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Sample records for binaural task dynamic

  1. On the use of binaural recordings for dynamic binaural reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Christensen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Binaural recordings are considered applicable only for static binaural reproduction. That is, playback of binaural recordings can only reproduce the sound field captured for the fixed position and orientation of the recording head. However, given some conditions it is possible to use binaural...... recordings for the reproduction of binaural signals that change according to the listener actions, i.e. dynamic binaural reproduction. Here we examine the conditions that allow for such dynamic recording/playback configuration and discuss advantages and disadvantages. Analysis and discussion focus on two...

  2. Binaural model-based dynamic-range compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Stephan M A; Kortlang, Steffen; Grimm, Giso; Bisitz, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger; Ewert, Stephan D

    2018-01-26

    Binaural cues such as interaural level differences (ILDs) are used to organise auditory perception and to segregate sound sources in complex acoustical environments. In bilaterally fitted hearing aids, dynamic-range compression operating independently at each ear potentially alters these ILDs, thus distorting binaural perception and sound source segregation. A binaurally-linked model-based fast-acting dynamic compression algorithm designed to approximate the normal-hearing basilar membrane (BM) input-output function in hearing-impaired listeners is suggested. A multi-center evaluation in comparison with an alternative binaural and two bilateral fittings was performed to assess the effect of binaural synchronisation on (a) speech intelligibility and (b) perceived quality in realistic conditions. 30 and 12 hearing impaired (HI) listeners were aided individually with the algorithms for both experimental parts, respectively. A small preference towards the proposed model-based algorithm in the direct quality comparison was found. However, no benefit of binaural-synchronisation regarding speech intelligibility was found, suggesting a dominant role of the better ear in all experimental conditions. The suggested binaural synchronisation of compression algorithms showed a limited effect on the tested outcome measures, however, linking could be situationally beneficial to preserve a natural binaural perception of the acoustical environment.

  3. An evaluation of the performance of two binaural beamformers in complex and dynamic multitalker environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Mejia, Jorge; Freeston, Katrina; van Hoesel, Richard J; Dillon, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Binaural beamformers are super-directional hearing aids created by combining microphone outputs from each side of the head. While they offer substantial improvements in SNR over conventional directional hearing aids, the benefits (and possible limitations) of these devices in realistic, complex listening situations have not yet been fully explored. In this study we evaluated the performance of two experimental binaural beamformers. Testing was carried out using a horizontal loudspeaker array. Background noise was created using recorded conversations. Performance measures included speech intelligibility, localization in noise, acceptable noise level, subjective ratings, and a novel dynamic speech intelligibility measure. Participants were 27 listeners with bilateral hearing loss, fitted with BTE prototypes that could be switched between conventional directional or binaural beamformer microphone modes. Relative to the conventional directional microphones, both binaural beamformer modes were generally superior for tasks involving fixed frontal targets, but not always for situations involving dynamic target locations. Binaural beamformers show promise for enhancing listening in complex situations when the location of the source of interest is predictable.

  4. More attentional focusing through binaural beats: evidence from the global-local task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Barone, Hayley; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    A recent study showed that binaural beats have an impact on the efficiency of allocating attention over time. We were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional focusing or, even further, the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40 Hz) binaural beats, which are assumed to increase attentional concentration, or a constant tone of 340 Hz (control condition) for 3 min before and during a global-local task. While the size of the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was unaffected by the binaural beats, the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was considerably smaller after gamma-frequency binaural beats than after the control condition. Our findings suggest that high-frequency binaural beats bias the individual attentional processing style towards a reduced spotlight of attention.

  5. Audibility of time switching in dynamic binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis, signals are convolved with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In dynamic systems, the update is often done by cross- fading between signals that have been filtered in parallel with two HRTFs. An alternative to cross-fading that is attractive in terms of computing power...

  6. More attentional focusing through binaural beats: Evidence from the global-local task

    OpenAIRE

    Colzato, L.S.; Barone, H.; Sellaro, R.; Hommel, B.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study showed that binaural beats have an impact on the efficiency of allocating attention over time. We were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional focusing or, even further, the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40?Hz) binaural beats, which are assumed to increase attentional concentration, or a constant tone of 340?Hz (control condition) for 3?min before and during a global?local task. While the size of the ...

  7. High-Frequency Binaural Beats Increase Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from Dual-Task Crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Bernhard; Sellaro, Roberta; Fischer, Rico; Borg, Saskia; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive-control processes can be configured to optimize either persistence of information processing (by amplifying competition between decision-making alternatives and top-down biasing of this competition) or flexibility (by dampening competition and biasing). We investigated whether high-frequency binaural beats, an auditory illusion suspected to act as a cognitive enhancer, have an impact on cognitive-control configuration. We hypothesized that binaural beats in the gamma range bias the cognitive-control style toward flexibility, which in turn should increase the crosstalk between tasks in a dual-task paradigm. We replicated earlier findings that the reaction time in the first-performed task is sensitive to the compatibility between the responses in the first and the second task-an indication of crosstalk. As predicted, exposing participants to binaural beats in the gamma range increased this effect as compared to a control condition in which participants were exposed to a continuous tone of 340 Hz. These findings provide converging evidence that the cognitive-control style can be systematically biased by inducing particular internal states; that high-frequency binaural beats bias the control style toward more flexibility; and that different styles are implemented by changing the strength of local competition and top-down bias.

  8. High-frequency binaural beats increase cognitive flexibility: evidence from dual-task crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hommel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive-control processes can be configured to optimize either persistence of information processing (by amplifying competition between decision-making alternatives and top-down biasing of this competition or flexibility (by dampening competition and biasing. We investigated whether high-frequency binaural beats, an auditory illusion suspected to act as a cognitive enhancer, have an impact on cognitive-control configuration. We hypothesized that binaural beats in the gamma range bias the cognitive-control style towards flexibility, which in turn should increase the crosstalk between tasks in a dual-task paradigm. We replicated earlier findings that the reaction time in the first-performed task is sensitive to the compatibility between the responses in the first and the second task—an indication of crosstalk. As predicted, exposing participants to binaural beats in the gamma range increased this effect as compared to a control condition in which participants were exposed to a continuous tone of 340 Hz. These findings provide converging evidence that the cognitive-control style can be systematically biased by inducing particular internal states; that high-frequency binaural beats bias the control style towards more flexibility; and that different styles are implemented by changing the strength of local competition and top-down bias.

  9. A dynamic binaural synthesis system for investigation into situational awareness for truck drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    into the reason for this point to cognitive phenomena such as change blindness, where more visual information won’t help. For other professional vehicle operators such as pilots, auditory solutions adding to a higher situational awareness has proven valuable. This paper describes the development of a dynamic...... communicating over a network protocol (UDP) enabling distribution on several hardware devices. The modules are: Graphical user interface, head tracking server, truck tracking, and binaural synthesis module. The function of the individual modules as well as overall topology of the system will be presented...

  10. Evaluation of dynamic binaural reproduction system for live transmitted xylophone recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    For a special teaching application of the telepresence research project BEAMING, a scenario of a remote teacher (the Visitor) teaching a local student to play a xylophone through an embodiment is defined. In order to achieve this, a system is required to record, transmit and render the sound....... Finally head tracking allows for a dynamic binaural rendering of the xylophone sound. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the realism of this virtual (auditory) representation of a real xylophone. A listening test is designed to compare characteristics of a real physical xylophone in front...... of the listener with a rendering using the described system. The evaluation is done with a basis in methods previously used for evaluating the subjective sensation of presence in virtual reality systems, mainly based on questionnaires....

  11. A new binaural detection model based on contralateral inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breebaart, D.J.; Kohlrausch, A.G.; Dau, T.; Hohmann, V.; Kollmeier, B.

    1999-01-01

    Binaural models attempt to explain binaural phenomena in terms of neural mechanisms that extract binaural information from accoustic stimuli. In this paper, a model setup is presented that can be used to simulate binaural detection tasks. In contrast to the most often used cross correlation between

  12. Binaural Sound Reduces Reaction Time in a Virtual Reality Search Task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Emil Rosenlund; Gerry, Lynda; Thomsen, Lui Albæk

    2017-01-01

    Salient features in a visual search task can direct attention and increase competency on these tasks. Simple cues, such as color change in a salient feature, called the "pop-out effect" can increase task solving efficiency [6]. Previous work has shown that nonspatial auditory signals temporally...... synched with a pop-out effect can improve reaction time in a visual search task, called the "pip and pop effect" [14]. This paper describes a within-group study on the effect of audiospatial attention in virtual reality given a 360-degree visual search. Three cue conditions were compared (no sound, stereo...

  13. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  14. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  15. Binaural processing of modulated interaural level differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments are presented that measure the acuity of binaural processing of modulated interaural level differences ILDs using psychoacoustic methods. In both experiments, dynamic ILDs were created by imposing an interaurally antiphasic sinusoidal amplitude modulation AM signal on high...... frequency, broadly tuned, bandpass-shaped patterns were obtained. Simulations with an existing binaural model show that a low-pass filter to limit the binaural temporal resolution is not sufficient to predict the results of the experiments....

  16. The technology of binaural listening

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book reports on the application of advanced models of the human binaural hearing system in modern technology, among others, in the following areas:  binaural analysis of aural scenes, binaural de-reverberation, binaural quality assessment of audio channels, loudspeakers and performance spaces, binaural perceptual coding, binaural processing in hearing aids and cochlea implants, binaural systems in robots, binaural/tactile human-machine interfaces, speech-intelligibility prediction in rooms and/or multi-speaker scenarios. An introduction to binaural modeling and an outlook to the future are provided. Further, the book features a MATLAB toolbox to enable readers to construct their own dedicated binaural models on demand.

  17. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Beauchene

    Full Text Available Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the effects of binaural beats on brain connectivity during working memory tasks. In this study, we determined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions on participant response accuracy and cortical network topology, as measured by EEG recordings, during a visuospatial working memory task. Three acoustic stimulation control conditions and three binaural beat stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5Hz binaural beats, 10Hz binaural beats, and 15Hz binaural beats. We found that listening to 15Hz binaural beats during a visuospatial working memory task not only increased the response accuracy, but also modified the strengths of the cortical networks during the task. The three auditory control conditions and the 5Hz and 10Hz binaural beats all decreased accuracy. Based on graphical network analyses, the cortical activity during 15Hz binaural beats produced networks characteristic of high information transfer with consistent connection strengths throughout the visuospatial working memory task.

  18. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the effects of binaural beats on brain connectivity during working memory tasks. In this study, we determined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions on participant response accuracy and cortical network topology, as measured by EEG recordings, during a visuospatial working memory task. Three acoustic stimulation control conditions and three binaural beat stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5Hz binaural beats, 10Hz binaural beats, and 15Hz binaural beats. We found that listening to 15Hz binaural beats during a visuospatial working memory task not only increased the response accuracy, but also modified the strengths of the cortical networks during the task. The three auditory control conditions and the 5Hz and 10Hz binaural beats all decreased accuracy. Based on graphical network analyses, the cortical activity during 15Hz binaural beats produced networks characteristic of high information transfer with consistent connection strengths throughout the visuospatial working memory task.

  19. Clinical applications of selected binaural effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffsinger, D

    1982-01-01

    Examination was made of the behaviors exhibited on selected binaural tasks by 556 persons with diagnosed peripheral hearing loss or central nervous system damage. The tasks used included loudness balancing (LB), intracranial midline imaging (MI), masking level differences (MLD), and binaural beats (BB). The methods used were chosen for their clinical utility. Loudness balancing and midline imaging were of the most diagnostic value when hearing loss was present. Masking level differences were best at detecting pathology which did not produce hearing loss. None of the techniques were sensitive to cortical damage.

  20. The Contribution of Matched Envelope Dynamic Range to the Binaural Benefits in Simulated Bilateral Electric Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Qiu, Jianxin; Liu, Yehai; Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of envelope dynamic-range mismatch on the intelligibility of Mandarin speech in noise by simulated bilateral electric hearing. Method: Noise-vocoded Mandarin speech, corrupted by speech-shaped noise at 5 and 0 dB signal-to-noise ratios, was presented unilaterally or bilaterally to 10 normal-hearing…

  1. Relaxed Binaural LCMV Beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutrouvelis, A.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new binaural beamforming technique, which can be seen as a relaxation of the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) framework. The proposed method can achieve simultaneous noise reduction and exact binaural cue preservation of the target source, similar to the

  2. Binaural Interference: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, James; Silman, Shlomo; Silverman, Carol; Emmer, Michele

    2017-04-01

    The reality of the phenomenon of binaural interference with speech recognition has been debated for two decades. Research has taken one of two avenues; group studies or case reports. In group studies, a sample of the elderly population is tested on speech recognition under three conditions; binaural, monaural right and monaural left. The aim is to determine the percent of the sample in which the expected outcome (binaural score-better-than-either-monaural score) is reversed (i.e., one of the monaural scores is better than the binaural score). This outcome has been commonly used to define binaural interference. The object of group studies is to answer the "how many" question, what is the prevalence of binaural interference in the sample. In case reports the binaural interference conclusion suggested by the speech recognition tests is not accepted until it has been corroborated by other independent diagnostic audiological measures. The aim is to attempt to determine the basis for the findings, to answer the "why" question. This article is at once tutorial, editorial and a case report. We argue that it is time to accept the reality of the phenomenon of binaural interference, to eschew group statistical approaches in search of an answer to the "how many" question, and to focus on individual case reports in search of an answer to the "why" question. American Academy of Audiology.

  3. Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J D; Kasian, S J; Owens, J E; Marsh, G R

    1998-01-01

    When two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to the left and right ears the listener perceives a single tone that varies in amplitude at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones, a perceptual phenomenon known as the binaural auditory beat. Anecdotal reports suggest that binaural auditory beats within the electroencephalograph frequency range can entrain EEG activity and may affect states of consciousness, although few scientific studies have been published. This study compared the effects of binaural auditory beats in the EEG beta and EEG theta/delta frequency ranges on mood and on performance of a vigilance task to investigate their effects on subjective and objective measures of arousal. Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the presence of binaural beats to control expectation effects. Presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than presentation of theta/delta frequency binaural beats. In addition, the beta-frequency beats were associated with less negative mood. Results suggest that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect psychomotor performance and mood. This technology may have applications for the control of attention and arousal and the enhancement of human performance.

  4. The impact of binaural beats on creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Reedijk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through stimulating neuronal phase locking. We aimed to investigate whether binaural beats affect creative performance at all, whether they affect divergent thinking, convergent thinking, or both, and whether possible effects may be mediated by the individual striatal dopamine level. Binaural beats were presented at alpha and gamma frequency. Participants completed a divergent and a convergent thinking task to assess two important functions of creativity, and filled out the Positive And Negative Affect Scale – mood State questionnaire (PANAS-S and affect grid to measure current mood. Dopamine levels in the striatum were estimated using spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs. Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking. Individuals with low EBRs mostly benefitted from alpha binaural beat stimulation, while individuals with high EBR were unaffected or even impaired by both alpha and gamma binaural beats. This suggests that binaural beats, and possibly other forms of cognitive entrainment, are not suited for a one-size-fits-all approach, and that individual cognitive-control systems need to be taken into account when studying cognitive enhancement methods.

  5. The impact of binaural beats on creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedijk, Susan A; Bolders, Anne; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through stimulating neuronal phase locking. We aimed to investigate whether binaural beats affect creative performance at all, whether they affect divergent thinking, convergent thinking, or both, and whether possible effects may be mediated by the individual striatal dopamine level. Binaural beats were presented at alpha and gamma frequency. Participants completed a divergent and a convergent thinking task to assess two important functions of creativity, and filled out the Positive And Negative Affect Scale-mood State questionnaire (PANAS-S) and an affect grid to measure current mood. Dopamine levels in the striatum were estimated using spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs). Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking. Individuals with low EBRs mostly benefitted from alpha binaural beat stimulation, while individuals with high EBRs were unaffected or even impaired by both alpha and gamma binaural beats. This suggests that binaural beats, and possibly other forms of cognitive entrainment, are not suited for a one-size-fits-all approach, and that individual cognitive-control systems need to be taken into account when studying cognitive enhancement methods.

  6. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van K.; Maanen, van P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make

  7. On binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, W

    1985-01-01

    Binaural beats have been investigated in normal volunteers using high-stable synthesizers. There are considerable differences between the subjective rhythm heard and the difference of the two frequencies, indicating that this dissimilarity must be caused centrally.

  8. Binaural beat salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of binaural beats have noted individual variability and response lability, but little attention has been paid to the salience of the binaural beat percept. The purpose of this study was to gauge the strength of the binaural beat percept by matching its salience to that of sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and to then compare rate discrimination for the two types of fluctuation. Rate discrimination was measured for standard rates of 4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz – all in the 500-Hz carrier region. Twelve normal-hearing adults participated in this study. The results indicated that discrimination acuity for binaural beats is similar to that for SAM tones whose depths of modulation have been adjusted to provide equivalent modulation salience. The matched-salience SAM tones had relatively shallow depths of modulation, suggesting that the perceptual strength of binaural beats is relatively weak, although all listeners perceived them. The Weber fraction for detection of an increase in binaural beat rate is roughly constant across beat rates, at least for rates above 4 Hz, as is rate discrimination for SAM tones. PMID:22326292

  9. Binaural beat salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies of binaural beats have noted individual variability and response lability, but little attention has been paid to the salience of the binaural beat percept. The purpose of this study was to gauge the strength of the binaural beat percept by matching its salience to that of sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and to then compare rate discrimination for the two types of fluctuation. Rate discrimination was measured for standard rates of 4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz - all in the 500-Hz carrier region. Twelve normal-hearing adults participated in this study. The results indicated that discrimination acuity for binaural beats is similar to that for SAM tones whose depths of modulation have been adjusted to provide equivalent modulation salience. The matched-salience SAM tones had relatively shallow depths of modulation, suggesting that the perceptual strength of binaural beats is relatively weak, although all listeners perceived them. The Weber fraction for detection of an increase in binaural beat rate is roughly constant across beat rates, at least for rates above 4 Hz, as is rate discrimination for SAM tones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Monaural Congenital Deafness Affects Aural Dominance and Degrades Binaural Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillein, Jochen; Hubka, Peter; Kral, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Cortical development extensively depends on sensory experience. Effects of congenital monaural and binaural deafness on cortical aural dominance and representation of binaural cues were investigated in the present study. We used an animal model that precisely mimics the clinical scenario of unilateral cochlear implantation in an individual with single-sided congenital deafness. Multiunit responses in cortical field A1 to cochlear implant stimulation were studied in normal-hearing cats, bilaterally congenitally deaf cats (CDCs), and unilaterally deaf cats (uCDCs). Binaural deafness reduced cortical responsiveness and decreased response thresholds and dynamic range. In contrast to CDCs, in uCDCs, cortical responsiveness was not reduced, but hemispheric-specific reorganization of aural dominance and binaural interactions were observed. Deafness led to a substantial drop in binaural facilitation in CDCs and uCDCs, demonstrating the inevitable role of experience for a binaural benefit. Sensitivity to interaural time differences was more reduced in uCDCs than in CDCs, particularly at the hemisphere ipsilateral to the hearing ear. Compared with binaural deafness, unilateral hearing prevented nonspecific reduction in cortical responsiveness, but extensively reorganized aural dominance and binaural responses. The deaf ear remained coupled with the cortex in uCDCs, demonstrating a significant difference to deprivation amblyopia in the visual system. PMID:26803166

  11. Monaural Congenital Deafness Affects Aural Dominance and Degrades Binaural Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillein, Jochen; Hubka, Peter; Kral, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    Cortical development extensively depends on sensory experience. Effects of congenital monaural and binaural deafness on cortical aural dominance and representation of binaural cues were investigated in the present study. We used an animal model that precisely mimics the clinical scenario of unilateral cochlear implantation in an individual with single-sided congenital deafness. Multiunit responses in cortical field A1 to cochlear implant stimulation were studied in normal-hearing cats, bilaterally congenitally deaf cats (CDCs), and unilaterally deaf cats (uCDCs). Binaural deafness reduced cortical responsiveness and decreased response thresholds and dynamic range. In contrast to CDCs, in uCDCs, cortical responsiveness was not reduced, but hemispheric-specific reorganization of aural dominance and binaural interactions were observed. Deafness led to a substantial drop in binaural facilitation in CDCs and uCDCs, demonstrating the inevitable role of experience for a binaural benefit. Sensitivity to interaural time differences was more reduced in uCDCs than in CDCs, particularly at the hemisphere ipsilateral to the hearing ear. Compared with binaural deafness, unilateral hearing prevented nonspecific reduction in cortical responsiveness, but extensively reorganized aural dominance and binaural responses. The deaf ear remained coupled with the cortex in uCDCs, demonstrating a significant difference to deprivation amblyopia in the visual system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Anatomy and physiology of binaural hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D R

    1991-01-01

    Binaural hearing improves performance in most auditory tasks and is essential for some. This paper introduces the brain stem pathways and nuclei involved in binaural interaction and outlines some recent approaches to understanding binaural mechanisms. It also provides examples of basic science approaches to the effects of infant hearing loss on those pathways and mechanisms. Binaural interaction occurs primarily and almost simultaneously at three levels of the brain: the superior olivary complex (SOC), the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (NLL) and the inferior colliculus (IC). The SOC derives its input from the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus (CN) through branching axons that innervate several SOC subdivisions on both sides of the brain. At least some of these anteroventral CN axons project on up to the contralateral NLL and IC. The IC and NLL also receive direct, major projections from the contralateral CN, via the dorsal and intermediate acoustic striae, and from the SOC bilaterally. The IC receives additional input from the NLL bilaterally, and is thus innervated by every nuclear group within the auditory brain stem. There is little evidence for strict, functional segregation in these binaural pathways, although subdivisions of the SOC appear to be predominantly involved in analysing either interaural time or level differences (ITD, ILD). ITD- and ILD-sensitive neurones are also found in abundance in the central IC. There is emerging evidence that binaural information is coupled with spectral cues derived from the outer ear in several auditory mid-brain regions [the NLL, the external IC and the superior colliculus (SC)] to produce topographic representations of auditory space. Throughout the higher auditory system the response of neurones to stimulation of each ear is either excitatory or inhibitory, and there is a spatial segregation of neurones receiving predominantly excitatory or inhibitory input from the ipsilateral ear in both the medial geniculate body

  13. Low bandwidth binaural beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, S.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient beamforming scheme for wireless binaural hearing aids is proposed that provides a trade-off between the transmission bit rate and the amount of noise reduction. It is proposed to transmit only the low-frequency part of the signal from one hearing aid to the other, which is used in a

  14. A New Perspective on Binaural Integration Using Response Time Methodology: Super Capacity Revealed in Conditions of Binaural Masking Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eLentz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180o out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demonstrated a much lower signal detection threshold for the dichotic versus the diotic conditions, but accuracy-based techniques do not allow for assessment of system dynamics or resource allocation across time. Further, reaction times allow comparisons between these conditions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we apply a reaction-time based capacity coefficient, which provides an index of workload efficiency and quantifies the resource allocations for single ear versus two ear presentations. We demonstrate that the release from masking generated by the addition of an identical stimulus to one ear is limited-to-unlimited capacity (efficiency typically less than 1, consistent with less gain than would be expected by probability summation. However, the dichotic presentation leads to a significant increase in workload capacity (increased efficiency – most specifically at lower signal-to-noise ratios. These experimental results provide further evidence that configural processing plays a critical role in binaural masking release, and that these mechanisms may operate more strongly when the signal stimulus is difficult to detect, albeit still with nearly 100% accuracy.

  15. A new perspective on binaural integration using response time methodology: super capacity revealed in conditions of binaural masking release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Jennifer J; He, Yuan; Townsend, James T

    2014-01-01

    This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time (RT) distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180° out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demonstrated a much lower signal detection threshold for the dichotic vs. the diotic conditions, but accuracy-based techniques do not allow for assessment of system dynamics or resource allocation across time. Further, RTs allow comparisons between these conditions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we apply a reaction-time based capacity coefficient, which provides an index of workload efficiency and quantifies the resource allocations for single ear vs. two ear presentations. We demonstrate that the release from masking generated by the addition of an identical stimulus to one ear is limited-to-unlimited capacity (efficiency typically less than 1), consistent with less gain than would be expected by probability summation. However, the dichotic presentation leads to a significant increase in workload capacity (increased efficiency)-most specifically at lower signal-to-noise ratios. These experimental results provide further evidence that configural processing plays a critical role in binaural masking release, and that these mechanisms may operate more strongly when the signal stimulus is difficult to detect, albeit still with nearly 100% accuracy.

  16. Binaural auditory beats affect long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Argibay, Miguel; Santed, Miguel A; Reales, José M

    2017-12-08

    The presentation of two pure tones to each ear separately with a slight difference in their frequency results in the perception of a single tone that fluctuates in amplitude at a frequency that equals the difference of interaural frequencies. This perceptual phenomenon is known as binaural auditory beats, and it is thought to entrain electrocortical activity and enhance cognition functions such as attention and memory. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of binaural auditory beats on long-term memory. Participants (n = 32) were kept blind to the goal of the study and performed both the free recall and recognition tasks after being exposed to binaural auditory beats, either in the beta (20 Hz) or theta (5 Hz) frequency bands and white noise as a control condition. Exposure to beta-frequency binaural beats yielded a greater proportion of correctly recalled words and a higher sensitivity index d' in recognition tasks, while theta-frequency binaural-beat presentation lessened the number of correctly remembered words and the sensitivity index. On the other hand, we could not find differences in the conditional probability for recall given recognition between beta and theta frequencies and white noise, suggesting that the observed changes in recognition were due to the recollection component. These findings indicate that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect long-term memory both positively and negatively, depending on the frequency used.

  17. Binaural room simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, H.; Blauert, Jens; Pompetzki, W.

    1991-01-01

    In every-day listening the auditory event perceived by a listener is determined not only by the sound signal that a sound emits but also by a variety of environmental parameters. These parameters are the position, orientation and directional characteristics of the sound source, the listener's position and orientation, the geometrical and acoustical properties of surfaces which affect the sound field and the sound propagation properties of the surrounding fluid. A complete set of these parameters can be called an Acoustic Environment. If the auditory event perceived by a listener is manipulated in such a way that the listener is shifted acoustically into a different acoustic environment without moving himself physically, a Virtual Acoustic Environment has been created. Here, we deal with a special technique to set up nearly arbitrary Virtual Acoustic Environments, the Binaural Room Simulation. The purpose of the Binaural Room Simulation is to compute the binaural impulse response related to a virtual acoustic environment taking into account all parameters mentioned above. One possible way to describe a Virtual Acoustic Environment is the concept of the virtual sound sources. Each of the virtual sources emits a certain signal which is correlated but not necessarily identical with the signal emitted by the direct sound source. If source and receiver are non moving, the acoustic environment becomes a linear time-invariant system. Then, the Binaural Impulse Response from the source to a listener' s eardrums contains all relevant auditory information related to the Virtual Acoustic Environment. Listening into the simulated environment can easily be achieved by convolving the Binaural Impulse Response with dry signals and representing the results via headphones.

  18. Binaural frequency selectivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; van de Par, Steven

    2018-01-23

    Several behavioural studies in humans have shown that listening to sounds with two ears that is binaural hearing, provides the human auditory system with extra information on the sound source that is not available when sounds are only perceived through one ear that is monaurally. Binaural processing involves the analysis of phase and level differences between the two ear signals. As monaural cochlea processing (in each ear) precedes the neural stages responsible for binaural processing properties it is reasonable to assume that properties of the cochlea may also be observed in binaural processing. A main characteristic of cochlea processing is its frequency selectivity. In psychoacoustics, there is an ongoing discussion on the frequency selectivity of the binaural auditory system. While some psychoacoustic experiments seem to indicate poorer frequency selectivity of the binaural system than that of the monaural processing others seem to indicate the same frequency selectivity for monaural and binaural processing. This study provides an overview of these seemingly controversial results and the different explanations that were provided to account for the different results. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Instructional Multiple Binaural Stethoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina C. Platon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation where human ear plays significant part. Long before doctors practiced immediate auscultation meaning placing ear directly on patient’s body by Salinsky (1990, then monaural introduced by Laennec; later binaural, Comins’s invention and Cammann developed further. Several decades numerous innovations made predominantly over chestpiece some had drawbacks. Dr Littman introduced teaching stethoscope with two headset and researcher utilized as prior art.Experimental research method used and the study aimed to determine accuracy and measurement of speed of the device in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and acceptability of user. The subjects were 19 clients and 27 nursing students, government /private registered nurses. The device are comparable to single binaural stethoscope in accuracy performance; speed of sound, former is slightly higher than the latter but still considered as normal; the device are acceptable to users; the utility model have no significant difference in accuracy performance and speed measurements of systolic and diastolic. The utility model may be tried in any acoustic activities and may be pilot tested to the Universities animal science courses, veterinary medicine other Colleges of Nursing and all health allied courses.

  20. Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang

    1996-11-01

    The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable

  1. Effect of direction on loudness in individual binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Minnaar, Pauli; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sound incidence angle on loudness is investigated in this study using binaural synthesis. Individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) and headphone equalization are used to present narrow-band noises from different directions to listeners. Their task is to match the loudness...... of these stimuli in an adaptive procedure to a reference noise in front of the listeners. The results are compared to an earlier investigation with the same experimental design in a real sound field. Based on the results the role of the individual HRTFs in loudness judgments is inspected, and finally, binaural...

  2. The Relationship Between Intensity Coding and Binaural Sensitivity in Adults With Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ann E; Goupell, Matthew J; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    Many bilateral cochlear implant users show sensitivity to binaural information when stimulation is provided using a pair of synchronized electrodes. However, there is large variability in binaural sensitivity between and within participants across stimulation sites in the cochlea. It was hypothesized that within-participant variability in binaural sensitivity is in part affected by limitations and characteristics of the auditory periphery which may be reflected by monaural hearing performance. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between monaural and binaural hearing performance within participants with bilateral cochlear implants. Binaural measures included dichotic signal detection and interaural time difference discrimination thresholds. Diotic signal detection thresholds were also measured. Monaural measures included dynamic range and amplitude modulation detection. In addition, loudness growth was compared between ears. Measures were made at three stimulation sites per listener. Greater binaural sensitivity was found with larger dynamic ranges. Poorer interaural time difference discrimination was found with larger difference between comfortable levels of the two ears. In addition, poorer diotic signal detection thresholds were found with larger differences between the dynamic ranges of the two ears. No relationship was found between amplitude modulation detection thresholds or symmetry of loudness growth and the binaural measures. The results suggest that some of the variability in binaural hearing performance within listeners across stimulation sites can be explained by factors nonspecific to binaural processing. The results are consistent with the idea that dynamic range and comfortable levels relate to peripheral neural survival and the width of the excitation pattern which could affect the fidelity with which central binaural nuclei process bilateral inputs.

  3. Binaural pitch perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien; Strelcyk, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    When two white noises differing only in phase in a particular frequency range are presented simultaneously each to one of our ears, a pitch sensation may be perceived inside the head. This phenomenon, called ’binaural pitch’ or ’dichotic pitch’, can be produced by frequency-dependent interaural...... phasedifference patterns. The evaluation of these interaural phase differences depends on the functionality of the binaural auditory system and the spectro-temporal information at its input. A melody recognition task was performed in the present study using pure-tone stimuli and six different types of noises...... that can generate a binaural pitch sensation. Normal-hearing listeners and hearing-impaired listeners with different kinds of hearing impairment participated in the experiment....

  4. An introduction to binaural processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlrausch, A.G.; Braasch, J.; Kolossa, D.; Blauert, J.; Blauert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The binaural auditory system performs a number of astonishing functions, such as precise localization of sound sources, analysis of auditory scenes, segregation of auditory streams, providing situational awareness in reflective environments, suppression of reverberance, noise and coloration,

  5. The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain’s frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain’s response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. Approach. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. Main results. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant’s accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Significance. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.

  6. The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain's frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain's response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant's accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.

  7. Hearing Aid Fitting: Monaural vs. Binaural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Keshani

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issue for selecting and fitting of hearing aids that should receive special attention is binaural amplification. According to several investigations, superiority of binaural amplification on monaural one is confirmed. Binaural Amplification may have considerable effects on fromation and developing of superior dimensions of hearing including: Localization, Binaural squelch (Better hearing in presence of noise. So, it is necessary to know the basic and scientific concepts and applicable principles of binaural hearing and binaural fitting. Present paper deals with this important subject.

  8. Binaural beats and frequency-coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, W; Köhler, W

    1986-01-01

    Binaural beats were studied before and during a situation of temporary threshold shift, and no frequency shift could be found. In contrast, subjective binaural frequency comparison revealed a distinct shift. These findings demonstrate the two known modes of perception.

  9. Consequences of Early Conductive Hearing Loss on Long-Term Binaural Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Kelley; Rance, Gary; Dowell, Richard; Van Dun, Bram

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of early conductive hearing loss on binaural processing in school-age children. One hundred and eighteen children participated in the study, 82 children with a documented history of conductive hearing loss associated with otitis media and 36 controls who had documented histories showing no evidence of otitis media or conductive hearing loss. All children were demonstrated to have normal-hearing acuity and middle ear function at the time of assessment. The Listening in Spatialized Noise Sentence (LiSN-S) task and the masking level difference (MLD) task were used as the two different measures of binaural interaction ability. Children with a history of conductive hearing loss performed significantly poorer than controls on all LiSN-S conditions relying on binaural cues (DV90, p = binaural cues. Fifteen children with a conductive hearing loss history (18%) showed results consistent with a spatial processing disorder. No significant difference was observed between the conductive hearing loss group and the controls on the MLD task. Furthermore, no correlations were found between LiSN-S and MLD. Results show a relationship between early conductive hearing loss and listening deficits that persist once hearing has returned to normal. Results also suggest that the two binaural interaction tasks (LiSN-S and MLD) may be measuring binaural processing at different levels. Findings highlight the need for a screening measure of functional listening ability in children with a history of early otitis media.

  10. A comparison of sound quality judgments for monaural and binaural hearing aid processed stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, P B; Hawkins, D B

    1992-10-01

    Fifteen adults with bilaterally symmetrical mild and/or moderate sensorineural hearing loss completed a paired-comparison task designed to elicit sound quality preference judgments for monaural/binaural hearing aid processed signals. Three stimuli (speech-in-quiet, speech-in-noise, and music) were recorded separately in three listening environments (audiometric test booth, living room, and a music/lecture hall) through hearing aids placed on a Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustics Research. Judgments were made on eight separate sound quality dimensions (brightness, clarity, fullness, loudness, nearness, overall impression, smoothness, and spaciousness) for each of the three stimuli in three listening environments. Results revealed a distinct binaural preference for all eight sound quality dimensions independent of listening environment. Binaural preferences were strongest for overall impression, fullness, and spaciousness. Stimulus type effect was significant only for fullness and spaciousness, where binaural preferences were strongest for speech-in-quiet. After binaural preference data were obtained, subjects ranked each sound quality dimension with respect to its importance for binaural listening relative to monaural. Clarity was ranked highest in importance and brightness was ranked least important. The key to demonstration of improved binaural hearing aid sound quality may be the use of a paired-comparison format.

  11. Evaluating the Performance of a Visually Guided Hearing Aid Using a Dynamic Auditory-Visual Word Congruence Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverud, Elin; Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R; Streeter, Timothy; Kidd, Gerald

    2017-12-15

    The "visually guided hearing aid" (VGHA), consisting of a beamforming microphone array steered by eye gaze, is an experimental device being tested for effectiveness in laboratory settings. Previous studies have found that beamforming without visual steering can provide significant benefits (relative to natural binaural listening) for speech identification in spatialized speech or noise maskers when sound sources are fixed in location. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the VGHA in listening conditions in which target speech could switch locations unpredictably, requiring visual steering of the beamforming. To address this aim, the present study tested an experimental simulation of the VGHA in a newly designed dynamic auditory-visual word congruence task. Ten young normal-hearing (NH) and 11 young hearing-impaired (HI) adults participated. On each trial, three simultaneous spoken words were presented from three source positions (-30, 0, and 30 azimuth). An auditory-visual word congruence task was used in which participants indicated whether there was a match between the word printed on a screen at a location corresponding to the target source and the spoken target word presented acoustically from that location. Performance was compared for a natural binaural condition (stimuli presented using impulse responses measured on KEMAR), a simulated VGHA condition (BEAM), and a hybrid condition that combined lowpass-filtered KEMAR and highpass-filtered BEAM information (BEAMAR). In some blocks, the target remained fixed at one location across trials, and in other blocks, the target could transition in location between one trial and the next with a fixed but low probability. Large individual variability in performance was observed. There were significant benefits for the hybrid BEAMAR condition relative to the KEMAR condition on average for both NH and HI groups when the targets were fixed. Although not apparent in the averaged data, some

  12. Directional dependence of binaural loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Sivonen, Ville Pekka

    2006-01-01

    on binaural loudness summation, on the other hand, focuses on a highly artificial paradigm according to which unnatural combinations of sound pressure levels(such as monotic-diotic comparisons) are presented to listeners via headphones. In order to reconcile these two approaches, we recently started a series...... incidence angle, in order to relate the changes in actual at-ear exposure to the observed changes in loudness as a function of sound incidence. Combining the listening-test data with the physical measurements, an attempt was made to model the binaural summation underlying the directional loudness matches....

  13. Binaural beats at high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, D; Pasanen, E G

    1975-10-24

    Binaural beats have long been believed to be audible only at low frequencies, but an interaction reminiscent of a binaural beat can sometimes be heard when different two-tone complexes of high frequency are presented to the two ears. The primary requirement is that the frequency separation in the complex at one ear be slightly different from that in the other--that is, that there be a small interaural difference in the envelope periodicities. This finding is in accord with other recent demonstrations that the auditory system is not deaf to interaural time differences at high frequencies.

  14. The role of reverberation-related binaural cues in the externalization of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2015-08-01

    The perception of externalization of speech sounds was investigated with respect to the monaural and binaural cues available at the listeners' ears in a reverberant environment. Individualized binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were used to simulate externalized sound sources via headphones. The measured BRIRs were subsequently modified such that the proportion of the response containing binaural vs monaural information was varied. Normal-hearing listeners were presented with speech sounds convolved with such modified BRIRs. Monaural reverberation cues were found to be sufficient for the externalization of a lateral sound source. In contrast, for a frontal source, an increased amount of binaural cues from reflections was required in order to obtain well externalized sound images. It was demonstrated that the interaction between the interaural cues of the direct sound and the reverberation strongly affects the perception of externalization. An analysis of the short-term binaural cues showed that the amount of fluctuations of the binaural cues corresponded well to the externalization ratings obtained in the listening tests. The results further suggested that the precedence effect is involved in the auditory processing of the dynamic binaural cues that are utilized for externalization perception.

  15. Binaural hearing with electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Alan; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2015-04-01

    Bilateral cochlear implantation is becoming a standard of care in many clinics. While much benefit has been shown through bilateral implantation, patients who have bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) still do not perform as well as normal hearing listeners in sound localization and understanding speech in noisy environments. This difference in performance can arise from a number of different factors, including the areas of hardware and engineering, surgical precision and pathology of the auditory system in deaf persons. While surgical precision and individual pathology are factors that are beyond careful control, improvements can be made in the areas of clinical practice and the engineering of binaural speech processors. These improvements should be grounded in a good understanding of the sensitivities of bilateral CI patients to the acoustic binaural cues that are important to normal hearing listeners for sound localization and speech in noise understanding. To this end, we review the current state-of-the-art in the understanding of the sensitivities of bilateral CI patients to binaural cues in electric hearing, and highlight the important issues and challenges as they relate to clinical practice and the development of new binaural processing strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards a binaural modelling toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; Culling, John F.; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    The Auditory Modelling Toolbox (AMToolbox) is a new Matlab / Octave toolbox for developing and applying auditory perceptual models and in particular binaural models. The philosophy behind the project is that the models should be implemented in a consistent manner, well documented and user...

  17. Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Dietz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue contains a collection of 13 papers highlighting the collaborative research and engineering project entitled Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology—ABCIT—as well as research spin-offs from the project. In this introductory editorial, a brief history of the project is provided, alongside an overview of the studies.

  18. Binaural Perception in Young Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Robert S.

    This paper describes three experiments which demonstrated the presence of binaural perception abilities (the ability to use both ears) in 4-month-old but not in 2-month-old infants. All of the experiments employed a visual fixation habituation-dishabituation paradigm in which infants were given a series of visual fixation trials while binaural…

  19. Binaural hearing with electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Alan; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implantation is becoming a standard of care in many clinics. While much benefit has been shown through bilateral implantation, patients who have bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) still do not perform as well as normal hearing listeners in sound localization and understanding speech in noisy environments. This difference in performance can arise from a number of different factors, including the areas of hardware and engineering, surgical precision and pathology of the auditory system in deaf persons. While surgical precision and individual pathology are factors that are beyond careful control, improvements can be made in the areas of clinical practice and the engineering of binaural speech processors. These improvements should be grounded in a good understanding of the sensitivities of bilateral CI patients to the acoustic binaural cues that are important to normal hearing listeners for sound localization and speech in noise understanding. To this end, we review the current state-of-the-art in the understanding of the sensitivities of bilateral CI patients to binaural cues in electric hearing, and highlight the important issues and challenges as they relate to clinical practice and the development of new binaural processing strategies. PMID:25193553

  20. Cortical Correlates of Binaural Temporal Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, Ann Clock; Eddins, David A

    This study was designed to evaluate binaural temporal processing in young and older adults using a binaural masking level difference (BMLD) paradigm. Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures within the same listeners, a series of stimulus manipulations was used to evaluate the relative contribution of binaural temporal fine-structure and temporal envelope cues. We evaluated the hypotheses that age-related declines in the BMLD task would be more strongly associated with temporal fine-structure than envelope cues and that age-related declines in behavioral measures would be correlated with cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) measures. Thirty adults participated in the study, including 10 young normal-hearing, 10 older normal-hearing, and 10 older hearing-impaired adults with bilaterally symmetric, mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Behavioral and CAEP thresholds were measured for diotic (So) and dichotic (Sπ) tonal signals presented in continuous diotic (No) narrowband noise (50-Hz wide) maskers. Temporal envelope cues were manipulated by using two different narrowband maskers; Gaussian noise (GN) with robust envelope fluctuations and low-noise noise (LNN) with minimal envelope fluctuations. The potential to use temporal fine-structure cues was controlled by varying the signal frequency (500 or 4000 Hz), thereby relying on the natural decline in phase-locking with increasing frequency. Behavioral and CAEP thresholds were similar across groups for diotic conditions, while the masking release in dichotic conditions was larger for younger than for older participants. Across all participants, BMLDs were larger for GN than LNN and for 500-Hz than for 4000-Hz conditions, where envelope and fine-structure cues were most salient, respectively. Specific age-related differences were demonstrated for 500-Hz dichotic conditions in GN and LNN, reflecting reduced binaural temporal fine-structure coding. No significant age effects were observed for 4000

  1. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick eMcConnell; Patrick eMcConnell; Brett eFroeliger; Eric L. Garland; Jeffrey C. Ives; Gary A. Sforzo

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics (heart-rate variability (HRV)) during post-exercise relaxation...

  2. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Patrick A.; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L.; Ives, Jeffrey C.; Sforzo, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation...

  3. Binaural enhancement for bilateral cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant (BCI) users receive limited binaural cues and, thus, show little improvement to speech intelligibility from spatial cues. The feasibility of a method for enhancing the binaural cues available to BCI users is investigated. This involved extending interaural differences of levels, which typically are restricted to high frequencies, into the low-frequency region. Speech intelligibility was measured in BCI users listening over headphones and with direct stimulation, with a target talker presented to one side of the head in the presence of a masker talker on the other side. Spatial separation was achieved by applying either naturally occurring binaural cues or enhanced cues. In this listening configuration, BCI patients showed greater speech intelligibility with the enhanced binaural cues than with naturally occurring binaural cues. In some situations, it is possible for BCI users to achieve greater speech intelligibility when binaural cues are enhanced by applying interaural differences of levels in the low-frequency region.

  4. Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0298 Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources William Yost ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 660 S MILL AVE STE 312 TEMPE, AZ 85281...18-08-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Jul 2012 to 14 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Binaural Processing of...three topics cited above are entirely within the scope of the AFOSR grant. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Binaural hearing, Sound Localization, Interaural signal

  5. Spectral and binaural loudness summation for hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Dirk; Hohmann, Volker; Appell, Jens-E; Kollmeier, Birger; Ewert, Stephan D

    2016-05-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss typically results in a steepened loudness function and a reduced dynamic range from elevated thresholds to uncomfortably loud levels for narrowband and broadband signals. Restoring narrowband loudness perception for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners can lead to overly loud perception of broadband signals and it is unclear how binaural presentation affects loudness perception in this case. Here, loudness perception quantified by categorical loudness scaling for nine normal-hearing (NH) and ten HI listeners was compared for signals with different bandwidth and different spectral shape in monaural and in binaural conditions. For the HI listeners, frequency- and level-dependent amplification was used to match the narrowband monaural loudness functions of the NH listeners. The average loudness functions for NH and HI listeners showed good agreement for monaural broadband signals. However, HI listeners showed substantially greater loudness for binaural broadband signals than NH listeners: on average a 14.1 dB lower level was required to reach "very loud" (range 30.8 to -3.7 dB). Overall, with narrowband loudness compensation, a given binaural loudness for broadband signals above "medium loud" was reached at systematically lower levels for HI than for NH listeners. Such increased binaural loudness summation was not found for loudness categories below "medium loud" or for narrowband signals. Large individual variations in the increased loudness summation were observed and could not be explained by the audiogram or the narrowband loudness functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A high-density EEG investigation into steady state binaural beat stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Goodin

    Full Text Available Binaural beats are an auditory phenomenon that has been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes including vigilance and brainwave entrainment. Some personality traits measured by the NEO Five Factor Model have been found to alter entrainment using pulsing light stimuli, but as yet no studies have examined if this occurs using steady state presentation of binaural beats for a relatively short presentation of two minutes. This study aimed to examine if binaural beat stimulation altered vigilance or cortical frequencies and if personality traits were involved. Thirty-one participants were played binaural beat stimuli designed to elicit a response at either the Theta (7 Hz or Beta (16 Hz frequency bands while undertaking a zero-back vigilance task. EEG was recorded from a high-density electrode cap. No significant differences were found in vigilance or cortical frequency power during binaural beat stimulation compared to a white noise control period. Furthermore, no significant relationships were detected between the above and the Big Five personality traits. This suggests a short presentation of steady state binaural beats are not sufficient to alter vigilance or entrain cortical frequencies at the two bands examined and that certain personality traits were not more susceptible than others.

  7. A high-density EEG investigation into steady state binaural beat stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Peter; Ciorciari, Joseph; Baker, Kate; Carey, Anne-Marie; Carrey, Anne-Marie; Harper, Michelle; Kaufman, Jordy

    2012-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory phenomenon that has been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes including vigilance and brainwave entrainment. Some personality traits measured by the NEO Five Factor Model have been found to alter entrainment using pulsing light stimuli, but as yet no studies have examined if this occurs using steady state presentation of binaural beats for a relatively short presentation of two minutes. This study aimed to examine if binaural beat stimulation altered vigilance or cortical frequencies and if personality traits were involved. Thirty-one participants were played binaural beat stimuli designed to elicit a response at either the Theta (7 Hz) or Beta (16 Hz) frequency bands while undertaking a zero-back vigilance task. EEG was recorded from a high-density electrode cap. No significant differences were found in vigilance or cortical frequency power during binaural beat stimulation compared to a white noise control period. Furthermore, no significant relationships were detected between the above and the Big Five personality traits. This suggests a short presentation of steady state binaural beats are not sufficient to alter vigilance or entrain cortical frequencies at the two bands examined and that certain personality traits were not more susceptible than others.

  8. Binaural masking release in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Heather L; Grantham, D Wesley; Ashmead, Daniel H; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Binaural hearing results in a number of listening advantages relative to monaural hearing, including enhanced hearing sensitivity and better speech understanding in adverse listening conditions. These advantages are facilitated in part by the ability to detect and use interaural cues within the central auditory system. Binaural hearing for children with Down syndrome could be impacted by multiple factors including, structural anomalies within the peripheral and central auditory system, alterations in synaptic communication, and chronic otitis media with effusion. However, binaural hearing capabilities have not been investigated in these children. This study tested the hypothesis that children with Down syndrome experience less binaural benefit than typically developing peers. Participants included children with Down syndrome aged 6 to 16 years (n = 11), typically developing children aged 3 to 12 years (n = 46), adults with Down syndrome (n = 3), and adults with no known neurological delays (n = 6). Inclusionary criteria included normal to near-normal hearing sensitivity. Two tasks were used to assess binaural ability. Masking level difference (MLD) was calculated by comparing threshold for a 500-Hz pure-tone signal in 300-Hz wide Gaussian noise for N0S0 and N0Sπ signal configurations. Binaural intelligibility level difference was calculated using simulated free-field conditions. Speech recognition threshold was measured for closed-set spondees presented from 0-degree azimuth in speech-shaped noise presented from 0-, 45- and 90-degree azimuth, respectively. The developmental ability of children with Down syndrome was estimated and information regarding history of otitis media was obtained for all child participants via parent survey. Individuals with Down syndrome had higher masked thresholds for pure-tone and speech stimuli than typically developing individuals. Children with Down syndrome had significantly smaller MLDs than typically developing children. Adults

  9. Modeling Sluggishness in Binaural Unmasking of Speech for Maskers With Time-Varying Interaural Phase Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauth, Christopher F; Brand, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In studies investigating binaural processing in human listeners, relatively long and task-dependent time constants of a binaural window ranging from 10 ms to 250 ms have been observed. Such time constants are often thought to reflect "binaural sluggishness." In this study, the effect of binaural sluggishness on binaural unmasking of speech in stationary speech-shaped noise is investigated in 10 listeners with normal hearing. In order to design a masking signal with temporally varying binaural cues, the interaural phase difference of the noise was modulated sinusoidally with frequencies ranging from 0.25 Hz to 64 Hz. The lowest, that is the best, speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were observed for the lowest modulation frequency. SRTs increased with increasing modulation frequency up to 4 Hz. For higher modulation frequencies, SRTs remained constant in the range of 1 dB to 1.5 dB below the SRT determined in the diotic situation. The outcome of the experiment was simulated using a short-term binaural speech intelligibility model, which combines an equalization-cancellation (EC) model with the speech intelligibility index. This model segments the incoming signal into 23.2-ms time frames in order to predict release from masking in modulated noises. In order to predict the results from this study, the model required a further time constant applied to the EC mechanism representing binaural sluggishness. The best agreement with perceptual data was achieved using a temporal window of 200 ms in the EC mechanism.

  10. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  11. The representational dynamics of task and object processing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankson, Brett B; Harel, Assaf

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of an observer’s goals in determining how a visual object is categorized, surprisingly little is known about how humans process the task context in which objects occur and how it may interact with the processing of objects. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivariate techniques, we studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of task and object processing. Our results reveal a sequence of separate but overlapping task-related processes spread across frontoparietal and occipitotemporal cortex. Task exhibited late effects on object processing by selectively enhancing task-relevant object features, with limited impact on the overall pattern of object representations. Combining MEG and fMRI data, we reveal a parallel rise in task-related signals throughout the cerebral cortex, with an increasing dominance of task over object representations from early to higher visual areas. Collectively, our results reveal the complex dynamics underlying task and object representations throughout human cortex. PMID:29384473

  12. Control of earphone produced binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    While most people keep a high attention to the significance of the binaural recording method, whether it is e.g. individual or non-individual (as e.g. artificial head recording), many pay less attention to the type of earphone used to reproduce the binaural signals, and to the accurate control...

  13. Binaural masking level differences in nonsimultanuous masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlrausch, A.G.; Fassel, R.; Gilkey, R.H.; Anderson, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter investigates the extent to which binaural unmasking occurs with nonsimultaneous presentation of masker and signal, particularly in forward masking. The majority of previous studies that addressed this question found that there is a substantial binaural masking level difference (BMLD) in

  14. A framework for testing and comparing binaural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Mathias; Lestang, Jean-Hugues; Majdak, Piotr; Stern, Richard M; Marquardt, Torsten; Ewert, Stephan D; Hartmann, William M; Goodman, Dan F M

    2018-03-01

    Auditory research has a rich history of combining experimental evidence with computational simulations of auditory processing in order to deepen our theoretical understanding of how sound is processed in the ears and in the brain. Despite significant progress in the amount of detail and breadth covered by auditory models, for many components of the auditory pathway there are still different model approaches that are often not equivalent but rather in conflict with each other. Similarly, some experimental studies yield conflicting results which has led to controversies. This can be best resolved by a systematic comparison of multiple experimental data sets and model approaches. Binaural processing is a prominent example of how the development of quantitative theories can advance our understanding of the phenomena, but there remain several unresolved questions for which competing model approaches exist. This article discusses a number of current unresolved or disputed issues in binaural modelling, as well as some of the significant challenges in comparing binaural models with each other and with the experimental data. We introduce an auditory model framework, which we believe can become a useful infrastructure for resolving some of the current controversies. It operates models over the same paradigms that are used experimentally. The core of the proposed framework is an interface that connects three components irrespective of their underlying programming language: The experiment software, an auditory pathway model, and task-dependent decision stages called artificial observers that provide the same output format as the test subject. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A nonlinear dynamics of trunk kinematics during manual lifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Tamer; Karwowski, Waldemar; Sapkota, Nabin

    2015-01-01

    Human responses at work may exhibit nonlinear properties where small changes in the initial task conditions can lead to large changes in system behavior. Therefore, it is important to study such nonlinearity to gain a better understanding of human performance under a variety of physical, perceptual, and cognitive tasks conditions. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the human trunk kinematics data during a manual lifting task exhibits nonlinear behavior in terms of determinist chaos. Data related to kinematics of the trunk with respect to the pelvis were collected using Industrial Lumbar Motion Monitor (ILMM), and analyzed applying the nonlinear dynamical systems methodology. Nonlinear dynamics quantifiers of Lyapunov exponents and Kaplan-Yorke dimensions were calculated and analyzed under different task conditions. The study showed that human trunk kinematics during manual lifting exhibits chaotic behavior in terms of trunk sagittal angular displacement, velocity and acceleration. The findings support the importance of accounting for nonlinear dynamical properties of biomechanical responses to lifting tasks.

  16. Role of optimization in the human dynamics of task execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Maldonado, Wilfredo L.

    2008-03-01

    In order to explain the empirical evidence that the dynamics of human activity may not be well modeled by Poisson processes, a model based on queuing processes was built in the literature [A. L. Barabasi, Nature (London) 435, 207 (2005)]. The main assumption behind that model is that people execute their tasks based on a protocol that first executes the high priority item. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the validity of that hypothesis assuming that people are rational agents that make their decisions in order to minimize the cost of keeping nonexecuted tasks on the list. Therefore, we build and analytically solve a dynamic programming model with two priority types of tasks and show that the validity of this hypothesis depends strongly on the structure of the instantaneous costs that a person has to face if a given task is kept on the list for more than one period. Moreover, one interesting finding is that in one of the situations the protocol used to execute the tasks generates complex one-dimensional dynamics.

  17. Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm Oriented Dynamic Tasks for Imaging Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maocai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging satellite scheduling is an NP-hard problem with many complex constraints. This paper researches the scheduling problem for dynamic tasks oriented to some emergency cases. After the dynamic properties of satellite scheduling were analyzed, the optimization model is proposed in this paper. Based on the model, two heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem. The first heuristic algorithm arranges new tasks by inserting or deleting them, then inserting them repeatedly according to the priority from low to high, which is named IDI algorithm. The second one called ISDR adopts four steps: insert directly, insert by shifting, insert by deleting, and reinsert the tasks deleted. Moreover, two heuristic factors, congestion degree of a time window and the overlapping degree of a task, are employed to improve the algorithm’s performance. Finally, a case is given to test the algorithms. The results show that the IDI algorithm is better than ISDR from the running time point of view while ISDR algorithm with heuristic factors is more effective with regard to algorithm performance. Moreover, the results also show that our method has good performance for the larger size of the dynamic tasks in comparison with the other two methods.

  18. The effect of gamma-enhancing binaural beats on the control of feature bindings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Binaural beats represent the auditory experience of an oscillating sound that occurs when two sounds with neighboring frequencies are presented to one's left and right ear separately. Binaural beats have been shown to impact information processing via their putative role in increasing neural synchronization. Recent studies of feature-repetition effects demonstrated interactions between perceptual features and action-related features: repeating only some, but not all features of a perception-action episode hinders performance. These partial-repetition (or binding) costs point to the existence of temporary episodic bindings (event files) that are automatically retrieved by repeating at least one of their features. Given that neural synchronization in the gamma band has been associated with visual feature bindings, we investigated whether the impact of binaural beats extends to the top-down control of feature bindings. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40 Hz) binaural beats or to a constant tone of 340 Hz (control condition) for ten minutes before and during a feature-repetition task. While the size of visuomotor binding costs (indicating the binding of visual and action features) was unaffected by the binaural beats, the size of visual feature binding costs (which refer to the binding between the two visual features) was considerably smaller during gamma-frequency binaural beats exposure than during the control condition. Our results suggest that binaural beats enhance selectivity in updating episodic memory traces and further strengthen the hypothesis that neural activity in the gamma band is critically associated with the control of feature binding.

  19. How do task characteristics affect learning and performance? The roles of variably mapped and dynamic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Brooke N; Frank, David J

    2018-05-01

    For well over a century, scientists have investigated individual differences in performance. The majority of studies have focused on either differences in practice, or differences in cognitive resources. However, the predictive ability of either practice or cognitive resources varies considerably across tasks. We are the first to examine task characteristics' impact on learning and performance in a complex task while controlling for other task characteristics. In 2 experiments we test key theoretical task characteristic thought to moderate the relationship between practice, cognitive resources, and performance. We devised a task where each of several key task characteristics can be manipulated independently. Participants played 5 rounds of a game similar to the popular tower defense videogame Plants vs. Zombies where both cognitive load and game characteristics were manipulated. In Experiment 1, participants either played a consistently mapped version-the stimuli and the associated meaning of their properties were constant across the 5 rounds-or played a variably mapped version-the stimuli and the associated meaning of their properties changed every few minutes. In Experiment 2, participants either played a static version-that is, turn taking with no time pressure-or played a dynamic version-that is, the stimuli moved regardless of participants' response rates. In Experiment 1, participants' accuracy and efficiency were substantially hindered in the variably mapped conditions. In Experiment 2, learning and performance accuracy were hindered in the dynamic conditions, especially when under cognitive load. Our results suggest that task characteristics impact the relative importance of cognitive resources and practice on predicting learning and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Sensitivity to binaural timing in bilateral cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoesel, Richard J M

    2007-04-01

    Various measures of binaural timing sensitivity were made in three bilateral cochlear implant users, who had demonstrated moderate-to-good interaural time delay (ITD) sensitivity at 100 pulses-per-second (pps). Overall, ITD thresholds increased at higher pulse rates, lower levels, and shorter durations, although intersubject differences were evident. Monaural rate-discrimination thresholds, using the same stimulation parameters, showed more substantial elevation than ITDs with increased rate. ITD sensitivity with 6000 pps stimuli, amplitude-modulated at 100 Hz, was similar to that with unmodulated pulse trains at 100 pps, but at 200 and 300 Hz performance was poorer than with unmodulated signals. Measures of sensitivity to binaural beats with unmodulated pulse-trains showed that all three subjects could use time-varying ITD cues at 100 pps, but not 300 pps, even though static ITD sensitivity was relatively unaffected over that range. The difference between static and dynamic ITD thresholds is discussed in terms of relative contributions from initial and later arriving cues, which was further examined in an experiment using two-pulse stimuli as a function of interpulse separation. In agreement with the binaural-beat data, findings from that experiment showed poor discrimination of ITDs on the second pulse when the interval between pulses was reduced to a few milliseconds.

  1. Analysis and Modeling of Control Tasks in Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær; Krink, Thiemo; Jensen, Mikkel Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Most applications of evolutionary algorithms deal with static optimization problems. However, in recent years, there has been a growing interest in time-varying (dynamic) problems, which are typically found in real-world scenarios. One major challenge in this field is the design of realistic test......-case generators (TCGs), which requires a systematic analysis of dynamic optimization tasks. So far, only a few TCGs have been suggested. Our investigation leads to the conclusion that these TCGs are not capable of generating realistic dynamic benchmark tests. The result of our research is the design of a new TCG...

  2. Binaural dereverberation based on interaural coherence histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westermann, Adam; Buchholz, Jorg M.; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    A binaural dereverberation algorithm is presented that utilizes the properties of the interaural coherence (IC) inspired by the concepts introduced in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)]. The algorithm introduces a non-linear sigmoidal coherence-to-gain mapping that is controlled...... of the proposed algorithm was objectively and subjectively evaluated in terms of its impacts on the amount of reverberation and overall quality. A binaural spectral subtraction method based on Lebart et al. [Acta Acust. Acust. 87, 359-366 (2001)] and a binaural version of the original method of Allen et al. were...

  3. Usage of measured reverberation tail in a binaural room impulse response synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Madsen, Esben

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the modern communication technologies is an immersive experience. One of the applications that should provide the feeling of being together and sharing the same environment during the communication process is BEAMING. The goal of this paper is to improve audible spatial impression...... utilizing correct acoustical properties of the specific environments. Binaural room impulse response (BRIR) synthesis represents one of the main tasks in the binaural auralization. When the BRIRs are simulated, high order reflections (reverberation tail) are usually modeled statistically because of the high...

  4. Binaural unmasking of multi-channel stimuli in bilateral cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, Lieselot; van Wieringen, Astrid; Francart, Tom; Büchner, Andreas; Lenarz, Thomas; Wouters, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Previous work suggests that bilateral cochlear implant users are sensitive to interaural cues if experimental speech processors are used to preserve accurate interaural information in the electrical stimulation pattern. Binaural unmasking occurs in adults and children when an interaural delay is applied to the envelope of a high-rate pulse train. Nevertheless, for speech perception, binaural unmasking benefits have not been demonstrated consistently, even with coordinated stimulation at both ears. The present study aimed at bridging the gap between basic psychophysical performance on binaural signal detection tasks on the one hand and binaural perception of speech in noise on the other hand. Therefore, binaural signal detection was expanded to multi-channel stimulation and biologically relevant interaural delays. A harmonic complex, consisting of three sinusoids (125, 250, and 375 Hz), was added to three 125-Hz-wide noise bands centered on the sinusoids. When an interaural delay of 700 μs was introduced, an average BMLD of 3 dB was established. Outcomes are promising in view of real-life benefits. Future research should investigate the generalization of the observed benefits for signal detection to speech perception in everyday listening situations and determine the importance of coordination of bilateral speech processors and accentuation of envelope cues.

  5. Time-Varying Distortions of Binaural Information by Bilateral Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Francisco A.; Portnuff, Cory D. F.; Goupell, Matthew J.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    In patients with bilateral hearing loss, the use of two hearing aids (HAs) offers the potential to restore the benefits of binaural hearing, including sound source localization and segregation. However, existing evidence suggests that bilateral HA users’ access to binaural information, namely interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs), can be compromised by device processing. Our objective was to characterize the nature and magnitude of binaural distortions caused by modern digital behind-the-ear HAs using a variety of stimuli and HA program settings. Of particular interest was a common frequency-lowering algorithm known as nonlinear frequency compression, which has not previously been assessed for its effects on binaural information. A binaural beamforming algorithm was also assessed. Wide dynamic range compression was enabled in all programs. HAs were placed on a binaural manikin, and stimuli were presented from an arc of loudspeakers inside an anechoic chamber. Stimuli were broadband noise bursts, 10-Hz sinusoidally amplitude-modulated noise bursts, or consonant–vowel–consonant speech tokens. Binaural information was analyzed in terms of ITDs, ILDs, and interaural coherence, both for whole stimuli and in a time-varying sense (i.e., within a running temporal window) across four different frequency bands (1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz). Key findings were: (a) Nonlinear frequency compression caused distortions of high-frequency envelope ITDs and significantly reduced interaural coherence. (b) For modulated stimuli, all programs caused time-varying distortion of ILDs. (c) HAs altered the relationship between ITDs and ILDs, introducing large ITD–ILD conflicts in some cases. Potential perceptual consequences of measured distortions are discussed. PMID:27698258

  6. Eliminating the Attentional Blink through Binaural Beats: A Case for Tailored Cognitive Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedijk, Susan A; Bolders, Anne; Colzato, Lorenza S; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing human cognitive performance is a topic that continues to spark scientific interest. Studies into cognitive-enhancement techniques often fail to take inter-individual differences into account, however, which leads to underestimation of the effectiveness of these techniques. The current study investigated the effect of binaural beats, a cognitive-enhancement technique, on attentional control in an attentional blink (AB) task. As predicted from a neurocognitive approach to cognitive control, high-frequency binaural beats eliminated the AB, but only in individuals with low spontaneous eye-blink rates (indicating low striatal dopamine levels). This suggests that the way in which cognitive-enhancement techniques, such as binaural beats, affect cognitive performance depends on inter-individual differences.

  7. Eliminating the attentional blink through binaural beats: A case for tailored cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Reedijk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing human cognitive performance is a topic that continues to spark scientific interest. Studies into cognitive enhancement techniques often fail to take inter-individual differences into account, however, which leads to underestimation of the effectiveness of these techniques. The current study investigated the effect of binaural beats, a cognitive enhancement technique, on attentional control in an attentional blink task. As predicted from a neurocognitive approach to cognitive control, high-frequency binaural beats eliminated the attentional blink, but only in individuals with low spontaneous eye-blink rates (indicating low striatal dopamine levels. This suggests that the way in which cognitive enhancement techniques, such as binaural beats, affect cognitive performance depends on inter-individual differences.

  8. Binaural loudness summation for directional sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    the binaural loudness summation of the at-ear signals. Even though the effects of HRTFs were taken into account, considerable individual differences in the binaural summation of loudness remained. In order to create conditions in which the directional at-ear changes were identical for all participants......, the present experiment employed 'generic' HRTFs to create directional sounds via binaural synthesis. When inspecting the results of the listening tests, however, large individual differences were still evident, as in the earlier study. The generality of this finding was further corroborated by running...... an independent, inexperienced sample of ten participants exclusively being exposed to the present generic HRTFs. Despite the individual differences, the average results suggest a relatively simple rule for combining the binaural input when carrying out acoustical measurements using an artificial head...

  9. Physiological evidence of interpersonal dynamics in a cooperative production task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Dan; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that shared behavioral dynamics during interpersonal interaction are indicative of subjective and objective outcomes of the interaction, such as feelings of rapport and success of performance. The role of shared physiological dynamics to quantify interpersonal interaction...... production task. Moreover, high team synchrony is found indicative of team cohesion, while low team synchrony is found indicative of a teams' decision to adopt a new behavior across multiple production sessions. We conclude that team-level measures of synchrony offer new and complementary information...

  10. Group performance and group learning at dynamic system control tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewes, Sylvana

    2013-01-01

    Proper management of dynamic systems (e.g. cooling systems of nuclear power plants or production and warehousing) is important to ensure public safety and economic success. So far, research has provided broad evidence for systematic shortcomings in individuals' control performance of dynamic systems. This research aims to investigate whether groups manifest synergy (Larson, 2010) and outperform individuals and if so, what processes lead to these performance advantages. In three experiments - including simulations of a nuclear power plant and a business setting - I compare the control performance of three-person-groups to the average individual performance and to nominal groups (N = 105 groups per experiment). The nominal group condition captures the statistical advantage of aggregated group judgements not due to social interaction. First, results show a superior performance of groups compared to individuals. Second, a meta-analysis across all three experiments shows interaction-based process gains in dynamic control tasks: Interacting groups outperform the average individual performance as well as the nominal group performance. Third, group interaction leads to stable individual improvements of group members that exceed practice effects. In sum, these results provide the first unequivocal evidence for interaction-based performance gains of groups in dynamic control tasks and imply that employers should rely on groups to provide opportunities for individual learning and to foster dynamic system control at its best.

  11. Interaural Level Difference Dependent Gain Control and Synaptic Scaling Underlying Binaural Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaorui R.; Liang, Feixue; Li, Haifu; Mesik, Lukas; Zhang, Ke K.; Polley, Daniel B.; Tao, Huizhong W.; Xiao, Zhongju; Zhang, Li I.

    2013-01-01

    Binaural integration in the central nucleus of inferior colliculus (ICC) plays a critical role in sound localization. However, its arithmetic nature and underlying synaptic mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we showed in mouse ICC neurons that the contralateral dominance is created by a “push-pull”-like mechanism, with contralaterally dominant excitation and more bilaterally balanced inhibition. Importantly, binaural spiking response is generated apparently from an ipsilaterally-mediated scaling of contralateral response, leaving frequency tuning unchanged. This scaling effect is attributed to a divisive attenuation of contralaterally-evoked synaptic excitation onto ICC neurons with their inhibition largely unaffected. Thus, a gain control mediates the linear transformation from monaural to binaural spike responses. The gain value is modulated by interaural level difference (ILD) primarily through scaling excitation to different levels. The ILD-dependent synaptic scaling and gain adjustment allow ICC neurons to dynamically encode interaural sound localization cues while maintaining an invariant representation of other independent sound attributes. PMID:23972599

  12. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Patrick A; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L; Ives, Jeffrey C; Sforzo, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats ('wide-band' theta-frequency binaural beats) or placebo (carrier tones) for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high-frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity), low-frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural-beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, increased parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural-beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.

  13. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eMcConnell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation, few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics (heart-rate variability (HRV during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design. At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats (‘wide-band’ theta-frequency binaural beats or placebo (carrier tone for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity, low frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, as well as increased parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.

  14. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Baumgärtel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50 were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users.

  15. Decision criterion dynamics in animals performing an auditory detection task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Mill

    Full Text Available Classical signal detection theory attributes bias in perceptual decisions to a threshold criterion, against which sensory excitation is compared. The optimal criterion setting depends on the signal level, which may vary over time, and about which the subject is naïve. Consequently, the subject must optimise its threshold by responding appropriately to feedback. Here a series of experiments was conducted, and a computational model applied, to determine how the decision bias of the ferret in an auditory signal detection task tracks changes in the stimulus level. The time scales of criterion dynamics were investigated by means of a yes-no signal-in-noise detection task, in which trials were grouped into blocks that alternately contained easy- and hard-to-detect signals. The responses of the ferrets implied both long- and short-term criterion dynamics. The animals exhibited a bias in favour of responding "yes" during blocks of harder trials, and vice versa. Moreover, the outcome of each single trial had a strong influence on the decision at the next trial. We demonstrate that the single-trial and block-level changes in bias are a manifestation of the same criterion update policy by fitting a model, in which the criterion is shifted by fixed amounts according to the outcome of the previous trial and decays strongly towards a resting value. The apparent block-level stabilisation of bias arises as the probabilities of outcomes and shifts on single trials mutually interact to establish equilibrium. To gain an intuition into how stable criterion distributions arise from specific parameter sets we develop a Markov model which accounts for the dynamic effects of criterion shifts. Our approach provides a framework for investigating the dynamics of decisions at different timescales in other species (e.g., humans and in other psychological domains (e.g., vision, memory.

  16. Hearing with Two Ears: Evidence for Cortical Binaural Interaction during Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Yael; Yaar-Soffer, Yifat; Givon, Lihi; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2015-04-01

    Integration of information presented to the two ears has been shown to manifest in binaural interaction components (BICs) that occur along the ascending auditory pathways. In humans, BICs have been studied predominantly at the brainstem and thalamocortical levels; however, understanding of higher cortically driven mechanisms of binaural hearing is limited. To explore whether BICs are evident in auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) during the advanced perceptual and postperceptual stages of cortical processing. The AERPs N1, P3, and a late negative component (LNC) were recorded from multiple site electrodes while participants performed an oddball discrimination task that consisted of natural speech syllables (/ka/ vs. /ta/) that differed by place-of-articulation. Participants were instructed to respond to the target stimulus (/ta/) while performing the task in three listening conditions: monaural right, monaural left, and binaural. Fifteen (21-32 yr) young adults (6 females) with normal hearing sensitivity. By subtracting the response to target stimuli elicited in the binaural condition from the sum of responses elicited in the monaural right and left conditions, the BIC waveform was derived and the latencies and amplitudes of the components were measured. The maximal interaction was calculated by dividing BIC amplitude by the summed right and left response amplitudes. In addition, the latencies and amplitudes of the AERPs to target stimuli elicited in the monaural right, monaural left, and binaural listening conditions were measured and subjected to analysis of variance with repeated measures testing the effect of listening condition and laterality. Three consecutive BICs were identified at a mean latency of 129, 406, and 554 msec, and were labeled N1-BIC, P3-BIC, and LNC-BIC, respectively. Maximal interaction increased significantly with progression of auditory processing from perceptual to postperceptual stages and amounted to 51%, 55%, and 75% of the sum of

  17. Efficient control of mechatronic systems in dynamic motion tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotova Desislava

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robots and powered exoskeletons have often complex and non-linear dynamics due to friction, elasticity, and changing load. The proposed study addresses various-type robots that have to perform dynamic point-to-point motion tasks (PTPMT. The performance demands are for faster motion, higher positioning accuracy, and lower energy consumption. With given motion task, it is of primary importance to study the structure and controllability of the corresponding controlled system. The following natural decentralized controllability condition is assumed: the signs of any control input and the corresponding output (the acceleration are the same, at least when the control input is at its maximum absolute value. Then we find explicit necessary and sufficient conditions on the control transfer matrix that can guarantee robust controllability in the face of arbitrary, but bounded disturbances. Further on, we propose a generic optimisation approach for control learning synthesis of various type robotic systems in PTPMT. Our procedure for iterative learning control (LC has the following main steps: (1 choose a set of appropriate test control functions; (2 define the most relevant input-output pairs; and (3 solve shooting equations and perform control parameter optimisation. We will give several examples to explain our controllability and optimisation concepts.

  18. A binaural beat constructed from a noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The binaural beat has been used for over one hundred years as a stimulus for generating the percept of motion. Classically the beat consists of a pure tone at one ear (e.g. 500 Hz) and the same pure tone at the other ear but shifted upwards or downwards in frequency (e.g., 501 Hz). An experiment and binaural computational analysis are reported which demonstrate that a more powerful motion percept can be obtained by applying the concept of the frequency shift to a noise, via an upwards or downwards shift in the frequency of the Fourier components of its spectrum. PMID:21218863

  19. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Beynon, Andy J; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The present study investigates binaural interaction at the level of the auditory brainstem. It is hypothesized that brainstem binaural interaction deteriorates with advancing age. Forty-two subjects of various age participated in the study. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded using clicks and 500 Hz tone-bursts. ABRs were elicited by monaural right, monaural left, and binaural stimulation. Binaural interaction was investigated in two ways. First, grand averages of the binaural interaction component were computed for each age group. Second, wave V characteristics of the binaural ABR were compared with those of the summed left and right ABRs. Binaural interaction in the click ABR was demonstrated by shorter latencies and smaller amplitudes in the binaural compared with the summed monaural responses. For 500 Hz tone-burst ABR, no latency differences were found. However, amplitudes were significantly smaller in the binaural than summed monaural condition. An age-effect was found for 500 Hz tone-burst, but not for click ABR. Brainstem binaural interaction seems to decline with age. Interestingly, these changes seem to be stimulus-dependent.

  20. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Binaural pitch is a tonal sensation produced by introducing a frequency-dependent interaural phase shift in binaurally presented white noise. As no spectral cues are present in the physical stimulus, binaural pitch perception is assumed to rely on accurate temporal fine structure coding and intact...... binaural integration mechanisms. This study investigated to what extent basic auditory measures of binaural processing as well as cognitive abilities are correlated with the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to perceive binaural pitch. Subjects from three groups (1: normal-hearing; 2: cochlear...... hearingloss; 3: retro-cochlear impairment) were asked to identify the pitch contour of series of five notes of equal duration, ranging from 523 to 784 Hz, played either with Huggins’ binaural pitch stimuli (BP) or perceptually similar, but monaurally detectable, pitches (MP). All subjects from groups 1 and 2...

  1. Auditory evoked responses to binaural beat illusion: stimulus generation and the derivation of the Binaural Interaction Component (BIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, Ozcan; Bohorquez, Jorge; Mihajloski, Todor; Yavuz, Erdem; Lachowska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological indices of auditory binaural beats illusions are studied using late latency evoked responses. Binaural beats are generated by continuous monaural FM tones with slightly different ascending and descending frequencies lasting about 25 ms presented at 1 sec intervals. Frequency changes are carefully adjusted to avoid any creation of abrupt waveform changes. Binaural Interaction Component (BIC) analysis is used to separate the neural responses due to binaural involvement. The results show that the transient auditory evoked responses can be obtained from the auditory illusion of binaural beats.

  2. Hearing aid controlled by binaural source localizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive directional hearing aid system comprising a left hearing aid and a right hearing aid, wherein a binaural acoustic source localizer is located in the left hearing aid or in the right hearing aid or in a separate body- worn device connected wirelessly to the left hearing aid and the right

  3. Spectral integration in binaural signal detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breebaart, D.J.; Par, van de S.L.J.D.E.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    For both monaural and binaural masking, the spectral content of the masker and of the signal to be detected are important stimulus properties influencing the detection process. It is generally accepted that the auditory system separates the incoming signals in several frequency bands. It is not

  4. Dynamic, continuous multitasking training leads to task-specific improvements but does not transfer across action selection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Angela D.; Filmer, Hannah L.; Naughtin, Claire K.; Dux, Paul E.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to perform multiple tasks concurrently is an ever-increasing requirement in our information-rich world. Despite this, multitasking typically compromises performance due to the processing limitations associated with cognitive control and decision-making. While intensive dual-task training is known to improve multitasking performance, only limited evidence suggests that training-related performance benefits can transfer to untrained tasks that share overlapping processes. In the real world, however, coordinating and selecting several responses within close temporal proximity will often occur in high-interference environments. Over the last decade, there have been notable reports that training on video action games that require dynamic multitasking in a demanding environment can lead to transfer effects on aspects of cognition such as attention and working memory. Here, we asked whether continuous and dynamic multitasking training extends benefits to tasks that are theoretically related to the trained tasks. To examine this issue, we asked a group of participants to train on a combined continuous visuomotor tracking task and a perceptual discrimination task for six sessions, while an active control group practiced the component tasks in isolation. A battery of tests measuring response selection, response inhibition, and spatial attention was administered before and immediately after training to investigate transfer. Multitasking training resulted in substantial, task-specific gains in dual-task ability, but there was no evidence that these benefits generalized to other action control tasks. The findings suggest that training on a combined visuomotor tracking and discrimination task results in task-specific benefits but provides no additional value for untrained action selection tasks.

  5. Seeing is Believing: Formalising False-Belief Tasks in Dynamic Epistemic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how to formalise false-belief tasks like the Sally-Anne task and the second-order chocolate task in Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL). False-belief tasks are used to test the strength of the Theory of Mind (ToM) of humans, that is, a human’s ability to attribute mental states...

  6. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-04-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception was linked to a specific deficit, the auditory profiles of the individual listeners were characterized using measures of loudness perception, cognitive ability, binaural processing, temporal fine structure processing, and frequency selectivity, in addition to common audiometric measures. Two of the listeners were found not to perceive binaural pitch at all, despite a clear detection of monaural pitch. While both binaural and monaural pitches were detectable by all other listeners, identification scores were significantly lower for binaural than for monaural pitch. A total absence of binaural pitch sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural pitch perception showed deficits in temporal fine structure processing. Whether the observed deficits stemmed from peripheral or central mechanisms could not be resolved here, but the present findings may be useful for hearing loss characterization.

  7. Range dependent characteristics in the head-related transfer functions of a bat-head cast: part 2. Binaural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S; Allen, R; Rowan, D

    2012-01-01

    Further innovations in bio-inspired engineering based on biosonar systems, such as bats, may arise from more detailed understanding of the underlying acoustic processes. This includes the range-dependent properties of bat heads and ears, particularly at the higher frequencies of bat vocalizations. In a companion paper Kim et al (2012 Bioinspir. Biomim.), range-dependent head-related transfer functions of a bat head cast were investigated up to 100 kHz at either ear (i.e. monaural features). The current paper extends this to consider range-dependent spectral and temporal disparities between the two ears (i.e. binaural features), using experimental data and a spherical model of a bat head to provide insights into the physical basis for these features. It was found that binaural temporal and high-frequency binaural spectral features are approximately independent of distance, having the effect of decreasing their angular resolution at close range. In contrast, low-frequency binaural spectral features are strongly distance-dependent, such that angular sensitivity can be maintained by lowering the frequency of the echolocation emission at close range. Together with the companion paper Kim et al, we speculate that distance-dependent low-frequency monaural and binaural features at short range might help explain why some species of bats that drop the frequency of their calls on target approach while approaching a target. This also provides an impetus for the design of effective emissions in sonar engineering applied to similar tasks. (paper)

  8. Comparison between bilateral cochlear implants and Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural cochlear implant: speech perception, sound localization and patient self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Damien; Lautissier, Sylvie; Bosset-Audoit, Amélie; Coriat, Géraldine; Beraha, Max; Maunoury, Antoine; Martel, Jacques; Darrouzet, Vincent; Bébéar, Jean-Pierre; Dauman, René

    2013-01-01

    An alternative to bilateral cochlear implantation is offered by the Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural cochlear implant, which allows stimulation of both cochleae within a single device. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare a group of Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural implant users (denoted BINAURAL group, n = 7) with a group of bilateral adult cochlear implant users (denoted BILATERAL group, n = 6) in terms of speech perception, sound localization, and self-assessment of health status and hearing disability. Speech perception was assessed using word recognition at 60 dB SPL in quiet and in a 'cocktail party' noise delivered through five loudspeakers in the hemi-sound field facing the patient (signal-to-noise ratio = +10 dB). The sound localization task was to determine the source of a sound stimulus among five speakers positioned between -90° and +90° from midline. Change in health status was assessed using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory and hearing disability was evaluated with the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit. Speech perception was not statistically different between the two groups, even though there was a trend in favor of the BINAURAL group (mean percent word recognition in the BINAURAL and BILATERAL groups: 70 vs. 56.7% in quiet, 55.7 vs. 43.3% in noise). There was also no significant difference with regard to performance in sound localization and self-assessment of health status and hearing disability. On the basis of the BINAURAL group's performance in hearing tasks involving the detection of interaural differences, implantation with the Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural implant may be considered to restore effective binaural hearing. Based on these first comparative results, this device seems to provide benefits similar to those of traditional bilateral cochlear implantation, with a new approach to stimulate both auditory nerves. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Eliminating the Attentional Blink through Binaural Beats: A Case for Tailored Cognitive Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Reedijk, Susan A.; Bolders, Anne; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing human cognitive performance is a topic that continues to spark scientific interest. Studies into cognitive-enhancement techniques often fail to take inter-individual differences into account, however, which leads to underestimation of the effectiveness of these techniques. The current study investigated the effect of binaural beats, a cognitive-enhancement technique, on attentional control in an attentional blink (AB) task. As predicted from a neurocognitive approach to cognitive co...

  10. Beamforming under Quantization Errors in Wireless Binaural Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Sriram

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the intelligibility of speech in different environments is one of the main objectives of hearing aid signal processing algorithms. Hearing aids typically employ beamforming techniques using multiple microphones for this task. In this paper, we discuss a binaural beamforming scheme that uses signals from the hearing aids worn on both the left and right ears. Specifically, we analyze the effect of a low bit rate wireless communication link between the left and right hearing aids on the performance of the beamformer. The scheme is comprised of a generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC that has two inputs: observations from one ear, and quantized observations from the other ear, and whose output is an estimate of the desired signal. We analyze the performance of this scheme in the presence of a localized interferer as a function of the communication bit rate using the resultant mean-squared error as the signal distortion measure.

  11. Beamforming under Quantization Errors in Wireless Binaural Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Janse

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving the intelligibility of speech in different environments is one of the main objectives of hearing aid signal processing algorithms. Hearing aids typically employ beamforming techniques using multiple microphones for this task. In this paper, we discuss a binaural beamforming scheme that uses signals from the hearing aids worn on both the left and right ears. Specifically, we analyze the effect of a low bit rate wireless communication link between the left and right hearing aids on the performance of the beamformer. The scheme is comprised of a generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC that has two inputs: observations from one ear, and quantized observations from the other ear, and whose output is an estimate of the desired signal. We analyze the performance of this scheme in the presence of a localized interferer as a function of the communication bit rate using the resultant mean-squared error as the signal distortion measure.

  12. Dynamics of the central bottleneck: dual-task and task uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Sigman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Why is the human brain fundamentally limited when attempting to execute two tasks at the same time or in close succession? Two classical paradigms, psychological refractory period (PRP and task switching, have independently approached this issue, making significant advances in our understanding of the architecture of cognition. Yet, there is an apparent contradiction between the conclusions derived from these two paradigms. The PRP paradigm, on the one hand, suggests that the simultaneous execution of two tasks is limited solely by a passive structural bottleneck in which the tasks are executed on a first-come, first-served basis. The task-switching paradigm, on the other hand, argues that switching back and forth between task configurations must be actively controlled by a central executive system (the system controlling voluntary, planned, and flexible action. Here we have explicitly designed an experiment mixing the essential ingredients of both paradigms: task uncertainty and task simultaneity. In addition to a central bottleneck, we obtain evidence for active processes of task setting (planning of the appropriate sequence of actions and task disengaging (suppression of the plan set for the first task in order to proceed with the next one. Our results clarify the chronometric relations between these central components of dual-task processing, and in particular whether they operate serially or in parallel. On this basis, we propose a hierarchical model of cognitive architecture that provides a synthesis of task-switching and PRP paradigms.

  13. Covariation of binaural, concurrently-measured spontaneous otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, M J; Brauth, S E; Jastreboff, P J

    1994-03-01

    Simultaneous recordings of binaural spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) were made for 2 female subjects. For SOAEs below about 3.6 kHz measured within a testing session, the frequencies of nearby monaural and binaural SOAEs tended to move in tandem, whereas widely separated SOAEs did not. Across many testing sessions spanning a menstrual cycle, all monaural and binaural SOAE frequencies shifted in tandem. Possible mechanisms consistent with these results are discussed.

  14. Suitability of the Binaural Interaction Component for Interaural Electrode Pairing of Bilateral Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongmei; Kollmeier, Birger; Dietz, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Although bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) have succeeded in improving the spatial hearing performance of bilateral CI users, the overall performance is still not comparable with normal hearing listeners. Limited success can be partially caused by an interaural mismatch of the place-of-stimulation in each cochlea. Pairing matched interaural CI electrodes and stimulating them with the same frequency band is expected to facilitate binaural functions such as binaural fusion, localization, or spatial release from masking. It has been shown in animal experiments that the magnitude of the binaural interaction component (BIC) derived from the wave-eV decreases for increasing interaural place of stimulation mismatch. This motivated the investigation of the suitability of an electroencephalography-based objective electrode-frequency fitting procedure based on the BIC for BiCI users. A 61 channel monaural and binaural electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (eABR) recording was performed in 7 MED-EL BiCI subjects so far. These BiCI subjects were directly stimulated at 60% dynamic range with 19.9 pulses per second via a research platform provided by the University of Innsbruck (RIB II). The BIC was derived for several interaural electrode pairs by subtracting the response from binaural stimulation from their summed monaural responses. The BIC based pairing results are compared with two psychoacoustic pairing methods: interaural pulse time difference sensitivity and interaural pitch matching. The results for all three methods analyzed as a function of probe electrode allow for determining a matched pair in more than half of the subjects, with a typical accuracy of ± 1 electrode. This includes evidence for statistically significant tuning of the BIC as a function of probe electrode in human subjects. However, results across the three conditions were sometimes not consistent. These discrepancies will be discussed in the light of pitch plasticity versus less plastic

  15. Human cortical responses to slow and fast binaural beats reveal multiple mechanisms of binaural hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Bernhard; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Thompson, Jessica; Jamali, Shahab; Fujioka, Takako

    2014-10-15

    When two tones with slightly different frequencies are presented to both ears, they interact in the central auditory system and induce the sensation of a beating sound. At low difference frequencies, we perceive a single sound, which is moving across the head between the left and right ears. The percept changes to loudness fluctuation, roughness, and pitch with increasing beat rate. To examine the neural representations underlying these different perceptions, we recorded neuromagnetic cortical responses while participants listened to binaural beats at a continuously varying rate between 3 Hz and 60 Hz. Binaural beat responses were analyzed as neuromagnetic oscillations following the trajectory of the stimulus rate. Responses were largest in the 40-Hz gamma range and at low frequencies. Binaural beat responses at 3 Hz showed opposite polarity in the left and right auditory cortices. We suggest that this difference in polarity reflects the opponent neural population code for representing sound location. Binaural beats at any rate induced gamma oscillations. However, the responses were largest at 40-Hz stimulation. We propose that the neuromagnetic gamma oscillations reflect postsynaptic modulation that allows for precise timing of cortical neural firing. Systematic phase differences between bilateral responses suggest that separate sound representations of a sound object exist in the left and right auditory cortices. We conclude that binaural processing at the cortical level occurs with the same temporal acuity as monaural processing whereas the identification of sound location requires further interpretation and is limited by the rate of object representations. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Conductive hearing loss and bone conduction devices: restored binaural hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Hol, Myrthe K S; Cremers, Cor W R J; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; van Opstal, John; Snik, Ad F M

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of binaural hearing is the proper detection of interaural sound level differences and interaural timing differences. Assessments of binaural hearing were made in patients with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL, n = 11) or congenital UCHL (n = 10) after unilateral application of a bone conduction device (BCD), and in patients with bilateral conductive or mixed hearing loss after bilateral BCD application. Benefit (bilateral versus unilateral listening) was assessed by measuring directional hearing, compensation of the acoustic head shadow, binaural summation and binaural squelch. Measurements were performed after an acclimatization time of at least 10 weeks. Unilateral BCD application was beneficial, but there was less benefit in the patients with congenital UCHL as compared to patients with acquired UCHL. In adults with bilateral hearing loss, bilateral BCD application was clearly beneficial as compared to unilateral BCD application. Binaural summation was present, but binaural squelch could not be proven. To explain the poor results in the patients with congenital UCHL, two factors seemed to be important. First, a critical period in the development of binaural hearing might affect the binaural hearing abilities. Second, crossover stimulation, referring to additional stimulation of the cochlea contralateral to the BCD side, might deteriorate binaural hearing in patients with UCHL. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The impact of binaural beats on creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Susan A. Reedijk; Susan A. Reedijk; Anne eBolders; Anne eBolders; Bernhard eHommel; Bernhard eHommel

    2013-01-01

    Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through st...

  18. Students' Geometrical Perception on a Task-Based Dynamic Geometry Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Allen; Lee, Arthur Man Sang

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a task-based dynamic geometry platform that is able to record student responses in a collective fashion to pre-designed dragging tasks. The platform provides a new type of data and opens up a quantitative dimension to interpret students' geometrical perception in dynamic geometry environments. The platform is capable of…

  19. The developmental dynamics of task-avoidant behavior and math performance in kindergarten and elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Besides cognitive factors, children's learning at school may be influenced by more dynamic phenomena, such as motivation and achievement-related task-avoidant behavior. The present study examined the developmental dynamics of task-avoidant behavior and math performance from kindergarten to Grade 4. A total of 225 children were tested for their arithmetic skills in kindergarten and in Grades 1, 2, and 4 of elementary school. Children's task-avoidant behavior in learning situations was rated by...

  20. Comparison of binaural microphones for externalization of sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubick, Jens; Sánchez Rodríguez, C.; Song, Wookeun

    2015-01-01

    or with microphones placed inside the ear canals of a person. In this study, binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were measured with several commercially available binaural microphones, both placed inside the listeners’ ears (individual BRIR) and on a head and torso simulator (generic BRIR). The degree...

  1. Improved multi-microphone noise reduction preserving binaural cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutrouvelis, A.; Hendriks, R.C.; Jensen, J; Heusdens, R.; Dong, Min; Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new multi-microphone noise reduction technique for binaural cue preservation of the desired source and the interferers. This method is based on the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) framework, where the constraints are used for the binaural cue preservation of the desired

  2. Aural assessment by means of binaural algorithms -the AABBA project-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauert, J.; Braasch, J.; Buchholz, J.; Colburn, H.S.; Jekosch, U.; Kohlrausch, A.G.; Mourjopoulos, J.; Pulkki, V.; Raake, A.; Buchholz, J.; Dau, T.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Poulsen, T.

    2010-01-01

    AABBA is an intellectual grouping with the goal of collaborating for 4-5 years on the application of computational models of human binaural hearing. The grouping will compile a battery of common software components for setting-up dedicated full-scale binaural models for various technological

  3. Differences in binaural interaction at low and high frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Par, van de S.L.J.D.E.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Differences in the acoustic signals received by both ears form the major basis of our ability to localize sound sources. They can also help in detecting a signal against a background of interfering (masking) sounds. A quantitative measure for this 'binaural advantage' is the Binaural Masking Level

  4. Binaural sensitivity changes between cortical on and off responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Johannes C.; King, Andrew J.; Schnupp, Jan W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Neurons exhibiting on and off responses with different frequency tuning have previously been described in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of anesthetized and awake animals, but it is unknown whether other tuning properties, including sensitivity to binaural localization cues, also differ between on and off responses. We measured the sensitivity of A1 neurons in anesthetized ferrets to 1) interaural level differences (ILDs), using unmodulated broadband noise with varying ILDs and average binaural levels, and 2) interaural time delays (ITDs), using sinusoidally amplitude-modulated broadband noise with varying envelope ITDs. We also assessed fine-structure ITD sensitivity and frequency tuning, using pure-tone stimuli. Neurons most commonly responded to stimulus onset only, but purely off responses and on-off responses were also recorded. Of the units exhibiting significant binaural sensitivity nearly one-quarter showed binaural sensitivity in both on and off responses, but in almost all (∼97%) of these units the binaural tuning of the on responses differed significantly from that seen in the off responses. Moreover, averaged, normalized ILD and ITD tuning curves calculated from all units showing significant sensitivity to binaural cues indicated that on and off responses displayed different sensitivity patterns across the population. A principal component analysis of ITD response functions suggested a continuous cortical distribution of binaural sensitivity, rather than discrete response classes. Rather than reflecting a release from inhibition without any functional significance, we propose that binaural off responses may be important to cortical encoding of sound-source location. PMID:21562191

  5. Pre- and Postoperative Binaural Unmasking for Bimodal Cochlear Implant Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Benjamin M; Schuchman, Gerald; Bernstein, Joshua G W

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are increasingly recommended to individuals with residual bilateral acoustic hearing. Although new hearing-preserving electrode designs and surgical approaches show great promise, CI recipients are still at risk to lose acoustic hearing in the implanted ear, which could prevent the ability to take advantage of binaural unmasking to aid speech recognition in noise. This study examined the tradeoff between the benefits of a CI for speech understanding in noise and the potential loss of binaural unmasking for CI recipients with some bilateral preoperative acoustic hearing. Binaural unmasking is difficult to evaluate in CI candidates because speech perception in noise is generally too poor to measure reliably in the range of signal to noise ratios (SNRs) where binaural intelligibility level differences (BILDs) are typically observed (binaural benefit, 9 out of 10 listeners tested postoperatively had performance equal to or better than their best pre-CI performance. The listener who retained functional acoustic hearing in the implanted ear also demonstrated a preserved acoustic BILD postoperatively. Approximately half of the CI candidates in this study demonstrated preoperative binaural hearing benefits for audiovisual speech perception in noise. Most of these listeners lost their acoustic hearing in the implanted ear after surgery (using nonhearing-preservation techniques), and therefore lost access to this binaural benefit. In all but one case, any loss of binaural benefit was compensated for or exceeded by an improvement in speech perception with the CI. Evidence of a preoperative BILD suggests that certain CI candidates might further benefit from hearing-preservation surgery to retain acoustic binaural unmasking, as demonstrated for the listener who underwent hearing-preservation surgery. This test of binaural audiovisual speech perception in noise could serve as a diagnostic tool to identify CI candidates who are most likely to receive

  6. Geospace Plasma Dynamics Laboratory Annual Task Report (FY11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Site Contractors: Nagendra Singh, Ph.D., Physicist , 0.5 MY Neil Grossbard, M.S., Mathematician , 0.7 MY Visitors: Publications: Articles in...PhD Project Manager Division Chief, RVB This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical...Annual Task Report (FY11) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2311 Daniel Ober 5e. TASK NUMBER

  7. Brain responses to 40-Hz binaural beat and effects on emotion and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-10-01

    Gamma oscillation plays a role in binding process or sensory integration, a process by which several brain areas beside primary cortex are activated for higher perception of the received stimulus. Beta oscillation is also involved in interpreting received stimulus and occurs following gamma oscillation, and this process is known as gamma-to-beta transition, a process for neglecting unnecessary stimuli in surrounding environment. Gamma oscillation also associates with cognitive functions, memory and emotion. Therefore, modulation of the brain activity can lead to manipulation of cognitive functions. The stimulus used in this study was 40-Hz binaural beat because binaural beat induces frequency following response. This study aimed to investigate the neural oscillation responding to the 40-Hz binaural beat and to evaluate working memory function and emotional states after listening to that stimulus. Two experiments were developed based on the study aims. In the first experiment, electroencephalograms were recorded while participants listened to the stimulus for 30min. The results suggested that frontal, temporal, and central regions were activated within 15min. In the second experiment, word list recall task was conducted before and after listening to the stimulus for 20min. The results showed that, after listening, the recalled words were increase in the working memory portion of the list. Brunel Mood Scale, a questionnaire to evaluate emotional states, revealed changes in emotional states after listening to the stimulus. The emotional results suggested that these changes were consistent with the induced neural oscillations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficient coding of spectrotemporal binaural sounds leads to emergence of the auditory space representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor

    2014-01-01

    To date a number of studies have shown that receptive field shapes of early sensory neurons can be reproduced by optimizing coding efficiency of natural stimulus ensembles. A still unresolved question is whether the efficient coding hypothesis explains formation of neurons which explicitly represent environmental features of different functional importance. This paper proposes that the spatial selectivity of higher auditory neurons emerges as a direct consequence of learning efficient codes for natural binaural sounds. Firstly, it is demonstrated that a linear efficient coding transform—Independent Component Analysis (ICA) trained on spectrograms of naturalistic simulated binaural sounds extracts spatial information present in the signal. A simple hierarchical ICA extension allowing for decoding of sound position is proposed. Furthermore, it is shown that units revealing spatial selectivity can be learned from a binaural recording of a natural auditory scene. In both cases a relatively small subpopulation of learned spectrogram features suffices to perform accurate sound localization. Representation of the auditory space is therefore learned in a purely unsupervised way by maximizing the coding efficiency and without any task-specific constraints. This results imply that efficient coding is a useful strategy for learning structures which allow for making behaviorally vital inferences about the environment. PMID:24639644

  9. Efficient coding of spectrotemporal binaural sounds leads to emergence of the auditory space representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor eMlynarski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To date a number of studies have shown that receptive field shapes of early sensory neurons can be reproduced by optimizing coding efficiency of natural stimulus ensembles. A still unresolved question is whether the efficientcoding hypothesis explains formation of neurons which explicitly represent environmental features of different functional importance. This paper proposes that the spatial selectivity of higher auditory neurons emerges as a direct consequence of learning efficient codes for natural binaural sounds. Firstly, it is demonstrated that a linear efficient coding transform - Independent Component Analysis (ICA trained on spectrograms of naturalistic simulated binaural sounds extracts spatial information present in the signal. A simple hierarchical ICA extension allowing for decoding of sound position is proposed. Furthermore, it is shown that units revealing spatial selectivity can be learned from a binaural recording of a natural auditory scene. In both cases a relatively small subpopulation of learned spectrogram features suffices to perform accurate sound localization. Representation of the auditory space is therefore learned in a purely unsupervised way by maximizing the coding efficiency and without any task-specific constraints. This results imply that efficient coding is a useful strategy for learning structures which allow for making behaviorally vital inferences about the environment.

  10. Binaural beats increase interhemispheric alpha-band coherence between auditory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcà, Marco; Mottaz, Anaïs; Guggisberg, Adrian G

    2016-02-01

    Binaural beats (BBs) are an auditory illusion occurring when two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to each ear. BBs have been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes through synchronization of the brain hemispheres. To test this, we recorded electroencephalograms (EEG) at rest and while participants listened to BBs or a monaural control condition during which both tones were presented to both ears. We calculated for each condition the interhemispheric coherence, which expressed the synchrony between neural oscillations of both hemispheres. Compared to monaural beats and resting state, BBs enhanced interhemispheric coherence between the auditory cortices. Beat frequencies in the alpha (10 Hz) and theta (4 Hz) frequency range both increased interhemispheric coherence selectively at alpha frequencies. In a second experiment, we evaluated whether this coherence increase has a behavioral aftereffect on binaural listening. No effects were observed in a dichotic digit task performed immediately after BBs presentation. Our results suggest that BBs enhance alpha-band oscillation synchrony between the auditory cortices during auditory stimulation. This effect seems to reflect binaural integration rather than entrainment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Response to dynamic language tasks among typically developing Latino preschool children with bilingual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Janet L; Rodríguez, Barbara L; Dale, Philip S

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether typically developing preschool children with bilingual experience show evidence of learning within brief dynamic assessment language tasks administered in a graduated prompting framework. Dynamic assessment has shown promise for accurate identification of language impairment in bilingual children, and a graduated prompting approach may be well-suited to screening for language impairment. Three dynamic language tasks with graduated prompting were presented to 32 typically developing 4-year-olds in the language to which the child had the most exposure (16 Spanish, 16 English). The tasks were a novel word learning task, a semantic task, and a phonological awareness task. Children's performance was significantly higher on the last 2 items compared with the first 2 items for the semantic and the novel word learning tasks among children who required a prompt on the 1st item. There was no significant difference between the 1st and last items on the phonological awareness task. Within-task improvements in children's performance for some tasks administered within a brief, graduated prompting framework were observed. Thus, children's responses to graduated prompting may be an indicator of modifiability, depending on the task type and level of difficulty.

  12. Exploiting Dynamics in robotic arms with repetitive tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooij, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, machines have taken over many tasks from humans, increasing labor productivity and prosperity. In the 20th century, the introduction of robots created a second wave of automation, increasing the labor productivity even further. In order to create a third wave of

  13. Field studies into the dynamics of product development tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot, van K.E.; Bertrand, J.W.M.; Rutte, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to describe three exploratory field studies investigating which characteristics add to later time to market and/or low product functionality of newly developed products. The studies are conducted at the level of developments tasks, or work packages. The first and second

  14. Solution strategies as possible explanations of individual and sex differences in a dynamic spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Daniel; Contreras, María José; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, José

    2008-05-01

    When individuals perform spatial tasks, individual differences emerge in accuracy and speed as well as in the response patterns used to cope with the task. The purpose of this study is to identify, through empirical criteria, the different response patterns or strategies used by individuals when performing the dynamic spatial task presented in the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (SODT-R). Results show that participants can be classified according to their response patterns. Three different ways of solving a task are described, and their relation to (a) performance factors (response latency, response frequency, and invested time) and (b) ability tests (analytical reasoning, verbal reasoning, and spatial estimation) are investigated. Sex differences in response patterns and performance are also analyzed. It is found that the frequency with which men and women employ each one of the strategies described here, is different and statistically significant. Thus, employed strategy plays an important role when interpreting sex differences on dynamic spatial tasks.

  15. Dynamical signatures of isometric force control as a function of age, expertise, and task constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieluf, Solveig; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Jirsa, Viktor; Reuter, Eva-Maria; Godde, Ben; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Huys, Raoul

    2017-07-01

    From the conceptual and methodological framework of the dynamical systems approach, force control results from complex interactions of various subsystems yielding observable behavioral fluctuations, which comprise both deterministic (predictable) and stochastic (noise-like) dynamical components. Here, we investigated these components contributing to the observed variability in force control in groups of participants differing in age and expertise level. To this aim, young (18-25 yr) as well as late middle-aged (55-65 yr) novices and experts (precision mechanics) performed a force maintenance and a force modulation task. Results showed that whereas the amplitude of force variability did not differ across groups in the maintenance tasks, in the modulation task it was higher for late middle-aged novices than for experts and higher for both these groups than for young participants. Within both tasks and for all groups, stochastic fluctuations were lowest where the deterministic influence was smallest. However, although all groups showed similar dynamics underlying force control in the maintenance task, a group effect was found for deterministic and stochastic fluctuations in the modulation task. The latter findings imply that both components were involved in the observed group differences in the variability of force fluctuations in the modulation task. These findings suggest that between groups the general characteristics of the dynamics do not differ in either task and that force control is more affected by age than by expertise. However, expertise seems to counteract some of the age effects. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Stochastic and deterministic dynamical components contribute to force production. Dynamical signatures differ between force maintenance and cyclic force modulation tasks but hardly between age and expertise groups. Differences in both stochastic and deterministic components are associated with group differences in behavioral variability, and observed behavioral

  16. Individual Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities and Team Performance in Dynamic Task Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    The specific goal of this research was to examine the role of individual differences in cognitive and non-cognitive abilities on individual and team performance in a real-time dynamic team-task environment...

  17. Scheduling with Group Dynamics: a Multi-Robot Task Allocation Algorithm based on Vacancy Chains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahl, Torbjorn S; Mataric, Maja J; Sukhatme, Gaurav S

    2002-01-01

    .... We present a multi-robot task allocation algorithm that is sensitive to group dynamics. Our algorithm is based on vacancy chains, a resource distribution process common in human and animal societies...

  18. Binaural segregation in multisource reverberant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Nicoleta; Srinivasan, Soundararajan; Wang, DeLiang

    2006-12-01

    In a natural environment, speech signals are degraded by both reverberation and concurrent noise sources. While human listening is robust under these conditions using only two ears, current two-microphone algorithms perform poorly. The psychological process of figure-ground segregation suggests that the target signal is perceived as a foreground while the remaining stimuli are perceived as a background. Accordingly, the goal is to estimate an ideal time-frequency (T-F) binary mask, which selects the target if it is stronger than the interference in a local T-F unit. In this paper, a binaural segregation system that extracts the reverberant target signal from multisource reverberant mixtures by utilizing only the location information of target source is proposed. The proposed system combines target cancellation through adaptive filtering and a binary decision rule to estimate the ideal T-F binary mask. The main observation in this work is that the target attenuation in a T-F unit resulting from adaptive filtering is correlated with the relative strength of target to mixture. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the proposed system results in large SNR gains. In addition, comparisons using SNR as well as automatic speech recognition measures show that this system outperforms standard two-microphone beamforming approaches and a recent binaural processor.

  19. Early Studies of Binocular and Binaural Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Wade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the eyes work together to determine the direction of objects provided the impetus for examining integration of signals from the ears to locate sounds. However, the advantages of having two eyes were recorded long before those for two ears were appreciated. In part, this reflects the marked differences in how we can compare perception with one or two organs. It is easier to close one eye and examine monocular vision than to “close” one ear and study monaural hearing. Moreover, we can move our eyes either in the same or in opposite directions, but humans have no equivalent means of moving the ears in unison. Studies of binocular single vision can be traced back over two thousand years and they were implicitly concerned with visual directions from each eye. The location of any point in visual or auditory space can be described by specifying its direction and distance, from the vantage point of an observer. From the late 18th century experiments indicated that binocular direction involved an eye movement component and experimental studies of binaural direction commenced slightly later. However, these early binocular and binaural experiments were not incorporated into theoretical accounts until almost a century later. The early history of research on visual direction with two eyes is contrasted to that on auditory direction with two ears.

  20. Comparisons between Binaural In-situ Recordings and Auralizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saher, Konca; Rindel, Jens Holger; Nijs, Lau

    2006-01-01

    -architectural design. This paper deals with comparison between binaural in-situ recordings and auralizations obtained from computer simulations. Listening tests and questionnaires were prepared from auralizations to compare with the reference binaural recordings. The difficulties in evaluation of auralization quality...... are discussed. The results indicate that although auralizations and binaural recordings evoke different aural perception auralization is a strong tool to assess the acoustical environment before the space is built. Two commercial programs are used for the auralizations. (ODEON and CATT-Acoustics)...

  1. Use of binaural beat tapes for treatment of anxiety: a pilot study of tape preference and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Scouarnec, R P; Poirier, R M; Owens, J E; Gauthier, J; Taylor, A G; Foresman, P A

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies and anecdotal reports suggest that binaural auditory beats can affect mood, performance on vigilance tasks, and anxiety. To determine whether mildly anxious people would report decreased anxiety after listening daily for 1 month to tapes imbedded with tones that create binaural beats, and whether they would show a definite tape preference among 3 tapes. A 1-group pre-posttest pilot study. Patients' homes. A volunteer sample of 15 mildly anxious patients seen in the Clinique Psyché, Montreal, Quebec. Participants were asked to listen at least 5 times weekly for 4 weeks to 1 or more of 3 music tapes containing tones that produce binaural beats in the electroencephalogram delta/theta frequency range. Participants also were asked to record tape usage, tape preference, and anxiety ratings in a journal before and after listening to the tape or tapes. Anxiety ratings before and after tape listening, pre- and post-study State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, and tape preferences documented in daily journals. Listening to the binaural beat tapes resulted in a significant reduction in the anxiety score reported daily in patients' diaries. The number of times participants listened to the tapes in 4 weeks ranged from 10 to 17 (an average of 1.4 to 2.4 times per week) for approximately 30 minutes per session. End-of-study tape preferences indicated that slightly more participants preferred tape B, with its pronounced and extended patterns of binaural beats, over tapes A and C. Changes in pre- and posttest listening State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores trended toward a reduction of anxiety, but these differences were not statistically significant. Listening to binaural beat tapes in the delta/theta electroencephalogram range may be beneficial in reducing mild anxiety. Future studies should account for music preference among participants and include age as a factor in outcomes, incentives to foster tape listening, and a physiologic measure of anxiety reduction. A

  2. Task-related Functional Connectivity Dynamics in a Block-designed Visual Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eDi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying task modulations of brain connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is critical to understand brain functions that support cognitive and affective processes. Existing methods such as psychophysiological interaction (PPI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM usually implicitly assume that the connectivity patterns are stable over a block-designed task with identical stimuli. However, this assumption lacks empirical verification on high-temporal resolution fMRI data with reliable data-driven analysis methods. The present study performed a detailed examination of dynamic changes of functional connectivity (FC in a simple block-designed visual checkerboard experiment with a sub-second sampling rate (TR = 0.645 s by estimating time-varying correlation coefficient (TVCC between BOLD responses of different brain regions. We observed reliable task-related FC changes (i.e., FCs were transiently decreased after task onset and went back to the baseline afterward among several visual regions of the bilateral middle occipital gyrus (MOG and the bilateral fusiform gyrus (FuG. Importantly, only the FCs between higher visual regions (MOG and lower visual regions (FuG exhibited such dynamic patterns. The results suggested that simply assuming a sustained FC during a task block may be insufficient to capture distinct task-related FC changes. The investigation of FC dynamics in tasks could improve our understanding of condition shifts and the coordination between different activated brain regions.

  3. Modeling and simulation of dynamic ant colony's labor division for task allocation of UAV swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Husheng; Li, Hao; Xiao, Renbin; Liu, Jie

    2018-02-01

    The problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) task allocation not only has the intrinsic attribute of complexity, such as highly nonlinear, dynamic, highly adversarial and multi-modal, but also has a better practicability in various multi-agent systems, which makes it more and more attractive recently. In this paper, based on the classic fixed response threshold model (FRTM), under the idea of "problem centered + evolutionary solution" and by a bottom-up way, the new dynamic environmental stimulus, response threshold and transition probability are designed, and a dynamic ant colony's labor division (DACLD) model is proposed. DACLD allows a swarm of agents with a relatively low-level of intelligence to perform complex tasks, and has the characteristic of distributed framework, multi-tasks with execution order, multi-state, adaptive response threshold and multi-individual response. With the proposed model, numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the distributed task allocation scheme in two situations of UAV swarm combat (dynamic task allocation with a certain number of enemy targets and task re-allocation due to unexpected threats). Results show that our model can get both the heterogeneous UAVs' real-time positions and states at the same time, and has high degree of self-organization, flexibility and real-time response to dynamic environments.

  4. The effect of dynamic workstations on the performance of various computer and office-based tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burford, E.M.; Botter, J.; Commissaris, D.; Könemann, R.; Hiemstra-Van Mastrigt, S.; Ellegast, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different workstations, conventional and dynamic, on different types of performance measures for several different office and computer based task was investigated in this research paper. The two dynamic workstations assessed were the Lifespan Treadmill Desk and the RightAngle

  5. Dynamic Sensor Tasking for Space Situational Awareness via Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, R.; Furfaro, R.

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the Sensor Management (SM) problem for optical Space Object (SO) tracking. The tasking problem is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solved using Reinforcement Learning (RL). The RL problem is solved using the actor-critic policy gradient approach. The actor provides a policy which is random over actions and given by a parametric probability density function (pdf). The critic evaluates the policy by calculating the estimated total reward or the value function for the problem. The parameters of the policy action pdf are optimized using gradients with respect to the reward function. Both the critic and the actor are modeled using deep neural networks (multi-layer neural networks). The policy neural network takes the current state as input and outputs probabilities for each possible action. This policy is random, and can be evaluated by sampling random actions using the probabilities determined by the policy neural network's outputs. The critic approximates the total reward using a neural network. The estimated total reward is used to approximate the gradient of the policy network with respect to the network parameters. This approach is used to find the non-myopic optimal policy for tasking optical sensors to estimate SO orbits. The reward function is based on reducing the uncertainty for the overall catalog to below a user specified uncertainty threshold. This work uses a 30 km total position error for the uncertainty threshold. This work provides the RL method with a negative reward as long as any SO has a total position error above the uncertainty threshold. This penalizes policies that take longer to achieve the desired accuracy. A positive reward is provided when all SOs are below the catalog uncertainty threshold. An optimal policy is sought that takes actions to achieve the desired catalog uncertainty in minimum time. This work trains the policy in simulation by letting it task a single sensor to "learn" from its performance

  6. Monitoring cognitive and emotional processes through pupil and cardiac response during dynamic versus logical task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Mickaël; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Démonet, Jean François; Pastor, Josette

    2010-06-01

    The paper deals with the links between physiological measurements and cognitive and emotional functioning. As long as the operator is a key agent in charge of complex systems, the definition of metrics able to predict his performance is a great challenge. The measurement of the physiological state is a very promising way but a very acute comprehension is required; in particular few studies compare autonomous nervous system reactivity according to specific cognitive processes during task performance and task related psychological stress is often ignored. We compared physiological parameters recorded on 24 healthy subjects facing two neuropsychological tasks: a dynamic task that require problem solving in a world that continually evolves over time and a logical task representative of cognitive processes performed by operators facing everyday problem solving. Results showed that the mean pupil diameter change was higher during the dynamic task; conversely, the heart rate was more elevated during the logical task. Finally, the systolic blood pressure seemed to be strongly sensitive to psychological stress. A better taking into account of the precise influence of a given cognitive activity and both workload and related task-induced psychological stress during task performance is a promising way to better monitor operators in complex working situations to detect mental overload or pejorative stress factor of error.

  7. Characterizing the monaural and binaural processes underlying reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    for the two RMTs, it is shown that forward masking effects only have a significant effect on reflection masking for delays above 7–10 ms. Moreover, binaural mechanisms were revealed which deteriorate auditory detection of test reflections for delays below 7–10 ms and enhance detection for larger delays....... The monaural and binaural processes that may underlie reflection masking are discussed in terms of auditory-modelling concepts....

  8. Brain dynamics of post-task resting state are influenced by expertise: Insights from baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraskin, Jordan; Dodhia, Sonam; Lieberman, Gregory; Garcia, Javier O; Verstynen, Timothy; Vettel, Jean M; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Post-task resting state dynamics can be viewed as a task-driven state where behavioral performance is improved through endogenous, non-explicit learning. Tasks that have intrinsic value for individuals are hypothesized to produce post-task resting state dynamics that promote learning. We measured simultaneous fMRI/EEG and DTI in Division-1 collegiate baseball players and compared to a group of controls, examining differences in both functional and structural connectivity. Participants performed a surrogate baseball pitch Go/No-Go task before a resting state scan, and we compared post-task resting state connectivity using a seed-based analysis from the supplementary motor area (SMA), an area whose activity discriminated players and controls in our previous results using this task. Although both groups were equally trained on the task, the experts showed differential activity in their post-task resting state consistent with motor learning. Specifically, we found (1) differences in bilateral SMA-L Insula functional connectivity between experts and controls that may reflect group differences in motor learning, (2) differences in BOLD-alpha oscillation correlations between groups suggests variability in modulatory attention in the post-task state, and (3) group differences between BOLD-beta oscillations that may indicate cognitive processing of motor inhibition. Structural connectivity analysis identified group differences in portions of the functionally derived network, suggesting that functional differences may also partially arise from variability in the underlying white matter pathways. Generally, we find that brain dynamics in the post-task resting state differ as a function of subject expertise and potentially result from differences in both functional and structural connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4454-4471, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals

  9. Dynamic balance during walking adaptability tasks in individuals post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistamehr, Arian; Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K; Clark, David J; Neptune, Richard R; Fox, Emily J

    2018-04-24

    Maintaining dynamic balance during community ambulation is a major challenge post-stroke. Community ambulation requires performance of steady-state level walking as well as tasks that require walking adaptability. Prior studies on balance control post-stroke have mainly focused on steady-state walking, but walking adaptability tasks have received little attention. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare dynamic balance requirements during common walking adaptability tasks post-stroke and in healthy adults and identify differences in underlying mechanisms used for maintaining dynamic balance. Kinematic data were collected from fifteen individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis during steady-state forward and backward walking, obstacle negotiation, and step-up tasks. In addition, data from ten healthy adults provided the basis for comparison. Dynamic balance was quantified using the peak-to-peak range of whole-body angular-momentum in each anatomical plane during the paretic, nonparetic and healthy control single-leg-stance phase of the gait cycle. To understand differences in some of the key underlying mechanisms for maintaining dynamic balance, foot placement and plantarflexor muscle activation were examined. Individuals post-stroke had significant dynamic balance deficits in the frontal plane across most tasks, particularly during the paretic single-leg-stance. Frontal plane balance deficits were associated with wider paretic foot placement, elevated body center-of-mass, and lower soleus activity. Further, the obstacle negotiation task imposed a higher balance requirement, particularly during the trailing leg single-stance. Thus, improving paretic foot placement and ankle plantarflexor activity, particularly during obstacle negotiation, may be important rehabilitation targets to enhance dynamic balance during post-stroke community ambulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Availability of binaural cues for pediatric bilateral cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Sterling W; Haynes, David S; Wanna, George B; Labadie, Robert F; Gifford, René H

    2015-03-01

    Bilateral implant recipients theoretically have access to binaural cues. Research in postlingually deafened adults with cochlear implants (CIs) indicates minimal evidence for true binaural hearing. Congenitally deafened children who experience spatial hearing with bilateral CIs, however, might perceive binaural cues in the CI signal differently. There is limited research examining binaural hearing in children with CIs, and the few published studies are limited by the use of unrealistic speech stimuli and background noise. The purposes of this study were to (1) replicate our previous study of binaural hearing in postlingually deafened adults with AzBio sentences in prelingually deafened children with the pediatric version of the AzBio sentences, and (2) replicate previous studies of binaural hearing in children with CIs using more open-set sentences and more realistic background noise (i.e., multitalker babble). The study was a within-participant, repeated-measures design. The study sample consisted of 14 children with bilateral CIs with at least 25 mo of listening experience. Speech recognition was assessed using sentences presented in multitalker babble at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio. Test conditions included speech at 0° with noise presented at 0° (S0N0), on the side of the first CI (90° or 270°) (S0N1stCI), and on the side of the second CI (S0N2ndCI) as well as speech presented at 0° with noise presented semidiffusely from eight speakers at 45° intervals. Estimates of summation, head shadow, squelch, and spatial release from masking were calculated. Results of test conditions commonly reported in the literature (S0N0, S0N1stCI, S0N2ndCI) are consistent with results from previous research in adults and children with bilateral CIs, showing minimal summation and squelch but typical head shadow and spatial release from masking. However, bilateral benefit over the better CI with speech at 0° was much larger with semidiffuse noise. Congenitally deafened

  11. Better decision making in complex, dynamic tasks training with human-facilitated interactive learning environments

    CERN Document Server

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes interactive learning environments (ILEs) and their underlying concepts. It explains how ILEs can be used to improve the decision-making process and how these improvements can be empirically verified. The objective of this book is to enhance our understanding of and to gain insights into the process by which human facilitated ILEs are effectively designed and used in improving users’ decision making in complex, dynamic tasks. This book is divided into four major parts. Part I serves as an introduction to the importance and complexity of decision making in dynamic tasks. Part II provides background material, drawing upon relevant literature, for the development of an integrated process model on the effectiveness of human facilitated ILEs in improving decision making in dynamic tasks. Part III focuses on the design, development, and application of FishBankILE in laboratory experiments to gather empirical evidence for the validity of the process model. Finally, part IV presents a comprehensi...

  12. System structure and cognitive ability as predictors of performance in dynamic system control tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hundertmark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In dynamic system control, cognitive mechanisms and abilities underlying performance may vary depending on the nature of the task. We therefore investigated the effects of system structure and its interaction with cognitive abilities on system control performance. A sample of 127 university students completed a series of different system control tasks that were manipulated in terms of system size and recurrent feedback, either with or without a cognitive load manipulation. Cognitive abilities assessed included reasoning ability, working memory capacity, and cognitive reflection. System size and recurrent feedback affected overall performance as expected. Overall, the results support that cognitive ability is a good predictor of performance in dynamic system control tasks but predictiveness is reduced when the system structure contains recurrent feedback. We discuss this finding from a cognitive processing perspective as well as its implications for individual differences research in dynamic systems.

  13. Application of a "relative" procedure to a problem in binaural beat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-08-01

    The existence of binaural beats has long been considered an indication of binaural interaction for timing and for periodicity of information. In the past, bilaterally matched sound pressure or sensation levels have been used in the investigation of t...

  14. Towards a unifying basis of auditory thresholds: binaural summation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Absolute auditory threshold decreases with increasing sound duration, a phenomenon explainable by the assumptions that the sound evokes neural events whose probabilities of occurrence are proportional to the sound's amplitude raised to an exponent of about 3 and that a constant number of events are required for threshold (Heil and Neubauer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:6151-6156, 2003). Based on this probabilistic model and on the assumption of perfect binaural summation, an equation is derived here that provides an explicit expression of the binaural threshold as a function of the two monaural thresholds, irrespective of whether they are equal or unequal, and of the exponent in the model. For exponents >0, the predicted binaural advantage is largest when the two monaural thresholds are equal and decreases towards zero as the monaural threshold difference increases. This equation is tested and the exponent derived by comparing binaural thresholds with those predicted on the basis of the two monaural thresholds for different values of the exponent. The thresholds, measured in a large sample of human subjects with equal and unequal monaural thresholds and for stimuli with different temporal envelopes, are compatible only with an exponent close to 3. An exponent of 3 predicts a binaural advantage of 2 dB when the two ears are equally sensitive. Thus, listening with two (equally sensitive) ears rather than one has the same effect on absolute threshold as doubling duration. The data suggest that perfect binaural summation occurs at threshold and that peripheral neural signals are governed by an exponent close to 3. They might also shed new light on mechanisms underlying binaural summation of loudness.

  15. Binaural Speech Understanding With Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Reverberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinakis, Kostas

    2018-03-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether bilateral cochlear implant (CI) listeners who are fitted with clinical processors are able to benefit from binaural advantages under reverberant conditions. Another aim of this contribution was to determine whether the magnitude of each binaural advantage observed inside a highly reverberant environment differs significantly from the magnitude measured in a near-anechoic environment. Ten adults with postlingual deafness who are bilateral CI users fitted with either Nucleus 5 or Nucleus 6 clinical sound processors (Cochlear Corporation) participated in this study. Speech reception thresholds were measured in sound field and 2 different reverberation conditions (0.06 and 0.6 s) as a function of the listening condition (left, right, both) and the noise spatial location (left, front, right). The presence of the binaural effects of head-shadow, squelch, summation, and spatial release from masking in the 2 different reverberation conditions tested was determined using nonparametric statistical analysis. In the bilateral population tested, when the ambient reverberation time was equal to 0.6 s, results indicated strong positive effects of head-shadow and a weaker spatial release from masking advantage, whereas binaural squelch and summation contributed no statistically significant benefit to bilateral performance under this acoustic condition. These findings are consistent with those of previous studies, which have demonstrated that head-shadow yields the most pronounced advantage in noise. The finding that spatial release from masking produced little to almost no benefit in bilateral listeners is consistent with the hypothesis that additive reverberation degrades spatial cues and negatively affects binaural performance. The magnitude of 4 different binaural advantages was measured on the same group of bilateral CI subjects fitted with clinical processors in 2 different reverberation conditions. The results of this work

  16. A Novel Binaural Pitch Elicited by Phase-Modulated Noise: MEG and Psychophysical Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witton, C.; Hillebrand, A.; Furlong, P.L.; Henning, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Binaural pitches are auditory percepts that emerge from combined inputs to the ears but that cannot be heard if the stimulus is presented to either ear alone. Here, we describe a binaural pitch that is not easily accommodated within current models of binaural processing. Convergent

  17. Benefits to Speech Perception in Noise From the Binaural Integration of Electric and Acoustic Signals in Simulated Unilateral Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Morris, Saffron; Kitterick, Pádraig Thomas

    2016-01-01

    performance (50%), binaural integration advantages were found regardless of whether a mismatch was simulated or not. When the CI-simulation ear supported a superior level of monaural performance (71%), evidence of binaural integration was absent when a mismatch was simulated using both the Realistic and the Ideal processing strategies. This absence of integration could not be accounted for by ceiling effects or by changes in SNR. If generalizable to unilaterally deaf CI users, the results of the current simulation study would suggest that benefits to speech perception in noise can be obtained by integrating information from an implanted ear and an NH ear. A mismatch in the delivery of spectral information between the ears due to a misalignment in the mapping of frequency to place may disrupt binaural integration in situations where both ears cannot support a similar level of monaural speech understanding. Previous studies that have measured the speech perception of unilaterally deaf individuals after CI but with nonindividualized frequency-to-electrode allocations may therefore have underestimated the potential benefits of providing binaural hearing. However, it remains unclear whether the size and nature of the potential incremental benefits from individualized allocations are sufficient to justify the time and resources required to derive them based on cochlear imaging or pitch-matching tasks.

  18. Frontal theta EEG dynamics in a real-world air traffic control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Guofa; Ding, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Mental workload and time-on-task effect are two major factors expediting fatigue progress, which leads to performance decline and/or failure in real-world tasks. In the present study, electroencephalography (EEG) is applied to study mental fatigue development during an air traffic control (ATC) task. Specifically, the frontal theta EEG dynamics are firstly dissolved into a unique frontal independent component (IC) through a novel time-frequency independent component analysis (tfICA) method. Then the temporal fluctuations of the identified frontal ICs every minute are compared to workload (reflected by number of clicks per minute) and time-on-task effect by correlational analysis and linear regression analysis. It is observed that the frontal theta activity significantly increase with workload augment and time-on-task. The present study demonstrates that the frontal theta EEG activity identified by tfICA method is a sensitive and reliable metric to assess mental workload and time-on-task effect in a real-world task, i.e., ATC task, at the resolution of minute(s).

  19. Binaural Pitch Fusion in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Lina A J; Fowler, Jennifer R; Hartling, Curtis L; Oh, Yonghee

    Binaural pitch fusion is the fusion of stimuli that evoke different pitches between the ears into a single auditory image. Individuals who use hearing aids or bimodal cochlear implants (CIs) experience abnormally broad binaural pitch fusion, such that sounds differing in pitch by as much as 3-4 octaves are fused across ears, leading to spectral averaging and speech perception interference. The goal of this study was to determine if adult bilateral CI users also experience broad binaural pitch fusion. Stimuli were pulse trains delivered to individual electrodes. Fusion ranges were measured using simultaneous, dichotic presentation of reference and comparison stimuli in opposite ears, and varying the comparison stimulus to find the range that fused with the reference stimulus. Bilateral CI listeners had binaural pitch fusion ranges varying from 0 to 12 mm (average 6.1 ± 3.9 mm), where 12 mm indicates fusion over all electrodes in the array. No significant correlations of fusion range were observed with any subject factors related to age, hearing loss history, or hearing device history, or with any electrode factors including interaural electrode pitch mismatch, pitch match bandwidth, or within-ear electrode discrimination abilities. Bilateral CI listeners have abnormally broad fusion, similar to hearing aid and bimodal CI listeners. This broad fusion may explain the variability of binaural benefits for speech perception in quiet and in noise in bilateral CI users.

  20. Binaural hearing in children using Gaussian enveloped and transposed tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Erica; Kan, Alan; Winn, Matthew B; Stoelb, Corey; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-04-01

    Children who use bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) show significantly poorer sound localization skills than their normal hearing (NH) peers. This difference has been attributed, in part, to the fact that cochlear implants (CIs) do not faithfully transmit interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs), which are known to be important cues for sound localization. Interestingly, little is known about binaural sensitivity in NH children, in particular, with stimuli that constrain acoustic cues in a manner representative of CI processing. In order to better understand and evaluate binaural hearing in children with BiCIs, the authors first undertook a study on binaural sensitivity in NH children ages 8-10, and in adults. Experiments evaluated sound discrimination and lateralization using ITD and ILD cues, for stimuli with robust envelope cues, but poor representation of temporal fine structure. Stimuli were spondaic words, Gaussian-enveloped tone pulse trains (100 pulse-per-second), and transposed tones. Results showed that discrimination thresholds in children were adult-like (15-389 μs for ITDs and 0.5-6.0 dB for ILDs). However, lateralization based on the same binaural cues showed higher variability than seen in adults. Results are discussed in the context of factors that may be responsible for poor representation of binaural cues in bilaterally implanted children.

  1. Dynamic Programming for Re-Mapping Noisy Fixations in Translation Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    this "naïve" gaze-to-word mapping by introducing background knowledge about the gazing task. In a first step, the sequence of "naïve" gaze-to-symbol mappings is projected into a lattice of several possible gaze locations above and below the current fixation on the text. In a second step a dynamic programming...

  2. Learning to Manage Intergroup Dynamics in Changing Task Environments: An Experiential Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Phillip L.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an exercise that allows participants to experience the challenges of managing intergroup behavior as an organization's task environment grows and becomes more complex. The article begins with a brief review of models and concepts relating to intergroup dynamics, intergroup conflict, and interventions for effectively managing…

  3. A systematic study of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia

    This Ph.D. thesis presents an investigation of the acoustical and psycho-acoustical characteristics of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers. The study was mainly focused on the characteristics of closely spaced loudspeakers – known as stereo-dipoles – when placed at different...... positions, e.g. in front of, above or in the back of the head. The main objective of this study is to set foundations for the design of a binaural reproduction system that is robust to head rotations and reduces front-back confusions. Different crosstalk cancellation techniques were investigated...... when the loudspeakers are placed above the head and that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider span angles. Based on the results obtained from those experiments, a binaural reproduction system that uses three stereo-dipoles is proposed: one pair in front...

  4. Binaural Interference and the Effects of Age and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussoi, Bruna S S; Bentler, Ruth A

    2017-01-01

    The existence of binaural interference, defined here as poorer speech recognition with both ears than with the better ear alone, is well documented. Studies have suggested that its prevalence may be higher in the elderly population. However, no study to date has explored binaural interference in groups of younger and older adults in conditions that favor binaural processing (i.e., in spatially separated noise). Also, the effects of hearing loss have not been studied. To examine binaural interference through speech perception tests, in groups of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal hearing for their age, and older adults with hearing loss. A cross-sectional study. Thirty-three participants with symmetric thresholds were recruited from the University of Iowa community. Participants were grouped as follows: younger with normal hearing (18-28 yr, n = 12), older with normal hearing for their age (73-87 yr, n = 9), and older with hearing loss (78-94 yr, n = 12). Prior noise exposure was ruled out. The Connected Speech Test (CST) and Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) were administered to all participants bilaterally, and to each ear separately. Test materials were presented in the sound field with speech at 0° azimuth and the noise at 180°. The Dichotic Digits Test (DDT) was administered to all participants through earphones. Hearing aids were not used during testing. Group results were compared with repeated measures and one-way analysis of variances, as appropriate. Within-subject analyses using pre-established critical differences for each test were also performed. The HINT revealed no effect of condition (individual ear versus bilateral presentation) using group analysis, although within-subject analysis showed that 27% of the participants had binaural interference (18% had binaural advantage). On the CST, there was significant binaural advantage across all groups with group data analysis, as well as for 12% of the participants at each of the two

  5. The disparate histories of binocular vision and binaural hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2018-01-01

    Vision and hearing are dependent on disparities of spatial patterns received by two eyes and on time and intensity differences to two ears. However, the experiences of a single world have masked attention to these disparities. While eyes and ears are paired, there has not been parity in the attention directed to their functioning. Phenomena involving binocular vision were commented upon since antiquity whereas those about binaural hearing are much more recent. This history is compared with respect to the experimental manipulations of dichoptic and dichotic stimuli and the instruments used to stimulate the paired organs. Binocular color mixing led to studies of binaural hearing and direction and distance in visual localization were analyzed before those for auditory localization. Experimental investigations began in the nineteenth century with the invention of instruments like the stereoscope and pseudoscope, soon to be followed by their binaural equivalents, the stethophone and pseudophone.

  6. Binaural interaction in auditory evoked potentials: Brainstem, middle- and long-latency components

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, DL; Starr, A

    1993-01-01

    Binaural interaction occurs in the auditory evoked potentials when the sum of the monaural auditory evoked potentials are not equivalent to the binaural evoked auditory potentials. Binaural interaction of the early- (0-10 ms), middle- (10-50 ms) and long-latency (50-200 ms) auditory evoked potentials was studied in 17 normal young adults. For the early components, binaural interaction was maximal at 7.35 ms accounting for a reduction of 21% of the amplitude of the binaural evoked potentials. ...

  7. Framing of task performance strategies: effects on performance in a multiattribute dynamic decision making environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, T E

    1997-09-01

    It is well documented that the way a static choice task is "framed" can dramatically alter choice behavior, often leading to observable preference reversals. This framing effect appears to result from perceived changes in the nature or location of a person's initial reference point, but it is not clear how framing effects might generalize to performance on dynamic decision making tasks that are characterized by high workload, time constraints, risk, or stress. A study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that framing can introduce affective components to the decision making process and can influence, either favorably (positive frame) or adversely (negative frame), the implementation and use of decision making strategies in dynamic high-workload environments. Results indicated that negative frame participants were significantly impaired in developing and employing a simple optimal decision strategy relative to a positive frame group. Discussion focuses on implications of these results for models of dynamic decision making.

  8. A quantitative electroencephalographic study of meditation and binaural beat entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Christina F; Koren, Stanley A; Persinger, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    The study objective was to determine the quantitative electroencephalographic correlates of meditation, as well as the effects of hindering (15 Hz) and facilitative (7 Hz) binaural beats on the meditative process. The study was a mixed design, with experience of the subject as the primary between-subject measure and power of the six classic frequency bands (δ, θ, low α, high α, β, γ), neocortical lobe (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital), hemisphere (left, right), and condition (meditation only, meditation with 7-Hz beats, meditation with 15-Hz beats) as the within-subject measures. The study was conducted at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The subjects comprised novice (mean of 8 months experience) and experienced (mean of 18 years experience) meditators recruited from local meditation groups. Experimental manipulation included application of hindering and facilitative binaural beats to the meditative process. Experienced meditators displayed increased left temporal lobe δ power when the facilitative binaural beats were applied, whereas the effect was not observed for the novice subjects in this condition. When the hindering binaural beats were introduced, the novice subjects consistently displayed more γ power than the experienced subjects over the course of their meditation, relative to baseline. Based on the results of this study, novice meditators were not able to maintain certain levels of θ power in the occipital regions when hindering binaural beats were presented, whereas when the facilitative binaural beats were presented, the experienced meditators displayed increased θ power in the left temporal lobe. These results suggest that the experienced meditators have developed techniques over the course of their meditation practice to counter hindering environmental stimuli, whereas the novice meditators have not yet developed those techniques.

  9. Human auditory steady state responses to binaural and monaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, D W F; Taylor, P

    2005-03-01

    Binaural beat sensations depend upon a central combination of two different temporally encoded tones, separately presented to the two ears. We tested the feasibility to record an auditory steady state evoked response (ASSR) at the binaural beat frequency in order to find a measure for temporal coding of sound in the human EEG. We stimulated each ear with a distinct tone, both differing in frequency by 40Hz, to record a binaural beat ASSR. As control, we evoked a beat ASSR in response to both tones in the same ear. We band-pass filtered the EEG at 40Hz, averaged with respect to stimulus onset and compared ASSR amplitudes and phases, extracted from a sinusoidal non-linear regression fit to a 40Hz period average. A 40Hz binaural beat ASSR was evoked at a low mean stimulus frequency (400Hz) but became undetectable beyond 3kHz. Its amplitude was smaller than that of the acoustic beat ASSR, which was evoked at low and high frequencies. Both ASSR types had maxima at fronto-central leads and displayed a fronto-occipital phase delay of several ms. The dependence of the 40Hz binaural beat ASSR on stimuli at low, temporally coded tone frequencies suggests that it may objectively assess temporal sound coding ability. The phase shift across the electrode array is evidence for more than one origin of the 40Hz oscillations. The binaural beat ASSR is an evoked response, with novel diagnostic potential, to a signal that is not present in the stimulus, but generated within the brain.

  10. Model based Binaural Enhancement of Voiced and Unvoiced Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavalekalam, Mathew Shaji; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Boldt, Jesper B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the enhancement of speech in presence of non-stationary babble noise. A binaural speech enhancement framework is proposed which takes into account both the voiced and unvoiced speech production model. The usage of this model in enhancement requires the Short term predictor...... (STP) parameters and the pitch information to be estimated. This paper uses a codebook based approach for estimating the STP parameters and a parametric binaural method is proposed for estimating the pitch parameters. Improvements in objective score are shown when using the voicedunvoiced speech model...

  11. Principles of modulation processing in monaural vs. binaural hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    Several phenomena have been investigated that facilitate the perception of masked sound as there are binaural masking level differences (BMLD) and comodulation masking release (CMR). It is assumed that both across-channel CMR and high-frequency BMLD use envelope correlation between different...... channels as a detection cue. Durlach [1] introduced the equalization-cancellation (EC) approach as an across-channel mechanism for explaining BMLD and it was recently used to quantitatively account for many binaural listening experiments. Buus [2] was the first to suggest that an EC-type mechanism could...

  12. Setup for demonstrating interactive binaural synthesis for telepresence applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos

    2011-01-01

    position Totem with a single loudspeaker. The Position and movements of participants, particularly the head, are tracked and from this sound is rendered to include binaural cues so the Visitor is able to move around in a limited space while perceiving Destination sound as "stationary". This setup includes......, latency and transmission reliablity must be adjusted to obtain the best compromise. Bandwidth use and reliablity can be improved at the cost of latency. Finally the binaural synthesis for each source is processed at the listener's site (here Visitor) to have a minimum latency on responding to movement...

  13. Calibration aspects of binaural sound reproduction over insert earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    Earphones are nowadays widely adopted for the reproduction of audio material in mobile multimedia and communication platforms, e.g. smartphones. Reproduction of high-quality spatial sound on such platforms can dramatically improve their applicability, and since two channels are always available...... in earphone-based reproduction, binaural reproduction can be applied directly. This paper is concerned with the theoretical and practical aspects relevant to the correct reproduction of binaural signals over insert earphones. To this purpose, a theoretical model originally developed to explain the acoustic...

  14. Individual Differences in Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures of Binaural Processing Across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roup, Christina M; Leigh, Elizabeth D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine individual differences in binaural processing across the adult life span. Sixty listeners (aged 23-80 years) with symmetrical hearing were tested. Binaural behavioral processing was measured by the Words-in-Noise Test, the 500-Hz masking level difference, and the Dichotic Digit Test. Electrophysiologic responses were assessed by the auditory middle latency response binaural interaction component. No correlations among binaural measures were found. Age accounted for the greatest amount of variability in speech-in-noise performance. Age was significantly correlated with the Words-in-Noise Test binaural advantage and dichotic ear advantage. Partial correlations, however, revealed that this was an effect of hearing status rather than age per se. Inspection of individual results revealed that 20% of listeners demonstrated reduced binaural performance for at least 2 of the binaural measures. The lack of significant correlations among variables suggests that each is an important measurement of binaural abilities. For some listeners, binaural processing was abnormal, reflecting a binaural processing deficit not identified by monaural audiologic tests. The inclusion of a binaural test battery in the audiologic evaluation is supported given that these listeners may benefit from alternative forms of audiologic rehabilitation.

  15. Binaural interaction in low-frequency neurons in inferior colliculus of the cat. II. Effects of changing rate and direction of interaural phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S

    1983-10-01

    of the cells. The effects of both forms of intensity variation are continuously distributed. The binaural beat offers a number of advantages for studying the interaural phase sensitivity of binaural cells. The dynamic characteristics of the interaural phase can be varied so that the speed and direction of phase change are under direct control. The data can be obtained in a much more efficient manner, as the binaural beat is about 10 times faster in terms of data collection than the interaural delay.

  16. Binaural pitch perception in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    The effects of hearing impairment on the perception of binaural-pitch stimuli were investigated. Several experiments were performed with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, including detection and discrimination of binaural pitch, and melody recognition using different types of binaural...... pitches. For the normal-hearing listeners, all types of binaural pitches could be perceived immediately and were musical. The hearing-impaired listeners could be divided into three groups based on their results: (a) some perceived all types of binaural pitches, but with decreased salience or musicality...... compared to normal-hearing listeners; (b) some could only perceive the strongest pitch types; (c) some were unable to perceive any binaural pitch at all. The performance of the listeners was not correlated with audibility. Additional experiments investigated the correlation between performance in binaural...

  17. Artificial Epigenetic Networks: Automatic Decomposition of Dynamical Control Tasks Using Topological Self-Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alexander P; Caves, Leo S D; Stepney, Susan; Tyrrell, Andy M; Lones, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the artificial epigenetic network, a recurrent connectionist architecture that is able to dynamically modify its topology in order to automatically decompose and solve dynamical problems. The approach is motivated by the behavior of gene regulatory networks, particularly the epigenetic process of chromatin remodeling that leads to topological change and which underlies the differentiation of cells within complex biological organisms. We expected this approach to be useful in situations where there is a need to switch between different dynamical behaviors, and do so in a sensitive and robust manner in the absence of a priori information about problem structure. This hypothesis was tested using a series of dynamical control tasks, each requiring solutions that could express different dynamical behaviors at different stages within the task. In each case, the addition of topological self-modification was shown to improve the performance and robustness of controllers. We believe this is due to the ability of topological changes to stabilize attractors, promoting stability within a dynamical regime while allowing rapid switching between different regimes. Post hoc analysis of the controllers also demonstrated how the partitioning of the networks could provide new insights into problem structure.

  18. The auditory dynamic attending theory revisited: A closer look at the pitch comparison task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anna-Katharina R; Jaeger, Manuela; Thorne, Jeremy D; Bendixen, Alexandra; Debener, Stefan

    2015-11-11

    The dynamic attending theory as originally proposed by Jones, 1976. Psychol. Rev. 83(5), 323-355 posits that tone sequences presented at a regular rhythm entrain attentional oscillations and thereby facilitate the processing of sounds presented in phase with this rhythm. The increased interest in neural correlates of dynamic attending requires robust behavioral indicators of the phenomenon. Here we aimed to replicate and complement the most prominent experimental implementation of dynamic attending (Jones et al., 2002. Psychol. Sci. 13(4), 313-319). The paradigm uses a pitch comparison task in which two tones, the initial and the last of a longer series, have to be compared. In-between the two, distractor tones with variable pitch are presented, at a regular pace. A comparison tone presented in phase with the entrained rhythm is hypothesized to lead to better behavioral performance. Aiming for a conceptual replication, four different variations of the original paradigm were created which were followed by an exact replication attempt. Across all five experiments, only 40 of the 140 tested participants showed the hypothesized pattern of an inverted U-shaped profile in task accuracy, and the group average effects did not replicate the pattern reported by Jones et al., 2002. Psychol. Sci. 13(4), 313-319 in any of the five experiments. However, clear evidence for a relationship between musicality and overall behavioral performance was found. This study casts doubt on the suitability of the pitch comparison task for demonstrating auditory dynamic attending. We discuss alternative tasks that have been shown to support dynamic attending theory, thus lending themselves more readily to studying its neural correlates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Internal representation of task rules by recurrent dynamics: the importance of the diversity of neural responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Rigotti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural activity of behaving animals, especially in the prefrontal cortex, is highly heterogeneous, with selective responses to diverse aspects of the executed task. We propose a general model of recurrent neural networks that perform complex rule-based tasks, and we show that the diversity of neuronal responses plays a fundamental role when the behavioral responses are context dependent. Specifically, we found that when the inner mental states encoding the task rules are represented by stable patterns of neural activity (attractors of the neural dynamics, the neurons must be selective for combinations of sensory stimuli and inner mental states. Such mixed selectivity is easily obtained by neurons that connect with random synaptic strengths both to the recurrent network and to neurons encoding sensory inputs. The number of randomly connected neurons needed to solve a task is on average only three times as large as the number of neurons needed in a network designed ad hoc. Moreover, the number of needed neurons grows only linearly with the number of task-relevant events and mental states, provided that each neuron responds to a large proportion of events (dense/distributed coding. A biologically realistic implementation of the model captures several aspects of the activity recorded from monkeys performing context dependent tasks. Our findings explain the importance of the diversity of neural responses and provide us with simple and general principles for designing attractor neural networks that perform complex computation.

  20. Task dynamics in self-organising task groups : expertise, motivational, and performance differences of specialists and generalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoethout, Kees; Jager, Wander; Molleman, Eric

    Multi-agent simulation is applied to explore how different types of task variety cause workgroups to change their task allocation accordingly. We studied two groups, generalists and specialists. We hypothesised that the performance of the specialists would decrease when task variety increases. The

  1. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

  2. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-01-01

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (∼15–20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate K i and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final K i parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion

  3. Effects of controlled element dynamics on human feedforward behavior in ramp-tracking tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurense, Vincent A; Pool, Daan M; Damveld, Herman J; van Paassen, Marinus René M; Mulder, Max

    2015-02-01

    In real-life manual control tasks, human controllers are often required to follow a visible and predictable reference signal, enabling them to use feedforward control actions in conjunction with feedback actions that compensate for errors. Little is known about human control behavior in these situations. This paper investigates how humans adapt their feedforward control dynamics to the controlled element dynamics in a combined ramp-tracking and disturbance-rejection task. A human-in-the-loop experiment is performed with a pursuit display and vehicle-like controlled elements, ranging from a single integrator through second-order systems with a break frequency at either 3, 2, or 1 rad/s, to a double integrator. Because the potential benefits of feedforward control increase with steeper ramp segments in the target signal, three steepness levels are tested to investigate their possible effect on feedforward control with the various controlled elements. Analyses with four novel models of the operator, fitted to time-domain data, reveal feedforward control for all tested controlled elements and both (nonzero) tested levels of ramp steepness. For the range of controlled element dynamics investigated, it is found that humans adapt to these dynamics in their feedforward response, with a close to perfect inversion of the controlled element dynamics. No significant effects of ramp steepness on the feedforward model parameters are found.

  4. Discordant tasks and motor adjustments affect interactions between adaptations to altered kinematics and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzie Arce

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor control and adaptation are multi-determinate processes with complex interactions. This is reflected for example in the ambiguous nature of interactions during sequential adaptation of reaching under kinematics and dynamics perturbations. It has been suggested that perturbations based on the same kinematic parameter interfere. Others posited that opposing motor adjustments underlie interference. Here, we examined the influence of discordances in task and in motor adjustments on sequential adaptations to visuomotor rotation and viscous force field perturbations. These two factors – perturbation direction and task discordance – have been examined separately by previous studies, thus the inherent difficulty to identify the roots of interference. Forty-eight human subjects adapted sequentially to one or two types of perturbations, of matched or conflicting directions. We found a gradient of interaction effects based on perturbation direction and task discordance. Perturbations of matched directions showed facilitation while perturbations of opposite directions, which required opposing motor adjustments, interfered with each other. Further, interaction effects increased with greater task discordance. We also found that force field and visuomotor rotation had mutual anterograde and retrograde effects. However, we found independence between anterograde and retrograde interferences between similar tasks. The results suggest that the newly acquired internal models of kinematic and dynamic perturbations are not independent but they share common neuronal resources and interact between them. Such overlap does not necessarily imply competition of resources. Rather, our results point to an additional principle of sensorimotor adaptation allowing the system to tap or harness common features across diverse sensory inputs and task contexts whenever available.

  5. Audio system using binaural synthesis for multimodal telepresence applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2013-01-01

    are implemented in a distributed manner. Body-tracking of all participants is provided through the system for the purpose of using binaural synthesis for directional sound. Head-worn microphones are used to capture sound, and the visitor is provided with directional sound through headphones. The visitor...

  6. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yper, L.N. Van; Vermeire, K.; Vel, E.F. De; Beynon, A.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The

  7. Binaural speech enhancement using a codebook based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavalekalam, Mathew Shaji; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Boldt, Jesper B.

    2016-01-01

    term predictor (STP) parameters using a codebook based approach, when we have access to binaural noisy signals. The estimated STP parameters are subsequently used for enhancement in a dual channel scenario. Objective measures indicate, that the proposed method is able to improve the speech...

  8. Monaural and binaural benefit from early reflections for speech intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris; Buchholz, Jörg; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The auditory system takes advantage of early reflections (ER’s) in a room by integrating them with the direct sound (DS) and thereby increasing the effective speech level. The energy, spectral content and direction of the ER’s are dependent on wall absorptions and room geometries and therefore di...... to investigate if ER processing is a monaural or binaural effect....

  9. Objective evaluation of binaural summation through acoustic reflex measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawool, Vishakha W; Parrill, Madaline

    2018-02-12

    A previous study [Rawool, V. W. (2016). Auditory processing deficits: Assessment and intervention. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., pp. 186-187] demonstrated objective assessment of binaural summation through right contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds (ARTs) in women. The current project examined if previous findings could be generalised to men and to the left ear. Cross-sectional. Sixty individuals participated in the study. Left and right contralateral ARTs were obtained in two conditions. In the alternated condition, the probe tone presentation was alternated with the presentation of the reflex activating clicks. In the simultaneous condition, the probe tone and the clicks were presented simultaneously. Binaural summation was calculated by subtracting the ARTs obtained in the simultaneous condition from the ARTs obtained in the alternated condition. MANOVA on ARTs revealed no significant gender or ear effects. The ARTs were significantly lower/better in the simultaneous condition compared to the alternated condition. Binaural summation was 4 dB or higher in 88% of the ears and 6 dB or higher in 76% of ears. Stimulation of six out of the total 120 (0.5%) ears resulted in worse thresholds in the simultaneous condition compared with the alternating condition, suggesting binaural interference.

  10. Effect of efferent activation on binaural frequency selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Kordus, Monika; Drga, Vit; Yasin, Ifat

    2017-07-01

    Binaural notched-noise experiments indicate a reduced frequency selectivity of the binaural system compared to monaural processing. The present study investigates how auditory efferent activation (via the medial olivocochlear system) affects binaural frequency selectivity in normal-hearing listeners. Thresholds were measured for a 1-kHz signal embedded in a diotic notched-noise masker for various notch widths. The signal was either presented in phase (diotic) or in antiphase (dichotic), gated with the noise. Stimulus duration was 25 ms, in order to avoid efferent activation due to the masker or the signal. A bandpass-filtered noise precursor was presented prior to the masker and signal stimuli to activate the efferent system. The silent interval between the precursor and the masker-signal complex was 50 ms. For comparison, thresholds for detectability of the masked signal were also measured in a baseline condition without the precursor and, in addition, without the masker. On average, the results of the baseline condition indicate an effectively wider binaural filter, as expected. For both signal phases, the addition of the precursor results in effectively wider filters, which is in agreement with the hypothesis that cochlear gain is reduced due to the presence of the precursor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Models of the electrically stimulated binaural system: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In an increasing number of countries, the standard treatment for deaf individuals is moving toward the implantation of two cochlear implants. Today's device technology and fitting procedure, however, appears as if the two implants would serve two independent ears and brains. Many experimental studies have demonstrated that after careful matching and balancing of left and right stimulation in controlled laboratory studies most patients have almost normal sensitivity to interaural level differences and some sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs). Mechanisms underlying the limited ITD sensitivity are still poorly understood and many different aspects may contribute. Recent pioneering computational approaches identified some of the functional implications the electric input imposes on the neural brainstem circuits. Simultaneously these studies have raised new questions and certainly demonstrated that further refinement of the model stages is necessary. They join the experimental study's conclusions that binaural device technology, binaural fitting, specific speech coding strategies, and binaural signal processing algorithms are obviously missing components to maximize the benefit of bilateral implantation. Within this review, the existing models of the electrically stimulated binaural system are explained, compared, and discussed from a viewpoint of a "CI device with auditory system" and from that of neurophysiological research.

  12. Efficiency of brainwave entrainment by binaural beats in reducing anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a fundamental phenomenon that is a common symptom in all mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of brainwave entrainment on anxiety reduction using binaural beats. Methods: In this experimental double-blind study, 30 employees were selected from an engineering research firm through random sampling and replacement and divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. All participants completed the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Then, the experimental group listened to binaural beats which was recorded on a non-vocal piece of music for 4 weeks, 3 sessions each week. Each session lasted about 20 minutes. At the same time, the control group listened to the background music without any entrainment sound. At the end, both groups completed the anxiety questionnaire and the anxiety scores of both groups obtained before and after intervention were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings showed that the brainwave entrainment using binaural beats led to the significant reduction of state anxiety (P<0.001 and trait anxiety (P<0.018. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is an effective factor in decreasing state and trait anxiety; so, it can be used to reduce anxiety in mental health centers.

  13. Supporting dynamic change detection: using the right tool for the task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Benoît R; Hodgetts, Helen M; Vachon, François; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Detecting task-relevant changes in a visual scene is necessary for successfully monitoring and managing dynamic command and control situations. Change blindness-the failure to notice visual changes-is an important source of human error. Change History EXplicit (CHEX) is a tool developed to aid change detection and maintain situation awareness; and in the current study we test the generality of its ability to facilitate the detection of changes when this subtask is embedded within a broader dynamic decision-making task. A multitasking air-warfare simulation required participants to perform radar-based subtasks, for which change detection was a necessary aspect of the higher-order goal of protecting one's own ship. In this task, however, CHEX rendered the operator even more vulnerable to attentional failures in change detection and increased perceived workload. Such support was only effective when participants performed a change detection task without concurrent subtasks. Results are interpreted in terms of the NSEEV model of attention behavior (Steelman, McCarley, & Wickens, Hum. Factors 53:142-153, 2011; J. Exp. Psychol. Appl. 19:403-419, 2013), and suggest that decision aids for use in multitasking contexts must be designed to fit within the available workload capacity of the user so that they may truly augment cognition.

  14. Dynamic Task Allocation in Multi-Hop Multimedia Wireless Sensor Networks with Low Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Moessner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a task allocation-oriented framework to enable efficient in-network processing and cost-effective multi-hop resource sharing for dynamic multi-hop multimedia wireless sensor networks with low node mobility, e.g., pedestrian speeds. The proposed system incorporates a fast task reallocation algorithm to quickly recover from possible network service disruptions, such as node or link failures. An evolutional self-learning mechanism based on a genetic algorithm continuously adapts the system parameters in order to meet the desired application delay requirements, while also achieving a sufficiently long network lifetime. Since the algorithm runtime incurs considerable time delay while updating task assignments, we introduce an adaptive window size to limit the delay periods and ensure an up-to-date solution based on node mobility patterns and device processing capabilities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that yields multi-objective task allocation in a mobile multi-hop wireless environment under dynamic conditions. Simulations are performed in various settings, and the results show considerable performance improvement in extending network lifetime compared to heuristic mechanisms. Furthermore, the proposed framework provides noticeable reduction in the frequency of missing application deadlines.

  15. Healthcare performance and the effects of the binaural beats on human blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    Binaural beats are the differences in two different frequencies (in the range of 30-1000 Hz). Binaural beats are played through headphones and are perceived by the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere of the brain. The brain perceives the binaural beat and resonates to its frequency (frequency following response). Once the brain is in tune with the binaural beat it produces brainwaves of that frequency altering the listener's state of mind. In this experiment, the effects of the beta and theta binaural beat on human blood pressure and pulse were studied. Using headphones, three sounds were played for 7 minutes each to 12 participants: the control,- the sound of a babbling brook (the background sound to the two binaural beats), the beta binaural beat (20 Hz), and the theta binaural beat (7 Hz). Blood pressure and pulse were recorded before and after each sound was played. Each participant was given 2 minutes in-between each sound. The results showed that the control and the two binaural beats did not affect the 12 participant's blood pressure or pulse (p > 0.05). One reason for this may be that the sounds were not played long enough for the brain to either perceive and/or resonate to the frequency. Another reason why the sounds did not affect blood pressure and pulse may be due to the participant's age since older brains may not perceive the binaural beats as well as younger brains.

  16. A Dynamic Intelligent Decision Approach to Dependency Modeling of Project Tasks in Complex Engineering System Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinggui Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex engineering system optimization usually involves multiple projects or tasks. On the one hand, dependency modeling among projects or tasks highlights structures in systems and their environments which can help to understand the implications of connectivity on different aspects of system performance and also assist in designing, optimizing, and maintaining complex systems. On the other hand, multiple projects or tasks are either happening at the same time or scheduled into a sequence in order to use common resources. In this paper, we propose a dynamic intelligent decision approach to dependency modeling of project tasks in complex engineering system optimization. The approach takes this decision process as a two-stage decision-making problem. In the first stage, a task clustering approach based on modularization is proposed so as to find out a suitable decomposition scheme for a large-scale project. In the second stage, according to the decomposition result, a discrete artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honeybees is developed for the resource constrained multiproject scheduling problem. Finally, a certain case from an engineering design of a chemical processing system is utilized to help to understand the proposed approach.

  17. Effect of speed on local dynamic stability of locomotion under different task constraints in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated effects of speed on local dynamic stability of walking, although this relationship has been rarely investigated under changing task constraints, such as during forward and backward running. To rectify this gap in the literature, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of running speed on local dynamic stability of forward and backward running on a treadmill. Fifteen healthy male participants took part in this study. Participants ran in forward and backward directions at speeds of 80%, 100% and 120% of their preferred running speed. The three-dimensional motion of a C7 marker was recorded using a motion capture system. Local dynamic stability of the marker was quantified using short- and long-term largest finite-time Lyapunov exponents (LyE). Results showed that short-term largest finite-time LyE values increased with participant speed meaning that local dynamic stability decreased with increasing speed. Long-term largest finite-time LyEs, however, remained unaffected as speed increased. Results of this study indicated that, as in walking, slow running is more stable than fast running. These findings improve understanding of how stability is regulated when constraints on the speed of movements is altered. Implications for the design of rehabilitation or sport practice programmes suggest how task constraints could be manipulated to facilitate adaptations in locomotion stability during athletic training.

  18. Spatiotemporal oscillatory dynamics of visual selective attention during a flanker task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Timothy J; Wiesman, Alex I; Proskovec, Amy L; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2017-08-01

    The flanker task is a test of visual selective attention that has been widely used to probe error monitoring, response conflict, and related constructs. However, to date, few studies have focused on the selective attention component of this task and imaged the underlying oscillatory dynamics serving task performance. In this study, 21 healthy adults successfully completed an arrow-based version of the Eriksen flanker task during magnetoencephalography (MEG). All MEG data were pre-processed and transformed into the time-frequency domain. Significant oscillatory brain responses were imaged using a beamforming approach, and voxel time series were extracted from the peak responses to identify the temporal dynamics. Across both congruent and incongruent flanker conditions, our results indicated robust decreases in alpha (9-12Hz) activity in medial and lateral occipital regions, bilateral parietal cortices, and cerebellar areas during task performance. In parallel, increases in theta (3-7Hz) oscillatory activity were detected in dorsal and ventral frontal regions, and the anterior cingulate. As per conditional effects, stronger alpha responses (i.e., greater desynchronization) were observed in parietal, occipital, and cerebellar cortices during incongruent relative to congruent trials, whereas the opposite pattern emerged for theta responses (i.e., synchronization) in the anterior cingulate, left dorsolateral prefrontal, and ventral prefrontal cortices. Interestingly, the peak latency of theta responses in these latter brain regions was significantly correlated with reaction time, and may partially explain the amplitude difference observed between congruent and incongruent trials. Lastly, whole-brain exploratory analyses implicated the frontal eye fields, right temporoparietal junction, and premotor cortices. These findings suggest that regions of both the dorsal and ventral attention networks contribute to visual selective attention processes during incongruent trials

  19. A Neural Network Model to Learn Multiple Tasks under Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumori, Kenji; Ozawa, Seiichi

    When environments are dynamically changed for agents, the knowledge acquired in an environment might be useless in future. In such dynamic environments, agents should be able to not only acquire new knowledge but also modify old knowledge in learning. However, modifying all knowledge acquired before is not efficient because the knowledge once acquired may be useful again when similar environment reappears and some knowledge can be shared among different environments. To learn efficiently in such environments, we propose a neural network model that consists of the following modules: resource allocating network, long-term & short-term memory, and environment change detector. We evaluate the model under a class of dynamic environments where multiple function approximation tasks are sequentially given. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses stable incremental learning, accurate environmental change detection, proper association and recall of old knowledge, and efficient knowledge transfer.

  20. Developmental dynamics between mathematical performance, task motivation, and teachers' goals during the transition to primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2006-03-01

    It has been suggested that children's learning motivation and interest in a particular subject play an important role in their school performance, particularly in mathematics. However, few cross-lagged longitudinal studies have been carried out to investigate the prospective relationships between academic achievement and task motivation. Moreover, the role that the classroom context plays in this development is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental dynamics of maths-related motivation and mathematical performance during children's transition to primary school. The role of teachers' pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics on this development was also investigated. A total of 196 Finnish children were examined four times: (0) in October during their preschool year; (1) in October and (2) April during their first grade of primary school; and (3) in October during their second grade. Children's mathematical performance was tested at each measurement point. Task motivation was examined at measurement points 2, 3, and 4 using the Task-value scale for children. First-grade teachers were interviewed in November about their pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics. The results showed that children's mathematical performance and related task motivation formed a cumulative developmental cycle: a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the first grade increased subsequent task motivation towards mathematics, which further predicted a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the second grade. The level of maths-related task motivation increased in those classrooms where the teachers emphasized motivation or self-concept development as their most important pedagogical goal.

  1. Selecting a Dynamic Simulation Modeling Method for Health Care Delivery Research—Part 2: Report of the ISPOR Dynamic Simulation Modeling Emerging Good Practices Task Force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Deborah A.; Burgos-Liz, Lina; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Crown, William; Padula, William V.; Wong, Peter K.; Pasupathy, Kalyan S.; Higashi, Mitchell K.; Osgood, Nathaniel D.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous report, the ISPOR Task Force on Dynamic Simulation Modeling Applications in Health Care Delivery Research Emerging Good Practices introduced the fundamentals of dynamic simulation modeling and identified the types of health care delivery problems for which dynamic simulation modeling

  2. How to quantify binaural hearing in patients with unilateral hearing using hearing implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snik, Ad; Agterberg, Martijn; Bosman, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Application of bilateral hearing devices in bilateral hearing loss and unilateral application in unilateral hearing loss (second ear with normal hearing) does not a priori lead to binaural hearing. An overview is presented on several measures of binaural benefits that have been used in patients with unilateral or bilateral deafness using one or two cochlear implants, respectively, and in patients with unilateral or bilateral conductive/mixed hearing loss using one or two percutaneous bone conduction implants (BCDs), respectively. Overall, according to this overview, the most significant and sensitive measure is the benefit in directional hearing. Measures using speech (viz. binaural summation, binaural squelch or use of the head shadow effect) showed minor benefits, except for patients with bilateral conductive/mixed hearing loss using two BCDs. Although less feasible in daily practise, the binaural masking level difference test seems to be a promising option in the assessment of binaural function. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Effects of an attention demanding task on dynamic stability during treadmill walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Karen L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People exhibit increased difficulty balancing when they perform secondary attention-distracting tasks while walking. However, a previous study by Grabiner and Troy (J. Neuroengineering Rehabil., 2005 found that young healthy subjects performing a concurrent Stroop task while walking on a motorized treadmill exhibited decreased step width variability. However, measures of variability do not directly quantify how a system responds to perturbations. This study re-analyzed data from Grabiner and Troy 2005 to determine if performing the concurrent Stroop task directly affected the dynamic stability of walking in these same subjects. Methods Thirteen healthy volunteers walked on a motorized treadmill at their self-selected constant speed for 10 minutes both while performing the Stroop test and during undisturbed walking. This Stroop test consisted of projecting images of the name of one color, printed in text of a different color, onto a wall and asking subjects to verbally identify the color of the text. Three-dimensional motions of a marker attached to the base of the neck (C5/T1 were recorded. Marker velocities were calculated over 3 equal intervals of 200 sec each in each direction. Mean variability was calculated for each time series as the average standard deviation across all strides. Both "local" and "orbital" dynamic stability were quantified for each time series using previously established methods. These measures directly quantify how quickly small perturbations grow or decay, either continuously in real time (local or discretely from one cycle to the next (orbital. Differences between Stroop and Control trials were evaluated using a 2-factor repeated measures ANOVA. Results Mean variability of trunk movements was significantly reduced during the Stroop tests compared to normal walking. Conversely, local and orbital stability results were mixed: some measures showed slight increases, while others showed slight decreases

  4. Task set induces dynamic reallocation of resources in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremata, Summer L; Shomstein, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    Successful interaction with the environment requires the ability to flexibly allocate resources to different locations in the visual field. Recent evidence suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) resources are distributed asymmetrically across the visual field based upon task demands. Here, we propose that context, rather than the stimulus itself, determines asymmetrical distribution of VSTM resources. To test whether context modulates the reallocation of resources to the right visual field, task set, defined by memory-load, was manipulated to influence visual short-term memory performance. Performance was measured for single-feature objects embedded within predominantly single- or two-feature memory blocks. Therefore, context was varied to determine whether task set directly predicts changes in visual field biases. In accord with the dynamic reallocation of resources hypothesis, task set, rather than aspects of the physical stimulus, drove improvements in performance in the right- visual field. Our results show, for the first time, that preparation for upcoming memory demands directly determines how resources are allocated across the visual field.

  5. Acquisition and production of skilled behavior in dynamic decision-making tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Ongoing research investigating perceptual and contextual influences on skilled human performance in dynamic decision making environments is discussed. The research is motivated by two general classes of findings in recent decision making research. First, many studies suggest that the concrete context in which a task is presented has strong influences on the psychological processes used to perform the task and on subsequent performance. Second, studies of skilled behavior in a wide variety of task environments typically implicate the perceptual system as an important contributor to decision-making performance, either in its role as a mediator between the current decision context and stored knowledge, or as a mechanism capable of directly initiating activity through the development of a 'trained eye.' Both contextual and perceptual influences place limits on the ability of traditional utility-theoretic accounts of decision-making to guide display design, as variance in behavior due to contextual factors or the development of a perceptual skill is left unexplained. The author outlines a framework in which to view questions of perceptual and contextual influences on behavior and describe an experimental task and analysis technique which will be used to diagnose the possible role of perception in skilled decision making performance.

  6. Dynamic sensor tasking and IMM EKF estimation for tracking impulsively maneuvering satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lace, Arthur A.

    In order to efficiently maintain space situational awareness, care must be taken to optimally allocate expensive observation resources. In most situations the available sensors capable of tracking spacecraft have their time split between many different monitoring responsibilities. Tracking maneuvering spacecraft can be especially difficult as the schedule of maneuvers may not be known and will often throw off previous orbital models. Effectively solving this tasking problem is an ongoing focus of research in the area of space situational awareness. Most methods of automated tasking do not make use of interacting multiple model extended Kalman filter techniques to better track satellites during maneuvers. This paper proposes a modification to a Fisher information gain and estimated state covariance based sensor tasking method to take maneuver probability and multiple model dynamics into account. By incorporating the probabilistic maneuvering model, sensor tasking can be improved during satellite maneuvers using constrained resources. The proposed methods are verified through the use of numerical simulations with multiple maneuvering satellites and both orbital and ground-based sensors.

  7. Binaural interaction in the auditory brainstem response: a normative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2015-04-01

    Binaural interaction can be investigated using auditory evoked potentials. A binaural interaction component can be derived from the auditory brainstem response (ABR-BIC) and is considered evidence for binaural interaction at the level of the brainstem. Although click ABR-BIC has been investigated thoroughly, data on 500 Hz tone-burst (TB) ABR-BICs are scarce. In this study, characteristics of click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs are described. Furthermore, reliability of both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are investigated. Eighteen normal hearing young adults (eight women, ten men) were included. ABRs were recorded in response to clicks and 500 Hz TBs. ABR-BICs were derived by subtracting the binaural response from the sum of the monaural responses measured in opposite ears. Good inter-rater reliability is obtained for both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at a mean latency of 6.06 ms (SD 0.354 ms). Reliable 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are obtained with a mean latency of 9.47 ms (SD 0.678 ms). Amplitudes are larger for 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC than for clicks. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at the downslope of wave V. Five hundred Hertz TB ABR-BIC is characterized by a broad positivity occurring at the level of wave V. The ABR-BIC is a useful technique to investigate binaural interaction in certain populations. Examples are bilateral hearing aid users, bilateral cochlear implant users and bimodal listeners. The latter refers to the combination of unilateral cochlear implantation and contralateral residual hearing. The majority of these patients have residual hearing in the low frequencies. The current study suggests that 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC may be a suitable technique to assess binaural interaction in this specific population of cochlear implant users. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of reverberation-related binaural cues in the externalization of speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The perception of externalization of speech sounds was investigated with respect to the monaural and binaural cues available at the listeners’ ears in a reverberant environment. Individualized binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were used to simulate externalized sound sources via headphones....... The measured BRIRs were subsequently modified such that the proportion of the response containing binaural vs monaural information was varied. Normal-hearing listeners were presented with speech sounds convolved with such modified BRIRs. Monaural reverberation cues were found to be sufficient...

  9. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, hav...

  10. Time Series Modeling of Human Operator Dynamics in Manual Control Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biezad, D. J.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    A time-series technique is presented for identifying the dynamic characteristics of the human operator in manual control tasks from relatively short records of experimental data. Control of system excitation signals used in the identification is not required. The approach is a multi-channel identification technique for modeling multi-input/multi-output situations. The method presented includes statistical tests for validity, is designed for digital computation, and yields estimates for the frequency response of the human operator. A comprehensive relative power analysis may also be performed for validated models. This method is applied to several sets of experimental data; the results are discussed and shown to compare favorably with previous research findings. New results are also presented for a multi-input task that was previously modeled to demonstrate the strengths of the method.

  11. Haptic subjective vertical shows context dependence: task and vision play a role during dynamic tilt stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William Geoffrey; Glasauer, Stefan

    2003-10-01

    Perceiving one's vertical is an integral part of efficiently functioning in an environment physically polarized along that dimension. How one determines the direction of gravity is not a task left only to inertial sensors, such as the vestibular organs, rather as numerous studies have shown, this task is influenced visually and somatosensorily. In addition, there is evidence that higher order cognitive effects such as expectancies and context are critical in perception of the vertical. One's ability to integrate these various inputs during normal activity is not generally questioned, one's doubts being satisfied by observing a waiter navigating a crowded restaurant with a tray balanced on one hand, neither tripping or dropping an entree. But how these various sources are integrated is still debated. Most research focuses on subjective vertical perception used visual matching/alignment tasks, verbal reports, or saccadic eye movements as a dependent measure. Although a motor task involving a joystick or indicator to be aligned with gravity without visual feedback is used much less frequently, there is good evidence that individuals easily orient limbs to an external gravity-aligned coordinate axis while being statically tilted. By exposure to a dynamic situation, the central nervous system should be no more challenged by the task of determining the subjective vertical than during static conditions, because our spatial orientation systems were likely selected for just that. In addition, the sensitive calibration between visual and other sensory input also must have been key to its selection. This sensory interaction can be tested by changing the relation between the various sources. With the advent of virtual reality technology, a complex and "natural" visual stimulus is achievable and is easily manipulable. How one tests perception of verticality is also a pertinent question when researching spatial orientation systems. The system's performance may be better

  12. Virtual reality in neurosurgical education: part-task ventriculostomy simulation with dynamic visual and haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemole, G Michael; Banerjee, P Pat; Luciano, Cristian; Neckrysh, Sergey; Charbel, Fady T

    2007-07-01

    Mastery of the neurosurgical skill set involves many hours of supervised intraoperative training. Convergence of political, economic, and social forces has limited neurosurgical resident operative exposure. There is need to develop realistic neurosurgical simulations that reproduce the operative experience, unrestricted by time and patient safety constraints. Computer-based, virtual reality platforms offer just such a possibility. The combination of virtual reality with dynamic, three-dimensional stereoscopic visualization, and haptic feedback technologies makes realistic procedural simulation possible. Most neurosurgical procedures can be conceptualized and segmented into critical task components, which can be simulated independently or in conjunction with other modules to recreate the experience of a complex neurosurgical procedure. We use the ImmersiveTouch (ImmersiveTouch, Inc., Chicago, IL) virtual reality platform, developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago, to simulate the task of ventriculostomy catheter placement as a proof-of-concept. Computed tomographic data are used to create a virtual anatomic volume. Haptic feedback offers simulated resistance and relaxation with passage of a virtual three-dimensional ventriculostomy catheter through the brain parenchyma into the ventricle. A dynamic three-dimensional graphical interface renders changing visual perspective as the user's head moves. The simulation platform was found to have realistic visual, tactile, and handling characteristics, as assessed by neurosurgical faculty, residents, and medical students. We have developed a realistic, haptics-based virtual reality simulator for neurosurgical education. Our first module recreates a critical component of the ventriculostomy placement task. This approach to task simulation can be assembled in a modular manner to reproduce entire neurosurgical procedures.

  13. Cognitive-motor dual-task interference modulates mediolateral dynamic stability during gait in post-stroke individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisserand, R; Armand, S; Allali, G; Schnider, A; Baillieul, S

    2018-04-01

    Gait asymmetry and dynamic balance impairments observed in post-stroke individuals increase their risk of fall. Moreover, walking while performing a cognitive task (i.e. dual-task) disturbs the control of balance in post-stroke individuals. Here we investigated the mediolateral dynamic stability in twenty-two community-dwelling participants (12 post-strokes and 10 healthy controls) while walking in single-task (normal gait) and four different dual-tasks (cognitive-motor interference). Positions of the extrapolated center of mass and mediolateral widths of both margin of stability and base of support were extracted from 35 marker trajectories. Post-stroke participants presented larger margin of stability and base of support than controls during single-task (both p dual-task was found between groups. In post-stroke participants, dual-task induced slight modification of the mediolateral stability strategy, as the margin of stability was not different between the two limbs at foot-strike, and significantly reduced the performance in every cognitive task. Post-stroke participants increased their dynamic stability in the frontal plane in single-task by extending their base of support and mainly relying on their non-paretic limb. Under cognitive-motor interference (dual-task), post-stroke participants prioritized dynamic stability over cognitive performance to ensure a safe locomotion. Thus, rehabilitation programs should consider both dynamic balance and dual-task training, even at a chronic delay following stroke, to reduce the risk of fall in post-stroke individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of monaural frequency compression on binaural fusion at the brainstem level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Isabelle; Kohl, Manuel C; Hannemann, Ronny; Kornagel, Ulrich; Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I

    2015-08-01

    A classical objective measure for binaural fusion at the brainstem level is the so-called β-wave of the binaural interaction component (BIC) in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). However, in some cases it appeared that a reliable detection of this component still remains a challenge. In this study, we investigate the wavelet phase synchronization stability (WPSS) of ABR data for the analysis of binaural fusion and compare it to the BIC. In particular, we examine the impact of monaural nonlinear frequency compression on binaural fusion. As the auditory system is tonotopically organized, an interaural frequency mismatch caused by monaural frequency compression could negatively effect binaural fusion. In this study, only few subjects showed a detectable β-wave and in most cases only for low ITDs. However, we present a novel objective measure for binaural fusion that outperforms the current state-of-the-art technique (BIC): the WPSS analysis showed a significant difference between the phase stability of the sum of the monaurally evoked responses and the phase stability of the binaurally evoked ABR. This difference could be an indicator for binaural fusion in the brainstem. Furthermore, we observed that monaural frequency compression could indeed effect binaural fusion, as the WPSS results for this condition vary strongly from the results obtained without frequency compression.

  15. The Emergence of Visual Awareness: Temporal Dynamics in Relation to Task and Mask Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Markus; Kammer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    One aspect of consciousness phenomena, the temporal emergence of visual awareness, has been subject of a controversial debate. How can visual awareness, that is the experiential quality of visual stimuli, be characterized best? Is there a sharp discontinuous or dichotomous transition between unaware and fully aware states, or does awareness emerge gradually encompassing intermediate states? Previous studies yielded conflicting results and supported both dichotomous and gradual views. It is well conceivable that these conflicting results are more than noise, but reflect the dynamic nature of the temporal emergence of visual awareness. Using a psychophysical approach, the present research tested whether the emergence of visual awareness is context-dependent with a temporal two-alternative forced choice task. During backward masking of word targets, it was assessed whether the relative temporal sequence of stimulus thresholds is modulated by the task (stimulus presence, letter case, lexical decision, and semantic category) and by mask type. Four masks with different similarity to the target features were created. Psychophysical functions were then fitted to the accuracy data in the different task conditions as a function of the stimulus mask SOA in order to determine the inflection point (conscious threshold of each feature) and slope of the psychophysical function (transition from unaware to aware within each feature). Depending on feature-mask similarity, thresholds in the different tasks were highly dispersed suggesting a graded transition from unawareness to awareness or had less differentiated thresholds indicating that clusters of features probed by the tasks quite simultaneously contribute to the percept. The latter observation, although not compatible with the notion of a sharp all-or-none transition between unaware and aware states, suggests a less gradual or more discontinuous emergence of awareness. Analyses of slopes of the fitted psychophysical functions

  16. An account of cognitive flexibility and inflexibility for a complex dynamic task

    OpenAIRE

    De Obeso Orendain, Alberto; Wood, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving involves adapting known problem solving methods and strategies to the task at hand (Schunn & Reder, 2001) and cognitive flexibility is considered to be “the human ability to adapt the cognitive processing strategies to face new and unexpected conditions of the environment” (Cañas et al., 2005, p. 95). This work presents an ACT-R 6.0 model of complex problem solving behavior for the dynamic microworld game FireChief (Omodei & Wearing, 1995) that models the performance of partic...

  17. The effect of cochlear nonlinearities on binaural masking level differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goff, Nicolas; Kohlrausch, Armin

    Background The binaural masking level difference (BMLD) has been shown to be constant (10−15dB) for masker spectrum levels from 70dB/Hz down to 30−40dB/Hz and to gradually decrease with lower levels (McFadden, 1968; Hall and Harvey, 1984). The decrease at low levels was larger in an asymmetric...... on the BMLD was investigated using an equalization−cancelation (EC) based binaural model framework. Methods The BMLD was measured for 500−Hz target tones presented in 3−kHz−wide maskers. BMLDs were obtained as a function of masker level in one symmetric and two asymmetric masker conditions: (i) No...... of 20dB/Hz in the non−attenuated ear. An EC based binaural model with a frontend including nonlinear peripheral processing (Jepsen et al., 2011) was used to predict these results. Results The BMLD obtained in the No′Sπ′50 condition was smaller than that obtained in the NoSπ condition at all masker...

  18. Interaction of Object Binding Cues in Binaural Masking Pattern Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Lübken, Björn; van de Par, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Object binding cues such as binaural and across-frequency modulation cues are likely to be used by the auditory system to separate sounds from different sources in complex auditory scenes. The present study investigates the interaction of these cues in a binaural masking pattern paradigm where a sinusoidal target is masked by a narrowband noise. It was hypothesised that beating between signal and masker may contribute to signal detection when signal and masker do not spectrally overlap but that this cue could not be used in combination with interaural cues. To test this hypothesis an additional sinusoidal interferer was added to the noise masker with a lower frequency than the noise whereas the target had a higher frequency than the noise. Thresholds increase when the interferer is added. This effect is largest when the spectral interferer-masker and masker-target distances are equal. The result supports the hypothesis that modulation cues contribute to signal detection in the classical masking paradigm and that these are analysed with modulation bandpass filters. A monaural model including an across-frequency modulation process is presented that account for this effect. Interestingly, the interferer also affects dichotic thresholds indicating that modulation cues also play a role in binaural processing.

  19. Effectiveness of binaural beats in reducing preoperative dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, B K; Esen, A; Büyükerkmen, B; Kilinç, A; Menziletoglu, D

    2017-07-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two different pure-tone sine waves are presented one to each ear at a steady intensity and frequency. We evaluated their effectiveness in reducing preoperative anxiety in dentistry. Sixty patients (30 in each group) who were to have impacted third molars removed were studied (experimental group: 20 women and 10 men, mean (range) age 24 (18-35) years, and control group: 22 women and 8 men, mean (range) age 28 (15-47) years). All patients were fully informed about the operation preoperatively, and their anxiety recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The local anaesthetic was given and the patients waited for 10minutes, during which those in the experimental group were asked to listen to binaural beats through stereo earphones (200Hz for the left ear and 209.3Hz for the right ear). No special treatment was given to the control group. In both groups anxiety was then recorded again, and the tooth removed in the usual way. The paired t test and t test were used to assess the significance of differences between groups. The degree of anxiety in the control group was unchanged after the second measurement (p=0.625), while that in the experimental group showed a significant reduction in anxiety (p=0.001). We conclude that binaural beats may be useful in reducing preoperative anxiety in dentistry. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of binaural beat phenomenon with aphasic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, D F; Mullin, T A; Herbert, P S

    1977-04-01

    We investigated whether six aphasics and six normal subjects could binaurally fuse two slightly differing frequencies of constant amplitude. The aphasics were subdivided into two groups: (1) two men who had had mild cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) during the past 15 months; (2) four men who had had severe CVAs during the last 15 months. Two tones of different frequency levels but equal in intensity were presented dichotically to the subjects at 40 dB sensation level. All subjects had normal hearing at 500 Hz (0 to 25 dB). All six normal subjects and the two aphasics who had had mild CVAs could hear the binaural beats. The four aphasics who had had severe CVAs could not hear them. A 2 X 2 design resulting from this study was compared using chi2 test with Yates correction and was found to be significantly different (P less than .05). Two theories are presented to explain these findings: the "depression theory" and the "temporal time-sequencing theory." Therapeutic implications are also discussed relative to cerebral and/or brain stem involvement in the fusion of binaural stimuli.

  1. Identifying the processes underpinning anticipation and decision-making in a dynamic time-constrained task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, André; Ford, Paul R; McRobert, Allistair P; Mark Williams, A

    2011-08-01

    A novel, representative task was used to examine skill-based differences in the perceptual and cognitive processes underlying performance on a dynamic, externally paced task. Skilled and less skilled soccer players were required to move and interact with life-size, action sequences involving 11 versus 11 soccer situations filmed from the perspective of a central defender in soccer. The ability of participants to anticipate the intentions of their opponents and to make decisions about how they should respond was measured across two separate experiments. In Experiment 1, visual search behaviors were examined using an eye-movement registration system. In Experiment 2, retrospective verbal reports of thinking were gathered from a new sample of skilled and less skilled participants. Skilled participants were more accurate than less skilled participants at anticipating the intentions of opponents and in deciding on an appropriate course of action. The skilled players employed a search strategy involving more fixations of shorter duration in a different sequential order and toward more disparate and informative locations in the display when compared with the less skilled counterparts. The skilled players generated a greater number of verbal report statements with a higher proportion of evaluation, prediction, and planning statements than the less skilled players, suggesting they employed more complex domain-specific memory representations to solve the task. Theoretical, methodological, and practical implications are discussed.

  2. Alternating Dynamics of Segregation and Integration in Human EEG Functional Networks During Working-memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Castiglioni, Isabella; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2018-02-10

    Brain functional networks show high variability in short time windows but mechanisms governing these transient dynamics remain unknown. In this work, we studied the temporal evolution of functional brain networks involved in a working memory (WM) task while recording high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in human normal subjects. We found that functional brain networks showed an initial phase characterized by an increase of the functional segregation index followed by a second phase where the functional segregation faded after the prevailing the functional integration. Notably, wrong trials were associated with different or disrupted sequences of the segregation-integration profiles and measures of network centrality and modularity were able to identify crucial aspects of the oscillatory network dynamics. Additionally, computational investigations further supported the experimental results. The brain functional organization may respond to the information processing demand of a WM task following a 2-step atomic scheme wherein segregation and integration alternately dominate the functional configurations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrating the behavioral and neural dynamics of response selection in a dual-task paradigm: a dynamic neural field model of Dux et al. (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Aaron T; Wifall, Tim; Hazeltine, Eliot; Spencer, John P

    2014-02-01

    People are typically slower when executing two tasks than when only performing a single task. These dual-task costs are initially robust but are reduced with practice. Dux et al. (2009) explored the neural basis of dual-task costs and learning using fMRI. Inferior frontal junction (IFJ) showed a larger hemodynamic response on dual-task trials compared with single-task trial early in learning. As dual-task costs were eliminated, dual-task hemodynamics in IFJ reduced to single-task levels. Dux and colleagues concluded that the reduction of dual-task costs is accomplished through increased efficiency of information processing in IFJ. We present a dynamic field theory of response selection that addresses two questions regarding these results. First, what mechanism leads to the reduction of dual-task costs and associated changes in hemodynamics? We show that a simple Hebbian learning mechanism is able to capture the quantitative details of learning at both the behavioral and neural levels. Second, is efficiency isolated to cognitive control areas such as IFJ, or is it also evident in sensory motor areas? To investigate this, we restrict Hebbian learning to different parts of the neural model. None of the restricted learning models showed the same reductions in dual-task costs as the unrestricted learning model, suggesting that efficiency is distributed across cognitive control and sensory motor processing systems.

  4. Evaluation of linearly solvable Markov decision process with dynamic model learning in a mobile robot navigation task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eKinjo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Linearly solvable Markov Decision Process (LMDP is a class of optimal control problem in whichthe Bellman’s equation can be converted into a linear equation by an exponential transformation ofthe state value function (Todorov, 2009. In an LMDP, the optimal value function and the correspondingcontrol policy are obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem in a discrete state space or an eigenfunctionproblem in a continuous state using the knowledge of the system dynamics and the action, state, andterminal cost functions.In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the LMDP framework in real robot control, in whichthe dynamics of the body and the environment have to be learned from experience. We first perform asimulation study of a pole swing-up task to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of the learned dynam-ics model on the derived the action policy. The result shows that a crude linear approximation of thenonlinear dynamics can still allow solution of the task, despite with a higher total cost.We then perform real robot experiments of a battery-catching task using our Spring Dog mobile robotplatform. The state is given by the position and the size of a battery in its camera view and two neck jointangles. The action is the velocities of two wheels, while the neck joints were controlled by a visual servocontroller. We test linear and bilinear dynamic models in tasks with quadratic and Guassian state costfunctions. In the quadratic cost task, the LMDP controller derived from a learned linear dynamics modelperformed equivalently with the optimal linear quadratic controller (LQR. In the non-quadratic task, theLMDP controller with a linear dynamics model showed the best performance. The results demonstratethe usefulness of the LMDP framework in real robot control even when simple linear models are usedfor dynamics learning.

  5. Improvements in Speech Understanding With Wireless Binaural Broadband Digital Hearing Instruments in Adults With Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Kreisman, Brian M.; Mazevski, Annette G.; Schum, Donald J.; Sockalingam, Ravichandran

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined whether speech intelligibility in noise can be improved using a new, binaural broadband hearing instrument system. Participants were 36 adults with symmetrical, sensorineural hearing loss (18 experienced hearing instrument users and 18 without prior experience). Participants were fit binaurally in a planned comparison, randomized crossover design study with binaural broadband hearing instruments and advanced digital hearing instruments. Following an adjustment peri...

  6. Continuous process tracing and the Iowa Gambling Task: Extending response dynamics to multialternative choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Koop

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of judgment and decision making is defined by a trend toward increasingly nuanced explanations of the decision making process. Recently, process models have become incredibly sophisticated, yet the tools available to directly test these models have not kept pace. These increasingly complex process models require increasingly complex process data by which they can be adequately tested. We propose a new class of data collection that will facilitate evaluation of sophisticated process models. Tracking mouse paths during a continuous response provides an implicit measure of the growth of preference that produces a choice---rather than the current practice of recording just the button press that indicates that choice itself. Recent research in cognitive science (Spivey and Dale, 2006 has shown that cognitive processing can be revealed in these dynamic motor responses. Unlike current process methodologies, these response dynamics studies can demonstrate continuous competition between choice options and even online preference reversals. Here, in order to demonstrate the mechanics and utility of the methodology, we present an example response dynamics experiment utilizing a common multi-alternative decision task.

  7. A new approach to comparing binaural masking level differences at low and high frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Par, van de S.L.J.D.E.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    A new experimental technique for studying binaural processing at high frequencies is introduced. Binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) for the conditions N0S and NS0 were measured for a tonal signal in narrow-band noise at 125, 250, and 4000 Hz. In addition, "transposed" stimuli were generated,

  8. A machine-hearing system exploiting head movements for binaural sound localisation in reverberant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Ma, Ning; Wierstorf, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with machine localisation of multiple active speech sources in reverberant environments using two (binaural) microphones. Such conditions typically present a problem for ‘classical’ binaural models. Inspired by the human ability to utilise head movements, the current study...

  9. Detection and identification of monaural and binaural pitch contours in dyslexic listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Poelmans, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    found that a majority of dyslexic subjects were unable to hear binaural pitch, the latter obtained a clear response of dyslexic listeners to Huggins’ pitch (HP) (Cramer and Huggins, 1958). The present study clarified whether impaired binaural pitch perception is found in dyslexia. Results from a pitch...

  10. A time-domain binaural detection model and its predictions temporal-resolution data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breebaart, D.J.; Par, van de S.L.J.D.E.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a time-domain binaural signal-detection model in the context of estimates of the temporal resolution of the binaural auditory system. It is demonstrated that the optimal detector which is present in the model is crucial to account for specific temporal

  11. Contribution of low- and high-frequency bands to binaural unmasking in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locsei, Gusztav; Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of interaural timing differences (ITDs) in different frequency regions to binaural unmasking (BU) of speech. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) and binaural intelligibility level differences (BILDs) were measured in two-talker babble in 6 young normal-hear...

  12. Exploiting deep neural networks and head movements for binaural localisation of multiple speakers in reverberant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Brown, Guy J.; May, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine-hearing system that exploits deep neural networks (DNNs) and head movements for binaural localisation of multiple speakers in reverberant conditions. DNNs are used to map binaural features, consisting of the complete crosscorrelation function (CCF) and interaural...

  13. Evaluation of linearly solvable Markov decision process with dynamic model learning in a mobile robot navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Ken; Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Linearly solvable Markov Decision Process (LMDP) is a class of optimal control problem in which the Bellman's equation can be converted into a linear equation by an exponential transformation of the state value function (Todorov, 2009b). In an LMDP, the optimal value function and the corresponding control policy are obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem in a discrete state space or an eigenfunction problem in a continuous state using the knowledge of the system dynamics and the action, state, and terminal cost functions. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the LMDP framework in real robot control, in which the dynamics of the body and the environment have to be learned from experience. We first perform a simulation study of a pole swing-up task to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of the learned dynamics model on the derived the action policy. The result shows that a crude linear approximation of the non-linear dynamics can still allow solution of the task, despite with a higher total cost. We then perform real robot experiments of a battery-catching task using our Spring Dog mobile robot platform. The state is given by the position and the size of a battery in its camera view and two neck joint angles. The action is the velocities of two wheels, while the neck joints were controlled by a visual servo controller. We test linear and bilinear dynamic models in tasks with quadratic and Guassian state cost functions. In the quadratic cost task, the LMDP controller derived from a learned linear dynamics model performed equivalently with the optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR). In the non-quadratic task, the LMDP controller with a linear dynamics model showed the best performance. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the LMDP framework in real robot control even when simple linear models are used for dynamics learning.

  14. Applying dynamic priority scheduling scheme to static systems of pinwheel task model in power-aware scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Ye-In; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Power-aware scheduling reduces CPU energy consumption in hard real-time systems through dynamic voltage scaling (DVS). In this paper, we deal with pinwheel task model which is known as static and predictable task model and could be applied to various embedded or ubiquitous systems. In pinwheel task model, each task's priority is static and its execution sequence could be predetermined. There have been many static approaches to power-aware scheduling in pinwheel task model. But, in this paper, we will show that the dynamic priority scheduling results in power-aware scheduling could be applied to pinwheel task model. This method is more effective than adopting the previous static priority scheduling methods in saving energy consumption and, for the system being still static, it is more tractable and applicable to small sized embedded or ubiquitous computing. Also, we introduce a novel power-aware scheduling algorithm which exploits all slacks under preemptive earliest-deadline first scheduling which is optimal in uniprocessor system. The dynamic priority method presented in this paper could be applied directly to static systems of pinwheel task model. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with the algorithmic complexity of O(n) reduces the energy consumption by 10-80% over the existing algorithms.

  15. Combination of Adaptive Feedback Cancellation and Binaural Adaptive Filtering in Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lombard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a system combining adaptive feedback cancellation and adaptive filtering connecting inputs from both ears for signal enhancement in hearing aids. For the first time, such a binaural system is analyzed in terms of system stability, convergence of the algorithms, and possible interaction effects. As major outcomes of this study, a new stability condition adapted to the considered binaural scenario is presented, some already existing and commonly used feedback cancellation performance measures for the unilateral case are adapted to the binaural case, and possible interaction effects between the algorithms are identified. For illustration purposes, a blind source separation algorithm has been chosen as an example for adaptive binaural spatial filtering. Experimental results for binaural hearing aids confirm the theoretical findings and the validity of the new measures.

  16. Relating the absence of binaural pitch percept to retro-cochlear impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    Binaural pitch stimuli, created by introducing an interaural phase difference over a narrow band of otherwise diotic white noise, produce an immediate tonal sensation with a pitch close to the centre of the phase-shifted band. In Santurette and Dau [Hear. Res. 223(1-2):29-47, 2007], it was shown...... that the salience of binaural pitch was affected by hearing impairment. Specifically, for subjects with a sensorineural impairment, binaural pitch perception was weaker than the normal-hearing average but the pitch sensation was immediately present. In contrast, no binaural pitch sensation at all was found...... for the (only) two subjects with damage at central stages. The aim of the present study is to clarify whether such a sharp distinction between levels of impairment can be made using binaural pitch stimuli. A pitch detection test was performed by three groups of subjects with: 1) normal hearing; 2) a cochlear...

  17. Basic tasks for improving spectral-acoustic forecasting of dynamic phenomena in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrin, A. V.; Kontrimas, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A number of tasks for improving the spectral-acoustic method for forecasting dynamic phenomena and controlling stress condition in coalmines is considered. They are: considering the influence of a gas factor on the danger indicator, dependence of a relative pressure coefficient on the distance between the source and the receiver of the probing acoustic signal, correct selection of operating frequencies, the importance of developing the techniques for defining the critical value of the outburst danger index The influence of the rock mass stress condition ahead of the preliminary opening face on the relative pressure coefficient defined for installing the sound receiver in the wall of the opening behind the opening face is also justified in the article.

  18. Evidence from a partial report task for forgetting in dynamic spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugerty, L

    1998-09-01

    G. Sperling (1960) and others have investigated memory for briefly presented stimuli by using a partial versus whole report technique in which participants sometimes reported part of a stimulus array and sometimes reported all of it. For simple, static stimulus displays, the partial report technique showed that participants could recall most of the information in the stimulus array but that this information faded quickly when participants engaged in whole report recall. An experiment was conducted that applied the partial report method to a task involving complex displays of moving objects. In the experiment, 26 participants viewed cars in a low-fidelity driving simulator and then reported the locations of some or all of the cars in each scene. A statistically significant advantage was found for the partial report trials. This finding suggests that detailed spatial location information was forgotten from dynamic spatial memory over the 14 s that it took participants to recall whole report trials. The experiment results suggest better ways of measuring situation awareness. Partial report recall techniques may give a more accurate measure of people's momentary situation awareness than whole report techniques. Potential applications of this research include simulator-based measures of situation awareness ability that can be part of inexpensive test batteries to select people for real-time tasks (e.g., in a driver licensing battery) and to identify people who need additional training.

  19. Cortical evoked potentials to an auditory illusion: binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2009-08-01

    To define brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of 3 and 6Hz binaural beats in 250Hz or 1000Hz base frequencies, and compare it to the sound onset response. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to unmodulated tones of 250 or 1000Hz to one ear and 3 or 6Hz higher to the other, creating an illusion of amplitude modulations (beats) of 3Hz and 6Hz, in base frequencies of 250Hz and 1000Hz. Tones were 2000ms in duration and presented with approximately 1s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to tone onset and subsequent beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat frequencies with both base frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset P(50), N(100) and P(200) components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude with the low base frequency and to the low beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left lateral and inferior temporal lobe areas in all stimulus conditions. Onset-evoked components were not different across stimulus conditions; P(50) had significantly different sources than the beats-evoked oscillations; and N(100) and P(200) sources located to the same temporal lobe regions as beats-evoked oscillations, but were bilateral and also included frontal and parietal contributions. Neural activity with slightly different volley frequencies from left and right ear converges and interacts in the central auditory brainstem pathways to generate beats of neural activity to modulate activities in the left temporal lobe, giving rise to the illusion of binaural beats. Cortical potentials recorded to binaural beats are distinct from onset responses. Brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of low frequency beats can be recorded from the scalp.

  20. Transformation of binaural response properties in the ascending auditory pathway: influence of time-varying interaural phase disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, M W; Semple, M N

    1998-12-01

    Transformation of binaural response properties in the ascending auditory pathway: influence of time-varying interaural phase disparity. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 3062-3076, 1998. Previous studies demonstrated that tuning of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons to interaural phase disparity (IPD) is often profoundly influenced by temporal variation of IPD, which simulates the binaural cue produced by a moving sound source. To determine whether sensitivity to simulated motion arises in IC or at an earlier stage of binaural processing we compared responses in IC with those of two major IPD-sensitive neuronal classes in the superior olivary complex (SOC), neurons whose discharges were phase locked (PL) to tonal stimuli and those that were nonphase locked (NPL). Time-varying IPD stimuli consisted of binaural beats, generated by presenting tones of slightly different frequencies to the two ears, and interaural phase modulation (IPM), generated by presenting a pure tone to one ear and a phase modulated tone to the other. IC neurons and NPL-SOC neurons were more sharply tuned to time-varying than to static IPD, whereas PL-SOC neurons were essentially uninfluenced by the mode of stimulus presentation. Preferred IPD was generally similar in responses to static and time-varying IPD for all unit populations. A few IC neurons were highly influenced by the direction and rate of simulated motion, but the major effect for most IC neurons and all SOC neurons was a linear shift of preferred IPD at high rates-attributable to response latency. Most IC and NPL-SOC neurons were strongly influenced by IPM stimuli simulating motion through restricted ranges of azimuth; simulated motion through partially overlapping azimuthal ranges elicited discharge profiles that were highly discontiguous, indicating that the response associated with a particular IPD is dependent on preceding portions of the stimulus. In contrast, PL-SOC responses tracked instantaneous IPD throughout the trajectory of simulated

  1. A Comparison of Two Objective Measures of Binaural Processing: The Interaural Phase Modulation Following Response and the Binaural Interaction Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Nicholas R; Undurraga, Jaime A; Marquardt, Torsten; McAlpine, David

    2015-12-30

    There has been continued interest in clinical objective measures of binaural processing. One commonly proposed measure is the binaural interaction component (BIC), which is obtained typically by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)-the BIC reflects the difference between the binaural ABR and the sum of the monaural ABRs (i.e., binaural - (left + right)). We have recently developed an alternative, direct measure of sensitivity to interaural time differences, namely, a following response to modulations in interaural phase difference (the interaural phase modulation following response; IPM-FR). To obtain this measure, an ongoing diotically amplitude-modulated signal is presented, and the interaural phase difference of the carrier is switched periodically at minima in the modulation cycle. Such periodic modulations to interaural phase difference can evoke a steady state following response. BIC and IPM-FR measurements were compared from 10 normal-hearing subjects using a 16-channel electroencephalographic system. Both ABRs and IPM-FRs were observed most clearly from similar electrode locations-differential recordings taken from electrodes near the ear (e.g., mastoid) in reference to a vertex electrode (Cz). Although all subjects displayed clear ABRs, the BIC was not reliably observed. In contrast, the IPM-FR typically elicited a robust and significant response. In addition, the IPM-FR measure required a considerably shorter recording session. As the IPM-FR magnitude varied with interaural phase difference modulation depth, it could potentially serve as a correlate of perceptual salience. Overall, the IPM-FR appears a more suitable clinical measure than the BIC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Binaural release from masking with single- and multi-electrode stimulation in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ann E; Goupell, Matthew J; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-07-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide children with access to speech information from a young age. Despite bilateral cochlear implantation becoming common, use of spatial cues in free field is smaller than in normal-hearing children. Clinically fit CIs are not synchronized across the ears; thus binaural experiments must utilize research processors that can control binaural cues with precision. Research to date has used single pairs of electrodes, which is insufficient for representing speech. Little is known about how children with bilateral CIs process binaural information with multi-electrode stimulation. Toward the goal of improving binaural unmasking of speech, this study evaluated binaural unmasking with multi- and single-electrode stimulation. Results showed that performance with multi-electrode stimulation was similar to the best performance with single-electrode stimulation. This was similar to the pattern of performance shown by normal-hearing adults when presented an acoustic CI simulation. Diotic and dichotic signal detection thresholds of the children with CIs were similar to those of normal-hearing children listening to a CI simulation. The magnitude of binaural unmasking was not related to whether the children with CIs had good interaural time difference sensitivity. Results support the potential for benefits from binaural hearing and speech unmasking in children with bilateral CIs.

  3. Binaural release from masking with single- and multi-electrode stimulation in children with cochlear implantsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ann E.; Goupell, Matthew J.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide children with access to speech information from a young age. Despite bilateral cochlear implantation becoming common, use of spatial cues in free field is smaller than in normal-hearing children. Clinically fit CIs are not synchronized across the ears; thus binaural experiments must utilize research processors that can control binaural cues with precision. Research to date has used single pairs of electrodes, which is insufficient for representing speech. Little is known about how children with bilateral CIs process binaural information with multi-electrode stimulation. Toward the goal of improving binaural unmasking of speech, this study evaluated binaural unmasking with multi- and single-electrode stimulation. Results showed that performance with multi-electrode stimulation was similar to the best performance with single-electrode stimulation. This was similar to the pattern of performance shown by normal-hearing adults when presented an acoustic CI simulation. Diotic and dichotic signal detection thresholds of the children with CIs were similar to those of normal-hearing children listening to a CI simulation. The magnitude of binaural unmasking was not related to whether the children with CIs had good interaural time difference sensitivity. Results support the potential for benefits from binaural hearing and speech unmasking in children with bilateral CIs. PMID:27475132

  4. Musculoskeletal model-based control interface mimics physiologic hand dynamics during path tracing task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dustin L.; (Helen Huang, He

    2017-06-01

    Objective. We investigated the feasibility of a novel, customizable, simplified EMG-driven musculoskeletal model for estimating coordinated hand and wrist motions during a real-time path tracing task. Approach. A two-degree-of-freedom computational musculoskeletal model was implemented for real-time EMG-driven control of a stick figure hand displayed on a computer screen. After 5-10 minutes of undirected practice, subjects were given three attempts to trace 10 straight paths, one at a time, with the fingertip of the virtual hand. Able-bodied subjects completed the task on two separate test days. Main results. Across subjects and test days, there was a significant linear relationship between log-transformed measures of accuracy and speed (Pearson’s r  =  0.25, p  bodied subjects in 8 of 10 trials. For able-bodied subjects, tracing accuracy was lower at the extremes of the model’s range of motion, though there was no apparent relationship between tracing accuracy and fingertip location for the amputee. Our result suggests that, unlike able-bodied subjects, the amputee’s motor control patterns were not accustomed to the multi-joint dynamics of the wrist and hand, possibly as a result of post-amputation cortical plasticity, disuse, or sensory deficits. Significance. To our knowledge, our study is one of very few that have demonstrated the real-time simultaneous control of multi-joint movements, especially wrist and finger movements, using an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model, which differs from the many data-driven algorithms that dominate the literature on EMG-driven prosthesis control. Real-time control was achieved with very little training and simple, quick (~15 s) calibration. Thus, our model is potentially a practical and effective control platform for multifunctional myoelectric prostheses that could restore more life-like hand function for individuals with upper limb amputation.

  5. Low-back electromyography (EMG data-driven load classification for dynamic lifting tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deema Totah

    Full Text Available Numerous devices have been designed to support the back during lifting tasks. To improve the utility of such devices, this research explores the use of preparatory muscle activity to classify muscle loading and initiate appropriate device activation. The goal of this study was to determine the earliest time window that enabled accurate load classification during a dynamic lifting task.Nine subjects performed thirty symmetrical lifts, split evenly across three weight conditions (no-weight, 10-lbs and 24-lbs, while low-back muscle activity data was collected. Seven descriptive statistics features were extracted from 100 ms windows of data. A multinomial logistic regression (MLR classifier was trained and tested, employing leave-one subject out cross-validation, to classify lifted load values. Dimensionality reduction was achieved through feature cross-correlation analysis and greedy feedforward selection. The time of full load support by the subject was defined as load-onset.Regions of highest average classification accuracy started at 200 ms before until 200 ms after load-onset with average accuracies ranging from 80% (±10% to 81% (±7%. The average recall for each class ranged from 69-92%.These inter-subject classification results indicate that preparatory muscle activity can be leveraged to identify the intent to lift a weight up to 100 ms prior to load-onset. The high accuracies shown indicate the potential to utilize intent classification for assistive device applications.Active assistive devices, e.g. exoskeletons, could prevent back injury by off-loading low-back muscles. Early intent classification allows more time for actuators to respond and integrate seamlessly with the user.

  6. Do hearing loss and cognitive function modulate benefit from different binaural noise-reduction settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Tobias; Grimm, Giso; Hohmann, Volker; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research indicates that cognitive skills influence benefit from different types of hearing aid algorithms, comparatively little is known about the role of, and potential interaction with, hearing loss. This holds true especially for noise reduction (NR) processing. The purpose of the present study was thus to explore whether degree of hearing loss and cognitive function modulate benefit from different binaural NR settings based on measures of speech intelligibility, listening effort, and overall preference. Forty elderly listeners with symmetrical sensorineural hearing losses in the mild to severe range participated. They were stratified into four age-matched groups (with n = 10 per group) based on their pure-tone average hearing losses and their performance on a visual measure of working memory (WM) capacity. The algorithm under consideration was a binaural coherence-based NR scheme that suppressed reverberant signal components as well as diffuse background noise at mid to high frequencies. The strength of the applied processing was varied from inactive to strong, and testing was carried out across a range of fixed signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Potential benefit was assessed using a dual-task paradigm combining speech recognition with a visual reaction time (VRT) task indexing listening effort. Pairwise preference judgments were also collected. All measurements were made using headphone simulations of a frontal speech target in a busy cafeteria. Test-retest data were gathered for all outcome measures. Analysis of the test-retest data showed all data sets to be reliable. Analysis of the speech scores showed that, for all groups, speech recognition was unaffected by moderate NR processing, whereas strong NR processing reduced intelligibility by about 5%. Analysis of the VRT scores revealed a similar data pattern. That is, while moderate NR did not affect VRT performance, strong NR impaired the performance of all groups slightly. Analysis of the

  7. Binaural speech discrimination under noise in hearing-impaired listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. V.; Rao, A. B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of speech discrimination by hearing-impaired listeners (sensori-neural, conductive, and mixed groups) under binaural free-field listening in the presence of background noise. Subjects with pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz were presented with a version of the W-22 list of phonetically balanced words under three conditions: (1) 'quiet', with the chamber noise below 28 dB and speech at 60 dB; (2) at a constant S/N ratio of +10 dB, and with a background white noise at 70 dB; and (3) same as condition (2), but with the background noise at 80 dB. The mean speech discrimination scores decreased significantly with noise in all groups. However, the decrease in binaural speech discrimination scores with an increase in hearing impairment was less for material presented under the noise conditions than for the material presented in quiet.

  8. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies I: Instrumental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgärtel, Regina M; Krawczyk-Becker, Martin; Marquardt, Daniel; Völker, Christoph; Hu, Hongmei; Herzke, Tobias; Coleman, Graham; Adiloğlu, Kamil; Ernst, Stephan M A; Gerkmann, Timo; Doclo, Simon; Kollmeier, Birger; Hohmann, Volker; Dietz, Mathias

    2015-12-30

    In a collaborative research project, several monaural and binaural noise reduction algorithms have been comprehensively evaluated. In this article, eight selected noise reduction algorithms were assessed using instrumental measures, with a focus on the instrumental evaluation of speech intelligibility. Four distinct, reverberant scenarios were created to reflect everyday listening situations: a stationary speech-shaped noise, a multitalker babble noise, a single interfering talker, and a realistic cafeteria noise. Three instrumental measures were employed to assess predicted speech intelligibility and predicted sound quality: the intelligibility-weighted signal-to-noise ratio, the short-time objective intelligibility measure, and the perceptual evaluation of speech quality. The results show substantial improvements in predicted speech intelligibility as well as sound quality for the proposed algorithms. The evaluated coherence-based noise reduction algorithm was able to provide improvements in predicted audio signal quality. For the tested single-channel noise reduction algorithm, improvements in intelligibility-weighted signal-to-noise ratio were observed in all but the nonstationary cafeteria ambient noise scenario. Binaural minimum variance distortionless response beamforming algorithms performed particularly well in all noise scenarios. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Modeling off-frequency binaural masking for short- and long-duration signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschmann, Marc; Yasin, Ifat; Henning, G Bruce; Verhey, Jesko L

    2017-08-01

    Experimental binaural masking-pattern data are presented together with model simulations for 12- and 600-ms signals. The masker was a diotic 11-Hz wide noise centered on 500 Hz. The tonal signal was presented either diotically or dichotically (180° interaural phase difference) with frequencies ranging from 400 to 600 Hz. The results and the modeling agree with previous data and hypotheses; simulations with a binaural model sensitive to monaural modulation cues show that the effect of duration on off-frequency binaural masking-level differences is mainly a result of modulation cues which are only available in the monaural detection of long signals.

  10. Modulation cues influence binaural masking-level difference in masking-pattern experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschmann, Marc; Verhey, Jesko L

    2012-03-01

    Binaural masking patterns show a steep decrease in the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) when masker and signal have no frequency component in common. Experimental threshold data are presented together with model simulations for a diotic masker centered at 250 or 500 Hz and a bandwidth of 10 or 100 Hz masking a sinusoid interaurally in phase (S(0)) or in antiphase (S(π)). Simulations with a binaural model, including a modulation filterbank for the monaural analysis, indicate that a large portion of the decrease in the BMLD in remote-masking conditions may be due to an additional modulation cue available for monaural detection. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  11. Binaural fusion and the representation of virtual pitch in the human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantev, C; Elbert, T; Ross, B; Eulitz, C; Terhardt, E

    1996-10-01

    The auditory system derives the pitch of complex tones from the tone's harmonics. Research in psychoacoustics predicted that binaural fusion was an important feature of pitch processing. Based on neuromagnetic human data, the first neurophysiological confirmation of binaural fusion in hearing is presented. The centre of activation within the cortical tonotopic map corresponds to the location of the perceived pitch and not to the locations that are activated when the single frequency constituents are presented. This is also true when the different harmonics of a complex tone are presented dichotically. We conclude that the pitch processor includes binaural fusion to determine the particular pitch location which is activated in the auditory cortex.

  12. La música binaural en el aprendizaje de los estudiantes universitarios. Lima 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Doria Palomino, Gian Carlo

    2015-01-01

    En este estudio titulado “La música binaural en el aprendizaje de los estudiantes universitarios Lima 2015”, tiene como objetivo demostrar que la música binaural puede mejorar el aprendizaje en los estudiantes del quinto ciclo de la carrera de administración de la Universidad Tecnológica del Perú. Esto como respuesta al problema: ¿En qué medida la estimulación de ondas cerebrales con música binaural" mejora el aprendizaje de los alumnos del quinto ciclo de la carrera de admi...

  13. Brain-computer interface analysis of a dynamic visuo-motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Vito; Belič, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    The area of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) represents one of the more interesting fields in neurophysiological research, since it investigates the development of the machines that perform different transformations of the brain's "thoughts" to certain pre-defined actions. Experimental studies have reported some successful implementations of BCIs; however, much of the field still remains unexplored. According to some recent reports the phase coding of informational content is an important mechanism in the brain's function and cognition, and has the potential to explain various mechanisms of the brain's data transfer, but it has yet to be scrutinized in the context of brain-computer interface. Therefore, if the mechanism of phase coding is plausible, one should be able to extract the phase-coded content, carried by brain signals, using appropriate signal-processing methods. In our previous studies we have shown that by using a phase-demodulation-based signal-processing approach it is possible to decode some relevant information on the current motor action in the brain from electroencephalographic (EEG) data. In this paper the authors would like to present a continuation of their previous work on the brain-information-decoding analysis of visuo-motor (VM) tasks. The present study shows that EEG data measured during more complex, dynamic visuo-motor (dVM) tasks carries enough information about the currently performed motor action to be successfully extracted by using the appropriate signal-processing and identification methods. The aim of this paper is therefore to present a mathematical model, which by means of the EEG measurements as its inputs predicts the course of the wrist movements as applied by each subject during the task in simulated or real time (BCI analysis). However, several modifications to the existing methodology are needed to achieve optimal decoding results and a real-time, data-processing ability. The information extracted from the EEG could

  14. Probabilistic information on object weight shapes force dynamics in a grip-lift task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampenau, Leif; Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann P; van Eimeren, Thilo

    2015-06-01

    Advance information, such as object weight, size and texture, modifies predictive scaling of grip forces in a grip-lift task. Here, we examined the influence of probabilistic advance information about object weight. Fifteen healthy volunteers repeatedly grasped and lifted an object equipped with a force transducer between their thumb and index finger. Three clearly distinguishable object weights were used. Prior to each lift, the probabilities for the three object weights were given by a visual cue. We examined the effect of probabilistic pre-cues on grip and lift force dynamics. We expected predictive scaling of grip force parameters to follow predicted values calculated according to probabilistic contingencies of the cues. We observed that probabilistic cues systematically influenced peak grip and load force rates, as an index of predictive motor scaling. However, the effects of probabilistic cues on force rates were nonlinear, and anticipatory adaptations of the motor output generally seemed to overestimate high probabilities and underestimate low probabilities. These findings support the suggestion that anticipatory adaptations and force scaling of the motor system can integrate probabilistic information. However, probabilistic information seems to influence motor programs in a nonlinear fashion.

  15. Dynamic spatial coding within the dorsal frontoparietal network during a visual search task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieland H Sommer

    Full Text Available To what extent are the left and right visual hemifields spatially coded in the dorsal frontoparietal attention network? In many experiments with neglect patients, the left hemisphere shows a contralateral hemifield preference, whereas the right hemisphere represents both hemifields. This pattern of spatial coding is often used to explain the right-hemispheric dominance of lesions causing hemispatial neglect. However, pathophysiological mechanisms of hemispatial neglect are controversial because recent experiments on healthy subjects produced conflicting results regarding the spatial coding of visual hemifields. We used an fMRI paradigm that allowed us to distinguish two attentional subprocesses during a visual search task. Either within the left or right hemifield subjects first attended to stationary locations (spatial orienting and then shifted their attentional focus to search for a target line. Dynamic changes in spatial coding of the left and right hemifields were observed within subregions of the dorsal front-parietal network: During stationary spatial orienting, we found the well-known spatial pattern described above, with a bilateral hemifield representation in the right hemisphere and a contralateral preference in the left hemisphere. However, during search, the right hemisphere had a contralateral preference and the left hemisphere equally represented both hemifields. This finding leads to novel perspectives regarding models of visuospatial attention and hemispatial neglect.

  16. Perceiving patterns of play in dynamic sport tasks: investigating the essential information underlying skilled performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willams, A Mark; Hodges, Nicola J; North, Jamie S; Barton, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    The perceptual-cognitive information used to support pattern-recognition skill in soccer was examined. In experiment 1, skilled players were quicker and more accurate than less-skilled players at recognising familiar and unfamiliar soccer action sequences presented on film. In experiment 2, these action sequences were converted into point-light displays, with superficial display features removed and the positions of players and the relational information between them made more salient. Skilled players were more accurate than less-skilled players in recognising sequences presented in point-light form, implying that each pattern of play can be defined by the unique relations between players. In experiment 3, various offensive and defensive players were occluded for the duration of each trial in an attempt to identify the most important sources of information underpinning successful performance. A decrease in response accuracy was observed under occluded compared with non-occluded conditions and the expertise effect was no longer observed. The relational information between certain key players, team-mates and their defensive counterparts may provide the essential information for effective pattern-recognition skill in soccer. Structural feature analysis, temporal phase relations, and knowledge-based information are effectively integrated to facilitate pattern recognition in dynamic sport tasks.

  17. Effect of dual task type on gait and dynamic stability during stair negotiation at different inclinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.

    Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different

  18. Binaural noise reduction via cue-preserving MMSE filter and adaptive-blocking-based noise PSD estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpour, Masoumeh; Enzner, Gerald

    2017-12-01

    Binaural noise reduction, with applications for instance in hearing aids, has been a very significant challenge. This task relates to the optimal utilization of the available microphone signals for the estimation of the ambient noise characteristics and for the optimal filtering algorithm to separate the desired speech from the noise. The additional requirements of low computational complexity and low latency further complicate the design. A particular challenge results from the desired reconstruction of binaural speech input with spatial cue preservation. The latter essentially diminishes the utility of multiple-input/single-output filter-and-sum techniques such as beamforming. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive and effective signal processing configuration with which most of the aforementioned criteria can be met suitably. This relates especially to the requirement of efficient online adaptive processing for noise estimation and optimal filtering while preserving the binaural cues. Regarding noise estimation, we consider three different architectures: interaural (ITF), cross-relation (CR), and principal-component (PCA) target blocking. An objective comparison with two other noise PSD estimation algorithms demonstrates the superiority of the blocking-based noise estimators, especially the CR-based and ITF-based blocking architectures. Moreover, we present a new noise reduction filter based on minimum mean-square error (MMSE), which belongs to the class of common gain filters, hence being rigorous in terms of spatial cue preservation but also efficient and competitive for the acoustic noise reduction task. A formal real-time subjective listening test procedure is also developed in this paper. The proposed listening test enables a real-time assessment of the proposed computationally efficient noise reduction algorithms in a realistic acoustic environment, e.g., considering time-varying room impulse responses and the Lombard effect. The listening test outcome

  19. Are binaural recordings needed for subjective and objective annoyance assessment of traffic noise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía Cortés; Song, Wookeun; Brunskog, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Humans are annoyed when they are exposed to environmental noise. Traditional measures such as sound pressure levels may not correlate well with how humans perceive annoyance, therefore it is important to investigate psychoacoustic metrics that may correlate better with the perceived annoyance...... of environmental noise than the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. This study examined whether the use of binaural recordings of sound events improves the correlation between the objective metrics and the perceived annoyance, particularly for road traffic noise. Metrics based on measurement with a single...... microphone and on binaural sound field recordings have been examined and compared. In order to acquire data for the subjective perception of annoyance, a series of listening tests has been carried out. It is concluded that binaural loudness metrics from binaural recordings are better correlated...

  20. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Calabrese, Carlo; Zwickey, Heather; Zajdel, Dan

    2007-03-01

    When two auditory stimuli of different frequency are presented to each ear, binaural beats are perceived by the listener. The binaural beat frequency is equal to the difference between the frequencies applied to each ear. Our primary objective was to assess whether steady-state entrainment of electroencephalographic activity to the binaural beat occurs when exposed to a specific binaural beat frequency as has been hypothesized. Our secondary objective was to gather preliminary data on neuropsychologic and physiologic effects of binaural beat technology. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover experiment in 4 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomized to experimental auditory stimulus of 30 minutes of binaural beat at 7 Hz (carrier frequencies: 133 Hz L; 140 Hz R) with an overlay of pink noise resembling the sound of rain on one session and control stimuli of the same overlay without the binaural beat carrier frequencies on the other session. Data were collected during two separate sessions 1 week apart. Neuropsychologic and blood pressure data were collected before and after the intervention; electroencephalographic data were collected before, during, and after listening to either binaural beats or control. Neuropsychologic measures included State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, Rey Auditory Verbal List Test, Stroop Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Spectral and coherence analysis was performed on the electroencephalogram (EEG), and all measures were analyzed for changes between sessions with and without binaural beat stimuli. There were no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions in any of the EEG measures. There was an increase of the Profile of Mood States depression subscale in the experimental condition relative to the control condition (p = 0.02). There was also a significant decrease in immediate verbal memory recall (p = 0.03) in the experimental condition compared to control

  1. STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURE CONTROL IN POSTLINGUAL COCHLEAR IMPLANTED PATIENTS: Effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARD DEMANZE eLaurence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body’s position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of post-lingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static and dynamic conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO and eyes closed (EC conditions, with the cochlear implant activated (ON or not (OFF. Results showed that the CI patients significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on as well as dual-tasking did not really improve the dynamic postural performance of the CI patients. We conclude that CI patients become strongly visual dependent mainly in challenging postural conditions.

  2. Response of cat inferior colliculus neurons to binaural beat stimuli: possible mechanisms for sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, S; Yin, T C; Wickesberg, R E

    1979-11-02

    The interaural phase sensitivity of neurons was studied through the use of binaural beat stimuli. The response of most cells was phase-locked to the beat frequency, which provides a possible neural correlate to the human sensation of binaural beats. In addition, this stimulus allowed the direction and rate of interaural phase change to be varied. Some neurons in our sample responded selectively to manipulations of these two variables, which suggests a sensitivity to direction or speed of movement.

  3. Binaural Beat: A Failure to Enhance EEG Power and Emotional Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran López-Caballero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When two pure tones of slightly different frequencies are delivered simultaneously to the two ears, is generated a beat whose frequency corresponds to the frequency difference between them. That beat is known as acoustic beat. If these two tones are presented one to each ear, they still produce the sensation of the same beat, although no physical combination of the tones occurs outside the auditory system. This phenomenon is called binaural beat. In the present study, we explored the potential contribution of binaural beats to the enhancement of specific electroencephalographic (EEG bands, as previous studies suggest the potential usefulness of binaural beats as a brainwave entrainment tool. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of binaural-beat stimulation on two psychophysiological measures related to emotional arousal: heart rate and skin conductance. Beats of five different frequencies (4.53 Hz -theta-, 8.97 Hz -alpha-, 17.93 Hz -beta-, 34.49 Hz -gamma- or 57.3 Hz -upper-gamma were presented binaurally and acoustically for epochs of 3 min (Beat epochs, preceded and followed by pink noise epochs of 90 s (Baseline and Post epochs, respectively. In each of these epochs, we analyzed the EEG spectral power, as well as calculated the heart rate and skin conductance response (SCR. For all the beat frequencies used for stimulation, no significant changes between Baseline and Beat epochs were observed within the corresponding EEG bands, neither with binaural or with acoustic beats. Additional analysis of spectral EEG topographies yielded negative results for the effect of binaural beats in the scalp distribution of EEG spectral power. In the psychophysiological measures, no changes in heart rate and skin conductance were observed for any of the beat frequencies presented. Our results do not support binaural-beat stimulation as a potential tool for the enhancement of EEG oscillatory activity, nor to induce changes in emotional arousal.

  4. Binaural Beat: A Failure to Enhance EEG Power and Emotional Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caballero, Fran; Escera, Carles

    2017-01-01

    When two pure tones of slightly different frequencies are delivered simultaneously to the two ears, is generated a beat whose frequency corresponds to the frequency difference between them. That beat is known as acoustic beat. If these two tones are presented one to each ear, they still produce the sensation of the same beat, although no physical combination of the tones occurs outside the auditory system. This phenomenon is called binaural beat. In the present study, we explored the potential contribution of binaural beats to the enhancement of specific electroencephalographic (EEG) bands, as previous studies suggest the potential usefulness of binaural beats as a brainwave entrainment tool. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of binaural-beat stimulation on two psychophysiological measures related to emotional arousal: heart rate and skin conductance. Beats of five different frequencies (4.53 Hz -theta-, 8.97 Hz -alpha-, 17.93 Hz -beta-, 34.49 Hz -gamma- or 57.3 Hz -upper-gamma) were presented binaurally and acoustically for epochs of 3 min (Beat epochs), preceded and followed by pink noise epochs of 90 s (Baseline and Post epochs, respectively). In each of these epochs, we analyzed the EEG spectral power, as well as calculated the heart rate and skin conductance response (SCR). For all the beat frequencies used for stimulation, no significant changes between Baseline and Beat epochs were observed within the corresponding EEG bands, neither with binaural or with acoustic beats. Additional analysis of spectral EEG topographies yielded negative results for the effect of binaural beats in the scalp distribution of EEG spectral power. In the psychophysiological measures, no changes in heart rate and skin conductance were observed for any of the beat frequencies presented. Our results do not support binaural-beat stimulation as a potential tool for the enhancement of EEG oscillatory activity, nor to induce changes in emotional arousal.

  5. Task-Dependent Intermuscular Motor Unit Synchronization between Medial and Lateral Vastii Muscles during Dynamic and Isometric Squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Maurice; Nann, Marius; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Eskofier, Bjoern; Nigg, Benno Maurus

    2015-01-01

    Motor unit activity is coordinated between many synergistic muscle pairs but the functional role of this coordination for the motor output is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term modality of coordinated motor unit activity-the synchronized discharge of individual motor units across muscles within time intervals of 5ms-for the Vastus Medialis (VM) and Lateralis (VL). Furthermore, we studied the task-dependency of intermuscular motor unit synchronization between VM and VL during static and dynamic squatting tasks to provide insight into its functional role. Sixteen healthy male and female participants completed four tasks: Bipedal squats, single-leg squats, an isometric squat, and single-leg balance. Monopolar surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record motor unit activity of VM and VL. For each task, intermuscular motor unit synchronization was determined using a coherence analysis between the raw EMG signals of VM and VL and compared to a reference coherence calculated from two desynchronized EMG signals. The time shift between VM and VL EMG signals was estimated according to the slope of the coherence phase angle spectrum. For all tasks, except for singe-leg balance, coherence between 15-80Hz significantly exceeded the reference. The corresponding time shift between VM and VL was estimated as 4ms. Coherence between 30-60Hz was highest for the bipedal squat, followed by the single-leg squat and the isometric squat. There is substantial short-term motor unit synchronization between VM and VL. Intermuscular motor unit synchronization is enhanced for contractions during dynamic activities, possibly to facilitate a more accurate control of the joint torque, and reduced during single-leg tasks that require balance control and thus, a more independent muscle function. It is proposed that the central nervous system scales the degree of intermuscular motor unit synchronization according to the requirements of the movement task at hand.

  6. Task-Dependent Intermuscular Motor Unit Synchronization between Medial and Lateral Vastii Muscles during Dynamic and Isometric Squats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Mohr

    Full Text Available Motor unit activity is coordinated between many synergistic muscle pairs but the functional role of this coordination for the motor output is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term modality of coordinated motor unit activity-the synchronized discharge of individual motor units across muscles within time intervals of 5ms-for the Vastus Medialis (VM and Lateralis (VL. Furthermore, we studied the task-dependency of intermuscular motor unit synchronization between VM and VL during static and dynamic squatting tasks to provide insight into its functional role.Sixteen healthy male and female participants completed four tasks: Bipedal squats, single-leg squats, an isometric squat, and single-leg balance. Monopolar surface electromyography (EMG was used to record motor unit activity of VM and VL. For each task, intermuscular motor unit synchronization was determined using a coherence analysis between the raw EMG signals of VM and VL and compared to a reference coherence calculated from two desynchronized EMG signals. The time shift between VM and VL EMG signals was estimated according to the slope of the coherence phase angle spectrum.For all tasks, except for singe-leg balance, coherence between 15-80Hz significantly exceeded the reference. The corresponding time shift between VM and VL was estimated as 4ms. Coherence between 30-60Hz was highest for the bipedal squat, followed by the single-leg squat and the isometric squat.There is substantial short-term motor unit synchronization between VM and VL. Intermuscular motor unit synchronization is enhanced for contractions during dynamic activities, possibly to facilitate a more accurate control of the joint torque, and reduced during single-leg tasks that require balance control and thus, a more independent muscle function. It is proposed that the central nervous system scales the degree of intermuscular motor unit synchronization according to the requirements of the movement

  7. Dynamically Allocated Hub in Task-Evoked Network Predicts the Vulnerable Prefrontal Locus for Contextual Memory Retrieval in Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Osada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging and neurophysiology have revealed that multiple areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC are activated in a specific memory task, but severity of impairment after PFC lesions is largely different depending on which activated area is damaged. The critical relationship between lesion sites and impairments has not yet been given a clear mechanistic explanation. Although recent works proposed that a whole-brain network contains hubs that play integrative roles in cortical information processing, this framework relying on an anatomy-based structural network cannot account for the vulnerable locus for a specific task, lesioning of which would bring impairment. Here, we hypothesized that (i activated PFC areas dynamically form an ordered network centered at a task-specific "functional hub" and (ii the lesion-effective site corresponds to the "functional hub," but not to a task-invariant "structural hub." To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments in macaques performing a temporal contextual memory task. We found that the activated areas formed a hierarchical hub-centric network based on task-evoked directed connectivity, differently from the anatomical network reflecting axonal projection patterns. Using a novel simulated-lesion method based on support vector machine, we estimated severity of impairment after lesioning of each area, which accorded well with a known dissociation in contextual memory impairment in macaques (impairment after lesioning in area 9/46d, but not in area 8Ad. The predicted severity of impairment was proportional to the network "hubness" of the virtually lesioned area in the task-evoked directed connectivity network, rather than in the anatomical network known from tracer studies. Our results suggest that PFC areas dynamically and cooperatively shape a functional hub-centric network to reallocate the lesion-effective site depending on the cognitive processes, apart from

  8. Effects of single cycle binaural beat duration on auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajloski, Todor; Bohorquez, Jorge; Özdamar, Özcan

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beat (BB) illusions are experienced as continuous central pulsations when two sounds with slightly different frequencies are delivered to each ear. It has been shown that steady-state auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to BBs can be captured and investigated. The authors recently developed a new method of evoking transient AEPs to binaural beats using frequency modulated stimuli. This methodology was able to create single BBs in predetermined intervals with varying carrier frequencies. This study examines the effects of the BB duration and the frequency modulating component of the stimulus on the binaural beats and their evoked potentials. Normal hearing subjects were tested with a set of four durations (25, 50, 100, and 200 ms) with two stimulation configurations, binaural dichotic (binaural beats) and diotic (frequency modulation). The results obtained from the study showed that out of the given durations, the 100 ms beat, was capable of evoking the largest amplitude responses. The frequency modulation effect showed a decrease in peak amplitudes with increasing beat duration until their complete disappearance at 200 ms. Even though, at 200 ms, the frequency modulation effects were not present, the binaural beats were still perceived and captured as evoked potentials.

  9. Binaural Hearing Ability With Bilateral Bone Conduction Stimulation in Subjects With Normal Hearing: Implications for Bone Conduction Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitooni, Mehrnaz; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Stenfelt, Stefan

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate binaural hearing ability in adults with normal hearing when bone conduction (BC) stimulation is bilaterally applied at the bone conduction hearing aid (BCHA) implant position as well as at the audiometric position on the mastoid. The results with BC stimulation are compared with bilateral air conduction (AC) stimulation through earphones. Binaural hearing ability is investigated with tests of spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference using sentence material, binaural masking level difference with tonal chirp stimulation, and precedence effect using noise stimulus. In all tests, results with bilateral BC stimulation at the BCHA position illustrate an ability to extract binaural cues similar to BC stimulation at the mastoid position. The binaural benefit is overall greater with AC stimulation than BC stimulation at both positions. The binaural benefit for BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position is approximately half in terms of decibels compared with AC stimulation in the speech based tests (spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference). For binaural masking level difference, the binaural benefit for the two BC positions with chirp signal phase inversion is approximately twice the benefit with inverted phase of the noise. The precedence effect results with BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position are similar for low frequency noise stimulation but differ with high-frequency noise stimulation. The results confirm that binaural hearing processing with bilateral BC stimulation at the mastoid position is also present at the BCHA implant position. This indicates the ability for binaural hearing in patients with good cochlear function when using bilateral BCHAs.

  10. Novel modeling of task versus rest brain state predictability using a dynamic time warping spectrum: comparisons and contrasts with other standard measures of brain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eDinov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic time warping, or DTW, is a powerful and domain-general sequence alignment method for computing a similarity measure. Such dynamic programming-based techniques like DTW are now the backbone and driver of most bioinformatics methods and discoveries. In neuroscience it has had far less use, though this has begun to change. We wanted to explore new ways of applying DTW, not simply as a measure with which to cluster or compare similarity between features but in a conceptually different way. We have used DTW to provide a more interpretable spectral description of the data, compared to standard approaches such as the Fourier and related transforms. The DTW approach and standard discrete Fourier transform (DFT are assessed against benchmark measures of neural dynamics. These include EEG microstates, EEG avalanches and the sum squared error (SSE from a multilayer perceptron (MLP prediction of the EEG timeseries, and simultaneously acquired FMRI BOLD signal. We explored the relationships between these variables of interest in an EEG-FMRI dataset acquired during a standard cognitive task, which allowed us to explore how DTW differentially performs in different task settings. We found that despite strong correlations between DTW and DFT-spectra, DTW was a better predictor for almost every measure of brain dynamics. Using these DTW measures, we show that predictability is almost always higher in task than in rest states, which is consistent to other theoretical and empirical findings, providing additional evidence for the utility of the DTW approach.

  11. A dynamic 3D biomechanical evaluation of the load on the low back during different patient-handling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, J H; Essendrop, M; Hansen, A F; Schibye, B

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the low-back loading during common patient-handling tasks. Ten female health care workers without formal training in patient handling performed nine patient-handling tasks including turning, lifting and repositioning a male stroke patient. The low-back loading was quantified by net moment, compression, and shear forces at the L4/L5 joint, measured muscle activity (EMG) in erector spinae muscles and rate of perceived exertion (RPE; Borg scale). The experiments were videotaped with a 50Hz video system using five cameras, and the ground and bedside reaction forces of the health care worker were recorded by means of force platforms and force transducers on the bed. The biomechanical load was calculated using a dynamic 3D seven-segment model of the lower part of the body, and the forces at the L4/L5 joint were estimated by a 14 muscles cross-sectional model of the low back (optimisation procedure). Compression force and torque showed high task dependency whereas the EMG data and the RPE values were more dependent on the subject. The peak compression during two tasks involving lifting the patient (4132/4433N) was significantly higher than all other tasks. Four tasks involving repositioning the patient in the bed (3179/3091/2932/3094N) did not differ, but showed higher peak compression than two tasks turning the patient in the bed (1618/2197N). Thus, in this study the patient-handling tasks could be classified into three groups-characterised by lifting, repositioning or turning-with different levels of peak net torque and compression at the L4/L5 joint.

  12. The efficiency of simultaneous binaural ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: a comparative study with monaural acoustic stimulation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Beom; Ban, Jae Ho

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability and convenience of simultaneous binaural acoustic-evoked ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP). Thirteen healthy subjects with no history of ear diseases participated in this study. All subjects underwent oVEMP test with both separated monaural acoustic stimulation and simultaneous binaural acoustic stimulation. For evaluating test-retest reliability, three repetitive sessions were performed in each ear for calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for both monaural and binaural tests. We analyzed data from the biphasic n1-p1 complex, such as latency of peak, inter-peak amplitude, and asymmetric ratio of amplitude in both ears. Finally, we checked the total time required to complete each test for evaluating test convenience. No significant difference was observed in amplitude and asymmetric ratio in comparison between monaural and binaural oVEMP. However, latency was slightly delayed in binaural oVEMP. In test-retest reliability analysis, binaural oVEMP showed excellent ICC values ranging from 0.68 to 0.98 in latency, asymmetric ratio, and inter-peak amplitude. Additionally, the test time was shorter in binaural than monaural oVEMP. oVEMP elicited from binaural acoustic stimulation yields similar satisfactory results as monaural stimulation. Further, excellent test-retest reliability and shorter test time were achieved in binaural than in monaural oVEMP.

  13. Exploiting Deep Neural Networks and Head Movements for Robust Binaural Localization of Multiple Sources in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; May, Tobias; Brown, Guy J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine-hearing system that exploits deep neural networks (DNNs) and head movements for robust binaural localization of multiple sources in reverberant environments. DNNs are used to learn the relationship between the source azimuth and binaural cues, consisting...... of the complete cross-correlation function (CCF) and interaural level differences (ILDs). In contrast to many previous binaural hearing systems, the proposed approach is not restricted to localization of sound sources in the frontal hemifield. Due to the similarity of binaural cues in the frontal and rear...

  14. Feedback-Based Admission Control for Firm Real-Time Task Allocation with Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dziurzanski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Feedback-based mechanisms can be employed to monitor the performance of Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chips (MPSoCs and steer the task execution even if the exact knowledge of the workload is unknown a priori. In particular, traditional proportional-integral controllers can be used with firm real-time tasks to either admit them to the processing cores or reject in order not to violate the timeliness of the already admitted tasks. During periods with a lower computational power demand, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS can be used to reduce the dissipation of energy in the cores while still not violating the tasks’ time constraints. Depending on the workload pattern and weight, platform size and the granularity of DVFS, energy savings can reach even 60% at the cost of a slight performance degradation.

  15. Towards a cognitive robotics methodology for reward-based decision-making: dynamical systems modelling of the Iowa Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2010-09-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) posits that the role of emotions and mental states in decision-making manifests through bodily responses to stimuli of import to the organism's welfare. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), proposed by Bechara and Damasio in the mid-1990s, has provided the major source of empirical validation to the role of somatic markers in the service of flexible and cost-effective decision-making in humans. In recent years the IGT has been the subject of much criticism concerning: (1) whether measures of somatic markers reveal that they are important for decision-making as opposed to behaviour preparation; (2) the underlying neural substrate posited as critical to decision-making of the type relevant to the task; and (3) aspects of the methodological approach used, particularly on the canonical version of the task. In this paper, a cognitive robotics methodology is proposed to explore a dynamical systems approach as it applies to the neural computation of reward-based learning and issues concerning embodiment. This approach is particularly relevant in light of a strongly emerging alternative hypothesis to the SMH, the reversal learning hypothesis, which links, behaviourally and neurocomputationally, a number of more or less complex reward-based decision-making tasks, including the 'A-not-B' task - already subject to dynamical systems investigations with a focus on neural activation dynamics. It is also suggested that the cognitive robotics methodology may be used to extend systematically the IGT benchmark to more naturalised, but nevertheless controlled, settings that might better explore the extent to which the SMH, and somatic states per se, impact on complex decision-making.

  16. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Anne Sofie Bøgh; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2016-01-01

    , the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive...... antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development...

  17. Design of an Adaptive Human-Machine System Based on Dynamical Pattern Recognition of Cognitive Task-Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Yin, Zhong; Wang, Rubin

    2017-01-01

    This paper developed a cognitive task-load (CTL) classification algorithm and allocation strategy to sustain the optimal operator CTL levels over time in safety-critical human-machine integrated systems. An adaptive human-machine system is designed based on a non-linear dynamic CTL classifier, which maps a set of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) related features to a few CTL classes. The least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is used as dynamic pattern classifier. A series of electrophysiological and performance data acquisition experiments were performed on seven volunteer participants under a simulated process control task environment. The participant-specific dynamic LSSVM model is constructed to classify the instantaneous CTL into five classes at each time instant. The initial feature set, comprising 56 EEG and ECG related features, is reduced to a set of 12 salient features (including 11 EEG-related features) by using the locality preserving projection (LPP) technique. An overall correct classification rate of about 80% is achieved for the 5-class CTL classification problem. Then the predicted CTL is used to adaptively allocate the number of process control tasks between operator and computer-based controller. Simulation results showed that the overall performance of the human-machine system can be improved by using the adaptive automation strategy proposed.

  18. Investigating Conversational Dynamics: Interactive Alignment, Interpersonal Synergy, and Collective Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, "interactive alignment" and "interpersonal synergy", and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between interlocutors, the synergy…

  19. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  20. Advantages of binaural amplification to acceptable noise level of directional hearing aid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ja-Hee; Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) would be lower (greater acceptance of noise) in binaural listening than in monaural listening condition and also whether meaningfulness of background speech noise would affect ANLs for directional microphone hearing aid users. In addition, any relationships between the individual binaural benefits on ANLs and the individuals' demographic information were investigated. Fourteen hearing aid users (mean age, 64 years) participated for experimental testing. For the ANL calculation, listeners' most comfortable listening levels and background noise level were measured. Using Korean ANL material, ANLs of all participants were evaluated under monaural and binaural amplification with a counterbalanced order. The ANLs were also compared across five types of competing speech noises, consisting of 1- through 8-talker background speech maskers. Seven young normal-hearing listeners (mean age, 27 years) participated for the same measurements as a pilot testing. The results demonstrated that directional hearing aid users accepted more noise (lower ANLs) with binaural amplification than with monaural amplification, regardless of the type of competing speech. When the background speech noise became more meaningful, hearing-impaired listeners accepted less amount of noise (higher ANLs), revealing that ANL is dependent on the intelligibility of the competing speech. The individuals' binaural advantages in ANLs were significantly greater for the listeners with longer experience of hearing aids, yet not related to their age or hearing thresholds. Binaural directional microphone processing allowed hearing aid users to accept a greater amount of background noise, which may in turn improve listeners' hearing aid success. Informational masking substantially influenced background noise acceptance. Given a significant association between ANLs and duration of hearing aid usage, ANL measurement can be useful for

  1. Contribution of Binaural Masking Release to Improved Speech Intelligibility for different Masker types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutojo, Sarinah; van de Par, Steven; Schoenmaker, Esther

    2018-06-01

    In situations with competing talkers or in the presence of masking noise, speech intelligibility can be improved by spatially separating the target speaker from the interferers. This advantage is generally referred to as spatial release from masking (SRM) and different mechanisms have been suggested to explain it. One proposed mechanism to benefit from spatial cues is the binaural masking release, which is purely stimulus driven. According to this mechanism, the spatial benefit results from differences in the binaural cues of target and masker, which need to appear simultaneously in time and frequency to improve the signal detection. In an alternative proposed mechanism, the differences in the interaural cues improve the segregation of auditory streams, a process, which involves top-down processing rather than being purely stimulus driven. Other than the cues that produce binaural masking release, the interaural cue differences between target and interferer required to improve stream segregation do not have to appear simultaneously in time and frequency. This study is concerned with the contribution of binaural masking release to SRM for three masker types that differ with respect to the amount of energetic masking they exert. Speech intelligibility was measured, employing a stimulus manipulation that inhibits binaural masking release, and analyzed with a metric to account for the number of better-ear glimpses. Results indicate that the contribution of the stimulus-driven binaural masking release plays a minor role while binaural stream segregation and the availability of glimpses in the better ear had a stronger influence on improving the speech intelligibility. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrophysiological measurement of binaural beats: effects of primary tone frequency and observer age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Mamo, Sara K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the electrophysiological binaural beat steady state response as a gauge of temporal fine structure coding, particularly as it relates to the aging auditory system. The hypothesis was that the response would be more robust in a lower, than in a higher, frequency region and in younger, than in older, adults. Two experiments were undertaken. The first measured the 40 Hz binaural beat steady state response elicited by tone pairs in two frequency regions: lower (390 and 430 Hz tone pair) and higher (810 and 850 Hz tone pair). Frequency following responses (FFRs) evoked by the tones were also recorded. Ten young adults with normal hearing participated. The second experiment measured the binaural beat and FFRs in older adults but only in the lower frequency region. Fourteen older adults with relatively normal hearing participated. Response metrics in both experiments included response component signal-to-noise ratio (F statistic) and magnitude-squared coherence. Experiment 1 showed that FFRs were elicited in both frequency regions but were more robust in the lower frequency region. Binaural beat responses elicited by the lower frequency pair of tones showed greater amplitude fluctuation within a participant than the respective FFRs. Experiment 2 showed that older adults exhibited similar FFRs to younger adults, but proportionally fewer older participants showed binaural beat responses. Age differences in onset responses were also observed. The lower prevalence of the binaural beat response in older adults, despite the presence of FFRs, provides tentative support for the sensitivity of this measure to age-related deficits in temporal processing. However, the lability of the binaural beat response advocates caution in its use as an objective measure of fine structure coding.

  3. Investigating conversational dynamics: Interactive alignment, Interpersonal synergy, and collective task performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, interactive alignment and interpersonal synergy, and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between...... and their impact on collective performance in a corpus of task-oriented conversations. The results show statistical presence of patterns relevant for both approaches. However, synergetic aspects of dialog provide the best statistical predictors of collective performance and adding aspects of the alignment approach...... does not improve the model. This suggests that structural organization at the level of the interaction plays a crucial role in task-oriented conversations, possibly constraining and integrating processes related to alignment....

  4. Acquisition and production of skilled behavior in dynamic decision-making tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1992-01-01

    Detailed summaries of two NASA-funded research projects are provided. The first project was an ecological task analysis of the Star Cruiser model. Star Cruiser is a psychological model designed to test a subject's level of cognitive activity. Ecological task analysis is used as a framework to predict the types of cognitive activity required to achieve productive behavior and to suggest how interfaces can be manipulated to alleviate certain types of cognitive demands. The second project is presented in the form of a thesis for the Masters Degree. The thesis discusses the modeling of decision-making through the use of neural network and genetic-algorithm machine learning technologies.

  5. A Nonverbal Phoneme Deletion Task Administered in a Dynamic Assessment Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Fargo, Jamison; Foley, Beth; Olszewski, Abbie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…

  6. Measuring Group Work Dynamics and Its Relation with L2 Learners' Task Motivation and Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupore, Glen

    2016-01-01

    While learners of a second language (L2) are increasingly interacting in small groups as part of a communicative methodological paradigm, very few studies have investigated the social dynamics that occur in such groups. The aim of this study is to introduce a group work dynamic measuring instrument and to investigate the relationship between group…

  7. Paradoxical response to an emotional task: Trait characteristics and heart-rate dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balocchia, R.; Varanini, M.; Paoletti, G.; Mecacci, G.; Santarcangelo, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the heart-rate dynamics of subjects reporting decreased (responders) or paradoxically increased relaxation (nonresponders) at the end of a threatening movie. Heart-rate dynamics were characterized by indices extracted through recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and

  8. Binaural integration: a challenge to overcome for children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karen A; Cushing, Sharon L; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Polonenko, Melissa J; Papsin, Blake C

    2017-12-01

    Access to bilateral hearing can be provided to children with hearing loss by fitting appropriate hearing devices to each affected ear. It is not clear, however, that bilateral input is properly integrated through hearing devices to promote binaural hearing. In the present review, we examine evidence indicating that abnormal binaural hearing continues to be a challenge for children with hearing loss despite early access to bilateral input. Behavioral responses and electrophysiological data in children, combined with data from developing animal models, reveal that deafness in early life disrupts binaural hearing and that present hearing devices are unable to reverse these changes and/or promote expected development. Possible limitations of hearing devices include mismatches in binaural place, level, and timing of stimulation. Such mismatches could be common in children with hearing loss. One potential solution is to modify present device fitting beyond providing audibility to each ear by implementing binaural fitting targets. Efforts to better integrate bilateral input could improve spatial hearing in children with hearing loss.

  9. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II: Speech Intelligibility of Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgärtel, Regina M; Hu, Hongmei; Krawczyk-Becker, Martin; Marquardt, Daniel; Herzke, Tobias; Coleman, Graham; Adiloğlu, Kamil; Bomke, Katrin; Plotz, Karsten; Gerkmann, Timo; Doclo, Simon; Kollmeier, Birger; Hohmann, Volker; Dietz, Mathias

    2015-12-30

    Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs). 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50) were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. A comparison of auditory evoked potentials to acoustic beats and to binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cortical brain responses evoked by amplitude modulated acoustic beats of 3 and 6 Hz in tones of 250 and 1000 Hz with those evoked by their binaural beats counterparts in unmodulated tones to indicate whether the cortical processes involved differ. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to 3- and 6-Hz acoustic and binaural beats in 2000 ms duration 250 and 1000 Hz tones presented with approximately 1 s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat types, beat frequencies and base (carrier) frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude in response to acoustic than to binaural beats, to 250 than to 1000 Hz base frequency and to 3 Hz than to 6 Hz beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left temporal lobe areas. Differences between estimated sources of potentials to acoustic and binaural beats were not significant. The perceptions of binaural beats involve cortical activity that is not different than acoustic beats in distribution and in the effects of beat- and base frequency, indicating similar cortical processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Directional hearing aid using hybrid adaptive beamformer (HAB) and binaural ITE array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Scott T.; Larow, Andy J.; Gibian, Gary L.; Sherlock, Laguinn P.; Schulein, Robert

    2002-05-01

    A directional hearing aid algorithm called the Hybrid Adaptive Beamformer (HAB), developed for NIH/NIA, can be applied to many different microphone array configurations. In this project the HAB algorithm was applied to a new array employing in-the-ear microphones at each ear (HAB-ITE), to see if previous HAB performance could be achieved with a more cosmetically acceptable package. With diotic output, the average benefit in threshold SNR was 10.9 dB for three HoH and 11.7 dB for five normal-hearing subjects. These results are slightly better than previous results of equivalent tests with a 3-in. array. With an innovative binaural fitting, a small benefit beyond that provided by diotic adaptive beamforming was observed: 12.5 dB for HoH and 13.3 dB for normal-hearing subjects, a 1.6 dB improvement over the diotic presentation. Subjectively, the binaural fitting preserved binaural hearing abilities, giving the user a sense of space, and providing left-right localization. Thus the goal of creating an adaptive beamformer that simultaneously provides excellent noise reduction and binaural hearing was achieved. Further work remains before the HAB-ITE can be incorporated into a real product, optimizing binaural adaptive beamforming, and integrating the concept with other technologies to produce a viable product prototype. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  12. RACE/A : An architectural account of the interactions between learning, task control, and retrieval dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Leendert; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how sequential sampling models can be integrated in a cognitive architecture. The new theory Retrieval by Accumulating Evidence in an Architecture (RACE/A) combines the level of detail typically provided by sequential sampling models with the level of task complexity typically

  13. Motor unit recruitment for dynamic tasks: current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contains many muscle fibres that are functionally grouped into motor units. For any motor task there are many possible combinations of motor units that could be recruited and it has been proposed that a simple rule, the 'size principle', governs the selection of motor units recruited for different contractions. Motor units can be characterised by their different contractile, energetic and fatigue properties and it is important that the selection of motor units recruited for given movements allows units with the appropriate properties to be activated. Here we review what is currently understood about motor unit recruitment patterns, and assess how different recruitment patterns are more or less appropriate for different movement tasks. During natural movements the motor unit recruitment patterns vary (not always holding to the size principle) and it is proposed that motor unit recruitment is likely related to the mechanical function of the muscles. Many factors such as mechanics, sensory feedback, and central control influence recruitment patterns and consequently an integrative approach (rather than reductionist) is required to understand how recruitment is controlled during different movement tasks. Currently, the best way to achieve this is through in vivo studies that relate recruitment to mechanics and behaviour. Various methods for determining motor unit recruitment patterns are discussed, in particular the recent wavelet-analysis approaches that have allowed motor unit recruitment to be assessed during natural movements. Directions for future studies into motor recruitment within and between functional task groups and muscle compartments are suggested.

  14. LOAD ADAPTIVE DYNAMIC SCHEDULING OF TASKS WITH HARD DEADLINES USEFUL FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALANG, WA

    1992-01-01

    All intrinsic properties of the earliest deadline task scheduling discipline are compiled and discussed in order to show that this is the most advantageous scheme at hand, characterised by efficiency and allowing predictable system behaviour. It is then pointed out how the method naturally extends

  15. The window of my eyes: Task disengagement and mental fatigue covary with pupil dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopstaken, J.; Linden, D. van der; Bakker, A.B.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although mental fatigue is a complex, multi-facetted state that involves changes in motivation, cognition, and mood, one of its main characteristics is reduced task engagement. Despite its relevance for performance and safety, knowledge about the underlying neurocognitive processes in mental fatigue

  16. Postural Control Can Be Well Maintained by Healthy, Young Adults in Difficult Visual Task, Even in Sway-Referenced Dynamic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Cynthia; Bucci, Maria Pia; Bonnet, Cédrick

    2016-01-01

    To challenge the validity of existing cognitive models of postural control, we recorded eye movements and postural sway during two visual tasks (a control free-viewing task and a difficult searching task), and two postural tasks (one static task in which the platform was maintained stable and a dynamic task in which the platform moved in a sway-referenced manner.) We expected these models to be insufficient to predict the results in postural control both in static-as already shown in the literature reports-and in dynamic platform conditions. Twelve healthy, young adults (17.3 to 34.1 years old) participated in this study. Postural performances were evaluated using the Multitest platform (Framiral®) and ocular recording was performed with Mobile T2 (e(ye)BRAIN®). In the free-viewing task, the participants had to look at an image, without any specific instruction. In the searching task, the participants had to look at an image and also to locate the position of an object in the scene. Postural sway was only significantly higher in the dynamic free-viewing condition than in the three other conditions with no significant difference between these three other conditions. Visual task performance was slightly higher in dynamic than in static conditions. As expected, our results did not confirm the main assumption of the current cognitive models of postural control-i.e. that the limited attentional resources of the brain should explain changes in postural control in our conditions. Indeed, 1) the participants did not sway significantly more in the sway-referenced dynamic searching condition than in any other condition; 2) the participants swayed significantly less in both static and dynamic searching conditions than in the dynamic free-viewing condition. We suggest that a new cognitive model illustrating the adaptive, functional role of the brain to control upright stance is necessary for future studies.

  17. Postural Control Can Be Well Maintained by Healthy, Young Adults in Difficult Visual Task, Even in Sway-Referenced Dynamic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Lions

    Full Text Available To challenge the validity of existing cognitive models of postural control, we recorded eye movements and postural sway during two visual tasks (a control free-viewing task and a difficult searching task, and two postural tasks (one static task in which the platform was maintained stable and a dynamic task in which the platform moved in a sway-referenced manner. We expected these models to be insufficient to predict the results in postural control both in static-as already shown in the literature reports-and in dynamic platform conditions.Twelve healthy, young adults (17.3 to 34.1 years old participated in this study. Postural performances were evaluated using the Multitest platform (Framiral® and ocular recording was performed with Mobile T2 (e(yeBRAIN®. In the free-viewing task, the participants had to look at an image, without any specific instruction. In the searching task, the participants had to look at an image and also to locate the position of an object in the scene.Postural sway was only significantly higher in the dynamic free-viewing condition than in the three other conditions with no significant difference between these three other conditions. Visual task performance was slightly higher in dynamic than in static conditions.As expected, our results did not confirm the main assumption of the current cognitive models of postural control-i.e. that the limited attentional resources of the brain should explain changes in postural control in our conditions. Indeed, 1 the participants did not sway significantly more in the sway-referenced dynamic searching condition than in any other condition; 2 the participants swayed significantly less in both static and dynamic searching conditions than in the dynamic free-viewing condition. We suggest that a new cognitive model illustrating the adaptive, functional role of the brain to control upright stance is necessary for future studies.

  18. The Opponent Channel Population Code of Sound Location Is an Efficient Representation of Natural Binaural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian auditory cortex, sound source position is represented by a population of broadly tuned neurons whose firing is modulated by sounds located at all positions surrounding the animal. Peaks of their tuning curves are concentrated at lateral position, while their slopes are steepest at the interaural midline, allowing for the maximum localization accuracy in that area. These experimental observations contradict initial assumptions that the auditory space is represented as a topographic cortical map. It has been suggested that a “panoramic” code has evolved to match specific demands of the sound localization task. This work provides evidence suggesting that properties of spatial auditory neurons identified experimentally follow from a general design principle- learning a sparse, efficient representation of natural stimuli. Natural binaural sounds were recorded and served as input to a hierarchical sparse-coding model. In the first layer, left and right ear sounds were separately encoded by a population of complex-valued basis functions which separated phase and amplitude. Both parameters are known to carry information relevant for spatial hearing. Monaural input converged in the second layer, which learned a joint representation of amplitude and interaural phase difference. Spatial selectivity of each second-layer unit was measured by exposing the model to natural sound sources recorded at different positions. Obtained tuning curves match well tuning characteristics of neurons in the mammalian auditory cortex. This study connects neuronal coding of the auditory space with natural stimulus statistics and generates new experimental predictions. Moreover, results presented here suggest that cortical regions with seemingly different functions may implement the same computational strategy-efficient coding. PMID:25996373

  19. Directional resolution of head-related transfer functions required in binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minnaar, Pauli; Plogsties, Jan; Christensen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    In binaural synthesis a virtual sound source is implemented by convolving an anechoic signal with a pair of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In order to represent all possible directions of the sound source with respect to the listener a discrete number of HRTFs are measured and interpola......In binaural synthesis a virtual sound source is implemented by convolving an anechoic signal with a pair of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In order to represent all possible directions of the sound source with respect to the listener a discrete number of HRTFs are measured...... and moving sound sources. A criterion was found that predicts the experimental results. This criterion was used to estimate the directional resolution required in binaural synthesis for all directions on the sphere around the head....

  20. Is conflict monitoring supramodal? Spatiotemporal dynamics of cognitive control processes in an auditory Stroop task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Liotti, Mario; Perez, Rick; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2011-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of conflict processing and cognitive control have been well characterized for the visual modality in paradigms such as the Stroop task. Much less is known about corresponding processes in the auditory modality. Here, electroencephalographic recordings of brain activity were measured during an auditory Stroop task, using three different forms of behavioral response (Overt verbal, Covert verbal, and Manual), that closely paralleled our previous visual-Stroop study. As expected, behavioral responses were slower and less accurate for incongruent compared to congruent trials. Neurally, incongruent trials showed an enhanced fronto-central negative-polarity wave (Ninc), similar to the N450 in visual-Stroop tasks, with similar variations as a function of behavioral response mode, but peaking ~150 ms earlier, followed by an enhanced positive posterior wave. In addition, sequential behavioral and neural effects were observed that supported the conflict-monitoring and cognitive-adjustment hypothesis. Thus, while some aspects of the conflict detection processes, such as timing, may be modality-dependent, the general mechanisms would appear to be supramodal. PMID:21964643

  1. Chronic motivational state interacts with task reward structure in dynamic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica A; Worthy, Darrell A; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-12-01

    Research distinguishes between a habitual, model-free system motivated toward immediately rewarding actions, and a goal-directed, model-based system motivated toward actions that improve future state. We examined the balance of processing in these two systems during state-based decision-making. We tested a regulatory fit hypothesis (Maddox & Markman, 2010) that predicts that global trait motivation affects the balance of habitual- vs. goal-directed processing but only through its interaction with the task framing as gain-maximization or loss-minimization. We found support for the hypothesis that a match between an individual's chronic motivational state and the task framing enhances goal-directed processing, and thus state-based decision-making. Specifically, chronic promotion-focused individuals under gain-maximization and chronic prevention-focused individuals under loss-minimization both showed enhanced state-based decision-making. Computational modeling indicates that individuals in a match between global chronic motivational state and local task reward structure engaged more goal-directed processing, whereas those in a mismatch engaged more habitual processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Binaural Interaction Component in Barn Owl (Tyto alba) Presents few Differences to Mammalian Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanca-Castan, Nicolas; Laumen, Geneviève; Reed, Darrin; Köppl, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is an evoked potential that reflects the responses to sound by brainstem neural centers. The binaural interaction component (BIC) is obtained by subtracting the sum of the monaural ABR responses from the binaural response. Its latency and amplitude change in response to variations in binaural cues. The BIC is thus thought to reflect the activity of binaural nuclei and is used to non-invasively test binaural processing. However, any conclusions are limited by a lack of knowledge of the relevant processes at the level of individual neurons. The aim of this study was to characterize the ABR and BIC in the barn owl, an animal where the ITD-processing neural circuits are known in great detail. We recorded ABR responses to chirps and to 1 and 4 kHz tones from anesthetized barn owls. General characteristics of the barn owl ABR were similar to those observed in other bird species. The most prominent peak of the BIC was associated with nucleus laminaris and is thus likely to reflect the known processes of ITD computation in this nucleus. However, the properties of the BIC were very similar to previously published mammalian data and did not reveal any specific diagnostic features. For example, the polarity of the BIC was negative, which indicates a smaller response to binaural stimulation than predicted by the sum of monaural responses. This is contrary to previous predictions for an excitatory-excitatory system such as nucleus laminaris. Similarly, the change in BIC latency with varying ITD was not distinguishable from mammalian data. Contrary to previous predictions, this behavior appears unrelated to the known underlying neural delay-line circuitry. In conclusion, the generation of the BIC is currently inadequately understood and common assumptions about the BIC need to be reconsidered when interpreting such measurements.

  3. Development of an Improved Time Varying Loudness Model with the Inclusion of Binaural Loudness Summation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Jeremy

    As the perceived quality of a product is becoming more important in the manufacturing industry, more emphasis is being placed on accurately predicting the sound quality of everyday objects. This study was undertaken to improve upon current prediction techniques with regard to the psychoacoustic descriptor of loudness and an improved binaural summation technique. The feasibility of this project was first investigated through a loudness matching experiment involving thirty-one subjects and pure tones of constant sound pressure level. A dependence of binaural summation on frequency was observed which had previously not been a subject of investigation in the reviewed literature. A follow-up investigation was carried out with forty-eight volunteers and pure tones of constant sensation level. Contrary to existing theories in literature the resulting loudness matches revealed an amplitude versus frequency relationship which confirmed the perceived increase in loudness when a signal was presented to both ears simultaneously as opposed to one ear alone. The resulting trend strongly indicated that the higher the frequency of the presented signal, the greater the increase in observed binaural summation. The results from each investigation were summarized into a single binaural summation algorithm and inserted into an improved time-varying loudness model. Using experimental techniques, it was demonstrated that the updated binaural summation algorithm was a considerable improvement over the state of the art approach for predicting the perceived binaural loudness. The improved function retained the ease of use from the original model while additionally providing accurate estimates of diotic listening conditions from monaural WAV files. It was clearly demonstrated using a validation jury test that the revised time-varying loudness model was a significant improvement over the previously standardized approach.

  4. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Calabrese, Carlo; Zwickey, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Binaural beat technology (BBT) products are sold internationally as personal development and health improvement tools. Producers suggest benefit from regular listening to binaural beats including reduced stress and anxiety, and increased focus, concentration, motivation, confidence, and depth in meditation. Binaural beats are auditory brainstem responses that originate in the superior olivary nucleus as a result of different frequency auditory stimuli provided to each ear. Listeners to binaural beat "hear" a beat at a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the applied tones. The objectives of this pilot study were to gather preliminary data on psychologic and physiologic effects of 60 days daily use of BBT for hypothesis generation and to assess compliance, feasibility, and safety for future studies. Uncontrolled pilot study. Eight healthy adults participated in the study. Participants listened to a CD with delta (0-4 Hz) binaural beat frequencies daily for 60 days. Psychologic and physiological data were collected before and after a 60-day intervention. PSYCHOLOGIC: Depression (Beck Depression Inventory-2), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), mood (Profile of Mood States), absorption (Tellegen Absorption Scale) and quality of Life (World Health Organization-Quality of Life Inventory). PHYSIOLOGICAL: Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, melatonin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, weight, blood pressure, high sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was a decrease in trait anxiety (p = 0.004), an increase in quality of life (p = 0.03), and a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (p = 0.01) and dopamine (p = 0.02) observed between pre- and postintervention measurements. Binaural beat technology may exhibit positive effect on self-reported psychologic measures, especially anxiety. Further research is warranted to explore the effects on anxiety using a larger, randomized and controlled trial.

  5. Tracking EEG changes in response to alpha and beta binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, D; Peryer, G; Louch, J; Shaw, M

    2014-07-01

    A binaural beat can be produced by presenting two tones of a differing frequency, one to each ear. Such auditory stimulation has been suggested to influence behaviour and cognition via the process of cortical entrainment. However, research so far has only shown the frequency following responses in the traditional EEG frequency ranges of delta, theta and gamma. Hence a primary aim of this research was to ascertain whether it would be possible to produce clear changes in the EEG in either the alpha or beta frequency ranges. Such changes, if possible, would have a number of important implications as well as potential applications. A secondary goal was to track any observable changes in the EEG throughout the entrainment epoch to gain some insight into the nature of the entrainment effects on any changes in an effort to identify more effective entrainment regimes. Twenty two healthy participants were recruited and randomly allocated to one of two groups, each of which was exposed to a distinct binaural beat frequency for ten 1-minute epochs. The first group listened to an alpha binaural beat of 10 Hz and the second to a beta binaural beat of 20 Hz. EEG was recorded from the left and right temporal regions during pre-exposure baselines, stimulus exposure epochs and post-exposure baselines. Analysis of changes in broad-band and narrow-band amplitudes, and frequency showed no effect of binaural beat frequency eliciting a frequency following effect in the EEG. Possible mediating factors are discussed and a number of recommendations are made regarding future studies, exploring entrainment effects from a binaural beat presentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Binaural loudness for artificial-head measurements in directional sound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the sound incidence angle on loudness was investigated for fifteen listeners who matched the loudness of sounds coming from five different incidence angles in the horizontal plane to that of the same sound with frontal incidence. The stimuli were presented via binaural synthesis...... by using head-related transfer functions measured for an artificial head. The results, which exhibited marked individual differences, show that loudness depends on the direction from which a sound reaches the listener. The average results suggest a relatively simple rule for combining the two signals...... at the ears of an artificial head for binaural loudness predictions....

  7. A comparison of auditory evoked potentials to acoustic beats and to binaural beats

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, H; Starr, A; Michalewski, HJ; Dimitrijevic, A; Bleich, N; Mittelman, N

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cortical brain responses evoked by amplitude modulated acoustic beats of 3 and 6 Hz in tones of 250 and 1000 Hz with those evoked by their binaural beats counterparts in unmodulated tones to indicate whether the cortical processes involved differ. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to 3- and 6-Hz acoustic and binaural beats in 2000 ms duration 250 and 1000 Hz tones presented with approximately 1 s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source cur...

  8. Dynamic Effects of Self-Relevance and Task on the Neural Processing of Emotional Words in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Eric C; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the interactions between task, emotion, and contextual self-relevance on processing words in social vignettes. Participants read scenarios that were in either third person (other-relevant) or second person (self-relevant) and we recorded ERPs to a neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant critical word. In a previously reported study (Fields and Kuperberg, 2012) with these stimuli, participants were tasked with producing a third sentence continuing the scenario. We observed a larger LPC to emotional words than neutral words in both the self-relevant and other-relevant scenarios, but this effect was smaller in the self-relevant scenarios because the LPC was larger on the neutral words (i.e., a larger LPC to self-relevant than other-relevant neutral words). In the present work, participants simply answered comprehension questions that did not refer to the emotional aspects of the scenario. Here we observed quite a different pattern of interaction between self-relevance and emotion: the LPC was larger to emotional vs. neutral words in the self-relevant scenarios only, and there was no effect of self-relevance on neutral words. Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPC reflects a dynamic interaction between specific task demands, the emotional properties of a stimulus, and contextual self-relevance. We conclude by discussing implications and future directions for a functional theory of the emotional LPC.

  9. Dynamic effects of self-relevance and task on the neural processing of emotional words in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Fields

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the interactions between task, emotion, and contextual self-relevance on processing words in social vignettes. Participants read scenarios that were in either third person (other-relevant or second person (self-relevant and we recorded ERPs to a neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant critical word. In a previously reported study (Fields & Kuperberg, 2012 with these stimuli, participants were tasked with producing a third sentence continuing the scenario. We observed a larger LPC to emotional words than neutral words in both the self-relevant and other-relevant scenarios, but this effect was smaller in the self-relevant scenarios because the LPC was larger on the neutral words (i.e., a larger LPC to self-relevant than other-relevant neutral words. In the present work, participants simply answered comprehension questions that did not refer to the emotional aspects of the scenario. Here we observed quite a different pattern of interaction between self-relevance and emotion: the LPC was larger to emotional versus neutral words in the self-relevant scenarios only, and there was no effect of self-relevance on neutral words. Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPC reflects a dynamic interaction between specific task demands, the emotional properties of a stimulus, and contextual self-relevance. We conclude by discussing implications and future directions for a functional theory of the emotional LPC.

  10. Pilot dynamics for instrument approach tasks: Full panel multiloop and flight director operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, D. H.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements and interpretations of single and mutiloop pilot response properties during simulated instrument approach are presented. Pilot subjects flew Category 2-like ILS approaches in a fixed base DC-8 simulaton. A conventional instrument panel and controls were used, with simulated vertical gust and glide slope beam bend forcing functions. Reduced and interpreted pilot describing functions and remmant are given for pitch attitude, flight director, and multiloop (longitudinal) control tasks. The response data are correlated with simultaneously recorded eye scanning statistics, previously reported in NASA CR-1535. The resulting combined response and scanning data and their interpretations provide a basis for validating and extending the theory of manual control displays.

  11. Dynamic Programming for Re-Mapping Noisy Fixations in Translation Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    possible fixated symbols, including those on the line above and below the naïve fixation mapping. In a second step a dynamic programming algorithm applies a number of heuristics to find the best path through the lattice, based on the probable distance in characters, in words and in pixels between...

  12. The use of cognitive cues for anticipatory strategies in a dynamic postural control task - validation of a novel approach to dual-task testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Grarup, Bo; Bangshaab, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dual-task testing is relevant in the assessment of postural control. A combination of a primary (motor) and a secondary (distracting cognitive) tasks is most often used. It remains a challenge however, to standardize and monitor the cognitive task. In this study a new dual......-task testing approach with a facilitating, rather than distracting, cognitive component was evaluated. Methods: Thirty-one community-dwelling elderly and fifteen young people were tested with respect to their ability to use anticipatory postural control strategies. The motor task consisted of twenty...... two sessions. Conclusion: The dual-task test was sensitive enough to discriminate between elderly and young people. It revealed that the elderly did not utilize cognitive cues for their anticipatory postural control strategies as well as the young were able to. The test procedure was feasible...

  13. Effects of a cognitive dual task on variability and local dynamic stability in sustained repetitive arm movements using principal component analysis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Alessia; Federolf, Peter; Haid, Thomas; Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2018-06-01

    In many daily jobs, repetitive arm movements are performed for extended periods of time under continuous cognitive demands. Even highly monotonous tasks exhibit an inherent motor variability and subtle fluctuations in movement stability. Variability and stability are different aspects of system dynamics, whose magnitude may be further affected by a cognitive load. Thus, the aim of the study was to explore and compare the effects of a cognitive dual task on the variability and local dynamic stability in a repetitive bimanual task. Thirteen healthy volunteers performed the repetitive motor task with and without a concurrent cognitive task of counting aloud backwards in multiples of three. Upper-body 3D kinematics were collected and postural reconfigurations-the variability related to the volunteer's postural change-were determined through a principal component analysis-based procedure. Subsequently, the most salient component was selected for the analysis of (1) cycle-to-cycle spatial and temporal variability, and (2) local dynamic stability as reflected by the largest Lyapunov exponent. Finally, end-point variability was evaluated as a control measure. The dual cognitive task proved to increase the temporal variability and reduce the local dynamic stability, marginally decrease endpoint variability, and substantially lower the incidence of postural reconfigurations. Particularly, the latter effect is considered to be relevant for the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders since reduced variability in sustained repetitive tasks might increase the risk of overuse injuries.

  14. Mental workload and motor performance dynamics during practice of reaching movements under various levels of task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuggi, Isabelle M; Oh, Hyuk; Shewokis, Patricia A; Gentili, Rodolphe J

    2017-09-30

    The assessment of mental workload can inform attentional resource allocation during task performance that is essential for understanding the underlying principles of human cognitive-motor behavior. While many studies have focused on mental workload in relation to human performance, a modest body of work has examined it in a motor practice/learning context without considering individual variability. Thus, this work aimed to examine mental workload by employing the NASA TLX as well as the changes in motor performance resulting from the practice of a novel reaching task. Two groups of participants practiced a reaching task at a high and low nominal difficulty during which a group-level analysis assessed the mental workload, motor performance and motor improvement dynamics. A secondary cluster analysis was also conducted to identify specific individual patterns of cognitive-motor responses. Overall, both group- and cluster-level analyses revealed that: (i) all participants improved their performance throughout motor practice, and (ii) an increase in mental workload was associated with a reduction of the quality of motor performance along with a slower rate of motor improvement. The results are discussed in the context of the optimal challenge point framework and in particular it is proposed that under the experimental conditions employed here, functional task difficulty: (i) would possibly depend on an individuals' information processing capabilities, and (ii) could be indexed by the level of mental workload which, when excessively heightened can decrease the quality of performance and more generally result in delayed motor improvements. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A direct comparison of spine rotational stiffness and dynamic spine stability during repetitive lifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ryan B; Brown, Stephen H M

    2012-06-01

    Stability of the spinal column is critical to bear loads, allow movement, and at the same time avoid injury and pain. However, there has been a debate in recent years as to how best to define and quantify spine stability, with the outcome being that different methods are used without a clear understanding of how they relate to one another. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to directly compare lumbar spine rotational stiffness, calculated with an EMG-driven biomechanical model, to local dynamic spine stability calculated using Lyapunov analyses of kinematic data, during a series of continuous dynamic lifting challenges. Twelve healthy male subjects performed 30 repetitive lifts under three varying load and three varying rate conditions. With an increase in the load lifted (constant rate) there was a significant increase in mean, maximum, and minimum spine rotational stiffness (pstiffness (pstiffness and a non-significant decrease in local dynamic stability (p>0.05). Weak linear relationships were found for the varying rate conditions (r=-0.02 to -0.27). The results suggest that spine rotational stiffness and local dynamic stability are closely related to one another, as they provided similar information when movement rate was controlled. However, based on the results from the changing lifting rate conditions, it is evident that both models provide unique information and that future research is required to completely understand the relationship between the two models. Using both techniques concurrently may provide the best information regarding the true effects of (in) stability under different loading and movement scenarios, and in comparing healthy and clinical populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential elicited from binaural air-conducted stimulations: clinical feasibility in patients with peripheral vestibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Egami, Naoya; Inoue, Aki; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimoto, Chisato; Murofushi, Toshihisa; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2013-07-01

    Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) to binaural air-conducted stimulation (ACS) may provide a convenient way of assessing the crossed vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with vestibular dysfunction as well as in healthy subjects. To investigate the clinical feasibility of using oVEMPs in response to binaural ACS to assess normal subjects and patients with vestibular dysfunction. The study investigated 24 normal subjects (14 men and 10 women, aged from 23 to 60 years) and 14 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Each subject underwent oVEMP testing in response to monaural ACS and binaural ACS (500 Hz tone burst, 135 dBSPL). In normal subjects, bilateral oVEMPs were elicited in 75% of subjects in response to monaural ACS and in 91% in response to binaural ACS. Asymmetry ratios (ARs) of the responses to binaural ACS were significantly smaller than those of the responses to monaural ACS (p binaural ACS. Approximately 30% of patients showed reduced ARs to binaural ACS relative to monaural ACS, primarily due to contamination by uncrossed responses elicited in healthy ears.

  17. A robust certification service for highly dynamic MANET in emergency tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, M; Lam, K Y; Gollmann, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    In emergency tasks, cross-agency operations being carried out in disaster-hit areas require some supporting communication system for command and control. Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a very suitable way to meet such communication requirements since it can function without any pre......-installed communication infrastructure. Owing to potential threats in the field environment and the unique features of MANET (e.g. the open nature of wireless links and the absence of security infrastructure), security of communications over MANET is a serious issue that is typically addressed by asymmetric cryptographic...... public keys in our scenario. For issuance and/or revocation of mission-specific certificate, a Mission-specific Certificate Authority (MCA), which consists of a collection of server nodes to operate the threshold cryptographic scheme, is proposed. Furthermore, to cater for the occurrence of network...

  18. Perceptual consequences of different signal changes due to binaural noise reduction: do hearing loss and working memory capacity play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Tobias; Grimm, Giso; Hohmann, Volker

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, ) investigated whether pure-tone average (PTA) hearing loss and working memory capacity (WMC) modulate benefit from different binaural noise reduction (NR) settings. Results showed that listeners with smaller WMC preferred strong over moderate NR even at the expense of poorer speech recognition due to greater speech distortion (SD), whereas listeners with larger WMC did not. To enable a better understanding of these findings, the main aims of the present study were (1) to explore the perceptual consequences of changes to the signal mixture, target speech, and background noise caused by binaural NR, and (2) to determine whether response to these changes varies with WMC and PTA. As in the previous study, four age-matched groups of elderly listeners (with N = 10 per group) characterized by either mild or moderate PTAs and either better or worse performance on a visual measure of WMC participated. Five processing conditions were tested, which were based on the previously used (binaural coherence-based) NR scheme designed to attenuate diffuse signal components at mid to high frequencies. The five conditions differed in terms of the type of processing that was applied (no NR, strong NR, or strong NR with restoration of the long-term stimulus spectrum) and in terms of whether the target speech and background noise were processed in the same manner or whether one signal was left unprocessed while the other signal was processed with the gains computed for the signal mixture. Comparison across these conditions allowed assessing the effects of changes in high-frequency audibility (HFA), SD, and noise attenuation and distortion (NAD). Outcome measures included a dual-task paradigm combining speech recognition with a visual reaction time (VRT) task as well as ratings of perceived effort and overall preference. All measurements were carried out using headphone simulations of a frontal target speaker in a busy cafeteria. Relative to no NR, strong NR was found

  19. Interaction learning for dynamic movement primitives used in cooperative robotic tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Biehl, Martin; Aein, Mohamad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Since several years dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) are more and more getting into the center of interest for flexible movement control in robotics. In this study we introduce sensory feedback together with a predictive learning mechanism which allows tightly coupled dual-agent systems...... to learn an adaptive, sensor-driven interaction based on DMPs. The coupled conventional (no-sensors, no learning) DMP-system automatically equilibrates and can still be solved analytically allowing us to derive conditions for stability. When adding adaptive sensor control we can show that both agents learn...

  20. On isochronous derivatives of the first and second order in space dynamics tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshiyan, B. T.; Sukhanov, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    The first and second isochronous derivatives are calculated from the vector of state of dynamic system using its initial value. Use is made of the method of finding a fundamental solution of conjugate variational equations. This solution and the corresponding universal relationship for isochronous derivatives are found for the two-body problem in a form which is simple and suitable for computer programming. The form of these relationships was obtained for motion which differs from parabolic motion. Formulas are given for isochronous derivatives using the gravitational parameter in the two-body problem.

  1. ROBUST LOCALISATION OF MULTIPLE SPEAKERS EXPLOITING HEAD MOVEMENTS AND MULTI-CONDITIONAL TRAINING OF BINAURAL CUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Ma, Ning; Brown, Guy

    2015-01-01

    differences (ITDs) and interaural level dif- ferences (ILDs) in the front and rear hemifield, a machine hearing system is presented which combines supervised learning of binaural cues using multi-conditional training (MCT) with a head movement strategy. A systematic evaluation showed that this approach...

  2. Measures of extents of laterality for high-frequency ``transposed'' stimuli under conditions of binaural interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Leslie R.; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2005-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to determine whether across-frequency binaural interference would occur if ITD-based extents of laterality were measured using high-frequency transposed stimuli as targets. The results of an earlier study [L. R. Bernstein and C. Trahiotis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3062-3069 (2004)], which focused on threshold-ITDs, rather than extents of laterality, suggested that high-frequency transposed stimuli might be ``immune'' to binaural interference effects resulting from the addition of a spectrally remote, low-frequency interferer. In contrast to the earlier findings, the data from this study indicate that high-frequency transposed targets are susceptible to binaural interference. Nevertheless, high-frequency transposed targets, even when presented along with an interferer, yielded greater extents of ITD-based laterality than did high-frequency Gaussian noise targets presented in isolation. That is, the ``enhanced potency'' of ITDs conveyed by transposed stimuli persisted, even in the presence of a low-frequency interferer. Predictions made using an extension of the model of Heller and Trahiotis [L. M. Heller and C. Trahiotis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 3632-3637 (1996)] accounted well for across-frequency binaural interference obtained with conventional Gaussian noise targets but, in all but one case, overpredicted the amounts of interference found with the transposed targets.

  3. Psychoacoustic evaluation of multichannel reproduced sounds using binaural synthesis and spherical beamforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wookeun; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Hald, Jørgen

    2011-10-01

    The binaural auralization of a 3D sound field using spherical-harmonics beamforming (SHB) techniques was investigated and compared with the traditional method using a head-and-torso simulator (HATS). The new procedure was verified by comparing simulated room impulse responses with measured ones binaurally. The objective comparisons show that there is good agreement in the frequency range between 0.1 and 6.4 kHz. A listening experiment was performed to validate the SHB method subjectively and to compare it to the HATS method. Two musical excerpts, pop and classical, were used. Subjective responses were collected in two head rotation conditions (fixed and rotating) and six spatial reproduction modes, including phantom mono, stereo, and surround sound. The results show that subjective scales of width, spaciousness, and preference based on the SHB method were similar to those obtained for the HATS method, although the width and spaciousness of the stimuli processed by the SHB method were judged slightly higher than the ones using the HATS method in general. Thus, binaural synthesis using SHB may be a useful tool to reproduce a 3D sound field binaurally, while saving considerably on measurement time because head rotation can be simulated based on a single recording. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  4. Detection and identification of monaural and binaural pitch contours in dyslexic listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    of dyslexic listeners to Huggins' pitch (HP). The present study clarified whether impaired binaural pitch perception is found in dyslexia. Results from a pitch contour identification test, performed in 31 dyslexic listeners and 31 matched controls, clearly showed that dyslexics perceived HP as well...

  5. Noise reduction in binaural hearing aids : Analyzing the benefit over monaural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Binaural beamforming using signals from both left and right hearing aids offers greater potential for noise reduction than using signals from a single aid. However, wireless transmission of data imposes power constraints. Since most modern hearing aids have multiple microphones and are capable of

  6. Frequency-Shift Detectors Bind Binaural as Well as Monaural Frequency Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, Samuele; Semal, Catherine; Demany, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Previous psychophysical work provided evidence for the existence of automatic frequency-shift detectors (FSDs) that establish perceptual links between successive sounds. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the FSDs with respect to the binaural system. Listeners were presented with sound sequences consisting of a chord of pure…

  7. AN INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENTIAL BINAURAL STIMULATION IN THE TEACHING OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN RIPER, CHARLES

    THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHETHER OR NOT DIFFERENTIAL BINAURAL STIMULATIONS CAN BE USED EFFECTIVELY TO IMPROVE PRONUNCIATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING. THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE WHAT EFFECT HEARING SIMULTANEOUSLY THE TEACHER'S VOICE IN ONE EAR AND HIS OWN VOICE IN THE OTHER WOULD HAVE ON A STUDENT'S ABILITY TO COMPARE THE DIFFERENCES IN…

  8. The Physiological Basis and Clinical Use of the Binaural Interaction Component of the Auditory Brainstem Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Georg M.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a sound-evoked non-invasively measured electrical potential representing the sum of neuronal activity in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. ABR peak amplitudes and latencies are widely used in human and animal auditory research and for clinical screening. The binaural interaction component (BIC) of the ABR stands for the difference between the sum of the monaural ABRs and the ABR obtained with binaural stimulation. The BIC comprises a series of distinct waves, the largest of which (DN1) has been used for evaluating binaural hearing in both normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. Based on data from animal and human studies, we discuss the possible anatomical and physiological bases of the BIC (DN1 in particular). The effects of electrode placement and stimulus characteristics on the binaurally evoked ABR are evaluated. We review how inter-aural time and intensity differences affect the BIC and, analyzing these dependencies, draw conclusion about the mechanism underlying the generation of the BIC. Finally, the utility of the BIC for clinical diagnoses are summarized. PMID:27232077

  9. The brain responses to different frequencies of binaural beat sounds on QEEG at cortical level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2015-01-01

    Beat phenomenon is occurred when two slightly different frequency waves interfere each other. The beat can also occur in the brain by providing two slightly different frequency waves separately each ear. This is called binaural beat. The brain responses to binaural beat are in discussion process whether the brain side and the brain area. Therefore, this study aims to figure out the brain responses to binaural beat by providing different binaural beat frequencies on 250 carrier tone continuously for 30 minutes to participants and using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) to interpret the data. The result shows that different responses appear in different beat frequency. Left hemisphere dominance occur in 3 Hz beat within 15 minutes and 15 Hz beat within 5 minutes. Right hemisphere dominance occurs in 10 Hz beat within 25 minute. 6 Hz beat enhances all area of the brain within 10 minutes. 8 Hz and 25 Hz beats have no clearly responses while 40 Hz beat enhances the responses in frontal lobe. These brain responses can be used for brain modulation application to induce the brain activity in further studies.

  10. Temporal Dynamics of Task Switching and Abstract-Concept Learning in Pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alexander Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.

  11. Update report on fracture flow in saturated tuff: Dynamic transport task for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecky, D.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Ott, M.; Mitchell, A.

    1990-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of continuing experiments on the behavior of tracers during fracture flow in saturated, welded tuff. These experiments were completed during the past year as part of the Dynamic Transport Task of geochemical investigations for the Yucca Mountain Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. These experiments are designed to investigate the effects of fluid movement in fractures when coupled with matrix diffusion and sorption but isolated from the effects of capillary suction and two-phase flow characteristic of unsaturated conditions. The experiments reported here are continuations of experimental efforts reported previously. The behavior of three tracers [HTO (tritiated water), TcO 4 - (pertechnetate), and sulforhodamine B dye] have been investigated during flow through a saturated column of densely welded tuff from the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, southern Nevada. 31 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Understanding and Mastering Dynamics in Computing Grids Processing Moldable Tasks with User-Level Overlay

    CERN Document Server

    Moscicki, Jakub Tomasz

    Scientic communities are using a growing number of distributed systems, from lo- cal batch systems, community-specic services and supercomputers to general-purpose, global grid infrastructures. Increasing the research capabilities for science is the raison d'^etre of such infrastructures which provide access to diversied computational, storage and data resources at large scales. Grids are rather chaotic, highly heterogeneous, de- centralized systems where unpredictable workloads, component failures and variability of execution environments are commonplace. Understanding and mastering the hetero- geneity and dynamics of such distributed systems is prohibitive for end users if they are not supported by appropriate methods and tools. The time cost to learn and use the interfaces and idiosyncrasies of dierent distributed environments is another challenge. Obtaining more reliable application execution times and boosting parallel speedup are important to increase the research capabilities of scientic communities. L...

  13. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  14. Dynamic sequence analysis of a decision making task of multielement target tracking and its usage as a learning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ziho

    This dissertation is divided into four parts: 1) Development of effective methods for comparing visual scanning paths (or scanpaths) for a dynamic task of multiple moving targets, 2) application of the methods to compare the scanpaths of experts and novices for a conflict detection task of multiple aircraft on radar screen, 3) a post-hoc analysis of other eye movement characteristics of experts and novices, and 4) finding out whether the scanpaths of experts can be used to teach the novices. In order to compare experts' and novices' scanpaths, two methods are developed. The first proposed method is the matrix comparisons using the Mantel test. The second proposed method is the maximum transition-based agglomerative hierarchical clustering (MTAHC) where comparisons of multi-level visual groupings are held out. The matrix comparison method was useful for a small number of targets during the preliminary experiment, but turned out to be inapplicable to a realistic case when tens of aircraft were presented on screen; however, MTAHC was effective with large number of aircraft on screen. The experiments with experts and novices on the aircraft conflict detection task showed that their scanpaths are different. The MTAHC result was able to explicitly show how experts visually grouped multiple aircraft based on similar altitudes while novices tended to group them based on convergence. Also, the MTAHC results showed that novices paid much attention to the converging aircraft groups even if they are safely separated by altitude; therefore, less attention was given to the actual conflicting pairs resulting in low correct conflict detection rates. Since the analysis showed the scanpath differences, experts' scanpaths were shown to novices in order to find out its effectiveness. The scanpath treatment group showed indications that they changed their visual movements from trajectory-based to altitude-based movements. Between the treatment and the non-treatment group, there were no

  15. Mediodorsal Thalamic Neurons Mirror the Activity of Medial Prefrontal Neurons Responding to Movement and Reinforcement during a Dynamic DNMTP Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rikki L A; Francoeur, Miranda J; Gibson, Brett M; Mair, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) interacts with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to support learning and adaptive decision-making. MD receives driver (layer 5) and modulatory (layer 6) projections from PFC and is the main source of driver thalamic projections to middle cortical layers of PFC. Little is known about the activity of MD neurons and their influence on PFC during decision-making. We recorded MD neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed nonmatching to position (dDNMTP) task and compared results to a previous study of mPFC with the same task (Onos et al., 2016). Criterion event-related responses were observed for 22% (254/1179) of neurons recorded in MD, 237 (93%) of which exhibited activity consistent with mPFC response types. More MD than mPFC neurons exhibited responses related to movement (45% vs. 29%) and reinforcement (51% vs. 27%). MD had few responses related to lever presses, and none related to preparation or memory delay, which constituted 43% of event-related activity in mPFC. Comparison of averaged normalized population activity and population response times confirmed the broad similarity of common response types in MD and mPFC and revealed differences in the onset and offset of some response types. Our results show that MD represents information about actions and outcomes essential for decision-making during dDNMTP, consistent with evidence from lesion studies that MD supports reward-based learning and action-selection. These findings support the hypothesis that MD reinforces task-relevant neural activity in PFC that gives rise to adaptive behavior.

  16. A Binaural Grouping Model for Predicting Speech Intelligibility in Multitalker Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Mi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatially separating speech maskers from target speech often leads to a large intelligibility improvement. Modeling this phenomenon has long been of interest to binaural-hearing researchers for uncovering brain mechanisms and for improving signal-processing algorithms in hearing-assistive devices. Much of the previous binaural modeling work focused on the unmasking enabled by binaural cues at the periphery, and little quantitative modeling has been directed toward the grouping or source-separation benefits of binaural processing. In this article, we propose a binaural model that focuses on grouping, specifically on the selection of time-frequency units that are dominated by signals from the direction of the target. The proposed model uses Equalization-Cancellation (EC processing with a binary decision rule to estimate a time-frequency binary mask. EC processing is carried out to cancel the target signal and the energy change between the EC input and output is used as a feature that reflects target dominance in each time-frequency unit. The processing in the proposed model requires little computational resources and is straightforward to implement. In combination with the Coherence-based Speech Intelligibility Index, the model is applied to predict the speech intelligibility data measured by Marrone et al. The predicted speech reception threshold matches the pattern of the measured data well, even though the predicted intelligibility improvements relative to the colocated condition are larger than some of the measured data, which may reflect the lack of internal noise in this initial version of the model.

  17. Monaural and binaural contributions to interaural-level-difference sensitivity in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, G Christopher; McLaughlin, Susan A; Higgins, Nathan C

    2015-10-15

    Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in human auditory cortex (AC) to sounds with intensity varying independently in the left and right ears. Echoplanar images were acquired at 3 Tesla with sparse image acquisition once per 12-second block of sound stimulation. Combinations of binaural intensity and stimulus presentation rate were varied between blocks, and selected to allow measurement of response-intensity functions in three configurations: monaural 55-85 dB SPL, binaural 55-85 dB SPL with intensity equal in both ears, and binaural with average binaural level of 70 dB SPL and interaural level differences (ILD) ranging ±30 dB (i.e., favoring the left or right ear). Comparison of response functions equated for contralateral intensity revealed that BOLD-response magnitudes (1) generally increased with contralateral intensity, consistent with positive drive of the BOLD response by the contralateral ear, (2) were larger for contralateral monaural stimulation than for binaural stimulation, consistent with negative effects (e.g., inhibition) of ipsilateral input, which were strongest in the left hemisphere, and (3) also increased with ipsilateral intensity when contralateral input was weak, consistent with additional, positive, effects of ipsilateral stimulation. Hemispheric asymmetries in the spatial extent and overall magnitude of BOLD responses were generally consistent with previous studies demonstrating greater bilaterality of responses in the right hemisphere and stricter contralaterality in the left hemisphere. Finally, comparison of responses to fast (40/s) and slow (5/s) stimulus presentation rates revealed significant rate-dependent adaptation of the BOLD response that varied across ILD values. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A Binaural Grouping Model for Predicting Speech Intelligibility in Multitalker Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jing; Colburn, H Steven

    2016-10-03

    Spatially separating speech maskers from target speech often leads to a large intelligibility improvement. Modeling this phenomenon has long been of interest to binaural-hearing researchers for uncovering brain mechanisms and for improving signal-processing algorithms in hearing-assistive devices. Much of the previous binaural modeling work focused on the unmasking enabled by binaural cues at the periphery, and little quantitative modeling has been directed toward the grouping or source-separation benefits of binaural processing. In this article, we propose a binaural model that focuses on grouping, specifically on the selection of time-frequency units that are dominated by signals from the direction of the target. The proposed model uses Equalization-Cancellation (EC) processing with a binary decision rule to estimate a time-frequency binary mask. EC processing is carried out to cancel the target signal and the energy change between the EC input and output is used as a feature that reflects target dominance in each time-frequency unit. The processing in the proposed model requires little computational resources and is straightforward to implement. In combination with the Coherence-based Speech Intelligibility Index, the model is applied to predict the speech intelligibility data measured by Marrone et al. The predicted speech reception threshold matches the pattern of the measured data well, even though the predicted intelligibility improvements relative to the colocated condition are larger than some of the measured data, which may reflect the lack of internal noise in this initial version of the model. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Gender differences in binaural speech-evoked auditory brainstem response: are they clinically significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaei, Bahram; Azmi, Mohd Hafiz Afifi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Normani

    2018-05-17

    Binaurally evoked auditory evoked potentials have good diagnostic values when testing subjects with central auditory deficits. The literature on speech-evoked auditory brainstem response evoked by binaural stimulation is in fact limited. Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results have been consistently noted but the magnitude of gender difference has not been reported. The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of gender difference in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results between monaural and binaural stimulations. A total of 34 healthy Asian adults aged 19-30 years participated in this comparative study. Eighteen of them were females (mean age=23.6±2.3 years) and the remaining sixteen were males (mean age=22.0±2.3 years). For each subject, speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was recorded with the synthesized syllable /da/ presented monaurally and binaurally. While latencies were not affected (p>0.05), the binaural stimulation produced statistically higher speech-evoked auditory brainstem response amplitudes than the monaural stimulation (p0.80), substantive gender differences were noted in most of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response peaks for both stimulation modes. The magnitude of gender difference between the two stimulation modes revealed some distinct patterns. Based on these clinically significant results, gender-specific normative data are highly recommended when using speech-evoked auditory brainstem response for clinical and future applications. The preliminary normative data provided in the present study can serve as the reference for future studies on this test among Asian adults. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Ant colony optimization and event-based dynamic task scheduling and staffing for software projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellappan, Vijayan; Ashwini, J.

    2017-11-01

    In programming change organizations from medium to inconceivable scale broadens, the issue of wander orchestrating is amazingly unusual and testing undertaking despite considering it a manual system. Programming wander-organizing requirements to deal with the issue of undertaking arranging and in addition the issue of human resource portion (also called staffing) in light of the way that most of the advantages in programming ventures are individuals. We propose a machine learning approach with finds respond in due order regarding booking by taking in the present arranging courses of action and an event based scheduler revives the endeavour arranging system moulded by the learning computation in perspective of the conformity in event like the begin with the Ander, the instant at what time possessions be free starting to ended errands, and the time when delegates stick together otherwise depart the wander inside the item change plan. The route toward invigorating the timetable structure by the even based scheduler makes the arranging method dynamic. It uses structure components to exhibit the interrelated surges of endeavours, slip-ups and singular all through different progression organizes and is adjusted to mechanical data. It increases past programming wander movement ask about by taking a gander at a survey based process with a one of a kind model, organizing it with the data based system for peril assessment and cost estimation, and using a choice showing stage.

  1. Bracing of the Reconstructed and Osteoarthritic Knee during High Dynamic Load Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Harvi F; Crossley, Kay M; Collins, Natalie J; Ackland, David C

    2017-06-01

    Lateral compartment osteoarthritis accompanied by abnormal knee biomechanics is frequently reported in individuals with knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in knee biomechanics produced by an adjusted and unadjusted varus knee brace during high dynamic loading activities in individuals with lateral knee osteoarthritis after ACLR and valgus malalignment. Nineteen participants who had undergone ACLR 5 to 20 yr previously and had symptomatic and radiographic lateral knee osteoarthritis with valgus malalignment were assessed. Quantitative motion analysis experiments were conducted during hopping, stair ascent, and descent under three test conditions: (i) no brace, (ii) unadjusted brace with sagittal plane support and neutral frontal plane alignment, and (iii) adjusted brace with sagittal plane support and varus realignment (valgus to neutral). Sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane knee kinematics, external joint moment, and angular impulse data were calculated. Relative to an unbraced knee, braced conditions significantly increased knee flexion and adduction angles during hopping (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005; respectively), stair ascent (P = 0.003 and P stair ascent (P = 0.008) and flexion moments during stair descent (P = 0.006). There were no significant differences between the adjusted and the unadjusted brace conditions (P > 0.05). A knee brace, with or without varus alignment, can modulate knee kinematics and external joint moments during hopping, stairs ascent, and descent in individuals with predominant lateral knee osteoarthritis after ACLR. Longer-term use of a brace may have implications in slowing osteoarthritis progression.

  2. Task-based core-periphery organization of human brain dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S Bassett

    Full Text Available As a person learns a new skill, distinct synapses, brain regions, and circuits are engaged and change over time. In this paper, we develop methods to examine patterns of correlated activity across a large set of brain regions. Our goal is to identify properties that enable robust learning of a motor skill. We measure brain activity during motor sequencing and characterize network properties based on coherent activity between brain regions. Using recently developed algorithms to detect time-evolving communities, we find that the complex reconfiguration patterns of the brain's putative functional modules that control learning can be described parsimoniously by the combined presence of a relatively stiff temporal core that is composed primarily of sensorimotor and visual regions whose connectivity changes little in time and a flexible temporal periphery that is composed primarily of multimodal association regions whose connectivity changes frequently. The separation between temporal core and periphery changes over the course of training and, importantly, is a good predictor of individual differences in learning success. The core of dynamically stiff regions exhibits dense connectivity, which is consistent with notions of core-periphery organization established previously in social networks. Our results demonstrate that core-periphery organization provides an insightful way to understand how putative functional modules are linked. This, in turn, enables the prediction of fundamental human capacities, including the production of complex goal-directed behavior.

  3. Improvements in speech understanding with wireless binaural broadband digital hearing instruments in adults with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisman, Brian M; Mazevski, Annette G; Schum, Donald J; Sockalingam, Ravichandran

    2010-03-01

    This investigation examined whether speech intelligibility in noise can be improved using a new, binaural broadband hearing instrument system. Participants were 36 adults with symmetrical, sensorineural hearing loss (18 experienced hearing instrument users and 18 without prior experience). Participants were fit binaurally in a planned comparison, randomized crossover design study with binaural broadband hearing instruments and advanced digital hearing instruments. Following an adjustment period with each device, participants underwent two speech-in-noise tests: the QuickSIN and the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). Results suggested significantly better performance on the QuickSIN and the HINT measures with the binaural broadband hearing instruments, when compared with the advanced digital hearing instruments and unaided, across and within all noise conditions.

  4. Facial expression movement enhances the measurement of temporal dynamics of attentional bias in the dot-probe task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudek, Corrado; Ceccarini, Francesco; Sica, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The facial dot-probe task is one of the most common experimental paradigms used to assess attentional bias toward emotional information. In recent years, however, the psychometric properties of this paradigm have been questioned. In the present study, attentional bias to emotional face stimuli was measured with dynamic and static images of realistic human faces in 97 college students (63 women) who underwent either a positive or a negative mood-induction prior to the experiment. We controlled the bottom-up salience of the stimuli in order to dissociate the top-down orienting of attention from the effects of the bottom-up physical properties of the stimuli. A Bayesian analysis of our results indicates that 1) the traditional global attentional bias index shows a low reliability, 2) reliability increases dramatically when biased attention is analyzed by extracting a series of bias estimations from trial-to-trial (Zvielli, Bernstein, & Koster, 2015), 3) dynamic expression of emotions strengthens biased attention to emotional information, and 4) mood-congruency facilitates the measurement of biased attention to emotional stimuli. These results highlight the importance of using ecologically valid stimuli in attentional bias research, together with the importance of estimating biased attention at the trial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Dynamic Multi-Task Non-Negative Matrix Factorization to Detect the Evolution of User Preferences in Collaborative Filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ju

    Full Text Available Predicting what items will be selected by a target user in the future is an important function for recommendation systems. Matrix factorization techniques have been shown to achieve good performance on temporal rating-type data, but little is known about temporal item selection data. In this paper, we developed a unified model that combines Multi-task Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Linear Dynamical Systems to capture the evolution of user preferences. Specifically, user and item features are projected into latent factor space by factoring co-occurrence matrices into a common basis item-factor matrix and multiple factor-user matrices. Moreover, we represented both within and between relationships of multiple factor-user matrices using a state transition matrix to capture the changes in user preferences over time. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithms on two real datasets, which were extracted from Netflix movies and Last.fm music. Furthermore, our model provides a novel dynamic topic model for tracking the evolution of the behavior of a user over time.

  6. Using Dynamic Multi-Task Non-Negative Matrix Factorization to Detect the Evolution of User Preferences in Collaborative Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Bin; Qian, Yuntao; Ye, Minchao; Ni, Rong; Zhu, Chenxi

    2015-01-01

    Predicting what items will be selected by a target user in the future is an important function for recommendation systems. Matrix factorization techniques have been shown to achieve good performance on temporal rating-type data, but little is known about temporal item selection data. In this paper, we developed a unified model that combines Multi-task Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Linear Dynamical Systems to capture the evolution of user preferences. Specifically, user and item features are projected into latent factor space by factoring co-occurrence matrices into a common basis item-factor matrix and multiple factor-user matrices. Moreover, we represented both within and between relationships of multiple factor-user matrices using a state transition matrix to capture the changes in user preferences over time. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithms on two real datasets, which were extracted from Netflix movies and Last.fm music. Furthermore, our model provides a novel dynamic topic model for tracking the evolution of the behavior of a user over time.

  7. The effect of different cochlear implant microphones on acoustic hearing individuals’ binaural benefits for speech perception in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Justin M.; Freed, Daniel J.; Fisher, Laurel M.; Pal, Ivan; Soli, Sigfrid D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cochlear implant microphones differ in placement, frequency response, and other characteristics such as whether they are directional. Although normal hearing individuals are often used as controls in studies examining cochlear implant users’ binaural benefits, the considerable differences across cochlear implant microphones make such comparisons potentially misleading. The goal of this study was to examine binaural benefits for speech perception in noise for normal hearing individuals using stimuli processed by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) based on the different cochlear implant microphones. Design HRTFs were created for different cochlear implant microphones and used to test participants on the Hearing in Noise Test. Experiment 1 tested cochlear implant users and normal hearing individuals with HRTF-processed stimuli and with sound field testing to determine whether the HRTFs adequately simulated sound field testing. Experiment 2 determined the measurement error and performance-intensity function for the Hearing in Noise Test with normal hearing individuals listening to stimuli processed with the various HRTFs. Experiment 3 compared normal hearing listeners’ performance across HRTFs to determine how the HRTFs affected performance. Experiment 4 evaluated binaural benefits for normal hearing listeners using the various HRTFs, including ones that were modified to investigate the contributions of interaural time and level cues. Results The results indicated that the HRTFs adequately simulated sound field testing for the Hearing in Noise Test. They also demonstrated that the test-retest reliability and performance-intensity function were consistent across HRTFs, and that the measurement error for the test was 1.3 dB, with a change in signal-to-noise ratio of 1 dB reflecting a 10% change in intelligibility. There were significant differences in performance when using the various HRTFs, with particularly good thresholds for the HRTF based on the

  8. Selecting a dynamic simulation modeling method for health care delivery research-part 2: report of the ISPOR Dynamic Simulation Modeling Emerging Good Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Deborah A; Burgos-Liz, Lina; IJzerman, Maarten J; Crown, William; Padula, William V; Wong, Peter K; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Higashi, Mitchell K; Osgood, Nathaniel D

    2015-03-01

    In a previous report, the ISPOR Task Force on Dynamic Simulation Modeling Applications in Health Care Delivery Research Emerging Good Practices introduced the fundamentals of dynamic simulation modeling and identified the types of health care delivery problems for which dynamic simulation modeling can be used more effectively than other modeling methods. The hierarchical relationship between the health care delivery system, providers, patients, and other stakeholders exhibits a level of complexity that ought to be captured using dynamic simulation modeling methods. As a tool to help researchers decide whether dynamic simulation modeling is an appropriate method for modeling the effects of an intervention on a health care system, we presented the System, Interactions, Multilevel, Understanding, Loops, Agents, Time, Emergence (SIMULATE) checklist consisting of eight elements. This report builds on the previous work, systematically comparing each of the three most commonly used dynamic simulation modeling methods-system dynamics, discrete-event simulation, and agent-based modeling. We review criteria for selecting the most suitable method depending on 1) the purpose-type of problem and research questions being investigated, 2) the object-scope of the model, and 3) the method to model the object to achieve the purpose. Finally, we provide guidance for emerging good practices for dynamic simulation modeling in the health sector, covering all aspects, from the engagement of decision makers in the model design through model maintenance and upkeep. We conclude by providing some recommendations about the application of these methods to add value to informed decision making, with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement, starting with the problem definition. Finally, we identify areas in which further methodological development will likely occur given the growing "volume, velocity and variety" and availability of "big data" to provide empirical evidence and techniques

  9. Binaural Fusion and Listening Effort in Children Who Use Bilateral Cochlear Implants: A Psychoacoustic and Pupillometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Morrison M.; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implants aim to provide hearing to both ears for children who are deaf and promote binaural/spatial hearing. Benefits are limited by mismatched devices and unilaterally-driven development which could compromise the normal integration of left and right ear input. We thus asked whether children hear a fused image (ie. 1 vs 2 sounds) from their bilateral implants and if this “binaural fusion” reduces listening effort. Binaural fusion was assessed by asking 25 deaf children with cochlear implants and 24 peers with normal hearing whether they heard one or two sounds when listening to bilaterally presented acoustic click-trains/electric pulses (250 Hz trains of 36 ms presented at 1 Hz). Reaction times and pupillary changes were recorded simultaneously to measure listening effort. Bilaterally implanted children heard one image of bilateral input less frequently than normal hearing peers, particularly when intensity levels on each side were balanced. Binaural fusion declined as brainstem asymmetries increased and age at implantation decreased. Children implanted later had access to acoustic input prior to implantation due to progressive deterioration of hearing. Increases in both pupil diameter and reaction time occurred as perception of binaural fusion decreased. Results indicate that, without binaural level cues, children have difficulty fusing input from their bilateral implants to perceive one sound which costs them increased listening effort. Brainstem asymmetries exacerbate this issue. By contrast, later implantation, reflecting longer access to bilateral acoustic hearing, may have supported development of auditory pathways underlying binaural fusion. Improved integration of bilateral cochlear implant signals for children is required to improve their binaural hearing. PMID:25668423

  10. Binaural fusion and listening effort in children who use bilateral cochlear implants: a psychoacoustic and pupillometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison M Steel

    Full Text Available Bilateral cochlear implants aim to provide hearing to both ears for children who are deaf and promote binaural/spatial hearing. Benefits are limited by mismatched devices and unilaterally-driven development which could compromise the normal integration of left and right ear input. We thus asked whether children hear a fused image (ie. 1 vs 2 sounds from their bilateral implants and if this "binaural fusion" reduces listening effort. Binaural fusion was assessed by asking 25 deaf children with cochlear implants and 24 peers with normal hearing whether they heard one or two sounds when listening to bilaterally presented acoustic click-trains/electric pulses (250 Hz trains of 36 ms presented at 1 Hz. Reaction times and pupillary changes were recorded simultaneously to measure listening effort. Bilaterally implanted children heard one image of bilateral input less frequently than normal hearing peers, particularly when intensity levels on each side were balanced. Binaural fusion declined as brainstem asymmetries increased and age at implantation decreased. Children implanted later had access to acoustic input prior to implantation due to progressive deterioration of hearing. Increases in both pupil diameter and reaction time occurred as perception of binaural fusion decreased. Results indicate that, without binaural level cues, children have difficulty fusing input from their bilateral implants to perceive one sound which costs them increased listening effort. Brainstem asymmetries exacerbate this issue. By contrast, later implantation, reflecting longer access to bilateral acoustic hearing, may have supported development of auditory pathways underlying binaural fusion. Improved integration of bilateral cochlear implant signals for children is required to improve their binaural hearing.

  11. Binaural fusion and listening effort in children who use bilateral cochlear implants: a psychoacoustic and pupillometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Morrison M; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implants aim to provide hearing to both ears for children who are deaf and promote binaural/spatial hearing. Benefits are limited by mismatched devices and unilaterally-driven development which could compromise the normal integration of left and right ear input. We thus asked whether children hear a fused image (ie. 1 vs 2 sounds) from their bilateral implants and if this "binaural fusion" reduces listening effort. Binaural fusion was assessed by asking 25 deaf children with cochlear implants and 24 peers with normal hearing whether they heard one or two sounds when listening to bilaterally presented acoustic click-trains/electric pulses (250 Hz trains of 36 ms presented at 1 Hz). Reaction times and pupillary changes were recorded simultaneously to measure listening effort. Bilaterally implanted children heard one image of bilateral input less frequently than normal hearing peers, particularly when intensity levels on each side were balanced. Binaural fusion declined as brainstem asymmetries increased and age at implantation decreased. Children implanted later had access to acoustic input prior to implantation due to progressive deterioration of hearing. Increases in both pupil diameter and reaction time occurred as perception of binaural fusion decreased. Results indicate that, without binaural level cues, children have difficulty fusing input from their bilateral implants to perceive one sound which costs them increased listening effort. Brainstem asymmetries exacerbate this issue. By contrast, later implantation, reflecting longer access to bilateral acoustic hearing, may have supported development of auditory pathways underlying binaural fusion. Improved integration of bilateral cochlear implant signals for children is required to improve their binaural hearing.

  12. Predicting the benefit of binaural cue preservation in bilateral directional processing schemes for listeners with impaired hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Thomas; Hauth, Christopher; Wagener, Kirsten C.

    2018-01-01

    Linked pairs of hearing aids offer various possibilities for directional processing providing adjustable trade-off between improving signal-to-noise ratio and preserving binaural listening. The benefit depends on the processing scheme, the acoustic scenario, and the listener’s ability to exploit...... fine structure. BSIM revealed a benefit due to binaural processing in well-performing listeners when processing provided low-frequency interaural timing cues....

  13. Principal States of Dynamic Functional Connectivity Reveal the Link Between Resting-State and Task-State Brain: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Zhu, Yang; Sun, Junfeng; Deng, Lifu; He, Naying; Yang, Yang; Ling, Huawei; Ayaz, Hasan; Fu, Yi; Tong, Shanbao

    2018-01-25

    Task-related reorganization of functional connectivity (FC) has been widely investigated. Under classic static FC analysis, brain networks under task and rest have been demonstrated a general similarity. However, brain activity and cognitive process are believed to be dynamic and adaptive. Since static FC inherently ignores the distinct temporal patterns between rest and task, dynamic FC may be more a suitable technique to characterize the brain's dynamic and adaptive activities. In this study, we adopted [Formula: see text]-means clustering to investigate task-related spatiotemporal reorganization of dynamic brain networks and hypothesized that dynamic FC would be able to reveal the link between resting-state and task-state brain organization, including broadly similar spatial patterns but distinct temporal patterns. In order to test this hypothesis, this study examined the dynamic FC in default-mode network (DMN) and motor-related network (MN) using Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD)-fMRI data from 26 healthy subjects during rest (REST) and a hand closing-and-opening (HCO) task. Two principal FC states in REST and one principal FC state in HCO were identified. The first principal FC state in REST was found similar to that in HCO, which appeared to represent intrinsic network architecture and validated the broadly similar spatial patterns between REST and HCO. However, the second FC principal state in REST with much shorter "dwell time" implied the transient functional relationship between DMN and MN during REST. In addition, a more frequent shifting between two principal FC states indicated that brain network dynamically maintained a "default mode" in the motor system during REST, whereas the presence of a single principal FC state and reduced FC variability implied a more temporally stable connectivity during HCO, validating the distinct temporal patterns between REST and HCO. Our results further demonstrated that dynamic FC analysis could offer unique

  14. Acquisition and production of skilled behavior in dynamic decision-making tasks: Modeling strategic behavior in human-automation interaction: Why and aid can (and should) go unused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Advances in computer and control technology offer the opportunity for task-offload aiding in human-machine systems. A task-offload aid (e.g., an autopilot, an intelligent assistant) can be selectively engaged by the human operator to dynamically delegate tasks to an automated system. Successful design and performance prediction in such systems requires knowledge of the factors influencing the strategy the operator develops and uses for managing interaction with the task-offload aid. A model is presented that shows how such strategies can be predicted as a function of three task context properties (frequency and duration of secondary tasks and costs of delaying secondary tasks) and three aid design properties (aid engagement and disengagement times, aid performance relative to human performance). Sensitivity analysis indicates how each of these contextual and design factors affect the optimal aid aid usage strategy and attainable system performance. The model is applied to understanding human-automation interaction in laboratory experiments on human supervisory control behavior. The laboratory task allowed subjects freedom to determine strategies for using an autopilot in a dynamic, multi-task environment. Modeling results suggested that many subjects may indeed have been acting appropriately by not using the autopilot in the way its designers intended. Although autopilot function was technically sound, this aid was not designed with due regard to the overall task context in which it was placed. These results demonstrate the need for additional research on how people may strategically manage their own resources, as well as those provided by automation, in an effort to keep workload and performance at acceptable levels.

  15. Lateralization and Binaural Interaction of Middle-Latency and Late-Brainstem Components of the Auditory Evoked Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Andrew R; Burchard, Daniel; Starzynski, Christian; Riedel, Helmut; Rupp, Andre; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    We used magnetoencephalography to examine lateralization and binaural interaction of the middle-latency and late-brainstem components of the auditory evoked response (the MLR and SN10, respectively). Click stimuli were presented either monaurally, or binaurally with left- or right-leading interaural time differences (ITDs). While early MLR components, including the N19 and P30, were larger for monaural stimuli presented contralaterally (by approximately 30 and 36 % in the left and right hemispheres, respectively), later components, including the N40 and P50, were larger ipsilaterally. In contrast, MLRs elicited by binaural clicks with left- or right-leading ITDs did not differ. Depending on filter settings, weak binaural interaction could be observed as early as the P13 but was clearly much larger for later components, beginning at the P30, indicating some degree of binaural linearity up to early stages of cortical processing. The SN10, an obscure late-brainstem component, was observed consistently in individuals and showed linear binaural additivity. The results indicate that while the MLR is lateralized in response to monaural stimuli-and not ITDs-this lateralization reverses from primarily contralateral to primarily ipsilateral as early as 40 ms post stimulus and is never as large as that seen with fMRI.

  16. Binaural auditory outcomes in patients with postlingual profound unilateral hearing loss: 3 years after cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; Kleine Punte, Andrea; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The value of cochlear implants (CI) in patients with profound unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and tinnitus has recently been investigated. The authors previously demonstrated the feasibility of CI in a 12- month outcome study in a prospective UHL cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate the binaural auditory outcomes in this cohort 36 months after CI surgery. The 36-month outcome was evaluated in 22 CI users with postlingual UHL and severe tinnitus. Twelve subjects had contralateral normal hearing (single-sided deafness - SSD group) and 10 subjects had a contralateral, mild to moderate hearing loss and used a hearing aid (asymmetric hearing loss - AHL group). Speech perception in noise was assessed in two listening conditions: the CIoff and the CIon condition. The binaural summation effect (S0N0), binaural squelch effect (S0NCI) and the combined head shadow effect (SCIN0) were investigated. Subjective benefit in daily life was assessed by means of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). At 36 months, a significant binaural summation effect was observed for the study cohort (2.00, SD 3.82 dB; p binaural effect was not significant 12 months after CI surgery. A binaural squelch effect was significant for the AHL subgroup at 12 months (2.00, SD 4.38 dB; p < 0.05). A significant combined head shadow and squelch effect was also noted in the spatial configuration SCIN0 for the study cohort (4.00, SD 5.89 dB; p < 0.01) and for the AHL subgroup (5.67, SD 6.66 dB; p < 0.05). The SSQ data show that the perceived benefit in daily life after CI surgery remains stable up to 36 months at CIon. CI can significantly improve speech perception in noise in patients with UHL. The positive effects of CIon speech perception in noise increase over time up to 36 months after CI surgery. Improved subjective benefit in daily life was also shown to be sustained in these patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Efektivita binaurálních rytmů pro navození relaxačních stavů

    OpenAIRE

    VEJBOR, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with studies of binaural beats, specially their effect on the signal, measured by EEG. The aim of this study was to investigate if binaural beats are an effective tool to induce relaxation states, namely increased brain actvity in the alfa and theta frequencies. The theoretical part describes electrical activity of the brain, the issue of binaural beats and researches related to this issue. Following several chapters are about neuroplasticity as a possible aspect of...

  18. Spotting expertise in the eyes: billiards knowledge as revealed by gaze shifts in a dynamic visual prediction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Sofia; Robino, Carlo; Silva, Ottavia; de'Sperati, Claudio

    2012-10-31

    In sports, as in other activities and knowledge domains, expertise is a highly valuable asset. We assessed whether expertise in billiards is associated with specific patterns of eye movements in a visual prediction task. Professional players and novices were presented a number of simplified billiard shots on a computer screen, previously filmed in a real set, with the last part of the ball trajectory occluded. They had to predict whether or not the ball would have hit the central skittle. Experts performed better than novices, in terms of both accuracy and response time. By analyzing eye movements, we found that during occlusion, experts rarely extrapolated with the gaze the occluded part of the ball trajectory-a behavior that was widely diffused in novices-even when the unseen path was long and with two bounces interposed. Rather, they looked selectively at specific diagnostic points on the cushions along the ball's visible trajectory, in accordance with a formal metrical system used by professional players to calculate the shot coordinates. Thus, the eye movements of expert observers contained a clear signature of billiard expertise and documented empirically a strategy upgrade in visual problem solving from dynamic, analog simulation in imagery to more efficient rule-based, conceptual knowledge.

  19. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  20. Diversity of bilateral synaptic assemblies for binaural computation in midbrain single neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Na; Kong, Lingzhi; Lin, Tao; Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Xiuping; Qi, Jiyao; Yan, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Binaural hearing confers many beneficial functions but our understanding of its underlying neural substrates is limited. This study examines the bilateral synaptic assemblies and binaural computation (or integration) in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of the auditory midbrain, a key convergent center. Using in-vivo whole-cell patch-clamp, the excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs/IPSPs) of single ICc neurons to contralateral, ipsilateral and bilateral stimulation were recorded. According to the contralateral and ipsilateral EPSP/IPSP, 7 types of bilateral synaptic assemblies were identified. These include EPSP-EPSP (EE), E-IPSP (EI), E-no response (EO), II, IE, IO and complex-mode (CM) neurons. The CM neurons showed frequency- and/or amplitude-dependent EPSPs/IPSPs to contralateral or ipsilateral stimulation. Bilateral stimulation induced EPSPs/IPSPs that could be larger than (facilitation), similar to (ineffectiveness) or smaller than (suppression) those induced by contralateral stimulation. Our findings have allowed our group to characterize novel neural circuitry for binaural computation in the midbrain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of simultaneous exposure to occupational noise and cigarette smoke on binaural hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been postulated that cigarette smoking can aggravate noise-induced hearing loss. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of concurrent exposure to cigarette smoke and occupational noise on binaural hearing impairment (BHI. In an analytic study on the workers of a large wagon manufacturing company in 2007, 622 male workers (252 smokers and 370 non-smokers, matched for other variables participated and their BHI was compared. BHI was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers (odds ratio= 5.6, P < 0.001, 95% CI =3.4-9.4. Logistic regression confirmed this significant difference as well, and showed a direct relationship between the amount of BHI and pack/years of smoking. Cigarette smoking accompanied by exposure to workplace noise may play a role in causing binaural hearing impairment, so giving up or decreasing the amount of smoking may prevent or at least delay binaural hearing impairment, and eventually reduce its compensation costs.

  2. Listening to Sentences in Noise: Revealing Binaural Hearing Challenges in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, Noor Alaudin; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi; Wahab, Suzaily

    2017-11-01

    The present, case-control, study investigates binaural hearing performance in schizophrenia patients towards sentences presented in quiet and noise. Participants were twenty-one healthy controls and sixteen schizophrenia patients with normal peripheral auditory functions. The binaural hearing was examined in four listening conditions by using the Malay version of hearing in noise test. The syntactically and semantically correct sentences were presented via headphones to the randomly selected subjects. In each condition, the adaptively obtained reception thresholds for speech (RTS) were used to determine RTS noise composite and spatial release from masking. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated significantly higher mean RTS value relative to healthy controls (p=0.018). The large effect size found in three listening conditions, i.e., in quiet (d=1.07), noise right (d=0.88) and noise composite (d=0.90) indicates statistically significant difference between the groups. However, noise front and noise left conditions show medium (d=0.61) and small (d=0.50) effect size respectively. No statistical difference between groups was noted in regards to spatial release from masking on right (p=0.305) and left (p=0.970) ear. The present findings suggest an abnormal unilateral auditory processing in central auditory pathway in schizophrenia patients. Future studies to explore the role of binaural and spatial auditory processing were recommended.

  3. Development and evaluation of the LiSN & learn auditory training software for deficit-specific remediation of binaural processing deficits in children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Dillon, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    The LiSN & Learn auditory training software was developed specifically to improve binaural processing skills in children with suspected central auditory processing disorder who were diagnosed as having a spatial processing disorder (SPD). SPD is defined here as a condition whereby individuals are deficient in their ability to use binaural cues to selectively attend to sounds arriving from one direction while simultaneously suppressing sounds arriving from another. As a result, children with SPD have difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments, such as in the classroom. To develop and evaluate the LiSN & Learn auditory training software for children diagnosed with the Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences Test (LiSN-S) as having an SPD. The LiSN-S is an adaptive speech-in-noise test designed to differentially diagnose spatial and pitch-processing deficits in children with suspected central auditory processing disorder. Participants were nine children (aged between 6 yr, 9 mo, and 11 yr, 4 mo) who performed outside normal limits on the LiSN-S. In a pre-post study of treatment outcomes, participants trained on the LiSN & Learn for 15 min per day for 12 weeks. Participants acted as their own control. Participants were assessed on the LiSN-S, as well as tests of attention and memory and a self-report questionnaire of listening ability. Performance on all tasks was reassessed after 3 mo where no further training occurred. The LiSN & Learn produces a three-dimensional auditory environment under headphones on the user's home computer. The child's task was to identify a word from a target sentence presented in background noise. A weighted up-down adaptive procedure was used to adjust the signal level of the target based on the participant's response. On average, speech reception thresholds on the LiSN & Learn improved by 10 dB over the course of training. As hypothesized, there were significant improvements in posttraining performance on the LiSN-S conditions

  4. The Relationship between Binaural Benefit and Difference in Unilateral Speech Recognition Performance for Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yang-soo; Li, Yongxin; Kang, Hou-Yong; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Objective The full benefit of bilateral cochlear implants may depend on the unilateral performance with each device, the speech materials, processing ability of the user, and/or the listening environment. In this study, bilateral and unilateral speech performances were evaluated in terms of recognition of phonemes and sentences presented in quiet or in noise. Design Speech recognition was measured for unilateral left, unilateral right, and bilateral listening conditions; speech and noise were presented at 0° azimuth. The “binaural benefit” was defined as the difference between bilateral performance and unilateral performance with the better ear. Study Sample 9 adults with bilateral cochlear implants participated. Results On average, results showed a greater binaural benefit in noise than in quiet for all speech tests. More importantly, the binaural benefit was greater when unilateral performance was similar across ears. As the difference in unilateral performance between ears increased, the binaural advantage decreased; this functional relationship was observed across the different speech materials and noise levels even though there was substantial intra- and inter-subject variability. Conclusions The results indicate that subjects who show symmetry in speech recognition performance between implanted ears in general show a large binaural benefit. PMID:21696329

  5. Brain Responses to a 6-Hz Binaural Beat: Effects on General Theta Rhythm and Frontal Midline Theta Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-01-01

    A binaural beat is a beat phenomenon that is generated by the dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies. The brain responses to binaural beats remain controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate theta activity responses to a binaural beat by controlling factors affecting localization, including beat frequency, carrier tone frequency, exposure duration, and recording procedure. Exposure to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone for 30 min was utilized in this study. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) was utilized as the recording modality. Twenty-eight participants were divided into experimental and control groups. Emotional states were evaluated by Brunel Mood Scale (BRMUS) before and after exposing to the stimulus. The results showed that theta activity was induced in the entire cortex within 10 min of exposure to the stimulus in the experimental group. Compared to the control group, theta activity was also induced at the frontal and parietal-central regions, which included the Fz position, and left hemisphere dominance was presented for other exposure durations. The pattern recorded for 10 min of exposure appeared to be brain functions of a meditative state. Moreover, tension factor of BRUMS was decreased in experimental group compared to control group which resembled the meditation effect. Thus, a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone was suggested as a stimulus for inducing a meditative state.

  6. Brain Responses to a 6-Hz Binaural Beat: Effects on General Theta Rhythm and Frontal Midline Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantawachara Jirakittayakorn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A binaural beat is a beat phenomenon that is generated by the dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies. The brain responses to binaural beats remain controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate theta activity responses to a binaural beat by controlling factors affecting localization, including beat frequency, carrier tone frequency, exposure duration, and recording procedure. Exposure to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone for 30 min was utilized in this study. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG was utilized as the recording modality. Twenty-eight participants were divided into experimental and control groups. Emotional states were evaluated by Brunel Mood Scale (BRMUS before and after exposing to the stimulus. The results showed that theta activity was induced in the entire cortex within 10 min of exposure to the stimulus in the experimental group. Compared to the control group, theta activity was also induced at the frontal and parietal-central regions, which included the Fz position, and left hemisphere dominance was presented for other exposure durations. The pattern recorded for 10 min of exposure appeared to be brain functions of a meditative state. Moreover, tension factor of BRUMS was decreased in experimental group compared to control group which resembled the meditation effect. Thus, a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone was suggested as a stimulus for inducing a meditative state.

  7. Workflow Dynamics and the Imaging Value Chain: Quantifying the Effect of Designating a Nonimage-Interpretive Task Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew H; Schemmel, Andrew J; Pooler, B Dustin; Hanley, Taylor; Kennedy, Tabassum A; Field, Aaron S; Wiegmann, Douglas; Yu, John-Paul J

    To assess the impact of separate non-image interpretive task and image-interpretive task workflows in an academic neuroradiology practice. A prospective, randomized, observational investigation of a centralized academic neuroradiology reading room was performed. The primary reading room fellow was observed over a one-month period using a time-and-motion methodology, recording frequency and duration of tasks performed. Tasks were categorized into separate image interpretive and non-image interpretive workflows. Post-intervention observation of the primary fellow was repeated following the implementation of a consult assistant responsible for non-image interpretive tasks. Pre- and post-intervention data were compared. Following separation of image-interpretive and non-image interpretive workflows, time spent on image-interpretive tasks by the primary fellow increased from 53.8% to 73.2% while non-image interpretive tasks decreased from 20.4% to 4.4%. Mean time duration of image interpretation nearly doubled, from 05:44 to 11:01 (p = 0.002). Decreases in specific non-image interpretive tasks, including phone calls/paging (2.86/hr versus 0.80/hr), in-room consultations (1.36/hr versus 0.80/hr), and protocoling (0.99/hr versus 0.10/hr), were observed. The consult assistant experienced 29.4 task switching events per hour. Rates of specific non-image interpretive tasks for the CA were 6.41/hr for phone calls/paging, 3.60/hr for in-room consultations, and 3.83/hr for protocoling. Separating responsibilities into NIT and IIT workflows substantially increased image interpretation time and decreased TSEs for the primary fellow. Consolidation of NITs into a separate workflow may allow for more efficient task completion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic Allocation of a Domestic Heating Task to Gas-Based and Heatpump-Based Heating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a multi-agent model for a domestic heating task is introduced and analysed. The model includes two alternative heating agents (for gas-based heating and for heatpump-based heating), and a third allocation agent which determines the most economic allocation of the heating task to these

  9. Application of computational fluid dynamics and pedestrian-behavior simulations to the design of task-ambient air-conditioning systems of a subway station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyo, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Innovation and Technology Management, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    The effects of task-ambient (TA) air-conditioning systems on the air-conditioning loads in a subway station and the thermal comfort of passengers were studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and pedestrian-behavior simulations. The pedestrian-behavior model was applied to a standard subway station. Task areas were set up to match with crowdedness as predicted by the pedestrian-behavior simulations. Subsequently, a variety of TA air-conditioning systems were designed to selectively control the microclimate of the task areas. Their effects on the thermal environment in the station in winter were predicted by CFD. The results were compared with those of a conventional air-conditioning system and evaluated in relation to the thermal comfort of subway users and the air-conditioning loads. The comparison showed that TA air-conditioning systems improved thermal comfort and decreased air-conditioning loads. (author)

  10. The effect of audiovisual and binaural listening on the acceptable noise level (ANL): establishing an ANL conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Stangl, Elizabeth; Pang, Carol; Zhang, Xuyang

    2014-02-01

    Little is known regarding the acoustic features of a stimulus used by listeners to determine the acceptable noise level (ANL). Features suggested by previous research include speech intelligibility (noise is unacceptable when it degrades speech intelligibility to a certain degree; the intelligibility hypothesis) and loudness (noise is unacceptable when the speech-to-noise loudness ratio is poorer than a certain level; the loudness hypothesis). The purpose of the study was to investigate if speech intelligibility or loudness is the criterion feature that determines ANL. To achieve this, test conditions were chosen so that the intelligibility and loudness hypotheses would predict different results. In Experiment 1, the effect of audiovisual (AV) and binaural listening on ANL was investigated; in Experiment 2, the effect of interaural correlation (ρ) on ANL was examined. A single-blinded, repeated-measures design was used. Thirty-two and twenty-five younger adults with normal hearing participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 1, both ANL and speech recognition performance were measured using the AV version of the Connected Speech Test (CST) in three conditions: AV-binaural, auditory only (AO)-binaural, and AO-monaural. Lipreading skill was assessed using the Utley lipreading test. In Experiment 2, ANL and speech recognition performance were measured using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) in three binaural conditions, wherein the interaural correlation of noise was varied: ρ = 1 (N(o)S(o) [a listening condition wherein both speech and noise signals are identical across two ears]), -1 (NπS(o) [a listening condition wherein speech signals are identical across two ears whereas the noise signals of two ears are 180 degrees out of phase]), and 0 (N(u)S(o) [a listening condition wherein speech signals are identical across two ears whereas noise signals are uncorrelated across ears]). The results were compared to the predictions made based on the

  11. Distinction between perceptual and attentional processing in working memory tasks: a study of phase-locked and induced oscillatory brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Missonnier, Pascal; Bertrand, Olivier; Gold, Gabriel; Fazio-Costa, Lara; Ibañez, Vicente; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2007-01-01

    Working memory involves the short-term storage and manipulation of information necessary for cognitive performance, including comprehension, learning, reasoning and planning. Although electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms are modulated during working memory, the temporal relationship of EEG oscillations with the eliciting event has not been well studied. In particular, the dynamics of the neural network supporting memory processes may be best captured in induced oscillations, characterized by a loose temporal link with the stimulus. In order to differentiate induced from evoked functional processes, the present study proposes a time-frequency analysis of the 3 to 30 Hz EEG oscillatory activity in a verbal n-back working memory paradigm. Control tasks were designed to identify oscillatory activity related to stimulus presentation (passive task) and focused attention to the stimulus (detection task). Evoked theta activity (4-8 Hz) phase-locked to the visual stimulus was evidenced in the parieto-occipital region for all tasks. In parallel, induced theta activity was recorded in the frontal region for detection and n-back memory tasks, but not for the passive task, suggesting its dependency on focused attention to the stimulus. Sustained induced oscillatory activity was identified in relation to working memory in the theta and beta (15-25 Hz) frequency bands, larger for the highest memory load. Its late occurrence limited to nonmatched items suggests that it could be related to item retention and active maintenance for further task requirements. Induced theta and beta activities displayed respectively a frontal and parietal topographical distribution, providing further functional information on the fronto-posterior network supporting working memory.

  12. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnath, Abhilash; Farris, Hamilton E

    2014-01-01

    Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds) or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms), experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3-10 s of 20 Hz square pulses), excitability (spikes/acoustic stimulus) to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized) auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene.

  13. Intracranial electroencephalography power and phase synchronization changes during monaural and binaural beat stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Ann-Katrin; Höhne, Marlene; Axmacher, Nikolai; Chaieb, Leila; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory stimulation with monaural or binaural auditory beats (i.e. sine waves with nearby frequencies presented either to both ears or to each ear separately) represents a non-invasive approach to influence electrical brain activity. It is still unclear exactly which brain sites are affected by beat stimulation. In particular, an impact of beat stimulation on mediotemporal brain areas could possibly provide new options for memory enhancement or seizure control. Therefore, we examined how electroencephalography (EEG) power and phase synchronization are modulated by auditory stimulation with beat frequencies corresponding to dominant EEG rhythms based on intracranial recordings in presurgical epilepsy patients. Monaural and binaural beat stimuli with beat frequencies of 5, 10, 40 and 80 Hz and non-superposed control signals were administered with low amplitudes (60 dB SPL) and for short durations (5 s). EEG power was intracranially recorded from mediotemporal, temporo-basal and temporo-lateral and surface sites. Evoked and total EEG power and phase synchronization during beat vs. control stimulation were compared by the use of Bonferroni-corrected non-parametric label-permutation tests. We found that power and phase synchronization were significantly modulated by beat stimulation not only at temporo-basal, temporo-lateral and surface sites, but also at mediotemporal sites. Generally, more significant decreases than increases were observed. The most prominent power increases were seen after stimulation with monaural 40-Hz beats. The most pronounced power and synchronization decreases resulted from stimulation with monaural 5-Hz and binaural 80-Hz beats. Our results suggest that beat stimulation offers a non-invasive approach for the modulation of intracranial EEG characteristics. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Quantifying Human Performance of a Dynamic Military Target Detection Task: An Application of the Theory of Signal Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    applied to analyze numerous experimental tasks (Macmillan and Creelman , 1991). One of these tasks, target detection, is the subject research. In...between each associated pair of false alarm rate and hit rate z-scores is d’ for the bias level associated with the pairing (Macmillan and Creelman , 1991...unequal variance in normal distributions (Macmillan and Creelman , 1991). 61 1966). It is described in detail for the interested reader by Green and

  15. The Effects of Task Structures, Dynamics of Difficulty Changes, and Strategic Resource Allocation Training on Time-Sharing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    intergrated RMSE (averaged over a sliding 5-sec window) was higher than the standard. For the memory-traoking oonditions, a combined speed-accuracy score...group and .23 for the SF group as indicated by the horizontal line on the figures). In fact, the SF group actually reached the desired primary task...23 for the SF group (indicated by the horizontal line on Figure 4). The primary task of all four 5TH-Tl pairs responded to the priority instructions

  16. Blind estimation of the number of speech source in reverberant multisource scenarios based on binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; van de Par, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for estimating the number of active speech sources in the presence of interfering noise sources and reverberation. First, a binaural front-end is used to detect the spatial positions of all active sound sources, resulting in a binary mask for each candidate...... on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. A systematic analysis shows that the proposed algorithm is able to blindly determine the number and the corresponding spatial positions of speech sources in multisource scenarios and generalizes well to unknown acoustic conditions...

  17. Assessing the contribution of binaural cues for apparent source width perception via a functional model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käsbach, Johannes; Hahmann, Manuel; May, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In echoic conditions, sound sources are not perceived as point sources but appear to be expanded. The expansion in the horizontal dimension is referred to as apparent source width (ASW). To elicit this perception, the auditory system has access to fluctuations of binaural cues, the interaural time...... a statistical representation of ITDs and ILDs based on percentiles integrated over time and frequency. The model’s performance was evaluated against psychoacoustic data obtained with noise, speech and music signals in loudspeakerbased experiments. A robust model prediction of ASW was achieved using a cross...

  18. Technical and perceptual issues on head-related transfer functions sets for use in binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Daniela

    of binaural synthesis in providing a realistic and/or convincing virtual sonic experience relies largely on technical and perceptual issues inherent to the HRTFs and their use, particularly on how well the spectral features of the HRTFs used match those of the listener. This PhD thesis focused on identifying...... the spectral features that cue sound localization in the mid-sagittal plane. Listening tests were conducted from which groups of individual and non-individual HRTFs that evoked the same direction were obtained. Analysis of these HRTFs suggested that the relevant spectral cues covered a broad range...

  19. Task-Related Edge Density (TED)-A New Method for Revealing Dynamic Network Formation in fMRI Data of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gabriele; Stelzer, Johannes; Zuber, Verena; Buschmann, Tilo; Margulies, Daniel; Bartels, Andreas; Scheffler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The formation of transient networks in response to external stimuli or as a reflection of internal cognitive processes is a hallmark of human brain function. However, its identification in fMRI data of the human brain is notoriously difficult. Here we propose a new method of fMRI data analysis that tackles this problem by considering large-scale, task-related synchronisation networks. Networks consist of nodes and edges connecting them, where nodes correspond to voxels in fMRI data, and the weight of an edge is determined via task-related changes in dynamic synchronisation between their respective times series. Based on these definitions, we developed a new data analysis algorithm that identifies edges that show differing levels of synchrony between two distinct task conditions and that occur in dense packs with similar characteristics. Hence, we call this approach "Task-related Edge Density" (TED). TED proved to be a very strong marker for dynamic network formation that easily lends itself to statistical analysis using large scale statistical inference. A major advantage of TED compared to other methods is that it does not depend on any specific hemodynamic response model, and it also does not require a presegmentation of the data for dimensionality reduction as it can handle large networks consisting of tens of thousands of voxels. We applied TED to fMRI data of a fingertapping and an emotion processing task provided by the Human Connectome Project. TED revealed network-based involvement of a large number of brain areas that evaded detection using traditional GLM-based analysis. We show that our proposed method provides an entirely new window into the immense complexity of human brain function.

  20. Task-Related Edge Density (TED-A New Method for Revealing Dynamic Network Formation in fMRI Data of the Human Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Lohmann

    Full Text Available The formation of transient networks in response to external stimuli or as a reflection of internal cognitive processes is a hallmark of human brain function. However, its identification in fMRI data of the human brain is notoriously difficult. Here we propose a new method of fMRI data analysis that tackles this problem by considering large-scale, task-related synchronisation networks. Networks consist of nodes and edges connecting them, where nodes correspond to voxels in fMRI data, and the weight of an edge is determined via task-related changes in dynamic synchronisation between their respective times series. Based on these definitions, we developed a new data analysis algorithm that identifies edges that show differing levels of synchrony between two distinct task conditions and that occur in dense packs with similar characteristics. Hence, we call this approach "Task-related Edge Density" (TED. TED proved to be a very strong marker for dynamic network formation that easily lends itself to statistical analysis using large scale statistical inference. A major advantage of TED compared to other methods is that it does not depend on any specific hemodynamic response model, and it also does not require a presegmentation of the data for dimensionality reduction as it can handle large networks consisting of tens of thousands of voxels. We applied TED to fMRI data of a fingertapping and an emotion processing task provided by the Human Connectome Project. TED revealed network-based involvement of a large number of brain areas that evaded detection using traditional GLM-based analysis. We show that our proposed method provides an entirely new window into the immense complexity of human brain function.

  1. Task-Related Edge Density (TED)—A New Method for Revealing Dynamic Network Formation in fMRI Data of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gabriele; Stelzer, Johannes; Zuber, Verena; Buschmann, Tilo; Margulies, Daniel; Bartels, Andreas; Scheffler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The formation of transient networks in response to external stimuli or as a reflection of internal cognitive processes is a hallmark of human brain function. However, its identification in fMRI data of the human brain is notoriously difficult. Here we propose a new method of fMRI data analysis that tackles this problem by considering large-scale, task-related synchronisation networks. Networks consist of nodes and edges connecting them, where nodes correspond to voxels in fMRI data, and the weight of an edge is determined via task-related changes in dynamic synchronisation between their respective times series. Based on these definitions, we developed a new data analysis algorithm that identifies edges that show differing levels of synchrony between two distinct task conditions and that occur in dense packs with similar characteristics. Hence, we call this approach “Task-related Edge Density” (TED). TED proved to be a very strong marker for dynamic network formation that easily lends itself to statistical analysis using large scale statistical inference. A major advantage of TED compared to other methods is that it does not depend on any specific hemodynamic response model, and it also does not require a presegmentation of the data for dimensionality reduction as it can handle large networks consisting of tens of thousands of voxels. We applied TED to fMRI data of a fingertapping and an emotion processing task provided by the Human Connectome Project. TED revealed network-based involvement of a large number of brain areas that evaded detection using traditional GLM-based analysis. We show that our proposed method provides an entirely new window into the immense complexity of human brain function. PMID:27341204

  2. The neural dynamics of stimulus and response conflict processing as a function of response complexity and task demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; McKay, Cameron C.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2016-01-01

    Both stimulus and response conflict can disrupt behavior by slowing response times and decreasing accuracy. Although several neural activations have been associated with conflict processing, it is unclear how specific any of these are to the type of stimulus conflict or the amount of response conflict. Here, we recorded electrical brain activity, while manipulating the type of stimulus conflict in the task (spatial [Flanker] versus semantic [Stroop]) and the amount of response conflict (two versus four response choices). Behaviorally, responses were slower to incongruent versus congruent stimuli across all task and response types, along with overall slowing for higher response-mapping complexity. The earliest incongruency-related neural effect was a short-duration frontally-distributed negativity at ~200 ms that was only present in the Flanker spatial-conflict task. At longer latencies, the classic fronto-central incongruency-related negativity ‘Ninc’ was observed for all conditions, which was larger and ~100 ms longer in duration with more response options. Further, the onset of the motor-related lateralized readiness potential (LRP) was earlier for the two vs. four response sets, indicating that smaller response sets enabled faster motor-response preparation. The late positive complex (LPC) was present in all conditions except the two-response Stroop task, suggesting this late conflict-related activity is not specifically related to task type or response-mapping complexity. Importantly, across tasks and conditions, the LRP onset at or before the conflict-related Ninc, indicating that motor preparation is a rapid, automatic process that interacts with the conflict-detection processes after it has begun. Together, these data highlight how different conflict-related processes operate in parallel and depend on both the cognitive demands of the task and the number of response options. PMID:26827917

  3. Windowed correlation: a suitable tool for providing dynamic fMRI-based functional connectivity neurofeedback on task difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zilverstand

    Full Text Available The goal of neurofeedback training is to provide participants with relevant information on their ongoing brain processes in order to enable them to change these processes in a meaningful way. Under the assumption of an intrinsic brain-behavior link, neurofeedback can be a tool to guide a participant towards a desired behavioral state, such as a healthier state in the case of patients. Current research in clinical neuroscience regarding the most robust indicators of pathological brain processes in psychiatric and neurological disorders indicates that fMRI-based functional connectivity measures may be among the most important biomarkers of disease. The present study therefore investigated the general potential of providing fMRI neurofeedback based on functional correlations, computed from short-window time course data at the level of single task periods. The ability to detect subtle changes in task performance with block-wise functional connectivity measures was evaluated based on imaging data from healthy participants performing a simple motor task, which was systematically varied along two task dimensions representing two different aspects of task difficulty. The results demonstrate that fMRI-based functional connectivity measures may provide a better indicator for an increase in overall (motor task difficulty than activation level-based measures. Windowed functional correlations thus seem to provide relevant and unique information regarding ongoing brain processes, which is not captured equally well by standard activation level-based neurofeedback measures. Functional connectivity markers, therefore, may indeed provide a valuable tool to enhance and monitor learning within an fMRI neurofeedback setup.

  4. A neural mechanism of dynamic gating of task-relevant information by top-down influence in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Akikazu; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kashimori, Yoshiki

    2016-12-01

    Visual recognition involves bidirectional information flow, which consists of bottom-up information coding from retina and top-down information coding from higher visual areas. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of early visual areas such as primary visual area (V1) in recognition and memory formation. V1 neurons are not passive transformers of sensory inputs but work as adaptive processor, changing their function according to behavioral context. Top-down signals affect tuning property of V1 neurons and contribute to the gating of sensory information relevant to behavior. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanism underlying the gating of task-relevant information in V1. To address this issue, we focus on task-dependent tuning modulations of V1 neurons in two tasks of perceptual learning. We develop a model of the V1, which receives feedforward input from lateral geniculate nucleus and top-down input from a higher visual area. We show here that the change in a balance between excitation and inhibition in V1 connectivity is necessary for gating task-relevant information in V1. The balance change well accounts for the modulations of tuning characteristic and temporal properties of V1 neuronal responses. We also show that the balance change of V1 connectivity is shaped by top-down signals with temporal correlations reflecting the perceptual strategies of the two tasks. We propose a learning mechanism by which synaptic balance is modulated. To conclude, top-down signal changes the synaptic balance between excitation and inhibition in V1 connectivity, enabling early visual area such as V1 to gate context-dependent information under multiple task performances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Speech Perception in Noise in Normally Hearing Children: Does Binaural Frequency Modulated Fitting Provide More Benefit than Monaural Frequency Modulated Fitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah; Umat, Cila; Razak, Ummu Athiyah Abdul

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the benefit of monaural versus binaural ear-level frequency modulated (FM) fitting on speech perception in noise in children with normal hearing. Reception threshold for sentences (RTS) was measured in no-FM, monaural FM, and binaural FM conditions in 22 normally developing children with bilateral normal hearing, aged 8 to 9 years old. Data were gathered using the Pediatric Malay Hearing in Noise Test (P-MyHINT) with speech presented from front and multi-talker babble presented from 90°, 180°, 270° azimuths in a sound treated booth. The results revealed that the use of either monaural or binaural ear level FM receivers provided significantly better mean RTSs than the no-FM condition (Pbinaural FM did not produce a significantly greater benefit in mean RTS than monaural fitting. The benefit of binaural over monaural FM varies across individuals; while binaural fitting provided better RTSs in about 50% of study subjects, there were those in whom binaural fitting resulted in either deterioration or no additional improvement compared to monaural FM fitting. The present study suggests that the use of monaural ear-level FM receivers in children with normal hearing might provide similar benefit as binaural use. Individual subjects' variations of binaural FM benefit over monaural FM suggests that the decision to employ monaural or binaural fitting should be individualized. It should be noted however, that the current study recruits typically developing normal hearing children. Future studies involving normal hearing children with high risk of having difficulty listening in noise is indicated to see if similar findings are obtained.

  6. Interaural delay sensitivity and the classification of low best-frequency binaural responses in the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, D; Jiang, D; Palmer, A R

    1996-08-01

    Monaural and binaural response properties of single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the guinea pig were investigated. Neurones were classified according to the effect of monaural stimulation of either ear alone and the effect of binaural stimulation. The majority (309/334) of IC units were excited (E) by stimulation of the contralateral ear, of which 41% (127/309) were also excited by monaural ipsilateral stimulation (EE), and the remainder (182/309) were unresponsive to monaural ipsilateral stimulation (EO). For units with best frequencies (BF) up to 3 kHz, similar proportions of EE and EO units were observed. Above 3 kHz, however, significantly more EO than EE units were observed. Units were also classified as either facilitated (F), suppressed (S), or unaffected (O) by binaural stimulation. More EO than EE units were suppressed or unaffected by binaural stimulation, and more EE than EO units were facilitated. There were more EO/S units above 1.5 kHz than below. Binaural beats were used to examine the interaural delay sensitivity of low-BF (BF binaural facilitation, whilst those with larger BPs generally showed binaural suppression. The classification of units based upon binaural stimulation with BF tones was consistent with their interaural-delay sensitivity. Characteristic delays (CD) were examined for 96 low-BF units. A clear relationship between BF and CD was observed. CDs of units with very low BFs (binaural processing in the guinea pig at low frequencies is similar to that reported in all other species studied. However, the dependence of CD on BF would suggest that the delay line system that sets up the interaural-delay sensitivity in the lower brainstem varies across frequency as well as within each frequency band.

  7. Hearing in alpacas (Vicugna pacos): audiogram, localization acuity, and use of binaural locus cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral audiograms and sound localization abilities were determined for three alpacas (Vicugna pacos). Their hearing at a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL) (re 20 μPa) extended from 40 Hz to 32.8 kHz, a range of 9.7 octaves. They were most sensitive at 8 kHz, with an average threshold of -0.5 dB SPL. The minimum audible angle around the midline for 100-ms broadband noise was 23°, indicating relatively poor localization acuity and potentially supporting the finding that animals with broad areas of best vision have poorer sound localization acuity. The alpacas were able to localize low-frequency pure tones, indicating that they can use the binaural phase cue, but they were unable to localize pure tones above the frequency of phase ambiguity, thus indicating complete inability to use the binaural intensity-difference cue. In contrast, the alpacas relied on their high-frequency hearing for pinna cues; they could discriminate front-back sound sources using 3-kHz high-pass noise, but not 3-kHz low-pass noise. These results are compared to those of other hoofed mammals and to mammals more generally.

  8. A Binaural CI Research Platform for Oticon Medical SP/XP Implants Enabling ITD/ILD and Variable Rate Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiloğlu, K.; Herzke, T.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first portable, binaural, real-time research platform compatible with Oticon Medical SP and XP generation cochlear implants. The platform consists of (a) a pair of behind-the-ear devices, each containing front and rear calibrated microphones, (b) a four-channel USB analog-to-digital converter, (c) real-time PC-based sound processing software called the Master Hearing Aid, and (d) USB-connected hardware and output coils capable of driving two implants simultaneously. The platform is capable of processing signals from the four microphones simultaneously and producing synchronized binaural cochlear implant outputs that drive two (bilaterally implanted) SP or XP implants. Both audio signal preprocessing algorithms (such as binaural beamforming) and novel binaural stimulation strategies (within the implant limitations) can be programmed by researchers. When the whole research platform is combined with Oticon Medical SP implants, interaural electrode timing can be controlled on individual electrodes to within ±1 µs and interaural electrode energy differences can be controlled to within ±2%. Hence, this new platform is particularly well suited to performing experiments related to interaural time differences in combination with interaural level differences in real-time. The platform also supports instantaneously variable stimulation rates and thereby enables investigations such as the effect of changing the stimulation rate on pitch perception. Because the processing can be changed on the fly, researchers can use this platform to study perceptual changes resulting from different processing strategies acutely. PMID:26721923

  9. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Acoustic Environments with Binaural Psycho-Acoustical Considerations for IoT-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Segura-Garcia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sound pleasantness or annoyance perceived in urban soundscapes is a major concern in environmental acoustics. Binaural psychoacoustic parameters are helpful to describe generic acoustic environments, as it is stated within the ISO 12913 framework. In this paper, the application of a Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network (WASN to evaluate the spatial distribution and the evolution of urban acoustic environments is described. Two experiments are presented using an indoor and an outdoor deployment of a WASN with several nodes using an Internet of Things (IoT environment to collect audio data and calculate meaningful parameters such as the sound pressure level, binaural loudness and binaural sharpness. A chunk of audio is recorded in each node periodically with a microphone array and the binaural rendering is conducted by exploiting the estimated directional characteristics of the incoming sound by means of DOA estimation. Each node computes the parameters in a different location and sends the values to a cloud-based broker structure that allows spatial statistical analysis through Kriging techniques. A cross-validation analysis is also performed to confirm the usefulness of the proposed system.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Acoustic Environments with Binaural Psycho-Acoustical Considerations for IoT-Based Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Garcia, Jaume; Navarro-Ruiz, Juan Miguel; Perez-Solano, Juan J; Montoya-Belmonte, Jose; Felici-Castell, Santiago; Cobos, Maximo; Torres-Aranda, Ana M

    2018-02-26

    Sound pleasantness or annoyance perceived in urban soundscapes is a major concern in environmental acoustics. Binaural psychoacoustic parameters are helpful to describe generic acoustic environments, as it is stated within the ISO 12913 framework. In this paper, the application of a Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network (WASN) to evaluate the spatial distribution and the evolution of urban acoustic environments is described. Two experiments are presented using an indoor and an outdoor deployment of a WASN with several nodes using an Internet of Things (IoT) environment to collect audio data and calculate meaningful parameters such as the sound pressure level, binaural loudness and binaural sharpness. A chunk of audio is recorded in each node periodically with a microphone array and the binaural rendering is conducted by exploiting the estimated directional characteristics of the incoming sound by means of DOA estimation. Each node computes the parameters in a different location and sends the values to a cloud-based broker structure that allows spatial statistical analysis through Kriging techniques. A cross-validation analysis is also performed to confirm the usefulness of the proposed system.

  11. A Binaural CI Research Platform for Oticon Medical SP/XP Implants Enabling ITD/ILD and Variable Rate Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, B; Adiloğlu, K; Herzke, T

    2015-12-30

    We present the first portable, binaural, real-time research platform compatible with Oticon Medical SP and XP generation cochlear implants. The platform consists of (a) a pair of behind-the-ear devices, each containing front and rear calibrated microphones, (b) a four-channel USB analog-to-digital converter, (c) real-time PC-based sound processing software called the Master Hearing Aid, and (d) USB-connected hardware and output coils capable of driving two implants simultaneously. The platform is capable of processing signals from the four microphones simultaneously and producing synchronized binaural cochlear implant outputs that drive two (bilaterally implanted) SP or XP implants. Both audio signal preprocessing algorithms (such as binaural beamforming) and novel binaural stimulation strategies (within the implant limitations) can be programmed by researchers. When the whole research platform is combined with Oticon Medical SP implants, interaural electrode timing can be controlled on individual electrodes to within ±1 µs and interaural electrode energy differences can be controlled to within ±2%. Hence, this new platform is particularly well suited to performing experiments related to interaural time differences in combination with interaural level differences in real-time. The platform also supports instantaneously variable stimulation rates and thereby enables investigations such as the effect of changing the stimulation rate on pitch perception. Because the processing can be changed on the fly, researchers can use this platform to study perceptual changes resulting from different processing strategies acutely. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Dynamic navigation simulation of an articulated multi-link arm for in-vessel inspection tasks in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Naveen; Prakash, Ravi; Dutta, Pramit; Virpara, Nirav

    2013-01-01

    This paper is part of the remote handling (RH) activities towards preparedness for the future fusion machines. The aim of the R and D program performed is to demonstrate the feasibility of the inspection tasks inside the Vacuum Vessel. Due to the toroidal geometry and huge dimensions of the Vacuum Vessel, there is an inevitable need of a precise and fast automated articulated inspection system that can perform the required inspection tasks without damaging the surface and to maintain the machine availability for the maximum time. When considering generic Tokamak relevant conditions, the set of major challenges for the Remote Equipment is to sustain the severe operating conditions: ultra high vacuum, temperature and tritium level. The limited number of machine access ports and the very constrained environment complicate the introduction of a robot into the machine. The Multi Link inspection arm is required to be deployed in the bounded environment inside the Tokamak Vessel. This paper presents the development of software for implementation of autonomous navigation motion control algorithms based design simulations for the inspection Arm for routine inspection tasks, navigation to the targeted coordinates inside the Vessel, clash avoidance and to perform other auxiliary mechanical tasks. The software is also capable to store the joints and frame locations at every interval which can be used for the real time control application. The developed software has the flexibility to work with any number of links and joints. (author)

  13. Auto-adaptative Robot-aided Therapy based in 3D Virtual Tasks controlled by a Supervised and Dynamic Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Lledó

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application formed by a classification method based on the architecture of ART neural network (Adaptive Resonance Theory and the Fuzzy Set Theory to classify physiological reactions in order to automatically and dynamically adapt a robot-assisted rehabilitation therapy to the patient needs, using a three-dimensional task in a virtual reality system. Firstly, the mathematical and structural model of the neuro-fuzzy classification method is described together with the signal and training data acquisition. Then, the virtual designed task with physics behavior and its development procedure are explained. Finally, the general architecture of the experimentation for the auto-adaptive therapy is presented using the classification method with the virtual reality exercise.

  14. Dual-task functional exercises as an effective way to improve dynamic balance in persons with intellectual disability – continuation of the project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Mikołajczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Balance disorders are common in people with intellectual disability (ID. Aim of the research: The continuation of the project is aimed at finding out whether extension of the unstable surface dual-task functional exercises programme by another 12 weeks affects the level of dynamic balance in adolescents with ID and what those changes are like after the 8-week summer holidays. Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescents with ID aged 14–16 years (E performed functional exercises for another 12 weeks on unstable surfaces, and a group of 17 individuals with ID were the controls. Dynamic balance was assessed three times: after the first stage of the programme (test 2, after another 12 weeks (test 3, after the 8-week holiday (test 4. ALFA AC An International East stabilometric platform was used for measurements. Results : No statistical differences were discovered in group E, in dynamic balance assessment between test 2 and 3; however, the mean scores in group E, in test 3, were slightly better than in test 2, and notably better than in group C. No significant differences between test 3 and 4 were found in group E either. Conclusions : Extension of the intervention program helped to maintain improved dynamic balance. Discontinuation of the program for the period of 8 weeks resulted in decreased level of balance; however, it was still higher than at the beginning of the project. Dual-task functional exercises based on activities of daily living (ADLs and stimulation of righting reactions may enhance dynamic balance in individuals with ID, but it should be constantly stimulated.

  15. New evidence for strategic differences between static and dynamic search tasks: An individual observer analysis of eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eDickinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments are reported that further explore the processes underlying dynamic search. In Experiment 1, observers’ oculomotor behavior was monitored while they searched for a randomly oriented T among oriented L distractors under static and dynamic viewing conditions. Despite similar search slopes, eye movements were less frequent and more spatially constrained under dynamic viewing relative to static, with misses also increasing more with target eccentricity in the dynamic condition. These patterns suggest that dynamic search involves a form of sit-and-wait strategy in which search is restricted to a small group of items surrounding fixation. To evaluate this interpretation, we developed a computational model of a sit-and-wait process hypothesized to underlie dynamic search. In Experiment 2 we tested this model by varying fixation position in the display and found that display positions optimized for a sit-and-wait strategy resulted in higher d' values relative to a less optimal location. We conclude that different strategies, and therefore underlying processes, are used to search static and dynamic displays.

  16. Speech reception with different bilateral directional processing schemes: Influence of binaural hearing, audiometric asymmetry, and acoustic scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C; Latzel, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Hearing aid (HA) users can differ markedly in their benefit from directional processing (or beamforming) algorithms. The current study therefore investigated candidacy for different bilateral directional processing schemes. Groups of elderly listeners with symmetric (N = 20) or asymmetric (N = 19) hearing thresholds for frequencies below 2 kHz, a large spread in the binaural intelligibility level difference (BILD), and no difference in age, overall degree of hearing loss, or performance on a measure of selective attention took part. Aided speech reception was measured using virtual acoustics together with a simulation of a linked pair of completely occluding behind-the-ear HAs. Five processing schemes and three acoustic scenarios were used. The processing schemes differed in the tradeoff between signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement and binaural cue preservation. The acoustic scenarios consisted of a frontal target talker presented against two speech maskers from ±60° azimuth or spatially diffuse cafeteria noise. For both groups, a significant interaction between BILD, processing scheme, and acoustic scenario was found. This interaction implied that, in situations with lateral speech maskers, HA users with BILDs larger than about 2 dB profited more from preserved low-frequency binaural cues than from greater SNR improvement, whereas for smaller BILDs the opposite was true. Audiometric asymmetry reduced the influence of binaural hearing. In spatially diffuse noise, the maximal SNR improvement was generally beneficial. N 0 S π detection performance at 500 Hz predicted the benefit from low-frequency binaural cues. Together, these findings provide a basis for adapting bilateral directional processing to individual and situational influences. Further research is needed to investigate their generalizability to more realistic HA conditions (e.g., with low-frequency vent-transmitted sound). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrophysiological and psychophysical asymmetries in sensitivity to interaural correlation gaps and implications for binaural integration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüddemann, Helge; Kollmeier, Birger; Riedel, Helmut

    2016-02-01

    Brief deviations of interaural correlation (IAC) can provide valuable cues for detection, segregation and localization of acoustic signals. This study investigated the processing of such "binaural gaps" in continuously running noise (100-2000 Hz), in comparison to silent "monaural gaps", by measuring late auditory evoked potentials (LAEPs) and perceptual thresholds with novel, iteratively optimized stimuli. Mean perceptual binaural gap duration thresholds exhibited a major asymmetry: they were substantially shorter for uncorrelated gaps in correlated and anticorrelated reference noise (1.75 ms and 4.1 ms) than for correlated and anticorrelated gaps in uncorrelated reference noise (26.5 ms and 39.0 ms). The thresholds also showed a minor asymmetry: they were shorter in the positive than in the negative IAC range. The mean behavioral threshold for monaural gaps was 5.5 ms. For all five gap types, the amplitude of LAEP components N1 and P2 increased linearly with the logarithm of gap duration. While perceptual and electrophysiological thresholds matched for monaural gaps, LAEP thresholds were about twice as long as perceptual thresholds for uncorrelated gaps, but half as long for correlated and anticorrelated gaps. Nevertheless, LAEP thresholds showed the same asymmetries as perceptual thresholds. For gap durations below 30 ms, LAEPs were dominated by the processing of the leading edge of a gap. For longer gap durations, in contrast, both the leading and the lagging edge of a gap contributed to the evoked response. Formulae for the equivalent rectangular duration (ERD) of the binaural system's temporal window were derived for three common window shapes. The psychophysical ERD was 68 ms for diotic and about 40 ms for anti- and uncorrelated noise. After a nonlinear Z-transform of the stimulus IAC prior to temporal integration, ERDs were about 10 ms for reference correlations of ±1 and 80 ms for uncorrelated reference. Hence, a physiologically motivated

  18. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to air-conducted 500 Hz short tones: Effect of stimulation procedure (monaural or binaural), age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versino, Maurizio; Colnaghi, Silvia; Ranzani, Marina; Alloni, Roberto; Bolis, Carlotta; Sacco, Simone; Moglia, Arrigo; Callieco, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The ocular vestibular myogenic potentials (oVEMP) can be elicited by monaural air-conducted sound stimulation, and are usually recorded from the contralateral eye. In clinical setting a binaural stimulation would save time and require less effort from the subjects. We evaluated the differences between monaural and binaural stimulation, and the possible effect of age and gender on oVEMP parameters. Air-conducted oVEMP were recorded by binaural and by monaural stimulation in a group of 54 normal subjects, aged from 12 to 83 years, and in 50 vestibular patients. From each side, we measured the latency of the N1 component, and the peak-to-peak N1-P1 amplitude. For both parameters we also computed the asymmetry ratio. In normal subjects binaural stimulation produced slightly larger responses than monaural stimulation; detectability, latency and amplitude ratio were the same for the two techniques. We found no differences related to gender, and the age-induced amplitude decline was likely to be negligible.oVEMP recorded not in an acute phase of their disorder, proved to be abnormal in about 20% of the patients, and the normal or abnormal findings obtained either with monaural or with binaural stimulation were always concordant. The oVEMP obtained after binaural and monaural stimulation are very similar, and they are largely independent from age and gender.

  19. Directional loudness in an anechoic sound field, head-related transfer functions, and binaural summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    planes. Matches were obtained via a two-interval, adaptive forced-choice (2AFC) procedure for three center frequencies (0.4, 1 and 5 kHz) and two overall levels (45 and 65 dB SPL). The results showed that loudness is not constant over sound incidence angles, with directional sensitivity varying over......The effect of sound incidence angle on loudness was investigated using real sound sources positioned in an anechoic chamber. Eight normal-hearing listeners produced loudness matches between a frontal reference location and seven sources placed at other directions, both in the horizontal and median...... a range of up to 10 dB, exhibiting considerable frequency dependence, but only minor effects of overall level. The pattern of results varied substantially between subjects, but was largely accounted for by variations in individual head-related transfer functions. Modeling of binaural loudness based...

  20. Binaural Interaction Effects of 30-50 Hz Auditory Steady State Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gransier, Robin; van Wieringen, Astrid; Wouters, Jan

    Auditory stimuli modulated by modulation frequencies within the 30 to 50 Hz region evoke auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) with high signal to noise ratios in adults, and can be used to determine the frequency-specific hearing thresholds of adults who are unable to give behavioral feedback reliably. To measure ASSRs as efficiently as possible a multiple stimulus paradigm can be used, stimulating both ears simultaneously. The response strength of 30 to 50Hz ASSRs is, however, affected when both ears are stimulated simultaneously. The aim of the present study is to gain insight in the measurement efficiency of 30 to 50 Hz ASSRs evoked with a 2-ear stimulation paradigm, by systematically investigating the binaural interaction effects of 30 to 50 Hz ASSRs in normal-hearing adults. ASSRs were obtained with a 64-channel EEG system in 23 normal-hearing adults. All participants participated in one diotic, multiple dichotic, and multiple monaural conditions. Stimuli consisted of a modulated one-octave noise band, centered at 1 kHz, and presented at 70 dB SPL. The diotic condition contained 40 Hz modulated stimuli presented to both ears. In the dichotic conditions, the modulation frequency of the left ear stimulus was kept constant at 40 Hz, while the stimulus at the right ear was either the unmodulated or modulated carrier. In case of the modulated carrier, the modulation frequency varied between 30 and 50 Hz in steps of 2 Hz across conditions. The monaural conditions consisted of all stimuli included in the diotic and dichotic conditions. Modulation frequencies ≥36 Hz resulted in prominent ASSRs in all participants for the monaural conditions. A significant enhancement effect was observed (average: ~3 dB) in the diotic condition, whereas a significant reduction effect was observed in the dichotic conditions. There was no distinct effect of the temporal characteristics of the stimuli on the amount of reduction. The attenuation was in 33% of the cases >3 dB for

  1. Rapid Prototyping of an Electrically-Small Antenna for Binaural-Hearing Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is emerging as a technology that can provide detailed mechanical parts, e.g., for use in antenna mock-ups, in a short lead time. Nevertheless, one of the main issues associated with it is that the materials suitable for 3D printing are not characterized at radio frequencies (RF......). This study analyzes the main RF parameters (dielectric constant, loss tangent, surface roughness) and applies the results to the modeling of the prototype of an electrically small (ESA) antenna for binaural hearing instruments applications. After discussing the specific technology choices...... and their relevancies, it is shown how the analyzed parameters can be used to obtain good correlation between simulations and measurements....

  2. A Diagonal-Steering-Based Binaural Beamforming Algorithm Incorporating a Diagonal Speech Localizer for Persons With Bilateral Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Chang; Nam, Kyoung Won; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2015-12-01

    Previously suggested diagonal-steering algorithms for binaural hearing support devices have commonly assumed that the direction of the speech signal is known in advance, which is not always the case in many real circumstances. In this study, a new diagonal-steering-based binaural speech localization (BSL) algorithm is proposed, and the performances of the BSL algorithm and the binaural beamforming algorithm, which integrates the BSL and diagonal-steering algorithms, were evaluated using actual speech-in-noise signals in several simulated listening scenarios. Testing sounds were recorded in a KEMAR mannequin setup and two objective indices, improvements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNRi ) and segmental SNR (segSNRi ), were utilized for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrated that the accuracy of the BSL was in the 90-100% range when input SNR was -10 to +5 dB range. The average differences between the γ-adjusted and γ-fixed diagonal-steering algorithms (for -15 to +5 dB input SNR) in the talking in the restaurant scenario were 0.203-0.937 dB for SNRi and 0.052-0.437 dB for segSNRi , and in the listening while car driving scenario, the differences were 0.387-0.835 dB for SNRi and 0.259-1.175 dB for segSNRi . In addition, the average difference between the BSL-turned-on and the BSL-turned-off cases for the binaural beamforming algorithm in the listening while car driving scenario was 1.631-4.246 dB for SNRi and 0.574-2.784 dB for segSNRi . In all testing conditions, the γ-adjusted diagonal-steering and BSL algorithm improved the values of the indices more than the conventional algorithms. The binaural beamforming algorithm, which integrates the proposed BSL and diagonal-steering algorithm, is expected to improve the performance of the binaural hearing support devices in noisy situations. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus: nonlinearity and binaural interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J Yu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The tuning, binaural properties, and encoding characteristics of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC were investigated to shed light on nonlinearities in the responses of these neurons. Results were analyzed for three types of neurons (I, O, and V in the CNIC of decerebrate cats. Rate responses to binaural stimuli were characterized using a 1st- plus 2nd-order spectral integration model. Parameters of the model were derived using broadband stimuli with random spectral shapes (RSS. This method revealed four characteristics of CNIC neurons: (1 Tuning curves derived from broadband stimuli have fixed (i. e., level tolerant bandwidths across a 50-60 dB range of sound levels; (2 1st-order contralateral weights (particularly for type I and O neurons were usually larger in magnitude than corresponding ipsilateral weights; (3 contralateral weights were more important than ipsilateral weights when using the model to predict responses to untrained noise stimuli; and (4 2nd-order weight functions demonstrate frequency selectivity different from that of 1st-order weight functions. Furthermore, while the inclusion of 2nd-order terms in the model usually improved response predictions related to untrained RSS stimuli, they had limited impact on predictions related to other forms of filtered broadband noise (e. g., virtual space stimuli. The accuracy of the predictions varied considerably by response type. Predictions were most accurate for I neurons, and less accurate for O and V neurons, except at the lowest stimulus levels. These differences in prediction performance support the idea that type I, O, and V neurons encode different aspects of the stimulus: while type I neurons are most capable of producing linear representations of spectral shape, type O and V neurons may encode spectral features or temporal stimulus properties in a manner not easily explained with the low-order model. Supported by NIH grant DC00115.

  4. Intelligibility for Binaural Speech with Discarded Low-SNR Speech Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmaker, Esther; van de Par, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Speech intelligibility in multitalker settings improves when the target speaker is spatially separated from the interfering speakers. A factor that may contribute to this improvement is the improved detectability of target-speech components due to binaural interaction in analogy to the Binaural Masking Level Difference (BMLD). This would allow listeners to hear target speech components within specific time-frequency intervals that have a negative SNR, similar to the improvement in the detectability of a tone in noise when these contain disparate interaural difference cues. To investigate whether these negative-SNR target-speech components indeed contribute to speech intelligibility, a stimulus manipulation was performed where all target components were removed when local SNRs were smaller than a certain criterion value. It can be expected that for sufficiently high criterion values target speech components will be removed that do contribute to speech intelligibility. For spatially separated speakers, assuming that a BMLD-like detection advantage contributes to intelligibility, degradation in intelligibility is expected already at criterion values below 0 dB SNR. However, for collocated speakers it is expected that higher criterion values can be applied without impairing speech intelligibility. Results show that degradation of intelligibility for separated speakers is only seen for criterion values of 0 dB and above, indicating a negligible contribution of a BMLD-like detection advantage in multitalker settings. These results show that the spatial benefit is related to a spatial separation of speech components at positive local SNRs rather than to a BMLD-like detection improvement for speech components at negative local SNRs.

  5. Automatically assessing properties of dynamic cameras for camera selection and rapid deployment of video content analysis tasks in large-scale ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; ter Haar, Frank B.; Burghouts, Gertjan J.

    2017-10-01

    Video analytics is essential for managing large quantities of raw data that are produced by video surveillance systems (VSS) for the prevention, repression and investigation of crime and terrorism. Analytics is highly sensitive to changes in the scene, and for changes in the optical chain so a VSS with analytics needs careful configuration and prompt maintenance to avoid false alarms. However, there is a trend from static VSS consisting of fixed CCTV cameras towards more dynamic VSS deployments over public/private multi-organization networks, consisting of a wider variety of visual sensors, including pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras, body-worn cameras and cameras on moving platforms. This trend will lead to more dynamic scenes and more frequent changes in the optical chain, creating structural problems for analytics. If these problems are not adequately addressed, analytics will not be able to continue to meet end users' developing needs. In this paper, we present a three-part solution for managing the performance of complex analytics deployments. The first part is a register containing meta data describing relevant properties of the optical chain, such as intrinsic and extrinsic calibration, and parameters of the scene such as lighting conditions or measures for scene complexity (e.g. number of people). A second part frequently assesses these parameters in the deployed VSS, stores changes in the register, and signals relevant changes in the setup to the VSS administrator. A third part uses the information in the register to dynamically configure analytics tasks based on VSS operator input. In order to support the feasibility of this solution, we give an overview of related state-of-the-art technologies for autocalibration (self-calibration), scene recognition and lighting estimation in relation to person detection. The presented solution allows for rapid and robust deployment of Video Content Analysis (VCA) tasks in large scale ad-hoc networks.

  6. Complex Dynamic Systems View on Conceptual Change: How a Picture of Students' Intuitive Conceptions Accrue from Dynamically Robust Task Dependent Learning Outcomes

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    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi; Nousiainen, Maiji

    2017-01-01

    We discuss here conceptual change and the formation of robust learning outcomes from the viewpoint of complex dynamic systems (CDS). The CDS view considers students' conceptions as context dependent and multifaceted structures which depend on the context of their application. In the CDS view the conceptual patterns (i.e. intuitive conceptions…

  7. The Effects of Aging and Dual Tasking on Human Gait Complexity During Treadmill Walking: A Comparative Study Using Quantized Dynamical Entropy and Sample Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Samira; Wu, Christine; Sepehri, Nariman; Kantikar, Anuprita; Nankar, Mayur; Szturm, Tony

    2018-01-01

    Quantized dynamical entropy (QDE) has recently been proposed as a new measure to quantify the complexity of dynamical systems with the purpose of offering a better computational efficiency. This paper further investigates the viability of this method using five different human gait signals. These signals are recorded while normal walking and while performing secondary tasks among two age groups (young and older age groups). The results are compared with the outcomes of previously established sample entropy (SampEn) measure for the same signals. We also study how analyzing segmented and spatially and temporally normalized signal differs from analyzing whole data. Our findings show that human gait signals become more complex as people age and while they are cognitively loaded. Center of pressure (COP) displacement in mediolateral direction is the best signal for showing the gait changes. Moreover, the results suggest that by segmenting data, more information about intrastride dynamical features are obtained. Most importantly, QDE is shown to be a reliable measure for human gait complexity analysis.

  8. A Sparsity-Based Approach to 3D Binaural Sound Synthesis Using Time-Frequency Array Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Maximo; Lopez, JoseJ; Spors, Sascha

    2010-12-01

    Localization of sounds in physical space plays a very important role in multiple audio-related disciplines, such as music, telecommunications, and audiovisual productions. Binaural recording is the most commonly used method to provide an immersive sound experience by means of headphone reproduction. However, it requires a very specific recording setup using high-fidelity microphones mounted in a dummy head. In this paper, we present a novel processing framework for binaural sound recording and reproduction that avoids the use of dummy heads, which is specially suitable for immersive teleconferencing applications. The method is based on a time-frequency analysis of the spatial properties of the sound picked up by a simple tetrahedral microphone array, assuming source sparseness. The experiments carried out using simulations and a real-time prototype confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

  9. Combination of binaural and harmonic masking release effects in the detection of a single component in complex tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Hennig, Martin; Dietz, Mathias; Hohmann, Volker

    2018-03-01

    Both harmonic and binaural signal properties are relevant for auditory processing. To investigate how these cues combine in the auditory system, detection thresholds for an 800-Hz tone masked by a diotic (i.e., identical between the ears) harmonic complex tone were measured in six normal-hearing subjects. The target tone was presented either diotically or with an interaural phase difference (IPD) of 180° and in either harmonic or "mistuned" relationship to the diotic masker. Three different maskers were used, a resolved and an unresolved complex tone (fundamental frequency: 160 and 40 Hz) with four components below and above the target frequency and a broadband unresolved complex tone with 12 additional components. The target IPD provided release from masking in most masker conditions, whereas mistuning led to a significant release from masking only in the diotic conditions with the resolved and the narrowband unresolved maskers. A significant effect of mistuning was neither found in the diotic condition with the wideband unresolved masker nor in any of the dichotic conditions. An auditory model with a single analysis frequency band and different binaural processing schemes was employed to predict the data of the unresolved masker conditions. Sensitivity to modulation cues was achieved by including an auditory-motivated modulation filter in the processing pathway. The predictions of the diotic data were in line with the experimental results and literature data in the narrowband condition, but not in the broadband condition, suggesting that across-frequency processing is involved in processing modulation information. The experimental and model results in the dichotic conditions show that the binaural processor cannot exploit modulation information in binaurally unmasked conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-Term Effects of Binaural Beats on EEG Power, Functional Connectivity, Cognition, Gait and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Gerardo; Recuero, Manuel; Canuet, Leonides; Del-Pozo, Francisco

    2018-06-01

    We applied rhythmic binaural sound to Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients to investigate its influence on several symptoms of this disease and on Electrophysiology (Electrocardiography and Electroencephalography (EEG)). We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled study in which rhythmic binaural beats and control were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). Patients ([Formula: see text], age [Formula: see text], stage I-III Hoehn & Yahr scale) participated in two sessions of sound stimulation for 10[Formula: see text]min separated by a minimum of 7 days. Data were collected immediately before and after both stimulations with the following results: (1) a decrease in theta activity, (2) a general decrease in Functional Connectivity (FC), and (3) an improvement in working memory performance. However, no significant changes were identified in the gait performance, heart rate or anxiety level of the patients. With regard to the control stimulation, we did not identify significant changes in the variables analyzed. The use of binaural-rhythm stimulation for PD, as designed in this study, seems to be an effective, portable, inexpensive and noninvasive method to modulate brain activity. This influence on brain activity did not induce changes in anxiety or gait parameters; however, it resulted in a normalization of EEG power (altered in PD), normalization of brain FC (also altered in PD) and working memory improvement (a normalizing effect). In summary, we consider that sound, particularly binaural-rhythmic sound, may be a co-assistant tool in the treatment of PD, however more research is needed to consider the use of this type of stimulation as an effective therapy.

  11. The effect of multimicrophone noise reduction systems on sound source localization by users of binaural hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Doclo, Simon; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2008-07-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of three multimicrophone noise reduction algorithms on the ability to localize sound sources. Two recently developed noise reduction techniques for binaural hearing aids were evaluated, namely, the binaural multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) and the binaural multichannel Wiener filter with partial noise estimate (MWF-N), together with a dual-monaural adaptive directional microphone (ADM), which is a widely used noise reduction approach in commercial hearing aids. The influence of the different algorithms on perceived sound source localization and their noise reduction performance was evaluated. It is shown that noise reduction algorithms can have a large influence on localization and that (a) the ADM only preserves localization in the forward direction over azimuths where limited or no noise reduction is obtained; (b) the MWF preserves localization of the target speech component but may distort localization of the noise component. The latter is dependent on signal-to-noise ratio and masking effects; (c) the MWF-N enables correct localization of both the speech and the noise components; (d) the statistical Wiener filter approach introduces a better combination of sound source localization and noise reduction performance than the ADM approach.

  12. Timing and extent of finger force enslaving during a dynamic force task cannot be explained by EMG activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mirakhorlo

    Full Text Available Finger enslaving is defined as the inability of the fingers to move or to produce force independently. Such finger enslaving has predominantly been investigated for isometric force tasks. The aim of this study was to assess whether the extent of force enslaving is dependent on relative finger movements. Ten right-handed subjects (22-30 years flexed the index finger while counteracting constant resistance forces (4, 6 and 8 N orthogonal to the fingertip. The other, non-instructed fingers were held in extension. EMG activities of the mm. flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS and extensor digitorum (ED in the regions corresponding to the index, middle and ring fingers were measured. Forces exerted by the non-instructed fingers increased substantially (by 0.2 to 1.4 N with flexion of the index finger, increasing the enslaving effect with respect to the static, pre-movement phase. Such changes in force were found 260-370 ms after the initiation of index flexion. The estimated MCP joint angle of the index finger at which forces exerted by the non-instructed fingers started to increase varied between 4° and 6°. In contrast to the finger forces, no significant changes in EMG activity of the FDS regions corresponding to the non-instructed fingers upon index finger flexion were found. This mismatch between forces and EMG of the non-instructed fingers, as well as the delay in force development are in agreement with connective tissue linkages being slack when the positions of the fingers are similar, but pulled taut when one finger moves relative to the others. Although neural factors cannot be excluded, our results suggest that mechanical connections between muscle-tendon structures were (at least partly responsible for the observed increase in force enslaving during index finger flexion.

  13. Temporally specific divided attention tasks in young adults reveal the temporal dynamics of episodic encoding failures in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ray; Nessler, Doreen; Friedman, David

    2013-06-01

    Nessler, Johnson, Bersick, and Friedman (D. Nessler, R. Johnson, Jr., M. Bersick, & D. Friedman, 2006, On why the elderly have normal semantic retrieval but deficient episodic encoding: A study of left inferior frontal ERP activity, NeuroImage, Vol. 30, pp. 299-312) found that, compared with young adults, older adults show decreased event-related brain potential (ERP) activity over posterior left inferior prefrontal cortex (pLIPFC) in a 400- to 1,400-ms interval during episodic encoding. This altered brain activity was associated with significantly decreased recognition performance and reduced recollection-related brain activity at retrieval (D. Nessler, D. Friedman, R. Johnson, Jr., & M. Bersick, 2007, Does repetition engender the same retrieval processes in young and older adults? NeuroReport, Vol. 18, pp. 1837-1840). To test the hypothesis that older adults' well-documented episodic retrieval deficit is related to reduced pLIPFC activity at encoding, we used a novel divided attention task in healthy young adults that was specifically timed to disrupt encoding in either the 1st or 2nd half of a 300- to 1,400-ms interval. The results showed that diverting resources for 550 ms during either half of this interval reproduced the 4 characteristic aspects of the older participants' retrieval performance: normal semantic retrieval during encoding, reduced subsequent episodic recognition and recall, reduced recollection-related ERP activity, and the presence of "compensatory" brain activity. We conclude that part of older adults' episodic memory deficit is attributable to altered pLIPFC activity during encoding due to reduced levels of available processing resources. Moreover, the findings also provide insights into the nature and timing of the putative "compensatory" processes posited to be used by older adults in an attempt to compensate for age-related decline in cognitive function. These results support the scaffolding account of compensation, in which the

  14. Comparison of proximally versus distally placed spatially distributed sequential stimulation electrodes in a dynamic knee extension task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Laubacher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatially distributed sequential stimulation (SDSS has demonstrated substantial power output and fatigue benefits compared to single electrode stimulation (SES in the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES. This asymmetric electrode setup brings new possibilities but also new questions since precise placement of the electrodes is one critical factor for good muscle activation. The aim of this study was to compare the power output, fatigue and activation properties of proximally versus distally placed SDSS electrodes in an isokinetic knee extension task simulating knee movement during recumbent cycling. M. vastus lateralis and medialis of seven able-bodied subjects were stimulated with rectangular bi-phasic pulses of constant amplitude of 40 mA and at an SDSS frequency of 35 Hz for 6 min on both legs with both setups (i.e. n=14. Torque was measured during knee-extension movement by a dynamometer at an angular velocity of 110 deg/s. Mean power, peak power and activation time were calculated and compared for the initial and final stimulation phases, together with an overall fatigue index. Power output values (Pmean, Ppeak were scaled to a standardised reference input pulse width of 100 μs (Pmean,s, Ppeak,s. The initial evaluation phase showed no significant differences between the two setups for all outcome measures. Ppeak and Ppeak,s were both significantly higher in the final phase for the distal setup (25.4 ± 8.1 W vs. 28.2 ± 6.2 W, p=0.0062 and 34.8 ± 9.5 W vs. 38.9 ± 6.7 W, p=0.021, respectively. With distal SDSS, there was modest evidence of higher Pmean and Pmean,s (p=0.071, p=0.14, respectively but of longer activation time (p=0.096. The rate of fatigue was similar for both setups. For practical FES applications, distal placement of the SDSS electrodes is preferable.

  15. The Effects of Static and Dynamic Visual Representations as Aids for Primary School Children in Tasks of Auditory Discrimination of Sound Patterns. An Intervention-based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Tejada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that non-conventional presentations of visual information could be very useful as a scaffolding strategy in the learning of Western music notation. As a result, this study has attempted to determine if there is any effect of static and dynamic presentation modes of visual information in the recognition of sound patterns. An intervention-based quasi-experimental design was adopted with two groups of fifth-grade students in a Spanish city. Students did tasks involving discrimination, auditory recognition and symbolic association of the sound patterns with non-musical representations, either static images (S group, or dynamic images (D group. The results showed neither statistically significant differences in the scores of D and S, nor influence of the covariates on the dependent variable, although statistically significant intra-group differences were found for both groups. This suggests that both types of graphic formats could be effective as digital learning mediators in the learning of Western musical notation.

  16. Aging effects on the binaural interaction component of the auditory brainstem response in the Mongolian gerbil: Effects of interaural time and level differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumen, Geneviève; Tollin, Daniel J; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2016-07-01

    The effect of interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) on wave 4 of the binaural and summed monaural auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) as well as on the DN1 component of the binaural interaction component (BIC) of the ABR in young and old Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was investigated. Measurements were made at a fixed sound pressure level (SPL) and a fixed level above visually detected ABR threshold to compensate for individual hearing threshold differences. In both stimulation modes (fixed SPL and fixed level above visually detected ABR threshold) an effect of ITD on the latency and the amplitude of wave 4 as well as of the BIC was observed. With increasing absolute ITD values BIC latencies were increased and amplitudes were decreased. ILD had a much smaller effect on these measures. Old animals showed a reduced amplitude of the DN1 component. This difference was due to a smaller wave 4 in the summed monaural ABRs of old animals compared to young animals whereas wave 4 in the binaural-evoked ABR showed no age-related difference. In old animals the small amplitude of the DN1 component was correlated with small binaural-evoked wave 1 and wave 3 amplitudes. This suggests that the reduced peripheral input affects central binaural processing which is reflected in the BIC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, R; Hildreth, A J; Laws, D

    2005-09-01

    Pre-operative anxiety is common and often significant. Ambulatory surgery challenges our pre-operative goal of an anxiety-free patient by requiring people to be 'street ready' within a brief period of time after surgery. Recently, it has been demonstrated that music can be used successfully to relieve patient anxiety before operations, and that audio embedded with tones that create binaural beats within the brain of the listener decreases subjective levels of anxiety in patients with chronic anxiety states. We measured anxiety with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and compared binaural beat audio (Binaural Group) with an identical soundtrack but without these added tones (Audio Group) and with a third group who received no specific intervention (No Intervention Group). Mean [95% confidence intervals] decreases in anxiety scores were 26.3%[19-33%] in the Binaural Group (p = 0.001 vs. Audio Group, p Binaural beat audio has the potential to decrease acute pre-operative anxiety significantly.

  18. Synthetic Aperture Computation as the Head is Turned in Binaural Direction Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Tamsett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Binaural systems measure instantaneous time/level differences between acoustic signals received at the ears to determine angles λ between the auditory axis and directions to acoustic sources. An angle λ locates a source on a small circle of colatitude (a lamda circle on a sphere symmetric about the auditory axis. As the head is turned while listening to a sound, acoustic energy over successive instantaneous lamda circles is integrated in a virtual/subconscious field of audition. The directions in azimuth and elevation to maxima in integrated acoustic energy, or to points of intersection of lamda circles, are the directions to acoustic sources. This process in a robotic system, or in nature in a neural implementation equivalent to it, delivers its solutions to the aurally informed worldview. The process is analogous to migration applied to seismic profiler data, and to that in synthetic aperture radar/sonar systems. A slanting auditory axis, e.g., possessed by species of owl, leads to the auditory axis sweeping the surface of a cone as the head is turned about a single axis. Thus, the plane in which the auditory axis turns continuously changes, enabling robustly unambiguous directions to acoustic sources to be determined.

  19. Analysis of EEG activity in response to binaural beats with different frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Cao, Hongbao; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hongzhi; Wang, Xuemin; Wang, Xiaolu; Chen, Runge; Zhou, Peng

    2014-12-01

    When two coherent sounds with nearly similar frequencies are presented to each ear respectively with stereo headphones, the brain integrates the two signals and produces a sensation of a third sound called binaural beat (BB). Although earlier studies showed that BB could influence behavior and cognition, common agreement on the mechanism of BB has not been reached yet. In this work, we employed Relative Power (RP), Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Cross-Mutual Information (CMI) to track EEG changes during BB stimulations. EEG signals were acquired from 13 healthy subjects. Five-minute BBs with four different frequencies were tested: delta band (1 Hz), theta band (5 Hz), alpha band (10 Hz) and beta band (20 Hz). We observed RP increase in theta and alpha bands and decrease in beta band during delta and alpha BB stimulations. RP decreased in beta band during theta BB, while RP decreased in theta band during beta BB. However, no clear brainwave entrainment effect was identified. Connectivity changes were detected following the variation of RP during BB stimulations. Our observation supports the hypothesis that BBs could affect functional brain connectivity, suggesting that the mechanism of BB-brain interaction is worth further study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Alteration of frequency range for binaural beats in acute low-tone hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, Shotaro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Ito, Ken; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-01-01

    The effect of acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss (ALHL) on the interaural frequency difference (IFD) required for perception of binaural beats (BBs) was investigated in 12 patients with unilateral ALHL and 7 patients in whom ALHL had lessened. A continuous pure tone of 30 dB sensation level at 250 Hz was presented to the contralateral, normal-hearing ear. The presence of BBs was determined by a subjective yes-no procedure as the frequency of a loudness-balanced test tone was gradually adjusted around 250 Hz in the affected ear. The frequency range in which no BBs were perceived (FRNB) was significantly wider in the patients with ALHL than in the controls, and FRNBs became narrower in the recovered ALHL group. Specifically, detection of slow BBs with a small IFD was impaired in this limited (10 s) observation period. The significant correlation between the hearing level at 250 Hz and FRNBs suggests that FRNBs represent the degree of cochlear damage caused by ALHL.

  1. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow during auditory cognitive tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Masashi; Kitamura, Shin; Terashi, Akiro; Senda, Michio.

    1993-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between auditory cognitive function and regional brain activation, we measured the changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using positron emission tomography (PET) during the 'odd-ball' paradigm in ten normal healthy volunteers. The subjects underwent 3 tasks, twice for each, while the evoked potential was recorded. In these tasks, the auditory stimulus was a series of pure tones delivered every 1.5 sec binaurally at 75 dB from the earphones. Task A: the stimulus was a series of tones with 1000 Hz only, and the subject was instructed to only hear. Task B: the stimulus was a series of tones with 1000 Hz only, and the subject was instructed to push the button on detecting a tone. Task C: the stimulus was a series of pure tones delivered every 1.5 sec binaurally at 75 dB with a frequency of 1000 Hz (non-target) in 80% and 2000 Hz (target) in 20% at random, and the subject was instructed to push the button on detecting a target tone. The event related potential (P300) was observed in task C (Pz: 334.3±19.6 msec). At each task, the CBF was measured using PET with i.v. injection of 1.5 GBq of O-15 water. The changes in CBF associated with auditory cognition was evaluated by the difference between the CBF images in task C and B. Localized increase was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (in all subjects), the bilateral associate auditory cortex, the prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex. The latter three areas had a large individual variation in the location of foci. These results suggested the role of those cortical areas in auditory cognition. The anterior cingulate was most activated (15.0±2.24% of global CBF). This region was not activated in the condition of task B minus task A. The anterior cingulate is a part of Papez's circuit that is related to memory and other higher cortical function. These results suggested that this area may play an important role in cognition as well as in attention. (author)

  2. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessele, Nikodemus; Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Omerbašić, Damir; Park, Thomas J; Koch, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  3. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodemus Gessele

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  4. Solvation Mechanism of Task-Specific Ionic Liquids in Water: A Combined Investigation Using Classical Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, Surya V J; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Rodion V; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Subbotin, Oleg S; Kanie, Kiyoshi; Funaki, Kenji; Muramatsu, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2015-10-08

    The solvation behavior of task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) containing a common, L-histidine derived imidazolium cation [C20H28N3O3](+) and different anions, bromide-[Br](-) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide-[NTF2](-), in water is examined, computationally. These amino acid functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) are taken into account because of their ability to react with rare earth metal salts. It has been noted that the TSIL with [Br](-) is more soluble than its counterpart TSIL with [NTF2](-), experimentally. In this theoretical work, the combined classical molecular dynamics (CMD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to study the behavior of the bulk phase of these two TSILs in the vicinity of water (H2O) molecules with different concentrations. Initially, all the constructed systems are equilibrated using the CMD method. The final structures of the equilibrated systems are extracted for DFT calculations. Under CMD operation, the radial distribution function (RDF) plots and viscosity of TSILs are analyzed to understand the effect of water on TSILs. In the DFT regime, binding energy per H2O, charge transfer, charge density mapping, and electronic density of states (EDOS) analyses are done. The CMD results along with the DFT results are consolidated to support the hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of the TSILs. Interestingly, we have found a strong correlation between the viscosity and the EDOS results that leads to an understanding of the hydration properties of the TSILs.

  5. Representation of dynamic interaural phase difference in auditory cortex of awake rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Malone, Brian J; Semple, Malcolm N

    2009-04-01

    Neurons in auditory cortex of awake primates are selective for the spatial location of a sound source, yet the neural representation of the binaural cues that underlie this tuning remains undefined. We examined this representation in 283 single neurons across the low-frequency auditory core in alert macaques, trained to discriminate binaural cues for sound azimuth. In response to binaural beat stimuli, which mimic acoustic motion by modulating the relative phase of a tone at the two ears, these neurons robustly modulate their discharge rate in response to this directional cue. In accordance with prior studies, the preferred interaural phase difference (IPD) of these neurons typically corresponds to azimuthal locations contralateral to the recorded hemisphere. Whereas binaural beats evoke only transient discharges in anesthetized cortex, neurons in awake cortex respond throughout the IPD cycle. In this regard, responses are consistent with observations at earlier stations of the auditory pathway. Discharge rate is a band-pass function of the frequency of IPD modulation in most neurons (73%), but both discharge rate and temporal synchrony are independent of the direction of phase modulation. When subjected to a receiver operator characteristic analysis, the responses of individual neurons are insufficient to account for the perceptual acuity of these macaques in an IPD discrimination task, suggesting the need for neural pooling at the cortical level.

  6. Kokkos' Task DAG Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ibanez, Daniel Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the ASC/ATDM Kokkos deliverable "Production Portable Dy- namic Task DAG Capability." This capability enables applications to create and execute a dynamic task DAG ; a collection of heterogeneous computational tasks with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of "execute after" dependencies where tasks and their dependencies are dynamically created and destroyed as tasks execute. The Kokkos task scheduler executes the dynamic task DAG on the target execution resource; e.g. a multicore CPU, a manycore CPU such as Intel's Knights Landing (KNL), or an NVIDIA GPU. Several major technical challenges had to be addressed during development of Kokkos' Task DAG capability: (1) portability to a GPU with it's simplified hardware and micro- runtime, (2) thread-scalable memory allocation and deallocation from a bounded pool of memory, (3) thread-scalable scheduler for dynamic task DAG, (4) usability by applications.

  7. Dynamics of response-conflict monitoring and individual differences in response control and behavioral control: an electrophysiological investigation using a stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jutta; Gibbons, Henning

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional significance of error (related) negativity Ne/ERN and individual differences in human action monitoring. A response-conflict model of Ne/ERN should be tested applying a stop-signal paradigm. After a few modifications of Ne/ERN response-conflict theory (Yeung N, Botvinick MM, Cohen JD. The neural basis of error detection: conflict monitoring and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review 2004:111(4);931-959), strength and time course of response conflict could be modeled as a function of stop-signal delay. In Experiment 1, 35 participants performed a visual two-choice response-time task but tried to withhold the response if an auditory stop signal was presented. Probability of stopping errors was held at 50% using variable delays between visual and auditory stimuli. Experiment 2 (n=10) employed both auditory go and stop signals and confirmed that Ne/ERN effects are due to conflict induced by the auditory stop signal, and not the mere presence or absence of an additional stimulus. As predicted, amplitudes of both the stimulus-locked and response-locked Ne/ERN were largest for non-stopped responses, followed by successfully stopped and go responses. However, independently of response type Ne/ERN also increased with increasing stop-signal delay. Since longer delay invokes stronger response conflict, results specifically support the notion of Ne/ERN reflecting response-conflict monitoring. Furthermore, individual differences related to measures of response control and behavioral control were observed. Both low response control estimated from stop-task performance and high psychometric impulsivity were accompanied by smaller Ne/ERN amplitude on stop trials, suggesting reduced response-conflict monitoring. The present study supported the response-conflict view of Ne/ERN. Furthermore, the observed relationship between impulsivity and Ne/ERN amplitude suggested that individuals with low behavioral

  8. Modulatory Effect of Association of Brain Stimulation by Light and Binaural Beats in Specific Brain Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Furtado da Silva, Vernon; Velasques, Bruna Brandão; Feijó, Olavo Guimarães; Bittencourt, Juliana Marques; Ribeiro de Souza E Silva, Alair Pedro

    2017-01-01

    One of the positive effects of brain stimulation is interhemispheric modulation as shown in some scientific studies. This study examined if a type of noninvasive stimulation using binaural beats with led-lights and sound would show different modulatory effects upon Alfa and SMR brain waves of elderlies and children with some disease types. The sample included 75 individuals of both genders, being, randomly, divided in 6 groups. Groups were named elderly without dementia diagnosis (EWD), n=15, 76±8 years, elderly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (EDP), n=15, 72±7 years, elderly diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (EDA), n=15, 81±6 years. The other groups were named children with Autism (CA), n=10, 11±4 years, children with Intellectual Impairment (CII), n=10, 12 ±5 years and children with normal cognitive development (CND), n=10, 11±4 years. Instruments were the Mini Mental State Examination Test (MMSE), EEG-Neurocomputer instrument for brain waves registration, brain stimulator, Digit Span Test and a Protocol for working memory training. Data collection followed a pre and post-conjugated stimulation version. The results of the inferential statistics showed that the stimulation protocol had different effects on Alpha and SMR brain waves of the patients. Also, indicated gains in memory functions, for both, children and elderlies as related to gains in brain waves modulation. The results may receive and provide support to a range of studies examining brain modulation and synaptic plasticity. Also, it was emphasized in the results discussion that there was the possibility of the technique serving as an accessory instrument to alternative brain therapies.

  9. When the brain changes its mind: Oscillatory dynamics of conflict processing and response switching in a flanker task during alcohol challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Lauren E; Azma, Sheeva; Marinkovic, Ksenija

    2018-01-01

    Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing. This study used anatomically-constrained MEG to examine the underlying neural dynamics in a flanker task that manipulated S-R incongruity at the stimulus (SI) and response levels (RI). Though irrelevant, flankers evoked automatic preparation of motor plans which had to be suppressed and reversed following the target presentation on RI trials. Event-related source power estimates in beta (15-25 Hz) frequency band in the sensorimotor cortex tracked motor preparation and response in real time and revealed switching from the incorrectly-primed to the correctly-responding hemisphere. In contrast, theta oscillations (4-7 Hz) were sensitive to the levels of incongruity as the medial and ventrolateral frontal cortices were especially activated by response conflict. These two areas are key to cognitive control and their integrated contributions to response inhibition and switching were revealed by phase-locked co-oscillations. These processes were pharmacologically manipulated with a moderate alcohol beverage or a placebo administered to healthy social drinkers. Alcohol selectively decreased accuracy to response conflict. It strongly attenuated theta oscillations during decision making and partly re-sculpted relative contributions of the frontal network without affecting the motor switching process subserved by beta band. Our results indicate that motor preparation is initiated automatically even when counterproductive but that it is monitored and regulated by

  10. Acute effects of maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauê V La Scala Teixeira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim the aim was to investigate the influence of a maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on the contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors. Methods Seventeen recreationally trained men (23.3 ± 4.9 yrs, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2 Kg/m² underwent two randomized different testing sessions separated by one week. In the control session (CON all subjects performed a maximum number of repetitions test (RMs at 75%1RM using the right elbow flexors. The experimental session (EXP was similar to the CON; however, all subjects were instructed to perform RMs at 75%1RM by using the right elbow flexors and maintaining the maximal voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors during the test. RMs, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and training volume (TV were measured and compared between sessions. Results The EXP showed a significant 10.4% increase on the RMs (13.8 vs. 12.5, p < 0.001, d = 0.44 and 12.1% increase in TV (238.0 vs. 212.4 kg, p < 0.001, d = 0.43 than CON. No differences were observed for RPE between sessions. Conclusion The maximum voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors increased the RMs of the contralateral elbow flexors, reflecting a higher TV, and no differences in the RPE. Our results suggest that the investigated method may be a viable and practical alternative to increase the acute strength performance of elbow flexors when using submaximal loads.

  11. When the brain changes its mind: Oscillatory dynamics of conflict processing and response switching in a flanker task during alcohol challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Beaton

    Full Text Available Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing. This study used anatomically-constrained MEG to examine the underlying neural dynamics in a flanker task that manipulated S-R incongruity at the stimulus (SI and response levels (RI. Though irrelevant, flankers evoked automatic preparation of motor plans which had to be suppressed and reversed following the target presentation on RI trials. Event-related source power estimates in beta (15-25 Hz frequency band in the sensorimotor cortex tracked motor preparation and response in real time and revealed switching from the incorrectly-primed to the correctly-responding hemisphere. In contrast, theta oscillations (4-7 Hz were sensitive to the levels of incongruity as the medial and ventrolateral frontal cortices were especially activated by response conflict. These two areas are key to cognitive control and their integrated contributions to response inhibition and switching were revealed by phase-locked co-oscillations. These processes were pharmacologically manipulated with a moderate alcohol beverage or a placebo administered to healthy social drinkers. Alcohol selectively decreased accuracy to response conflict. It strongly attenuated theta oscillations during decision making and partly re-sculpted relative contributions of the frontal network without affecting the motor switching process subserved by beta band. Our results indicate that motor preparation is initiated automatically even when counterproductive but that it is monitored

  12. Noise source separation of diesel engine by combining binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiachi; Xiang, Yang; Qian, Sichong; Li, Shengyang; Wu, Shaowei

    2017-11-01

    In order to separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine, a noise source separation and identification method that combines a binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method is proposed. During a diesel engine noise and vibration test, because a diesel engine has many complex noise sources, a lead covering method was carried out on a diesel engine to isolate other interference noise from the No. 1-5 cylinders. Only the No. 6 cylinder parts were left bare. Two microphones that simulated the human ears were utilized to measure the radiated noise signals 1 m away from the diesel engine. First, a binaural sound localization method was adopted to separate the noise sources that are in different places. Then, for noise sources that are in the same place, a blind source separation method is utilized to further separate and identify the noise sources. Finally, a coherence function method, continuous wavelet time-frequency analysis method, and prior knowledge of the diesel engine are combined to further identify the separation results. The results show that the proposed method can effectively separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine. The frequency of the combustion noise and the piston slap noise are respectively concentrated at 4350 Hz and 1988 Hz. Compared with the blind source separation method, the proposed method has superior separation and identification effects, and the separation results have fewer interference components from other noise.

  13. Robust speech dereverberation with a neural network-based post-filter that exploits multi-conditional training of binaural cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    -frequency (T-F) units. A multi-conditional training (MCT) procedure was used to simulate the uncertainties of short-term binaural cues in response to room reverberation by mixing the direct part of head related impulse responses (HRIRs) with diffuse noise. Despite being trained with only anechoic HRIRs...

  14. Effects of Binaural Sensory Aids on the Development of Visual Perceptual Abilities in Visually Handicapped Infants. Final Report, April 15, 1982-November 15, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Verna; Ferrell, Kay

    Twenty-four congenitally visually handicapped infants, aged 6-24 months, participated in a study to determine (1) those stimuli best able to elicit visual attention, (2) the stability of visual acuity over time, and (3) the effects of binaural sensory aids on both visual attention and visual acuity. Ss were dichotomized into visually handicapped…

  15. The effect of music with and without binaural beat audio on operative anxiety in patients undergoing cataract surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwatwongwana, D; Vichitvejpaisal, P; Thaikruea, L; Klaphajone, J; Tantong, A; Wiwatwongwana, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anxiolytic effects of binaural beat embedded audio in patients undergoing cataract surgery under local anesthesia. Methods This prospective RCT included 141 patients undergoing cataract surgery under local anesthesia. The patients were randomized into three groups; the Binaural beat music group (BB), the plain music intervention group (MI), and a control group (ear phones with no music). Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured on admission, at the beginning of and 20 min after the start of the operation. Peri-operative anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire (STAI). Results The BB and MI groups comprised 44 patients each and the control group 47. Patients in the MI group and BB group showed significant reduction of STAI state scores after music intervention compared with the control group (Pbinaural beat, was proven to decrease anxiety level and lower systolic BP. Patients who received binaural beat audio showed additional decrease in heart rate. Binaural beat embedded musical intervention may have benefit over musical intervention alone in decreasing operative anxiety. PMID:27740618

  16. Efficacy of Theta Binaural Beats for the Treatment of Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampi, Donna D

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health, in 2011, chronic pain affected from approximately 10% to >50% of the adult population in the United States, with a cost of $61 billion to US businesses annually. The pilot study assessed the effects that an external, audio, neural stimulus of theta binaural beats (TBB) had on returning the brain neurosignature for chronic pain to homeostasis. The quantitative, experimental, repeated-measures crossover study compared the results of 2 interventions in 2 time-order sequences. An a priori analysis indicated a sample size of 28 participants was needed for a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study was conducted in Richmond, VA, USA, with participants recruited from the financial sector. Thirty-six US adults with various types of chronic pain, and with a median age of 47 y, ranging in ages from 26-69 y, participated in the study. The study experienced 4 dropouts. Participants listened to 2 recordings-one using TBB at 6 Hz (TBB intervention) and one using a placebo of a nonbinaural beat tone of 300 Hz (sham intervention) for 20 min daily. Both interventions lasted 14 successive days each, with some participants hearing the TBB intervention first and the sham intervention second and some hearing them in the reverse order. Participants listened to the interventions via a Web site on the Internet or via a compact disc. Interviews were conducted either in person or telephonically with e-mail support. Using the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), potential changes in perceived severity of chronic pain were measured (1) at baseline; (2) after the first test at 14 d, either TBB or sham intervention; and (3) after the second test at 28 d-either TBB or sham intervention. The analysis compared the average mean for pretest and first and second posttest scores. The analysis indicated a large main effect for the TBB intervention in reducing perceived pain severity, P<.001 (F2,60=84.98, r=0

  17. The Impact of Task Demands on Fixation-Related Brain Potentials during Guided Search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Ries

    Full Text Available Recording synchronous data from EEG and eye-tracking provides a unique methodological approach for measuring the sensory and cognitive processes of overt visual search. Using this approach we obtained fixation related potentials (FRPs during a guided visual search task specifically focusing on the lambda and P3 components. An outstanding question is whether the lambda and P3 FRP components are influenced by concurrent task demands. We addressed this question by obtaining simultaneous eye-movement and electroencephalographic (EEG measures during a guided visual search task while parametrically modulating working memory load using an auditory N-back task. Participants performed the guided search task alone, while ignoring binaurally presented digits, or while using the auditory information in a 0, 1, or 2-back task. The results showed increased reaction time and decreased accuracy in both the visual search and N-back tasks as a function of auditory load. Moreover, high auditory task demands increased the P3 but not the lambda latency while the amplitude of both lambda and P3 was reduced during high auditory task demands. The results show that both early and late stages of visual processing indexed by FRPs are significantly affected by concurrent task demands imposed by auditory working memory.

  18. Monaural and binaural response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rabbit: effects of sodium pentobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, S; Batra, R; Stanford, T R

    1989-02-01

    1. We studied the effects of sodium pentobarbital on 22 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the rabbit. We recorded changes in the sensitivity of these neurons to monaural stimulation and to ongoing interaural time differences (ITDs). Monaural stimuli were tone bursts at or near the neuron's best frequency. The ITD was varied by delivering tones that differed by 1 Hz to the two ears, resulting in a 1-Hz binaural beat. 2. We assessed a neuron's ITD sensitivity by calculating three measures from the responses to binaural beats: composite delay, characteristic delay (CD), and characteristic phase (CP). To obtain the composite delay, we first derived period histograms by averaging, showing the response at each stimulating frequency over one period of the beat frequency. Second, the period histograms were replotted as a function of their equivalent interaural delay and then averaged together to yield the composite delay curve. Last, we calculated the composite peak or trough delay by fitting a parabola to the peak or trough of this composite curve. The composite delay curve represents the average response to all frequencies within the neuron's responsive range, and the peak reflects the interaural delay that produces the maximum response. The CD and CP were estimated from a weighted fit of a regression line to the plot of the mean interaural phase of the response versus the stimulating frequency. The slope and phase intercept of this regression line yielded estimates of CD and CP, respectively. These two quantities are thought to reflect the mechanism of ITD sensitivity, which involves the convergence of phase-locked inputs on a binaural cell. The CD estimates the difference in the time required for the two inputs to travel from either ear to this cell, whereas the CP reflects the interaural phase difference of the inputs at this cell. 3. Injections of sodium pentobarbital at subsurgical dosages (less than 25 mg/kg) almost invariably altered the neuron's response

  19. Effects of dual-task cognitive-gait intervention on memory and gait dynamics in older adults with a history of falls: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Joshua H; Shetty, Anand; Jones, Tawaih; Shields, Kimberli; Belay, Yordanos; Brown, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The present study highlights the effects of the dual-task cognitive-gait intervention (CGI) on working memory and gait functions in older adults with a history of falls. Thirteen older adults with a history of falls were recruited from local community centers and randomly stratified into either the control (n = 5) or experimental (n = 8) group. The experimental group received the dual-task cognitive-motor intervention involving simultaneous motor (walking) and cognitive (memory recall) task whereas the control group received a placebo treatment (walking with simple music). The intervention was provided 30 minutes per session, over a 6-week period. Memory measures included a combination of word recall and arithmetic task. Gait function measures included velocity and center of pressure (COP) stability. Non-parametric tests were used at p memory performance than the control (p long-term dual-task cognitive-motor intervention improved memory of older adults with a history of falls under the dual cognitive motor task condition.

  20. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L.

    2013-01-01

    at a fixed physical intensity is varied by introducing auditory cues of (i) interaural target signal phase disparity and (ii) coherent masker level fluctuations in different frequency regions. In agreement with previous studies, psychoacoustical experiments showed that both stimulus manipulations result......The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound...... in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners...

  1. Biobehavioral Insights into Adaptive Behavior in Complex and Dynamic Operational Settings: Lessons learned from the Soldier Performance and Effective, Adaptable Response Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Haufler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the biobehavioral correlates of adaptive behavior in the context of a standardized laboratory-based mission-relevant challenge [the Soldier Performance and Effective, Adaptable Response (SPEAR task]. Participants were 26 healthy male volunteers (M = 34.85 years, SD = 4.12 with active military duty and leadership experience within the last 5 years (i.e., multiple leadership positions, operational deployments in combat, interactions with civilians and partner nation forces on the battlefield, experience making decisions under fire. The SPEAR task simultaneously engages perception, cognition, and action aspects of human performance demands similar to those encountered in the operational setting. Participants must engage with military-relevant text, visual, and auditory stimuli, interpret new information, and retain the commander’s intent in working memory to create a new plan of action for mission success. Time-domain measures of heart period and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA were quantified, and saliva was sampled [later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA] before-, during-, and post-SPEAR. Results revealed a predictable pattern of withdraw and recovery of the cardiac vagal tone during repeated presentation of battlefield challenges. Recovery of vagal inhibition following executive function challenge was strongly linked to better task-related performance. Rate of RSA recovery was also associated with better recall of the commander’s intent. Decreasing magnitude in the skin conductance response prior to the task was positively associated with better overall task-related performance. Lower levels of RSA were observed in participants who reported higher rates of combat deployments, and reduced RSA flexibility was associated with higher rates of casualty exposure. Greater RSA flexibility during SPEAR was associated with greater self-reported resilience. There was no consistent

  2. Pilot feasibility study of binaural auditory beats for reducing symptoms of inattention in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Susan; Taylor, Ann Gill; Lyon, Debra; Bourguignon, Cheryl

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the potential for the use of binaural auditory beat stimulation to reduce the symptom of inattention in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This pilot study had a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Twenty participants were randomly assigned to listen to either an audio program on compact disk that contained binaural auditory beats or a sham audio program that did not have binaural beats for 20 minutes, three times a week for 3 weeks. The Children's Color Trails Test, the Color Trails Test, the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), and the Homework Problem Checklist were used to measure changes in inattention pre- and postintervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze pre- and postintervention scores on the Color Trails Tests, Homework Problem Checklist, and the TOVA. The effect of time was significant on the Color Trails Test. However, there were no significant group differences on the Color Trails Test or the TOVA scores postintervention. Parents reported that the study participants had fewer homework problems postintervention. The results from this study indicate that binaural auditory beat stimulation did not significantly reduce the symptom of inattention in the experimental group. However, parents and adolescents stated that homework problems due to inattention improved during the 3-week study. Parents and participants stated that the modality was easy to use and helpful. Therefore, this modality should be studied over a longer time frame in a larger sample to further its effectiveness to reduce the symptom of inattention in those diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Lawrence E

    2001-01-01

    Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.

  4. The effects of noise-bandwidth, noise-fringe duration, and temporal signal location on the binaural masking-level difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Ifat; Henning, G Bruce

    2012-07-01

    The effects of forward and backward noise fringes on binaural signal detectability were investigated. Masked thresholds for a 12-ms, 250-Hz, sinusoidal signal masked by Gaussian noise, centered at 250 Hz, with bandwidths from 3 to 201 Hz, were obtained in N(0)S(0) and N(0)S(π) configurations. The signal was (a) temporally centered in a 12-ms noise burst (no fringe), (b) presented at the start of a 600-ms noise burst (backward fringe), or (c) temporally centered in a 600-ms noise burst (forward-plus-backward fringe). For noise bandwidths between 3 and 75 Hz, detection in N(0)S(0) improved with the addition of a backward fringe, improving further with an additional forward fringe; there was little improvement in N(0)S(π). The binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) increased from 0 to 8 dB with a forward-plus-backward fringe as noise bandwidths increased to 100 Hz, increasing slightly to 10 dB at 201 Hz. This two-stage increase was less pronounced with a backward fringe. With no fringe, the BMLD was about 10-14 dB at all bandwidths. Performance appears to result from the interaction of across-time and across-frequency listening strategies and the possible effects of gain reduction and suppression, which combine in complex ways. Current binaural models are, as yet, unable to account fully for these effects.

  5. Evaluation of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Subjects With Acquired Unilateral Profound Hearing Loss: Focus on Binaural Auditory Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    Cochlear implantation (CI) in subjects with unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss was investigated. The authors of the present study demonstrated the binaural auditory outcomes in a 12- and 36-month prospective cohort outcome study. The present study aimed to do a long-term (LT) evaluation of the auditory outcomes in an analogous study group. LT evaluation was derived from 12 single-sided deaf (SSD) CI recipients and from 11 CI recipients with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL). A structured interview was conducted with each subjects. Speech perception in noise and sound localization were assessed in a CIOFF and in a CION condition. Four binaural effects were calculated: summation effect (S0N0), squelch effect (S0NCI), combined head shadow effect (SCIN0), and spatial release from masking (SRM). At the LT evaluation, the contribution of a CI or a bone conduction device on speech perception in noise was investigated in two challenging spatial configurations in the SSD group. All (23/23) subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation, which ranged from 3 to 10 years after implantation. In the SSD group, a significant combined head shadow effect of 3.17 dB and an SRM benefit of 4.33 dB were found. In the AHL group, on the other hand, the summation effect (2.00 dB), the squelch effect (2.67 dB), the combined head shadow effect (3.67 dB), and SRM benefit (2.00 dB) were significant at LT testing. In both the spatial challenging configurations, the speech in noise results was significantly worse in the condition with the bone conduction device compared with the unaided condition. No negative effect was found for the CION condition. A significant benefit in the CION condition was found for sound localization compared with the CIOFF condition in the SSD group and in the AHL group. All subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation. The presence of binaural effects has been demonstrated with speech in noise testing, sound localization

  6. I Don’t Want to Miss a Thing – Learning Dynamics and Effects of Feedback Type and Monetary Incentive in a Paired Associate Deterministic Learning Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Gawlowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective functioning in a complex environment requires adjusting of behavior according to changing situational demands. To do so, organisms must learn new, more adaptive behaviors by extracting the necessary information from externally provided feedback. Not surprisingly, feedback-guided learning has been extensively studied using multiple research paradigms. The purpose of the present study was to test the newly designed Paired Associate Deterministic Learning task (PADL, in which participants were presented with either positive or negative deterministic feedback. Moreover, we manipulated the level of motivation in the learning process by comparing blocks with strictly cognitive, informative feedback to blocks where participants were additionally motivated by anticipated monetary reward or loss. Our results proved the PADL to be a useful tool not only for studying the learning process in a deterministic environment, but also, due to the varying task conditions, for assessing differences in learning patterns. Particularly, we show that the learning process itself is influenced by manipulating both the type of feedback information and the motivational significance associated with the expected monetary reward.

  7. INCIDENCIA DE TAREAS DE APRENDIZAJE EN LA DINÁMICA DEL INTERÉS. UN ESTUDIO EN EDUCACIÓN TECNOLÓGICA (INCIDENCE OF LEARNING TASKS IN THE DYNAMICS OF INTEREST. A STUDY IN TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirigoyen María Amelia

    2011-04-01

    findings from a descriptive, instructional designs based on the impact of tasks considered the Science-Technology-Society-Environment (contextualized tasks and those who did not (not contextualized tasks, the dynamics of students' interest in the subject Technology Education. That is to say, we aimed to analyze and discuss whether the proposed tasks produced a greater or lesser interest in the students for their achievement. Data were collected through classroom observations, which responded to the qualitative paradigm of research, conducted in 2009. We worked with students in sixth grade, freshman and junior year and with their teachers in the city of Rio Cuarto (Cordoba, Argentina and in a nearby locality. The results confirmed that the contextualized tasks that were included in the content of technology (biotechnology, greenhouse, etc. To pose problems related to scientific, social and environmental generated interest among students. However, the study showed that contextualize the work was not always sufficient and necessary factors were linked to the promotion of interest-called situational interest factors, such as mode of presentation of tasks, explanations of the goals of the tasks and feedback on its realization, etc. Thus, we identified indicators of student interest (request for assistance, consultation questions, showing progress, permanence tasks, etc. and situational interest factors already mentioned. Consideration of situational interest and the contextualization of the tasks in the teaching of technology becomes important to promote the interests of individual students.

  8. Accounting for binaural detection as a function of masker interaural correlation: effects of center frequency and bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Leslie R; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2014-12-01

    Binaural detection was measured as a function of the center frequency, bandwidth, and interaural correlation of masking noise. Thresholds were obtained for 500-Hz or 125-Hz Sπ tonal signals and for the latter stimuli (noise or signal-plus-noise) transposed to 4 kHz. A primary goal was assessment of the generality of van der Heijden and Trahiotis' [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101, 1019-1022 (1997)] hypothesis that thresholds could be accounted for by the "additive" masking effects of the underlying No and Nπ components of a masker having an interaural correlation of ρ. Results indicated that (1) the overall patterning of the data depended neither upon center frequency nor whether information was conveyed via the waveform or by its envelope; (2) thresholds for transposed stimuli improved relative to their low-frequency counterparts as bandwidth of the masker was increased; (3) the additivity approach accounted well for the data across stimulus conditions but consistently overestimated MLDs, especially for narrowband maskers; (4) a quantitative approach explicitly taking into account the distributions of time-varying ITD-based lateral positions produced by masker-alone and signal-plus-masker waveforms proved more successful, albeit while employing a larger set of assumptions, parameters, and computational complexity.

  9. Sound localization in common vampire bats: Acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°—within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  10. Technology Integration (Task 20) Aeroservoelastic Modeling and Design Studies. Part A; Evaluation of Aeroservoelastic Effects on Flutter and Dynamic Gust Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, K. S.; Kraft, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    The HSCT Flight Controls Group has developed longitudinal control laws, utilizing PTC aeroelastic flexible models to minimize aeroservoelastic interaction effects, for a number of flight conditions. The control law design process resulted in a higher order controller and utilized a large number of sensors distributed along the body for minimizing the flexibility effects. Processes were developed to implement these higher order control laws for performing the dynamic gust loads and flutter analyses. The processes and its validation were documented in Reference 2, for selected flight condition. The analytical results for additional flight conditions are presented in this document for further validation.

  11. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users’ preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNeher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1 performance on a measure of reading span (RS is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR strength, (2 similar relations exist for two different, nonverbal measures of executive function, (3 pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and microphone directionality (DIR also influence preferred NR strength, and (4 preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker relations between worse performance on one nonverbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings.

  12. Objective Prediction of Hearing Aid Benefit Across Listener Groups Using Machine Learning: Speech Recognition Performance With Binaural Noise-Reduction Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc R.; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger

    2018-01-01

    The simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE) was adopted and validated to predict the individual speech-in-noise recognition performance of listeners with normal and impaired hearing with and without a given hearing-aid algorithm. FADE uses a simple automatic speech recognizer (ASR) to estimate the lowest achievable speech reception thresholds (SRTs) from simulated speech recognition experiments in an objective way, independent from any empirical reference data. Empirical data from the literature were used to evaluate the model in terms of predicted SRTs and benefits in SRT with the German matrix sentence recognition test when using eight single- and multichannel binaural noise-reduction algorithms. To allow individual predictions of SRTs in binaural conditions, the model was extended with a simple better ear approach and individualized by taking audiograms into account. In a realistic binaural cafeteria condition, FADE explained about 90% of the variance of the empirical SRTs for a group of normal-hearing listeners and predicted the corresponding benefits with a root-mean-square prediction error of 0.6 dB. This highlights the potential of the approach for the objective assessment of benefits in SRT without prior knowledge about the empirical data. The predictions for the group of listeners with impaired hearing explained 75% of the empirical variance, while the individual predictions explained less than 25%. Possibly, additional individual factors should be considered for more accurate predictions with impaired hearing. A competing talker condition clearly showed one limitation of current ASR technology, as the empirical performance with SRTs lower than −20 dB could not be predicted. PMID:29692200

  13. Objective Prediction of Hearing Aid Benefit Across Listener Groups Using Machine Learning: Speech Recognition Performance With Binaural Noise-Reduction Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc R; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger

    2018-01-01

    The simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE) was adopted and validated to predict the individual speech-in-noise recognition performance of listeners with normal and impaired hearing with and without a given hearing-aid algorithm. FADE uses a simple automatic speech recognizer (ASR) to estimate the lowest achievable speech reception thresholds (SRTs) from simulated speech recognition experiments in an objective way, independent from any empirical reference data. Empirical data from the literature were used to evaluate the model in terms of predicted SRTs and benefits in SRT with the German matrix sentence recognition test when using eight single- and multichannel binaural noise-reduction algorithms. To allow individual predictions of SRTs in binaural conditions, the model was extended with a simple better ear approach and individualized by taking audiograms into account. In a realistic binaural cafeteria condition, FADE explained about 90% of the variance of the empirical SRTs for a group of normal-hearing listeners and predicted the corresponding benefits with a root-mean-square prediction error of 0.6 dB. This highlights the potential of the approach for the objective assessment of benefits in SRT without prior knowledge about the empirical data. The predictions for the group of listeners with impaired hearing explained 75% of the empirical variance, while the individual predictions explained less than 25%. Possibly, additional individual factors should be considered for more accurate predictions with impaired hearing. A competing talker condition clearly showed one limitation of current ASR technology, as the empirical performance with SRTs lower than -20 dB could not be predicted.

  14. Job Management and Task Bundling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Evan; Jansen, Gustav R.; McElvain, Kenneth; Walker-Loud, André

    2018-03-01

    High Performance Computing is often performed on scarce and shared computing resources. To ensure computers are used to their full capacity, administrators often incentivize large workloads that are not possible on smaller systems. Measurements in Lattice QCD frequently do not scale to machine-size workloads. By bundling tasks together we can create large jobs suitable for gigantic partitions. We discuss METAQ and mpi_jm, software developed to dynamically group computational tasks together, that can intelligently backfill to consume idle time without substantial changes to users' current workflows or executables.

  15. Job Management and Task Bundling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkowitz Evan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Computing is often performed on scarce and shared computing resources. To ensure computers are used to their full capacity, administrators often incentivize large workloads that are not possible on smaller systems. Measurements in Lattice QCD frequently do not scale to machine-size workloads. By bundling tasks together we can create large jobs suitable for gigantic partitions. We discuss METAQ and mpi_jm, software developed to dynamically group computational tasks together, that can intelligently backfill to consume idle time without substantial changes to users’ current workflows or executables.

  16. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L

    2013-12-01

    The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound at a fixed physical intensity is varied by introducing auditory cues of (i) interaural target signal phase disparity and (ii) coherent masker level fluctuations in different frequency regions. In agreement with previous studies, psychoacoustical experiments showed that both stimulus manipulations result in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners who participated in the psychoacoustical experiment. The data indicate differences in N1 and P2 between stimuli with and without interaural phase disparities. However, differences for stimuli with and without coherent masker modulation were only found for P2, i.e., only P2 is sensitive to the increase in audibility, irrespective of the cue that caused the masking release. The amplitude of P2 is consistent with the psychoacoustical finding of an addition of the masking releases when both cues are present. Even though it cannot be concluded where along the auditory pathway the audibility is represented, the P2 component of auditory evoked potentials is a candidate for an objective measure of audibility in the human auditory system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving speech-in-noise recognition for children with hearing loss: potential effects of language abilities, binaural summation, and head shadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Tarr, Eric; Lowenstein, Joanna H; Rice, Caitlin; Moberly, Aaron C

    2013-08-01

    This study examined speech recognition in noise for children with hearing loss, compared it to recognition for children with normal hearing, and examined mechanisms that might explain variance in children's abilities to recognize speech in noise. Word recognition was measured in two levels of noise, both when the speech and noise were co-located in front and when the noise came separately from one side. Four mechanisms were examined as factors possibly explaining variance: vocabulary knowledge, sensitivity to phonological structure, binaural summation, and head shadow. Participants were 113 eight-year-old children. Forty-eight had normal hearing (NH) and 65 had hearing loss: 18 with hearing aids (HAs), 19 with one cochlear implant (CI), and 28 with two CIs. Phonological sensitivity explained a significant amount of between-groups variance in speech-in-noise recognition. Little evidence of binaural summation was found. Head shadow was similar in magnitude for children with NH and with CIs, regardless of whether they wore one or two CIs. Children with HAs showed reduced head shadow effects. These outcomes suggest that in order to improve speech-in-noise recognition for children with hearing loss, intervention needs to be comprehensive, focusing on both language abilities and auditory mechanisms.

  18. Cognitive task analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis is defined as the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures that underlie observable task performance. Cognitive task analyses are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, including the

  19. The Applicability of Rhythm-Motor Tasks to a New Dual Task Paradigm for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ji Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the interplay between cognitive and motor functions during walking, cognitive demands required during gait have been investigated with regard to dual task performance. Along with the needs to understand how the type of concurrent task while walking affects gait performance, there are calls for diversified dual tasks that can be applied to older adults with varying levels of cognitive decline. Therefore, this study aimed to examine how rhythm-motor tasks affect dual task performance and gait control, compared to a traditional cognitive-motor task. Also, it examined whether rhythm-motor tasks are correlated with traditional cognitive-motor task performance and cognitive measures. Eighteen older adults without cognitive impairment participated in this study. Each participant was instructed to walk at self-paced tempo without performing a concurrent task (single walking task and walk while separately performing two types of concurrent tasks: rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks. Rhythm-motor tasks included instrument playing (WalkIP, matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkRC, and instrument playing while matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkIP+RC. The cognitive-motor task involved counting forward by 3s (WalkCount.f3. In each condition, dual task costs (DTC, a measure for how dual tasks affect gait parameters, were measured in terms of walking speed and stride length. The ratio of stride length to walking speed, a measure for dynamic control of gait, was also examined. The results of this study demonstrated that the task type was found to significantly influence these measures. Rhythm-motor tasks were found to interfere with gait parameters to a lesser extent than the cognitive-motor task (WalkCount.f3. In terms of ratio measures, stride length remained at a similar level, walking speed greatly decreased in the WalkCount.f3 condition. Significant correlations between dual task-related measures during rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks support the

  20. Task demand, task management, and teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braarud, Per Oeivind; Brendryen, Haavar

    2001-03-15

    The current approach to mental workload assessment in process control was evaluated in 3 previous HAMMLAB studies, by analysing the relationship between workload related measures and performance. The results showed that subjective task complexity rating was related to team's control room performance, that mental effort (NASA-TLX) was weakly related to performance, and that overall activity level was unrelated to performance. The results support the argument that general cognitive measures, i.e., mental workload, are weakly related to performance in the process control domain. This implies that other workload concepts than general mental workload are needed for valid assessment of human reliability and for valid assessment of control room configurations. An assessment of task load in process control suggested that how effort is used to handle task demand is more important then the level of effort invested to solve the task. The report suggests two main workload related concepts with a potential as performance predictors in process control: task requirements, and the work style describing how effort is invested to solve the task. The task requirements are seen as composed of individual task demand and team demand. In a similar way work style are seen as composed of individual task management and teamwork style. A framework for the development of the concepts is suggested based on a literature review and experiences from HAMMLAB research. It is suggested that operational definitions of workload concepts should be based on observable control room behaviour, to assure a potential for developing performance-shaping factors. Finally an explorative analysis of teamwork measures and performance in one study indicated that teamwork concepts are related to performance. This lends support to the suggested development of team demand and teamwork style as elements of a framework for the analysis of workload in process control. (Author)

  1. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  2. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  3. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  4. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  5. Influencia de la estimulación sonora binaural en la generación de ondas cerebrales. Estudio electroencefalográfico

    OpenAIRE

    González Velasco, Pedro Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción y objetivos. La audición binaural permite al sistema auditivo realizar un correcto análisis de la información que portan las ondas sonoras al posibilitar la comparación de la señal que llega a cada oído. La relación de ambos lados de la vía auditiva sucede casi desde el inicio de la misma, ya en el tronco cerebral, mediante decusaciones de fibras al lado contralateral de la vía auditiva. De esta manera, la estimulación sonora influye en la actividad del sistema nervioso y, pos...

  6. Multi-Task Video Captioning with Video and Entailment Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Pasunuru, Ramakanth; Bansal, Mohit

    2017-01-01

    Video captioning, the task of describing the content of a video, has seen some promising improvements in recent years with sequence-to-sequence models, but accurately learning the temporal and logical dynamics involved in the task still remains a challenge, especially given the lack of sufficient annotated data. We improve video captioning by sharing knowledge with two related directed-generation tasks: a temporally-directed unsupervised video prediction task to learn richer context-aware vid...

  7. Modeling binaural signal detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breebaart, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    With the advent of multimedia technology and powerful signal processing systems, audio processing and reproduction has gained renewed interest. Examples of products that have been developed are audio coding algorithms to efficiently store and transmit music and speech, or audio reproduction systems

  8. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport

  9. "Photographing money" task pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhongxiang

    2018-05-01

    "Photographing money" [1]is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The task pricing is reasonable, related to the success of the commodity inspection. First of all, we analyzed the position of the mission and the membership, and introduced the factor of membership density, considering the influence of the number of members around the mission on the pricing. Multivariate regression of task location and membership density using MATLAB to establish the mathematical model of task pricing. At the same time, we can see from the life experience that membership reputation and the intensity of the task will also affect the pricing, and the data of the task success point is more reliable. Therefore, the successful point of the task is selected, and its reputation, task density, membership density and Multiple regression of task positions, according to which a nhew task pricing program. Finally, an objective evaluation is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the established model and solution method, and the improved method is pointed out.

  10. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...... and board task performance....

  11. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex exhibits activation during task preparation but deactivation during task execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Koshino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.

  12. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  13. Task leaders reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loriaux, E.F.; Jehee, J.N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.1. ''Survey of existing documentation relevant to this programme's goals'' and report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.2. ''Survey of existing Operator Support Systems and the experience with them'' are presented. 2 tabs

  14. A Framework for the Cognitive Task Analysis in Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    he present rapid development of advanced information technology and its use for support of operators of complex technical systems are changing the content of task analysis towards the analysis of mental activities in decision making. Automation removes the humans from routine tasks, and operators...... are left with disturbance control and critical diagnostic tasks, for which computers are suitable for support, if it is possible to match the computer strategies and interface formats dynamically to the requirements of the current task by means of an analysis of the cognitive task....

  15. The combined effects of forward masking by noise and high click rate on monaural and binaural human auditory nerve and brainstem potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Polyakov, Andrey; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Naomi

    2004-07-01

    To study effects of forward masking and rapid stimulation on human monaurally- and binaurally-evoked brainstem potentials and suggest their relation to synaptic fatigue and recovery and to neuronal action potential refractoriness. Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEPs) were recorded from 12 normally- and symmetrically hearing adults, in response to each click (50 dB nHL, condensation and rarefaction) in a train of nine, with an inter-click interval of 11 ms, that followed a white noise burst of 100 ms duration (50 dB nHL). Sequences of white noise and click train were repeated at a rate of 2.89 s(-1). The interval between noise and first click in the train was 2, 11, 22, 44, 66 or 88 ms in different runs. ABEPs were averaged (8000 repetitions) using a dwell time of 25 micros/address/channel. The binaural interaction components (BICs) of ABEPs were derived and the single, centrally located equivalent dipoles of ABEP waves I and V and of the BIC major wave were estimated. The latencies of dipoles I and V of ABEP, their inter-dipole interval and the dipole magnitude of component V were significantly affected by the interval between noise and clicks and by the serial position of the click in the train. The latency and dipole magnitude of the major BIC component were significantly affected by the interval between noise and clicks. Interval from noise and the click's serial position in the train interacted to affect dipole V latency, dipole V magnitude, BIC latencies and the V-I inter-dipole latency difference. Most of the effects were fully apparent by the first few clicks in the train, and the trend (increase or decrease) was affected by the interval between noise and clicks. The changes in latency and magnitude of ABEP and BIC components with advancing position in the click train and the interactions of click position in the train with the intervals from noise indicate an interaction of fatigue and recovery, compatible with synaptic depletion and replenishing

  16. Generic cognitive adaptations to task interference in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated how the activation of previous tasks interferes with the execution of future tasks as a result of temporal manipulations. Color and shape matching tasks were organized in runs of two trials each. The tasks were specified by a cue presented before a task run, cueing

  17. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lighting – Lighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  18. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  19. Microscopic prediction of speech intelligibility in spatially distributed speech-shaped noise for normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geravanchizadeh, Masoud; Fallah, Ali

    2015-12-01

    A binaural and psychoacoustically motivated intelligibility model, based on a well-known monaural microscopic model is proposed. This model simulates a phoneme recognition task in the presence of spatially distributed speech-shaped noise in anechoic scenarios. In the proposed model, binaural advantage effects are considered by generating a feature vector for a dynamic-time-warping speech recognizer. This vector consists of three subvectors incorporating two monaural subvectors to model the better-ear hearing, and a binaural subvector to simulate the binaural unmasking effect. The binaural unit of the model is based on equalization-cancellation theory. This model operates blindly, which means separate recordings of speech and noise are not required for the predictions. Speech intelligibility tests were conducted with 12 normal hearing listeners by collecting speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in the presence of single and multiple sources of speech-shaped noise. The comparison of the model predictions with the measured binaural SRTs, and with the predictions of a macroscopic binaural model called extended equalization-cancellation, shows that this approach predicts the intelligibility in anechoic scenarios with good precision. The square of the correlation coefficient (r(2)) and the mean-absolute error between the model predictions and the measurements are 0.98 and 0.62 dB, respectively.

  20. A Reverse Stroop Task with Mouse Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T.

    2016-01-01

    In a reverse Stroop task, observers respond to the meaning of a color word irrespective of the color in which the word is printed—for example, the word red may be printed in the congruent color (red), an incongruent color (e.g., blue), or a neutral color (e.g., white). Although reading of color words in this task is often thought to be neither facilitated by congruent print colors nor interfered with incongruent print colors, this interference has been detected by using a response method that does not give any bias in favor of processing of word meanings or processing of print colors. On the other hand, evidence for the presence of facilitation in this task has been scarce, even though this facilitation is theoretically possible. By modifying the task such that participants respond to a stimulus color word by pointing to a corresponding response word on a computer screen with a mouse, the present study investigated the possibility that not only interference but also facilitation would take place in a reverse Stroop task. Importantly, in this study, participants’ responses were dynamically tracked by recording the entire trajectories of the mouse. Arguably, this method provided richer information about participants’ performance than traditional measures such as reaction time and accuracy, allowing for more detailed (and thus potentially more sensitive) investigation of facilitation and interference in the reverse Stroop task. These trajectories showed that the mouse’s approach toward correct response words was significantly delayed by incongruent print colors but not affected by congruent print colors, demonstrating that only interference, not facilitation, was present in the current task. Implications of these findings are discussed within a theoretical framework in which the strength of association between a task and its response method plays a critical role in determining how word meanings and print colors interact in reverse Stroop tasks. PMID:27199881

  1. Is there a risk to safety when working in the New South Wales underground coal-mining industry while having binaural noise-induced hearing loss?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viljoen, D.A.; Nie, V.; Guest, M. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2006-03-15

    This study is designed to investigate the possible association between hearing loss and accidents in the New South Wales underground coal-mining industry. The study was conducted, gathering data over a 10-year period from 1994 to 2003, which identified 97 cases that have had accidents and 983 controls that have had no accidents. Hearing loss levels were noted and compared in the cases and controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether the variables were significant risk factors in the occurrence of accidents. Hearing loss levels in the total cohort varied from 0 to 54%. The proportion of cases with hearing loss appeared to be significantly higher in the young age group of {lt} 29 years than in the controls, but was not significantly different in the older age groups. This study indicates that workers who have lost up to 54% binaural high tone hearing and are older than 29 years do not appear to have an increased risk to safety when compared with workers who do not have hearing loss. However, workers in the young age group of {lt} 29 years who have high tone hearing loss may be at an increased risk of accident.

  2. Gun Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  3. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  4. Robot task space analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.; Osborn, J.

    1997-01-01

    Many nuclear projects such as environmental restoration and waste management challenges involve radiation or other hazards that will necessitate the use of remote operations that protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote work is far more costly to execute than what workers could accomplish directly with conventional tools and practices because task operations are slow and tedious due to difficulties of remote manipulation and viewing. Decades of experience within the nuclear remote operations community show that remote tasks may take hundreds of times longer than hands-on work; even with state-of-the-art force- reflecting manipulators and television viewing, remote task performance execution is five to ten times slower than equivalent direct contact work. Thus the requirement to work remotely is a major cost driver in many projects. Modest improvements in the work efficiency of remote systems can have high payoffs by reducing the completion time of projects. Additional benefits will accrue from improved work quality and enhanced safety

  5. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    by shared goals and knowledge as well as mutual respect and frequent, timely, accurate and problem-solving ways of communication with the purpose of dealing with the tasks at hand in an integrated way. We introduce and discuss relational coordination theory through a case-study within public healthcare....... Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....

  6. Default mode network connectivity during task execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, D; Menon, D K; Manktelow, A E; Sahakian, B J; Stamatakis, E A

    2015-11-15

    Initially described as task-induced deactivations during goal-directed paradigms of high attentional load, the unresolved functionality of default mode regions has long been assumed to interfere with task performance. However, recent evidence suggests a potential default mode network involvement in fulfilling cognitive demands. We tested this hypothesis in a finger opposition paradigm with task and fixation periods which we compared with an independent resting state scan using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a comprehensive analysis pipeline including activation, functional connectivity, behavioural and graph theoretical assessments. The results indicate task specific changes in the default mode network topography. Behaviourally, we show that increased connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex with the left superior frontal gyrus predicts faster reaction times. Moreover, interactive and dynamic reconfiguration of the default mode network regions' functional connections illustrates their involvement with the task at hand with higher-level global parallel processing power, yet preserved small-world architecture in comparison with rest. These findings demonstrate that the default mode network does not disengage during this paradigm, but instead may be involved in task relevant processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Task-dependent changes of corticospinal excitability during observation and motor imagery of balance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, A; Ruffieux, J; Wälchli, M; Keller, M; Taube, W

    2015-09-10

    Non-physical balance training has demonstrated to be efficient to improve postural control in young people. However, little is known about the potential to increase corticospinal excitability by mental simulation in lower leg muscles. Mental simulation of isolated, voluntary contractions of limb muscles increase corticospinal excitability but more automated tasks like walking seem to have no or only minor effects on motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may be related to the way of performing the mental simulation or the task itself. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify how corticospinal excitability is modulated during AO+MI, MI and action observation (AO) of balance tasks. For this purpose, MEPs and H-reflexes were elicited during three different mental simulations (a) AO+MI, (b) MI and (c) passive AO. For each condition, two balance tasks were evaluated: (1) quiet upright stance (static) and (2) compensating a medio-lateral perturbation while standing on a free-swinging platform (dynamic). AO+MI resulted in the largest facilitation of MEPs followed by MI and passive AO. MEP facilitation was significantly larger in the dynamic perturbation than in the static standing task. Interestingly, passive observation resulted in hardly any facilitation independent of the task. H-reflex amplitudes were not modulated. The current results demonstrate that corticospinal excitability during mental simulation of balance tasks is influenced by both the type of mental simulation and the task difficulty. As H-reflexes and background EMG were not modulated, it may be argued that changes in excitability of the primary motor cortex were responsible for the MEP modulation. From a functional point of view, our findings suggest best training/rehabilitation effects when combining MI with AO during challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  9. Data Center Tasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temares, M. Lewis; Lutheran, Joseph A.

    Operations tasking for data center management is discussed. The original and revised organizational structures of the data center at the University of Miami are also described. The organizational strategy addresses the functions that should be performed by the data center, anticipates the specialized skills required, and addresses personnel…

  10. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  11. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: still too slow · Is Wireless the answer?

  12. Divided-attention task on driving simulator: comparison among three groups of drivers

    OpenAIRE

    FREYDIER, Chloé; PAXION, Julie; BERTHELON, Catherine; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Driving is a complex and dynamic task that requires performing simultaneously several sub-tasks, as traffic management and vehicle control. Driving involves both automatic and controlled processing depending on situation met and drivers’ experience. Method: Three groups of drivers with different driving experience were submitted to a divided-attention task in order to assess the interference linked to a secondary task on driving behaviour. The main task was a car-following...

  13. Classroom Interactions in a Cooperative Translation Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui chuan Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, translation learning has become one of the main foci for university language students in Taiwan. However, many studies have shown that translation teachers tend to adopt traditional teaching methods without considering class dynamics and student interactions. This paper therefore looks into the interactions in the researcher’s designed cooperative translation task, the Cooperative Translation Task, to see how these interactions helped or hindered students’ translation learning. A small class of 25 translation students and two translation teachers were participants. Videotaping and interviews were conducted in order to investigate the interaction modes and student participants’ perspectives toward each interaction mode. Six interaction modes were found in this task: within group, between group, translator group and comment-giver group, instructor and students, guest teacher and students, and instructor and guest teacher. Based on the results and participants’ responses, suggested teaching guidelines are provided.

  14. Task distribution mechanism for effective collaboration in virtual environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Ullah, S.; Alam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) are computer generated worlds where two or more users can simultaneously interact with synthetic objects to perform a task. User performance is one of the main issues caused by either loose coordination, less awareness or communication among collaborating users. In this paper, a new model for task distribution is proposed, in which task distribution strategy among multiple users in CVEs is defined. The model assigns the task to collaborating users in CVEs either on static or dynamic basis. In static distribution there exists loose dependency and requires less communication during task realization whereas in dynamic distribution users are more dependent on each other and thus require more communication. In order to study the effect of static and dynamic task distribution strategies on user's performance in CVEs, a collaborative virtual environment is developed where twenty four (24) teams (each consists of two users) perform a task in collaboration under both strategies (static and dynamic). Results reveal that static distribution is more effective and increases users performance in CVEs. The outcome of this work will help the development of effective CVEs in the field of virtual assembly, repair, education and entertainment. (author)

  15. Analysis of operators' diagnosis tasks based on cognitive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yong; Zhang Li

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis tasks in nuclear power plants characterized as high-dynamic uncertainties are complex reasoning tasks. Diagnosis errors are the main causes for the error of commission. Firstly, based on mental model theory and perception/action cycle theory, a cognitive model for analyzing operators' diagnosis tasks is proposed. Then, the model is used to investigate a trip event which occurred at crystal river nuclear power plant. The application demonstrates typical cognitive bias and mistakes which operators may make when performing diagnosis tasks. They mainly include the strong confirmation tendency, difficulty to produce complete hypothesis sets, group mindset, non-systematic errors in hypothesis testing, and etc. (authors)

  16. Microprocessor multi-task monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludemann, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-task monitor program for microprocessors. Although written for the Intel 8085, it incorporates features that would be beneficial for implementation in other microprocessors used in controlling and monitoring experiments and accelerators. The monitor places permanent programs (tasks) arbitrarily located throughout ROM in a priority ordered queue. The programmer is provided with the flexibility to add new tasks or modified versions of existing tasks, without having to comply with previously defined task boundaries or having to reprogram all of ROM. Scheduling of tasks is triggered by timers, outside stimuli (interrupts), or inter-task communications. Context switching time is of the order of tenths of a milllisecond

  17. Contribution of monaural and binaural cues to sound localization in listeners with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss: improved directional hearing with a bone-conduction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Snik, Ad F M; Hol, Myrthe K S; Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Van Opstal, A John

    2012-04-01

    Sound localization in the horizontal (azimuth) plane relies mainly on interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs). Both are distorted in listeners with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL), reducing their ability to localize sound. Several studies demonstrated that UCHL listeners had some ability to localize sound in azimuth. To test whether listeners with acquired UCHL use strongly perturbed binaural difference cues, we measured localization while they listened with a sound-attenuating earmuff over their impaired ear. We also tested the potential use of monaural pinna-induced spectral-shape cues for localization in azimuth and elevation, by filling the cavities of the pinna of their better-hearing ear with a mould. These conditions were tested while a bone-conduction device (BCD), fitted to all UCHL listeners in order to provide hearing from the impaired side, was turned off. We varied stimulus presentation levels to investigate whether UCHL listeners were using sound level as an azimuth cue. Furthermore, we examined whether horizontal sound-localization abilities improved when listeners used their BCD. Ten control listeners without hearing loss demonstrated a significant decrease in their localization abilities when they listened with a monaural plug and muff. In 4/13 UCHL listeners we observed good hori