the investigation in graphical form, comments on the results factoring in also labour costs and cost differences due to resource characteristics, identifies some trends such as an increase in the proportion of connections to smaller plants, and provides suggestions for improvements

  11. game theory, competition and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oliva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Russel Crowe, playing John Forbes Nash Junior (aka John Nash in Ron Howards’ motion picture A beautiful mind, claims that Adam Smith’s theory that “in competition, individual ambition serves the common good” is incomplete, and that “the best result will come from everybody in the group doing what’s best for himself and the group”. Adam Smith’s motto synthesizes pretty well what happens in the competition-driven proprietary software development market, whereas Nash’s adds the cooperation that is so common even among competitors in free software markets. Every commercial free software developer tries to obtain its edge by developing better software, thus contributing to the software pool that even its competitors will be able to build upon. I.e., every free software developer does what’s best for himself, and the group, so the best outcome is achieved. The paper shows how the GNU General Public License (or GNU GPL or simply GPL licensing model can be economically favorable to developers over proprietary and even Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD-like licenses.

  12. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  13. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  14. Lectin binding in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, R; Radner, H

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two meningiomas of different morphological sub-type were examined to determine their pattern of binding to 11 different lectins which characterize cell surface components such as carbohydrate residues. Histiocytic and xanthoma cells within meningiomas could be demonstrated with six different lectins: wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), peanut agglutinin (PNA) Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin (BPA), Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), Vicia fava agglutinin (VFA) and Soyabean agglutinin (SBA). Vascular elements including endothelial cells and intimal cells, bound Ulex europaeus agglutinin type 1 (UEA 1), WGA and HPA. The fibrous stroma in fibrous and fibroblastic meningiomas bound PNA, Laburnum alpinum agglutinin (LAA) and SBA. Tumour cells in meningotheliomatous meningiomas and some areas of anaplastic meningiomas bound Concanavalin A, PNA, LAA and VFA whereas tumour cells in fibrous and fibroblastic meningiomas bound BPA, LAA and VFA. Lectin binding has proved to be of value in detecting histiocytic and xanthoma cells together with vascular elements within meningiomas. In addition, the different lectin binding patterns allow different histological sub-types of meningioma to be distinguished although the biological significance of the binding patterns is unclear. PMID:3658105

  15. INNOVATIVE ASPECTS OF THE PROVIDING COMPETITIVENESS OFENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Yamnenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world experience of economic development shows that innovations are the catalyst of modernization and restructuring of the economy, which contributedthe strengthening of the competitiveness, profitability and innovative development of enterprisesand help to conquer new and retain existing markets. The decision of problems of activation of innovative activity of enterprises becomes the main guarantee of providing of success of market reforms. The purpose of this article is to determine of features of intercommunication between innovative activity and competitive advantages of an enterprise. The study identified the competitive advantages related to innovative activity. It is proved that the maintenance of sustainable competition position at the market depends on determination and maintenance of key success factors. It is determined the basic stages of providing of competitiveness of an enterprise through the use of its innovative capabilities. It is shown that only through developing existing and creating new competitive advantages an enterprise will be able to attain the desired state of competitiveness in the modern realities. It has suggested forming an effective competitive strategy through extensive use of innovative decisions on the basis of knowledge for providing of competitiveness of enterprises. The basis to competitive advantages should be considered the process of stimulation innovations.

  16. Investigation of three flavonoids binding to bovine serum albumin using molecular fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three flavonoids including naringenin, hesperetin and apigenin binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 7.4 was studied by fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained revealed that naringenin, hesperetin and apigenin strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. The Stern-Volmer curves suggested that these quenching processes were all static quenching processes. At 291 K, the value and the order of the binding constant were KAnaringenin)=4.08x104A(hesperetin)=5.40x104∼KA(apigenin)=5.32x104 L mol-1. The main binding force between the flavonoid and BSA was hydrophobic and electrostatic force. According to the Foerster theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding distances (r0) were obtained as 3.36, 3.47 and 3.30 nm for naringenin-BSA, hesperetin-BSA and apigenin-BSA, respectively. The effect of some common ions such as Fe3+, Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+ on the binding was also studied in detail. The competition binding was also performed. The apparent binding constant (K'A) obtained suggested that one flavonoid had an obvious effect on the binding of another flavonoid to protein when they coexisted in BSA solution. - Highlights: → Quenchings of BSA fluorescence by the flavonoids was all static quenchings. → Synchronous fluorescence was applied to study the structural change of BSA. → Binding constant, binding site and binding force were determined. → Competition binding experiments were performed. → One flavonoid had an obvious effect on the binding of another one to BSA.

  17. A Neural Network Model for the Correlation between Sprinters’ Pre-competition Anxiety and Competition Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Yao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sprint is an important sporting event in track and field competition, in which, athletes’ pre-competition anxiety will greatly affect them in bringing into play their competence, which will then influence their final performance in the competition. For this reason, to study the correlation between sprinters’ pre-competition anxiety and their competition performance is of great significance in predicting athletes’ performance under difference anxiety state. After having analyzed domestic and foreign research achievements related with sport anxiety and sport performance, the study further applied CSAI-2 (1994 questionnaire to investigate athletes’ anxiety in sprint competition of a university sports meeting in Changsha. Moreover, based on neural network model, the study also constructed related models concerning athletes’ pre-competition anxiety and their competition performance. In addition, related curves concerning athletes’ pre-competition anxiety and specific performance are also formulated.

  18. New competition assay for the solubilized hepatic galactosyl receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D.A.; Weigel, P.H.

    1985-02-15

    The present method of quantitating soluble asialoglycoprotein (galactosyl) receptor activity relies on the selective precipitation of receptor-ligand complexes to allow separation from free ligand. To provide an alternative to selective precipitation procedures, a simple and rapid method to assay for detergent-solubilized galactosyl receptor activity has been developed which uses permeabilized, fixed cells as a source of immobilized solid-phase receptors. Isolated rat hepatocytes were treated with digitonin to make available the internal as well as the external receptors. The permeable cells were also treated with glutaraldehyde to prevent further protein loss during subsequent exposure to detergents such as Triton X-100. The permeable/fixed cells, which retained about 70% of their total /sup 125/I-asialo-orosomucoid (/sup 125/I-ASOR)-binding activity, with 89% specific binding, were insoluble even in 0.5% Triton X-100 and were easily pelleted. The permeable/fixed cells can be prepared in advance and stored frozen for months. A detergent extract of receptor is mixed with a constant amount of both /sup 125/I-ASOR and permeable/fixed cells. Soluble active receptors compete with immobilized receptors on the treated cell for binding of the /sup 125/I-ASOR. The assay is reproducible, linear over a broad range of soluble receptor concentration, and can quantitate receptor activity from as few as 10(5) hepatocytes. A modified purification procedure for the rat hepatic galactosyl receptor using this competition assay is also described.

  19. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  20. Gentamicin binds to the megalin receptor as a competitive inhibitor using the common ligand binding motif of complement type repeats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagil, Robert; O'Shea, Charlotte; Nykjær, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside widely used in treatments of, in particular, enterococcal, mycobacterial, and severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. Large doses of gentamicin cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, entering the cell via the receptor megalin. Until now, no structural information...