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Sample records for binding competitive

  1. Exploiting Receptor Competition to Enhance Nanoparticle Binding Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticles functionalized with multiple ligands can be programed to bind biological targets depending on the receptors they express, providing a general mechanism exploited in various technologies, from selective drug delivery to biosensing. For binding to be highly selective, ligands should exclusively interact with specific targeted receptors, because the formation of bonds with other, untargeted ones would lead to nonspecific binding and potentially harmful behavior. This poses a particular problem for multivalent nanoparticles, because even very weak bonds can collectively lead to strong binding. A statistical mechanical model is used here to describe how competition between different receptors together with multivalent effects can be harnessed to design ligand-functionalized nanoparticles insensitive to the presence of untargeted receptors, preventing nonspecific binding.

  2. Competitive Binding of Natural Amphiphiles with Graphene Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Slaven; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Chen, Pengyu; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the transformation of graphene derivatives by natural amphiphiles is essential for elucidating the biological and environmental implications of this emerging class of engineered nanomaterials. Using rapid discrete-molecular-dynamics simulations, we examined the binding of graphene and graphene oxide with peptides, fatty acids, and cellulose, and complemented our simulations by experimental studies of Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Specifically, we established a connection between the differential binding and the conformational flexibility, molecular geometry, and hydrocarbon content of the amphiphiles. Importantly, our dynamics simulations revealed a Vroman-like competitive binding of the amphiphiles for the graphene oxide substrate. This study provides a mechanistic basis for addressing the transformation, evolution, transport, biocompatibility, and toxicity of graphene derivatives in living systems and the natural environment.

  3. Optimalization of the competitive protein binding assays of functional metabolites of cholecalciferol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justova, V.; Starka, L. (Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). 3. Interni Klinika)

    1982-03-16

    Competitive protein binding assays of metabolites of vitamin D were compared using different plasmatic binding proteins from normal and pathological subjects and tritium tracer techniques. The conditions of competitive protein binding assays are optimalized in respect to their routine clinical use.

  4. Chemokine control of HIV-1 infection: Beyond a binding competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuntao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper by Cameron et al. demonstrated that certain chemokines such as CCL19 activate cofilin and actin dynamics, promoting HIV nuclear localization and integration into resting CD4 T cells. Apparently, these chomokines synergize with the viral envelope protein, triggering cofilin and actin dynamics necessary for the establishment of viral latency. This study opens a new avenue for understanding chemokine interaction with HIV. Traditionally, chemokine control of HIV infection focuses on competitive binding and down-modulation of the corecptors, particularly CCR5. This new study suggests that a diverse group of chemokines may also affect HIV infection through synergistic or antagonistic interaction with the viral coreceptor signaling pathways.

  5. Screening for oligonucleotide binding affinity by a convenient fluorescence competition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J G; Liu, X; Balasubramanian, S

    1999-09-01

    A competitive homogeneous quenched fluorescence assay system is described for the high throughput screening of DNA conjugates that bind to single-stranded DNA. Fluorescence signal is generated by competitive binding of the sample molecule to a target strand labelled with a quencher probe, which is otherwise hybridised to a complementary strand containing a fluorescent probe. Thus fluorescence generated is related to the affinity of the sample. Competitive analysis of a number of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates gave data that correlated well with the corresponding UV melting data. The assay will be useful for screening of large numbers of potential single-stranded binding molecules.

  6. A simple new competition assay for heparin binding in serum applied to multivalent PAMAM dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, Stephen M; Posocco, Paola; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Pricl, Sabrina; Rodríguez-López, Julián; Smith, David K

    2013-05-25

    We report a competition assay using our recently reported dye Mallard Blue, which allows us to identify synthetic heparin binders in competitive media, including human serum - using this we gain insight into the ability of PAMAM dendrimers to bind heparin, with the interesting result that low-generation G2-PAMAM is the preferred heparin binder.

  7. Combining spectroscopic and potentiometric approaches to characterize competitive binding to humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marang, L.; Reiller, P.E. [CEA Saclay, Nucl Energy Div, DPC/SECR, Lab Speciat Radionucleides et Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Marang, L.; Benedetti, M. F. [Univ Paris Diderot, Lab Geochim Eaux, IPGP, CNRS, UMR 7154, F-75251 Paris 05, (France); Marang, L. [EDF, Dept LNHE, Groupe Eval Risques Environm et Sanitaires, F-78401 (France); Eidner, S.; Kumke, M. [Univ Potsdam, Inst Chem, D-14476 Potsdam, (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In an area that contains high concentrations of natural organic matter, it is expected that it plays an important role on the behavior of rare earth elements (REE), like europium, and of trivalent actinides. Competitive interactions with H{sup +}, inorganic species, major cations, e.g. Ca(II) or Mg(II), could influence these metals transport and bioavailability. Competitive experiments between cations, which can bind differently to humic substances and Eu{sup 3+}, will bring an improved understanding of the competitive mechanisms. The aim of this study is to acquire data for Eu(III)/Cu(II) and Eu(III)/Ca(II) competitive binding to a sedimentary originated humic acid (Gorleben, Germany). The NICA-Donnan parameters for Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Eu{sup 3+} obtained from competitive binding experiments using Ca{sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+} ion selective electrodes were used to model time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) measurements. Eu{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+} are in direct competition for the same type of sites, whereas Ca{sup 2+} has an indirect influence through electrostatic binding. (authors)

  8. Binding of Solvent Molecules to a Protein Surface in Binary Mixtures Follows a Competitive Langmuir Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulschewski, Tobias; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2016-09-06

    The binding of solvent molecules to a protein surface was modeled by molecular dynamics simulations of of Candida antarctica (C. antarctica) lipase B in binary mixtures of water, methanol, and toluene. Two models were analyzed: a competitive Langmuir model which assumes identical solvent binding sites with a different affinity toward water (KWat), methanol (KMet), and toluene (KTol) and a competitive Langmuir model with an additional interaction between free water and already bound water (KWatWat). The numbers of protein-bound molecules of both components of a binary mixture were determined for different compositions as a function of their thermodynamic activities in the bulk phase, and the binding constants were simultaneously fitted to the six binding curves (two components of three different mixtures). For both Langmuir models, the values of KWat, KMet, and KTol were highly correlated. The highest binding affinity was found for methanol, which was almost 4-fold higher than the binding affinities of water and toluene (KMet ≫ KWat ≈ KTol). Binding of water was dominated by the water-water interaction (KWatWat). Even for the three protein surface patches of highest water affinity, the binding affinity of methanol was 2-fold higher than water and 8-fold higher than toluene (KMet > KWat > KTol). The Langmuir model provides insights into the protein destabilizing mechanism of methanol which has a high binding affinity toward the protein surface. Thus, destabilizing solvents compete with intraprotein interactions and disrupt the tertiary structure. In contrast, benign solvents such as water or toluene have a low affinity toward the protein surface. Water is a special solvent: only few water molecules bind directly to the protein; most water molecules bind to already bound water molecules thus forming water patches. A quantitative mechanistic model of protein-solvent interactions that includes competition and miscibility of the components contributes a robust basis

  9. Spectroscopic probe of the competitive binding of ethidium bromide and neomycin to DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Medini Kanta; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    1995-03-01

    The three spectroscopic changes of ethidium bromide (EB) on its binding to DNA, namely red-shift of the νmax, enhancement of fluorescence and induced dichroism are utilized to study the competitive binding of neomycin (NMC) and EB to DNA. Reversion of νmax, decrease in fluorescence and reduction of dichroism of DNA-EB on addition of NMC shows that the binding of NMC and EB to DNA is competitive in nature, over a limited concentration of the polymer. The binding constant of EB-DNA falls from 4.00 × 10 6 to 2.27 × 10 4 1 mol -1 in the presence of added NMC.

  10. Microdialysis-liquid chromatographic study on competitive binding of drugs to protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海林; 邹汉法; 张玉奎

    1997-01-01

    A new method to determine the interaction between drug and protein has been developed by utilizing the technique of microdialysis sampling with the ketoprofen and the human serum albumin (HSA) as the model of drug and protein.Two kinds of binding sites of HSA to ketoprofen have been observed.The binding constants and number of binding sites obtained by the Scatchard equation are 0.799,3.18×106 mol-1 L and 2.15,2.01×105 mol-1 L,respectively The displacement binding of drugs to HSA has also been studied.The strong displacement of competitive binding of ibuprofen with ketoprofen to HSA was observed,which means that the primary binding site of HSA to ketoprofen and that to ibuprofen are the same.However,only a weaker displacement of warfarin for the association of ketoprofen with HSA was observed,which may suggest that the primary binding site of HSA to ketoprofen is different from that to warfarin.Such a displacement effect for competitive binding of drugs to HSA was explained by the displacement model i

  11. The Role of Competitive Inhibition and Top-Down Feedback in Binding during Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatte, Dean; Herd, Seth; Mingus, Brian; O'Reilly, Randall

    2012-01-01

    How does the brain bind together visual features that are processed concurrently by different neurons into a unified percept suitable for processes such as object recognition? Here, we describe how simple, commonly accepted principles of neural processing can interact over time to solve the brain's binding problem. We focus on mechanisms of neural inhibition and top-down feedback. Specifically, we describe how inhibition creates competition among neural populations that code different features, effectively suppressing irrelevant information, and thus minimizing illusory conjunctions. Top-down feedback contributes to binding in a similar manner, but by reinforcing relevant features. Together, inhibition and top-down feedback contribute to a competitive environment that ensures only the most appropriate features are bound together. We demonstrate this overall proposal using a biologically realistic neural model of vision that processes features across a hierarchy of interconnected brain areas. Finally, we argue that temporal synchrony plays only a limited role in binding - it does not simultaneously bind multiple objects, but does aid in creating additional contrast between relevant and irrelevant features. Thus, our overall theory constitutes a solution to the binding problem that relies only on simple neural principles without any binding-specific processes.

  12. Competitive interactions of ligands and macromolecular crowders with maltose binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Miklos

    Full Text Available Cellular signaling involves a cascade of recognition events occurring in a complex environment with high concentrations of proteins, polysaccharides, and other macromolecules. The influence of macromolecular crowders on protein binding affinity through hard-core repulsion is well studied, and possible contributions of protein-crowder soft attraction have been implicated recently. Here we present direct evidence for weak association of maltose binding protein (MBP with a polysaccharide crowder Ficoll, and that this association effectively competes with the binding of the natural ligand, maltose. Titration data over wide ranges of maltose and Ficoll concentrations fit well with a three-state competitive binding model. Broadening of MBP (1H-(15N TROSY spectra by the addition of Ficoll indicates weak protein-crowder association, and subsequent recovery of sharp NMR peaks upon addition of maltose indicates that the interactions of the crowder and the ligand with MBP are competitive. We hypothesize that, in the Escherichia coli periplasm, the competitive interactions of polysaccharides and maltose with MBP could allow MBP to shuttle between the peptidoglycan attached to the outer membrane and the ATP-binding cassette transporter in the inner membrane.

  13. Anti Zn antibodies: cross reactivity and competitive binding with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarada, N C; Thamaraiselvi, K; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2008-01-15

    Monoclonal antibodies of IgM class, specific to IDA-Zn were used for evaluating their Zn(2+) binding efficiency in the presence of trace metal ions such as Cr(3+) Cr(6+), Cu(2+) and Cd(2+). In the present work, antibody raised against the hapten IDA-Zn(II) was pre-incubated with different metal ions and the binding capacity to the specific hapten was tested using ELISA and immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) techniques. IMAC was carried out with the free antibody and antibody pre-incubated with selected heavy metal ions using Sepharose IDA-Zn(2+) column and the same samples were tested using a hapten specific ELISA with non-protein hapten carrier. Different effects were observed after pre-incubation with metal ions. Cr(3+) exhibited synergistic binding where as antagonism was detected with Cd(2+). The synergistic effect observed with Cr(3+) suggests involvement of binding sites other than that of zinc and conformational changes that result from Cr(3+) binding. It is probable that, this binding event also increases the accessibility of the zinc binding sites on IgM. On the same lines, the antagonism observed with Cd(2+) could be attributed to structural changes resulting in reduced accessibility to zinc binding sites. In case of Cr(6+), no appreciable change in binding to IDA-Zn was observed while Cu(2+) showed competitive binding.

  14. Electrochemical survey of the chain length influence in phytochelatins competitive binding by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Rui; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2010-11-01

    Multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to voltammetric data obtained in the analysis of the competitive binding of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins [(gammaGlu-Cys)(n)-Gly, PC(n), n=2-5] by Cd(2+). The displacements between ligands and chain length influence on the competitive binding of PC(n) toward Cd(2+) were investigated. The analysis of the resulting pure voltammograms and concentration profiles of the resolved components suggests that ligands containing more thiol groups are able to displace the shortest chain ligands from their metal complexes, whereas the opposite does not happen. However, when the length of the chain surpasses that of PC(3), the binding capacity of the molecule still increases (i.e., it can bind more metal ions), but the position and shape of the voltammetric signals practically rest unchanged. This suggests that at this level, the stability of metal binding could depend more on the nature of the binding sites separately than on the quantity of the sites (i.e., the chain length).

  15. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2000-01-01

    Competition has been modelled in the literature in a number of ways.What do these different parametrizations of competition have in common?For instance, it turns out that it is not always the case that a rise in competition reduces price cost margins, industry wide profits or concentration.All param

  16. Competitive binding of a benzimidazole to the histone-binding pocket of the Pygo PHD finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas C R; Rutherford, Trevor J; Birchall, Kristian; Chugh, Jasveen; Fiedler, Marc; Bienz, Mariann

    2014-12-19

    The Pygo-BCL9 complex is a chromatin reader, facilitating β-catenin-mediated oncogenesis, and is thus emerging as a potential therapeutic target for cancer. Its function relies on two ligand-binding surfaces of Pygo's PHD finger that anchor the histone H3 tail methylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me) with assistance from the BCL9 HD1 domain. Here, we report the first use of fragment-based screening by NMR to identify small molecules that block protein-protein interactions by a PHD finger. This led to the discovery of a set of benzothiazoles that bind to a cleft emanating from the PHD-HD1 interface, as defined by X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, we discovered a benzimidazole that docks into the H3K4me specificity pocket and displaces the native H3K4me peptide from the PHD finger. Our study demonstrates the ligandability of the Pygo-BCL9 complex and uncovers a privileged scaffold as a template for future development of lead inhibitors of oncogenesis.

  17. A competitive nucleotide binding inhibitor: in vitro characterization of Rab7 GTPase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agola, Jacob O; Hong, Lin; Surviladze, Zurab; Ursu, Oleg; Waller, Anna; Strouse, J Jacob; Simpson, Denise S; Schroeder, Chad E; Oprea, Tudor I; Golden, Jennifer E; Aubé, Jeffrey; Buranda, Tione; Sklar, Larry A; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2012-06-15

    Mapping the functionality of GTPases through small molecule inhibitors represents an underexplored area in large part due to the lack of suitable compounds. Here we report on the small chemical molecule 2-(benzoylcarbamothioylamino)-5,5-dimethyl-4,7-dihydrothieno[2,3-c]pyran-3-carboxylic acid (PubChem CID 1067700) as an inhibitor of nucleotide binding by Ras-related GTPases. The mechanism of action of this pan-GTPase inhibitor was characterized in the context of the Rab7 GTPase as there are no known inhibitors of Rab GTPases. Bead-based flow cytometry established that CID 1067700 has significant inhibitory potency on Rab7 nucleotide binding with nanomolar inhibitor (K(i)) values and an inhibitory response of ≥97% for BODIPY-GTP and BODIPY-GDP binding. Other tested GTPases exhibited significantly lower responses. The compound behaves as a competitive inhibitor of Rab7 nucleotide binding based on both equilibrium binding and dissociation assays. Molecular docking analyses are compatible with CID 1067700 fitting into the nucleotide binding pocket of the GTP-conformer of Rab7. On the GDP-conformer, the molecule has greater solvent exposure and significantly less protein interaction relative to GDP, offering a molecular rationale for the experimental results. Structural features pertinent to CID 1067700 inhibitory activity have been identified through initial structure-activity analyses and identified a molecular scaffold that may serve in the generation of more selective probes for Rab7 and other GTPases. Taken together, our study has identified the first competitive GTPase inhibitor and demonstrated the potential utility of the compound for dissecting the enzymology of the Rab7 GTPase, as well as serving as a model for other small molecular weight GTPase inhibitors.

  18. Competition for DNA binding sites using Promega DNA IQ™ paramagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, Chantal J; De Moors, Anick

    2012-09-01

    The Promega DNA IQ™ system is easily amenable to automation and has been an integral part of standard operating procedures for many forensic laboratories including those of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) since 2004. Due to some failure to extract DNA from samples that should have produced DNA using our validated automated DNA IQ™-based protocol, the competition for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ magnetic beads was more closely examined. Heme from heavily blooded samples interfered slightly with DNA binding. Increasing the concentration of Proteinase K during lysis of these samples did not enhance DNA recovery. However, diluting the sample lysate following lysis prior to DNA extraction overcame the reduction in DNA yield and preserved portions of the lysates for subsequent manual or automated extraction. Dye/chemicals from black denim lysates competed for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ beads and significantly reduced DNA recovery. Increasing the size or number of black denim cuttings during lysis had a direct adverse effect on DNA yield from various blood volumes. The dilution approach was successful on these samples and permitted the extraction of high DNA yields. Alternatively, shortening the incubation time for cell lysis to 30 min instead of the usual overnight at 56 °C prevented competition from black denim dye/chemicals and increased DNA yields.

  19. Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  20. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bridoux

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political arena

  1. Comparing the Affinity of GTPase-binding Proteins using Competition Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rosalind C; Bass, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    In this protocol we demonstrate a method for comparing the competition between GTPase-binding proteins. Such an approach is important for determining the binding capabilities of GTPases for two reasons: The fact that all interactions involve the same face of the GTPases means that binding events must be considered in the context of competitors, and the fact that the bound nucleotide must also be controlled means that conventional approaches such as immunoprecipitation are unsuitable for GTPase biochemistry. The assay relies on the use of purified proteins. Purified Rac1 immobilized on beads is used as the bait protein, and can be loaded with GDP, a non-hydrolyzable version of GTP or left nucleotide free, so that the signaling stage to be investigated can be controlled. The binding proteins to be investigated are purified from mammalian cells, to allow correct folding, by means of a GFP tag. Use of the same tag on both proteins is important because not only does it allow rapid purification and elution, but also allows detection of both competitors with the same antibody during elution. This means that the relative amounts of the two bound proteins can be determined accurately.

  2. Competition between transferrin and the serum ligands citrate and phosphate for the binding of aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wesley R; Wang, Zhepeng; Hamada, Yahia Z

    2003-05-19

    A key issue regarding the speciation of Al(3+) in serum is how well the ligands citric acid and phosphate can compete with the iron transport protein serum transferrin for the aluminum. Previous studies have attempted to measure binding constants for each ligand separately, but experimental problems make it very difficult to obtain stability constants with the accuracy required to make a meaningful comparison between these ligands. In this study, effective binding constants for Al-citrate and Al-phosphate at pH 7.4 have been determined using difference UV spectroscopy to monitor the direct competition between these ligands and transferrin. The analysis of this competition equilibrium also includes the binding of citrate and phosphate as anions to apotransferrin. The effective binding constants are 10(11.59) for the 1:1 Al-citrate complexes and 10(14.90) for the 1:2 Al-citrate complexes. The effective binding constant for the 1:2 Al-phosphate complex is 10(12.02). No 1:1 Al-phosphate complex was detected. Speciation calculations based on these effective binding constants indicate that, at serum concentrations of citrate and phosphate, citrate will be the primary low-molecular-mass ligand for aluminum. Formal stability constants for the Al-citrate system have also been determined by potentiometric methods. This equilibrium system is quite complex, and information from both electrospray mass spectrometry and difference UV experiments has been used to select the best model for fitting the potentiometric data. The mass spectra contain peaks that have been assigned to complexes having aluminum:citrate stoichiometries of 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 2:3, and 3:3. The difference UV results were used to determine the stability constant for Al(H(-1)cta)-, which was then used in the least-squares fitting of the potentiometric data to determine stability constants for Al(Hcta)+, Al(cta), Al(cta)2(3-), Al(H(-1)cta)(cta)(4-), Al2(H(-1)cta)2(2-), and Al3(H(-1)cta)3(OH)(4-).

  3. Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕思思

    2007-01-01

    <正> The term competition reminds me of asoul-stirring fight between a mother monkeyand a crocodile,The crocodile caught her babywhen the baby was drinking water in a pool,Inthe end,the mother got her baby,but herbaby’s body only,She lost her child forever,just for a mouthful of water.Such is competition,cruel and merciless,But if we see the other side of the coin,we’ll

  4. Computational fragment-based binding site identification by ligand competitive saturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgun Guvench

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based drug discovery using NMR and x-ray crystallographic methods has proven utility but also non-trivial time, materials, and labor costs. Current computational fragment-based approaches circumvent these issues but suffer from limited representations of protein flexibility and solvation effects, leading to difficulties with rigorous ranking of fragment affinities. To overcome these limitations we describe an explicit solvent all-atom molecular dynamics methodology (SILCS: Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation that uses small aliphatic and aromatic molecules plus water molecules to map the affinity pattern of a protein for hydrophobic groups, aromatic groups, hydrogen bond donors, and hydrogen bond acceptors. By simultaneously incorporating ligands representative of all these functionalities, the method is an in silico free energy-based competition assay that generates three-dimensional probability maps of fragment binding (FragMaps indicating favorable fragment:protein interactions. Applied to the two-fold symmetric oncoprotein BCL-6, the SILCS method yields two-fold symmetric FragMaps that recapitulate the crystallographic binding modes of the SMRT and BCOR peptides. These FragMaps account both for important sequence and structure differences in the C-terminal halves of the two peptides and also the high mobility of the BCL-6 His116 sidechain in the peptide-binding groove. Such SILCS FragMaps can be used to qualitatively inform the design of small-molecule inhibitors or as scoring grids for high-throughput in silico docking that incorporate both an atomic-level description of solvation and protein flexibility.

  5. An ELISA Based Binding and Competition Method to Rapidly Determine Ligand-receptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syedbasha, Mohameedyaseen; Linnik, Janina; Santer, Deanna; O'Shea, Daire; Barakat, Khaled; Joyce, Michael; Khanna, Nina; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Houghton, Michael; Egli, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of signaling pathways requires detailed knowledge regarding ligand-receptor interaction. This article describes two fast and reliable point-by-point protocols of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the investigation of ligand-receptor interactions: the direct ligand-receptor interaction assay (LRA) and the competition LRA. As a case study, the ELISA based analysis of the interaction between different lambda interferons (IFNLs) and the alpha subunit of their receptor (IL28RA) is presented: the direct LRA is used for the determination of dissociation constants (KD values) between receptor and IFN ligands, and the competition LRA for the determination of the inhibitory capacity of an oligopeptide, which was designed to compete with the IFNLs at their receptor binding site. Analytical steps to estimate KD and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values are described. Finally, the discussion highlights advantages and disadvantages of the presented method and how the results enable a better molecular understanding of ligand-receptor interactions.

  6. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  7. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  8. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  9. A high-throughput, nonisotopic, competitive binding assay for kinases using nonselective inhibitor probes (ED-NSIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, Inna; Silveria, Scott; Kaul, Poonam; Rouhani, Riaz; Eglen, Richard M; Wang, John

    2002-12-01

    A novel competitive binding assay for protein kinase inhibitors has been developed for high-throughput screening (HTS). Unlike functional kinase assays, which are based on detection of substrate phosphorylation by the enzyme, this novel method directly measures the binding potency of compounds to the kinase ATP binding site through competition with a conjugated binding probe. The binding interaction is coupled to a signal amplification system based on complementation of beta-galactosidase enzyme fragments, a homogeneous, nonisotopic assay technology platform developed by DiscoveRx Corp. In the present study, staurosporine, a potent, nonselective kinase inhibitor, was chemically conjugated to a small fragment of beta-galactosidase (termed ED-SS). This was used as the binding probe to the kinase ATP binding pocket. The binding potencies of several inhibitors with diverse structures were assessed by displacement of ED-SS from the kinase. The assay format was specifically evaluated with GSK3alpha, an enzyme previously screened in a radioactive kinase assay (i.e., measurement of [(33)P]-gamma-ATP incorporation into the kinase peptide substrate). Under optimized assay conditions, nonconjugated staurosporine inhibited ED-SS binding in a concentration-dependent manner with an apparent potency (IC(50)) of 11 nM, which was similar to the IC(50) value determined in a radioactive assay. Furthermore, 9 kinase inhibitors with diverse structures, previously identified from chemical compound library screening, were screened using the competitive binding assay. The potencies in the binding assay were in very good agreement with those obtained previously in the isotopic functional activity assay. The binding assay was adapted for automated HTS using selected compound libraries in a 384-well microtiter plate format. The HTS assay was observed to be highly robust and reproducible (Z' factors > 0.7) with high interassay precision (R(2) > 0.96). Interference of compounds with the beta

  10. A Competition Binding Assay for Determination of the Inositol (1,4,5)-Trisphosphate Content of Human Leucocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbering, Peter H.; Zomerdijk, Timo P.L.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Furth, Ralph van

    1990-01-01

    We developed a competition binding assay for estimation of the intracellular inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) and optimalized it for the measurement of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 content of human blood leucocytes. The present method is considerably cheaper and requires five times fewer cells than

  11. Molecular modelling and competition binding study of Br-noscapine and colchicine provide insight into noscapinoid-tubulin binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pradeep K; Santoshi, Seneha; Rai, Ankit; Joshi, Harish C

    2011-06-01

    We have previously discovered the tubulin-binding anti-cancer properties of noscapine and its derivatives (noscapinoids). Here, we present three lines of evidence that noscapinoids bind at or near the well studied colchicine binding site of tubulin: (1) in silico molecular docking studies of Br-noscapine and noscapine yield highest docking score with the well characterised colchicine-binding site from the co-crystal structure; (2) the molecular mechanics-generalized Born/surface area (MM-GB/SA) scoring results ΔΔG(bind-cald) for both noscapine and Br-noscapine (3.915 and 3.025 kcal/mol) are in reasonably good agreement with our experimentally determined binding affinity (ΔΔG(bind-Expt) of 3.570 and 2.988 kcal/mol, derived from K(d) values); and (3) Br-noscapine competes with colchicine binding to tubulin. The simplest interpretation of these collective data is that Br-noscapine binds tubulin at a site overlapping with, or very close to colchicine-binding site of tubulin. Although we cannot rule out a formal possibility that Br-noscapine might bind to a site distinct and distant from the colchicine-binding site that might negatively influence the colchicine binding to tubulin.

  12. Molecular modeling and competition binding study of Br-noscapine and colchicine provides insight into noscapinoid-tubulin binding site

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Pradeep K.; Santoshi, Seneha; Rai, Ankit; Joshi, Harish C.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously discovered the tubulin-binding anti-cancer properties of noscapine and its derivatives (noscapinoids). Here, we present three lines of evidence that noscapinoids bind at or near the well studied colchicine binding site of tubulin: 1) In silico molecular docking studies of Br-noscapine and noscapine yield highest docking score with the well characterised colchicine-binding site from the co-crystal structure; 2) the molecular mechanics-generalized Born/surface area (MM-GB/SA)...

  13. Gentamicin binds to the megalin receptor as a competitive inhibitor using the common ligand binding motif of complement type repeats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagil, Robert; O'Shea, Charlotte; Nykjær, Anders

    2013-01-01

    megalin and investigated its interaction with gentamicin. Using NMR titration data in HADDOCK, we have generated a three-dimensional model describing the complex between megalin and gentamicin. Gentamicin binds to megalin with low affinity and exploits the common ligand binding motif previously described...

  14. Competitive binding of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and 5-fluorouracil to human serum albumin: A fluorescence and circular dichroism study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lixia; Liu, Min; Liu, Guiqin; Li, Dacheng; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Bingquan; Han, Jun; Zhang, Min

    2017-02-01

    Combination therapy with more than one therapeutic agent can improve therapeutic efficiency and decrease drug resistance. In this study, the interactions of human serum albumin (HSA) with individual or combined anticancer drugs, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and 5-fluorouracil (FU), were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the interaction of EGCG or FU with HSA is a process of static quenching and EGCG formed a more stable complex. The competitive experiments of site markers suggested that both anti-carcinogens mainly bound to site I (subdomain IIA). The interaction forces which play important roles in the binding process were discussed based on enthalpy and entropy changes. Moreover, the competition binding model for a ternary system was proposed so as to precisely calculate the binding parameters. The results demonstrated that one drug decreased the binding affinity of another drug with HSA, resulting in the increasing free drug concentration at the action sites. CD studies indicated that there was an alteration in HSA secondary structure due to the binding of EGCG and FU. It can be concluded that the combination of EGCG with FU may enhance anticancer efficacy. This finding may provide a theoretical basis for clinical treatments.

  15. Fluorescence competition assay for the assessment of ATP binding to an isolated domain of Na+, K(+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, M; Plásek, J; Amler, E

    2004-01-01

    An equation allowing estimation of the dissociation constant for binding of a non-fluorescent ligand to the enzyme is presented that is based on the competitive replacement of the ligand by its fluorescent analog. We derived an explicit formula for the probe fluorescence intensity, which is suitable for nonlinear least-squares analysis. We used this formula to evaluate the binding of ATP to the large cytoplasmic loop of Na+,K(+)-ATPase. The estimated value of KD (6.2+/- 0.7 mM) is comparable with the results from other laboratories for similar constructs obtained by a different method.

  16. In vivo detection of molybdate-binding proteins using a competition assay with ModE in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Jochen; Meyer zu Berstenhorst, Sonja; Vödisch, Bernd; Mendel, Ralf R; Schwarz, Günter; Boxer, David H

    2003-01-21

    Molybdenum is an important trace element as it forms the essential part of the active site in all molybdenum-containing enzymes. We have designed an assay for the in vivo detection of molybdate binding to proteins in Escherichia coli. The assay is based on (i). the molybdate-dependent transcriptional regulation of the moa operon by the ModE protein, and (ii). the competition for molybdate between ModE and other molybdate-binding proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli. We were able to verify in vivo molybdate binding to three different bacterial proteins that are known to bind molybdate. This sensitive in vivo system allows the testing of different proteins for molybdate binding under in vivo conditions and will facilitate the identification of other cellular factors needed for molybdate binding. As a first example, we examined the eukaryotic protein Cnx1 that is involved in the last step of molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in plants, and show that it is able to compete with ModE for molybdate in a molybdopterin-dependent fashion.

  17. Semi-automated competitive protein binding analysis of serum thyroxine on reusable Sephadex columns and its advantages over radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, N M

    1976-06-01

    Competitive protein-binding analysis of serum thyroxine on small, reusable, Sephadex columns has been further studied and improved. The improved, semi-automated procedure results in reduced working time and costs. It has also been established that triiodothyronine crossreacts only 1/6 to 1/9 as well as thyroxine, and can be ignored because it represents only about 1/80 of the total serum iodothyronine content. The economic and methodological advantages of the improved method over radioammunoassay and other displacement assays are discussed.

  18. Interactions Between Sirolimus and Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Competitive Binding for Human Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Arash; Bolandnazar, Soheila; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hasani, Leila; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was investigating the effects of three anti-inflammatory drugs, on Sirolimus protein biding. The binding site of Sirolimus on human serum albumin (HSA) was also determined. Methods: Six different concentrations of Sirolimus were separately exposed to HSA at pH 7.4 and 37°C. Ultrafiltration method was used for separating free drug; then free drug concentrations were measured by HPLC. Finally, Sirolimus protein binding parameters was calculated using Scatchard plots. The same processes were conducted in the presence of NSAIDs at lower concentration of albumin and different pH conditions. To characterize the binding site of Sirolimus on albumin, the free concentration of warfarin sodium and Diazepam, site I and II specific probes, bound to albumin were measured upon the addition of increasing Sirolimus concentrations. Results: Based on the obtained results presence of Diclofenac, Piroxicam and Naproxen, could significantly decrease the percentage of Sirolimus protein binding. The Binding reduction was the most in the presence of Piroxicam. Sirolimus-NSAIDs interactions were increased in higher pH values and also in lower albumin concentrations. Probe displacement study showed that Sirolimus may mainly bind to site I on albumin molecule. Conclusion: More considerations in co-administration of NSAIDs and Sirolimus is recommended. PMID:27478785

  19. Inhibition of CK2 Activity by TCDD via Binding to ATP-competitive Binding Site of Catalytic Subunit:Insight from Computational Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xian-jin; CANNISTRARO Salvatore; BIZZARRI Anna-rita; ZENG Yi; CHEN Wei-zu; WANG Cun-xin

    2013-01-01

    Alternative mechanisms of toxic effects induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD),instead of the binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor(AhR),have been taken into consideration.It has been recently shown that TCDD reduces rapidly the activity of CK2(casein kinase Ⅱ) both in vivo and in vitro.It is found that TCDD has high molecular similarities to the known inhibitors of CK2 catalytic subunit(CK2α).This suggests that TCDD could also be an ATP-competitive inhibitor of CK2α.In this work,docking TCDD to CK2 was carried out based on the two structures of CK2α from maize and human,respectively.The binding free energies of the predicted CK2α-TCDD complexes estimated by the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area(MM/PBSA) method are from -85.1 kJ/mol to-114.3 kJ/mol for maize and are from-96.1 kJ/mol to-118.2 kJ/mol for human,which are comparable to those estimated for the known inhibitor and also ATP with CK2α.The energetic analysis also reveals that the van der Waals interaction is the dominant contribution to the binding free energy.These results are also useful for designing new drugs for a target of overexpressing CK2 in cancers.

  20. SNHG16 contributes to breast cancer cell migration by competitively binding miR-98 with E2F5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chang; Huo, Qiang; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Bing; Yang, Qifeng

    2017-02-20

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proved to play important roles in cellular processes of cancer, including the development, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrated small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) as an oncogene on cell migration in breast cancer. Expression levels of SNHG16 were found to be frequently higher in breast cancer tissues than in the paired noncancerous tissues. Gain- and loss-of-function studies proved that SNHG16 significantly promoted breast cancer cell migration. We predicted SNHG16 as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of E2F transcription factor 5 protein (E2F5) via competition for the shared miR-98 through bioinformatics analysis, and proved this regulation using relative quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay and luciferase reporter assay. In addition, we identified a positive correlation between SNHG16 and E2F5 in breast cancer tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrated that forced expression of miR-98 could partially abrogate SNHG16-mediated increase of breast cancer cells migration, suggesting that SNHG16 promoted cell migration in a miR-98 dependent manner. Taken together, our findings indicated that SNHG16 induces breast cancer cell migration by competitively binding miR-98 with E2F5, and SNHG16 can serve as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment.

  1. A competition assay for DNA binding using the fluorescent probe ANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian A; Kneale, G Geoff

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique frequently employed to study protein-nucleic acid interactions. Often, the intrinsic fluorescence emission spectrum of tryptophan residues in a nucleic-acid-binding protein is strongly perturbed upon interaction with a target DNA or RNA. These spectral changes can then be exploited in order to construct binding isotherms and the extract equilibrium association constant together with the stoichiometry of an interaction. However, when a protein contains many tryptophan residues that are not located in the proximity of the nucleic-acid-binding site, changes in the fluorescence emission spectrum may not be apparent or the magnitude too small to be useful. Here, we make use of an extrinsic fluorescence probe, the environmentally sensitive fluorophore 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid (1,8-ANS). Displacement by DNA of 1,8-ANS molecules from the nucleic-acid-binding site of the Type I modification methylase EcoR124I results in red shifting and an intensity decrease of the 1,8-ANS fluorescence emission spectrum. These spectral changes have been used to investigate the interaction of EcoR124I with DNA target recognition sequences.

  2. Profile and removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals by using an ER/AR competitive ligand binding assay and chemical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-hua Liu; Mamoru Ito; Yoshinori Kanjo; Atsushi Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    An estrogen receptor (ER)/androgen receptor (AR) ligand competitive binding assay (ER/AR-binding assay) and chemical analyses were used to evaluate the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) behavior of two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (K and S). In the influents, estrone (El), androsterone (A), androstenedione (AD), BPA (bisphenol A), NP (nonylphenol) and daidzein (DZ) were detected in high amounts with subsequent 24 h-average concentrations of 350, 1000, 29, 1300, 3900, and 5700 ng/L in K-WWTP and of 310, 620, 59, 1600, 2600, and 8400 ng/L in S-WWTP. The estrogenic (androgenic) activity as 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalents (EEQ) or testosterone (Te) equivalents (TEQ) was consequently 620 ng E2/L (570 ng Te/L) and 580 ng E2/L (800 ng Te/L) for the two WWTPs. The removal efficiencies of the above mentioned sole target chemicals were 51%-100% for K-WWTP and 55.6%,100% for S-WWTP. The removal efficiencies of EEQ were about 73% for both WWTPs, while the removal efficiencies of TEQ were 62.1% for K-WWTP and 98.4% for S-WWTP. In addition, chemical-derived EEQ were about 1.2%-52.4% of those by ER-binding assay for K-WWTP and the corresponding ratios were 1.3%-83.3% for S-WWTP, while chemical derived TEQ were less than 3% of values measured by the AR-binding assay for both WWTPs.

  3. Inclusion complex formation of ionic liquids with 4-sulfonatocalixarenes studied by competitive binding of berberine alkaloid fluorescent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskolczy, Zsombor; Biczók, László

    2009-07-01

    A clinically important natural isoquinoline alkaloid, berberine, was used as a fluorescent probe to study the encapsulation of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (C nMIm +) type ionic liquids in 4-sulfonato-substituted calix[4]arene (SCX4) and calix[6]arene (SCX6) at pH 2. Addition of ionic liquids to the aqueous solution of berberine-SCXn inclusion complexes brought about considerable fluorescence intensity diminution due to the extrusion of berberine from the macrocycle into the aqueous phase by the competitive inclusion of C nMIm + cation. The lengthening of the aliphatic side chain of the imidazolium moiety diminished the equilibrium constant of complexation with SCX4, but enhanced the stability of SCX6 complexes. Larger binding strength was found for SCX4.

  4. Detection of cyclic di-AMP using a competitive ELISA with a unique pneumococcal cyclic di-AMP binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Adam J.; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W.; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a signaling molecule that has been shown to play important roles in bacterial physiology and infections. Currently, c-di-AMP detection and quantification relies mostly on the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In this study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of c-di-AMP was developed, which utilizes a novel pneumococcal c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) and a newly commercialized c-di-AMP derivative. With this new method, c-di-AMP concentrations in biological samples can be quickly and accurately quantified. Furthermore, this assay is much more efficient than current methods as it requires less overall cost and training while processing many samples at once. Therefore, this assay can be extensively used in research into c-di-AMP signaling. PMID:25239824

  5. Effect of buffer on heparin binding and sensing in competitive aqueous media

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ching Wan; Smith, David K.

    2017-01-01

    Although buffer-specific effects on molecular recognition are known in biological science, they remain rare in supramolecular chemistry. The binding between a cationic dye, Mallard Blue (MalB), and polyanionic heparin in aqueous NaCl (150 mM) is studied in three commonly-used buffers (Tris-HCl, HEPES, Phosphate, each 10 mM). Although MalB has a very similar UV-Vis spectrum in each buffer, the sensory response towards heparin was different in each case. This can be ascribed to differences in t...

  6. Lynx1 and Aβ1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M

    2016-01-01

    Lynx1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain by regulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). It is not known to which extent Lynx1 can bind to endogenous nAChR subunits in the brain or how this interaction is affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology. We apply affinity purification...... to demonstrate that a water-soluble variant of human Lynx1 (Ws-Lynx1) isolates α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits from human and rat cortical extracts, and rat midbrain and olfactory bulb extracts, suggesting that Lynx1 forms complexes with multiple nAChR subtypes in the human and rodent brain....... Incubation with Ws-Lynx1 decreases nicotine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells and striatal neurons, indicating that binding of Ws-Lynx1 is sufficient to inhibit signaling downstream of nAChRs. The effect of nicotine in PC12 cells is independent of α7 or α4β2 n...

  7. Comparison of competitive ligand-binding assay and bioassay formats for the measurement of neutralizing antibodies to protein therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Deborah; Baltrukonis, Daniel; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Delaria, Kathy; Gunn, George R; Lowe, John; Maia, Mauricio; Wong, Teresa

    2011-01-25

    Administration of biological therapeutic proteins can lead to unwanted immunogenicity in recipients of these products. The assessment and characterization of such immune reactions can be helpful to better understand their clinical relevance and how they relate to patient safety and therefore, have become an integral part of a product development program for biological therapeutics. Testing for anti-drug antibodies (ADA) to biological/biotechnology-derived therapeutic proteins generally follows a tiered approach. Samples are initially screened for binding antibodies; presumptive positives are then confirmed in a confirmatory assay; subsequently, confirmed-positive samples may be further characterized by titration and with a neutralizing antibody (NAb) assay. Regulatory guidances on immunogenicity state that assessing the neutralizing capacity of antibodies should preferably be done using functional bioassays, while recognizing that competitive ligand-binding (CLB) assays may be substituted when neutralizing bioassays are inadequate or not feasible. This manuscript describes case studies from four companies in which CLB assays and functional bioassays were compared for their ability to detect neutralizing ADA against a variety of biotechnology-derived therapeutic proteins. Our findings indicate that CLB assays are comparable to bioassays for the detection of NAbs, in some cases offering better detection sensitivity, lower variability, and less matrix interference.

  8. Machine learning competition in immunology – Prediction of HLA class I binding peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Bradley, Phil

    2011-01-01

    from pathogens or cancer proteomes involve either reverse immunology or high-throughput mass spectrometry (HTMS). Reverse immunology approaches involve pre-screening of proteomes by computational algorithms, followed by experimental validation of selected targets ( [Mora et al., 2006], [De Groot et al......). Hundreds of naturally processed HLA class I associated peptides have been identified in individual studies using HTMS in normal (Escobar et al., 2008), cancer ( [Antwi et al., 2009] and [Bassani-Sternberg et al., 2010]), autoimmunity-related (Ben Dror et al., 2010), and infected samples (Wahl et al, 2010......). Computational algorithms are essential steps in high-throughput identification of T-cell epitope candidates using both reverse immunology and HTMS approaches. Peptide binding to MHC molecules is the single most selective step in defining T cell epitope and the accuracy of computational algorithms for prediction...

  9. Competition of Chromium on Iron binding sites in the biological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *F. S. Rehmani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium is mutagenic and neurotoxic. Trivalent Chromium is involved in the enzymes of glucose metabolism. Chromium is generally found in +3 oxidation state and sometimes it competes for the binding sites of iron in the biological system, when the concentration of chromium exceeds above the normal, it inhibits the absorption of iron and iron deficiency leads diseases such as anemia, tinnitus and depression. Salicylicdhydroxamic acid a hydroxamate type siderophore is used as a drug in the chelation therapy of iron overload patients. The complex formation of Cr(III and Fe(III with salicyclic hydroxamate were studied potentiometrically at different temperatures and data was subjected to computer programs. The stability constant (log beta values and thermodynamic stabilities were calculated. It was found that salicyclic hydroxamate forms 1:1 complex at pH 3 and 1:2 complex at pH 4 with Cr(III and Fe(III, respectively. The stability constant (Log beta and thermodynamic stabilities of Cr(III Salicyclic hydroxamate complexes are close to Fe(III Salicyclic hydroxamate complexes. It was observed from the stability constant values that after chelating therapy the concentration of chromium become low and deficiency symptoms appear resulting diabetes.

  10. Competition from Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in Pb(II) binding to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakraborty, P.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of trace metal competition in the complexation of Pb(II) by well-characterized humic substances, namely Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) in model solutions. It was found that Cu(II) seems to compete with Pb(II) for strong binding sites of SRFA when present at the same concentration

  11. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer.

  12. Differential but competitive binding of Nogo protein and class i major histocompatibility complex (MHCI) to the PIR-B ectodomain provides an inhibition of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Haruka; Endo, Shota; Kobayashi, Eiji; Sakamoto, Yuzuru; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Kitaguchi, Kohji; Kuroki, Kimiko; Söderhäll, Arvid; Maenaka, Katsumi; Nakamura, Akira; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Takai, Toshiyuki

    2011-07-22

    Binding of class I MHC molecules (MHCI) to an inhibitory receptor, PIR-B, expressed on B cells and myeloid cells provides constitutive cellular inhibition, thus ensuring peripheral tolerance. Recent unexpected findings pointed to a novel inhibitory role of PIR-B in neurite regeneration through binding to three axonal outgrowth inhibitors of myelin, including Nogo. Thus, it becomes interesting to determine whether the actions of the inhibitory myelin proteins and MHCI could coexist independently or be mutually exclusive as to the PIR-B-mediated immune and neural cell inhibition. Here, we present data supporting the competition of Nogo- and MHCI-mediated inhibition where they coexist. Kinetic analyses of Nogo and MHCI binding to the whole or a part of the recombinant PIR-B ectodomain revealed that PIR-B binds with higher affinity to Nogo than MHCI and that the MHCI binding only occurred with the N-terminal domains of PIR-B, whereas Nogo binding occurred with either the N- or C-terminal ectodomains. Importantly, kinetic tests indicated that the binding to PIR-B of Nogo and MHCI was competitive. Both endogenous and exogenous Nogo intensified the PIR-B-mediated suppression of interleukin-6 release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated wild-type, but not PIR-B-deficient, cultured mast cells, indicating that PIR-B mediates Nogo-induced inhibition. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism by which PIR-B-mediated regulation is achieved differentially but competitively via MHCI and Nogo in cells of the immune system.

  13. Detection of DNA damage by Escherichia coli UvrB-binding competition assay is limited by the stability of the UvrB-DNA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, M N; Allan, J M; Garner, R C

    1997-07-01

    To investigate the use of UvrB-binding to detect DNA damage, mobility shift gel electrophoresis was used to detect binding of UvrB protein to a 136 bp DNA fragment that was randomly adducted with aflatoxin B1 8,9-epoxide and end-labelled with 32P. After polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the shifted band that contained DNA bound by UvrB was quantified as a percentage of total radioactive substrate DNA. This method was applied to analyse plasmid DNA that was adducted with various DNA modifying agents in vitro. These adducts competed for UvrB-binding to the labelled substrate. By competing for UvrB-binding with 10 ng of plasmid DNA that was adducted with known levels of aflatoxin B1, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, or benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, UvrB competition could be quantified for DNA adducted with between one adduct in 10(2) and one adduct in 10(5) normal nucleotides. However, plasmid DNA exposed to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or methylene blue + visible light, did not compete for UvrB-binding, even though the presence of UvrABC sensitive sites were confirmed on this DNA by a UvrABC incision assay. Mono-adducted 96-bp DNA substrates, which contained an internal 32P-label and either a single apurinic site, aflatoxin B1-guanine adduct, O6-methylguanine, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine or non-adducted guanine, were also used as substrates for UvrA- and UvrB-binding to examine the stability of UvrB-DNA complexes with specific adducts. Under similar conditions used for the competition assay, significant UvrB-binding was seen only for the aflatoxin adducted substrate. These results suggest that stability of UvrB-binding varies greatly between bulky and non-bulky adducts. It was also found that rat liver DNA from untreated rats inhibited UvrB-binding to the substrate DNA in the competition assay, to a degree that was equivalent to competition with plasmid adducted at one adduct in 10(3) normal nucleotides.

  14. Competition of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins for midgut binding sites: a basis for the development and management of transgenic tropical maize resistant to several stemborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rang, Cécile; Bergvingson, David; Bohorova, Natasha; Hoisington, David; Frutos, Roger

    2004-07-01

    Binding and competition of five Bacillus thuringiensis toxins--Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ba, Cry1Ca, and Cry1Ea--for midgut binding sites from three pests, Spodoptera frugiperda, Diatraea saccharalis, and Diatraea grandiosella, were investigated as part of a strategy to develop tropical transgenic maize resistant to several stemborers. On S. frugiperda, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac compete for the same binding site; Cry1Ba and Cry1Ca compete for a second binding site. Cry1Ea recognizes a third specific binding site in S. frugiperda and does not compete with any of the other toxins. On D. grandiosella and D. saccharalis, Cry1Ac competes with Cry1Ab and not with Cry1Ba and Cry1Ca. Cry1Ba and Cry1Ca recognize each a specific binding site and do not compete with any of the other four toxins. Cry1Ea does not recognize any binding site on Diatraea species. Combinations of toxins are proposed to develop transgenic maize resistant to the three stemborers while allowing resistance management.

  15. Different sensitivities to competitive inhibition of benzodiazepine receptor binding of {sup 11}C-iomazenil and {sup 11}C-flumazenil in rhesus monkey brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Osamu; Hosoi, Rie; Kobayashi, Kaoru [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Itoh, Takashi; Gee, A.; Suzuki, Kazutoshi

    2001-04-01

    The in vivo binding kinetics of {sup 11}C-iomazenil were compared with those of {sup 11}C-flumazenil binding in rhesus monkey brain. The monkey was anesthetized with ketamine and intravenously injected with either {sup 11}C-iomazenil or {sup 11}C-flumazenil in combination with the coadministration of different doses of non-radioactive flumazenil (0, 5 and 20 {mu}g/kg). The regional distribution of {sup 11}C-iomazenil in the brain was similar to that of {sup 11}C-flumazenil, but the sensitivity of {sup 11}C-iomazenil binding to competitive inhibition by non-radioactive flumazenil was much less than that of {sup 11}C-flumazenil binding. A significant reduction in {sup 11}C-flumazenil binding in the cerebral cortex was observed with 20 {mu}g/kg of flumazenil, whereas a relatively smaller inhibition of {sup 11}C-iomazenil binding in the same region was observed with the same dose of flumazenil. These results suggest that {sup 11}C-flumazenil may be a superior radiotracer for estimating benzodiazepine receptor occupancy in the intact brain. (author)

  16. Thermodynamics of the binding of salicylate to human serum albumin: evidence of non-competition with imidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, I; Ceballos, A; Gonzalez-Velasco, F; Cachaza, J M

    1989-02-01

    The thermodynamic characteristics of the binding of salicylate to human serum albumin have been studied using a technique based on the variation of the quantum yield of fluorescence of salicylate when it binds to the protein. The binding constants, number of sites and the values of delta G degrees, delta H degrees and delta S degrees were determined. The results are consistent with a model that proposes two equal and independent types of binding site with a predominantly ionic interaction and an important hydrophobic contribution in one of the sites. The technique was also used to demonstrate that imidazole and salicylate (that can be found simultaneously in plasma following administration of imidazole-2-hydroxybenzoate) do not compete for the same binding sites on the protein.

  17. Binding mode analyses and pharmacophore model development for stilbene derivatives as a novel and competitive class of α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuno; Kim, Songmi; Kim, Jun Young; Arooj, Mahreen; Kim, Siu; Hwang, Swan; Kim, Byeong-Woo; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Keun Woo

    2014-01-01

    Stilbene urea derivatives as a novel and competitive class of non-glycosidic α-glucosidase inhibitors are effective for the treatment of type II diabetes and obesity. The main purposes of our molecular modeling study are to explore the most suitable binding poses of stilbene derivatives with analyzing the binding affinity differences and finally to develop a pharmacophore model which would represents critical features responsible for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Three-dimensional structure of S. cerevisiae α-glucosidase was built by homology modeling method and the structure was used for the molecular docking study to find out the initial binding mode of compound 12, which is the most highly active one. The initial structure was subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for protein structure adjustment at compound 12-bound state. Based on the adjusted conformation, the more reasonable binding modes of the stilbene urea derivatives were obtained from molecular docking and MD simulations. The binding mode of the derivatives was validated by correlation analysis between experimental Ki value and interaction energy. Our results revealed that the binding modes of the potent inhibitors were engaged with important hydrogen bond, hydrophobic, and π-interactions. With the validated compound 12-bound structure obtained from combining approach of docking and MD simulation, a proper four featured pharmacophore model was generated. It was also validated by comparison of fit values with the Ki values. Thus, these results will be helpful for understanding the relationship between binding mode and bioactivity and for designing better inhibitors from stilbene derivatives.

  18. Usefulness of competitive inhibitors of protein binding for improving the pharmacokinetics of {sup 186}Re-MAG3-conjugated bisphosphonate ({sup 186}Re-MAG3-HBP), an agent for treatment of painful bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuma [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan)]|[Kanazawa University, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa (Japan); Mukai, Takahiro [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan)]|[Kyushu University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Kawai, Keiichi [Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa (Japan)]|[University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Yoshida, Fukui (Japan); Takamura, Norito [Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nobeoka (Japan); Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Saji, Hideo [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Hashimoto, Kazuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Shiba, Kazuhiro; Mori, Hirofumi [Kanazawa University, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    We have developed a {sup 186}Re-mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine complex-conjugated bisphosphonate ({sup 186}Re-MAG3-HBP) for the treatment of painful bone metastases. We assumed competitive inhibitors of protein binding to be useful for procuring a favorable biodistribution of {sup 186}Re-MAG3-HBP for the palliation of bone pain because it has been reported that the concurrent administration of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 and drugs with high affinity for serum protein produced competitive displacement at specific binding sites and enhanced total clearance and tissue distribution. The displacement effects of several protein-binding inhibitors on the protein binding of {sup 186}Re-MAG3-HBP were investigated. Biodistribution experiments were performed by intravenously administering {sup 186}Re-MAG3-HBP into rats with ceftriaxone as a competitive protein-binding inhibitor or saline. The protein binding of {sup 186}Re-MAG3-HBP in rat serum, human serum, and a human serum albumin solution was significantly decreased by the addition of ceftriaxone, which has high affinity for binding site I on serum albumin. In the biodistribution experiments, pretreatment with ceftriaxone enhanced the clearance of the radioactivity of {sup 186}Re-MAG3-HBP in blood and nontarget tissues but had no effect on accumulation in bone. The findings suggested that the use of protein-binding competitive inhibitors would be effective in improving the pharmacokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals with high affinity for serum protein. (orig.)

  19. Competition for in Vitro [3H]Gibberellin A4 Binding in Cucumber by Gibberellins and Their Derivatives 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalpani, Nasser; Srivastava, Lalit M.

    1985-01-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, [3H]GA4, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for γ-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 β-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA9 and GA36, both considered to be precursors of GA4 in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA4 receptor in cucumber. PMID:16664553

  20. Competition for in vitro [h]gibberellin a(4) binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalpani, N; Srivastava, L M

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, [(3)H]GA(4), and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for gamma-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 beta-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA(9) and GA(36), both considered to be precursors of GA(4) in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA(4) receptor in cucumber.

  1. Competition for in vitro ( sup 3 H)gibberellin A sub 4 binding in cucumber by substituted phthalimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalpani, N.; Suttle, J.C.; Hultstrand, J.F. (Department of Agriculture, Fargo, ND (USA)); Rodaway, S.J. (American Cyanamid Company, Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Certain N-substituted phthalimides (NSPs) have gibberellin (GA)-like activity in a number of GA bioassays. The interaction between representative NSPs and a protein fraction from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls that has GA-binding characteristics consistent with those expected of GA receptors was studied. Analysis of in vitro equilibrium saturation data indicated the presence of only one class of high affinity ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding sites (K{sub d} {approximately}30 nanomolar, n = 0.25 picomole per milligram of protein). In the presence of 6 or 60 micromolar 1-(3-chlorophthalimido)-cyclohexanecarboximide (AC-94,377), the K{sub d} for ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} increased, whereas the maximum number of saturable ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding sites did not change significantly. The dissociation of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} from its binding sites was complex and was best described by a bi-exponential equation. AC-94,377 did not affect the rates of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} dissociation from its binding sites. These results implied that AC-94,377 and ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} compete for binding to the same sites. A correlation was observed between the activity of over 20 NSPs in the cucumber hypocotyl bioassay and their in vitro affinity for the GA binding sites. Our observations lend further support to the notion that certain GA binding proteins in cucumber cytosol are GA receptors and also provide a molecular explanation for the GA-like in vivo activity of some NSPs.

  2. The proto-oncoprotein KR-POK represses transcriptional activation of CDKN1A by MIZ-1 through competitive binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K M; Choi, W I; Koh, D I; Kim, Y J; Jeon, B N; Yoon, J H; Lee, C E; Kim, S H; Oh, J; Hur, M W

    2012-03-15

    The BTB/POZ family of proteins has been implicated in multiple biological processes, including tumourigenesis, DNA damage responses and cell cycle progression and development. MIZ-1 (Myc-interacting zinc-finger protein 1) is known to activate transcription of CDKN1A. We recently found that a kidney cancer-related POK transcription factor, KR-POK, is highly expressed in kidney, brain and bone marrow cancer tissues and is a potential proto-oncoprotein. Mouse Kr-pok represses transcription of the CDKN1A by acting on the proximal promoter. The BiFC/FRET assay, co-immunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase-fusion protein pull-down assay indicate that MIZ-1 and Kr-pok interact via their POZ domains. Oligoucleotide pull-down assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that MIZ-1 binds to the proximal GC-box#3 (bp, -55 to -63) and the MIZ-1-binding elements, MRE-A (bp, -90 to -64) and MRE-B (bp, -27 to -17). Interestingly, MIZ-1 also binds to the distal p53-binding elements. Kr-pok binds to the proximal GC-box#1 (bp, -95 to -100) and #3 (bp, -55 to -63) relatively strongly. It also shows weak binding to the MREs and the distal p53-binding elements. Kr-pok competes with MIZ-1 in binding to these elements and represses transcription by inhibiting MIZ-1/p300 recruitment, which decreases the acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Our data indicate that Kr-pok stimulates cell proliferation by interfering with the function of MIZ-1 in CDKN1A gene transcription using a mechanism that is radically different from other MIZ-1-interacting proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma 6, c-Myc and Gfi-1.

  3. A novel method to measure HLA-DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHC class II molecules based on peptide binding competition assay and differential IC(50) determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liusong; Stern, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    HLA-DM (DM) functions as a peptide editor that mediates the exchange of peptides loaded onto MHCII molecules by accelerating peptide dissociation and association kinetics. The relative DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHCII molecules correlates with antigen presentation and immunodominance hierarchy, and measurement of DM-susceptibility has been a key effort in this field. Current assays of DM-susceptibility, based on differential peptide dissociation rates measured for individually labeled peptides over a long time base, are difficult and cumbersome. Here, we present a novel method to measure DM-susceptibility based on peptide binding competition assays performed in the presence and absence of DM, reported as a delta-IC(50) (change in 50% inhibition concentration) value. We simulated binding competition reactions of peptides with various intrinsic and DM-catalyzed kinetic parameters and found that under a wide range of conditions the delta-IC(50) value is highly correlated with DM-susceptibility as measured in off-rate assay. We confirmed experimentally that DM-susceptibility measured by delta-IC(50) is comparable to that measured by traditional off-rate assay for peptides with known DM-susceptibility hierarchy. The major advantage of this method is that it allows simple, fast and high throughput measurement of DM-susceptibility for a large set of unlabeled peptides in studies of the mechanism of DM action and for identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of the competitive binding of Eu(III), Ca(II), and Cu(II) to a sedimentary originated humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marang, L.; Reiller, P.E. [CEA Saclay, Nucl Energy Div, DPC SECR, Lab Speciat Radionucleides and Mol, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Marang, L.; Benedetti, M.F. [Univ Paris 07, Lab Geochim Eaux, IPGP UMR CNRS 7154, F-75205 Paris 13 (France); Eidner, S.; Kumke, M.U. [Univ Potsdam, Inst Chem, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The competition between REE, alkaline earth and d-transition metals for organic matter binding sites is still an open field of research; particularly, the mechanisms governing these phenomena need to be characterized in more detail. In this study, we examine spectroscopically the mechanisms of competitive binding of Eu(III)/Cu(II) and Eu(III)/Ca(II) pair to Gorleben humic acid (HA), as previously proposed in the framework of the NICA-Donnan model. The evolution of time-resolved laser induced luminescence spectra of humic-complexed Eu(Ill) showed two strikingly different environments for a comparable bound proportion for Cu(II) and Ca(II). Cu(II) seems to compete more effectively with Eu(III) inducing its release into the Donnan phase, and into the bulk solution as free Eu{sup 3+}. This is evidenced both by the shapes of the spectra and by the decrease in the luminescence decay times. In contrast with that, Ca(II) induces a modification of the HA structure, which enhances the luminescence of humic-bound Eu(III), and causes a minor modification of the chemical environment of the complexed rare earth ion. (authors)

  5. Competitive binding-based optical DNA mapping for fast identification of bacteria--multi-ligand transfer matrix theory and experimental applications on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Adam N; Emilsson, Gustav; Nyberg, Lena K; Noble, Charleston; Stadler, Liselott Svensson; Fritzsche, Joachim; Moore, Edward R B; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate a single DNA molecule optical mapping assay able to resolve a specific Escherichia coli strain from other strains. The assay is based on competitive binding of the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 and the AT-specific antibiotic netropsin. The optical map is visualized by stretching the DNA molecules in nanofluidic channels. We optimize the experimental conditions to obtain reproducible barcodes containing as much information as possible. We implement a multi-ligand transfer matrix method for calculating theoretical barcodes from known DNA sequences. Our method extends previous theoretical approaches for competitive binding of two types of ligands to many types of ligands and introduces a recursive approach that allows long barcodes to be calculated with standard computer floating point formats. The identification of a specific E. coli strain (CCUG 10979) is based on mapping of 50-160 kilobasepair experimental DNA fragments onto the theoretical genome using the developed theory. Our identification protocol introduces two theoretical constructs: a P-value for a best experiment-theory match and an information score threshold. The developed methods provide a novel optical mapping toolbox for identification of bacterial species and strains. The protocol does not require cultivation of bacteria or DNA amplification, which allows for ultra-fast identification of bacterial pathogens.

  6. Competitive binding-based optical DNA mapping for fast identification of bacteria - multi-ligand transfer matrix theory and experimental applications on Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Adam N.; Emilsson, Gustav; Nyberg, Lena K.; Noble, Charleston; Stadler, Liselott Svensson; Fritzsche, Joachim; Moore, Edward R. B.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a single DNA molecule optical mapping assay able to resolve a specific Escherichia coli strain from other strains. The assay is based on competitive binding of the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 and the AT-specific antibiotic netropsin. The optical map is visualized by stretching the DNA molecules in nanofluidic channels. We optimize the experimental conditions to obtain reproducible barcodes containing as much information as possible. We implement a multi-ligand transfer matrix method for calculating theoretical barcodes from known DNA sequences. Our method extends previous theoretical approaches for competitive binding of two types of ligands to many types of ligands and introduces a recursive approach that allows long barcodes to be calculated with standard computer floating point formats. The identification of a specific E. coli strain (CCUG 10979) is based on mapping of 50–160 kilobasepair experimental DNA fragments onto the theoretical genome using the developed theory. Our identification protocol introduces two theoretical constructs: a P-value for a best experiment-theory match and an information score threshold. The developed methods provide a novel optical mapping toolbox for identification of bacterial species and strains. The protocol does not require cultivation of bacteria or DNA amplification, which allows for ultra-fast identification of bacterial pathogens. PMID:25013180

  7. Agrobacterium uses a unique ligand-binding mode for trapping opines and acquiring a competitive advantage in the niche construction on plant host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available By modifying the nuclear genome of its host, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces the development of plant tumours in which it proliferates. The transformed plant tissues accumulate uncommon low molecular weight compounds called opines that are growth substrates for A. tumefaciens. In the pathogen-induced niche (the plant tumour, a selective advantage conferred by opine assimilation has been hypothesized, but not experimentally demonstrated. Here, using genetics and structural biology, we deciphered how the pathogen is able to bind opines and use them to efficiently compete in the plant tumour. We report high resolution X-ray structures of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP NocT unliganded and liganded with the opine nopaline (a condensation product of arginine and α-ketoglurate and its lactam derivative pyronopaline. NocT exhibited an affinity for pyronopaline (K(D of 0.6 µM greater than that for nopaline (KD of 3.7 µM. Although the binding-mode of the arginine part of nopaline/pyronopaline in NocT resembled that of arginine in other PBPs, affinity measurement by two different techniques showed that NocT did not bind arginine. In contrast, NocT presented specific residues such as M117 to stabilize the bound opines. NocT relatives that exhibit the nopaline/pyronopaline-binding mode were only found in genomes of the genus Agrobacterium. Transcriptomics and reverse genetics revealed that A. tumefaciens uses the same pathway for assimilating nopaline and pyronopaline. Fitness measurements showed that NocT is required for a competitive colonization of the plant tumour by A. tumefaciens. Moreover, even though the Ti-plasmid conjugal transfer was not regulated by nopaline, the competitive advantage gained by the nopaline-assimilating Ti-plasmid donors led to a preferential horizontal propagation of this Ti-plasmid amongst the agrobacteria colonizing the plant-tumour niche. This work provided structural and genetic evidences to

  8. Agrobacterium Uses a Unique Ligand-Binding Mode for Trapping Opines and Acquiring A Competitive Advantage in the Niche Construction on Plant Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planamente, Sara; El Sahili, Abbas; Blin, Pauline; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Dessaux, Yves; Moréra, Solange; Faure, Denis

    2014-01-01

    By modifying the nuclear genome of its host, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces the development of plant tumours in which it proliferates. The transformed plant tissues accumulate uncommon low molecular weight compounds called opines that are growth substrates for A. tumefaciens. In the pathogen-induced niche (the plant tumour), a selective advantage conferred by opine assimilation has been hypothesized, but not experimentally demonstrated. Here, using genetics and structural biology, we deciphered how the pathogen is able to bind opines and use them to efficiently compete in the plant tumour. We report high resolution X-ray structures of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) NocT unliganded and liganded with the opine nopaline (a condensation product of arginine and α-ketoglurate) and its lactam derivative pyronopaline. NocT exhibited an affinity for pyronopaline (KD of 0.6 µM) greater than that for nopaline (KD of 3.7 µM). Although the binding-mode of the arginine part of nopaline/pyronopaline in NocT resembled that of arginine in other PBPs, affinity measurement by two different techniques showed that NocT did not bind arginine. In contrast, NocT presented specific residues such as M117 to stabilize the bound opines. NocT relatives that exhibit the nopaline/pyronopaline-binding mode were only found in genomes of the genus Agrobacterium. Transcriptomics and reverse genetics revealed that A. tumefaciens uses the same pathway for assimilating nopaline and pyronopaline. Fitness measurements showed that NocT is required for a competitive colonization of the plant tumour by A. tumefaciens. Moreover, even though the Ti-plasmid conjugal transfer was not regulated by nopaline, the competitive advantage gained by the nopaline-assimilating Ti-plasmid donors led to a preferential horizontal propagation of this Ti-plasmid amongst the agrobacteria colonizing the plant-tumour niche. This work provided structural and genetic evidences to support the niche

  9. Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 protein SEC11 is a competitive and dynamic modulator of SNARE binding and SYP121-dependent vesicle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Rucha; Grefen, Christopher; Bayne, Robert; Honsbein, Annegret; Köhler, Tim; Kioumourtzoglou, Dimitrios; Williams, Mary; Bryant, Nia J; Blatt, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana Qa-SNARE SYP121 (=SYR1/PEN1) drives vesicle traffic at the plasma membrane of cells throughout the vegetative plant. It facilitates responses to drought, to the water stress hormone abscisic acid, and to pathogen attack, and it is essential for recovery from so-called programmed stomatal closure. How SYP121-mediated traffic is regulated is largely unknown, although it is thought to depend on formation of a fusion-competent SNARE core complex with the cognate partners VAMP721 and SNAP33. Like SYP121, the Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 protein SEC11 (=KEULE) is expressed throughout the vegetative plant. We find that SEC11 binds directly with SYP121 both in vitro and in vivo to affect secretory traffic. Binding occurs through two distinct modes, one requiring only SEC11 and SYP121 and the second dependent on assembly of a complex with VAMP721 and SNAP33. SEC11 competes dynamically for SYP121 binding with SNAP33 and VAMP721, and this competition is predicated by SEC11 association with the N terminus of SYP121. These and additional data are consistent with a model in which SYP121-mediated vesicle fusion is regulated by an unusual "handshaking" mechanism of concerted SEC11 debinding and rebinding. They also implicate one or more factors that alter or disrupt SEC11 association with the SYP121 N terminus as an early step initiating SNARE complex formation.

  10. Generation and characterization of a tetraspanin CD151/integrin α6β1-binding domain competitively binding monoclonal antibody for inhibition of tumor progression in HCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Lu; Kang, Qiang; Liu, Li-Xin; Xie, Nan; Shen, Zao-Zhuo; Hu, Mei-Yu; Cao, Ya; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Shi, Guo-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that tetraspanin CD151 plays multiple roles in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by forming a functional complex with integrin α6β1. Herein, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that dissociates the CD151/integrin α6β1 complex, and we evaluated its bioactivity in HCCs. A murine mAb, tetraspanin CD151 (IgG1, called CD151 mAb 9B), was successfully generated against the CD151-integrin α6β1 binding site of CD151 extracellular domains. Co-immunoprecipitation using CD151 mAb 9B followed by Western blotting detected a 28 kDa protein. Both immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining showed a good reactivity of CD151 mAb 9B in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of HCC cells, as well as in liver cells. In vitro assays demonstrated that CD151 mAb 9B could inhibit neoangiogenesis and both the mobility and the invasiveness of HCC cells. An in vivo assay showed that CD151 mAb 9B inhibited tumor growth potential and HCC cells metastasis. We successfully produced a CD151 mAb 9B targeting the CD151/integrin α6β1-binding domain, which not only can displayed good reactivity to the CD151 antigen but also prevented tumor progression in HCC. PMID:26756217

  11. In vitro characterization of luseogliflozin, a potent and competitive sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor: Inhibition kinetics and binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Saeko; Mitani, Akiko; Gunji, Emi; Takahashi, Teisuke; Yamamoto, Koji

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated an inhibition model of luseogliflozin on sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2). We also analyzed the binding kinetics of the drug to SGLT2 protein using [(3)H]-luseogliflozin. Luseogliflozin competitively inhibited human SGLT2 (hSGLT2)-mediated glucose uptake with a Ki value of 1.10 nM. In the absence of glucose, [(3)H]-luseogliflozin exhibited a high affinity for hSGLT2 with a Kd value of 1.3 nM. The dissociation half-time was 7 h, suggesting that luseogliflozin dissociates rather slowly from hSGLT2. These profiles of luseogliflozin might contribute to the long duration of action of this drug.

  12. Kinome-wide Selectivity Profiling of ATP-competitive Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitors and Characterization of Their Binding Kinetics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingsong; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Hur, Wooyoung; Niepel, Mario; Westover, Kenneth; Thoreen, Carson C.; Wang, Jinhua; Ni, Jing; Patricelli, Matthew P.; Vogel, Kurt; Riddle, Steve; Waller, David L.; Traynor, Ryan; Sanda, Takaomi; Zhao, Zheng; Kang, Seong A.; Zhao, Jean; Look, A. Thomas; Sorger, Peter K.; Sabatini, David M.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2012-01-01

    An intensive recent effort to develop ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitors has resulted in several potent and selective molecules such as Torin1, PP242, KU63794, and WYE354. These inhibitors are being widely used as pharmacological probes of mTOR-dependent biology. To determine the potency and specificity of these agents, we have undertaken a systematic kinome-wide effort to profile their selectivity and potency using chemical proteomics and assays for enzymatic activity, protein binding, and disruption of cellular signaling. Enzymatic and cellular assays revealed that all four compounds are potent inhibitors of mTORC1 and mTORC2, with Torin1 exhibiting ∼20-fold greater potency for inhibition of Thr-389 phosphorylation on S6 kinases (EC50 = 2 nm) relative to other inhibitors. In vitro biochemical profiling at 10 μm revealed binding of PP242 to numerous kinases, although WYE354 and KU63794 bound only to p38 kinases and PI3K isoforms and Torin1 to ataxia telangiectasia mutated, ATM and Rad3-related protein, and DNA-PK. Analysis of these protein targets in cellular assays did not reveal any off-target activities for Torin1, WYE354, and KU63794 at concentrations below 1 μm but did show that PP242 efficiently inhibited the RET receptor (EC50, 42 nm) and JAK1/2/3 kinases (EC50, 780 nm). In addition, Torin1 displayed unusually slow kinetics for inhibition of the mTORC1/2 complex, a property likely to contribute to the pharmacology of this inhibitor. Our results demonstrated that, with the exception of PP242, available ATP-competitive compounds are highly selective mTOR inhibitors when applied to cells at concentrations below 1 μm and that the compounds may represent a starting point for medicinal chemistry efforts aimed at developing inhibitors of other PI3K kinase-related kinases. PMID:22223645

  13. [Comparative study of the estrogenic activity of modified estrogens based on data of competitive binding analysis and biological assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskaia, E V; Ivanenko, T I

    1981-01-01

    A series of bromo- and silyl-derivatives was studied in experiments on immature female rats in vivo and in vitro. All the estrogens studied were conventionally divided into 4 groups according to their ability for concurrent binding with the rat uterus cytosol receptors and their specific bioeffect: equally concurrent and bioeffective compounds (estrone, ethynyl estradiol); slightly concurrent substances with a pronounced uterotropic action (4-silyl estrogens, mestranol); little effective compounds with 4 to 8% of estradiol concurrent activity (2- and 4-bromo-and silyl estradiols, estriol); compounds, not having concurrent and biological effects (2-silyl estrones, 4-bromoestradiol diacetate).

  14. ATP potentiates competitive inhibition of guanylyl cyclase A and B by the staurosporine analog, Gö6976: reciprocal regulation of ATP and GTP binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jerid W; Potter, Lincoln R

    2011-09-30

    Natriuretic peptides and ATP activate and Gö6976 inhibits guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A and GC-B. Here, the mechanism of inhibition was determined. Gö6976 progressively increased the Michaelis-Menten constant and decreased the Hill coefficient without reducing the maximal velocity of GC-A and GC-B. In the presence of 1 mm ATP, the K(i) was 1 μm for both enzymes. Inhibition of GC-B was minimal in the absence of ATP, and 1 mm ATP increased the inhibition 4-fold. In a reciprocal manner, 10 μm Gö6976 increased the potency of ATP for GC-B 4-fold. In contrast to a recent study (Duda, T., Yadav, P., and Sharma, R. K. (2010) FEBS J. 277, 2550-2553), neither staurosporine nor Gö6976 activated GC-A or GC-B. This is the first study to show that Gö6976 reduces GTP binding and the first demonstration of a competitive inhibitor of a receptor guanylyl cyclase. We conclude that Gö6976 reduces GTP binding to the catalytic site of GC-A and GC-B and that ATP increases the magnitude of the inhibition.

  15. Improvement on the competitive binding assay for the measurement of cyclic AMP by using ammonium sulphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Coloma, T A; Bley, M A; Charreau, E H

    1987-08-01

    The protein-binding assay developed by Brown, Albano, Ekins, Sgherzi & Tampion [(1971) Biochem. J. 121, 561-562] and Brown, Ekins & Albano [(1972) Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 2, 25-40] was modified by using precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 of the protein-cyclic AMP complex instead of adsorption of the free nucleotide on charcoal. The half-life of the protein-cyclic AMP complex obtained in the presence of charcoal was lower than that of the (NH4)2SO4-precipitated complex. In consequence, owing to the great stability of the precipitated protein-cyclic AMP complex, this method allows more accurate and reproducible determinations.

  16. Albumin-coated SPIONs: an experimental and theoretical evaluation of protein conformation, binding affinity and competition with serum proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siming; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Minelli, Caterina; Faraudo, Jordi; Roig, Anna; Laromaine, Anna

    2016-07-01

    The variety of nanoparticles (NPs) used in biological applications is increasing and the study of their interaction with biological media is becoming more important. Proteins are commonly the first biomolecules that NPs encounter when they interact with biological systems either in vitro or in vivo. Among NPs, super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show great promise for medicine. In this work, we study in detail the formation, composition, and structure of a monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on SPIONs. We determine, both by molecular simulations and experimentally, that ten molecules of BSA form a monolayer around the outside of the SPIONs and their binding strength to the SPIONs is about 3.5 × 10-4 M, ten times higher than the adsorption of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the same SPIONs. We elucidate a strong electrostatic interaction between BSA and the SPIONs, although the secondary structure of the protein is not affected. We present data that supports the strong binding of the BSA monolayer on SPIONs and the properties of the BSA layer as a protein-resistant coating. We believe that a complete understanding of the behavior and morphology of BSA-SPIONs and how the protein interacts with SPIONs is crucial for improving NP surface design and expanding the potential applications of SPIONs in nanomedicine.The variety of nanoparticles (NPs) used in biological applications is increasing and the study of their interaction with biological media is becoming more important. Proteins are commonly the first biomolecules that NPs encounter when they interact with biological systems either in vitro or in vivo. Among NPs, super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show great promise for medicine. In this work, we study in detail the formation, composition, and structure of a monolayer of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on SPIONs. We determine, both by molecular simulations and experimentally, that ten molecules of BSA form a monolayer around the

  17. β-Synuclein suppresses both the initiation and amplification steps of α-synuclein aggregation via competitive binding to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James W. P.; Buell, Alexander K.; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Meisl, Georg; Carozza, Jacqueline; Flagmeier, Patrick; Vendruscolo, Michele; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Galvagnion, Céline

    2016-11-01

    α-Synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein that is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease through the processes involved in the formation of amyloid fibrils. α and β-synuclein are homologous proteins found at comparable levels in presynaptic terminals but β-synuclein has a greatly reduced propensity to aggregate and indeed has been found to inhibit α-synuclein aggregation. In this paper, we describe how sequence differences between α- and β-synuclein affect individual microscopic processes in amyloid formation. In particular, we show that β-synuclein strongly suppresses both lipid-induced aggregation and secondary nucleation of α-synuclein by competing for binding sites at the surfaces of lipid vesicles and fibrils, respectively. These results suggest that β-synuclein can act as a natural inhibitor of α-synuclein aggregation by reducing both the initiation of its self-assembly and the proliferation of its aggregates.

  18. Understanding peptide competitive inhibition of botulinum neurotoxin A binding to SV2 protein via molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shan; He, Hong-Qiu; Shen, Lin; Wan, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are known as the most toxic natural substances. Synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) has been proposed to be a protein receptor for BoNT/A. Recently, two short peptides (BoNT/A-A2 and SV2C-A3) were designed to inhibit complex formation between the BoNT/A receptor-binding domain (BoNT/A-RBD) and the synaptic vesicle protein 2C luminal domain (SV2C-LD). In this article, the two peptide complex systems are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The structural stability analysis indicates that BoNT/A-A2 system is more stable than SV2C-A3 system. The conformational analysis implies that the β-sheet in BoNT/A-A2 system maintains its secondary structure but the two β-strands in SV2C-A3 system have remarkable conformational changes. Based on the calculation of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions and cation-π interactions, it is found that the internal hydrogen bonds play crucial roles in the structural stability of the peptides. Because of the stable secondary structure, the β-sheet in BoNT/A-A2 system establishes effective interactions at the interface and inhibits BoNT/A-RBD binding to SV2C-LD. In contrast, without other β-strands forming internal hydrogen bonds, the two isolated β-strands in SV2C-A3 system become the random coil. This conformational change breaks important hydrogen bonds and weakens cation-π interaction in the interface, so the complex formation is only partially inhibited by the two β-strands. These results are consistent with experimental studies and may be helpful in understanding the inhibition mechanisms of peptide inhibitors.

  19. Effects of an endurance cycling competition on resting serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, J; Lopez-Calderon, A; Hoyos, J; Martin-Velasco, A; Villa, G; Villanua, M; Lucia, A

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine whether consecutive bouts of intense endurance exercise over a three week period alters serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and/or its binding proteins. Methods—Seventeen professional cyclists (mean (SEM) VO2MAX, 74.7 (2.1) ml/kg/min; age, 27 (1) years) competing in a three week tour race were selected as subjects. Blood samples were collected at each of the following time points: t0 (control, before the start of competition), t1 (end of first week), and t3 (end of third week). Serum levels of both total and free IGF-I and IGF binding proteins 1 and 3 (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3) were measured in each of the samples. Cortisol levels were measured in nine subjects. Results—A significant (p<0.01) increase was found in total IGF-I and IGFBP-1 at both t1 and t3 compared with to (IGF-I: 110.9 (17.7), 186.8 (12.0), 196.9 (14.7) ng/ml at t0, t1, and t3 respectively; IGFBP-1: 54.6 (6.6), 80.6 (8.0), and 89.2 (7.9) ng/ml at t0, t1, and t3 respectively). A significant (p<0.01) decrease was noted in free IGF-I at t3 compared with both to and t1 (t0: 0.9 (0.1) ng/ml; t1: 0.9 (0.1) ng/ml; t3: 0.7 (0.1) ng/ml); in contrast, IGFBP-3 levels remained stable throughout the race. Conclusions—It would appear that the increase in circulating levels of both IGF-I and its binding protein IGFBP-1 is a short term (one week) endocrine adaptation to endurance exercise. After three weeks of training, total IGF-I and IGFBP-1 remained stable, whereas free IGF-I fell below starting levels. Key Words: cycling; insulin-like growth factor; exercise; endurance; binding proteins PMID:11579061

  20. Fluorescence competition assay for the assessment of green leaf volatiles and trans-β-farnesene bound to three odorant-binding proteins in the wheat aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Yin, Jiao; Deng, Sisi; Li, Kebin; Cao, Yazhong

    2012-06-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are important parts of insect olfactory systems, and sensitive olfaction is vital for phytophagous insects in host foraging. Electrophysiological studies are helpful in understanding olfactory sensing in Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), but the functions of odorant-binding proteins in this insect are poorly understood. In this study, we used fluorescence competition assays to measure the binding specificities of SaveOBPs. The results showed that both SaveOBP2 and SaveOBP3 were superior to SaveOBP7 in binding green leaf volatiles. It was unexpected that SaveOBP7 bound trans-β-farnesene strongly, which was known as alarm pheromone of this species. Host volatiles were recognized much more easily by SaveOBP2, and the observed binding activity of SaveOBP2 equaled for tested green leaf volatiles. Our results imply that SaveOBP7 might play a more important role in aphid alarm pheromone discrimination.

  1. PPIP5K1 modulates ligand competition between diphosphoinositol polyphosphates and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 for polyphosphoinositide-binding domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Nikhil A; Zaremba, Angelika; Janoshazi, Agnes K; Weaver, Jeremy D; Shears, Stephen B

    2013-08-01

    We describe new signalling consequences for PPIP5K1 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase type 1)-mediated phosphorylation of InsP6 and 5-InsP7 to 1-InsP7 and InsP8. In NIH 3T3 cells, either hyperosmotic stress or receptor activation by PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) promoted translocation of PPIP5K1 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. The PBD1 (polyphosphoinositide-binding domain) in PPIP5K1 recapitulated that translocation. Mutagenesis of PBD1 to reduce affinity for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 prevented translocation. Using surface plasmon resonance, we found that PBD1 association with vesicular PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was inhibited by InsP6 and diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. However, the inhibition by PPIP5K1 substrates (IC50: 5-InsP7=5 μM and InsP6=7 μM) was substantially more potent than that of the PPIP5K1 products (IC50: InsP8=32 μM and 1-InsP7=43 μM). This rank order of ligand competition with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was also exhibited by the PH (pleckstrin homology) domains of Akt (also known as protein kinase B), GRP1 (general receptor for phosphoinositides 1) and SIN1 (stress-activated protein kinase-interaction protein 1). We propose that, in vivo, PH domain binding of InsP6 and 5-InsP7 suppresses inappropriate signalling ('noise') from stochastic increases in PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. That restraint may be relieved by localized depletion of InsP6 and 5-InsP7 at the plasma membrane following PPIP5K1 recruitment. We tested this hypothesis in insulin-stimulated L6 myoblasts, using mTOR (mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 as a readout for SIN1-mediated translocation of mTORC (mTOR complex) 2 to the plasma membrane [Zoncu, Efeyan and Sabatini (2011) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 12, 21-35]. Knockdown of PPIP5K1 expression was associated with a 40% reduction in Ser473 phosphorylation. A common feature of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-based signalling cascades may be their regulation by PPIP5K1.

  2. Competitive binding inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses the secreted aspartyl proteinase of Candida albicans as an antigenic marker for diagnosis of disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christine J; Hurst, Steven F; Reiss, Errol

    2003-09-01

    The secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) of Candida albicans have been implicated as virulence factors associated with adherence and tissue invasion. The potential use of proteinases as markers of invasive candidiasis led us to develop a competitive binding inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Sap in clinical specimens. Daily serum and urine specimens were collected from rabbits that had been immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and cortisone acetate and infected intravenously with 10(7) C. albicans blastoconidia. Disseminated infection was confirmed by organ culture and histopathology. Although ELISA inhibition was observed when serum specimens from these rabbits were used, more significant inhibition, which correlated with disease progression, occurred when urine specimens were used. Urine collected as early as 1 day after infection resulted in significant ELISA inhibition (mean inhibition +/- standard error [SE] compared with preinfection control urine, 15.7% +/- 2.7% [P ELISA results. Dissemination to the kidney and spleen occurred in one rabbit challenged by intragastric inoculation, and urine from this rabbit demonstrated significant inhibition in the ELISA (mean inhibition +/- SE by day 3 after infection, 32.9% +/- 2.7% [P test sensitivity was 83%, the specificity was 92%, the positive predictive value was 84%, the negative predictive value was 91%, and the efficiency was 89% (166 urine samples from 33 rabbits tested). The specificity, positive predictive value, and efficiency could be increased to 97, 95, and 92%, respectively, if at least two positive test results were required for a true positive designation. The ELISA was sensitive and specific for the detection of Sap in urine specimens from rabbits with disseminated C. albicans infection, discriminated between colonization and invasive disease, reflected disease progression and severity, and has the potential to be a noninvasive means to diagnose disseminated candidiasis.

  3. Downregulation of long noncoding RNA HOTAIRM1 promotes monocyte/dendritic cell differentiation through competitively binding to endogenous miR-3960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jiaxuan; Li, Jing; Feng, Yue; Wang, Liyang; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Rongcun

    2017-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation is controlled by a multilayered regulatory circuitry consisting of various elements, including histone modifications, transcription factors, and posttranscriptional regulators such as miRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this biological process remains unclear. In this study, through epigenetic profiling analysis using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified an lncRNA, HOTAIRM1, with a critical role in myeloid development. Further ChIP-chip analysis showed obvious H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 histone modification peak changes in the promoter region of HOTAIRM1 during the process of monocyte to dendritic cell (DC) differentiation. In line with this observation, HOTAIRM1 RNA expression was downregulated when monocytes differentiated into DCs. Moreover, we found that HOTAIRM1 RNA was regulated by epigenetic factors such as RBBP4 and RBBP7. Mechanistically, we found that the silencing of HOTAIRM1 caused changes in the expression of several monocyte differentiation markers such as CD14 and B7H2. In addition, based on the “competing endogenous RNA” hypothesis, we discovered miR-3960 targeting both HOTAIRM1 and the DC differentiation repression gene, HOXA1, by most possibly constructing a potential competing endogenous RNA network. Increased miR-3960 expression could downregulate both of these two long RNAs and finally lead peripheral blood cells to differentiate into DCs. In summary, our study demonstrates that HOTAIRM1 competitively binds to miR-3960 and finally regulates the process of hematopoiesis, which reveals a novel regulatory mechanism of lncRNA function. PMID:28280365

  4. An ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates the Uptake of α-(1,6)-Linked Dietary Oligosaccharides in Bifidobacterium and Correlates with Competitive Growth on These Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Ejby; Fredslund, Folmer; Andersen, Joakim Mark

    2016-01-01

    and lactobacilli in the human gut. Here we show that the solute binding protein (BlG16BP) associated with an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter from the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 binds -(1,6)-linked glucosides and galactosides of varying size, linkage, and monosaccharide...

  5. X-ray absorption spectroscopic evidence for binding of the competitive inhibitor 2-mercaptoethanol to the nickel sites of Jack bean urease. A new Ni-Ni interaction in the inhibited enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.A.; Wilcox, D.E. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (USA)); Scott, R.A. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

    1990-02-21

    The enzyme Jack bean urease has been identified as the first nickel-containing metalloenzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to carbon dioxide and ammonia. Competitive inhibitors such as 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) have been shown to dramatically affect the ground-state electronic properties of the urease Ni(II) ions. Results of preliminary structural investigations using x-ray absorption spectroscopy of the nickel salts of urease in its native and 2-ME bound forms are presented. The binding of 2-ME to Ni(II) through the thiolate sulfur is confirmed by the results of this study. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Competition for in vitro (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives. [Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalpani, N.; Srivastava, L.M.

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for ..gamma..-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 ..beta..-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA/sub 9/ and GA/sub 36/, both considered to be precursors of GA/sub 4/ in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA/sub 4/ receptor in cucumber.

  7. Differential Effects of Structural Modifications on the Competition of Chalcones for the PIB Amyloid Imaging Ligand-Binding Site in Alzheimer's Disease Brain and Synthetic Aβ Fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosso, Marina Y; McCarty, Katie; Head, Elizabeth; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; LeVine, Harry

    2016-02-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex brain disorder that still remains ill defined. In order to understand the significance of binding of different clinical in vivo imaging ligands to the polymorphic pathological features of AD brain, the molecular characteristics of the ligand interacting with its specific binding site need to be defined. Herein, we observed that tritiated Pittsburgh Compound B ((3)H-PIB) can be displaced from synthetic Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) fibrils and from the PIB binding complex purified from human AD brain (ADPBC) by molecules containing a chalcone structural scaffold. We evaluated how substitution on the chalcone scaffold alters its ability to displace (3)H-PIB from the synthetic fibrils and ADPBC. By comparing unsubstituted core chalcone scaffolds along with the effects of bromine and methyl substitution at various positions, we found that attaching a hydroxyl group on the ring adjacent to the carbonyl group (ring I) of the parent member of the chalcone family generally improved the binding affinity of chalcones toward ADPBC and synthetic fibrils F40 and F42. Furthermore, any substitution on ring I at the ortho-position of the carbonyl group greatly decreases the binding affinity of the chalcones, potentially as a result of steric hindrance. Together with the finding that neither our chalcones nor PIB interact with the Congo Red/X-34 binding site, these molecules provide new tools to selectively probe the PIB binding site that is found in human AD brain, but not in brains of AD pathology animal models. Our chalcone derivatives also provide important information on the effects of fibril polymorphism on ligand binding.

  8. In vitro binding of plutonium to human transferrin and competition reaction with ferric ions; Fixation in vitro du plutonium sur la siderophiline humaine et reaction de competition avec l'ion ferrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, P.; Lafuma, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Plutonium was found to bind strongly to human transferrin, however a maximum capacity of absorption was observed. Presaturation with iron of transferrin resulted in a decrease of plutonium binding, but it still remained appreciable. It was largely affected by the pH as well as by the degree of ferric saturation of the transferrin. (authors) [French] Le plutonium se fixe solidement sur la siderophiline humaine, toutefois on assiste a une capacite d'absorption limite. Une presaturation par le fer de la siderophiline, diminue l'attraction du plutonium, cependant celle-ci reste importante. L'influence du pH est tres importante ainsi que les degres de saturation ferrique de la siderophiline. (auteurs)

  9. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  10. Inhibition of α-Synuclein Fibril Elongation by Hsp70 Is Governed by a Kinetic Binding Competition between α-Synuclein Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Francesco A; Arosio, Paolo; Fusco, Giuliana; Chen, Serene W; Kumita, Janet R; Dhulesia, Anne; Tortora, Paolo; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Christopher M; Cremades, Nunilo

    2017-03-07

    The Hsp70 family of chaperones plays an essential role in suppressing protein aggregation in the cell. Here we investigate the factors controlling the intrinsic ability of human Hsp70 to inhibit the elongation of amyloid fibrils formed by the Parkinson's disease-related protein α-synuclein. Using kinetic analysis, we show that Hsp70 binds preferentially to α-synuclein fibrils as a consequence of variations in the association and dissociation rate constants of binding to the different aggregated states of the protein. Our findings illustrate the importance of the kinetics of binding of molecular chaperones, and also of potential therapeutic molecules, in the efficient suppression of specific pathogenic events linked to neurodegeneration.

  11. Competitive binding of postsynaptic density 95 and Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein kinase Ⅱ to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B in rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan-jie MENG; Jun GUO; Bo SONG; Xue-bo YAN; Guang-yi ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interactions among postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95), Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein kinase Ⅱα (CaMKⅡα), and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) during ischemia and reperfusion in hippocampus of rats. METHODS: Brain ischemia was induced by four-vessel occlusion procedure in rats. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting were performed to study the interactions and phosphorylation of proteins. The association-dissociation of PSD-95 and CaMKⅡα to and from N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor induced by ischemia and reperfusion and the effects of 1-[N,O-bis-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenyl-piperazine (KN-62, a selective inhibitor of CaMKⅡ) on these protein interactions were investigated. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting were performed for the studies of interactions among proteins. RESULTS: The alternations of the binding level of PSD-95 and CaMKⅡα to NR2B during ischemia and reperfusion demonstrated the negative correlation to each other. Pre-administration of KN62 through both cerebral ventricles inhibited the 10 min ischemia-induced increase of the binding of PSD-95 to NR2B and, on the contrary, promoted the binding of CaMKⅡα to NR2B. CONCLUSION: PSD-95 competes with CaMKⅡ to bind to NR2B during ischemia and reperfusion in rat hippocampus.

  12. Competitive binding exchange between alkali metal ions (K+, Rb+, and Cs+) and Na+ ions bound to the dimeric quadruplex [d(G4T4G4)]2: a 23Na and 1H NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesare Marincola, Flaminia; Virno, Ada; Randazzo, Antonio; Mocci, Francesca; Saba, Giuseppe; Lai, Adolfo

    2009-12-01

    A comparative study of the competitive cation exchange between the alkali metal ions K+, Rb+, and Cs+ and the Na+ ions bound to the dimeric quadruplex [d(G4T4G4)]2 was performed in aqueous solution by a combined use of the 23Na and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The titration data confirm the different binding affinities of these ions for the G-quadruplex and, in particular, major differences in the behavior of Cs+ as compared to the other ions were found. Accordingly, Cs+ competes with Na+ only for the binding sites at the quadruplex surface (primarily phosphate groups), while K+ and Rb+ are also able to replace sodium ions located inside the quadruplex. Furthermore, the 1H NMR results relative to the CsCl titration evidence a close approach of Cs+ ions to the phosphate groups in the narrow groove of [d(G4T4G4)]2. Based on a three-site exchange model, the 23Na NMR relaxation data lead to an estimate of the relative binding affinity of Cs+ versus Na+ for the quadruplex surface of 0.5 at 298 K. Comparing this value to those reported in the literature for the surface of the G-quadruplex formed by 5'-guanosinemonophosphate and for the surface of double-helical DNA suggests that topology factors may have an important influence on the cation affinity for the phosphate groups on DNA.

  13. Friendly competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change.

  14. Competitive reactions in solutions of poly-L-histidine, calf thymus DNA, and synthetic polyanions: determining the binding constants of polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikin, Alexander N; Trukhanova, Elizabeth S; Putnam, David; Izumrudov, Vladimir A; Litmanovich, Andrey A

    2003-11-12

    The physicochemical characteristics of a nonviral gene delivery system will govern its functional bioactivity; however, empiricism dominates the literature in this field, and a significant deficiency of quantitative investigation and evaluation of nonviral gene delivery vehicles remains. Herein, we derive a physical model and experimental method to quantitatively determine the binding constants between a model polycationic nonviral gene delivery vehicle poly-L-histidine (PLH) and calf thymus DNA. The approach has utility to a variety of systems and is not limited to the described polymer model. The interaction of PLH with DNA was monitored by fluorescence quenching of an ethidium bromide probe in the pH range 4 to 8. The interaction increased with pH decrease with the most pronounced change between pH 6 and 7. The obtained pH-dependence of fraction of salt bonds formed between PLH and DNA was used to estimate pK(a) of PLH in the presence of DNA, which equaled 6.24. The interaction of PLH with DNA in the presence of added synthetic polyanions was studied by the same approach and found to be controlled by pH, nature of the charge groups of the polyanion, and its degree of polymerization. In the mixture with sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) the interaction was negligible in the whole studied pH range, whereas in the mixtures with sodium poly(acrylate) (PA) or sodium poly(methacrylate), DNA was able to compete effectively for the binding with PLH. For PA samples with degree of polymerization higher than degree of polymerization of PLH, DP(PA) > DP(PLH), the fraction of polycation bound to DNA was constant regardless of DP(PA.) In contrast, at DP(PA) PLH), a pronounced increase in the bound fraction was observed. It substantiates the notion that the binding energy of two polymers is mainly controlled by the DP of the shorter component of polyelectrolyte complex. The data on PLH distribution between DNA and added polyanion with different values of DP were treated according

  15. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  16. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  17. Optimal Competition : A Benchmark for Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces optimal competition: the best form of competition in an industry that a competition authority can achieve under the information constraint that it cannot observe firms' effciency levels.We show that the optimal competition outcome in an industry becomes more competitive as more

  18. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  19. The microtubule-stabilizing agent discodermolide competitively inhibits the binding of paclitaxel (Taxol) to tubulin polymers, enhances tubulin nucleation reactions more potently than paclitaxel, and inhibits the growth of paclitaxel-resistant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, R J; Giannakakou, P; Gunasekera, S P; Longley, R E; Day, B W; Hamel, E

    1997-10-01

    The lactone-bearing polyhydroxylated alkatetraene (+)-discodermolide, which was isolated from the sponge Discodermia dissoluta, induces the polymerization of purified tubulin with and without microtubule-associated proteins or GTP, and the polymers formed are stable to cold and calcium. These effects are similar to those of paclitaxel (Taxol), but discodermolide is more potent. We confirmed that these properties represent hypernucleation phenomena; we obtained lower tubulin critical concentrations and shorter polymers with discodermolide than paclitaxel under a variety of reaction conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrated that discodermolide is a competitive inhibitor with [3H]paclitaxel in binding to tubulin polymer, with an apparent Ki value of 0.4 microM. Multidrug-resistant human colon and ovarian carcinoma cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein, which are 900- and 2800-fold resistant to paclitaxel, respectively, relative to the parental lines, retained significant sensitivity to discodermolide (25- and 89-fold more resistant relative to the parental lines). Ovarian carcinoma cells that are 20-30-fold more resistant to paclitaxel than the parental line on the basis of expression of altered beta-tubulin polypeptides retained nearly complete sensitivity to discodermolide. The effects of discodermolide on the reorganization of the microtubules of Potorous tridactylis kidney epithelial cells were examined at different times. Intracellular microtubules were reorganized into bundles in interphase cells much more rapidly after discodermolide treatment compared with paclitaxel treatment. A variety of spindle aberrations were observed after treatment with both drugs. The proportions of the different types of aberration were different for the two drugs and changed with the length of drug treatment.

  20. The future of competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Gary; Jensen, Boris Brorman; Miessen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition....

  1. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  2. Competition and the Ratchet Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Charness, Gary; Kuhn, Peter; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2011-01-01

    Working Paper GATE 2008-28; International audience; The 'ratchet effect' refers to a situation where a principal uses private information that is revealed by an agent's early actions to the agent's later disadvantage, in a context where binding multi-period contracts are not enforceable. In a simple, context-rich environment, we experimentally study the robustness of the ratchet effect to the introduction of ex post competition for principals or agents. While we do observe substantial and sig...

  3. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  4. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  5. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition....

  6. COMPETITIVENESS AND SUPPORTING THE BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mester Liana-Eugenia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness designates efficiency, productivity, success, adaptability, quality products, optimum costs. Competitiveness is a complex concept which defines the ability of a firm or country to cope with actual or potential competition companies or countries on a particular market, on the world market respectively and it is synonymous with economic efficiency; competitiveness reflects a certain state of the economic activity arising from a certain resource consumption in order to achieve economic goods. Supporting the national competitiveness and flexibility is aimed at a sustained increase in productivity relying on the diversification and the innovation of the domestic industrial base. The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012 ranks Romania as the 77th out of 142 assessed economies. Romania has access to a large market and free trade area, which makes it attractive for many foreign companies, but Romania needs a coherent economic policy that changes the approach used today - from the traditionalist design of restructuring following the resources and, therefore, related to the comparative advantage to finding solutions that stimulate the activities based on knowledge and information so that they allow the emphasis of the competitive advantages. This paper aims to identify the factors and reasons that gave rise to the level of competitiveness for some activities or fields of activities from the economy of Romania during the reporting period, as well as the possibilities that would lead to increasing and supporting the competitiveness of the national economy.

  7. Physics Competitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, ErzséBet SzéP, Jenö

    The following sections are included: * Description of Physics Competitions in Hungary * Training of the Hungarian Team before the International Physics Olympiad * Few Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition for 15 - 16 Year Old students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Year Old Students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * solving this equation we obtain m = 18kg * The work done is 427 joule - 80 joule 347 joule * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Pear Old Students

  8. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  9. How Molecular Competition Influences Fluxes in Gene Expression Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, Dirk; Bruggeman, Frank J.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    Often, in living cells different molecular species compete for binding to the same molecular target. Typical examples are the competition of genes for the transcription machinery or the competition of mRNAs for the translation machinery. Here we show that such systems have specific regulatory featur

  10. How molecular competition influences fluxes in gene expression networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, D. de; Bruggeman, F.J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Bakker, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Often, in living cells different molecular species compete for binding to the same molecular target. Typical examples are the competition of genes for the transcription machinery or the competition of mRNAs for the translation machinery. Here we show that such systems have specific regulatory featur

  11. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  12. Supplementing managed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  13. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  14. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...

  15. Competition in treasury auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Elsinger, Helmut; Schmidt-Dengler, Philipp; Zulehner, Christine

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of competition on the outcome of Austrian Treasury auctions. Austria's EU accession led to an increase in the number of banks participating in treasury auctions. We use structural estimates of bidders' private values to examine the effect of increased competition on auction performance: We find that increased competition reduced bidder surplus substantially, but less than reduced form estimates would suggest. A significant component of the surplus reduction is due to m...

  16. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  17. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  18. A computational model for feature binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI ZhiWei; SHI ZhongZhi; LIU Xi; SHI ZhiPing

    2008-01-01

    The "Binding Problem" is an important problem across many disciplines, including psychology, neuroscience, computational modeling, and even philosophy. In this work, we proposed a novel computational model, Bayesian Linking Field Model, for feature binding in visual perception, by combining the idea of noisy neuron model, Bayesian method, Linking Field Network and competitive mechanism.Simulation Experiments demonstrated that our model perfectly fulfilled the task of feature binding in visual perception and provided us some enlightening idea for future research.

  19. A computational model for feature binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The "Binding Problem" is an important problem across many disciplines, including psychology, neuroscience, computational modeling, and even philosophy. In this work, we proposed a novel computational model, Bayesian Linking Field Model, for feature binding in visual perception, by combining the idea of noisy neuron model, Bayesian method, Linking Field Network and competitive mechanism. Simulation Experiments demonstrated that our model perfectly fulfilled the task of feature binding in visual perception and provided us some enlightening idea for future research.

  20. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  1. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  2. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  3. Effect of water coordination on competition between π and non-π cation binding sites in aromatic amino acids: L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and L-tryptophan Li+, Na +, and K+ complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remko, Milan; Šoralová, Stanislava

    2012-04-01

    Quantum chemistry methods have been applied to charged complexes of the alkali metals Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) with the aromatic amino acids (AAAs) phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Trp). The geometries of 72 different complexes (Phe·M, Tyr·M, Trp·M, M is Li(+), Na(+), or K(+)) were completely optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of density functional theory. The solvent effect on the geometry and stability of individual complexes was studied by making use of a microsolvation model. The interaction enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of nine different complexes of the systems Phe·M, Tyr·M, and Trp·M (M is Li(+), Na(+), or K(+)) were also determined at the B3LYP density functional level of theory. The calculated Gibbs binding energies of the M(+)-AAA complexes follow the order Phe < Tyr < Trp for all three metal cations studied. Among the three AAAs studied, the indole ring of Trp is the best π donor for alkali metal cations. Our calculations demonstrated the existence of strong cation-π interactions between the alkali metals and the aromatic side chains of the three AAAs. These AAAs comprise about 8% of all known protein sequences. Thus, besides the potential for hydrogen-bond interaction, aromatic residues of Phe, Tyr, and Trp show great potential for π-donor interactions. The existence of cation-π interaction in proteins has also been demonstrated experimentally. However, more complex experimental studies of metal cation-π interaction in diverse biological systems will no doubt lead to more exact validation of these investigations.

  4. Binding Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of the binding procurement process in purchasing Aerospace Flight Battery Systems. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) requested NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to develop a set of guideline requirements document for Binding Procurement Contracts.

  5. Competition from Isotopic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fabre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During later MOIS3, in Europe two populations were present, autochthonous Neanderthals and modern humans. Ecological competition between these two populations has often been evoked but never demonstrated. Our aim is to establish whether resource competition occurred. In this paper, in order to examine the possibility of ecological competition between these two populations, 599 isotopic data were subjected to rigorous statistical treatment and analysis through mixing models. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary strategies of Neanderthals and modern humans over time. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals and modern humans shared dietary habits in the particular environmental context of MOIS3 characterised in Europe by climatic deterioration. In this environmental context, the resource competition between Neanderthals and modern humans may have accelerated the disappearance of the Neanderthal population.

  6. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  7. Competition between Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.

    1985-01-01

    Examined competition and physical attractiveness among women. Results indicated that a large number of females are highly critical of other women, particularly attractive ones, and are highly concerned about their own appearance in relation to other women. (Author/BL)

  8. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...

  9. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    put under pressure. Thus, the two central actors involved inarchitectural competitions, architects and building clients, are continually influenced by such developments, interpreting and adaptingto changes according to their interests and horizons. During a project reviewing Nordic research literature...... on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... as having a positive impact on competitions. But when looking closely into the answers, these revealed diverse understandings of how and why the impact of BIM on competitions could be said to be positive. The paper sheds light on the interaction between the actors (building clients, architects and client...

  10. Competition and Offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Antonio Rodriguez-Lopez

    2012-01-01

    I present a model of offshoring decisions with heterogeneous firms, random adjustment costs, and endogenous markups. The model shows an inverted-U relationship between firm-level productivity and the probability of offshoring; hence, the most productive firms are less likely to offshore than some lower-productivity firms. A tougher competitive environment has two opposing effects on firm-level offshoring likelihood: a Schumpeterian effect--accounting for the negative effect of competition on ...

  11. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  12. FameLab competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Are you 18 to 35 years old and studying or working in science in Switzerland? Are you passionate about your job and keen on exciting public imagination with a vision of the 21st century of science? Then this competition is for you!   For more information, check out http://www.famelab.ch/ or http://famelab.org/ or write to info@famelab.ch. Read more about the Famelab competition in this Bulletin article.  

  13. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...

  14. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  15. Untangling healthcare competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, I C; McDaniel, R R

    1993-11-01

    Traditional approaches to competition may be inappropriate for healthcare providers. Neoclassical economics makes the implicit assumption that a single actor embodies consumption, compensation, and benefit from a transaction. In healthcare, this assumption does not hold. Instead, such actions are accomplished by three separate actors--consumers (physicians), customers (third-party payers), and clients (patients). A hospital simultaneously competes in three arenas. Hospitals compete for physicians along a technological dimension. Competition for third-party payers takes on a financial dimension. Hospitals compete for patients along a marketing dimension. Because of the complex marketplace interactions among hospital, patient, physician, and third-party payer, the role of price in controlling behavior is difficult to establish. The dynamics underlying the hospital selection decision--that is, the decision maker's expectations of services and the convenience of accessing services--must also be considered. Healthcare managers must understand the interrelationships involved in the three-pronged competitive perspective for several reasons. This perspective clarifies the multiple facets of competition a hospital faces. It also disentangles the actions previously fulfilled by the traditional single buyer. It illuminates the critical skills underlying the competition for each audience. Finally, it defines the primary criterion each audience uses in sorting among hospitals. Recognition of the multifaceted nature of competition among healthcare providers will help demystify market behavior and thereby improve internal organizational communication systems, managers' ability to focus on appropriate activities, and the hospital's ability to adapt to changing market conditions.

  16. Political Failures and Intergovernmental Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hindriks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In normative public economics, intergovernmental competition is usually viewed as harmful. Although empirical support for this position does not abound, market integration has intensified competition among developed countries. In this paper we argue that when assessing welfare effects of intergovernmental competition for various forms of political failures (the public choice critique, the outcome is ambiguous and competition can be welfare improving.

  17. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  18. Competitively tight graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Suh-Ryung; Park, Boram; Sano, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The competition graph of a digraph $D$ is a (simple undirected) graph which has the same vertex set as $D$ and has an edge between $x$ and $y$ if and only if there exists a vertex $v$ in $D$ such that $(x,v)$ and $(y,v)$ are arcs of $D$. For any graph $G$, $G$ together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number $k(G)$ of $G$ is the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number $k(G)$ for a graph $G$ and it has been one of the important research problems in the study of competition graphs. Opsut~[1982] suggested that the edge clique cover number $\\theta_E(G)$ should be closely related to $k(G)$ by showing $\\theta_E(G)-|V(G)|+2 \\leq k(G) \\leq \\theta_E(G)$. In this note, we study on these inequalities. We first show that for any positive integer $m$ satisfying $2 \\leq m \\leq |V(G)|$, there is a graph $G$ satisfying $k(G)=\\theta_E(G)-|V(G)|+m$ and characterize a graph $G$ satisfying $k(G)=\\...

  19. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This millennium, confronted with a globalization of means leading as fast as possible at certain pursued aims, highlights the importance of competitiveness from the perspective of the continuous fight against limitation of resources. In this context, the machine of life evolution and economy has got an engine named competitiveness. The rules of circulation should focus on all livings to whom, from the perspective of survival and natural, human and social life accomplishment, the well- known concept of health may be attached. At the same time, competitiveness through environment health should try to reach the convergent performances which means that any form of superior knowledge and experience should always take into consideration environment health.

  20. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Competition from weeds is the most important of all biological factors that reduce agricultural crop yield. This occurs primarily because weeds use resources that would otherwise be available to the crop. The magnitude of yield loss is affected by numerous agronomic and environmental factors, most...... importantly, weed density and time of emergence relative to the crop. Practices that (1) reduce the density of weeds, (2) maximise occupation of space or uptake of resources by the crop or (3) establish an early-season size advantage of the crop over the weeds will minimise the competitive effects of weeds...... on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...

  1. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...... reconstructs how the institutionalisation of competition as a specific type of policy tool which has been used by emerging modern states to establish its authority vis-à-vis competing claims to authority. It furthermore engages in an examination of corporatist and governance based attempts to respectively curb...... and expand the use of competition as a tool for organising social processes and the implications of the se attempts for the state of statehood....

  2. Business plan competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  3. Competition and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Libertini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critical moments and situations.

  4. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  5. Competition in Soccer Leagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one-dimensional, then equilib......In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one...

  6. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  7. A Swimming Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹成兵; 邓新华

    2004-01-01

    Last Sunday, there was a swimming competition in our school. It had been a short time since I learned how to swim. Mr. Zhang, our PE teacher, said I had a gift in swimming and that competing in the game would help build up my confidence and courage. With his encouragement,I signed up for the swimming race.

  8. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive re

  9. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  10. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  11. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  12. Positioning for Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  13. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit......This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how...... the institutionalization of competition as a specific type of policy tool has been used by emerging modern states to establish their authority vis-à-vis competing claims to public authority in society. The article, furthermore, engages in an examination of (neo-)corporatist and governance-based attempts both to curb...... and to expand the use of competition as a tool for organizing social processes, and the implications of these attempts for the state of statehood....

  14. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...

  15. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  16. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining locatio

  17. Competition in Individualized CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of competition and cooperation on learning through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). A questionnaire was administered to 457 Israeli fourth graders who used two CAI arithmetic systems. The characteristics of the systems are discussed, and the results of the survey are correlated to students' gender and achievement levels.…

  18. Dynamic competition and binding of concepts through time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Jean-Charles; Smeding, Annique

    2015-09-01

    Models of implicit stereotypes (e.g., association of male with math or female with language) usually explain the faster responses observed for stereotype-congruent trials in the Implicit Association Test (IAT) by requiring a fundamental opposition between the male and female concepts (or math-language), limiting the decision-making dynamics to abstract dimensions. This paper introduces alternate models exploiting the sensorimotor dimensions of the IAT, which naturally account for the opposition between concepts, because typically mapped on opposite corners of the screen space and on different response actions. In addition to the emergence of the IAT effect, dynamic characteristics of the decision-making process within these models are tested against human data, obtained with a mouse-tracking adapted IAT procedure.

  19. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...... to that without competition. We further find that boys and girls are equally likely to self-select into competition in a verbal task, but that boys are significantly more likely to choose to compete in a mathematical task. This gender gap diminishes and becomes nonsignificant when we control for actual...

  20. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-29

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  1. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  2. Endogeneous Risk in Monopolistic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Damjanovic

    2012-01-01

    We consider a model of financial intermediation with a monopolistic competition market structure. A non-monotonic relationship between the risk measured as a probability of default and the degree of competition is established.

  3. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  4. The Value of Competitive Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Contract FAR authority citations (from GAO, 2010) A few other notable reasons why some agencies inhibit competition are the following: a. Lack of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT THE VALUE OF COMPETITIVE CONTRACTING By: Pamela A...

  5. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  6. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    take into account logistics service supplier strategic management. We also contribute with better understanding of value creation in order to escape commoditization and differentiate services through relationships (customers and/or other hauliers). Practical implications concern hauliers’ strategy...... a competitive value proposition? We will illustrate the strategy-as-practice with two projects, and discuss implications in terms of capabilities needed to create an effective value proposition and hence competitiveness. The theoretical contribution is in theorizing haulier strategic development in which we...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management...

  7. Competition in Soccer Leagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one-dimensional, then equilib......In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one......-dimensional, then equilibria in pure strategies exist, and; if the quality of players is multi-dimensional, then there need not exist equilibria in pure strategies, but equilibria in mixed strategies exist. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer...

  8. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    to failure several times. Before the current situation of the company, it remains challenging in the future as well. Hence, the Nespresso story provides interesting space for discussion and learning about what innovation is, how innovation emerges, and under which circumstances innovation can serve...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...... offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and the success of a company on the long term. The case is designed to give practitioners a better understanding on what an innovation as, and how competitive advantages can be linked to innovation. Originality/value This case of Nespresso...

  9. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  10. Competition and dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, J; Sørensen, R

    2000-07-01

    Dental services for adults are different from all other Norwegian health services in that they are provided by private producers (dentists) who have full freedom to establish a practice. They have had this freedom since the end of World War II. A further liberalization of the market for dental services occurred in November 1995, when the so-called normal tariff was repealed. The system changed from a fixed fee system to a deregulated fee system. In principle, the market for dental services for adults operates as a free competitive market, in which dentists must compete for a market share. The aim of this study was to study the short-term effects of competition. A comprehensive set of data on fees, practice characteristics, treatment profiles and factors that dentists take into account when determining fees was analysed. The main finding was that competition has a weak effect. No support was found for the theory that the level of fees is the result of monopolistic competition or monopoly. The results also provided some evidence against the inducement hypothesis. At this stage, it is interesting to notice that dentists do not seem to exploit the power they have to control the market. One explanation, which is consistent with the more recent literature, is that physicians' behaviour to a large extent is influenced by professional norms and caring concerns about their patients. Financial incentives are important, but these incentives are constrained by norms other than self-interest. The interpretation of the results should also take into account that the deregulation has operated for a short time and that dentists and patients may not yet have adjusted to changes in the characteristics of the market.

  11. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  12. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  13. Managed competition that works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caper, P

    1993-05-19

    President Clinton has advocated managed competition within a global budget as a long-term strategy for simultaneously controlling health care costs and expanding access to medical care to all Americans. This proposal is intended to show how these two seemingly conflicting goals can be simultaneously accomplished. Managed competition, as it has been conceptualized to date, is primarily a strategy for reforming the system of providing health services. To work, it must be joined with a strategy for reforming our system of financing and paying for those services and of limiting overall system capacity. "Managed Competition That Works" is a proposal that would create a single trust-funded national system of health insurance, implemented through a system of vouchers to individuals. Global budgeting would be accomplished through establishment of the voucher's value each year. The trust fund would pay health plans for all medical care by capitation, but health plans would be free to negotiate a variety of payment arrangements with physicians, hospitals, and other providers. All plans would be required to offer a standard package of benefits, but would have great flexibility in offering benefits beyond the scope of the standard package, if those benefits replace high-cost with lower-cost services or permit the plan to compete more effectively for market share. This proposal would establish firm but acceptable national budget limits; provide universal, comprehensive, and uniform insurance coverage; eliminate cost shifting; encourage competition; reward efficiency-improving innovation; greatly reduce the need for centralized micromanagement of medical care; and retain local determination and a somewhat reduced level of consumer choice. Although this proposal is written as a national plan, trust funds could be implemented at the state level, if problems associated with portability of benefits among states could be solved.

  14. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice....

  15. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  16. APPROACHES ON THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan PETRIŞOR; Natalia Ana STRĂIN (SILAŞ)

    2013-01-01

    Within this study, we approached the concept of "competitive intelligence" (CI), which we consider a key element for the success of a business, especially in the current period, characterized by numerous economic and financial turbulence. According to Society of Competitive Intelligence (SCIP), competitive intelligence is defined as a method of ethical and moral collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding the competitive environment, opportunities, vulnerabilities, and int...

  17. Competition policy and cartel size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.M.; Harrington Jr., J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines endogenous cartel formation in the presence of a competition authority. Competition policy makes the most inclusive stable cartels less inclusive. In particular, small firms that might have been cartel members in the absence of a competition authority are no longer members. Regar

  18. Competitive Environments and Protective Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.

    2005-01-01

    The class of two-person competition games is introduced and analyzed.For any game in this class the set of Nash equilibria is convex, equilibrium strategies are exchangeable, and all Nash equilibria lead to the same payoff vector. Competition games are compared to other competitive environments such

  19. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  20. Interspecific Resource Competition in Antelopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific or interspecific competition is then fundamentally the same: scramble competition is a good example of this type of competition. Modern ecology increasingly is faced with the question whether the data or a paper provide evidence for the statement that is made or for testing the hypo

  1. Hospital survival in a competitive environment: the competitive constituency model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehreth, J

    1993-01-01

    Organizational theory is extended to develop a method for administrators to assess hospital effectiveness in a competitive environment. First, the literature pertaining to organizational effectiveness and survival is synthesized to show the lack of consideration for the effects of competition. Second, the article integrates the effects of competition on organizational effectiveness through a competitive constituency model. A step-by-step procedure is proposed to apply the theory in an organizational setting. The model explicitly addresses differences in power relations between hospitals, their competition, and their stakeholders. The relative nature of effectiveness is explored by comparing the hospital to its competition using criteria developed through specific goals of stakeholders. The distinction between managerial and organizational effectiveness constructs is clarified. Finally, the practical application of this model is demonstrated by assessing the effectiveness of a hospital in the competitive environment of Seattle, Washington, where two hospitals have recently closed.

  2. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Sears

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, the structure of the environment is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact structural heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics and producing competitive advantages. Applying a generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between a competition's structure and its scoring dynamics. Despite wide structural variations, we find the same three-phase pattern in the tempo of events observed in many sports. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. The most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data...

  3. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  4. Competition in a Business Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J

    Competition and cooperation stabilize and structure business networks. In business research there is little focus on network based competition between firms and on how firms compete to gain network position. We review a range of conceptualizations of competition and cooperation and work towards...... a meaning of network competition and network cooperation based on goal structures within activity structures inside a firm network context. We conclude by presenting a framework to understand how network competition and cooperation are played out. We complete the paper with the opportunities for future...... research and also managerial thinking about network strategy and implementation....

  5. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  6. Recent advances in designing substrate-competitive protein kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ki-Cheol; Kim, So Yeon; Yang, Eun Gyeong

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinases play central roles in cellular signaling pathways and their abnormal phosphorylation activity is inseparably linked with various human diseases. Therefore, modulation of kinase activity using potent inhibitors is an attractive strategy for the treatment of human disease. While most protein kinase inhibitors in clinical development are mainly targeted to the highly conserved ATP-binding sites and thus likely promiscuously inhibit multiple kinases including kinases unrelated to diseases, protein substrate-competitive inhibitors are more selective and expected to be promising therapeutic agents. Most substrate-competitive inhibitors mimic peptides derived from substrate proteins, or from inhibitory domains within kinases or inhibitor proteins. In addition, bisubstrate inhibitors are generated by conjugating substrate-competitive peptide inhibitors to ATP-competitive inhibitors to improve affinity and selectivity. Although structural information on protein kinases provides invaluable guidance in designing substrate-competitive inhibitors, other strategies including bioinformatics, computational modeling, and high-throughput screening are often employed for developing specific substrate-competitive kinase inhibitors. This review focuses on recent advances in the design and discovery of substrate-competitive inhibitors of protein kinases.

  7. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  8. Competitive Moves over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    its viability to survive in the marketplace. The study begins with a review of sourcing literature to position the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies changed over time in response...... the firm; (c) organizations are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes....

  9. Attention competition with advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  10. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  11. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  12. A model for sigma factor competition in bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Marco; Klumpp, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Sigma factors control global switches of the genetic expression program in bacteria. Different sigma factors compete for binding to a limited pool of RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzymes, providing a mechanism for cross-talk between genes or gene classes via the sharing of expression machinery. To analyze the contribution of sigma factor competition to global changes in gene expression, we develop a theoretical model that describes binding between sigma factors and core RNAP, transcription, non-specific binding to DNA and the modulation of the availability of the molecular components. The model is validated by comparison with in vitro competition experiments, with which excellent agreement is found. Transcription is affected via the modulation of the concentrations of the different types of holoenzymes, so saturated promoters are only weakly affected by sigma factor competition. However, in case of overlapping promoters or promoters recognized by two types of sigma factors, we find that even saturated promoters are strongly affected. Active transcription effectively lowers the affinity between the sigma factor driving it and the core RNAP, resulting in complex cross-talk effects. Sigma factor competition is not strongly affected by non-specific binding of core RNAPs, sigma factors and holoenzymes to DNA. Finally, we analyze the role of increased core RNAP availability upon the shut-down of ribosomal RNA transcription during the stringent response. We find that passive up-regulation of alternative sigma-dependent transcription is not only possible, but also displays hypersensitivity based on the sigma factor competition. Our theoretical analysis thus provides support for a significant role of passive control during that global switch of the gene expression program.

  13. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  14. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, offshoring has become an established business practice. Yet it is still more common to offshore less advanced tasks compared with offshoring more advanced tasks, i.e., tasks closer to the core activities of the firm. The latter is a new phenomenon which raises many new...... of advanced offshoring, exploring what causes firms to offshore some of their more advanced tasks. Our findings indicate that while the lower cost of unskilled, labor-intensive processes is the main driver for firms that offshore less advanced tasks, the offshoring of advanced tasks is part of firms’ strategy...... to achieve international competitiveness through access to cross-border knowledge flows and foreign knowledge resources. Furthermore, offshoring of advanced manufacturing tasks seems to be more widespread and experience-based than the offshoring of advanced service tasks....

  15. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  16. Competition in the Mashup Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Shiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mashups combine data from multiple sources to create innovative web applications. Data providers gain compelling advantages in offering an open application programming interface (API, but face a competitive environment where growth occurs by virtue of developers' independent choices and where competitors are also complementors. This article explores the nature of competition within the mashup ecosystem by focusing on competitive actions taken by API providers and their link to mashup network structure. The resulting insights help entrants and incumbents refine their competitive strategies within this complex and unique environment.

  17. Sport competitions in Antique Chersoneses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutiev A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is examined the content of physical education in Chersoneses in the ancient period. It is shown the participation of citizens in the Chersoneses competitions at various levels. Stressed the importance of physical culture, sports, sports training, organizing and conducting athletic competitions. Show the direction of physical education of youth, training for local and Panhellenic competitions, military service. The role of the teacher of gymnastics in physical education students in public schools. It is noted that the study involved in Chersoneses pedagogical methods and techniques. It is established that the citizens of Chersoneses actively participated in Panhellenic competitions and they became the victors.

  18. Mapping your competitive position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  19. Essays on competition in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters of a theoretical nature, all related to the topic of competition in the financial sector. The first chapter studies how competition for talented workers induces banks to set variable wage schemes, and how these wage schemes can lead to excessive risk. The secon

  20. The competition for supplier resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Suppliers can have a major influence on the overall competitiveness of a firm. When firms lack certain capabilities or resources within their own organization, collaborations with suppliers can help them to acquire these resources and capabilities externally and improve competitive advantage. Howeve

  1. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  2. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  3. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  4. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  5. How to use competitive intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-02-01

    Keeping tabs on the competition is a necessity, not a luxury, for organizations operating in today's health-care marketplace. This article, the second of two, explores various strategies for using competitive intelligence and suggests ways to ensure organization-wide commitment to gathering and using this information as part of an overall strategic plan.

  6. The need for competitive intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-01-01

    Often associated with marketing warfare, competitive intelligence has become an essential part of health-care organizations' strategic planning efforts. Without overstepping ethical boundaries, providers can gather a vast array of "intelligence" about their competition from public sources, from the marketplace and from competitors themselves.

  7. Competitive strategy a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2007-11-01

    By adopting five basic practices, your organization will be ready to advance to the next level of competitive fitness: Develop a reliable financial baseline. Insist on development of a competitive intelligence database system. Employ rigorous business planning. Advocate for focus and discipline. Really commit to competing.

  8. Competitive dimensions of human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.

  9. Competitive dimensions of human resources

    OpenAIRE

    Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna; Prokopenko Olha Volodymyrіvna; Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.

  10. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Frenken; S. van Terwisga; T. Verburg; G. Burghouwt

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are rela

  11. Prediction of Competitive Microbial Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

     Prediction of competitive microbial growth is becoming important for microbial food safety. There would be two approaches to predict competitive microbial growth with mathematical models. The first approach is the development of a growth model for competitive microbes. Among several candidates for the competition model considered, the combination of the primary growth model of the new logistic (NL) model and the competition model of the Lotka-Vorttera (LV) model showed the best performance in predicting microbial competitive growth in the mixed culture of two species. This system further successfully predicted the growth of three competitive species in mixed culture. The second approach is the application of the secondary model especially for the parameter of the maximum cell population in the primary growth model. The combination of the NL model and a polynomial model for the maximum population successfully predicted Salmonella growth in raw ground beef. This system further successfully predicted Salmonella growth in beef at various initial concentrations and temperatures. The first approach requires microbial growth data in monoculture for analysis. The second approach to the prediction of competitive growth from the viewpoint of microbial food safety would be more suitable for practical application.

  12. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  13. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  14. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A

    2001-12-22

    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  15. From monopoly to competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J-M.

    1997-12-31

    For nearly a century, electric utilities have been vertically integrated, having control over power generation, distribution and transmission. They virtually monopolized the markets which they served. In 1977, during the energy crisis, the electric utilities were challenged with the establishment of the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and in 1978 by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). This independent agency, which was initially set up to promote new energy sources and cogeneration, was also a major player in regulating electric power transmission and wholesale trade. PURPA required that electric utilities buy their electricity from qualifying independent power producers. In 1996, FERC orders 888 and 889 were issued which opened up competition to a large degree. Traditional utilities were forced to unbundle their generating and transmission costs. Order 889 opened up information systems to show available transmission capacity on power grids. By setting up a division to take charge of its power transmission system, Hydro-Quebec hopes to gain full access to transmission setups and the wholesale electricity market in the US. 1 fig.

  16. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  17. Competitiveness of the region : content, factors, policies

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The article describes a framework conception of regional competitiveness. The notion of regional competitiveness as well as approaches to the classification of competi-tiveness factors are considered in detail. The author elaborates a set of indicators of re-gional competitiveness. The article also dis-cusses three groups of factors which can influence the competitiveness of any region.

  18. Analyzing binding data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey J; Neubig, Richard R

    2010-07-01

    Measuring the rate and extent of radioligand binding provides information on the number of binding sites, and their affinity and accessibility of these binding sites for various drugs. This unit explains how to design and analyze such experiments.

  19. May the Best Molecule Win: Competition ESI Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Laughlin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has become invaluable in the characterization of macromolecular biological systems such as nucleic acids and proteins. Recent advances in the field of mass spectrometry and the soft conditions characteristic of electrospray ionization allow for the investigation of non-covalent interactions among large biomolecules and ligands. Modulation of genetic processes through the use of small molecule inhibitors with the DNA minor groove is gaining attention as a potential therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the development of a competition method using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to probe the interactions of multiple DNA sequences with libraries of minor groove binding molecules. Such an approach acts as a high-throughput screening method to determine important information including the stoichiometry, binding mode, cooperativity, and relative binding affinity. In addition to small molecule-DNA complexes, we highlight other applications in which competition mass spectrometry has been used. A competitive approach to simultaneously investigate complex interactions promises to be a powerful tool in the discovery of small molecule inhibitors with high specificity and for specific, important DNA sequences.

  20. Marketing Aspect of Banking Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieizviestna Olena V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the need for application of marketing tools in order to improve competitiveness and competitive advantages of banks. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the relationship between the competitiveness of the commercial bank and its share in the banking market has been discovered. In the process of studying the integration of the strategy of maximizing customer satisfaction in the practice of strategic competition in the banking market there was presented the author’s position regarding the need to take into account the structure of the customer loyalty, as it is it that helps to properly distribute the bank’s marketing efforts. It has been proved that the technology of bank marketing should not only include the systems of identifying customer needs, creation of new financial products, but also contribute to the formation of the multi-factor strategic model of competitive strategy of the bank competitive development. It has been proposed to use the SWOT-analysis in order to effectively manage the bank’s competitiveness.

  1. Competition for nutrient and light: stable coexistence, alternative stable states, or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankton species

  2. Competition for nutrients and light: Stable coexistence, alternative stable states or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankto

  3. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  4. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  5. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.

  6. Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Manufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.

  7. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the evidence of strong influence on the incorporation of policy provisions from the U.S. antitrust into the recent competition policy reforms in the European Union (EU), few considerable attempts have been made to analyze the influence of U.S. antitrust on EU competition policy...... reforms, carry out a comparative analysis between EU and U.S. competition policies, detect convergence or divergence, and account for the degree of convergence and for the relevant mechanisms triggering convergence. The main focus is on the analysis of anticartel enforcement policy, antimonopoly policy...

  8. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effect less than 90 days prior to the effective date of a reduction in force, a description of the... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which...

  9. Competition in natural populations of Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.

    1995-01-01

    I investigated the competitive relationships between two species of Daphnia, D. galeata and D. cucullata, and their interspecific hybrid. The term hemispecific competition was introduced to describe competition between parental species and hybrids. In eutrophic Tjeukemeer both parental species were

  10. Keynote address: Coal competitiveness and energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, G. [IEA Coal Research, Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    The competitiveness of coal versus gas, nuclear and renewables for power generation is discussed. It is concluded that coal is competitive on existing plant but it needs to accelerate technology development faster than the competition to sustain its future.

  11. From glue to gasoline: how competition turns perspective takers unethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jason R; Kilduff, Gavin J; Galinsky, Adam D; Sivanathan, Niro

    2013-10-01

    Perspective taking is often the glue that binds people together. However, we propose that in competitive contexts, perspective taking is akin to adding gasoline to a fire: It inflames already-aroused competitive impulses and leads people to protect themselves from the potentially insidious actions of their competitors. Overall, we suggest that perspective taking functions as a relational amplifier. In cooperative contexts, it creates the foundation for prosocial impulses, but in competitive contexts, it triggers hypercompetition, leading people to prophylactically engage in unethical behavior to prevent themselves from being exploited. The experiments reported here establish that perspective taking interacts with the relational context--cooperative or competitive--to predict unethical behavior, from using insidious negotiation tactics to materially deceiving one's partner to cheating on an anagram task. In the context of competition, perspective taking can pervert the age-old axiom "do unto others as you would have them do unto you" into "do unto others as you think they will try to do unto you."

  12. [Binding to chicken liver lactatedehydrogenase (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluís, C; Bozal, J

    1976-06-01

    Some information about the lactate dehydrogenase NAD binding site has been obtained by working with coenzymes analogs of incomplete molecules. 5'AMP, 5'-ADP, ATP, 5'-c-AMP and 3'(2)-AMP inhibit chicken liver LDH activity competitively with NADH. 5"-AMP and 5'-ADP show a stronger inhibition power than ATP, suggesting that the presence of one or two phosphate groups at the 5' position of adenosine, is essential for the binding of the coenzyme analogs at the enzyme binding site. Ribose and ribose-5'-P do not appear to inhibit the LDH activity, proving that purine base lacking mononucleotides do not bind to the enzyme. 5"-ADPG inhibits LDH activity in the exactly as 5'-ADP, showing that ribose moiety may be replaced by glucose, without considerable effects on the coenzyme analog binding. 2'-desoxidenosin-5'-phosphate proves to be a poorer inhibitor of the LDH activity than 5'-AMP, indicating that an interaction between the--OH groups and the amino-acids of the LDH active center takes place. Nicotinamide does not produce any inhibition effect, while NMN and CMP induce a much weaker inhibition than the adenine analogues, thus indicating a lesser binding capacity to the enzyme. Therefore, the LDH binding site seems to show some definite specificity towards the adenina groups of the coenzyme.

  13. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio; Labini, Francesco Sylos

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation$-$that is, the competitiveness of its research system$-$and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is...

  14. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  15. Knowledge Resources and Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gomezelj Omerzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some definitions of knowledge as a potential sourceof competitive advantage. It reviews the literature pertaining to the assessmentof knowledge assets. According to the resource-based view,which links the competitive advantage of organizations with resourcesand capabilities that are firm-specific, and difficult to imitate or substitute,a firm’s competitive advantage is built on a set of strategicallyrelevant resources (Barney 1991; Grant 1991; Peteraf 1993. When firmshave access to similar resources, it is those companies that are able tomaximize the utilization of those resources that attain a competitiveadvantage. Among various strategic resources and capabilities that helpdetermine the extent of competitive advantages, a pivotal role is oftenassigned to knowledge – as both a resource in itself and an integratingfactor that makes other resources and capabilities effective – especiallyin complex and dynamic environments.

  16. Logistics systems optimization under competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Tsan Ming; Govindan, Kannan; Ma, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, optimization on logistics and supply chain systems is a crucial and critical issue in industrial and systems engineering. Important areas of logistics and supply chain systems include transportation control, inventory management, and facility location planning. Under a competitive market...

  17. The Third International Timetabling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard; Di Gaspero, Luca; Kingston, Jeffrey H.; McCollum, Barry; Schaerf, Andrea; Kjenstad, D.; Riise, A.; Nordlander, T.E.; McCollum, B.; Burke, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the organizers’ report on the Third International Timetabling Competition (ITC2011), run during the first half of 2012. Its participants tackled 35 instances of the high school timetabling problem, taken from schools in 10 countries.

  18. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely......We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  19. DXC'11 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Diagnostic Problem I of the Third International Diagnostic Competition. Three file formats are...

  20. Competitiveness of Slovenian Cargo Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojka Počuča

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Slovenian cargo shipping, its system oforganisation, ownership, age and value stntcture. It shows theimportance of shipping in the Slovenian overseas trade and itsimpact on the state's balance of payments. The analysis of thecompetitiveness of shipping was made from the viewpoint ofoperation costs and in comparison with the competitiveness ofEU shippers. The paper concludes with a proposal of possiblesystemic solutions which improve the competitiveness of Slovenianshipping.

  1. COMPETITIVENESS TEXTILE CLUSTER PERU MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Huby, Ana María; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Amador Murguía, María Eugenia; Universidad de Guadalajara

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the research study entitled "A comparative study in Peru- Mexico textile cluster in determining competitive strategies" that was developed in 2010 by the author in collaboration with a team of researchers at the University of Guadalajara. This article basically presents the results in comparative terms of the competitive situation of the textile cluster, Peru and Mexico, "Gamarra" and "Zapotlanejo" respectively representing the textile industry in their countries,...

  2. Heart rates during competitive orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, S R; Bailey, R.; Lewis, J.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the heart rate profiles of 16 experienced, competitive orienteers (aged 15-62 years) during three competitive events. Each competitor was assessed over three different types of course which were classified as: fast run (FR), slow run (SR) and highly physical (HP). The results showed that all subjects recorded heart rates that were between 140 and 180 beats min-1 for the majority of each event (irrespective of age or course type). The heart rate data indicated that the ...

  3. Yardstick Competition and Policy Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Rincke, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    A simple model of yardstick competition between jurisdictions is presented. Governments of jurisdictions face the alternative to choose between an old and a new policy with stochastic payoffs. The new policy is superior to the old policy in one state of the world, and inferior in the other. Governments are either benevolent, serving the interest of the voter, or rent-seeking. An equilibrium with yardstick competition is shown to exist where bad governments having a good government in their ne...

  4. Medical coverage of gymnastics competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Suzanne S; Burton, Monique S

    2009-01-01

    Medical coverage of gymnastics competitions can be a challenging task for the sports medicine physician and other medical personnel because of the complexity and aerial nature of the sport. A broad understanding of the six gymnastics disciplines, along with the type of competitions, injury epidemiology, and the common acute gymnastics injuries will help sports medicine professionals in planning and delivering optimal care to the injured or ill gymnast.

  5. An amusement park physics competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-07-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition reveals positive effects such as the acquisition of experimentation skills and improved attitudes towards physics.

  6. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-01-01

    The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of import...

  7. LOGISTICS - SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana SCRIOSTEANU; Popescu, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the logistics if source of competitive advantage. Logistics can offer a source of competitive advantage, such as a superior position compared to the competitors regarding cost reductions, service diversity and satisfaction of consumer requirements. The logistic activities generate cost and give value to the final product .Despite that the same logistic activity can be done in many ways, with different costs and performance , the evaluation of the activities and the links b...

  8. Bank Mergers, Competition and Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    2004-01-01

    We model the impact of bank mergers on loan competition, reserve holdings and aggregate liquidity. A merger changes the distribution of liquidity shocks and creates an internal money market, leading to financial cost efficiencies and more precise estimates of liquidity needs. The merged banks may increase their reserve holdings through an internalization effect or decrease them because of a diversification effect. The merger also affects loan market competition, which in turn modifies the dis...

  9. Immunological impact of Taekwondo competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y W; Shin, K W; Paik, I-Y; Jung, W M; Cho, S-Y; Choi, S T; Kim, H D; Kim, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes in elite adolescent female athletes during Taekwondo competitions were investigated on-field. 6 female athletes (16.7 ± 0.8 year-old) volunteered and performed 5 bouts of demonstration Taekwondo competitions simulating real tournaments in intensity, duration, and break-time intervals on the same day. Blood samples were taken before, after the competitions and during the recovery, respectively. Immunological changes and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry. During the competitions, exercise intensity was 92.2 ± 3.8% (86.1~95.7) of the maximal heart rate. Blood lactate increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0165) and decreased to baseline during recovery. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood increased continuously during recovery (pTaekwondo competitions. Further large-scaled Taekwondo studies on immunologic and apoptotic changes related to oxidative stress should be performed for improving and protecting the health of adolescent athletes.

  10. Spectroscopic study of the competitive interaction between streptomycin and Evans blue to bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jü-qin; Lv, Qing-luan; Wang, Huai You

    2011-12-01

    The mechanism of the competitive interaction of streptomycin and Evans blue (EB) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by using both fluorimetry and spectrophtometry. Effects of pH, streptomycin and concentration of EB on the competitive interaction of streptomycin and EB were examined. A static fluorescence quenching process was confirmed in the light of Stern-Volmer plot. The test result showed that there were strong and weak binding sites on BSA molecule and the binding constant of EB-BSA complex and the number of binding site n were obtained. These facts revealed that the competitive interaction was occurred between EB and streptomycin, which can possibly provide useful message in investigation of the interaction of antibiotic with BSA.

  11. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  12. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  13. The Plasminogen-Binding Group A Streptococcal M Protein-Related Protein Prp Binds Plasminogen via Arginine and Histidine Residues▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson-Smith, Martina L.; Dowton, Mark; Ranson, Marie; Walker, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The migration of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) from localized to deep tissue sites may result in severe invasive disease, and sequestration of the host zymogen plasminogen appears crucial for virulence. Here, we describe a novel plasminogen-binding M protein, the plasminogen-binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM)-related protein (Prp). Prp is phylogenetically distinct from previously described plasminogen-binding M proteins of group A, C, and G streptococci. While competition experiments indicate that Prp binds plasminogen with a lower affinity than PAM (50% effective concentration = 0.34 μM), Prp nonetheless binds plasminogen with high affinity and at physiologically relevant concentrations of plasminogen (Kd = 7.8 nM). Site-directed mutagenesis of the putative plasminogen binding site indicates that unlike the majority of plasminogen receptors, Prp does not interact with plasminogen exclusively via lysine residues. Mutagenesis to alanine of lysine residues Lys96 and Lys101 reduced but did not abrogate plasminogen binding by Prp. Plasminogen binding was abolished only with the additional mutagenesis of Arg107 and His108 to alanine. Furthermore, mutagenesis of Arg107 and His108 abolished plasminogen binding by Prp despite the presence of Lys96 and Lys101 in the binding site. Thus, binding to plasminogen via arginine and histidine residues appears to be a conserved mechanism among plasminogen-binding M proteins. PMID:17012384

  14. The plasminogen-binding group A streptococcal M protein-related protein Prp binds plasminogen via arginine and histidine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson-Smith, Martina L; Dowton, Mark; Ranson, Marie; Walker, Mark J

    2007-02-01

    The migration of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) from localized to deep tissue sites may result in severe invasive disease, and sequestration of the host zymogen plasminogen appears crucial for virulence. Here, we describe a novel plasminogen-binding M protein, the plasminogen-binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM)-related protein (Prp). Prp is phylogenetically distinct from previously described plasminogen-binding M proteins of group A, C, and G streptococci. While competition experiments indicate that Prp binds plasminogen with a lower affinity than PAM (50% effective concentration = 0.34 microM), Prp nonetheless binds plasminogen with high affinity and at physiologically relevant concentrations of plasminogen (K(d) = 7.8 nM). Site-directed mutagenesis of the putative plasminogen binding site indicates that unlike the majority of plasminogen receptors, Prp does not interact with plasminogen exclusively via lysine residues. Mutagenesis to alanine of lysine residues Lys(96) and Lys(101) reduced but did not abrogate plasminogen binding by Prp. Plasminogen binding was abolished only with the additional mutagenesis of Arg(107) and His(108) to alanine. Furthermore, mutagenesis of Arg(107) and His(108) abolished plasminogen binding by Prp despite the presence of Lys(96) and Lys(101) in the binding site. Thus, binding to plasminogen via arginine and histidine residues appears to be a conserved mechanism among plasminogen-binding M proteins.

  15. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  16. RECENT ADVANCES IN TERRITORIAL COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Luminita Constantin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of territorial competitiveness – at national and regional level – from the perspective of the most important research undertaken in the international arena in order to build-up competitiveness indicators able to reveal the complexity and dynamics of this phenomenon in the contemporary society. A special emphasis is put on studies developed by prestigious organisations and research centres such as World Economic Forum, International Institute for Management Development, Cambridge Econometrics, ECORYS-NEI and so on.

  17. Political Globalization and the Competition State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state.......Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state....

  18. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  19. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  20. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  1. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  2. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  3. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  4. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    such as fossil fuels), mitigation and adaptation policies related to climate change, as well as climate change impacts and demographic pressures. The chapter concludes with a discussion of major research gaps, and it outlines priority research topics, including the improved analysis of interdependencies of land......Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well...... as societal well-being. This chapter discusses several emerging issues, including the effect of increased demand for nonprovisioning ecosystem services ( biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration), urbanization, bioenergy, and teleconnections. Three major types of land-use competition are discerned...

  5. Game on: creating competitive advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Patricia; Foreman, M Shane

    2004-01-01

    Whether you are opening a new imaging center or trying to keep an existing center competitive, there are 3 critical factors: customer service, marketing, and a "what's next?" attitude. Customer service: Outstanding customer service is what sticks in the minds of referring physicians and patients. Not only does providing better service differentiate you from the competition, but it also boosts employee morale and motivates people to acquire new skills. Marketing: From the front office staff to the radiologists,promoting the center should be part of every employee's job description. Simply paying lip service to the concept of marketing will not cut it. A "what's next?" attitude: Complacency is a luxury that does not exist in today's competitive health care arena. Three facilities provide examples of how these factors applied to their success.

  6. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  7. Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details on the asp......The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details...... on the aspects of the problem, the data, and a summary of the methods used by selected top entries. We also discuss the lessons learned from this competition from the organizers’ perspective. The complete data set, including the solution data, is published along with this paper, in an effort to establish...

  8. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng;

    2014-01-01

    : production versus production (e.g., food vs. fuel), production versus conservation (e.g., food production vs. conservation), and built-up environment versus production or conservation (e.g., food vs. urban). Sustainability impacts that result from land-use competition are analyzed and found to differ...... strongly between the different types of land-use competition. They are associated with important trade-offs and high uncertainty. Institutional aspects related to land-use competition are discussed using a conceptual model that distinguishes types of institutions (government, private, community) as well...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts....

  9. Can NCLB Survive the Competitiveness Competition? Education Outlook. Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Some see the George W. Bush administration's American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) as the perfect complement to the No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) equity focus. The authors believe, however, that the prospects for synergy of these two agendas are not bright. In this essay, the authors discuss the history behind NCLB and the ACI, and argue…

  10. Intrasexual competition among males : Competitive towards men, prosocial towards women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Massar, Karlijn

    2012-01-01

    In a study among 40 males and 56 females, participants engaged in a series of decomposed social games in which they had to divide resources between themselves and either a same-sex or an opposite sex other. As predicted on the basis of theorizing on sexual selection, males behaved more competitively

  11. Magnitude Sensitive Competitive Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pelayo Campillos, Enrique; Buldain Pérez, David; Orrite Uruñuela, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    En esta Tesis se presentan un conjunto de redes neuronales llamadas Magnitude Sensitive Competitive Neural Networks (MSCNNs). Se trata de un conjunto de algoritmos de Competitive Learning que incluyen un término de magnitud como un factor de modulación de la distancia usada en la competición. Al igual que otros métodos competitivos, MSCNNs realizan la cuantización vectorial de los datos, pero el término de magnitud guía el entrenamiento de los centroides de modo que se representan con alto de...

  12. Credit rating dynamics and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics if sophis......I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics...

  13. Competition in a Noncompetitive Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    different markets with di#erenit pctentad] levelb o# competition. Our behavior muSt certair:ly dl -pend upur. the type of marlet, we muit procure weapons...deal has been written about split buy techniques and problems. See Beltramo (1983), Boger and Liao (1985/87), Meeker (1984), Pelzer (1979), Sellers...Competition in the Procurement of Weapon Systems", JounAnaiQl!_8#1!1, Vol 4, Na 2 (Fall). Boger , D.C. and S.S. Liao (1985), "An Analysis oi Quantity

  14. Thermodynamics of competitive molecular channel transport: application to artificial nuclear pores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang R Bauer

    Full Text Available In an analytical model channel transport is analyzed as a function of key parameters, determining efficiency and selectivity of particle transport in a competitive molecular environment. These key parameters are the concentration of particles, solvent-channel exchange dynamics, as well as particle-in-channel- and interparticle interaction. These parameters are explicitly related to translocation dynamics and channel occupation probability. Slowing down the exchange dynamics at the channel ends, or elevating the particle concentration reduces the in-channel binding strength necessary to maintain maximum transport. Optimized in-channel interaction may even shift from binding to repulsion. A simple equation gives the interrelation of access dynamics and concentration at this transition point. The model is readily transferred to competitive transport of different species, each of them having their individual in-channel affinity. Combinations of channel affinities are determined which differentially favor selectivity of certain species on the cost of others. Selectivity for a species increases if its in-channel binding enhances the species' translocation probability when compared to that of the other species. Selectivity increases particularly for a wide binding site, long channels, and fast access dynamics. Recent experiments on competitive transport of in-channel binding and inert molecules through artificial nuclear pores serve as a paradigm for our model. It explains qualitatively and quantitatively how binding molecules are favored for transport at the cost of the transport of inert molecules.

  15. Membrane binding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic signaling and trafficking proteins are rich in modular domains that bind cell membranes. These binding events are tightly regulated in space and time. The structural, biochemical, and biophysical mechanisms for targeting have been worked out for many families of membrane binding domains. This review takes a comparative view of seven major classes of membrane binding domains, the C1, C2, PH, FYVE, PX, ENTH, and BAR domains. These domains use a combination of specific headgroup inter...

  16. Cooperation and competition between relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, S.A.; Pen, I.R.; Griffin, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Individuals are predicted to. behave more altruistically and less competitively toward their relatives, because they share a relatively high proportion of their genes (e.g., one-half for siblings and one-eighth for cousins). Consequently, by helping a relative reproduce, an individual passes its gen

  17. Competition in spatial location models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Models of spatial competition are designed and analyzed to describe the fact that space, by its very nature, is a source of market power. This field of research, lying at the interface of game theory and economics, has attracted much interest because location problems are related to many aspects of

  18. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  19. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  20. Factors Affecting Traditional Markets Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotnier Sipahutar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, traditional market is increasingly squeezed by the emergence of modern market that develops rapidly. The dominance shift in national retail is apparent when globalization can no longer be contained, let alone be banned. Middle class and small class (traditional market business retail seem to be in increasingly difficult condition to compete with upscale retail business (modern market. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the competitiveness of traditional market and to develop policies to improve the competitiveness of traditional market. This study utilizes research strategy of case study in Bandung City, Serang City, and Surabaya City with qualitative descriptive approach. The study shows that the factors inhibiting the competitiveness of traditional market with modern stores are (1 Traditional market’s bad image, and (2 Traditional market’s sellers and managers are unprofessional. To improve the competitiveness of traditional market, this study recommends: (1 routine and regular maintenance of buildings and infrastructure of traditional market, (2 professionalism improvement of traditional market’s sellers and managers, and (3 the partiality of local government in traditional markets.

  1. Economic Competitiveness: A Campaign Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    With the dollar's continued swoon and grim news on the job front, American economic competitiveness has become a central theme in the presidential election. Stumping in Ohio and Pennsylvania, old-line industrial states hit hard by the flight of manufacturing jobs, Democrats Hillary Rodham Clinton and Barack Obama have called for renegotiating the…

  2. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  3. Regional Competition in Maghreb Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL AMOURI ALLAL

    2016-01-01

    Great powers focus on cooperation instead of competition in their regions in order to maintain stability and develop the economy of their regions and the world in general. The United States for example created the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFT

  4. Raising Economic Competitiveness with Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Harry F.

    The current school reform movement has been plagued by three false assumptions. The first of these postulates that more academic requirements will strengthen the minds of students, improve their reasoning, prepare them for a rapidly changing economy, and make the U.S. economy more competitive. Although it is true that the workers of the future…

  5. Robotics Competitions and Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the distinctions between science classrooms and the robotics competition described in the article "Examining the mediation of power in a collaborative community: engaging in informal science as authentic practice" written by Anton Puvirajah, Geeta Verma and Horace Webb. Using the framework of "productive disciplinary…

  6. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of transs......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither.......The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...

  7. Competition and Mergers among Nonprofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. We analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. We co

  8. Competition and Mergers among Nonprofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. I analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. I comp

  9. Media Competition and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piolatto, A.; Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We build a framework linking competition in the media market to political participation, media slant, and selection of politicians. Media outlets report on the ability of candidates running for office and compete for audience through their choice of slant. Citizens derive utility from foll

  10. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA ANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of this paper is to highlight the position of the European players in the textile market and the challenges to which they are subjected. In this paper are presented ways, taking the „diamond" model of M. Porter and are adapted to the situation of the textile market. These adaptations have outlined the main existing problems and the possible solutions that can ensure the long-term competitive advantage. Gaining a competitive advantage based on innovation, the development of production and outsourcing strategies using the "diamond" model of M. Porter, we can say that is one of the viable solutions for gaining competitive advantages necessary for proper European companies to face competition from countries outside Europe. As developing countries do not meet certain environmental standards or norms of European law, but in terms of product innovation and development of new materials, they do not have the necessity for technology. We conducted an analysis of the factors that play a key role in the production of textiles, representing how they are used in the favor of European companies such investments to be supplemented can be found in how these factors act on the total costs.

  11. The Fetish of Global Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    A number of scholars have criticised the methodological nationalism of the mainstream study of capitalist diversity for ignoring a global convergence trend triggered by global competition. This contribution agrees with this criticism but insists on the need to take the diversities into account in...... highlights another type of dependence of capital in its drive towards the realisation of surplus value....

  12. Urban Competition and Urban Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    The essay gives a brief summery of Michel Foucault's 1978-1979 lectures which offers an important point of reference for a deeper understanding of the shift from liberal to neo-liberal ideas. Here he points out that neo-liberalism is an art of governemt that seeks to enforce competition. But his...

  13. Japanese Competitiveness and Japanese Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minabe, Shigeo

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes and compares Japanese and American industrial policy and labor practices. Proposes that certain aspects of the Japanese system be adapted by American businesses for purpose of increasing international competitiveness. Proposes specific actions and plans for both the Japanese and American systems. (ML)

  14. Competitive strategies in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, H; Kennedy, B

    1992-04-01

    The NHS has, of necessity since implementation of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990, strengthened its skills in business, marketing and other functions borrowed from industry and commerce. One area where, however, the NHS is currently weak is in competitive intelligence. Hazel Coad and Barbara Kennedy explain what this strategically important function is and how it can help financial viability.

  15. The rd LAK data competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Dietze, Stefan; Herder, Eelco; d'Aquin, Mathieu; Taibi, Davide; Scheffel, Maren

    2017-01-01

    The LAK Data Challenge 2015 continues the research efforts of the previous data competitions in 2013 and 2014 by stimulating research on the evolving fields Learning Analytics (LA) and Educational Data Mining (EDM). Building on a series of activities of the LinkedUp project, the challenge aims to ge

  16. Competition in a Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  17. Competition for cores in remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulmus, Serra Caner; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    We study competition between an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and an independently operating remanufacturer (IO). Different from the existing literature, the OEM and IO compete not only for selling their products but also for collecting returned products (cores) through their acquisition pri

  18. Review of submissions: competition impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; W. de Wit

    2015-01-01

    The Airports Commission requested ITF/SEO to provide technical assistance with analysing responses that pertain to the previous work undertaken by the ITF/SEO. This report assesses the submissions by the stakeholders in relation to competition impacts and compares them with the ITF/SEO results and t

  19. Management of competitiveness enterprise in modern terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Spivak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses methodological approaches to assess the competitiveness of industrial enterprises on the basis of indicators to measure the production, finance, marketing potential, determination of the complex index of competitiveness. The problems of furniture manufacturing enterprises. The basic shortcomings of the industry in today's environment. The analysis of the competitiveness of furniture products on the market. Factors that influence the level of production and the mechanism of improving the competitiveness of enterprise management systems, including the implementation of the following steps: a the adoption of a fundamental decision by management on the feasibility competitiveness management; b formation of working groups; c analysis of the competitiveness of the furniture company, which is determined based on the competitiveness of certain furniture company; d management functional competitive furniture company; е evaluating the effectiveness of multi-use and implement actions organizational and economic mechanism of competitive.

  20. Inhibition of electrocatalytic O(2) reduction of functional CcO models by competitive, non-competitive, and mixed inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collman, James P; Dey, Abhishek; Barile, Christopher J; Ghosh, Somdatta; Decréau, Richard A

    2009-11-16

    Electrocatalytic reduction of O(2) by functional cytochrome C Oxidase (CcO) models is studied in the presence of several known inhibitors like CO, N(3)(-), CN(-), and NO(2)(-). These models successfully reproduce the inhibitions observed in CcO at similar concentrations reported for these inhibitors. Importantly, the data show very different electrochemical responses depending on the nature of the inhibitor, that is, competitive, non-competitive and mixed. Chemical models have been provided for these observed differences in the electrochemical behavior. Using the benchmark electrochemical behaviors for known inhibitors, the inhibition by NO(2)(-) is investigated. Electrochemical data suggests that NO(2)(-) acts as a competitive inhibitor at high concentrations. Spectroscopic data suggests that NO released during oxidation of the reduced catalyst in presence of excess NO(2)(-) is the source of the competitive inhibition by NO(2)(-). Presence of the distal Cu(B) lowers the inhibitory effect of CN(-) and NO(2)(-). While for CN(-) it weakens its binding affinity to the reduced complex by approximately 4.5 times, for NO(2)(-), it allows regeneration of the active catalyst from a catalytically inactive, air stable ferrous nitrosyl complex via a proposed superoxide mediated pathway.

  1. Designing competitions for education in robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes design considerations for making a robot competition. Topics as level of participants, learning objective, evaluation form, task design and competition rules are treated. It is shown that careful design considering these topics are necessary for a succesful outcome of a compet......The paper describes design considerations for making a robot competition. Topics as level of participants, learning objective, evaluation form, task design and competition rules are treated. It is shown that careful design considering these topics are necessary for a succesful outcome...... of a competition. The conclusions are based on examples from more than 15 years of experience with robotic competitions....

  2. A peptide-binding assay for the disease-associated HLA-DQ8 molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straumfors, A; Johansen, B H; Vartdal, F;

    1998-01-01

    . The Ha 255-271(Y) peptide bound to DQ8 in a pH-dependent fashion showing optimal binding around pH 5. The association kinetics were relatively slow and the resulting complexes were heat labile. The specificity of peptide binding to DQ8 was investigated in competitive inhibition experiments with a panel...

  3. Analyzing radioligand binding data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Harvey; Neubig, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Radioligand binding experiments are easy to perform, and provide useful data in many fields. They can be used to study receptor regulation, discover new drugs by screening for compounds that compete with high affinity for radioligand binding to a particular receptor, investigate receptor localization in different organs or regions using autoradiography, categorize receptor subtypes, and probe mechanisms of receptor signaling, via measurements of agonist binding and its regulation by ions, nucleotides, and other allosteric modulators. This unit reviews the theory of receptor binding and explains how to analyze experimental data. Since binding data are usually best analyzed using nonlinear regression, this unit also explains the principles of curve fitting with nonlinear regression.

  4. In vitro DNA binding studies of Aspartame, an artificial sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2013-03-05

    A number of small molecules bind directly and selectively to DNA, by inhibiting replication, transcription or topoisomerase activity. In this work the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with Aspartame (APM), an artificial sweeteners was studied at physiological pH. DNA binding study of APM is useful to understand APM-DNA interaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and safer artificial sweeteners. The interaction was investigated using spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD). Hypochromism and red shift are shown in UV absorption band of APM. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to APM was observed and the binding constants (Kf) of DNA with APM and corresponding number of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy changes (ΔH) and entropy changes (ΔS) were calculated to be +181kJmol(-1) and +681Jmol(-1)K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Moreover, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD) results are indicative of non-intercalative DNA binding nature of APM. We suggest that APM interacts with calf thymus DNA via groove binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 5×10(+4)M(-1).

  5. Demolishing the Competition: The Longitudinal Link between Competitive Video Games, Competitive Gambling, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship…

  6. DNA binding studies of tartrazine food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Zeidali, Sahar Heidary

    2011-07-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA with tartrazine in 10 mM Tris-HCl aqueous solution at neutral pH 7.4 was investigated. Tartrazine is a nitrous derivative and may cause allergic reactions, with a potential of toxicological risk. Also, tartrazine induces oxidative stress and DNA damage. Its DNA binding properties were studied by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectra, competitive binding with Hoechst 33258, and viscosity measurements. Tartrazine molecules bind to DNA via groove mode as illustrated by hyperchromism in the UV absorption band of tartrazine, decrease in Hoechst-DNA solution fluorescence, unchanged viscosity of DNA, and conformational changes such as conversion from B-like to C-like in the circular dichroism spectra of DNA. The binding constants (K(b)) of DNA with tartrazine were calculated at different temperatures. Enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated to be +37 and +213 kJ mol(-1), respectively, according to the Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Also, tartrazine does not cleave plasmid DNA. Tartrazine interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 3.75 × 10(4) M(-1).

  7. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  8. Unravelling Mg2+-RNA binding with atomistic molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Richard A; Bussi, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Interaction with divalent cations is of paramount importance for RNA structural stability and function. We here report a detailed molecular dynamics study of all the possible binding sites for Mg(2+) on a RNA duplex, including both direct (inner sphere) and indirect (outer sphere) binding. In order to tackle sampling issues, we develop a modified version of bias-exchange metadynamics which allows us to simultaneously compute affinities with previously unreported statistical accuracy. Results correctly reproduce trends observed in crystallographic databases. Based on this, we simulate a carefully chosen set of models that allows us to quantify the effects of competition with monovalent cations, RNA flexibility, and RNA hybridization. Our simulations reproduce the decrease and increase of Mg(2+) affinity due to ion competition and hybridization respectively, and predict that RNA flexibility has a site dependent effect. This suggests a non trivial interplay between RNA conformational entropy and divalent cation binding.

  9. Growth hormone secretagogues: out of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyot, Armand; Nikolovski, Zoran; Bosch, Jaume; Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Kageyama, Shinji; Segura, Jordi; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) constitute a new GH deficiency treatment increasing exponentially in number and improved potency and bioavailability over the last decade. The growth hormone releasing activity makes these compounds attractive for the artificial improvement of the human sports skills, now that recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration is effectively detected. The GHS family is extremely diverse both in number and chemical heterogeneity and keeps growing continuously. In this paper, a general screening test is proposed. To develop a universal method, the single common property of growth hormone secretagogues has been targeted: their capacity to bind to the GHS receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Pretreated urine samples have been tested in a competition assay where eventually the GHS presence detached a radiolabelled ligand from the receptor in a dose-dependent manner. Blank urine samples were processed to determine potential age, gender and exercise effects, and to define a threshold beyond which a specimen is considered positive. Samples from a growth hormone releasing peptide 2 (GHRP-2) excretion study corroborated the screening assay applicability with a detection window of approximately 4.5 h, and results were confirmed by comparison with a dedicated LC-MS quantification of the intact compound.

  10. Monoclonal Anti—CD4 Antibody MT310 Binds HIV-1 gp120 Binding Site on CD4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tests show the monoclonal anti—CD4 antibody (mAb) MT310 recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4 as part of its mechanism for strongly inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of CD4+ T cells. In competition tests, mAb MT310 and mAb Leu3a (an anti-CD4 mAb recognizing the gp120-binding site) all inhibited gp120-binding to CD4+ T lymphocytes, while mAb MT405 did not. This result suggests that MT310, like Leu3a, recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4. To further confirm whether MT310 recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4, we prepared rabbit anti-idiotypic antisera (Ab2) against MT310 (Ab1). The anti-idiotypic antisera against MT310 inhibited binding of MT310 and Leu3a to human CD4+ T lymphocytes, but did not block binding of MT151 with the second domain of CD4, while rabbit anti-idiotypic antisera to MT151 could block binding of itself to these cells, but could not inhibit the binding of MT310 and Leu3a, further indicating that MT310 recognized the gp120-binding site on CD4.

  11. Ureaplasma urealyticum binds mannose-binding lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstein, Barbara D; Ourth, Donald D; Crouse, Dennis T; Shanklin, D Radford

    2004-10-01

    Mannose-binding C-type lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity in mammals. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an acute phase protein, acts as an opsonin for phagocytosis and also activates the mannan-binding lectin complement pathway. It may play a particularly significant role during infancy before adequate specific protection can be provided by the adaptive immune system. Ureaplasma urealyticum has been linked to several diseases including pneumonia and chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants. We therefore investigated the ability of U. urealyticum to bind MBL. A guinea pig IgG anti-rabbit-MBL antiserum was produced. An immunoblot (dot-blot) assay done on nitrocellulose membrane determined that the anti-MBL antibody had specificity against both rabbit and human MBL. Pure cultures of U. urealyticum, serotype 3, were used to make slide preparations. The slides containing the organisms were then incubated with nonimmune rabbit serum containing MBL. Ureaplasma was shown to bind rabbit MBL with an immunocytochemical assay using the guinea pig IgG anti-rabbit MBL antiserum. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-guinea pig IgG was used to localize the reaction. The anti-MBL antiserum was also used in an immunocytochemical assay to localize U. urealyticum in histological sections of lungs from mice specifically infected with this organism. The same method also indicated binding of MBL by ureaplasma in human lung tissue obtained at autopsy from culture positive infants. Our results demonstrate that ureaplasma has the capacity to bind MBL. The absence of MBL may play a role in the predisposition of diseases related to this organism.

  12. Ligand binding mechanics of maltose binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, Morten; Rief, Matthias

    2009-11-13

    In the past decade, single-molecule force spectroscopy has provided new insights into the key interactions stabilizing folded proteins. A few recent studies probing the effects of ligand binding on mechanical protein stability have come to quite different conclusions. While some proteins seem to be stabilized considerably by a bound ligand, others appear to be unaffected. Since force acts as a vector in space, it is conceivable that mechanical stabilization by ligand binding is dependent on the direction of force application. In this study, we vary the direction of the force to investigate the effect of ligand binding on the stability of maltose binding protein (MBP). MBP consists of two lobes connected by a hinge region that move from an open to a closed conformation when the ligand maltose binds. Previous mechanical experiments, where load was applied to the N and C termini, have demonstrated that MBP is built up of four building blocks (unfoldons) that sequentially detach from the folded structure. In this study, we design the pulling direction so that force application moves the two MBP lobes apart along the hinge axis. Mechanical unfolding in this geometry proceeds via an intermediate state whose boundaries coincide with previously reported MBP unfoldons. We find that in contrast to N-C-terminal pulling experiments, the mechanical stability of MBP is increased by ligand binding when load is applied to the two lobes and force breaks the protein-ligand interactions directly. Contour length measurements indicate that MBP is forced into an open conformation before unfolding even if ligand is bound. Using mutagenesis experiments, we demonstrate that the mechanical stabilization effect is due to only a few key interactions of the protein with its ligand. This work illustrates how varying the direction of the applied force allows revealing important details about the ligand binding mechanics of a large protein.

  13. Interspecific Resource Competition Effects on Fisheres Revenue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Schellekens, T.; Poos, J.J.; Kooten, van T.

    2012-01-01

    In many fisheries multiple species are simultaneously caught while stock assessments and fishing quota are defined at species level. Yet species caught together often share habitat and resources, resulting in interspecific resource competition. The consequences of resource competition on population

  14. DXC'09 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Industrial Track Tier 1 and Tier 2 of the First International Diagnostic Competition. Three file...

  15. DXC'10 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Diagnostic Problems I and II of the Second International Diagnostic Competition. Three file formats are...

  16. Competitive pressures on income distribution in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, H.

    1999-01-01

    to explore what perfect competition would do to income distribution in China. The research analyzes this question by determining personal income distribution under hypothetical, perfectly competitive conditions, where factors are rewarded according to their marginal productivities. Comparison with t

  17. Competition: a social marketer's friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Jennifer J Clay; Beall, Tom; Thackeray, Rosemary; Brown, Kelli R McCormack

    2007-04-01

    In public health social marketing, is there such a thing as "healthy competition," or is the term an oxymoron? The primary focus of this article is on a type of competition that may not often be considered by public health social marketers--competition from other marketing activities that exist in the marketplace in which your intervention is operating. This could also be termed "promotion" competition. The purpose of this article is to briefly review promotion competition and then review competitive factors that can impact a social marketing initiative's success, examine how to conduct a useful competitive analysis, and offer strategies for maximizing the benefits and minimizing the negative implications of competition on your efforts.

  18. SIAM 2007 Text Mining Competition dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Subject Area: Text Mining Description: This is the dataset used for the SIAM 2007 Text Mining competition. This competition focused on developing text mining...

  19. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  20. Competitive Intelligence and the Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Frances

    1988-01-01

    Examines the competitive intelligence approach to corporate information gathering, and discusses how it differs from the traditional library information center approach. Steps for developing a competitive intelligence system in the library information center are suggested. (33 references) (MES)

  1. Tax Competition Leading to Strict Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Withagen, Cees; Halsema, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We study tax competition when pollution matters. Most notably we present a dynamic setting, where the supply of capital is endogenous. It is shown that tax competition may involve stricter environmental policy than the cooperative outcome.

  2. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  3. The political economy of competition in telecommunication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    Article dealing with the regulation of telecommunications and the establishment of a competitive regime.......Article dealing with the regulation of telecommunications and the establishment of a competitive regime....

  4. Neanderthal extinction by competitive exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Banks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a long history of investigation, considerable debate revolves around whether Neanderthals became extinct because of climate change or competition with anatomically modern humans (AMH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We apply a new methodology integrating archaeological and chronological data with high-resolution paleoclimatic simulations to define eco-cultural niches associated with Neanderthal and AMH adaptive systems during alternating cold and mild phases of Marine Isotope Stage 3. Our results indicate that Neanderthals and AMH exploited similar niches, and may have continued to do so in the absence of contact. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The southerly contraction of Neanderthal range in southwestern Europe during Greenland Interstadial 8 was not due to climate change or a change in adaptation, but rather concurrent AMH geographic expansion appears to have produced competition that led to Neanderthal extinction.

  5. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes...... in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...... to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels...

  6. BDS thin film damage competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  7. Modeling competition between yeast strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the strains. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.

  8. Institutional Competitiveness in Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    a social science / leadership perspective - not from the perspective of a journalist or from the ideologically critical perspective of the license payer. Thirdly, we consider competition in the media market as an institutional phenomenon that is not solely conditioned by economic considerations. We aim......This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as'institutional competition in the media market' we also...... signal an approach that will be free of much of the traditional dogma in Danish media research: First of all, we will consider the media as a market for opinion, goods and services - not primarily as a cultural discourse with a singular focus on public service. Secondly, we consider media activity from...

  9. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  10. Opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney: Radioligand homogenate binding and autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissanayake, V.U.; Hughes, J.; Hunter, J.C. (Parke-Davis Research Unit, Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Cambridge (England))

    1991-07-01

    The specific binding of the selective {mu}-, {delta}-, and {kappa}-opioid ligands (3H)(D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5)enkephalin ((3H) DAGOL), (3H)(D-Pen2,D-Pen5)enkephalin ((3H)DPDPE), and (3H)U69593, respectively, to crude membranes of the guinea pig and rat whole kidney, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla was investigated. In addition, the distribution of specific 3H-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney was visualized by autoradiography. Homogenate binding and autoradiography demonstrated the absence of {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig kidney. No opioid binding sites were demonstrable in the rat kidney. In the guinea pig whole kidney, cortex, and medulla, saturation studies demonstrated that (3H)DPDPE bound with high affinity (KD = 2.6-3.5 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding sites (Bmax = 8.4-30 fmol/mg of protein). Competition studies using several opioid compounds confirmed the nature of the {delta}-opioid binding site. Autoradiography experiments demonstrated that specific (3H)DPDPE binding sites were distributed radially in regions of the inner and outer medulla and at the corticomedullary junction of the guinea pig kidney. Computer-assisted image analysis of saturation data yielded KD values (4.5-5.0 nM) that were in good agreement with those obtained from the homogenate binding studies. Further investigation of the {delta}-opioid binding site in medulla homogenates, using agonist ((3H)DPDPE) and antagonist ((3H)diprenorphine) binding in the presence of Na+, Mg2+, and nucleotides, suggested that the {delta}-opioid site is linked to a second messenger system via a GTP-binding protein. Further studies are required to establish the precise localization of the {delta} binding site in the guinea pig kidney and to determine the nature of the second messenger linked to the GTP-binding protein in the medulla.

  11. Competition in the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Demary, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Sharing goods, services or knowledge is at the center of the so-called Sharing Economy. Businesses are usually based on online platforms that match demand and supply which is in many cases, but not always provided by individuals. Sharing Economy companies typically compete with traditional companies in many different markets. The main challenge of this type of competition currently is the application of the existing regulation. While incumbent firms adhere to this, Sharing Economy companies o...

  12. Green tax reform and competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Erkki; Schöb, Ronnie; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a model of a small open economy that produces an export good with domestic labour and imported energy and is stuck in an unemployment situation resulting from an excessive fixed net-of-tax wage rate. We study a revenue-neutral green tax reform that substitutes energy for wage taxes. A moderate green tax reform will boost employment, improve welfare, and increase the economy's competitiveness. The driving force behind these results is the technological substitution process ...

  13. Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    McCulloch , W. S., & Pitts , W. (1943). A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in neural nets. Bid- letin of Mathematical Biophysics. 5. 115-137. Minsky, M...elevated to a status of p eat importance in those days because it was somehow uniquely sociated with the properties of animal brains. After McCulloch and... Pitts (1943) showed how neural-like networks or Rumelhart and Zipser 3 Competitive Learning could compute, the main problem then facing workers in this

  14. Renewing Team Competition for Himos-Safaris

    OpenAIRE

    Karttimo, Maiju

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop Himos-Safaris’ product, Team competition, into a more functional and fresher product and bring new lift for it. The competition had become outdated because it had stayed too long the same. Also the duration in the old competition was often too short. The total outcome for this project was a new team competition and related material for the company. The theoretical background of the thesis consisted of three parts: Product development, Experience Touri...

  15. Assessing competition policy on economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Tilsa Oré

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of competition policies is one of the most recommended strategies to developing countries as a tool for achieving economic development. Using a panel dataset of over 100 countries and 7 years (from 2005-2011), I estimate the effect of competition on economic development, and also determine which of the comprehensive policy factors are the most relevant for increasing competition. A fixed effects instrumental variable approach is used. I find that competition intensity positivel...

  16. PARADIGMS REGARDING CONCERTED PRACTICES OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela\tNEMŢOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of completing the single market requires the application of appropriate measures also in competition field. Rather, it is a truism that, once are removed the non-tariff barriers (physical, technical, fiscal of hindering trade, companies and governments will seek new ways to limit the restrictions so that competition laws to protect domestic industries. This study is a reflection on competitive practices regarding the theoretical and practical aspects in the phenomenon of economic competition.

  17. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-06

    many of them are now getting into the business of " competitive intelligence ." This practice, which is too often confused with industrial espionnage...information is a decisive factor in competitive- ness. Americans use the term competitive intelligence to describe a company’s capacity to unremittingly...had formerly practiced competitive intelligence "in a fairly makeshift fashion." Assigned to "organize the function," Bruno Martinet first strove to

  18. Logistics capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Erik; Abrahamsson, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how sustainable competitive advantage is generated in two Swedish best practice companies that successfully exploit logistics as a source for competitive advantage. Using a theoretical framework based on the resource-based view of the firm, this research elaborates on the links between operational and dynamic logistics capabilities and sustainable competitive advantage. The findings conclude that a sustainable competitive advantage is based on a combina...

  19. Global Markets and Time-Based Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Rancati

    2005-01-01

    Time becomes the benchmark that defines a company's strategic behaviour, extensively revamping the entire company by reinterpreting the time dimension in a different, extremely dynamic context. Marketing activities always presuppose time-based competition. From a marketing perspective, oriented to analysis of the competition, time-based competition can be defined as a strategy based on immediate response to the customer's needs. In the competitive conditions of over-supply, the time dimension...

  20. Kinetic competition during glass formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perepezko, J.H., E-mail: perepezk@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Santhaweesuk, C.; Wang, J.Q. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Imhoff, S.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The kinetics of glass formation has been elucidated in an Fe and Au-base alloy. • A critical cooling rate range should be considered for glass formation. • Wedge casting, calorimetry and upquenching data are used to model TTT curves. - Abstract: For vitrification of an alloy melt during cooling there is a kinetic competition with the nucleation and growth of metastable and stable crystalline phases. Many of the measures of glass forming ability (GFA) attempt to capture some of the features of the kinetic competition, but the GFA metrics are static measures and the kinetic processes are dynamic in nature. In fact, the critical cooling rate for glass formation should be viewed in terms of a critical cooling rate range to acknowledge the stochastic nature of crystal nucleation behavior. Direct measurements of the critical cooling rate range confirm this behavior and also provide useful input for kinetics analysis. Usually kinetics analyses are based upon crystallization behavior that is measured either isothermally or upon heating to temperatures near the crystallization onset, T{sub x} and the results are extrapolated to much higher temperatures. This practice is based upon a number of assumptions about transport behavior in the undercooled liquid. With rapid up-quenching of amorphous samples, the high temperature crystallization behavior can be measured and used to refine the kinetics analysis and provide useful insight on the kinetic competition and glass forming ability.

  1. Revised article: Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...

  2. Protein Binding Pocket Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stank, Antonia; Kokh, Daria B; Fuller, Jonathan C; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-05-17

    The dynamics of protein binding pockets are crucial for their interaction specificity. Structural flexibility allows proteins to adapt to their individual molecular binding partners and facilitates the binding process. This implies the necessity to consider protein internal motion in determining and predicting binding properties and in designing new binders. Although accounting for protein dynamics presents a challenge for computational approaches, it expands the structural and physicochemical space for compound design and thus offers the prospect of improved binding specificity and selectivity. A cavity on the surface or in the interior of a protein that possesses suitable properties for binding a ligand is usually referred to as a binding pocket. The set of amino acid residues around a binding pocket determines its physicochemical characteristics and, together with its shape and location in a protein, defines its functionality. Residues outside the binding site can also have a long-range effect on the properties of the binding pocket. Cavities with similar functionalities are often conserved across protein families. For example, enzyme active sites are usually concave surfaces that present amino acid residues in a suitable configuration for binding low molecular weight compounds. Macromolecular binding pockets, on the other hand, are located on the protein surface and are often shallower. The mobility of proteins allows the opening, closing, and adaptation of binding pockets to regulate binding processes and specific protein functionalities. For example, channels and tunnels can exist permanently or transiently to transport compounds to and from a binding site. The influence of protein flexibility on binding pockets can vary from small changes to an already existent pocket to the formation of a completely new pocket. Here, we review recent developments in computational methods to detect and define binding pockets and to study pocket dynamics. We introduce five

  3. Marketing research model of competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasilya Dmitriy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To support its competitive advantages in current market conditions, each company needs to choose better ways of guaranteeing its favorable competitive position. In this regard, considerable interest lies in the structuring and algorithmization of marketing research processes that provide the information background of such choice. The article is devoted to modeling the process of marketing research of competitive environment.

  4. Exploring the Competitive Effects of Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Medina, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Central to the debate over school choice has been the question of how public schools respond to market-based competition. Many choice advocates suggest that competition can spur public schools to become more effective and efficient, but the evidence regarding the effect of competition from charters is comparably sparse and mixed. This article…

  5. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) Solicit at least three sources to promote competition to the maximum extent practicable. If you have repeated requirements for space in the same market, and if practicable, invite...

  6. How Banking Competition changed over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first detailed and world-wide investigation of the developments in banking competition during the past fiffteen years. Using the Panzar-Rosse approach, we establish significant changes over time in the competitiveness of the banking industry. The changes in competition over time ar

  7. 14 CFR 1260.143 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 1260.143 Section 1260.143..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.143 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  8. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  9. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  10. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  11. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  12. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, CSREES will enter...

  13. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  14. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  15. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  16. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  17. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  18. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  20. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  1. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  2. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  3. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  4. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  5. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  6. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  7. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  8. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless you use the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6 apply to acquisition...

  9. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  10. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  11. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  12. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  13. 40 CFR 35.936-3 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 35.936-3 Section 35.936-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-3 Competition. EPA's policy is to encourage free and open competition appropriate to the type of project work to be performed....

  14. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  15. Model Selection in Data Analysis Competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Winther, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The use of data analysis competitions for selecting the most appropriate model for a problem is a recent innovation in the field of predictive machine learning. Two of the most well-known examples of this trend was the Netflix Competition and recently the competitions hosted on the online platform...

  16. REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition policy starts by shaping a legislative framework. This is aimed to establish boundaries for conducting competition and also sets limits of licit and illicit demarcation, for competitive and anticompetitive practices. The Romanian Competition Law has a divalent approach and it aims to provide specific behavioral conditions in order to stimulate and protect free-market competition, with the ultimate goal of developing a balanced, efficient and competitive economy. Our country’s Competition policy is based on punishing the behavior. There are three such types of anti-competitive behavior, namely: agreements between undertakings, abuse of dominant position and mergers and other concentrations between undertakings. Recent Practice proved that this “enforcement-conduct-punishment” structure is not necessary the best way to address competition and it is high time for authorities to switch both regulation and enforcement of competition from the “classical perspective” towards concepts like “competition advocacy” and “soft power” and give competition policy a new, reshaped face.

  17. A new way to measure competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Boone

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a new way to measure competition based on firms' profits. Within a general model, we derive conditions under which this measure is monotone in competition, where competition can be intensified both through a fall in entry barriers and through more aggressive interaction betwe

  18. A New Way to Measure Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way to measure competition based on firms' profits.Within a general model, we derive conditions under which this measure is monotone in competition, where competition can be intensified both through a fall in entry barriers and through more aggressive interaction between

  19. Competitiveness and linking of emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausotter, Tobias; Steuwer, Sibyl; Taenzler, Dennis [adelphi, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The establishment of emission trading systems raises concerns among industries regarding international competitive disadvantages for the industries under an emissions cap. This study aims to assess competitiveness exposure of industrial sectors and presents policy measures to address these concerns. Moreover, the study provides a comparison of different existing approaches to competitiveness concerns proposed by regional emission trading systems. (orig.)

  20. 40 CFR 35.362 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.362 Section 35... 104(b)(3)) § 35.362 Competitive process. EPA will award Water Quality Cooperative Agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance....

  1. 40 CFR 35.342 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.342 Section 35...) § 35.342 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention State Grants to State programs through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating State applications,...

  2. 40 CFR 35.613 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.613 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.613 Competitive process. Wetlands development grants are awarded on a competitive... process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the award as a wetlands...

  3. 40 CFR 35.723 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.723 Section 35... Grants (pub.l. 105-276) § 35.723 Competitive process. EPA will award Tribal hazardous waste program... guidance. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the...

  4. 40 CFR 35.712 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.712 Section 35... Monitoring (section 28) § 35.712 Competitive process. EPA will award Toxic Substances Control Act Compliance Monitoring grants to Tribes or Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance...

  5. 40 CFR 35.661 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.661 Section 35... 6605) § 35.661 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention Grant funds to Tribes and Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating a...

  6. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8 Section... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the...

  7. Synergetic effect of benchmarking competitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Tkachova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed the essence of synergistic competitive benchmarking. The classification of types of synergies is developed. It is determined the sources of synergies in conducting benchmarking of competitive advantages. It is proposed methodological framework definition of synergy in the formation of competitive advantage.

  8. Synergetic effect of benchmarking competitive advantages

    OpenAIRE

    N.P. Tkachova; P.G. Pererva

    2011-01-01

    It is analyzed the essence of synergistic competitive benchmarking. The classification of types of synergies is developed. It is determined the sources of synergies in conducting benchmarking of competitive advantages. It is proposed methodological framework definition of synergy in the formation of competitive advantage.

  9. Competition Policy in an Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); H. Horn

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the setting of national competition policy in a two-country setting, emphasizing the relationship of trade to the goals of competition policy (such as the degree and nature of competition). The issues we address involve the general equilibrium distributional effects of competi

  10. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF ENTERPRISE POTENTIAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zubritsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers economic principles on enterprise potential management and its competitiveness.  Elements of the enterprise economic potential that permit to select an efficient strategy of an organization behaviour are presented in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of enterprise potential competitiveness on the basis of the existing standard indices and various competitiveness levels.

  11. Evolution of definition of competitiveness of products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Aleksandrov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigational evolution of definition of competitiveness of products, certainly the stages of his development. Classification of existent approaches is improved in relation to the estimation of competitiveness of products, found out the sources of competitive edges from position of consumer cost, marginal utility, differentiation of products, demand and supply, key competense, marketing categories and ecological approach.

  12. Python bindings for libcloudph++

    OpenAIRE

    Jarecka, Dorota; Arabas, Sylwester; Del Vento, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This technical note introduces the Python bindings for libcloudph++. The libcloudph++ is a C++ library of algorithms for representing atmospheric cloud microphysics in numerical models. The bindings expose the complete functionality of the library to the Python users. The bindings are implemented using the Boost.Python C++ library and use NumPy arrays. This note includes listings with Python scripts exemplifying the use of selected library components. An example solution for using the Python ...

  13. Perception of competition : A measurement of competition from the perspective of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, R.G.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we study competition from a cognitive psychology, marketing and strategic management perspective and hope to contribute to the notion of competition and competitive processes. In addition, we propose a new method to measure competition that is based on these more psychological insights.

  14. Python bindings for libcloudph++

    CERN Document Server

    Jarecka, Dorota; Del Vento, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This technical note introduces the Python bindings for libcloudph++. The libcloudph++ is a C++ library of algorithms for representing atmospheric cloud microphysics in numerical models. The bindings expose the complete functionality of the library to the Python users. The bindings are implemented using the Boost.Python C++ library and use NumPy arrays. This note includes listings with Python scripts exemplifying the use of selected library components. An example solution for using the Python bindings to access libcloudph++ from Fortran is presented.

  15. DNS & Bind Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Cricket

    2011-01-01

    The DNS & BIND Cookbook presents solutions to the many problems faced by network administrators responsible for a name server. Following O'Reilly's popular problem-and-solution cookbook format, this title is an indispensable companion to DNS & BIND, 4th Edition, the definitive guide to the critical task of name server administration. The cookbook contains dozens of code recipes showing solutions to everyday problems, ranging from simple questions, like, "How do I get BIND?" to more advanced topics like providing name service for IPv6 addresses. It's full of BIND configuration files that yo

  16. Competition in Healthcare: Good, Bad or Ugly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of competition in healthcare is much debated. Despite a wealth of international experience in relation to competition, evidence is mixed and contested and the debate about the potential role for competition is often polarised. This paper considers briefly some of the reasons for this, focusing on what is meant by “competition in healthcare” and why it is more valuable to think about the circumstances in which competition is more and less likely to be a good tool to achieve benefits, rather than whether or not it is “good” or “bad,” per se.

  17. Competition ability dependence on uniqueness in some collaboration-competition bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ai-Fen; Fu, Chun-Hua; He, Da-Ren

    2010-01-01

    Recently, our group quantitatively defined two quantities, "competition ability" and "uniqueness" (Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 (2009) 058901) for a kind of cooperation-competition bipartite networks, where "producers" produce some "products" and "output" them to a "market" to make competition. Factories, universities or restaurants can serve as the examples. In the letter we presented an analytical conclusion that the competition ability was linearly dependent on the uniqueness in the trivial cases, where both the "input quality" and "competition gain" obey normal distributions. The competition between Chinese regional universities was taken as examples. In this article we discuss the abnormal cases where competition gains show the distributions near to power laws. In addition, we extend the study onto all the cooperation-competition bipartite networks and therefore redefine the competition ability. The empirical investigation of the competition ability dependence on the uniqueness in 15 real world collaboration-com...

  18. A New Competitive Adsorption Isothermal Model of Heavy Metals in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Wen-Bo; YI Ai-Hua; ZHANG Zeng-Qiang; TANG Ci-Lai; ZHANG Xing-Chang; GAO Jin-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A new competitive adsorption isothermal model (CAIM) was developed for the coexistent and competitive binding of heavy metals to the soil surface.This model extended the earlier adsorption isothermal models by considering more than one kind of ion adsorption on the soil surface.It was compared with the Langmuir model using different conditions,and it was found that CAIM,which was suitable for competitive ion adsorption at the soil solid-liquid surface,had more advantages than the Langmuir model.The new competitive adsorption isothermal model was used to fit the data of heavy metal (Zn and Cd) competitive adsorption by a yellow soil at two temperatures.The results showed that CAIM was appropriate for the competitive adsorption of heavy metals on the soil surface at different temperatures.The fitted parameters of CAIM had explicit physical meaning.The model allowed for the calculation of the standard molar Gibbs free energy change,the standard molar enthalpy change,and the standard molar entropy change of the competitive adsorption of the heavy metals,Zn and Cd,by the yellow soil at two temperatures using the thermodynamic equilibrium constants.

  19. A competition assay to identify amyloidogenesis inhibitors by monitoring the fluorescence emitted by the covalent attachment of a stilbene derivative to transthyretin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwook; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2011-02-15

    Herein we demonstrate that competition between candidate kinetic stabilizer binding to transthyretin (TTR) and stilbene binding to and reaction with the same thyroxine sites within TTR can be utilized to discover potent and highly selective non-covalent TTR amyloidogenesis inhibitors. We report two stilbenes, S1 and S2, for use in distinct competition assays. Each bind selectively to TTR and then chemoselectively react to form an amide bond with the Lys-15 residue of TTR, creating a fluorescent conjugate. We used 28 TTR kinetic stabilizers exhibiting a known spectrum of plasma TTR binding selectivities and TTR amyloid fibril inhibition efficacies to validate the 'TTR fluorescence conjugate competition assay'. The kinetic stabilizers competed with S1 for binding to recombinant TTR in buffer and with S2 for binding to endogenous levels of TTR in human blood serum. In both assay scenarios, we demonstrate that the lower the TTR-stilbene conjugate fluorescence after a 3 h competition, the greater the binding selectivity and potency of the candidate TTR kinetic stabilizer. These assays, particularly the assay utilizing S2 in human serum, replace two assays previously utilized to gather the same information. While not the focus of this manuscript, it is clear that the 'TTR fluorescence conjugate competition assay' could be adapted for high throughput screening applications.

  20. Theoretical Basis Of The Company Competitiveness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic theoretical questions of the company competitiveness assessment. The state of modern economic thought on this issue is shown. The main factors of the company competitiveness are specified. A specific role of staff of an enterprise is revealed: on the one hand, it is a resource, on the other is a subject, resulting in productive movement all factors of competitiveness, i.e. the staff is a critical factor in the company competitiveness. The criterion of company competitiveness is proposed, on its basis, the concept of “competitive enterprise” is defined. The most well-known approaches for assessing the company competitiveness are analyzed. The author’s method of the company competitiveness assessment based on the dynamics of the integral index of competitiveness is provided. For those cases, when it is impossible to determine the proportion of products on the market, it is proposed to evaluate the company competitiveness on the profitability of its production. The article shows the experience in calculating of the company competitiveness on the proposed author’s methods.

  1. Study on the competitive reaction between bovine serum albumin and neomycin with ponceau S as fluorescence probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Baosheng, E-mail: lbs@hbu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Medical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis, Ministry of Education, Center of Physics and Chemistry, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Xue Chunli; Wang Jing; Yang Chao; Zhao Fengli; Lv Yunkai [Key Laboratory of Medical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis, Ministry of Education, Center of Physics and Chemistry, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A competitive reaction exists between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and neomycin (NM) when ponceau S (PS) is chosen as fluorescent probe. This reaction was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The static fluorescence quenching process between BSA and PS was confirmed and the binding constant, the number of binding sites and type of interaction forces between BSA and PS were obtained. It was observed that when NM was added into BSA-PS system, the relative fluorescence intensity of BSA was recovered gradually with increase in concentration of NM, which shows that there existed competitive reaction between BSA and NM. According to competitive reaction mechanism, the equilibrium concentration of PS, the binding constant and the type of interaction forces between PS and NM were obtained.

  2. MARKETING AND COMPETITION LAW: IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF TURKISH COMPETITION AUTHORITY CASES

    OpenAIRE

    KORTUNAY, NEVİN

    2016-01-01

    Increasing competition in many economies in the world brings back new strategy seekings. Sometimes these seekings cause “aggressive” or suicidal” applications. Since these applications negatively affect competition, legal arrangements about these subjects have been made with competition law in Turkey as in many countries. In this study the relationship between marketing and competition law was investigated by analyzing the decisions of Turkish Competition Authority. At the same time Turkish C...

  3. The competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Boram

    2010-01-01

    The competition graph of a digraph D is a graph which has the same vertex set as D and has an edge between x and y if and only if there exists a vertex v in D such that (x,v) and (y,v) are arcs of D. For any graph G, G together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number k(G) of a graph G is defined to be the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number k(G) for a graph G and it has been one of important research problems in the study of competition graphs to characterize a graph by its competition number. In this paper, we give the exact values of the competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs.

  4. Competitiveness of Romanian Agriculture after EU Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NECULITA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine whether after joining European Union, Romanian agriculture became more competitiveness on Unique Market. Romania need significant financial help to solve various structural problems, one of the main problems being the low competitiveness in attracting European funds. Taking all the aspects into consideration, this paper trying to develop an objective analysis of the current state of Romanian agriculture competitiveness, by means of pertinent data and statistics. Competitiveness increase, not only in agriculture, has become a primordial framework of the economic development strategies of most world countries. Agriculture can be an important asset for Romania, in the battle to become more competitive to the European level. Romania should win the market share and increase its exports to the EU market. According to European officials, Romania should find gaps on an already competitive market or to become competitive on new markets.

  5. Nursing: the hospital's competitive edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, F A; Preziosi, P

    1988-09-01

    The health care marketplace is becoming increasingly competitive. The hospital has a built-in marketing force with the nursing department, because nurses are in constant, direct contact with the customer. Nursing must identify the case mix profile of the community and focus the hospital product lines to meet community needs. The nursing department should decentralize, change, measure, and innovate the staff mix needed to operationalize these product lines. The development of nursing practice standards for the case mix will help to identify the staff mix needed and create systems to efficiently manage the product lines. Nursing management must become aware of cross-subsidization and downward skill substitution of nursing personnel. Nursing information systems must generate quality reports that invoke cost consciousness on the part of nursing staff. Quality assurance programs must become unit based and complete with frequent audits to correlate length of stay with nursing quality. Correlations must be determined between nursing productivity and case mix to determine the hospital's niche in the marketplace. The transformation of health care into a competitive business industry has created many opportunities for nursing. The health care industry's incentives for efficiency along with the decreasing demand for inpatient hospital services will be the forces driving health care toward a competitive marketplace. The hospital's nursing department should be strategically positioned to become accountable for increasing market share and enhancing quality patient outcomes. The focus has shifted from the theoretical to the tactical, which is a step in the right direction, particularly for nursing. Nursing, if strategically positioned, will not only thrive but will also excel in this chaotic environment by capturing the opportunities and being innovative.

  6. Presentation at Innoventure Annual Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-31

    This report documents the components of the workshop presented at the recent annual competition for the Innoventure program. The goal of the workshop was to focus on the delivery of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) concepts in a hands-on experiential learning format to increase interest in national security careers at NNSA, most of which are in the STEM fields. This work is a part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant.

  7. Competitive Intelligence and Internet Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Knowledge Age to maintain profitability and in some cases to remain in the market, companies must focus their actions in activities such as collecting, filtering, and disseminating information about market, about competitors and their actions. Those are part of Competitive Intelligence (CI concept. In digital age, most of the information needed for CI projects is available on the web. This paper focuses on this field and presents a mix of directions that companies need to take into consideration in their CI projects in order to achieve the goals.

  8. 2005 Solar Decathlon (Competition Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The 2005 Solar Decathlon Competition Program is distributed to Solar Decathlon visitors, media, sponsors, and the student competitors. It contains basic facts about the Solar Decathlon: what, where, when, who, and how. It is a guide for visitors to the events and workshops. It describes the 10 contests and the technologies used in the houses. It celebrates the accomplishments of the competitors and provides an opportunity for the major sponsors to describe their roles and relay their commitment to the ideals of the Solar Decathlon.

  9. Tension-induced binding of semiflexible biopolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2014-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the effect of polymer tension on the collective behavior of reversibly binding cross-links. For this purpose, we employ a model of two weakly bending wormlike chains aligned in parallel by a tensile force, with a sequence of inter-chain binding sites regularly spaced along the contours. Reversible cross-links attach and detach at the sites with an affinity controlled by a chemical potential. In a mean-field approach, we calculate the free energy of the system and find the emergence of a free-energy barrier which controls the reversible (un)binding. The tension affects the conformational entropy of the chains which competes with the binding energy of the cross-links. This competition gives rise to a sudden increase in the fraction of bound sites as the tension increases. We show that this transition is related to the cross-over between weak and strong localization of a directed polymer in a pinning potential. The cross-over to the strongly bound state can be interpreted as a mechan...

  10. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  11. Quinine binding by the cocaine-binding aptamer. Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic analysis of high-affinity binding of an off-target ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Oren; Yoo, Mina; Han, Chris; Palmo, Tsering; Beckham, Simone A; Wilce, Matthew C J; Johnson, Philip E

    2013-12-03

    The cocaine-binding aptamer is unusual in that it tightly binds molecules other than the ligand it was selected for. Here, we study the interaction of the cocaine-binding aptamer with one of these off-target ligands, quinine. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to quantify the quinine-binding affinity and thermodynamics of a set of sequence variants of the cocaine-binding aptamer. We find that the affinity of the cocaine-binding aptamer for quinine is 30-40 times stronger than it is for cocaine. Competitive-binding studies demonstrate that both quinine and cocaine bind at the same site on the aptamer. The ligand-induced structural-switching binding mechanism of an aptamer variant that contains three base pairs in stem 1 is retained with quinine as a ligand. The short stem 1 aptamer is unfolded or loosely folded in the free form and becomes folded when bound to quinine. This folding is confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and by the short stem 1 construct having a more negative change in heat capacity of quinine binding than is seen when stem 1 has six base pairs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of the free aptamer and both the quinine- and the cocaine-bound forms show that, for the long stem 1 aptamers, the three forms display similar hydrodynamic properties, and the ab initio shape reconstruction structures are very similar. For the short stem 1 aptamer there is a greater variation among the SAXS-derived ab initio shape reconstruction structures, consistent with the changes expected with its structural-switching binding mechanism.

  12. On Binding Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, M.B.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I want to explore reasons for replacing Binding Theory based on the anaphor-pronoun dichotomy by a Binding Theory allowing more domains restricting/defining anaphoric dependencies. This will, thus, have consequences for the partitioning of anaphoric elements, presupposing more types of

  13. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S; Fairchild, R G; Watts, K P; Greenberg, D; Hannon, S J

    1980-01-01

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed. (PSB)

  14. DNS BIND Server Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  15. The Developmental Aspects and Origins of Competitive Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Charles W.

    The literature on competitive behavior in children is examined. Sections of the review concern the socializing process of competitiveness, evolutionary foundations, early developmental processes, the relationship between competition and aggression, gender differences, competition and cooperation, anthropological perspectives, effects of…

  16. MDMA-evoked changes in the binding of dopamine D(2) receptor ligands in striatum of rats with unilateral serotonin depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Søren Dinesen; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2010-01-01

    2D6. Assuming a single binding-site model, the increased [(3)H]raclopride binding indicated doubling of the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant in vivo (K(app) (d)), revealing a 2-fold increase in competition from endogenous dopamine at [(3)H]raclopride binding sites. The results favor...

  17. Specificity of the Cyclic GMP-Binding Activity and of a Cyclic GMP-Dependent Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Walsum, Hans van; Meer, Rob C. van der; Bulgakov, Roman; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide specificity of the cyclic GMP-binding activity in a homogenate of Dictyostelium discoideum was determined by competition of cyclic GMP derivatives with [8-3H] cyclic GMP for the binding sites. The results indicate that cyclic GMP is bound to the binding proteins by hydrogen bonds at N

  18. Thermodynamics of fragment binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczy, György G; Keserű, György M

    2012-04-23

    The ligand binding pockets of proteins have preponderance of hydrophobic amino acids and are typically within the apolar interior of the protein; nevertheless, they are able to bind low complexity, polar, water-soluble fragments. In order to understand this phenomenon, we analyzed high resolution X-ray data of protein-ligand complexes from the Protein Data Bank and found that fragments bind to proteins with two near optimal geometry H-bonds on average. The linear extent of the fragment binding site was found not to be larger than 10 Å, and the H-bonding region was found to be restricted to about 5 Å on average. The number of conserved H-bonds in proteins cocrystallized with multiple different fragments is also near to 2. These fragment binding sites that are able to form limited number of strong H-bonds in a hydrophobic environment are identified as hot spots. An estimate of the free-energy gain of H-bond formation versus apolar desolvation supports that fragment sized compounds need H-bonds to achieve detectable binding. This suggests that fragment binding is mostly enthalpic that is in line with their observed binding thermodynamics documented in Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) data sets and gives a thermodynamic rationale for fragment based approaches. The binding of larger compounds tends to more rely on apolar desolvation with a corresponding increase of the entropy content of their binding free-energy. These findings explain the reported size-dependence of maximal available affinity and ligand efficiency both behaving differently in the small molecule region featured by strong H-bond formation and in the larger molecule region featured by apolar desolvation.

  19. Characterization of (/sup 3/H)paroxetine binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcusson, J.O.; Bergstroem, M.E.; Eriksson, K.; Ross, S.B.

    1988-06-01

    The binding of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) uptake inhibitor (3H)paroxetine to rat cortical homogenates has been characterized. The effect of tissue concentration was examined and, with 0.75 mg wet weight tissue/ml in a total volume of 1,600 microliter, the binding was optimized with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 0.03-0.05 nM. Competition experiments with 5-HT, citalopram, norzimeldine, and desipramine revealed a high (90%) proportion of displaceable binding that fitted a single-site binding model. Fluoxetine and imipramine revealed, in addition to a high-affinity (nanomolar) site, also a low-affinity (micromolar) site representing approximately 10% of the displaceable binding. The specificity of the (3H)paroxetine binding was emphasized by the fact that 5-HT was the only active neurotransmitter bound and that the serotonin S1 and S2 antagonist methysergide was without effect on the binding. Both 5-HT- and fluoxetine-sensitive (3H)paroxetine binding was completely abolished after protease treatment, suggesting that the binding site is of protein nature. Saturation studies with 5-HT (100 microM) sensitive (3H)paroxetine binding were also consistent with a single-site binding model, and the binding was competitively inhibited by 5-HT and imipramine. The number of binding sites (Bmax) for 5-HT-sensitive (3H)paroxetine and (3H)imipramine binding was the same, indicating that the radioligands bind to the same sites. Lesion experiments with p-chloroamphetamine resulted in a binding in frontal and parietal cortices becoming undetectable and a greater than 60% reduction in the striatum and hypothalamus, indicating a selective localization on 5-HT terminals. Together these findings suggest that (3H)paroxetine specifically and selectively labels the substrate recognition site for 5-HT uptake in rat brain.

  20. Heart rates during competitive orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, S R; Bailey, R; Lewis, J

    1993-03-01

    This study investigated the heart rate profiles of 16 experienced, competitive orienteers (aged 15-62 years) during three competitive events. Each competitor was assessed over three different types of course which were classified as: fast run (FR), slow run (SR) and highly physical (HP). The results showed that all subjects recorded heart rates that were between 140 and 180 beats min-1 for the majority of each event (irrespective of age or course type). The heart rate data indicated that the activity was largely aerobic but varied in intensity, with phases of strenuous anaerobic work. The type of course was shown significantly (analysis of variance; P orienteer (FR = 160, HP = 158, SR = 150 beats min-1), with courses that required more technical skill and hence slower running producing lower mean heart rates; although the general physical demands were similar for all courses. The older orienteers (> 45 years) recorded heart rate profiles that were similar to those of the young orienteers with no correlation being found between age and mean heart rate while exercising.

  1. A Neural Network Model for the Correlation between Sprinters’ Pre-competition Anxiety and Competition Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Yao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sprint is an important sporting event in track and field competition, in which, athletes’ pre-competition anxiety will greatly affect them in bringing into play their competence, which will then influence their final performance in the competition. For this reason, to study the correlation between sprinters’ pre-competition anxiety and their competition performance is of great significance in predicting athletes’ performance under difference anxiety state. After having analyzed domestic and foreign research achievements related with sport anxiety and sport performance, the study further applied CSAI-2 (1994 questionnaire to investigate athletes’ anxiety in sprint competition of a university sports meeting in Changsha. Moreover, based on neural network model, the study also constructed related models concerning athletes’ pre-competition anxiety and their competition performance. In addition, related curves concerning athletes’ pre-competition anxiety and specific performance are also formulated.

  2. (/sup 3/H)desipramine binding to rat brain tissue: binding to both noradrenaline uptake sites and sites not related to noradrenaline neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, I.T.Ro.; Ross, S.B.; Marcusson, J.O.

    1989-04-01

    The pharmacological and biochemical characteristics of (3H)desipramine binding to rat brain tissue were investigated. Competition studies with noradrenaline, nisoxetine, nortriptyline, and desipramine suggested the presence of more than one (3H)desipramine binding site. Most of the noradrenaline-sensitive binding represented a high-affinity site, and this site appeared to be the same as the high-affinity site of nisoxetine-sensitive binding. The (3H)desipramine binding sites were abolished by protease treatment, a result suggesting that the binding sites are protein in nature. When specific binding was defined by 0.1 microM nisoxetine, the binding was saturable and fitted a single-site binding model with a binding affinity of approximately 1 nM. This binding fraction was abolished by lesioning of the noradrenaline neurons with the noradrenaline neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4). In contrast, when 10 microM nisoxetine was used to define the specific binding, the binding was not saturable over the nanomolar range, but the binding fitted a two-site binding model with KD values of 0.5 and greater than 100 nM for the high- and low-affinity components, respectively. The high-affinity site was abolished after DSP4 lesioning, whereas the low-affinity site remained. The binding capacity (Bmax) for binding defined by 0.1 microM nisoxetine varied between brain regions, with very low density in the striatum (Bmax not possible to determine), 60-90 fmol/mg of protein in cortical areas and cerebellum, and 120 fmol/mg of protein in the hypothalamus. The binding capacities of these high-affinity sites correlated significantly with the regional distribution of (3H)noradrenaline uptake but not with 5-(3H)hydroxytryptamine uptake.

  3. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  4. Competition and allostery govern substrate selectivity of cyclooxygenase-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchener, Michelle M.; Hermanson, Daniel J.; Shockley, Erin M.; Brown, H. Alex; Lindsley, Craig W.; Reese, Jeff; Rouzer, Carol A.; Lopez, Carlos F.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenates arachidonic acid (AA) and its ester analog, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), to prostaglandins (PGs) and prostaglandin glyceryl esters (PG-Gs), respectively. Although the efficiency of oxygenation of these substrates by COX-2 in vitro is similar, cellular biosynthesis of PGs far exceeds that of PG-Gs. Evidence that the COX enzymes are functional heterodimers suggests that competitive interaction of AA and 2-AG at the allosteric site of COX-2 might result in differential regulation of the oxygenation of the two substrates when both are present. Modulation of AA levels in RAW264.7 macrophages uncovered an inverse correlation between cellular AA levels and PG-G biosynthesis. In vitro kinetic analysis using purified protein demonstrated that the inhibition of 2-AG oxygenation by high concentrations of AA far exceeded the inhibition of AA oxygenation by high concentrations of 2-AG. An unbiased systems-based mechanistic model of the kinetic data revealed that binding of AA or 2-AG at the allosteric site of COX-2 results in a decreased catalytic efficiency of the enzyme toward 2-AG, whereas 2-AG binding at the allosteric site increases COX-2’s efficiency toward AA. The results suggest that substrates interact with COX-2 via multiple potential complexes involving binding to both the catalytic and allosteric sites. Competition between AA and 2-AG for these sites, combined with differential allosteric modulation, gives rise to a complex interplay between the substrates, leading to preferential oxygenation of AA. PMID:26392530

  5. Enzyme-free colorimetric detection systems based on the DNA strand displacement competition reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhao; Birkedal, Victoria; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2016-01-01

    The strand displacement competition assay is based on the dynamic equilibrium of the competitive hybridization of two oligonucleotides (A and B) to a third oligonucleotide (S). In the presence of an analyte that binds to a specific affinity-moiety conjugated to strand B, the equilibrium shifts, w...... G-quadruplex DNAzyme for colorimetric readout of the detection of streptavidin by the naked eye. Finally, we integrate the whole G-quadruplex DNAzyme system in a single DNA strand and show that it is applicable to colorimetric detection....

  6. Competition Law through an Ordoliberal Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Herrera Anchustegui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ordoliberalism is a German school of economic thought that advocates regulation of the free market economy based on a set of state-imposed rules guaranteed by the economic constitution, to impose a competitive order in society. It proposes an alternative method to pure laissez-faire and state-planned economy for the better regulation of the market economy, where the goals are the protection of the competitive process and individual freedom. In this paper I submit that ordoliberalism, an indigenous European competition policy, is an adequate economic and analytical tool upon which to base the practice and decision-making of competition law. My aim is twofold: to contribute to the discussion on what ordoliberalism is, in general, and in particular concerning competition policy, and offer a fresh perspective on an ordoliberal-oriented competition policy.

  7. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY REGULATION AND COMPETITION ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In a broad sense, the term „competition” defines the relations between economic operators acting on the same market seeking attainment of certain interests in economic freedom conditions. The need for regulations in the area of competition stems from the nature of free, open market economy which is founded on the existence of fair competition between economic agents, competition which must be observed, maintained and protected by the law. Public authorities who issue various regulations should be cautious about how far this role is played in the economy and they way adopted regulations affect competition in the market. Hence, the need for prior assessment relating to the potential effect of a regulation on competition. It was proven in practice that some regulations may lead to measures that may affect competition directly or indirectly by: limiting the number or range of suppliers; limiting supplier capability to compete and reducing interests of suppliers to compete vigorously.

  8. An Assessment of SME Competitiveness in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Agus Anton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to analyze source of SME competitiveness in selected industry clusters in Indonesia and to develop a theoretical model of SME competitiveness. This study employs quantitative design with multivariate model. We develop three models of estimation by using multiple regression analysis. Our models are based on Porter Model of Competitiveness (1990 which contains factor condition, demand condition, related and supporting industries and business strategy. Findings in this study idenntify sources of the competitiveness of SME in the level of innovation, entrepreneurship, human capital, financial resources, potential market and business strategy. Limitation of this study lies in the SME model of competitiveness based on cross sectional data which is not feasible for analysis of the dynamic aspect of competitiveness sources. Our findings show that SMEs need government assistance to develop marketing networks and access to financial institutions.

  9. Competition and investment — A unified approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutzler, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Using a simple but general two-­‐‑stage framework, this paper identifies the circumstances under which increasing competition leads to more cost-­‐‑reducing investments. The framework can, for instance, capture increasing substitutability for different types of oligopoly models or changes from Cournot to Bertrand competition. The paper identifies four transmission mechanisms by which competition affects investment. For a firm with lower initial marginal costs (higher efficiency), a posi...

  10. Environmental Protection and the EU Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ježová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with a mutual relation between the competitiveness and environmental protection in the European Union. At the beginning, there is mentioned, why environmental protection has become an important priority. The main task of this bachelor thesis is to characterize a mutual interaction between environmental and economic objectives in the EU. There is described the EU environmental policy and its impact on the EU competitiveness. The EU strategy to strengthen its competit...

  11. Marketing strategy of competitiveness management building enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Vasilichenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In article is elaborated system category and notional device of the competitive studies in condition of the building branch in intercoupling with methods of the realization to strategies of the development. The author is motivated practicability of the use the methods of marketing in competitiveness management building enterprise and is presented author's model managerial system by competitiveness of the building enterprise with provision for specifics of the diagnostics of the processes of the development enterprise to building branch.

  12. Perfect competition according to Enrico Barone

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Mosca; Michael E. Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The Italian economist Enrico Barone (1859- 1924) is best known for his contributions to marginal productivity theory and the socialist planning debate. This paper analyzes Barone’s contributions to the theory of perfect competition which are largely ignored in the secondary literature. It includes his methodology; the definition, conditions and outcomes of perfect competition; the institutional context of perfect competition; and the adjustment process. It also includes some of Barone’s graph...

  13. Tax competition for mineral oils in EU

    OpenAIRE

    Lichterová, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    This thesis compares the tax competition in excise duty of mineral oil between the groups of the old and new member states of the Europian union. Is based on the result of the analysis for the mineral oils (unleaded petrol,gas oil, havy fuel oil and LPG). Based on this analysis assess whether there is the tax competition. The results of analysis shows that there is the tax competition for the mobile tax bases.

  14. Competition with Dynamic Spectrum Leasing

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Lingjie; Shou, Biying

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analytical study of two competitive cognitive operators' spectrum leasing and pricing strategies, taking into account operators' heterogeneity in leasing costs and users' heterogeneity in transmission power and channel conditions. We model the interactions between operators and users as a three-stage dynamic game, where operators make simultaneous spectrum leasing and pricing decisions in Stages I and II, and users make purchase decisions in Stage III. Using backward induction, we are able to completely characterize the game's equilibria. We show that both operators make the equilibrium leasing and pricing decisions based on simple threshold policies. Moreover, two operators always choose the same equilibrium price despite their difference in leasing costs. Each user receives the same signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) at the equilibrium, and the obtained payoff is linear in its transmission power and channel gain. We also compare the duopoly equilibrium with the coordinated case ...

  15. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

  16. The Unintended Effects of Private School Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Serritzlew, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We examine whether competition from private schools improves public school performance and expenditure. It is difficult methodologically to isolate the effect of competition, but we use new measures of competition in both the public and the private school sector and a data set comprising detailed...... background information on more than 35,000 public school students in the Danish voucher system. This design provides a relatively firm support for the conclusion that competition does not improve achievement of public school students but that it increases public expenditure per student. Finally, we argue...

  17. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to ensure objective contractor performance and eliminate unfair competitive advantage, contractors that develop or draft grant applications, or contract specifications, requirements, statements of...

  18. The Competitiveness of Alternative Hydrogen Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.

    The paper surveys the literature on the competitiveness of alternative hydrogen pathways in the transport sector. The competitiveness of the alternative systems can be differentiated in the “well-to-tank (WtT)” and “tank-to-wheel (TtW)” sections of the pathway transforming primary energy to trans......The paper surveys the literature on the competitiveness of alternative hydrogen pathways in the transport sector. The competitiveness of the alternative systems can be differentiated in the “well-to-tank (WtT)” and “tank-to-wheel (TtW)” sections of the pathway transforming primary energy...... to transport services and in market competitiveness and societal competitiveness. The major societal competitive advantage of hydrogen is its convertibility to electricity and from any other source of energy. This enables a flexible use of natural gas and primary electricity as transport fuels. The major...... advantage in market competitiveness is the energy efficiency of the fuel cell. This advantage is, however, to some extent balanced by the costs associated with conversion, transport, and storage. The balance between these factors required for market competitiveness is identified....

  19. Disentangling Competition Among Platform Driven Strategic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric

    2015-01-01

    competition within platform-driven markets, we opted for the UK mobile payment market as our empirical setting. By embracing the theoretical lens of strategic groups and digital platforms, this study supplements prior research by deriving a taxonomy of platform-driven strategic groups that is grounded......In platform-driven markets, competitive advantage is derived from superior platform design and configurations. For this reason, platform owners strive to create unique and inimitable platform configurals to maintain and extend their competitiveness within network economies. To disentangle firm...... on competitive attributes of platform- driven markets; namely interfirm modularity and strategic linkages....

  20. Interspecific competition/facilitation among insect parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Competition for limited resources is a widespread ecological interaction in animals. In the case of insect parasitoids, species can compete for host resources both at the adult stage as well as at the larval stage. Interspecific competition can play a role in sizing and shaping community structures. In addition of being relevant for basic ecological studies, understanding how interspecific competition between parasitoids affects pest suppression is important for biological control. In this opinion paper we review recent advances in the field of interspecific competition among parasitoids in a biological control perspective. We first discuss adult competition, highlighting which factors are likely to play a role in the outcome of competition when adults interact either directly or indirectly. Then we focus on the interactions occurring between competing larvae that develop within the same host taking also into account the fitness consequences of competition for the larva surviving interspecific competition. We also explore the possibility of interspecific facilitation among parasitoids in those situations in which a given species may benefit from interspecific competition.

  1. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resource, capability and knowledge.Design/methodology/approach: By introducing the factor analysis method, green competitiveness has been measured through an empirical analysis of 24 automotive enterprises within China.Findings: The results indicate that those elements, such as enterprise resource possession and utilization; environment, responsibility and knowledge; profitability; management efficiency, have significant effect on the green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The further analysis also unveils the advantages and disadvantages of green competitiveness for each company and the direction for improvement.Research limitations/implications: Guide regulators and managers of automobile industry to take some measures to enhance their green competitive advantage.Practical implications: Provide practical methods to measure green competitiveness for automotive enterprises.Originality/value: This paper proposes an evaluation index system of green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The suggestions of our research will be beneficial to enterprise executives and industry regulators.

  2. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientation moderates the positive relationships between the competitiveness element of entrepreneurial orientation and market share and return on assets (ROA): the positive relationships between competitiveness and market share and competitiveness and ROA become stronger the greater the firms' customer...

  3. The learning curves of competitive programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jose R.; Aguirre, Vanessa E.

    2014-10-01

    Universities around the world have implemented competitive programming as an approach to teach computer science courses. They have empirically validated this approach as a successful pedagogical tool. However, there are no conclusive results that describe the degree in which competitive programming affects the learning process of the students. In this paper, we report on the learning curves obtained from analyzing ten years of TopCoder algorithm competitions. We discuss on how these learning curves apply to university courses and can help us explain the influence of competitive programming in a class.

  4. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... eliminate unfair competitive advantage, contractors that develop or draft specifications, requirements... proposed procurement. Consideration shall be given to such matters as contractor integrity, record of...

  5. Competitiveness on the International Tourism Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper comes to present and analyse the features of tourism in the main countries in Central and Western Europe, as well as the different strategies these countries adopt in order to maintain the competitiveness of the field.In the beginning, we have defined competitiveness, as the prerequisite of market success, we have analysed its components and the main factors that determine it, as well as the competitivenesscompetitive advantage relation.During the last years, competitiveness has turned into one of the common concepts used in order to approach and describe the sustainable development of the tourism and travel industry. Expert literature has defined concepts such as tourism and travel competitiveness or touristic destinations competitiveness, suggesting not only the significance of the concept but also the emphasis that touristic organizations should lay on this aspect.The competitiveness of touristic destinations and, generally speaking, the global competitiveness of the tourism industry became vital for the survival and growth of the touristic organizations on the international market, provided by the growth of spare time and the growth of the level of income that is available for spending the time.

  6. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  7. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative—additional investments will expand markets—but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized. PMID:26690379

  8. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  9. New competition assay for the solubilized hepatic galactosyl receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D.A.; Weigel, P.H.

    1985-02-15

    The present method of quantitating soluble asialoglycoprotein (galactosyl) receptor activity relies on the selective precipitation of receptor-ligand complexes to allow separation from free ligand. To provide an alternative to selective precipitation procedures, a simple and rapid method to assay for detergent-solubilized galactosyl receptor activity has been developed which uses permeabilized, fixed cells as a source of immobilized solid-phase receptors. Isolated rat hepatocytes were treated with digitonin to make available the internal as well as the external receptors. The permeable cells were also treated with glutaraldehyde to prevent further protein loss during subsequent exposure to detergents such as Triton X-100. The permeable/fixed cells, which retained about 70% of their total /sup 125/I-asialo-orosomucoid (/sup 125/I-ASOR)-binding activity, with 89% specific binding, were insoluble even in 0.5% Triton X-100 and were easily pelleted. The permeable/fixed cells can be prepared in advance and stored frozen for months. A detergent extract of receptor is mixed with a constant amount of both /sup 125/I-ASOR and permeable/fixed cells. Soluble active receptors compete with immobilized receptors on the treated cell for binding of the /sup 125/I-ASOR. The assay is reproducible, linear over a broad range of soluble receptor concentration, and can quantitate receptor activity from as few as 10(5) hepatocytes. A modified purification procedure for the rat hepatic galactosyl receptor using this competition assay is also described.

  10. Getting Competitive: Competitive Intelligence Is a Smart next Step for Information Pros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Cynthia Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) has become an attractive concept for Library and Information Science professionals, as information and research functions have become commoditized by end users, and financial, competitive, and performance pressures increase the need to demonstrate value. In the current competitive and cost-cutting environment,…

  11. Substitutive Competition: Virtual Pets as Competitive Buffers to Alleviate Possible Negative Influence on Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Chou, Chih-Yueh; Biswas, Gautam; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Although competition is regarded as a powerful motivator in game-based learning, it might have a negative influence, such as damage to confidence, on students who lose the competition. In this paper, we propose an indirect approach, substitutive competition, to alleviate such negative influences. The approach is used to develop a My-Pet v3 system,…

  12. Performance under Competitive and Self-Competitive Fixed-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Bryan K.

    2009-01-01

    Participants completed blocks of trials under simple (i.e., work-alone), competitive, and self-competitive fixed-interval 20-s schedules of reinforcement. In general, response rates were highest during competition and lowest while working alone. In addition, whereas participants emitted responses at a constant rate while working alone, competitive…

  13. Using Classroom Competitions to Prepare Students for the Competitive Business World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Fay Y.; Kincade, Doris H.; Frasier, Pamela Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how a university, collaborating with industry, integrated research with active learning (e.g., collaboration in teams and competitions) for fashion majors. The redesigned introductory course uses two strategies: team competitions and a genius bar to guide students, give ongoing feedback, and judge final competitions. Active…

  14. Competition within Physical Education: Using Sport Education and Other Recommendations to Create a Productive, Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Sport Education by physical education teachers to implement developmentally appropriate competitive activities is explored. The potential positive and negative consequences of competitive activities are discussed along with suggestions for teachers on how they can foster an appropriate competitive environment in physical education.

  15. Robotics Competitions: An Overview of First© Events and VEX© Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Robotics competitions generate excitement and raise the profile of a robotics program. This article provides an overview of robotics competitions, concentrating on those sponsored by FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) and RECF (Robotics Education and Competition Foundation). FIRST® LEGO® League and VEX® robotics…

  16. When competition breeds equality: effects of appetitive versus aversive competition in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. ten Velden; B. Beersma; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2011-01-01

    Competitive motivation is prevalent in negotiation but systematic insight into its effects is missing. We introduce the distinction between appetitive competition, in which negotiators seek relative gain, and aversive competition, in which negotiators seek to prevent relative loss. Two experiments t

  17. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition? 636.404 Section 636.404 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Exchanges § 636.404 Can a competitive range...

  18. Examining Competition in Ontario's Higher Education Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Bayan Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Financial challenges have forced many publicly funded academic institutions in Ontario to adopt a corporate model and to use market tools to compete in the higher education market and maintain their enrolment and revenue levels. This study has analyzed how competition affects publicly funded universities in Ontario. Competition was examined by…

  19. Extracurricular Business Planning Competitions: Challenging the Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kayleigh; McGowan, Pauric; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Business planning competitions [BPCs] are a commonly offered yet under-examined extracurricular activity. Given the extent of sceptical comment about business planning, this paper offers what the authors believe is a much-needed critical discussion of the assumptions that underpin the provision of such competitions. In doing so it is suggested…

  20. Capital Structure, Strategic Competition, and Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.T. Nguyen (Thuy Thu)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis consists of four studies on the interactions of capital structure and product market competition, and on several aspects of governance, firm financing and growth. The first study investigates how competitive behavior and market uncertainty affect the capital structure of a fi

  1. The STEEL/ICI Eureka! Physics Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the organization of a school's physics competition for middle school students sponsored by Physics Section of STEEL (Science, Technology and Engineering Education in Lancaster) and an industry group. Presents one typical problem, marking, and prizes for the competition. A suggested marking scheme is appended. (YP)

  2. Competitive exception learning using fuzzy frequency distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.-M. van den Bergh (Willem-Max); J.H. van den Berg (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA competitive exception learning algorithm for finding a non-linear mapping is proposed which puts the emphasis on the discovery of the important exceptions rather than the main rules. To do so,we first cluster the output space using a competitive fuzzy clustering algorithm and derive a

  3. Regional competitiveness in Poland: Creating an index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Miszczuk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper looks at the competitiveness from a regional perspective and examines the basic factor which have influence on this phenomenon. This article aims at evaluating Poland¿s regional competitive performance by constructing an overall index, which is composed in accordance with the Huggi

  4. China to Hold Third International Piano Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYan

    2004-01-01

    The third China InternationalPiano Competition will be held inMay at the Beijing Sun Yat-SenConcert Hall. Since its inceptionin 1994, the competition hasgarnered attention from aroundthe globe for its high standards,world-class panel of judges, andtalented candidates. Prior to the

  5. Discovering the Nature of Competitive Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Klyueva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “competitiveness” has been most thoroughly developed in theframework of modern economics and management. Apart from economic factors,this concept also embraces social and psychological factors, but economic modelsdo not reveal the psychological essence of the concept of “competitive personality.”Analytical review of the psychological and educational case studies of the competitive-personality problem has brought to light the ambiguity in this concept alongwith a multitude of models that distinguish individual aspects of a competitivepersonality. Most creators of the various models emphasize the quality of the conditionsnecessary for forming and developing a competitive personality.In economics, competition is an essential, inherent feature of various types of activitywhere conflicts of interest occur. However, the established economic modelof competitive personality reduces and replaces the psychological content of theconcept.Theoretically and experimentally the authors of this article substantiate their disclosureof the competitive-personality concept via its creative potential. Results ofan in-depth study confirm that the ability to achieve success through one’s owninitiative, anticipating the demands of competition, appears to be the backbonefor competitiveness of personality.

  6. Competition, Time Horizon and Corporate Social Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Smid, H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper develops and tests a conceptual framework on the relationships between competition, time horizon and corporate social performance (CSP). We hypothesize that more intense competition discourages CSP by lowering the time horizon of companies. We test the hypothesis on a sample of

  7. Competitive learning of monotone Boolean functions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We apply competitive analysis onto the problem of minimizing the number of queries to an oracle to completely reconstruct a given monotone Boolean function. Besides lower and upper bounds on the competitivity we determine optimal deterministic online algorithms for the smallest problem instances.

  8. TU students sweep UAV design competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, R.; Brust, S.; Brown, M.; Vos, R.

    2013-01-01

    To design a high-altitude long-endurance UAV to fly a twenty-hour reconnaissance mission at an altitude of 80,000ft, was the assignment for this year’s undergraduate design competition. The competition was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Three students fro

  9. Competition and Cooperation, Equality and Elites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flew, Antony

    1983-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are often seen as polar opposites; yet they are not necessarily in opposition. Similarly, quality and elitism are not opposed if the goal of equality is seen as equality of opportunity rather than equality of outcome and the elite are the product of fair competition. (IS)

  10. Does tax competition really promote growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Lockwood, Ben

    2010-01-01

    setting (two or more jurisdictions) maximizes the rate of growth, as the constant returns to scale present with endogenous growth implies "extreme" tax competition. Stochastic shocks imply that households face a portfolio choice problem, which dampens down tax competition and may raise taxes above...

  11. 16 CFR 240.14 - Meeting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meeting competition. 240.14 Section 240.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.14 Meeting competition. A seller charged...

  12. Competition and achievement goals in work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemeier, H.; Bittner, Jenny V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how competition within teams influences which type of achievement goals employees adopt. We studied how dispositional learning-goal and performance-goal orientation interact with team-level competition and predict whether team members adopt state learning or performance achieveme

  13. Executive Gender, Competitive Pressures, and Corporate Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amore, Mario Daniele; Garofalo, Orsola

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether the gender of top executives influences a firm’s reaction to competitive pressures. Our empirical approach is based on policy changes that varied the exposure of US banks to competition during the late 1990s. Results suggest that while banks with female executives experienc...

  14. The 2014 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2014 (Power TAC 2014). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  15. The 2017 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2017 (Power TAC 2017). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through ta

  16. The 2015 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2015 (Power TAC 2015). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through ta

  17. The 2012 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  18. The 2013 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2013 (Power TAC 2013). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  19. The 2016 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2016 (Power TAC 2016). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through ta

  20. Competitive Pressure on China : Factor Rewards Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.; Pan, H.

    2001-01-01

    Our objective is to assess personal income under perfect competition, when factors are rewarded according to their productivities, and to contrast the ensuing distribution with the status quo.Competition will yield winners and losers, both in terms of factor claims and in terms of regions or provinc

  1. 48 CFR 234.005-1 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 234.005-1 Section 234.005-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.005-1 Competition. (1)...

  2. 48 CFR 36.601-2 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 36.601-2 Section 36.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES... Competition. Acquisition of architect-engineer services in accordance with the procedures in this subpart...

  3. 22 CFR 226.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 226.43 Section 226.43 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  4. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  5. 15 CFR 14.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 14.43 Section 14.43... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  6. 45 CFR 2543.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 2543.43 Section 2543.43 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  7. 40 CFR 35.6555 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 31.38, “Indian Self Determination Act.” (c) Written specifications. The recipient's written... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 35.6555 Section 35.6555... Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6555 Competition. The recipient must conduct all...

  8. 5 CFR 359.803 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 359.803 Section 359.803 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR... § 359.803 Competition. Any furlough for more than 30 calendar days, or for more than 22 workdays if...

  9. The Case for Architectural-Design Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger K.

    2009-01-01

    A well-publicized design competition is especially beneficial for universities. It allows them to enhance fund raising and stimulate design consciousness among students, the faculty, and even members of the surrounding community. Yet universities rarely conduct competitions, and instead select architects for major projects through a multistep,…

  10. ICT-Supported Gaming for Competitive Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Collecting and processing competitive intelligence for the purpose of strategy formulation are complex activities requiring deep insight in and models of the “organization in its environment.” These insights and models need to be not only shared between CI (competitive intelligence) practitioners fo

  11. Competition Among Near-Substitutable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Standoff Land Attack Missile-Expanded Response 11 September 2012 10  Similar GPS midcourse /IR terminal guidance ; both missiles use the same...1 The Limits of Competition in Defense Acquisition Defense Acquisition University Research Symposium, September 2012 Keywords Weapon System...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at The Limits of Competition in Defense Acquisition, Defense Acquisition University Research

  12. Achievement motivation and competition: perceptions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, T K; Ragan, J T

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of achievement motivation (Nach) on how individuals perceive an evaluative competition situation, whether they prefer to perform in this type of setting, and whether they seek the inherent appraisal information regarding their motoric competence. Specifically, perceived threat to self esteem was examined as indicated by state anxiety responses and measured by the Competitive Short Form of the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. State anxiety was assessed at rest, while performing a motor task alone in a nonevaluative setting, and during competition against an equal ability opponent. Situation perference and information seeking behavior were assessed at the conclusion of the closely paced competition. Subjects were asked whether they had perferred performing in the noncompetition or competition situation and were given the opportunity to select the relative ability level of a future opponent. As predicted, the major findings indicated that high Nach males experienced less threat during competition than low Nach males. Further, more high than low Nach individuals perferred the competition situation to the noncompetition situation and sought the evaluative ability information to a greater extent by choosing opponents of equal or greater relative ability for a future hypothetical competition.

  13. Competitive Procurement of Integrated Library Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Evan A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the competitive bidding process used by California State University to successfully procure integrated library systems for 5 of its 19 campuses during 1 fiscal year. The procurements demonstrated that competitive bidding not only reduces overall cost of library systems, but also allows the buyer to achieve favorable contract provisions.…

  14. Porter on national and regional competitive advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-P. de Man (Ard-Pieter); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); T. Elfring (Tom)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: approaches to competitiveness In the last decade, the issue of competitiveness has captured an important position on the agenda of politicians and policymakers. The growing strength of Asian firms on the world market has been debated at some length in both the USA and in Eu

  15. Strategic Policy Competition with Public Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.; Tang, P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Governments try to attract firms and jobs by investing in international infrastructure. We analyse this type of strategic policy competition in a three-country model of monopolistic competition. What governments compete for, is to obtain a so called ‘hub’ position. A hub is a relatively well connect

  16. Competition for Migrants in a Federation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    The paper provides an equilibrium analysis of how countries compete for migrants. The type of competition (tax or transfer competition) depends on whether the competing countries have similar policy preferences. With symmetric preferences, countries compete in taxes for migrants. With asymmetric...

  17. Competition Based Neural Networks for Assignment Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; LuyuanFang

    1991-01-01

    Competition based neural networks have been used to solve the generalized assignment problem and the quadratic assignment problem.Both problems are very difficult and are ε approximation complete.The neural network approach has yielded highly competitive performance and good performance for the quadratic assignment problem.These neural networks are guaranteed to produce feasible solutions.

  18. Competition between stock exchanges and optimal trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kervel, V.L.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis focuses on two topics on trading in financial markets: competition between stock exchanges and optimal trading strategies. Chapter one analyzes the effect on the liquidity of a stock when it is traded on multiple trading venues, and distinguishes between competition from transpa

  19. Competition in the Dutch consumer credit market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the degree of competitiveness of the Dutch consumer credit market. We use the well-known Bresnahan-Lau method that estimates a structural model consisting of a demand relation and a supply relation, based on aggregate data. The level of competition is derived from the estimated

  20. The COST IC0701 verification competition 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bormer, T.; Brockschmidt, M.; Distefano, D.; Ernst, G.; Filliatre, J.-C.; Grigore, R.; Huisman, M.; Klebanov, V.; Marche, C.; Monahan, R.; Mostowski, W.I.; Poiikarpova, N.; Scheben, C.; Schellhorn, G.; Tofan, B.; Tschannen, J.; Ulbrich, M.; Beckert, B.; Damiani, F.; Gurov, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the experiences with the program verification competition held during the FoVeOOS conference in October 2011. There were 6 teams participating in this competition. We discuss the three different challenges that were posed and the solutions developed by the teams. We conclude wi