WorldWideScience

Sample records for binaural subjective modulation

  1. Monaural and binaural subjective modulation transfer functions in simple reverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The envelope of a signal is filtered by the transmission channel through which it passes. The amount of reduction for a given envelope, or modulation, frequency has been called the modulation transfer function (MTF) and can be derived from the impulse response of the transmission channel [Schroeder......, M.R. (1981) Modulation transfer-functions: Definition and measurement, Acustica, 49, 179-182]. The envelope of a speech signal is critical for intelligibility, and the speech transmission index (STI) predicts the intelligibility of speech through a given transmission channel based on its MTF...

  2. A binaural advantage in the subjective modulation transfer function with simple impulse responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The speech transmission index (STI) has been a popular method for predicting speech intelligibility in rooms. It is based on the magnitude of the modulation transfer function, which can be derived from the impulse response of the room and the background noise levels. However, it does not take into...

  3. Are binaural recordings needed for subjective and objective annoyance assessment of traffic noise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía Cortés; Song, Wookeun; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Poulsen, Torben; Manvell, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    environmental noise than the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. This study examined whether the use of binaural recordings of sound events improves the correlation between the objective metrics and the perceived annoyance, particularly for road traffic noise. Metrics based on measurement with a single...... microphone and on binaural sound field recordings have been examined and compared. In order to acquire data for the subjective perception of annoyance, a series of listening tests has been carried out. It is concluded that binaural loudness metrics from binaural recordings are better correlated with the...

  4. Subjective diffuseness of music signals convolved with binaural impulse responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Tronchin, Lamberto; Cocchi, Alessandro; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2011-07-01

    The spatial impression of sound in a hall can be quantified using sound field factors such as the interaural cross-correlation coefficient (IACC) calculated from binaural impulse response (BIR), henceforth denoted by IACC IR. The subjective diffuseness for the listener is a spatial attribute which depends on factors associated both with the source signal and with the actual sound field, and is quantified using the IACC of the signal received by the listener, henceforth denoted by IACC SR. Therefore, the subjective diffuseness in a given hall may change with the music. The aims of this study are to estimate the IACC SR from the IACC IR and the factors, which is obtained from autocorrelation function (ACF) of music signal, and to evaluate the subjective diffuseness by these factors. First, the relationship between the IACC IR and IACC SR was investigated. Second, subjective diffuseness was measured by a psycho-acoustical experiment. As a result, the IACC SR could be estimated from the IACC IR of the BIR and the effective duration ( τe) from the ACF of music signal. It was found that the effects of BIRs on subjective diffuseness could be evaluated by IACC IR for almost all subjects, while the effects of music signals could be evaluated by the τe and the width of the peak at τ=0 ( Wϕ(0) ) of the ACF.

  5. Principles of modulation processing in monaural vs. binaural hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    channels as a detection cue. Durlach [1] introduced the equalization-cancellation (EC) approach as an across-channel mechanism for explaining BMLD and it was recently used to quantitatively account for many binaural listening experiments. Buus [2] was the first to suggest that an EC-type mechanism could...... also be appropriate to account for CMR. However, it was never tested if such an approach is able to quantitatively predict CMR. The aim of the present study is to introduce an EC type model in monaural modulation processing and to test it with a certain stimulus configuration....

  6. Preserving binaural hearing of hearing impaired subjects with binaural noise reduction systems for hearing aids

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Hearing aid users experience great difficulty in understanding speech in noisy environments. This has led to the introduction of noise reduction algorithms in hearing aids. The development of these algorithms is typically done monaurally. However, the human auditory system is a binaural system, which compares and combines the signals received by both ears to perceive a sound source as a single entity in space. Providing two monaural, independently operating, noise reduction sys...

  7. Auditory cortical processing: Binaural interaction in healthy and ROBO1-deficient subjects

    OpenAIRE

    LamminmÀki, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Two functioning ears provide clear advantages over monaural listening. During natural binaural listening, robust brain-level interaction occurs between the slightly different inputs from the left and the right ear. Binaural interaction requires convergence of inputs from the two ears somewhere in the auditory system, and it therefore relies on midline crossing of auditory pathways, a fundamental property of the mammalian central nervous system. Binaural interaction plays a significant ro...

  8. A subjective evaluation of the minimum channel separation for reproducing binaural signals over loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2011-01-01

    While there are a variety of methods and tradeoffs for creating the necessary crosstalk cancellation when reproducing a binaural signal through loudspeakers in a real environment, there are no studies that reveal the minimum required crosstalk. In the current study the authors simulated varying d...

  9. Binaural Loudness Constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culling, John F; Dare, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In binaural loudness summation, diotic presentation of a sound usually produces greater loudness than monaural presentation. However, experiments using loudspeaker presentation with and without earplugs find that magnitude estimates of loudness are little altered by the earplug, suggesting a form of loudness constancy. We explored the significance of controlling stimulation of the second ear using meatal occlusion as opposed to the deactivation of one earphone. We measured the point of subjective loudness equality (PSLE) for monaural vs. binaural presentation using an adaptive technique for both speech and noise. These stimuli were presented in a reverberant room over a loudspeaker to the right of the listener, or over lightweight headphones. Using the headphones, stimuli were either presented dry, or matched to those of the loudspeaker by convolution with impulse responses measured from the loudspeaker to the listener position, using an acoustic manikin. The headphone response was also compensated. Using the loudspeaker, monaural presentation was achieved by instructing the listener to block the left ear with a finger. Near perfect binaural loudness constancy was observed using loudspeaker presentation, while there was a summation effect of 3-6 dB for both headphone conditions. However, only partial constancy was observed when meatal occlusion was simulated. These results suggest that there may be contributions to binaural loudness constancy from residual low frequencies at the occluded ear as well as a cognitive element, which is activated by the knowledge that one ear is occluded. PMID:27080647

  10. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    binaural integration mechanisms. This study investigated to what extent basic auditory measures of binaural processing as well as cognitive abilities are correlated with the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to perceive binaural pitch. Subjects from three groups (1: normal-hearing; 2: cochlear...... masking level differences and binaural intelligibility level differences than subjects from group 1, but did not necessarily show reduced scores in a lexical decision task and a reading span test. Overall, these findings confirm that binaural pitch perception is either immediate or absent in hearing...... binaural processing, but not to imply reduced cognitive function....

  11. A Subjective Evaluation of the Minimum Audible Channel Separation in Binaural Reproduction Systems Through Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter.  However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors.  This paper describes a set of subjective experime......To evaluate the performance of crosstalk cancellation systems the channel separation is usually used as parameter.  However, no systematic evaluation of the minimum audible channel separation has been found in the literature known by the authors.  This paper describes a set of subjective...

  12. Binaural Loudness Summation in the Hearing Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, David B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Binaural loudness summation was measured using three different paradigms with 10 normally hearing and 20 bilaterally symmetrical high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss subjects. Binaural summation increased with presentation level using the loudness matching procedure, with values in the 6-10 dB range. Summation decreased with level using the…

  13. The observation of theta wave modulation on brain training by 5 Hz-binaural beat stimulation in seven days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamsa-Ard, Traisak; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2015-08-01

    Traditional buddhist meditation method maybe easy for someone with high experience. However, for the beginner, it is very difficult to keep mental concentration with the tradition way for more than 5 minutes. This research aims to observe effect of the new method for meditation in various analysis methods. A piano music mixed with a 5 Hz (theta band enhancement) binaural beat frequency was used to modulate the brain signals continuously for 7 days. Male of the average age of 33.5±3.84 and female of the average age of 28.6±2.49 were participated. All participants were acquired EEGs twice, before the experiment and seven days after the experiment. We also proposed the observations on the changes of absolute powers, relative powers and brain connectivity (coherence) of the participants. After seven days of training, the absolute power, relative power, and coherence were clearly closer to the normative database. We can initially say that the recommended meditation method can efficiently mimic the effect of having the traditional buddhist meditation on enhancing the delta and theta powers in the brain. PMID:26737822

  14. The technology of binaural listening

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book reports on the application of advanced models of the human binaural hearing system in modern technology, among others, in the following areas:  binaural analysis of aural scenes, binaural de-reverberation, binaural quality assessment of audio channels, loudspeakers and performance spaces, binaural perceptual coding, binaural processing in hearing aids and cochlea implants, binaural systems in robots, binaural/tactile human-machine interfaces, speech-intelligibility prediction in rooms and/or multi-speaker scenarios. An introduction to binaural modeling and an outlook to the future are provided. Further, the book features a MATLAB toolbox to enable readers to construct their own dedicated binaural models on demand.

  15. Instructional Multiple Binaural Stethoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina C. Platon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation where human ear plays significant part. Long before doctors practiced immediate auscultation meaning placing ear directly on patient’s body by Salinsky (1990, then monaural introduced by Laennec; later binaural, Comins’s invention and Cammann developed further. Several decades numerous innovations made predominantly over chestpiece some had drawbacks. Dr Littman introduced teaching stethoscope with two headset and researcher utilized as prior art.Experimental research method used and the study aimed to determine accuracy and measurement of speed of the device in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and acceptability of user. The subjects were 19 clients and 27 nursing students, government /private registered nurses. The device are comparable to single binaural stethoscope in accuracy performance; speed of sound, former is slightly higher than the latter but still considered as normal; the device are acceptable to users; the utility model have no significant difference in accuracy performance and speed measurements of systolic and diastolic. The utility model may be tried in any acoustic activities and may be pilot tested to the Universities animal science courses, veterinary medicine other Colleges of Nursing and all health allied courses.

  16. The impact of binaural beats on creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Reedijk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through stimulating neuronal phase locking. We aimed to investigate whether binaural beats affect creative performance at all, whether they affect divergent thinking, convergent thinking, or both, and whether possible effects may be mediated by the individual striatal dopamine level. Binaural beats were presented at alpha and gamma frequency. Participants completed a divergent and a convergent thinking task to assess two important functions of creativity, and filled out the Positive And Negative Affect Scale – mood State questionnaire (PANAS-S and affect grid to measure current mood. Dopamine levels in the striatum were estimated using spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs. Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking. Individuals with low EBRs mostly benefitted from alpha binaural beat stimulation, while individuals with high EBR were unaffected or even impaired by both alpha and gamma binaural beats. This suggests that binaural beats, and possibly other forms of cognitive entrainment, are not suited for a one-size-fits-all approach, and that individual cognitive-control systems need to be taken into account when studying cognitive enhancement methods.

  17. On the use of binaural recordings for dynamic binaural reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Christensen, Flemming

    Binaural recordings are considered applicable only for static binaural reproduction. That is, playback of binaural recordings can only reproduce the sound field captured for the fixed position and orientation of the recording head. However, given some conditions it is possible to use binaural...... recordings for the reproduction of binaural signals that change according to the listener actions, i.e. dynamic binaural reproduction. Here we examine the conditions that allow for such dynamic recording/playback configuration and discuss advantages and disadvantages. Analysis and discussion focus on two...... case studies of reproduction of background sound in a car interior and of the rowing sound captured from elite athletes....

  18. Instructional Multiple Binaural Stethoscope

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina C. Platon

    2015-01-01

    The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation where human ear plays significant part. Long before doctors practiced immediate auscultation meaning placing ear directly on patient’s body by Salinsky (1990), then monaural introduced by Laennec; later binaural, Comins’s invention and Cammann developed further. Several decades numerous innovations made predominantly over chestpiece some had drawbacks. Dr Littman introduced teaching stethoscope with two headset and ...

  19. Relating the absence of binaural pitch percept to retro-cochlear impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    that the salience of binaural pitch was affected by hearing impairment. Specifically, for subjects with a sensorineural impairment, binaural pitch perception was weaker than the normal-hearing average but the pitch sensation was immediately present. In contrast, no binaural pitch sensation at all was......Binaural pitch stimuli, created by introducing an interaural phase difference over a narrow band of otherwise diotic white noise, produce an immediate tonal sensation with a pitch close to the centre of the phase-shifted band. In Santurette and Dau [Hear. Res. 223(1-2):29-47, 2007], it was shown...... cognitive abilities, were obtained in order to investigate the correlation between these outcomes and results from the binaural pitch test. As no spectral cues are provided by binaural pitch stimuli, their perception is expected to heavily depend on the acuity of fine structure coding and the accuracy of...

  20. Detection and identification of monaural and binaural pitch contours in dyslexic listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Poelmans, Hanne;

    2010-01-01

    found that a majority of dyslexic subjects were unable to hear binaural pitch, the latter obtained a clear response of dyslexic listeners to Huggins’ pitch (HP) (Cramer and Huggins, 1958). The present study clarified whether impaired binaural pitch perception is found in dyslexia. Results from a pitch...

  1. Electronic transport of graphene subjected to periodic structure modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given about graphene subjected to periodic structure modulation referring to the results of conventional two-dimensional electron systems. We cover methods of fabricating modulated structures in graphene, their electronic structures, the quantum transport of antidot lattices, and the characteristic magnetoresistance due to geometrical resonance in one-dimensional modulation. (author)

  2. Binaural loudness summation for directional sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    binaural loudness summation of the at-ear signals. Even though the effects of HRTFs were taken into account, considerable individual differences in the binaural summation of loudness remained. In order to create conditions in which the directional at-ear changes were identical for all participants, the...

  3. Control of earphone produced binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    While most people keep a high attention to the significance of the binaural recording method, whether it is e.g. individual or non-individual (as e.g. artificial head recording), many pay less attention to the type of earphone used to reproduce the binaural signals, and to the accurate control of...

  4. Parametric binaural synthesis: Background, applications and standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breebaart, D.J.; Nater, F.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of information present in HRTFs and the required processing capabilities for real-time and inter-active binaural rendering have long been a challenge for many applications for binaural rendering. More recently, parametric methods to capture the perceptually-relevant information from HRTFs

  5. Binaurality and azimuth tun-ing of neurons in the auditorycortex of the big brown bat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using a combined closed and free-field stimulation system, binaurality and azimuth tuning of the neurons in the auditory cortex of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, were studied. A variety of azimuth-tuning functions were demonstrated for the binaural neurons. The large majority of EE (contralateral and ipsilateral excitatory) neurons exhibited azimuth selectivity with the best azimuths (BA) at contralateral 30(- 40(, some at ipsilateral 20(-40( and preferred azimuth ranges (PAR, response amplitude ≥75% of maximum) between 8( and 40(. Sound source azimuths strongly modulate spike counts with a mean modulation depth of 83.8% for EE neurons. EI (contralateral excitatory and ipsilateral inhibitory) neurons have simple azimuth tuning with BA located at contralateral 20(-40( and a broad PAR ranged from 30( to 55(. The present results suggest that azimuth-tuning characteristics of binaural neurons in the auditory cortex of the bat are of significance for acoustic behaviour.

  6. Psychophysiological reactivity to auditory Binaural Beats stimulation in the alpha and theta EEG brain-wave frequency bands: A randomized, double–blind and placebo–controlled study in human healthy young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Hans Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Psicología, Departamento de Psicología Biológica y de la Salud. Fecha de lectura: 25-06-2014 Binaural beats are an acoustical illusion of the perception of a “virtual” third tone, fluctuating (i.e. beating) in its volume evoked by two carrier–sinusoids of same amplitudes, but slightly different frequencies f1 and f2, presented by stereo-headphones. Although this illusion was discovered as early as 1839 ...

  7. Directional dependence of binaural loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Sivonen, Ville Pekka

    2006-01-01

    of experiments determining the effect of sound incidence angle on loudness[1,2,3,4]. The basic experiment to be reported on here was conducted in an anechoic chamber, in which loudspeakers were mounted to present sounds from a number of directions both in the horizontal, and median planes. The...... subject’s task was to produce a loudness match to a frontal reference location, and matches were obtained via a two-interval adaptive forced-choice procedure. Narrow-band noises were used, in order to investigate the frequency-specific effects of direction on loudness. Furthermore, individual HRTFs were...... measured for each incidence angle, in order to relate the changes in actual at-ear exposure to the observed changes in loudness as a function of sound incidence. Combining the listening-test data with the physical measurements, an attempt was made to model the binaural summation underlying the directional...

  8. Binaural Hearing and Lateralisation: the Perception of Interaural Differences of Amplitude and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Trevor Maxwell

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The perception of the direction of a sound source in the horizontal plane is largely dependent upon the relative arrival times of salient points in the waveform and upon the difference in amplitude at the two ears. Other effects such as binaural release from masking are mediated mainly by the percept of lateralisation. In an extensive literature review the major experiments in binaural unmasking, discrimination and lateralisation are introduced and the most influential binaural detection and lateralisation models discussed. It is argued that these models are all cross-correlation mechanisms operating upon the differences between the firing patterns of the two auditory nerves. A study of the response of the binaural system to changes in its input would be a critical test of such models, so an experiment to measure the threshold of a static tone in noise with temporally varying interaural phase was performed. The results suggest that binaural processing is slow. The extent of lateralisation of bandpass (10%) filtered clicks of both low and high frequencies was studied with various interaural time and amplitude differences. A novel feature of the research, apart from the scaling technique used, was that subjects were encouraged to listen for multiple images. These experiments are sensitive to the breakdown of sensory fusion, and so pose a severe test for binaural models. Very similar results at both low- (250 Hz) and high- (8000 Hz) frequencies suggest a common lateralisation mechanism operating primarily upon interaural onset time differences. A binaural model is proposed which extends existing cross-correlation models. Included is an auditory nerve model which adapts and saturates. The other new element is coincidence detectors with significant (1 ms) integration times, which more closely represent the temporal integration properties of real neural networks. The inclusion of the auditory nerve model is very

  9. The vestibular system does not modulate fusimotor drive to muscle spindles in relaxed leg muscles of subjects in a near-vertical position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knellwolf, T P; Hammam, E; Macefield, V G

    2016-05-01

    It has been shown that sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) has no effect on the firing of spontaneously active muscle spindles in either relaxed or voluntarily contracting human leg muscles. However, all previous studies have been conducted on subjects in a seated position. Given that independent vestibular control of muscle spindle firing would be more valuable during postural threat, we tested the hypothesis that this modulation would become apparent for subjects in a near-vertical position. Unitary recordings were made from 18 muscle spindle afferents via tungsten microelectrodes inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve of awake human subjects laying supine on a motorized tilt table. All recorded spindle afferents were spontaneously active at rest, and each increased its firing rate during a weak static contraction. Sinusoidal bipolar binaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (±2 mA, 100 cycles) was applied to the mastoid processes at 0.8 Hz. This continuous stimulation produced a sustained illusion of "rocking in a boat" or "swinging in a hammock." The subject was then moved into a near-vertical position (75°), and the stimulation repeated. Despite robust vestibular illusions, none of the fusimotor-driven spindles exhibited phase-locked modulation of firing during sinusoidal GVS in either position. We conclude that this dynamic vestibular stimulus was insufficient to modulate the firing of fusimotor neurons in the near-vertical position. However, this does not mean that the vestibular system cannot modulate the sensitivity of muscle spindles via fusimotor neurons in free unsupported standing, when reliance on proprioceptive feedback is higher. PMID:26936989

  10. Binaural cues provide for a release from informational masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Sandra; Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Klump, Georg M

    2015-10-01

    Informational masking (IM) describes the insensitivity of detecting a change in sound features in a complex acoustical environment when such a change could easily be detected in the absence of distracting sounds. IM occurs because of the similarity between deviant sound and distracting sounds (so-called similarity-based IM) and/or stimulus uncertainty stemming from trial-to-trial variability (so-called uncertainty-based IM). IM can be abolished if similarity-based or uncertainty-based IM are minimized. Here, we modulated similarity-based IM using binaural cues. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were presented sequentially, and level-increment thresholds were measured. Deviant tones differed from standard tones by a higher sound level. Distracting tones covered a wide range of levels. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were characterized by their interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), or both ITD and ILD. The larger the ITD or ILD was, the better similarity-based IM was overcome. If both interaural differences were applied to standard/deviant tones, the release from IM was larger than when either interaural difference was used. The results show that binaural cues are potent cues to abolish similarity-based IM and that the auditory system makes use of multiple available cues. PMID:26413722

  11. Loudness enhancement - Monaural, binaural, and dichotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasian, R.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    When one tone burst (T) precedes another (S) by 100 msec, variations in the intensity of T systematically influence the loudness of S. When T is more intense than S, S is increased; and when T is less intense, S loudness is decreased. This occurs in monaural, binaural, and dichotic paradigms of signal presentation. When T and S are presented to the same ear (monaural or binaural), there is more enhancement with less intersubject variability than when they are presented to different ears (dichotic paradigm). Monaural enhancements as large as 30 dB can readily be demonstrated, but decrements rarely exceed 5 dB. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed for this loudness enhancement, which apparently shares certain characteristics with time-order error, assimilation, and temporal partial masking experiments.

  12. Analog VLSI model of binaural hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Carver A.; Arreguit, Xavier; Lazzaro, John

    1991-01-01

    The stereausis model of biological auditory processing was proposed as a representation that encodes both binaural and spectral information in a unified framework. We describe a working analog VLSI chip that implements this model of early auditory processing in the brain. The chip is a 100 000-transistor integrated circuit that computes the stereausis representation in real time, using continuous-time analog processing. The chip receives two audio inputs, representing sou...

  13. Distributed signal processing for binaural hearing aids

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Over the last centuries, hearing aids have evolved from crude and bulky horn-shaped instruments to lightweight and almost invisible digital signal processing devices. While most of the research has focused on the design of monaural apparatus, the use of a wireless link has been recently advocated to enable data transfer between hearing aids such as to obtain a binaural system. The availability of a wireless link offers brand new perspectives but also poses great technical challenges. It requi...

  14. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch percepti...

  15. Improving speech intelligibility for binaural voice transmission under disturbing noise and reverberation using virtual speaker lateralization

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. Padilla Ortiz; F. Orduña-Bustamante

    2015-01-01

    Subjective speech intelligibility tests were carried out in order to investigate strategies to improve speech intelligibility in binaural voice transmission when listening from different azimuth angles under adverse listening conditions. Phonetically balanced bi-syllable meaningful words in Spanish were used as speech material. The speech signal was played back through headphones, undisturbed, and also with the addition of high levels of disturbing noise or reverberation, with a signal to ...

  16. Loudness enhancement: Monaural, binaural and dichotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasian, R. O.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that when one tone burst precedes another by 100 msec variations in the intensity of the first systematically influences the loudness of second. When the first burst is more intense than the second, the second is increased and when the first burst is less intense, the loudness of the second is decreased. This occurs in monaural, binaural and dichotic paradigms of signal presentation. Where both bursts are presented to the same ear there is more enhancement with less intersubject variability than when they are presented to different ears. Monaural enhancements as large as 30 db can readily be demonstrated, but decrements rarely exceed 5 db. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed for this loudness enhancement, which apparently shares certain characteristics with time-order-error, assimilation, and temporal partial masking experiments.

  17. Binaural dereverberation based on interaural coherence histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westermann, Adam; Buchholz, Jorg M.; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    A binaural dereverberation algorithm is presented that utilizes the properties of the interaural coherence (IC) inspired by the concepts introduced in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)]. The algorithm introduces a non-linear sigmoidal coherence-to-gain mapping that is controlled...... by an online estimate of the present coherence statistics. The algorithm automatically adapts to a given acoustic environment and provides a stronger dereverberation effect than the original method presented in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)] in most acoustic conditions. The...... Allen et al. were considered as reference systems. The results revealed that the proposed coherence-based approach is most successful in acoustic scenarios that exhibit a significant spread in the coherence distribution where direct sound and reverberation can be segregated. This dereverberation...

  18. Microphone arrays and sound field decomposition for dynamic binaural recording

    OpenAIRE

    Bernschütz, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This thesis discusses a field-related recording technique based on microphone arrays and orthogonal sound field decomposition that delivers a suitable description for dynamic binaural reproduction. Dynamic binaural reproduction refers to a mostly headphone-based reproduction method that allows for presenting localizable virtual sources and accounts for the head movements of the recipient in order to decouple them from the spatial orientation of the virtual auditory scene. Increased source loc...

  19. Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Richardt, Gert; Potratz, Jürgen;

    2003-01-01

    , awoke around 7 A.M., and had 6 to 8 hours of sleep. Circadian profiles of vagus-associated HRV parameters revealed a marked day-night pattern, with a peak at nighttime and a plateau at daytime. The characteristic nocturnal peak and the day-night amplitude diminished with aging by decade. Estimates of......UNLABELLED: Circadian Profile of Heart Rate Variability. INTRODUCTION: Although heart rate variability (HRV) has been established as a tool to study cardiac autonomic activity, almost no data are available on the circadian patterns of HRV in healthy subjects aged 20 to 70 years. METHODS AND RESULTS...

  20. Dopaminergic Modulation of Decision Making and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Robb B; Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-07-01

    The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach-avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning. PMID:26156984

  1. Can ropinirole modulate reinforcing subjective effects of cocaine in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giovanni Icro eMaremmani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated, by means of the Cocaine Rush Visual Analogue Scale (CRVAS, the impact of ropinirole on the expected rush induced by cocaine in a group of heroin addicts abusing cocaine; the self-reported reaction to the rush blockade (if any on cocaine consumption, and the correlations between this self-reported reaction and individual, clinical and therapeutic parameters. Nineteen cocaine abuser heroin-dependent patients entered the study. Their experienced cocaine rush was 61.31±32.1% of the maximum effect previously experienced. Compared with their previous rush intensity 16 patients experienced significantly lower intensity, three the same intensity and none a higher intensity. In particular, two patients experienced a complete blockade of rush and reported a reduced use of cocaine. Fourteen patients experienced a partial blockade of cocaine rush; of these, nine reported they had reduced their use of cocaine. Ropinirole does diminish the subjective intensity of an expected cocaine rush, so interfering with the dynamics of reward, while supporting its possible use in the treatment of cocaine dependence.

  2. Spectral and binaural loudness summation for hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Dirk; Hohmann, Volker; Appell, Jens-E; Kollmeier, Birger; Ewert, Stephan D

    2016-05-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss typically results in a steepened loudness function and a reduced dynamic range from elevated thresholds to uncomfortably loud levels for narrowband and broadband signals. Restoring narrowband loudness perception for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners can lead to overly loud perception of broadband signals and it is unclear how binaural presentation affects loudness perception in this case. Here, loudness perception quantified by categorical loudness scaling for nine normal-hearing (NH) and ten HI listeners was compared for signals with different bandwidth and different spectral shape in monaural and in binaural conditions. For the HI listeners, frequency- and level-dependent amplification was used to match the narrowband monaural loudness functions of the NH listeners. The average loudness functions for NH and HI listeners showed good agreement for monaural broadband signals. However, HI listeners showed substantially greater loudness for binaural broadband signals than NH listeners: on average a 14.1 dB lower level was required to reach "very loud" (range 30.8 to -3.7 dB). Overall, with narrowband loudness compensation, a given binaural loudness for broadband signals above "medium loud" was reached at systematically lower levels for HI than for NH listeners. Such increased binaural loudness summation was not found for loudness categories below "medium loud" or for narrowband signals. Large individual variations in the increased loudness summation were observed and could not be explained by the audiogram or the narrowband loudness functions. PMID:27006003

  3. Implante coclear Digisonic SP® Binaural: acesso coronal tunelizado Digisonic SP® Binaural cochlear implant: the coronal tunneled approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O implante coclear é um grande avanço no tratamento da surdez. Há grandes evidências que a audição bilateral traz diversas vantagens ao ser humano e muito mais quando se trata de audição binaural. OBJETIVO: Este artigo tem por objetivo descrever o primeiro caso operado no Brasil, sendo o terceiro país das Américas (México e Colômbia a realizar, com implante binaural Neurelec Digisonic SP® demonstrando a técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Descrição da técnica cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: Ver técnica cirúrgica. Procedimento ocorreu sem intercorrências. DISCUSSÃO: O efeito "squelch", a somação binaural, a localização da fonte sonora e o efeito sombra da cabeça são umas das principais razões que justificam a superioridade da reabilitação binaural. O custo do tratamento deve ser levado em conta em políticas de saúde pública. CONCLUSÃO: Custo do implante coclear é um dos grandes limitadores da bilateralidade na reabilitação desse grupo de pacientes, porém, com essa tecnologia, é possível solucionar esse problema, expondo o paciente a poucos riscos, com o uso de uma técnica cirúrgica pouco invasiva.Cochlear implants represent a significant breakthrough in the treatment of hearing loss. Evidence indicates bilateral hearing brings significant benefits to patients, particularly when binaural hearing is offered. OBJECTIVE: To describe the first case of implantation of a Digisonic SP® Binaural Neurelec device in Brazil (the third implant placed in the Americas, after Mexico and Colombia and the chosen surgical approach. METHOD: Description of a surgical approach. RESULTS: The procedure was successfully completed. DISCUSSION: The squelch effect, binaural summation, location of the sound source, and the shadow effect of the head are listed among the reasons to explain the superiority of binaural rehabilitation. Cost of treatment must be considered in the development of public health policies. CONCLUSION: The cost of cochlear

  4. A systematic study of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia

    This Ph.D. thesis presents an investigation of the acoustical and psycho-acoustical characteristics of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers. The study was mainly focused on the characteristics of closely spaced loudspeakers – known as stereo-dipoles – when placed at different...... positions, e.g. in front of, above or in the back of the head. The main objective of this study is to set foundations for the design of a binaural reproduction system that is robust to head rotations and reduces front-back confusions. Different crosstalk cancellation techniques were investigated and their...... when the loudspeakers are placed above the head and that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider span angles. Based on the results obtained from those experiments, a binaural reproduction system that uses three stereo-dipoles is proposed: one pair in front, on...

  5. Binaural pitch perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien; Strelcyk, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    When two white noises differing only in phase in a particular frequency range are presented simultaneously each to one of our ears, a pitch sensation may be perceived inside the head. This phenomenon, called ’binaural pitch’ or ’dichotic pitch’, can be produced by frequency-dependent interaural...... phasedifference patterns. The evaluation of these interaural phase differences depends on the functionality of the binaural auditory system and the spectro-temporal information at its input. A melody recognition task was performed in the present study using pure-tone stimuli and six different types of noises that...... can generate a binaural pitch sensation. Normal-hearing listeners and hearing-impaired listeners with different kinds of hearing impairment participated in the experiment....

  6. Calibration aspects of binaural sound reproduction over insert earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Madsen, Esben; Hammershøi, Dorte

    Earphones are nowadays widely adopted for the reproduction of audio material in mobile multimedia and communication platforms, e.g. smartphones. Reproduction of high-quality spatial sound on such platforms can dramatically improve their applicability, and since two channels are always available in...... earphone-based reproduction, binaural reproduction can be applied directly. This paper is concerned with the theoretical and practical aspects relevant to the correct reproduction of binaural signals over insert earphones. To this purpose, a theoretical model originally developed to explain the acoustic...

  7. Acceptability of binaural hearing aids: a cross-over study.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, S D; Callaghan, D E; Hogan, S.; Meredith, R.; Rayment, A; Davis, A

    1991-01-01

    Using screening questionnaires we were able to detect individuals aged 50-65 years with hearing disability in a general practice population. Those who had better ear hearing levels of 30 dB or worse were invited to take place in a cross-over study comparing the acceptability of a monaural or binaural hearing-aid fitting. Fifty-five per cent ultimately opted for a binaural fitting and had greater hearing disability and worse mean hearing levels than those who opted for a monaural fitting. They...

  8. Binaural pitch perception in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    pitches. For the normal-hearing listeners, all types of binaural pitches could be perceived immediately and were musical. The hearing-impaired listeners could be divided into three groups based on their results: (a) some perceived all types of binaural pitches, but with decreased salience or musicality......The effects of hearing impairment on the perception of binaural-pitch stimuli were investigated. Several experiments were performed with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, including detection and discrimination of binaural pitch, and melody recognition using different types of binaural...... compared to normal-hearing listeners; (b) some could only perceive the strongest pitch types; (c) some were unable to perceive any binaural pitch at all. The performance of the listeners was not correlated with audibility. Additional experiments investigated the correlation between performance in binaural...

  9. A new perspective on binaural integration using response time methodology: super capacity revealed in conditions of binaural masking release

    OpenAIRE

    Lentz, Jennifer J.; He, Yuan; Townsend, James T.

    2014-01-01

    This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time (RT) distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180° out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demon...

  10. A New Perspective on Binaural Integration Using Response Time Methodology: Super Capacity Revealed in Conditions of Binaural Masking Release

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Lentz; Townsend, James T.

    2014-01-01

    This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180o out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demonstra...

  11. Binaural technology for e.g. rendering auditory virtual environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    acknowledge his efforts in understanding the binaural hearing and the significance of inter-aural differences, appreciation is also in place for his evaluation of localization with identical ear input signals. The relations between the hearing's "directional" bands and the transfer functions‘ "boosted" bands...

  12. Efficiency of brainwave entrainment by binaural beats in reducing anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a fundamental phenomenon that is a common symptom in all mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of brainwave entrainment on anxiety reduction using binaural beats. Methods: In this experimental double-blind study, 30 employees were selected from an engineering research firm through random sampling and replacement and divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. All participants completed the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Then, the experimental group listened to binaural beats which was recorded on a non-vocal piece of music for 4 weeks, 3 sessions each week. Each session lasted about 20 minutes. At the same time, the control group listened to the background music without any entrainment sound. At the end, both groups completed the anxiety questionnaire and the anxiety scores of both groups obtained before and after intervention were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings showed that the brainwave entrainment using binaural beats led to the significant reduction of state anxiety (P<0.001 and trait anxiety (P<0.018. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is an effective factor in decreasing state and trait anxiety; so, it can be used to reduce anxiety in mental health centers.

  13. A variant in ANKK1 modulates acute subjective effects of cocaine: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Spellicy, Catherine J.; Harding, Mark J.; Hamon, Sara C.; Mahoney, James J.; Reyes, Jennifer A; Thomas R. Kosten; Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard; Nielsen, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether functional variants in the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain-containing 1 gene (ANKK1) and/or the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) modulate the subjective effects (reward or non-reward response to a stimulus) produced by cocaine administration. Cocaine-dependent participants (N = 47) were administered 40 mg of cocaine or placebo at time 0, and a subjective effects questionnaire (visual analog scale) was administered 15 minutes prior to cocaine administratio...

  14. Characterizing responses to CFTR-modulating drugs using rectal organoids derived from subjects with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Johanna F; Berkers, Gitte; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte; de Jonge, Hugo R; Janssens, Hettie M; Bronsveld, Inez; van de Graaf, Eduard A; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Houwen, Roderick H J; Vleggaar, Frank P; Escher, Johanna C; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Majoor, Christof J; Heijerman, Harry G M; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Clevers, Hans; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Identifying subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) who may benefit from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-modulating drugs is time-consuming, costly, and especially challenging for individuals with rare uncharacterized CFTR mutations. We studied CFTR function and responses to tw

  15. A Subjective Test of Modulated Blade Spacing for Helicopter Main Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Analytically, uneven (modulated) spacing of main rotor blades was found to reduce helicopter noise. A study was performed to see if these reductions transferred to improvements in subjective response. Using a predictive computer code, sounds produced by six main rotor configurations: 4 blades evenly spaced, 5 blades evenly spaced and four configurations with 5 blades with modulated spacing of varying amounts, were predicted. These predictions were converted to audible sounds corresponding to the level flyover, takeoff and approach flight conditions. Subjects who heard the simulations were asked to assess the overflight sounds in terms of noisiness on a scale of 0 to 10. In general the evenly spaced configurations were found less noisy than the modulated spacings, possibly because the uneven spacings produced a perceptible pulsating sound due to the very low fundamental frequency.

  16. Post-Flight Test Results of Acousto-Optic Modulator Devices Subjected to Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Rosemeier, Jolanta; Diestler, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in a space environment for more than one and a half years included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance of two different COTS acousto-optic modulator (AOM) devices. Post-flight measurements indicate that these two devices did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  17. Binaural loudness summation for speech presented via earphones and loudspeaker with and without visual cuesa)

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Michael; Florentine, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data [M. Epstein and M. Florentine, Ear. Hear. 30, 234–237 (2009)] obtained using speech stimuli from a visually present talker heard via loudspeakers in a sound-attenuating chamber indicate little difference in loudness when listening with one or two ears (i.e., significantly reduced binaural loudness summation, BLS), which is known as “binaural loudness constancy.” These data challenge current understanding drawn from laboratory measurements that indicate a tone presented binaur...

  18. A High-Density EEG Investigation into Steady State Binaural Beat Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodin, Peter; Ciorciari, Joseph; Baker, Kate; Carrey, Anne-Marie; Harper, Michelle; Kaufman, Jordy

    2012-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory phenomenon that has been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes including vigilance and brainwave entrainment. Some personality traits measured by the NEO Five Factor Model have been found to alter entrainment using pulsing light stimuli, but as yet no studies have examined if this occurs using steady state presentation of binaural beats for a relatively short presentation of two minutes. This study aimed to examine if binaural beat stimulation...

  19. Haplotypes of vitamin D receptor modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Vania B. [State University of Campinas, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Sandrim, Valeria C.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Morphology, Estomatology and Physiology, Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Genetic factors influence whole blood lead (Pb-B) concentrations in lead exposed subjects. This study aimed at examining the combined effects (haplotype analysis) of three polymorphisms (BsmI, ApaI and FokI) in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Pb-B and on the concentrations of lead in plasma (Pb-P), which is more relevant to lead toxicity, in 150 environmentally exposed subjects. Genotypes were determined by RFLP, and Pb-P and Pb-B were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Subjects with the bb (BsmI polymorphism) or ff (FokI polymorphism) genotypes have lower B-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Subjects with the aa (ApaI polymorphism) or ff genotypes have lower P-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Lower Pb-P, Pb-B, and %Pb-P/Pb-B levels were found in subjects with the haplotype combining the a, b, and f alleles for the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms, respectively, compared with the other haplotype groups, thus suggesting that VDR haplotypes modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects. (orig.)

  20. Post-flight test results of acousto-optic modulator devices subjected to space exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Rosemeier, Jolanta; Diestler, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 modulewas brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance of two different COTS acousto-optic modulator devices. Post-flight measurements indicate that these two devices did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  1. A variant in ANKK1 modulates acute subjective effects of cocaine: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellicy, C J; Harding, M J; Hamon, S C; Mahoney, J J; Reyes, J A; Kosten, T R; Newton, T F; De La Garza, R; Nielsen, D A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether functional variants in the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain-containing 1 (ANKK1) gene and/or the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene modulate the subjective effects (reward or non-reward response to a stimulus) produced by cocaine administration. Cocaine-dependent participants (N = 47) were administered 40 mg of cocaine or placebo at time 0, and a subjective effects questionnaire (visual analog scale) was administered 15 min prior to cocaine administration, and at 5, 10, 15 and 20 min following administration. The influence of polymorphisms in the ANKK1 and DRD2 genes on subjective experience of cocaine in the laboratory was tested. Participants with a T allele of ANKK1 rs1800497 experienced greater subjective 'high' (P = 0.00006), 'any drug effect' (P = 0.0003) and 'like' (P = 0.0004) relative to the CC genotype group. Although the variant in the DRD2 gene was shown to be associated with subjective effects, linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that this association was driven by the ANKK1 rs1800497 variant. A participant's ANKK1 genotype may identify individuals who are likely to experience greater positive subjective effects following cocaine exposure, including greater 'high' and 'like', and these individuals may have increased vulnerability to continue using cocaine or they may be at greater risk to relapse during periods of abstinence. However, these results are preliminary and replication is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:24528631

  2. The Insulin-Mediated Modulation of Visually Evoked Magnetic Fields Is Reduced in Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschritter, Otto; Rogic, Maja; Heni, Martin; Stingl, Katarina; Hallschmid, Manfred; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert; Hennige, Anita M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin is an anorexigenic hormone that contributes to the termination of food intake in the postprandial state. An alteration in insulin action in the brain, named “cerebral insulin resistance”, is responsible for overeating and the development of obesity. Methodology/Principal Findings To analyze the direct effect of insulin on food-related neuronal activity we tested 10 lean and 10 obese subjects. We conducted a magnetencephalography study during a visual working memory task in both the basal state and after applying insulin or placebo spray intranasally to bypass the blood brain barrier. Food and non-food pictures were presented and subjects had to determine whether or not two consecutive pictures belonged to the same category. Intranasal insulin displayed no effect on blood glucose, insulin or C-peptide concentrations in the periphery; however, it led to an increase in the components of evoked fields related to identification and categorization of pictures (at around 170 ms post stimuli in the visual ventral stream) in lean subjects when food pictures were presented. In contrast, insulin did not modulate food-related brain activity in obese subjects. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated that intranasal insulin increases the cerebral processing of food pictures in lean whereas this was absent in obese subjects. This study further substantiates the presence of a “cerebral insulin resistance” in obese subjects and might be relevant in the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:21589921

  3. Characterizing responses to CFTR-modulating drugs using rectal organoids derived from subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Johanna F; Berkers, Gitte; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte; de Jonge, Hugo R; Janssens, Hettie M; Bronsveld, Inez; van de Graaf, Eduard A; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Houwen, Roderick H J; Vleggaar, Frank P; Escher, Johanna C; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Majoor, Christof J; Heijerman, Harry G M; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Clevers, Hans; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-06-22

    Identifying subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) who may benefit from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-modulating drugs is time-consuming, costly, and especially challenging for individuals with rare uncharacterized CFTR mutations. We studied CFTR function and responses to two drugs-the prototypical CFTR potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor/KALYDECO) and the CFTR corrector VX-809 (lumacaftor)-in organoid cultures derived from the rectal epithelia of subjects with CF, who expressed a broad range of CFTR mutations. We observed that CFTR residual function and responses to drug therapy depended on both the CFTR mutation and the genetic background of the subjects. In vitro drug responses in rectal organoids positively correlated with published outcome data from clinical trials with VX-809 and VX-770, allowing us to predict from preclinical data the potential for CF patients carrying rare CFTR mutations to respond to drug therapy. We demonstrated proof of principle by selecting two subjects expressing an uncharacterized rare CFTR genotype (G1249R/F508del) who showed clinical responses to treatment with ivacaftor and one subject (F508del/R347P) who showed a limited response to drug therapy both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that in vitro measurements of CFTR function in patient-derived rectal organoids may be useful for identifying subjects who would benefit from CFTR-correcting treatment, independent of their CFTR mutation. PMID:27334259

  4. The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones from 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Han, Loc A

    2000-01-01

    The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones has been measured for thirty-one otologically normal test subjects in the age range 18 to 25 years. The frequencies were 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14 and 16 kHz. The signal duration was 1 s measured...... the free field hearing threshold. At 1500 Hz a small local peak in the threshold is seen which is not reflected in the present standards.PACS 43.66 Cb; 43.66 Pn...

  5. Impurity modulated excitation profile of doped quantum dot subject to oscillatory magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The excitation profile of quantum dot subject to periodically fluctuating magnetic field has been investigated. → The quantum dot is doped with a repulsive Gaussian impurity. → The impurity domain and impurity location delicately modulate the excitation profile. → The ratio of cyclotron frequency and harmonic confinement potential has important impact on excitation rate. → The findings could have important engineering applications. - Abstract: We explore the excitation profile of a repulsive impurity doped quantum dot under periodically fluctuating magnetic field. We have considered Gaussian impurity centers. The investigation reveals the roles subtly played by the dopant coordinate and the region of influence of the dopant to modulate the excitation pattern. The rate of transition to the excited states has been invoked to analyze the interplay between the above two impurity parameters in influencing the excitation process. The ratio of cyclotron frequency and harmonic confinement potential has important impact on excitation rate.

  6. The Effect of Asymmetrical Signal Degradation on Binaural Speech Recognition in Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothpletz, Ann M.; Tharpe, Anne Marie; Grantham, D. Wesley

    2004-01-01

    To determine the effect of asymmetrical signal degradation on binaural speech recognition, 28 children and 14 adults were administered a sentence recognition task amidst multitalker babble. There were 3 listening conditions: (a) monaural, with mild degradation in 1 ear; (b) binaural, with mild degradation in both ears (symmetric degradation); and…

  7. Sound Source Distance Estimation in Rooms based on Statistical Properties of Binaural Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georganti, Eleftheria; May, Tobias; van de Par, Steven;

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for the estimation of the distance of a sound source from binaural speech signals is proposed. The method relies on several statistical features extracted from such signals and their binaural cues. Firstly, the standard deviation of the difference of the magnitude spectra of the left...

  8. Setup for demonstrating interactive binaural synthesis for telepresence applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos;

    2011-01-01

    this system as well as interfaces to relevant parts of the complete system, including tracking and network streaming. In the demonstration, the Visitor is wearing headphones and a microphone. At the Destination, the two Locals are both wearing a microphone, while the Visitor is represented using a....... The combined system was evaluated by the user experience at the demonstration, with the overall conclusion that interactive binaural synthesis is an important aspect of a fully immersive telepresence application and that we should continue in this direction examining different approaches....

  9. Comparisons between Binaural In-situ Recordings and Auralizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saher, Konca; Rindel, Jens Holger; Nijs, Lau

    2006-01-01

    The doctoral research of ‘Prediction and Assessment of Acoustical Quality in Living-rooms for People with Intellectual Disabilities’ in Delft University of Technology investigates, among other issues, the applicability and verification of auralization as a quality assessment tool in acoustical...... are discussed. The results indicate that although auralizations and binaural recordings evoke different aural perception auralization is a strong tool to assess the acoustical environment before the space is built. Two commercial programs are used for the auralizations. (ODEON and CATT-Acoustics)...

  10. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  11. A new perspective on binaural integration using response time methodology: super capacity revealed in conditions of binaural masking release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Jennifer J; He, Yuan; Townsend, James T

    2014-01-01

    This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time (RT) distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180° out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demonstrated a much lower signal detection threshold for the dichotic vs. the diotic conditions, but accuracy-based techniques do not allow for assessment of system dynamics or resource allocation across time. Further, RTs allow comparisons between these conditions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we apply a reaction-time based capacity coefficient, which provides an index of workload efficiency and quantifies the resource allocations for single ear vs. two ear presentations. We demonstrate that the release from masking generated by the addition of an identical stimulus to one ear is limited-to-unlimited capacity (efficiency typically less than 1), consistent with less gain than would be expected by probability summation. However, the dichotic presentation leads to a significant increase in workload capacity (increased efficiency)-most specifically at lower signal-to-noise ratios. These experimental results provide further evidence that configural processing plays a critical role in binaural masking release, and that these mechanisms may operate more strongly when the signal stimulus is difficult to detect, albeit still with nearly 100% accuracy. PMID:25202254

  12. A New Perspective on Binaural Integration Using Response Time Methodology: Super Capacity Revealed in Conditions of Binaural Masking Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eLentz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180o out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demonstrated a much lower signal detection threshold for the dichotic versus the diotic conditions, but accuracy-based techniques do not allow for assessment of system dynamics or resource allocation across time. Further, reaction times allow comparisons between these conditions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we apply a reaction-time based capacity coefficient, which provides an index of workload efficiency and quantifies the resource allocations for single ear versus two ear presentations. We demonstrate that the release from masking generated by the addition of an identical stimulus to one ear is limited-to-unlimited capacity (efficiency typically less than 1, consistent with less gain than would be expected by probability summation. However, the dichotic presentation leads to a significant increase in workload capacity (increased efficiency – most specifically at lower signal-to-noise ratios. These experimental results provide further evidence that configural processing plays a critical role in binaural masking release, and that these mechanisms may operate more strongly when the signal stimulus is difficult to detect, albeit still with nearly 100% accuracy.

  13. Insulin modulation of magnetoencephalographic resting state dynamics in lean and obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav T Stingl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean and obese subjects can exhibit differences in neuronal activity during resting state and tasks. Changes in hormonal status and their action related to increased body weight may be the determining factor for these differences. One prime candidate is insulin, which until recently, was mainly related to its metabolic function for the transport and regulation of glucose in the periphery. However insulin also acts as an anorexic signal in the central nervous system (CNS contributing to the termination of food-intake in the postprandial state. In our study, we examined with whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG effect of intranasal insulin on the dynamics of the resting state network in a placebo controlled study. Weighted clustering coefficient C, which describes local interconnectedness, and weighted path length L, a measure of global interconnectedness, were computed. These parameters showed high intraindividual reliability. However, no difference for the network dynamics was found between lean and obese subjects in the basal state. The application of insulin led to subject specific changes and we found a statistically significant positive correlation between the insulin induced change in path length in the theta band (4-8 Hz and body mass index. The change in pathway length after insulin administration indicates a strong insulin modulation on global communication efficiency, which is probably related to the signaling between different regions involved in satiation and homeostatic control.

  14. The effect of cochlear nonlinearities on binaural masking level differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goff, Nicolas; Kohlrausch, Armin

    the difference in BMLD between the symmetric and the two asymmetric conditions is constant, in line with the experimental data. Conclusion A model was proposed to account for the effect of level asymmetry on BMLD. The modeling results suggest that cochlear nonlinearites affect the analysis of binaural......Background The binaural masking level difference (BMLD) has been shown to be constant (10−15dB) for masker spectrum levels from 70dB/Hz down to 30−40dB/Hz and to gradually decrease with lower levels (McFadden, 1968; Hall and Harvey, 1984). The decrease at low levels was larger in an asymmetric...... levels between 50 and -10dB/Hz. The difference in BMLD between the two conditions gradually increased with decreasing masker level from 50 to 20dB/Hz and remained constant between 20 and -10dB/Hz. The proposed model could account for these data. A model analysis suggested that the increase in BMLD...

  15. Binaural release from masking with single- and multi-electrode stimulation in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ann E; Goupell, Matthew J; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-07-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide children with access to speech information from a young age. Despite bilateral cochlear implantation becoming common, use of spatial cues in free field is smaller than in normal-hearing children. Clinically fit CIs are not synchronized across the ears; thus binaural experiments must utilize research processors that can control binaural cues with precision. Research to date has used single pairs of electrodes, which is insufficient for representing speech. Little is known about how children with bilateral CIs process binaural information with multi-electrode stimulation. Toward the goal of improving binaural unmasking of speech, this study evaluated binaural unmasking with multi- and single-electrode stimulation. Results showed that performance with multi-electrode stimulation was similar to the best performance with single-electrode stimulation. This was similar to the pattern of performance shown by normal-hearing adults when presented an acoustic CI simulation. Diotic and dichotic signal detection thresholds of the children with CIs were similar to those of normal-hearing children listening to a CI simulation. The magnitude of binaural unmasking was not related to whether the children with CIs had good interaural time difference sensitivity. Results support the potential for benefits from binaural hearing and speech unmasking in children with bilateral CIs. PMID:27475132

  16. Predicting binaural speech intelligibility using the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope power spectrum domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; MacDonald, Ewen N; Dau, Torsten

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a binaural extension to the multi-resolution speech-based envelope power spectrum model (mr-sEPSM) [Jørgensen, Ewert, and Dau (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 436-446]. It consists of a combination of better-ear (BE) and binaural unmasking processes, implemented as two monaural realizations of the mr-sEPSM combined with a short-term equalization-cancellation process, and uses the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv) as the decision metric. The model requires only two parameters to be fitted per speech material and does not require an explicit frequency weighting. The model was validated against three data sets from the literature, which covered the following effects: the number of maskers, the masker types [speech-shaped noise (SSN), speech-modulated SSN, babble, and reversed speech], the masker(s) azimuths, reverberation on the target and masker, and the interaural time difference of the target and masker. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the simulated speech reception thresholds and the data across all experiments was 0.91. A model version that considered only BE processing performed similarly (correlation coefficient of 0.86) to the complete model, suggesting that BE processing could be considered sufficient to predict intelligibility in most realistic conditions. PMID:27475146

  17. Modulation of electroencephalograph activity by manual acupuncture stimulation in healthy subjects: An autoregressive spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether and how manual acupuncture (MA) modulates brain activities, we design an experiment where acupuncture at acupoint ST36 of the right leg is used to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in healthy subjects. We adopt the autoregressive (AR) Burg method to estimate the power spectrum of EEG signals and analyze the relative powers in delta (0 Hz–4 Hz), theta (4 Hz–8 Hz), alpha (8 Hz–13 Hz), and beta (13 Hz–30 Hz) bands. Our results show that MA at ST36 can significantly increase the EEG slow wave relative power (delta band) and reduce the fast wave relative powers (alpha and beta bands), while there are no statistical differences in theta band relative power between different acupuncture states. In order to quantify the ratio of slow to fast wave EEG activity, we compute the power ratio index. It is found that the MA can significantly increase the power ratio index, especially in frontal and central lobes. All the results highlight the modulation of brain activities with MA and may provide potential help for the clinical use of acupuncture. The proposed quantitative method of acupuncture signals may be further used to make MA more standardized. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Modulation of electroencephalograph activity by manual acupuncture stimulation in healthy subjects: An autoregressive spectral analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Guo-Sheng; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le; Han Chun-Xiao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether and how manual acupuncture (MA) modulates brain activities,we design an experiment where acupuncture at acupoint ST36 of the right leg is used to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in healthy subjects.We adopt the autoregressive (AR) Burg method to estimate the power spectrum of EEG signals and analyze the relative powers in delta (0 Hz-4 Hz),theta (4 Hz-8 Hz),alpha (8 Hz-13 Hz),and beta (13 Hz-30 Hz) bands.Our results show that MA at ST36 can significantly increase the EEG slow wave relative power (delta band) and reduce the fast wave relative powers (alpha and beta bands),while there are no statistical differences in theta band relative power between different acupuncture states.In order to quantify the ratio of slow to fast wave EEG activity,we compute the power ratio index.It is found that the MA can significantly increase the power ratio index,especially in frontal and central lobes.All the results highlight the modulation of brain activities with MA and may provide potential help for the clinical use of acupuncture.The proposed quantitative method of acupuncture signals may be further used to make MA more standardized.

  19. A machine-hearing system exploiting head movements for binaural sound localisation in reverberant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Ma, Ning; Wierstorf, Hagen;

    2015-01-01

    investigated the influence of different head movement strategies on binaural sound localisation. A machine-hearing system that exploits a multi-step head rotation strategy for sound localisation was found to produce the best performance in simulated reverberant acoustic space. This paper also reports the......This paper is concerned with machine localisation of multiple active speech sources in reverberant environments using two (binaural) microphones. Such conditions typically present a problem for ‘classical’ binaural models. Inspired by the human ability to utilise head movements, the current study...

  20. Beamforming under Quantization Errors in Wireless Binaural Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Janse

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving the intelligibility of speech in different environments is one of the main objectives of hearing aid signal processing algorithms. Hearing aids typically employ beamforming techniques using multiple microphones for this task. In this paper, we discuss a binaural beamforming scheme that uses signals from the hearing aids worn on both the left and right ears. Specifically, we analyze the effect of a low bit rate wireless communication link between the left and right hearing aids on the performance of the beamformer. The scheme is comprised of a generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC that has two inputs: observations from one ear, and quantized observations from the other ear, and whose output is an estimate of the desired signal. We analyze the performance of this scheme in the presence of a localized interferer as a function of the communication bit rate using the resultant mean-squared error as the signal distortion measure.

  1. Beamforming under Quantization Errors in Wireless Binaural Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Sriram

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the intelligibility of speech in different environments is one of the main objectives of hearing aid signal processing algorithms. Hearing aids typically employ beamforming techniques using multiple microphones for this task. In this paper, we discuss a binaural beamforming scheme that uses signals from the hearing aids worn on both the left and right ears. Specifically, we analyze the effect of a low bit rate wireless communication link between the left and right hearing aids on the performance of the beamformer. The scheme is comprised of a generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC that has two inputs: observations from one ear, and quantized observations from the other ear, and whose output is an estimate of the desired signal. We analyze the performance of this scheme in the presence of a localized interferer as a function of the communication bit rate using the resultant mean-squared error as the signal distortion measure.

  2. Binaural advantages in users of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Pak, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent users of bilateral and bimodal fittings should expect to benefit from all three different binaural advantages found to be present in normal-hearing listeners. Head-shadow and binaural squelch are advantages occurring under spatially separated speech and noise, while summation emerges when speech and noise coincide in space. For 14 bilateral or bimodal listeners, speech reception thresholds in the presence of four-talker babble were measured in sound-fiel...

  3. Testing the binaural equal-loudness-ratio hypothesis with hearing-impaired listeners1

    OpenAIRE

    Marozeau, Jeremy; Florentine, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present experiment was to test whether the binaural equal-loudness-ratio hypothesis (i.e., the loudness ratio between monaural and binaural tones presented at the same Sound Pressure Level, SPL, is independent of SPL) holds for hearing-impaired listeners with bilaterally symmetrical hearing losses. The outcome of this experiment provided a theoretical construct for modeling loudness-growth functions. A cross-modality matching task between string length and tones was...

  4. Advantages of Binaural Amplification to Acceptable Noise Level of Directional Hearing Aid Users

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ja-Hee; Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the present study was to examine whether Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) would be lower (greater acceptance of noise) in binaural listening than in monaural listening condition and also whether meaningfulness of background speech noise would affect ANLs for directional microphone hearing aid users. In addition, any relationships between the individual binaural benefits on ANLs and the individuals' demographic information were investigated. Methods Fourteen hearing aid us...

  5. Binaural Unmasking of Multi-channel Stimuli in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users

    OpenAIRE

    Van Deun, Lieselot; Van Wieringen, Astrid; Francart, Tom; Büchner, Andreas; Lenarz, Thomas; Wouters, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Previous work suggests that bilateral cochlear implant users are sensitive to interaural cues if experimental speech processors are used to preserve accurate interaural information in the electrical stimulation pattern. Binaural unmasking occurs in adults and children when an interaural delay is applied to the envelope of a high-rate pulse train. Nevertheless, for speech perception, binaural unmasking benefits have not been demonstrated consistently, even with coordinated stimulation at both ...

  6. A high-density EEG investigation into steady state binaural beat stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Goodin

    Full Text Available Binaural beats are an auditory phenomenon that has been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes including vigilance and brainwave entrainment. Some personality traits measured by the NEO Five Factor Model have been found to alter entrainment using pulsing light stimuli, but as yet no studies have examined if this occurs using steady state presentation of binaural beats for a relatively short presentation of two minutes. This study aimed to examine if binaural beat stimulation altered vigilance or cortical frequencies and if personality traits were involved. Thirty-one participants were played binaural beat stimuli designed to elicit a response at either the Theta (7 Hz or Beta (16 Hz frequency bands while undertaking a zero-back vigilance task. EEG was recorded from a high-density electrode cap. No significant differences were found in vigilance or cortical frequency power during binaural beat stimulation compared to a white noise control period. Furthermore, no significant relationships were detected between the above and the Big Five personality traits. This suggests a short presentation of steady state binaural beats are not sufficient to alter vigilance or entrain cortical frequencies at the two bands examined and that certain personality traits were not more susceptible than others.

  7. A high-density EEG investigation into steady state binaural beat stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Peter; Ciorciari, Joseph; Baker, Kate; Carey, Anne-Marie; Carrey, Anne-Marie; Harper, Michelle; Kaufman, Jordy

    2012-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory phenomenon that has been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes including vigilance and brainwave entrainment. Some personality traits measured by the NEO Five Factor Model have been found to alter entrainment using pulsing light stimuli, but as yet no studies have examined if this occurs using steady state presentation of binaural beats for a relatively short presentation of two minutes. This study aimed to examine if binaural beat stimulation altered vigilance or cortical frequencies and if personality traits were involved. Thirty-one participants were played binaural beat stimuli designed to elicit a response at either the Theta (7 Hz) or Beta (16 Hz) frequency bands while undertaking a zero-back vigilance task. EEG was recorded from a high-density electrode cap. No significant differences were found in vigilance or cortical frequency power during binaural beat stimulation compared to a white noise control period. Furthermore, no significant relationships were detected between the above and the Big Five personality traits. This suggests a short presentation of steady state binaural beats are not sufficient to alter vigilance or entrain cortical frequencies at the two bands examined and that certain personality traits were not more susceptible than others. PMID:22496862

  8. ACTN3 genotype and modulation of skeletal muscle response to exercise in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Barbara; Esbjörnsson, Mona; Rundqvist, Håkan; Österlund, Ted; Glenmark, Birgitta; Jansson, Eva

    2014-05-01

    α-Actinin-3 is a Z-disc protein expressed only in type II muscle fibers. A polymorphism in the ACTN3 gene (R577X) results in lack of α-actinin-3 in XX genotype. The prevalence of the mutated X-allele is lower among power/sprint oriented athletes compared with controls, indicating that the lack of α-actinin-3 is detrimental in these sports, but a mechanistic link has not been established. Results from Actn3-knockout (KO) mouse model suggest that α-actinin-3 may affect muscle mass and muscle glycogen levels. In the present investigation we examined muscle fiber type composition, cross-sectional fiber area (CSA), and muscle glycogen levels at baseline in 143 human subjects with different ACTN3 genotypes. In addition, hypertrophy signaling and glycogen utilization in response to sprint exercise were studied in a subset of subjects. Glycogen utilization was analyzed in separate pools of type I and type II fibers. No differences in fiber type composition, CSA, or muscle glycogen levels were observed at baseline across the ACTN3 genotypes. However, the sprint exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6k was smaller in XX than in RR+RX (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively), indicating a less pronounced activation of hypertrophy signaling in XX. Glycogen utilization during sprint exercise varied across ACTN3 genotypes in type II fibers (P = 0.03) but not in type I fibers (P = 0.38). The present results are in accordance with findings from the KO mice and reinforce the hypothesis that ACTN3 genotype-associated differences in muscle mass and glycogen utilization provide a mechanistic explanation for the modulation of human performance by the ACTN3 genotype. PMID:24651987

  9. Belief about Nicotine Modulates Subjective Craving and Insula Activity in Deprived Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R.; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the specific neural mechanisms through which cognitive factors influence craving and associated brain responses, despite the initial success of cognitive therapies in treating drug addiction. In this study, we investigated how cognitive factors such as beliefs influence subjective craving and neural activities in nicotine-addicted individuals using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropharmacology. Deprived smokers (N = 24) participated in a two-by-two balanced placebo design, which crossed beliefs about nicotine (told “nicotine” vs. told “no nicotine”) with the nicotine content in a cigarette (nicotine vs. placebo) which participants smoked immediately before performing a fMRI task involving reward learning. Subjects’ reported craving was measured both before smoking and after the fMRI session. We found that first, in the presence of nicotine, smokers demonstrated significantly reduced craving after smoking when told “nicotine in cigarette” but showed no change in craving when told “no nicotine.” Second, neural activity in the insular cortex related to craving was only significant when smokers were told “nicotine” but not when told “no nicotine.” Both effects were absent in the placebo condition. Third, insula activation related to computational learning signals was modulated by belief about nicotine regardless of nicotine’s presence. These results suggest that belief about nicotine has a strong impact on subjective craving and insula responses related to both craving and learning in deprived smokers, providing insights into the complex nature of belief–drug interactions. PMID:27468271

  10. Binaural Fusion and Listening Effort in Children Who Use Bilateral Cochlear Implants: A Psychoacoustic and Pupillometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steel, Morrison M.; Papsin, Blake C.; Karen A Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implants aim to provide hearing to both ears for children who are deaf and promote binaural/spatial hearing. Benefits are limited by mismatched devices and unilaterally-driven development which could compromise the normal integration of left and right ear input. We thus asked whether children hear a fused image (ie. 1 vs 2 sounds) from their bilateral implants and if this "binaural fusion" reduces listening effort. Binaural fusion was assessed by asking 25 deaf children wit...

  11. Post-Flight Test Results of Seed Laser Module Subjected to Space Exposure. Paper No. 8876-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance curves and discuss the effect of space exposure on the laser diode module. Preliminary findings on output power measurements show that the COTS laser diode characteristics did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  12. Capturing blocked-entrance binaural signals from open-entrance recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2008-01-01

    Binaural recordings enable us to capture all sound attributes including spatial information, room effect, and source characteristics in a given environment. It has been shown that blocked-entrance binaural recordings provide advantages over open-entrance recordings, primarily because the blocked-...... context. To this purpose, equalization filters are derived from the ratio between blocked and open ear canal transfer functions. Different transfer-function measuring techniques and inverse filtering methods are evaluated.......Binaural recordings enable us to capture all sound attributes including spatial information, room effect, and source characteristics in a given environment. It has been shown that blocked-entrance binaural recordings provide advantages over open-entrance recordings, primarily because the blocked......-entrance recordings is not influenced by the ear canal acoustics of the individual for which it is recorded. However, blocking the ear canal for recoding imposes an obvious disruption to normal hearing conditions, which may be unacceptable for applications in which binaural audio capturing is desired but without...

  13. Robust Translation of γ-Secretase Modulator Pharmacology across Preclinical Species and Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyn, Jeremy H; Boy, Kenneth M; Raybon, Joseph; Meredith, Jere E; Robertson, Alan S; Guss, Valerie; Hoque, Nina; Sweeney, Francis; Zhuo, Xiaoliang; Clarke, Wendy; Snow, Kimberly; Denton, R Rex; Zuev, Dmitry; Thompson, Lorin A; Morrison, John; Grace, James; Berisha, Flora; Furlong, Michael; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Lentz, Kimberly A; Padmanabha, Ramesh; Cook, Lynda; Wei, Cong; Drexler, Dieter M; Macor, John E; Albright, Charlie F; Gasior, Maciej; Olson, Richard E; Hong, Quan; Soares, Holly D; AbuTarif, Malaz; Ahlijanian, Michael K

    2016-07-01

    The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)-in particular, the 42-amino acid form, Aβ1-42-is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, several therapeutic modalities aiming to inhibit Aβ synthesis or increase the clearance of Aβ have entered clinical trials, including γ-secretase inhibitors, anti-Aβ antibodies, and amyloid-β precursor protein cleaving enzyme inhibitors. A unique class of small molecules, γ-secretase modulators (GSMs), selectively reduce Aβ1-42 production, and may also decrease Aβ1-40 while simultaneously increasing one or more shorter Aβ peptides, such as Aβ1-38 and Aβ1-37. GSMs are particularly attractive because they do not alter the total amount of Aβ peptides produced by γ-secretase activity; they spare the processing of other γ-secretase substrates, such as Notch; and they do not cause accumulation of the potentially toxic processing intermediate, β-C-terminal fragment. This report describes the translation of pharmacological activity across species for two novel GSMs, (S)-7-(4-fluorophenyl)-N2-(3-methoxy-4-(3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenyl)-N4-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (BMS-932481) and (S,Z)-17-(4-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)-34-(3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-16,17-dihydro-15H-4-oxa-2,9-diaza-1(2,4)-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidina-3(1,3)-benzenacyclononaphan-6-ene (BMS-986133). These GSMs are highly potent in vitro, exhibit dose- and time-dependent activity in vivo, and have consistent levels of pharmacological effect across rats, dogs, monkeys, and human subjects. In rats, the two GSMs exhibit similar pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics between the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. In all species, GSM treatment decreased Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40 levels while increasing Aβ1-38 and Aβ1-37 by a corresponding amount. Thus, the GSM mechanism and central activity translate across preclinical species and humans, thereby validating this therapeutic modality for potential utility in AD. PMID

  14. A Link Loss Model for the On-body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Rohit; Johansson, Anders J.

    2013-01-01

    Binaural hearing aids communicate with each other through a wireless link for synchronization. A propagation model is needed to estimate the ear-to-ear link loss for such binaural hearing aids. The link loss is a critical parameter in a link budget to decide the sensitivity of the transceiver. In this paper, we have presented a model for the deterministic component of the ear-to-ear link loss. The model takes into account the dominant paths having most of the power of the creeping wave from t...

  15. Dual-microphone and binaural noise reduction techniques for improved speech intelligibility by hearing aid users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefian Jazi, Nima

    Spatial filtering and directional discrimination has been shown to be an effective pre-processing approach for noise reduction in microphone array systems. In dual-microphone hearing aids, fixed and adaptive beamforming techniques are the most common solutions for enhancing the desired speech and rejecting unwanted signals captured by the microphones. In fact, beamformers are widely utilized in systems where spatial properties of target source (usually in front of the listener) is assumed to be known. In this dissertation, some dual-microphone coherence-based speech enhancement techniques applicable to hearing aids are proposed. All proposed algorithms operate in the frequency domain and (like traditional beamforming techniques) are purely based on the spatial properties of the desired speech source and does not require any knowledge of noise statistics for calculating the noise reduction filter. This benefit gives our algorithms the ability to address adverse noise conditions, such as situations where interfering talker(s) speaks simultaneously with the target speaker. In such cases, the (adaptive) beamformers lose their effectiveness in suppressing interference, since the noise channel (reference) cannot be built and updated accordingly. This difference is the main advantage of the proposed techniques in the dissertation over traditional adaptive beamformers. Furthermore, since the suggested algorithms are independent of noise estimation, they offer significant improvement in scenarios that the power level of interfering sources are much more than that of target speech. The dissertation also shows the premise behind the proposed algorithms can be extended and employed to binaural hearing aids. The main purpose of the investigated techniques is to enhance the intelligibility level of speech, measured through subjective listening tests with normal hearing and cochlear implant listeners. However, the improvement in quality of the output speech achieved by the

  16. Motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal cortex is modulated by subjective absolute value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Iyer

    Full Text Available For optimal response selection, the consequences associated with behavioral success or failure must be appraised. To determine how monetary consequences influence the neural representations of motor preparation, human brain activity was scanned with fMRI while subjects performed a complex spatial visuomotor task. At the beginning of each trial, reward context cues indicated the potential gain and loss imposed for correct or incorrect trial completion. FMRI-activity in canonical reward structures reflected the expected value related to the context. In contrast, motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal and premotor cortex peaked in high "absolute value" (high gain or loss conditions: being highest for large gains in subjects who believed they performed well while being highest for large losses in those who believed they performed poorly. These results suggest that the neural activity preceding goal-directed actions incorporates the absolute value of that action, predicated upon subjective, rather than objective, estimates of one's performance.

  17. Detection and identification of monaural and binaural pitch contours in dyslexic listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen;

    2010-01-01

    dyslexic listeners to Huggins' pitch (HP). The present study clarified whether impaired binaural pitch perception is found in dyslexia. Results from a pitch contour identification test, performed in 31 dyslexic listeners and 31 matched controls, clearly showed that dyslexics perceived HP as well as the...

  18. Do GST Polymorphisms Modulate the Frequency of Chromosomal Aberrations in Healthy Subjects?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodičková, Ludmila; Poláková, Veronika; Dušinská, M.; Mušák, L.; Halasová, E.; Susová, S.; Souček, P.; Hemminki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 9 (2009), A384-A385. ISSN 0091-6765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : DNA-repair genes * individual susceptibility * biomarkers Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.191, year: 2009

  19. Interactions of DNA repair gene variants modulate chromosomal aberrations in healthy subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Musak, L.; Frank, Ch.; Kazimirová, A.; Vymetálková, Veronika; Barančoková, M.; Smolková, B.; Dzupinková, Z.; Jirásková, Kateřina; Vodenková, Soňa; Kroupa, Michal; Osina, O.; Naccarati, Alessio; Palitti, F.; Forsti,, A.; Dusinska, M.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Hemminki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 11 (2015), s. 1299-1306. ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14789S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : individual susceptibility * colorectal-cancer * oxidative damage Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.334, year: 2014

  20. The modulation of brain functional connectivity with manual acupuncture in healthy subjects: An electroencephalograph case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manual acupuncture is widely used for pain relief and stress control. Previous studies on acupuncture have shown its modulatory effects on the functional connectivity associated with one or a few preselected brain regions. To investigate how manual acupuncture modulates the organization of functional networks at a whole-brain level, we acupuncture at ST36 of a right leg to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals. By coherence estimation, we determine the synchronizations between all pairwise combinations of EEG channels in three acupuncture states. The resulting synchronization matrices are converted into functional networks by applying a threshold, and the clustering coefficients and path lengths are computed as a function of threshold. The results show that acupuncture can increase functional connections and synchronizations between different brain areas. For a wide range of thresholds, the clustering coefficient during acupuncture and post-acupuncture period is higher than that during the pre-acupuncture control period, whereas the characteristic path length is shorter. We provide further support for the presence of “small-world” network characteristics in functional networks by using acupuncture. These preliminary results highlight the beneficial modulations of functional connectivity by manual acupuncture, which could contribute to the understanding of the effects of acupuncture on the entire brain, as well as the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture. Moreover, the proposed method may be a useful approach to the further investigation of the complexity of patterns of interrelations between EEG channels. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Subjective evaluation of the interference protection ratio for frequency modulated NTSC television signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, M.; Chouinard, G.

    The future environment of broadcasting satellites may well be governed by the limiting factor of interference between television signals from neighboring satellites. A program of tests was performed to evaluate subjectively the effect of aggregate interference and/or noise on the impairment of television pictures. Up to four interfering channels were added in an environment resembling that of future broadcasting satellites including up to two co-frequency channels and up to two adjacent channels. The results of these tests are considered valuable in the study of the quality standard for the RARC-83 for the planning of the broadcasting satellite service.

  2. Cerebral responses and role of the prefrontal cortex in conditioned pain modulation: an fMRI study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B; Viganò, Alessandro; Noirhomme, Quentin; Bogdanova, Olena V; Guy, Nathalie; Laureys, Steven; Renshaw, Perry F; Dallel, Radhouane; Phillips, Christophe; Schoenen, Jean

    2015-03-15

    The mechanisms underlying conditioned pain modulation (CPM) are multifaceted. We searched for a link between individual differences in prefrontal cortex activity during multi-trial heterotopic noxious cold conditioning and modulation of the cerebral response to phasic heat pain. In 24 healthy female subjects, we conditioned laser heat stimuli to the left hand by applying alternatively ice-cold or lukewarm compresses to the right foot. We compared pain ratings with cerebral fMRI BOLD responses. We also analyzed the relation between CPM and BOLD changes produced by the heterotopic cold conditioning itself, as well as the impact of anxiety and habituation of cold-pain ratings. Specific cerebral activation was identified in precuneus and left posterior insula/SII, respectively, during early and sustained phases of cold application. During cold conditioning, laser pain decreased (n=7), increased (n=10) or stayed unchanged (n=7). At the individual level, the psychophysical effect was directly proportional to the cold-induced modulation of the laser-induced BOLD response in left posterior insula/SII. The latter correlated with the BOLD response recorded 80s earlier during the initial 10-s phase of cold application in anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal cortices. High anxiety and habituation of cold pain were associated with greater laser heat-induced pain during heterotopic cold stimulation. The habituation was also linked to the early cold-induced orbitofrontal responses. We conclude that individual differences in conditioned pain modulation are related to different levels of prefrontal cortical activation by the early part of the conditioning stimulus, possibly due to different levels in trait anxiety. PMID:25461267

  3. Subjective evaluation of the effect of noise and interference on frequency modulated NTSC television signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, M.; Chouinard, G.; Trenholm, R.

    1984-12-01

    The future environment of broadcasting satellites may well be governed by the limiting factor of interference between television signals from neighboring satellites. A program of tests was performed to evaluate subjectively the effect of aggregate interference and/or noise on the impairment of television pictures. Up to four interfering channels were added in an environment resembling that of future broadcasting satellite systems including up to two co-frequency channels and up to two adjacent channels. Also results of just-perceptible interference tests due to adjacent channel interferer at various intercarrier spacings and for different receive filter characteristics on the wanted signal path are presented. The results of these tests are considered valuable in the study of the quality standard for the RARC-83 for the planning of the broadcasting-satellite service.

  4. Inter-subject variability modulates phonological advance planning in the production of adjective-noun phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine eMichel Lange

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on advance phonological planning in adjective-noun phrases (NPs presents diverging results: while many experimental studies suggest that the entire NP is encoded before articulation, other results favour a span of encoding limited to the first word. Although cross-linguistic differences in the structure of adjective-noun phrases may account for some of these contrasting results, divergences have been reported even among similar languages and syntactic structures. Here we examined whether inter-individual differences account for variability in the span of phonological planning in the production of French NPs, where previous results indicated encoding limited to the first word. The span of phonological encoding is tested with the picture-word interference (PWI paradigm using phonological distractors related to the noun or to the adjective of the NPs. In Experiment 1, phonological priming effects were limited to the first word in adjective NPs whichever the position of the adjective (pre-nominal or post-nominal. Crucially, phonological priming effects on the second word interacted with speakers´ production speed suggesting different encoding strategies for participants. In Experiment 2, we tested this hypothesis further with a larger group of participants. Results clearly showed that slow and fast initialising participants presented different phonological priming patterns on the last element of adjective-noun phrases: while the first word was primed by a distractor for all speakers, only the slow speaker group presented a priming effect on the second element of the NP. These results show that the span of phonological encoding is modulated by inter-individual strategies: in experimental paradigms some speakers plan word by word whereas others encode beyond the initial word. We suggest that the diverging results reported in the literature on advance phonological planning may partly be reconciled in light of the present results.

  5. Binaural fusion and listening effort in children who use bilateral cochlear implants: a psychoacoustic and pupillometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison M Steel

    Full Text Available Bilateral cochlear implants aim to provide hearing to both ears for children who are deaf and promote binaural/spatial hearing. Benefits are limited by mismatched devices and unilaterally-driven development which could compromise the normal integration of left and right ear input. We thus asked whether children hear a fused image (ie. 1 vs 2 sounds from their bilateral implants and if this "binaural fusion" reduces listening effort. Binaural fusion was assessed by asking 25 deaf children with cochlear implants and 24 peers with normal hearing whether they heard one or two sounds when listening to bilaterally presented acoustic click-trains/electric pulses (250 Hz trains of 36 ms presented at 1 Hz. Reaction times and pupillary changes were recorded simultaneously to measure listening effort. Bilaterally implanted children heard one image of bilateral input less frequently than normal hearing peers, particularly when intensity levels on each side were balanced. Binaural fusion declined as brainstem asymmetries increased and age at implantation decreased. Children implanted later had access to acoustic input prior to implantation due to progressive deterioration of hearing. Increases in both pupil diameter and reaction time occurred as perception of binaural fusion decreased. Results indicate that, without binaural level cues, children have difficulty fusing input from their bilateral implants to perceive one sound which costs them increased listening effort. Brainstem asymmetries exacerbate this issue. By contrast, later implantation, reflecting longer access to bilateral acoustic hearing, may have supported development of auditory pathways underlying binaural fusion. Improved integration of bilateral cochlear implant signals for children is required to improve their binaural hearing.

  6. Modulation of Coronary Heart Disease Risk by Insulin Resistance in Subjects With Normal Glucose Tolerance or Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Danit; Reaven, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis This study is based on the hypothesis that: 1)coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is accentuated in the insulin resistant subset of persons with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes (PreDM); 2)the prevalence of insulin resistance, and associated abnormalities, is greater in subjects with PreDM; and 3)insulin resistance is the major contributor to increased CHD risk in these individuals. Methods A 75 g oral glucose challenge was used to classify volunteers as having NGT or PreDM. Steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the insulin suppression test subdivided both groups into insulin sensitive (IS=SSPG <8.4 mmol/L) or resistant (IR=SSPG ≥8.4 mmol/L). Measurements were made of demographic characteristics, blood pressure, and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and comparisons made between the subgroups. Results Subjects with PreDM (n=127) were somewhat older, more likely to be non-Hispanic men, with increased adiposity than those with NGT (n=315). In addition, they had higher FPG concentrations, were insulin resistant (SSPG concentration; 11.4 vs. 7.2 mmol/L), with higher blood pressures, and a significantly more adverse CHD risk lipid profile (p<0.001). Twice as many subjects with PreDM were IR (72% vs. 35 %), and the CHD risk profile was significantly worse in the IR subgroups in those with either NGT or PreDM. Conclusions/interpretation CHD risk profile is significantly more adverse in subjects with PreDM as compared to individuals with NGT. However, glucose tolerance status is not the only determinant of CHD risk in nondiabetic individuals, and differences in degree of insulin resistance significantly modulate CHD risk in subjects with NGT or PreDM. PMID:25358836

  7. The CAVA corpus: synchronised stereoscopic and binaural datasets with head movements

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Elise; Christensen, Heidi; Lu, Yan-Chen; Barker, Jon; Khalidov, Vasil; Hansard, Miles; Holveck, Bertrand; Mathieu, Herve; Narasimha, Ramya; Taillant, Elise; Forbes, Florence; Horaud, Radu

    2008-01-01

    International audience This paper describes the acquisition and content of a new multi-modal database. Some tools for making use of the data streams are also presented. The Computational Audio- Visual Analysis (CAVA) database is a unique collection of three synchronised data streams obtained from a binaural microphone pair, a stereoscopic camera pair and a head tracking device. All recordings are made from the perspective of a person; i.e. what would a human with natural head movements see...

  8. ROBUST LOCALISATION OF MULTIPLE SPEAKERS EXPLOITING HEAD MOVEMENTS AND MULTI-CONDITIONAL TRAINING OF BINAURAL CUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Ma, Ning; Brown, Guy

    2015-01-01

    differences (ITDs) and interaural level dif- ferences (ILDs) in the front and rear hemifield, a machine hearing system is presented which combines supervised learning of binaural cues using multi-conditional training (MCT) with a head movement strategy. A systematic evaluation showed that this approach...... substan- tially reduced the amount of front-back confusions in challenging acoustic scenarios. Moreover, the system was able to generalise to a variety of different acoustic conditions not seen during training....

  9. A Binaural Cochlear Implant Sound Coding Strategy Inspired by the Contralateral Medial Olivocochlear Reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique A Lopez-Poveda; Eustaquio-Martín, Almudena; Stohl, Joshua S.; Wolford, Robert D.; Schatzer, Reinhold; Wilson, Blake S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In natural hearing, cochlear mechanical compression is dynamically adjusted via the efferent medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR). These adjustments probably help understanding speech in noisy environments and are not available to the users of current cochlear implants (CIs). The aims of the present study are to: (1) present a binaural CI sound processing strategy inspired by the control of cochlear compression provided by the contralateral MOCR in natural hearing; and (2) assess th...

  10. Improvements in speech perception and sound localization in hearing aids using binaural multichannel Wiener filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Doclo, Simon; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Multi-microphone noise reduction algorithms are commonly implemented in modern hearing aids to improve speech intelligibility in noisy environments. The development of these algorithms has mostly focused on monaural systems. The human auditory system is a binaural system which compares and combines the signals received by both ears to perceive and localize a single sound source. Providing two monaural, independently operating, noise reduction systems (a bilateral configuration) to the hearing...

  11. Efficient coding of spectrotemporal binaural sounds leads to emergence of the auditory space representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Mlynarski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To date a number of studies have shown that receptive field shapes of early sensory neurons can be reproduced by optimizing coding efficiency of natural stimulus ensembles. A still unresolved question is whether the efficientcoding hypothesis explains formation of neurons which explicitly represent environmental features of different functional importance. This paper proposes that the spatial selectivity of higher auditory neurons emerges as a direct consequence of learning efficient codes for natural binaural sounds. Firstly, it is demonstrated that a linear efficient coding transform - Independent Component Analysis (ICA trained on spectrograms of naturalistic simulated binaural sounds extracts spatial information present in the signal. A simple hierarchical ICA extension allowing for decoding of sound position is proposed. Furthermore, it is shown that units revealing spatial selectivity can be learned from a binaural recording of a natural auditory scene. In both cases a relatively small subpopulation of learned spectrogram features suffices to perform accurate sound localization. Representation of the auditory space is therefore learned in a purely unsupervised way by maximizing the coding efficiency and without any task-specific constraints. This results imply that efficient coding is a useful strategy for learning structures which allow for making behaviorally vital inferences about the environment.

  12. A Link Loss Model for the On-body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Binaural hearing aids communicate with each other through a wireless link for synchronization. A propagation model is needed to estimate the ear-to-ear link loss for such binaural hearing aids. The link loss is a critical parameter in a link budget to decide the sensitivity of the transceiver. In this paper, we have presented a model for the deterministic component of the ear-to-ear link loss. The model takes into account the dominant paths having most of the power of the creeping wave from the transceiver in one ear to the transceiver in other ear and the effect of the protruding part of the outer ear called pinna. Simulations are done to validate the model using in-the-ear (ITE) placement of antennas at 2.45 GHz on two heterogeneous phantoms of different age-group and body size. The model agrees with the simulations. The ear-to-ear link loss between the antennas for the binaural hearing aids in the homogeneous SAM phantom is compared with a heterogeneous phantom. It is found that the absence of the pinna an...

  13. Virtual Visual Effect of Hospital Waiting Room on Pain Modulation in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Chronic Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental context has an important impact on health and well being. We aimed to test the effects of a visual distraction induced by classical hospital waiting room (RH versus an ideal room with a sea view (IH, both represented in virtual reality (VR, on subjective sensation and cortical responses induced by painful laser stimuli (LEPs in healthy volunteers and patients with chronic migraine (CM. Sixteen CM and 16 controls underwent 62 channels LEPs from the right hand, during a fully immersive VR experience, where two types of waiting rooms were simulated. The RH simulated a classical hospital waiting room while the IH represented a room with sea viewing. CM patients showed a reduction of laser pain rating and vertex LEPs during the IH vision. The sLORETA analysis confirmed that in CM patients the two VR simulations induced a different modulation of bilateral parietal cortical areas (precuneus and superior parietal lobe, and superior frontal and cingulate girus, in respect to controls. The architectural context may interfere with pain perception, depending upon the status of subject. Many variables may change patients’ outcome and support the use of VR technology to test the best conditions for their management.

  14. The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones from 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Han, Loc A

    2000-01-01

    The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones has been measured for thirty-one otologically normal test subjects in the age range 18 to 25 years. The frequencies were 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14 and 16 kHz. The signal duration was 1 s measured...... between the half amplitude points of the rise and fall course. The pure tone signals were generated from disk files. The thresholds were determined with the Bracketing Method (ISO 8253-1) using a step size of 5 dB. The results are in good agreement with ISO 389-7 and with other recent determinations of...... the free field hearing threshold. At 1500 Hz a small local peak in the threshold is seen which is not reflected in the present standards.PACS 43.66 Cb; 43.66 Pn...

  15. Exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella modulates juvenile oyster Crassostrea gigas hemocyte variables subjected to different biotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassudrie, Malwenn; Soudant, Philippe; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Miner, Philippe; Le Grand, Jacqueline; Lambert, Christophe; Le Goïc, Nelly; Hégaret, Hélène; Fabioux, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is an important commercial species cultured throughout the world. Oyster production practices often include transfers of animals into new environments that can be stressful, especially at young ages. This study was undertaken to determine if a toxic Alexandrium bloom, occurring repeatedly in French oyster beds, could modulate juvenile oyster cellular immune responses (i.e. hemocyte variables). We simulated planting on commercial beds by conducting a cohabitation exposure of juvenile, "specific pathogen-free" (SPF) oysters (naïve from the environment) with previously field-exposed oysters to induce interactions with new microorganisms. Indeed, toxic Alexandrium spp. exposures have been reported to modulate bivalve interaction with specific pathogens, as well as physiological and immunological variables in bivalves. In summary, SPF oysters were subjected to an artificial bloom of Alexandrium catenella, simultaneously with a cohabitation challenge. Exposure to A. catenella, and thus to the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and extracellular bioactive compounds produced by this alga, induced higher concentration, size, complexity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of circulating hemocytes. Challenge by cohabitation with field-exposed oysters also activated these hemocyte responses, suggesting a defense response to new microorganism exposure. These hemocyte responses to cohabitation challenge, however, were partially inhibited by A. catenella exposure, which enhanced hemocyte mortality, suggesting either detrimental effects of the interaction of both stressors on immune capacity, or the implementation of an alternative immune strategy through apoptosis. Indeed, no infection with specific pathogens (herpesvirus OsHV-1 or Vibrio aesturianus) was detected. Additionally, lower PST accumulation in challenged oysters suggests a physiological impairment through alteration of feeding-related processes. Overall, results of this

  16. Range dependent characteristics in the head-related transfer functions of a bat-head cast: part 2. Binaural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further innovations in bio-inspired engineering based on biosonar systems, such as bats, may arise from more detailed understanding of the underlying acoustic processes. This includes the range-dependent properties of bat heads and ears, particularly at the higher frequencies of bat vocalizations. In a companion paper Kim et al (2012 Bioinspir. Biomim.), range-dependent head-related transfer functions of a bat head cast were investigated up to 100 kHz at either ear (i.e. monaural features). The current paper extends this to consider range-dependent spectral and temporal disparities between the two ears (i.e. binaural features), using experimental data and a spherical model of a bat head to provide insights into the physical basis for these features. It was found that binaural temporal and high-frequency binaural spectral features are approximately independent of distance, having the effect of decreasing their angular resolution at close range. In contrast, low-frequency binaural spectral features are strongly distance-dependent, such that angular sensitivity can be maintained by lowering the frequency of the echolocation emission at close range. Together with the companion paper Kim et al, we speculate that distance-dependent low-frequency monaural and binaural features at short range might help explain why some species of bats that drop the frequency of their calls on target approach while approaching a target. This also provides an impetus for the design of effective emissions in sonar engineering applied to similar tasks. (paper)

  17. Roles for Coincidence Detection in Coding Amplitude-Modulated Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Go; Kretzberg, Jutta; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Many sensory neurons encode temporal information by detecting coincident arrivals of synaptic inputs. In the mammalian auditory brainstem, binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) are known to act as coincidence detectors, whereas in the lateral superior olive (LSO) roles of coincidence detection have remained unclear. LSO neurons receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs driven by ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic stimuli, respectively, and vary their output spike rates according to interaural level differences. In addition, LSO neurons are also sensitive to binaural phase differences of low-frequency tones and envelopes of amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds. Previous physiological recordings in vivo found considerable variations in monaural AM-tuning across neurons. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed temporal tuning properties of LSO and their sources of variability, we used a simple coincidence counting model and examined how specific parameters of coincidence detection affect monaural and binaural AM coding. Spike rates and phase-locking of evoked excitatory and spontaneous inhibitory inputs had only minor effects on LSO output to monaural AM inputs. In contrast, the coincidence threshold of the model neuron affected both the overall spike rates and the half-peak positions of the AM-tuning curve, whereas the width of the coincidence window merely influenced the output spike rates. The duration of the refractory period affected only the low-frequency portion of the monaural AM-tuning curve. Unlike monaural AM coding, temporal factors, such as the coincidence window and the effective duration of inhibition, played a major role in determining the trough positions of simulated binaural phase-response curves. In addition, empirically-observed level-dependence of binaural phase-coding was reproduced in the framework of our minimalistic coincidence counting model. These modeling results suggest that coincidence detection of excitatory

  18. 4D time-frequency representation for binaural speech signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhael, Raed; Szu, Harold H.

    2006-04-01

    Hearing is the ability to detect and process auditory information produced by the vibrating hair cilia residing in the corti of the ears to the auditory cortex of the brain via the auditory nerve. The primary and secondary corti of the brain interact with one another to distinguish and correlate the received information by distinguishing the varying spectrum of arriving frequencies. Binaural hearing is nature's way of employing the power inherent in working in pairs to process information, enhance sound perception, and reduce undesired noise. One ear might play a prominent role in sound recognition, while the other reinforces their perceived mutual information. Developing binaural hearing aid devices can be crucial in emulating the working powers of two ears and may be a step closer to significantly alleviating hearing loss of the inner ear. This can be accomplished by combining current speech research to already existing technologies such as RF communication between PDAs and Bluetooth. Ear Level Instrument (ELI) developed by Micro-tech Hearing Instruments and Starkey Laboratories is a good example of a digital bi-directional signal communicating between a PDA/mobile phone and Bluetooth. The agreement and disagreement of arriving auditory information to the Bluetooth device can be classified as sound and noise, respectively. Finding common features of arriving sound using a four coordinate system for sound analysis (four dimensional time-frequency representation), noise can be greatly reduced and hearing aids would become more efficient. Techniques developed by Szu within an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Blind Source Separation (BSS), Adaptive Wavelets Transform (AWT), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) hold many possibilities to the improvement of acoustic segmentation of phoneme, all of which will be discussed in this paper. Transmitted and perceived acoustic speech signal will improve, as the binaural hearing aid will emulate two ears in sound

  19. Interaural attention modulates outer hair cell function

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Keil, Andreas; Stratis, Kyle; Osborne, A. Fletcher; Cerwonka, Colin; Wong, Jennifer; Rieger, Brenda L.; Polcz, Valerie; Smith, David W

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that auditory attention tasks may modulate the sensitivity of the cochlea by way of the corticofugal and the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent pathways. Here, we studied the extent to which a separate efferent tract, the “uncrossed” MOC, which functionally connects the two ears, mediates inter-aural selective attention. We compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in one ear to binaurally-presented primaries, using an intermodal target detection t...

  20. Technical and perceptual issues on head-related transfer functions sets for use in binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Daniela

    of binaural synthesis in providing a realistic and/or convincing virtual sonic experience relies largely on technical and perceptual issues inherent to the HRTFs and their use, particularly on how well the spectral features of the HRTFs used match those of the listener. This PhD thesis focused on...... identifying the spectral features that cue sound localization in the mid-sagittal plane. Listening tests were conducted from which groups of individual and non-individual HRTFs that evoked the same direction were obtained. Analysis of these HRTFs suggested that the relevant spectral cues covered a broad range...

  1. Blind estimation of the number of speech source in reverberant multisource scenarios based on binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; van de Par, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for estimating the number of active speech sources in the presence of interfering noise sources and reverberation. First, a binaural front-end is used to detect the spatial positions of all active sound sources, resulting in a binary mask for each candidate...... on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. A systematic analysis shows that the proposed algorithm is able to blindly determine the number and the corresponding spatial positions of speech sources in multisource scenarios and generalizes well to unknown acoustic conditions...

  2. Evaluation of a Binaural Reproduction System Using Multiple Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2010-01-01

    placed above the listener.  The system is based on the idea of dividing the sound reproduction into regions to reduce front-back confusions and enhance the virtual experience without the aid of a head tracker.  A set of subjective experiments with the intention of evaluating and comparing the performance...... the loudspeakers are placed at elevated positions.  In this paper we describe a system that uses the characteristics of the loudspeakers placed above the listener.   The proposed system is comprised by  three pairs of closely spaced loudspeakers: one pair placed in front, one placed behind and one...... of the proposed system are also discussed....

  3. Using a binaural biomimetic array to identify bottom objects ensonified by echolocating dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiweg, D.A.; Moore, P.W.; Martin, S.W.; Dankiewicz, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a unique dolphin biomimetic sonar produced data that were used to study signal processing methods for object identification. Echoes from four metallic objects proud on the bottom, and a substrate-only condition, were generated by bottlenose dolphins trained to ensonify the targets in very shallow water. Using the two-element ('binaural') receive array, object echo spectra were collected and submitted for identification to four neural network architectures. Identification accuracy was evaluated over two receive array configurations, and five signal processing schemes. The four neural networks included backpropagation, learning vector quantization, genetic learning and probabilistic network architectures. The processing schemes included four methods that capitalized on the binaural data, plus a monaural benchmark process. All the schemes resulted in above-chance identification accuracy when applied to learning vector quantization and backpropagation. Beam-forming or concatenation of spectra from both receive elements outperformed the monaural benchmark, with higher sensitivity and lower bias. Ultimately, best object identification performance was achieved by the learning vector quantization network supplied with beam-formed data. The advantages of multi-element signal processing for object identification are clearly demonstrated in this development of a first-ever dolphin biomimetic sonar. ?? 2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. A Binaural CI Research Platform for Oticon Medical SP/XP Implants Enabling ITD/ILD and Variable Rate Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, B; Adiloğlu, K; Herzke, T

    2015-01-01

    We present the first portable, binaural, real-time research platform compatible with Oticon Medical SP and XP generation cochlear implants. The platform consists of (a) a pair of behind-the-ear devices, each containing front and rear calibrated microphones, (b) a four-channel USB analog-to-digital converter, (c) real-time PC-based sound processing software called the Master Hearing Aid, and (d) USB-connected hardware and output coils capable of driving two implants simultaneously. The platform is capable of processing signals from the four microphones simultaneously and producing synchronized binaural cochlear implant outputs that drive two (bilaterally implanted) SP or XP implants. Both audio signal preprocessing algorithms (such as binaural beamforming) and novel binaural stimulation strategies (within the implant limitations) can be programmed by researchers. When the whole research platform is combined with Oticon Medical SP implants, interaural electrode timing can be controlled on individual electrodes to within ±1 µs and interaural electrode energy differences can be controlled to within ±2%. Hence, this new platform is particularly well suited to performing experiments related to interaural time differences in combination with interaural level differences in real-time. The platform also supports instantaneously variable stimulation rates and thereby enables investigations such as the effect of changing the stimulation rate on pitch perception. Because the processing can be changed on the fly, researchers can use this platform to study perceptual changes resulting from different processing strategies acutely. PMID:26721923

  5. Interaural attention modulates outer hair cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Keil, Andreas; Stratis, Kyle; Osborne, Aaron F; Cerwonka, Colin; Wong, Jennifer; Rieger, Brenda L; Polcz, Valerie; Smith, David W

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that auditory attention tasks may modulate the sensitivity of the cochlea by way of the corticofugal and the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent pathways. Here, we studied the extent to which a separate efferent tract, the 'uncrossed' MOC, which functionally connects the two ears, mediates inter-aural selective attention. We compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in one ear with binaurally presented primaries, using an intermodal target detection task in which participants were instructed to report the occurrence of brief target events (visual changes, tones). Three tasks were compared under identical physical stimulation: (i) report brief tones in the ear in which DPOAE responses were recorded; (ii) report brief tones presented to the contralateral, non-recorded ear; and (iii) report brief phase shifts of a visual grating at fixation. Effects of attention were observed as parallel shifts in overall DPOAE contour level, with DPOAEs relatively higher in overall level when subjects ignored the auditory stimuli and attended to the visual stimulus, compared with both of the auditory-attending conditions. Importantly, DPOAE levels were statistically lowest when attention was directed to the ipsilateral ear in which the DPOAE recordings were made. These data corroborate notions that top-down mechanisms, via the corticofugal and medial efferent pathways, mediate cochlear responses during intermodal attention. New findings show attending to one ear can significantly alter the physiological response of the contralateral, unattended ear, probably through the uncrossed-medial olivocochlear efferent fibers connecting the two ears. PMID:25302959

  6. The across frequency independence of equalization of interaural time delay in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2004-08-01

    The equalization stage in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking compensates for the interaural time delay (ITD) of a masking noise by introducing an opposite, internal delay [N. I. Durlach, in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II., edited by J. V. Tobias (Academic, New York, 1972)]. Culling and Summerfield [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 785-797 (1995)] developed a multi-channel version of this model in which equalization was ``free'' to use the optimal delay in each channel. Two experiments were conducted to test if equalization was indeed free or if it was ``restricted'' to the same delay in all channels. One experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, using an adaptive procedure, for 1-, 5-, or 17-component tones against a broadband masking noise, in three binaural configurations (N0S180, N180S0, and N90S270). The thresholds for the 1-component stimuli were used to normalize the levels of each of the 5- and 17-component stimuli so that they were equally detectable. If equalization was restricted, then, for the 5- and 17-component stimuli, the N90S270 and N180S0 configurations would yield a greater threshold than the N0S180 configurations. No such difference was found. A subsequent experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, via psychometric functions, for a 2-component complex tone in the same three binaural configurations. Again, no differential effect of configuration was observed. An analytic model of the detection of a complex tone showed that the results were more consistent with free equalization than restricted equalization, although the size of the differences was found to depend on the shape of the psychometric function for detection.

  7. Practice changes beta power at rest and its modulation during movement in healthy subjects but not in patients with Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Moisello, Clara; Blanco, Daniella; Lin, Jing; Panday, Priya; Kelly, Simon P.; Quartarone, Angelo; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio; Ghilardi, M. Felice

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background PD (Parkinson's disease) is characterized by impairments in cortical plasticity, in beta frequency at rest and in beta power modulation during movement (i.e., event‐related ERS [synchronization] and ERD [desynchronization]). Recent results with experimental protocols inducing long‐term potentiation in healthy subjects suggest that cortical plasticity phenomena might be reflected by changes of beta power recorded with EEG during rest. Here, we determined whether motor pract...

  8. Electrophysiological and psychophysical asymmetries in sensitivity to interaural correlation gaps and implications for binaural integration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüddemann, Helge; Kollmeier, Birger; Riedel, Helmut

    2016-02-01

    Brief deviations of interaural correlation (IAC) can provide valuable cues for detection, segregation and localization of acoustic signals. This study investigated the processing of such "binaural gaps" in continuously running noise (100-2000 Hz), in comparison to silent "monaural gaps", by measuring late auditory evoked potentials (LAEPs) and perceptual thresholds with novel, iteratively optimized stimuli. Mean perceptual binaural gap duration thresholds exhibited a major asymmetry: they were substantially shorter for uncorrelated gaps in correlated and anticorrelated reference noise (1.75 ms and 4.1 ms) than for correlated and anticorrelated gaps in uncorrelated reference noise (26.5 ms and 39.0 ms). The thresholds also showed a minor asymmetry: they were shorter in the positive than in the negative IAC range. The mean behavioral threshold for monaural gaps was 5.5 ms. For all five gap types, the amplitude of LAEP components N1 and P2 increased linearly with the logarithm of gap duration. While perceptual and electrophysiological thresholds matched for monaural gaps, LAEP thresholds were about twice as long as perceptual thresholds for uncorrelated gaps, but half as long for correlated and anticorrelated gaps. Nevertheless, LAEP thresholds showed the same asymmetries as perceptual thresholds. For gap durations below 30 ms, LAEPs were dominated by the processing of the leading edge of a gap. For longer gap durations, in contrast, both the leading and the lagging edge of a gap contributed to the evoked response. Formulae for the equivalent rectangular duration (ERD) of the binaural system's temporal window were derived for three common window shapes. The psychophysical ERD was 68 ms for diotic and about 40 ms for anti- and uncorrelated noise. After a nonlinear Z-transform of the stimulus IAC prior to temporal integration, ERDs were about 10 ms for reference correlations of ±1 and 80 ms for uncorrelated reference. Hence, a physiologically motivated

  9. Lateral reflections are favorable in concert halls due to binaural loudness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka

    2011-11-01

    A recent study on perceptual difference in simulated concert halls showed that a concert hall renders stronger sound with more bass when the temporal envelope of a signal is preserved in the reflections [Lokki et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, EL223-EL228 (2011)]. In the same study the lateral reflections were shown to contribute to the perceived envelopment and openness. Moreover, the listening test results suggest that lateral reflections contribute to perception of sound source distance. Here, it is shown that lateral reflections are beneficial due to their increasing effect on binaural loudness-the phenomenon known well in psychoacoustics, but not in architectural acoustics. The reflections from the side are amplified more than median plane reflections, in particular at high frequencies, due to the shape of the human head. PMID:22088039

  10. Comparison between bilateral cochlear implants and Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural cochlear implant: speech perception, sound localization and patient self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Damien; Lautissier, Sylvie; Bosset-Audoit, Amélie; Coriat, Géraldine; Beraha, Max; Maunoury, Antoine; Martel, Jacques; Darrouzet, Vincent; Bébéar, Jean-Pierre; Dauman, René

    2013-01-01

    An alternative to bilateral cochlear implantation is offered by the Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural cochlear implant, which allows stimulation of both cochleae within a single device. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare a group of Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural implant users (denoted BINAURAL group, n = 7) with a group of bilateral adult cochlear implant users (denoted BILATERAL group, n = 6) in terms of speech perception, sound localization, and self-assessment of health status and hearing disability. Speech perception was assessed using word recognition at 60 dB SPL in quiet and in a 'cocktail party' noise delivered through five loudspeakers in the hemi-sound field facing the patient (signal-to-noise ratio = +10 dB). The sound localization task was to determine the source of a sound stimulus among five speakers positioned between -90° and +90° from midline. Change in health status was assessed using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory and hearing disability was evaluated with the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit. Speech perception was not statistically different between the two groups, even though there was a trend in favor of the BINAURAL group (mean percent word recognition in the BINAURAL and BILATERAL groups: 70 vs. 56.7% in quiet, 55.7 vs. 43.3% in noise). There was also no significant difference with regard to performance in sound localization and self-assessment of health status and hearing disability. On the basis of the BINAURAL group's performance in hearing tasks involving the detection of interaural differences, implantation with the Neurelec Digisonic(®) SP Binaural implant may be considered to restore effective binaural hearing. Based on these first comparative results, this device seems to provide benefits similar to those of traditional bilateral cochlear implantation, with a new approach to stimulate both auditory nerves. PMID:23548561

  11. Intelligibility for Binaural Speech with Discarded Low-SNR Speech Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmaker, Esther; van de Par, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Speech intelligibility in multitalker settings improves when the target speaker is spatially separated from the interfering speakers. A factor that may contribute to this improvement is the improved detectability of target-speech components due to binaural interaction in analogy to the Binaural Masking Level Difference (BMLD). This would allow listeners to hear target speech components within specific time-frequency intervals that have a negative SNR, similar to the improvement in the detectability of a tone in noise when these contain disparate interaural difference cues. To investigate whether these negative-SNR target-speech components indeed contribute to speech intelligibility, a stimulus manipulation was performed where all target components were removed when local SNRs were smaller than a certain criterion value. It can be expected that for sufficiently high criterion values target speech components will be removed that do contribute to speech intelligibility. For spatially separated speakers, assuming that a BMLD-like detection advantage contributes to intelligibility, degradation in intelligibility is expected already at criterion values below 0 dB SNR. However, for collocated speakers it is expected that higher criterion values can be applied without impairing speech intelligibility. Results show that degradation of intelligibility for separated speakers is only seen for criterion values of 0 dB and above, indicating a negligible contribution of a BMLD-like detection advantage in multitalker settings. These results show that the spatial benefit is related to a spatial separation of speech components at positive local SNRs rather than to a BMLD-like detection improvement for speech components at negative local SNRs. PMID:27080648

  12. Comparative study on cardiac autonomic modulation during deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing in type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Subbalakshmi, Narsajjana Krishnadasa; Adhikari, Prabha; Shanmugavel Jeganathan, Punnaimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Diaphragmatic breathing is known to have a beneficial effect on the cardiopulmonary system, and enhances parasympathetic activation. We evaluated the influence of diaphragmatic breathing on time domain measures of heart rate variability in diabetics and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods A total of 122 type 2 diabetics and 94 healthy subjects (controls) were randomly allocated to a deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing (61 diabetics and 47 controls in...

  13. Structure-based modeling of head-related transfer functions towards interactive customization of binaural sound systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Navarun

    2003-10-01

    One of the most popular techniques for creating spatialized virtual sounds is based on the use of Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs). HRTFs are signal processing models that represent the modifications undergone by the acoustic signal as it travels from a sound source to each of the listener's eardrums. These modifications are due to the interaction of the acoustic waves with the listener's torso, shoulders, head and pinnae, or outer ears. As such, HRTFs are somewhat different for each listener. For a listener to perceive synthesized 3-D sound cues correctly, the synthesized cues must be similar to the listener's own HRTFs. One can measure individual HRTFs using specialized recording systems, however, these systems are prohibitively expensive and restrict the portability of the 3-D sound system. HRTF-based systems also face several computational challenges. This dissertation presents an alternative method for the synthesis of binaural spatialized sounds. The sound entering the pinna undergoes several reflective, diffractive and resonant phenomena, which determine the HRTF. Using signal processing tools, such as Prony's signal modeling method, an appropriate set of time delays and a resonant frequency were used to approximate the measured Head-Related Impulse Responses (HRIRs). Statistical analysis was used to find out empirical equations describing how the reflections and resonances are determined by the shape and size of the pinna features obtained from 3D images of 15 experimental subjects modeled in the project. These equations were used to yield "Model HRTFs" that can create elevation effects. Listening tests conducted on 10 subjects show that these model HRTFs are 5% more effective than generic HRTFs when it comes to localizing sounds in the frontal plane. The number of reversals (perception of sound source above the horizontal plane when actually it is below the plane and vice versa) was also reduced by 5.7%, showing the perceptual effectiveness of this

  14. Modulating Memory Performance in Healthy Subjects with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Smirni

    Full Text Available The role of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC in recognition memory has been well documented in lesion, neuroimaging and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS over the left and the right DLPFC during the delay interval of a non-verbal recognition memory task.36 right-handed young healthy subjects participated in the study. The experimental task was an Italian version of Recognition Memory Test for unknown faces. Study included two experiments: in a first experiment, each subject underwent one session of sham tDCS and one session of left or right cathodal tDCS; in a second experiment each subject underwent one session of sham tDCS and one session of left or right anodal tDCS.Cathodal tDCS over the right DLPFC significantly improved non verbal recognition memory performance, while cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC had no effect. Anodal tDCS of both the left and right DLPFC did not modify non verbal recognition memory performance.Complementing the majority of previous studies, reporting long term memory facilitations following left prefrontal anodal tDCS, the present findings show that cathodal tDCS of the right DLPFC can also improve recognition memory in healthy subjects.

  15. Motion sickness is associated with an increase in vestibular modulation of skin but not muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Danielle; Hammam, Elie; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-08-01

    We have previously shown that sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS), delivered bilaterally at frequencies of 0.08-2.00 Hz, causes a pronounced modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), together with robust frequency-dependent illusions of side-to-side motion. At low frequencies of sGVS (≤0.2 Hz), some subjects report nausea, so we tested the hypothesis that vestibular modulation of MSNA and SSNA is augmented in individuals reporting nausea. MSNA was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the left common peroneal nerve in 22 awake, seated subjects; SSNA was recorded in 14 subjects. Bipolar binaural sGVS (±2 mA, 100 cycles) was applied to the mastoid processes at 0.08, 0.13, and 0.18 Hz. Nausea was reported by 21 out of 36 subjects (58 %), but across frequencies of sGVS there was no difference in the magnitude of the vestibular modulation of MSNA in subjects who reported nausea (27.1 ± 1.8 %) and those who did not (30.4 ± 2.9 %). This contrasts with the significantly greater vestibular modulation of SSNA with nausea (41.1 ± 2.0 vs. 28.7 ± 3.1 %) and indicates an organ-specific modulation of sympathetic outflow via the vestibular system during motion sickness. PMID:26025612

  16. The modulation of brain functional connectivity with manual acupuncture in healthy subjects:An electroencephalograph case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Guo-Sheng; Wang Jiang; Han Chun-Xiao; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le; Li Nuo

    2013-01-01

    Manual acupuncture is widely used for pain relief and stress control.Previous studies on acupuncture have shown its modulatory effects on the functional connectivity associated with one or a few preselected brain regions.To investigate how manual acupuncture modulates the organization of functional networks at a whole-brain level,we acupuncture at ST36 of a fight leg to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals.By coherence estimation,we determine the synchronizations between all pairwise combinations of EEG channels in three acupuncture states.The resulting synchronization matrices are converted into functional networks by applying a threshold,and the clustering coefficients and path lengths are computed as a function of threshold.The results show that acupuncture can increase functional connections and synchronizations between different brain areas.For a wide range of thresholds,the clustering coefficient during acupuncture and postacupuncture period is higher than that during the pre-acupuncture control period,whereas the characteristic path length is shorter.We provide further support for the presence of "small-world" network characteristics in functional networks by using acupuncture.These preliminary results highlight the beneficial modulations of functional connectivity by manual acupuncture,which could contribute to the understanding of the effects of acupuncture on the entire brain,as well as the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture.Moreover,the proposed method may be a useful approach to the further investigation of the complexity of patterns of interrelations between EEG channels.

  17. A Sparsity-Based Approach to 3D Binaural Sound Synthesis Using Time-Frequency Array Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spors Sascha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization of sounds in physical space plays a very important role in multiple audio-related disciplines, such as music, telecommunications, and audiovisual productions. Binaural recording is the most commonly used method to provide an immersive sound experience by means of headphone reproduction. However, it requires a very specific recording setup using high-fidelity microphones mounted in a dummy head. In this paper, we present a novel processing framework for binaural sound recording and reproduction that avoids the use of dummy heads, which is specially suitable for immersive teleconferencing applications. The method is based on a time-frequency analysis of the spatial properties of the sound picked up by a simple tetrahedral microphone array, assuming source sparseness. The experiments carried out using simulations and a real-time prototype confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

  18. Benefits to Speech Perception in Noise From the Binaural Integration of Electric and Acoustic Signals in Simulated Unilateral Deafness

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Ning; Morris, Saffron; Kitterick, Pádraig Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study used vocoder simulations with normal-hearing (NH) listeners to (1) measure their ability to integrate speech information from an NH ear and a simulated cochlear implant (CI), and (2) investigate whether binaural integration is disrupted by a mismatch in the delivery of spectral information between the ears arising from a misalignment in the mapping of frequency to place. Design: Eight NH volunteers participated in the study and listened to sentences embedded in backgrou...

  19. Visuomotor discordance during visually-guided hand movement in Virtual Reality modulates sensorimotor cortical activity in healthy and hemiparetic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Tunik, Eugene; Saleh, Soha; Adamovich, Sergei V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated neural effects of visuo-motor discordances during visually-guided finger movements. An fMRI-compatible data glove was used to actuate (in real-time) virtual hand models shown on a display in 1st person perspective. In experiment 1, we manipulated virtual hand motion to simulate either hypometric or unintentional (actuation of a mismatched finger) feedback of sequential finger flexion in healthy subjects. Analysis of finger motion revealed no significant differences in movement...

  20. Auditory evoked potentials to spectro-temporal modulation of complex tones in normal subjects and patients with severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J; Vaz Pato, M; Sprague, L; Stokes, M; Munday, R; Haque, N

    2000-05-01

    In order to assess higher auditory processing capabilities, long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded to synthesized musical instrument tones in 22 post-comatose patients with severe brain injury causing variably attenuated behavioural responsiveness. On the basis of normative studies, three different types of spectro-temporal modulation were employed. When a continuous 'clarinet' tone changes pitch once every few seconds, N1/P2 potentials are evoked at latencies of approximately 90 and 180 ms, respectively. Their distribution in the fronto-central region is consistent with generators in the supratemporal cortex of both hemispheres. When the pitch is modulated at a much faster rate ( approximately 16 changes/s), responses to each change are virtually abolished but potentials with similar distribution are still elicited by changing the timbre (e.g. 'clarinet' to 'oboe') every few seconds. These responses appear to represent the cortical processes concerned with spectral pattern analysis and the grouping of frequency components to form sound 'objects'. Following a period of 16/s oscillation between two pitches, a more anteriorly distributed negativity is evoked on resumption of a steady pitch. Various lines of evidence suggest that this is probably equivalent to the 'mismatch negativity' (MMN), reflecting a pre-perceptual, memory-based process for detection of change in spectro-temporal sound patterns. This method requires no off-line subtraction of AEPs evoked by the onset of a tone, and the MMN is produced rapidly and robustly with considerably larger amplitude (usually >5 microV) than that to discontinuous pure tones. In the brain-injured patients, the presence of AEPs to two or more complex tone stimuli (in the combined assessment of two authors who were 'blind' to the clinical and behavioural data) was significantly associated with the demonstrable possession of discriminative hearing (the ability to respond differentially to verbal commands

  1. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the novel γ-secretase modulator, E2212, in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanke; Logovinsky, Veronika; Schuck, Edgar; Kaplow, June; Chang, Min-Kun; Miyagawa, Takehiko; Wong, Nancy; Ferry, Jim

    2014-05-01

    E2212, a novel γ-secretase modulator, is under development for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single ascending oral doses (10-250 mg, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized) of E2212 were evaluated. In this phase I clinical trial, E2212 was found to be well tolerated in single doses. Maximum tolerated dose was not achieved up to 250 mg. Most AEs were mild to moderate in severity with no identifiable dose related pattern. There were no clinically significant findings on physical and ophthalmologic examinations as well as vital signs, laboratory, ECG and C-SSRS assessments. E2212 was rapidly absorbed, with median tmax values ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 h. E2212 exhibited biphasic disposition with the terminal t1/2 of 12.5-19.0 h. Renal excretion was the minor pathway for E2212 elimination. Increased PD response (reduction in plasma concentrations of Aβ(x-42)) was observed with increasing doses. The maximum PD response was observed in the highest dose 250 mg cohort, with ΔAUAC(0-24 h) of 44.1% and Amax of 53.6%. These results support further clinical development of E2212. PMID:24343761

  2. Modulation of non-painful phantom sensation in subjects with spinal cord injury by means of rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Langthaler, Patrick B; Höller, Yvonne; Bathke, Arne; Frey, Vanessa N; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-09-01

    We aimed in this study to investigate whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), given as theta burst stimulation (TBS), can interfere with non-painful phantom sensations in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). In double-blind, sham-controlled experiments in five subjects with cervical or thoracic traumatic SCI, we evaluated the effects of a single session of inhibitory (continuous) TBS, excitatory (intermittent) TBS, or placebo TBS, on simplex and complex non-painful phantom sensations. The interventions targeted the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), the primary sensory cortex (S1) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Measurements were carried out at baseline (T0), 5 min (T1) and 30 min later (T2) after the intervention. Descriptive evaluation of results shows that non-painful phantom sensations were not affected by rTMS applied over M1. Continuous (inhibitory) TBS over S1 induced a short-lasting decrease of simple non-painful phantom sensations, while continuous TBS over PPC induced a short-lasting decrease of both simple and complex phantom sensations. Intermittent (excitatory) TBS over PPC induced a slight increase of non-painful phantom sensations. Tests for significance confirm these observations, but must be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size. In conclusion, non-painful phantom sensations may be associated to a hyperexcitability of PPC and to a lesser extent of S1, which can be normalized by inhibitory rTMS. Our preliminary findings provide further evidence that neuromodulatory techniques are able to reverse phantom sensations not only after limb amputation but also in other conditions characterized by deafferentation such as SCI. PMID:26405006

  3. Modulation of protein fermentation does not affect fecal water toxicity: a randomized cross-over study in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Windey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Protein fermentation results in production of metabolites such as ammonia, amines and indolic, phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds. In vitro studies suggest that these metabolites might be toxic. However, human and animal studies do not consistently support these findings. We modified protein fermentation in healthy subjects to assess the effects on colonic metabolism and parameters of gut health, and to identify metabolites associated with toxicity. DESIGN: After a 2-week run-in period with normal protein intake (NP, 20 healthy subjects followed an isocaloric high protein (HP and low protein (LP diet for 2 weeks in a cross-over design. Protein fermentation was estimated from urinary p-cresol excretion. Fecal metabolite profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and compared using cluster analysis. DGGE was used to analyze microbiota composition. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the Comet assay and the WST-1-assay, respectively, and were related to the metabolite profiles. RESULTS: Dietary protein intake was significantly higher during the HP diet compared to the NP and LP diet. Urinary p-cresol excretion correlated positively with protein intake. Fecal water cytotoxicity correlated negatively with protein fermentation, while fecal water genotoxicity was not correlated with protein fermentation. Heptanal, 3-methyl-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide and 2-propenyl ester of acetic acid are associated with genotoxicity and indole, 1-octanol, heptanal, 2,4-dithiapentane, allyl-isothiocyanate, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl-benzene, propionic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid with cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: This study does not support a role of protein fermentation in gut toxicity. The identified metabolites can provide new insight into colonic health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01280513.

  4. Colchicine modulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes in neutrophils from patients with familial Mediterranean fever and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukyan, G; Petrek, M; Tomankova, T; Martirosyan, A; Tatyan, M; Navratilova, Z; Paulu, D; Kriegova, E

    2013-01-01

    Colchicine (Col) is a microtubule depolymerizing drug, widely used for treatment of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Mechanisms by which Col exerts its beneficial effects are not yet completely understood, especially with respect to gene expression in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), the main effector cells in acute inflammatory attacks of FMF. This study was, therefore, designed to elucidate possible modulatory effect of Col on expression of inflammation-related genes in circulating PMNs from 16 FMF patients in the remission period and 11 healthy subjects. In vitro effect of Col exposure (1 microg/ml) on expression of 8 selected genes was examined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Col up-regulated expression of IL-8 and IL-1beta genes in FMF (13-fold and 2.7-fold, p less than 0.05, respectively) and healthy (3-fold and 6.5-fold, p less than 0.05, respectively) PMNs, and down-regulated caspase-1 in FMF neutrophils (3-fold, p less than 0.05). In FMF PMNs treated with Col mRNAs of IL-8 (51-fold, p less than 0.01) and c-FOS (7-fold, p less than 0.05) transcripts were elevated compared to those from healthy subjects. By contrast, caspase-1 mRNA was decreased in FMF neutrophils compared to healthy cells (1.6-fold, p less than 0.05). Hereby, we provide evidence that, at least in vitro, Col displays pro-inflammatory potential in respect to IL-1beta and IL-8 genes. At the same time, our findings implicate suppression of caspase-1 expression by Col as a potential mechanism for its effects in FMF treatment. PMID:23830384

  5. Optimizing nasal potential difference analysis for CFTR modulator development: assessment of ivacaftor in CF subjects with the G551D-CFTR mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Rowe

    Full Text Available Nasal potential difference (NPD is used as a biomarker of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC activity. We evaluated methods to detect changes in chloride and sodium transport by NPD based on a secondary analysis of a Phase II CFTR-modulator study. Thirty-nine subjects with CF who also had the G551D-CFTR mutation were randomized to receive ivacaftor (Kalydeco™; also known as VX-770 in four doses or placebo twice daily for at least 14 days. All data were analyzed by a single investigator who was blinded to treatment assignment. We compared three analysis methods to determine the best approach to quantify changes in chloride and sodium transport: (1 the average of both nostrils; (2 the most-polarized nostril at each visit; and (3 the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward. Parameters of ion transport included the PD change with zero chloride plus isoproterenol (CFTR activity, the basal PD, Ringer's PD, and change in PD with amiloride (measurements of ENaC activity, and the delta NPD (measuring CFTR and ENaC activity. The average and most-polarized nostril at each visit were most sensitive to changes in chloride and sodium transport, whereas the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward was less discriminatory. Based on our findings, NPD studies should assess both nostrils rather than a single nostril. We also found that changes in CFTR activity were more readily detected than changes in ENaC activity, and that rigorous standardization was associated with relatively good within-subject reproducibility in placebo-treated subjects (± 2.8 mV. Therefore, we have confirmed an assay of reasonable reproducibility for detecting chloride-transport improvements in response to CFTR modulation.

  6. Studies on Bilateral Cochlear Implants at the University of Wisconsin’s Binaural Hearing and Speech Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Litovsky, Ruth Y.; Goupell, Matthew J.; Godar, Shelly; Grieco-Calub, Tina; Jones, Gary L.; Garadat, Soha N.; Agrawal, Smita; Kan, Alan; Todd, Ann; Hess, Christi; Misurelli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This report highlights research projects relevant to binaural and spatial hearing in adults and children. In the past decade we have made progress in understanding the impact of bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) on performance in adults and children. However, BiCI users typically do not perform as well as normal hearing (NH) listeners. In this paper we describe the benefits from BiCIs compared with a single CI, focusing on measures of spatial hearing and speech understanding in noise. We hi...

  7. Functional segregation of monaural and binaural selectivity in the pallid bat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Khaleel A

    2016-07-01

    Different fields of the auditory cortex can be distinguished by the extent and level tolerance of spatial selectivity. The mechanisms underlying the range of spatial tuning properties observed across cortical fields are unclear. Here, this issue was addressed in the pallid bat because its auditory cortex contains two segregated regions of response selectivity that serve two different behaviors: echolocation for obstacle avoidance and localization of prey-generated noise. This provides the unique opportunity to examine mechanisms of spatial properties in two functionally distinct regions. Previous studies have shown that spatial selectivity of neurons in the region selective for noise (noise-selective region, NSR) is level tolerant and shaped by interaural level difference (ILD) selectivity. In contrast, spatial selectivity of neurons in the echolocation region ('FM sweep-selective region' or FMSR) is strongly level dependent with many neurons responding to multiple distinct spatial locations for louder sounds. To determine the mechanisms underlying such level dependence, frequency, azimuth, rate-level responses and ILD selectivity were measured from the same FMSR neurons. The majority (∼75%) of FMSR neurons were monaural (ILD insensitive). Azimuth tuning curves expanded or split into multiple peaks with increasing sound level in a manner that was predicted by the rate-level response of neurons. These data suggest that azimuth selectivity of FMSR neurons depends more on monaural ear directionality and rate-level responses. The pallid bat cortex utilizes segregated monaural and binaural regions to process echoes and prey-generated noise. Together the pallid bat FMSR/NSR data provide mechanistic explanations for a broad range of spatial tuning properties seen across species. PMID:27233917

  8. The influence of androstadienone during psychosocial stress is modulated by gender, trait anxiety and subjective stress: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K C; Springer, I; Kogler, L; Turetsky, B; Freiherr, J; Derntl, B

    2016-06-01

    Androstadienone (ANDR), a bodily secreted steroid compound, is a socially relevant chemosignal that modulates subjective and (neuro)physiological responses, predominantly in females. The impact of ANDR on stress responses in males and females has not been explored. Therefore, this fMRI study aimed to examine psychosocial stress reactions induced by mental arithmetic and social evaluation on behavioral and hormonal levels (46 participants: 15 naturally cycling females in their early follicular phase (EF), 15 females on hormonal contraceptives (HC) and 16 males); and on a neural level (40 participants: 13 EF-females, 13 HC-females and 14 males) in an ANDR and placebo treatment repeated-measures design. While no gender differences emerged in subjective ratings and performance during stress, neural activation patterns differed significantly. Besides, ANDR attenuated the post-stress increase of negative mood in all participants. Region of interest analyses showed that irrespective of treatment, males showed stronger activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) than females. At the whole brain level, gender differences emerged indicating stronger fronto-parietal activation in males compared to HC-females on both treatments. Males showed stronger visual and fusiform activation than EF-females under ANDR. Both female groups did not show stronger activation than males. Further, error ratio in the ANDR-stress condition was positively associated with their post-stress cortisol level and increase in subjective stress in males; and male DLPFC activity in the ANDR-stress condition was negatively associated with trait anxiety. Surprisingly, compared to HC-females, EF-female only showed stronger activation of arousal-related areas under placebo treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that the male stress reaction under social evaluative threat was stronger than female stress reactions as a function of ANDR. More specifically, this effect on behavioral and

  9. Interferência binaural no processo de seleção e adaptação de próteses auditivas: revisão sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Manoel Azevedo; Ana Valéria de Almeida Vaucher; Mariana Teixeira Duarte; Eliara Pinto Vieira Biaggio; Maristela Julio Costa

    2013-01-01

    O tema deste estudo é a interferência binaural e tem como objetivo descrever, por meio de revisão teórica, o fenômeno caracterizado por interferência binaural. Será realizada revisão sistemática por meio de pesquisa nas bases de dados LILACS, MEDLINE, PUBMED e SCIELO. O fenômeno interferência binaural é uma realidade relatada na literatura, que precisa ser investigado. Pode se confirmar por testes específicos de processamento auditivo, o mais descrito foi o dicótico de dígitos.

  10. A Binaural Cochlear Implant Sound Coding Strategy Inspired by the Contralateral Medial Olivocochlear Reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio-Martín, Almudena; Stohl, Joshua S.; Wolford, Robert D.; Schatzer, Reinhold; Wilson, Blake S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In natural hearing, cochlear mechanical compression is dynamically adjusted via the efferent medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR). These adjustments probably help understanding speech in noisy environments and are not available to the users of current cochlear implants (CIs). The aims of the present study are to: (1) present a binaural CI sound processing strategy inspired by the control of cochlear compression provided by the contralateral MOCR in natural hearing; and (2) assess the benefits of the new strategy for understanding speech presented in competition with steady noise with a speech-like spectrum in various spatial configurations of the speech and noise sources. Design: Pairs of CI sound processors (one per ear) were constructed to mimic or not mimic the effects of the contralateral MOCR on compression. For the nonmimicking condition (standard strategy or STD), the two processors in a pair functioned similarly to standard clinical processors (i.e., with fixed back-end compression and independently of each other). When configured to mimic the effects of the MOCR (MOC strategy), the two processors communicated with each other and the amount of back-end compression in a given frequency channel of each processor in the pair decreased/increased dynamically (so that output levels dropped/increased) with increases/decreases in the output energy from the corresponding frequency channel in the contralateral processor. Speech reception thresholds in speech-shaped noise were measured for 3 bilateral CI users and 2 single-sided deaf unilateral CI users. Thresholds were compared for the STD and MOC strategies in unilateral and bilateral listening conditions and for three spatial configurations of the speech and noise sources in simulated free-field conditions: speech and noise sources colocated in front of the listener, speech on the left ear with noise in front of the listener, and speech on the left ear with noise on the right ear. In both bilateral and

  11. Effect of monaural and binaural stimulation on cytoplasmic RNA content in cells of the central nucleus of the cat inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmigidina, G N

    1981-01-01

    A cytophotometric study of sections stained with gallocyanin and chrome alum showed that monaural stimulation for 2 h and binaural stimulation for 1.5 h with rhythmic noise signals led to a marked increase in the cytoplasmic RNA content per cell in the principal and large multipolar neurons of the dorsal and ventral parts of the ventrolateral region of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. The increase in cytoplasmic RNA content in the principal cells of the ipsi- and contralateral parts of this nucleus relative to the stimulated ear in the case of monaural stimulation and the increase in RNA content in response to binaural stimulation suggests a uniform distribution of bilaterally converging connections from the lower nuclei of the auditory system on the principal cells. The increase in cytoplasmic RNA in the large multipolar cells of the contralateral central nucleus in response to monaural stimulation is evidence of the predominantly contralateral projection to these cells. The results are evidence of convergence of binaural influences on the principal and large multipolar cells of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. PMID:6173796

  12. The Effect of Using Computer Technology Tools to Enhance the Teaching-Learning Process in CAD-CAM-CNC Module in Mechanical Engineering Subject Area

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrasool, Salah Mahdi; Mishra, Rakesh; Khalaf, Haifa; Al Seddiqi, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the evaluation of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) package included in the teaching and learning methodology of computer aided design- computer aided design - computer numerical control (CAD-CAM-CNC) module. Three groups of students with similar pre-abilities were exposed to three different teaching learning methodologies.The effectiveness of these three methods was determined by questionnaires completed by the students and collected by first author. Their answers were ...

  13. A new asymmetric directional microphone algorithm with automatic mode-switching ability for binaural hearing support devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinryoul; Nam, Kyoung Won; Yook, Sunhyun; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2015-06-01

    For hearing support devices, it is important to minimize the negative effect of ambient noises for speech recognition but also, at the same time, supply natural ambient sounds to the hearing-impaired person. However, conventional fixed bilateral asymmetric directional microphone (DM) algorithms cannot perform in such a way when the DM-mode device and a dominant noise (DN) source are placed on the same lateral hemisphere. In this study, a new binaural asymmetric DM algorithm that can overcome the defects of conventional algorithms is proposed. The proposed algorithm can estimate the position of a specific DN in the 90°-270° range and switch directional- and omnidirectional-mode devices automatically if the DM-mode device and the DN are placed in opposite lateral hemispheres. Computer simulation and KEMAR mannequin recording tests demonstrated that the performance of the conventional algorithm deteriorated when the DM-mode device and the DN were placed in the opposite hemisphere; in contrast, the performance of the proposed algorithm was consistently maintained regardless of directional variations in the DN. Based on these experimental results, the proposed algorithm may be able to improve speech quality and intelligibility for hearing-impaired persons who have similar degrees of hearing impairment in both ears. PMID:25597956

  14. It’s all in the past: Temporal-context effects modulate subjective evaluations of emotional visual stimuli, regardless of presentation sequence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czekóová, K.; Shaw, D. J.; Janoušová, E.; Urbánek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 367 (2015), s. 1-11. ISSN 1664-1078 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : emotion * temporal context * presentation sequence * assimilation effect * contrast effect Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.560, year: 2014 http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00367/full

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates physiology and performance of Digitaria eriantha plants subjected to abiotic stresses by modulating antioxidant and jasmonate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedranzani, H; Rodríguez-Rivera, M; Gutiérrez, M; Porcel, R; Hause, B; Ruiz-Lozano, J M

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates antioxidant responses and jasmonate regulation in Digitaria eriantha cv. Sudafricana plants inoculated (AM) and non-inoculated (non-AM) with Rhizophagus irregularis and subjected to drought, cold, or salinity. Stomatal conductance, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants enzymes activities, and jasmonate levels were determined. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic efficiency decreased in AM and non-AM plants under all stress conditions. However, AM plants subjected to drought, salinity, or non-stress conditions showed significantly higher stomatal conductance values. AM plants subjected to drought or non-stress conditions increased their shoot/root biomass ratios, whereas salinity and cold caused a decrease in these ratios. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation, which was high in non-AM plant roots under all treatments, increased significantly in non-AM plant shoots under cold stress and in AM plants under non-stress and drought conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased in the roots of all plants under drought conditions. In shoots, although lipid peroxidation decreased in AM plants under non-stress and cold conditions, it increased under drought and salinity. AM plants consistently showed high catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments. By contrast, the glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of AM roots was lower than that of non-AM plants and increased in shoots. The endogenous levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoc acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and 12-OH-JA showed a significant increase in AM plants as compared to non-AM plants. 11-OH-JA content only increased in AM plants subjected to drought. Results show that D. eriantha is sensitive to drought, salinity, and cold stresses and that inoculation with AM fungi regulates its physiology and performance under such conditions, with antioxidants and jasmonates being involved

  16. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users’ preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNeher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1 performance on a measure of reading span (RS is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR strength, (2 similar relations exist for two different, nonverbal measures of executive function, (3 pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and microphone directionality (DIR also influence preferred NR strength, and (4 preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker relations between worse performance on one nonverbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings.

  17. Evaluation of dynamic binaural reproduction system for live transmitted xylophone recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Hammershøi, Dorte

    For a special teaching application of the telepresence research project BEAMING, a scenario of a remote teacher (the Visitor) teaching a local student to play a xylophone through an embodiment is defined. In order to achieve this, a system is required to record, transmit and render the sound of the...... xylophone to the teacher in a dynamic scene. In an implementation of such a system, the xylophone is recorded using a mono recording technique. The signal is then processed to spread out the sound of the distributed sound source as multiple point sources in the virtual scene experienced by the Visitor...... listener with a rendering using the described system. The evaluation is done with a basis in methods previously used for evaluating the subjective sensation of presence in virtual reality systems, mainly based on questionnaires....

  18. Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn and Tinospora cordifolia exert neuroprotection by modulating the antioxidant system in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Saibal K

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major damaging factor during and after the ischemic/hypoxic insult is the generation of free radicals, which leads to apoptosis, necrosis and ultimately cell death. Rubia cordifolia (RC, Fagonia cretica linn (FC and Tinospora cordifolia (TC have been reported to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and have been in use in the eastern system of medicine for various disorders. However, their mechanism of action was largely unknown. We therefore selected these herbs for the present study to test their neuroprotective ability and the associated mechanism in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. Methods Hippocampal Slices were subjected to OGD (oxygen glucose deprivation and divided into 3 groups: control, OGD and OGD + drug treated. Cytosolic Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, nitric oxide (NO was measured as nitrite (NO2 in the supernatant and protein assays were performed in the respective groups at various time intervals. EPR was used to establish the antioxidant effect of RC, FC and TC with respect to superoxide anion (O2.-, hydroxyl radicals (. OH, nitric oxide (NO radical and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO generated from pyrogallol, menadione, DETA-NO and Sin-1 respectively. RT-PCR was performed for the three groups for GCLC, iNOS, Cu-Zn SOD and GAPDH gene expression. Results All the three herbs were effective in elevating the GSH levels, expression of the gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and Cu-Zn SOD genes. The herbs also exhibited strong free radical scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition all the three herbs significantly diminished the expression of iNOS gene after 48 hours which plays a major role in neuronal injury during hypoxia/ischemia. Conclusions RC, FC and TC therefore attenuate oxidative stress mediated cell injury during OGD

  19. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  20. Subjective study of preferred listening conditions in Italian Catholic churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    The paper describes the results of research aimed at investigating the preferred subjective listening conditions inside churches. The effect of different musical motifs (spanning Gregorian chants to symphonic music) was investigated and regression analysis was performed in order to point out the relationship between subjective ratings and acoustical parameters. In order to present realistic listening conditions to the subjects a small subset of nine churches was selected among a larger set of acoustic data collected in several Italian churches during a widespread on-site survey. The subset represented different architectural styles and shapes, and was characterized by average listening conditions. For each church a single source-receiver combination with fixed relative positions was chosen. Measured binaural impulse responses were cross-talk cancelled and then convolved with five anechoic motifs. Paired comparisons were finally performed, asking a trained panel of subjects their preference. Factor analysis pointed out a substantially common underlying pattern characterizing subjective responses. The results show that preferred listening conditions vary as a function of the musical motif, depending on early decay time for choral music and on a combination of initial time delay and lateral energy for instrumental music.

  1. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Modulates DNA Damage Response and the Expression of the VEGF-A and MKI67 Genes in ARPE-19 Cells Subjected to Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Paulina; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka Wanda; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by the progressive degradation of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. ARPE-19 is an RPE cell line established as an in vitro model for the study of AMD pathogenesis. Oxidative stress is an AMD pathogenesis factor that induces DNA damage. Thus, the oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage response (DDR) of ARPE-19 cells can be important in AMD pathogenesis. The metabolism of retinoids-which regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and the visual cycle in the retina-was reported to be disturbed in AMD patients. In the present work, we studied the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, a retinoid) on DDR in ARPE-19 cells subjected to oxidative stress. We observed that ATRA increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alkali-labile sites in DNA, DNA single-strand breaks, and cell death evoked by oxidative stress. ATRA did not modulate DNA repair or the distribution of cells in cell cycle in the response of ARPE-19 cells to oxidative stress. ATRA induced autophagy in the absence of oxidative stress, but had no effect on this process in the stress. ATRA induced over-expression of proliferation marker MKI67 and neovascularization marker VEGF-A. In conclusion, ATRA increased oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells, resulting in more lesions to their DNA and cell death. Moreover, ATRA can modulate some properties of these cells, including neovascularization, which is associated with the exudative form of AMD. Therefore, ATRA can be important in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of AMD. PMID:27314326

  2. Subjective physics

    OpenAIRE

    Brette, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a naive organism who does not know anything about the world. It can capture signals through its sensors and it can make actions. What kind of knowledge about the world is accessible to the organism? This situation is analog to that of a physicist trying to understand the world through observations and experiments. In the same way as physics describes the laws of the world obtained in this way by the scientist, I propose to name subjective physics the description of the laws that gover...

  3. About Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正During my high school years,I found physics,chemistry and maths specially interesting.Actually,I was interested in many subjects,such as biology,history,geography and English.But somehow I simply couldn't remember the events of history or the facts about geography.I couldn't remember the some of the English idioms well either.On the other hand,physics,chemistry and maths were easy for me to learn.After considering carefully my interests and talents,I felt that science might be the best choice for me.So I was determined to study natural science at college.After graduating from college,I would like to return to school to teach.

  4. Power Module

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Fang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the upgrade problem of module, and introduce the concepts of the power module, regular power module and uniform power module. We give some results of them. Key words: power group; power module; regular power module; uniform power module

  5. Sound source localization based on binaural cross-correlation functions%基于双耳互相关函数的声源定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万新旺; 吴镇扬

    2011-01-01

    为了提高受生物启发的定位算法的定位成功率,提出了一种基于双耳互相关函数的声源定位算法.该算法包括2个阶段:离线阶段和在线阶段.在离线阶段,测量与头相关脉冲响应(HRIR),并计算所有HRIR的双耳互相关函数(BCCF).当处于在线阶段时,首先,计算接收信号的BCCF;然后,计算接收信号的BCCF与所有HRIR的BCCF之间的Pearson相关系数;最后,将最大的Pearson相关系数对应的方位作为估计的声源方位.实验结果表明,在有2个声源同时存在的情况下,相对于互通道(cross-channel)定位算法,该算法把主峰定位成功率和次峰定位成功率分别提高了约1.64%和26.48%.%To improve the successful localization rate of the biologically inspired sound source localization method, a sound source localization algorithm based on binaural cross-correlation functions is proposed. The proposed method contains two phases: offline phase and online phase. During the offline phase, the head-related impulse responses (HRIR) are measured, and the binaural cross-correlation functions (BCCF) of the HRIRs are calculated. During the online phase, first, the BCCF of the received signals is computed; then Pearson correlation coefficient between the BCCF of the received signals and that of the HRIRs are calculated; finally, the azimuth corresponding to the largest Pearson correlation coefficient is regarded as the azimuth of the sound source. The experimental results show that when two sound sources are simultaneously present, compared with the cross-channel sound source localization method, the proposed algorithm increases the successful localization rate of the main peak and that of the second peak by about 1.64% and 26.48% , respectively.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow during comprehension and speech (in cerebrally healthy subjects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method in 10 cerebrally healthy subjects at rest and during linguistic activation tests. These consisted of a comprehension test (binaural listening to a narrative text) and a speech test (making sentences from a list of words presented orally at 30-s intervals). The comprehension task induced a moderate increase in the mean right CBF and in both inferior parietal areas, whereas the speech test resulted in a diffuse increase in the mean CBF of both hemispheres, predominating regionally in both inferior parietal, left operculary, and right upper motor and premotor areas. It is proposed that the activation pattern induced by linguistic stimulation depends on not only specific factors, such as syntactic and semantic aspects of language, but also the contents of the material proposed and the attention required by the test situation

  7. Model theory and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Prest, M

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the interplay between model theory and other branches of mathematics has led to many deep and intriguing results. In this, the first book on the topic, the theme is the interplay between model theory and the theory of modules. The book is intended to be a self-contained introduction to the subject and introduces the requisite model theory and module theory as it is needed. Dr Prest develops the basic ideas concerning what can be said about modules using the information which may be expressed in a first-order language. Later chapters discuss stability-theoretic aspects of module

  8. Abelian modules

    OpenAIRE

    S. Halıcıoğlu; Harmanci, A.; GÜNGÖROĞLU, G.; N. Agayev

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we introduce abelian modules as a generalization of abelian rings. Let R be an arbitrary ring with identity. A module M is called abelian if, for any m Î M and any a Î R, any idempotent e Î R, mae=mea. We prove that every reduced module, every symmetric module, every semicommutative module and every Armendariz module is abelian. For an abelian ring R, we show that the module MR is abelian iff M[x]R[x] is abelian. We produce an example to show that M[x, α] need not be abe...

  9. The bat head-related transfer function reveals binaural cues for sound localization in azimuth and elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Murat; Grassi, Elena; Sahota, Manjit; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2004-12-01

    Directional properties of the sound transformation at the ear of four intact echolocating bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were investigated via measurements of the head-related transfer function (HRTF). Contributions of external ear structures to directional features of the transfer functions were examined by remeasuring the HRTF in the absence of the pinna and tragus. The investigation mainly focused on the interactions between the spatial and the spectral features in the bat HRTF. The pinna provides gain and shapes these features over a large frequency band (20-90 kHz), and the tragus contributes gain and directionality at the high frequencies (60 to 90 kHz). Analysis of the spatial and spectral characteristics of the bat HRTF reveals that both interaural level differences (ILD) and monaural spectral features are subject to changes in sound source azimuth and elevation. Consequently, localization cues for horizontal and vertical components of the sound source location interact. Availability of multiple cues about sound source azimuth and elevation should enhance information to support reliable sound localization. These findings stress the importance of the acoustic information received at the two ears for sound localization of sonar target position in both azimuth and elevation. .

  10. Measuring child labor: Comparisons between hours data and subjective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    "This paper examines a subjective measure of child labor as an alternative to hours data for eliciting the distribution of children's time between work, school, and leisure. The subjective child labor questions that were developed have two primary advantages. First, the subjective measures avoid proxy respondent bias in child labor reports made by parents in a standard hours module. Second, the subjective child labor module scales responses to elicit the relative distribution of the shares of...

  11. Merging physical parameters and laboratory subjective ratings for the soundscape assessment of urban squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Maffei, Luigi; Di Gabriele, Maria; Gallo, Veronica

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out in 20 squares in the center of Rome, covering a wide range of different uses, sonic environments, geometry, and architectural styles. Soundwalks along the perimeter of each square were performed during daylight and weekdays taking binaural and video recordings, as well as spot measurements of illuminance. The cluster analysis performed on the physical parameters, not only acoustic, provided two clusters that are in satisfactory agreement with the "a priori" classification. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to five physical parameters, two main components were obtained which might be associated to two environmental features, namely, "chaotic/calm" and "open/enclosed." On the basis of these two features, six squares were selected for the laboratory audio-video tests where 32 subjects took part filling in a questionnaire. The PCA performed on the subjective ratings on the sonic environment showed two main components which might be associated to two emotional meanings, namely, "calmness" and "vibrancy." The linear regression modeling between five objective parameters and the mean value of subjective ratings on chaotic/calm and enclosed/open attributes showed a good correlation. Notwithstanding these interesting results being limited to the specific data set, it is worth pointing out that the complexity of the soundscape quality assessment can be more comprehensively examined merging the field measurements of physical parameters with the subjective ratings provided by field and/or laboratory tests. PMID:23862884

  12. The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andreasen, Camilla H; Andersen, Mette K;

    2008-01-01

    genotyped in the Inter99 study (n = 6070), the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care Denmark screening cohort of individuals with risk factors for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 8662), and in additional type 2 diabetic patients (n = 1......,064) and glucose-tolerant control subjects (n = 360). RESULTS: In the Inter99 study, the A allele of rs2070895 associated with a 0.057 mmol/liter [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.039-0.075] increase in fasting serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 8 x 10(-10)) supported by association in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch...... implying an increased effect on HDL-c in vigorous physically active subjects carrying the -250 A allele. This interaction may have potential implications for public health and disease prevention....

  13. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  14. Modulation of microRNA Expression in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Decrease of Cholesterol Efflux from Macrophages via microRNA-33-Mediated Attenuation of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Expression by Statins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Pei-Chi; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Lee, Wen-Jane; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chiang, An-Na

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complicated health problem that encompasses a variety of metabolic disorders. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the major biochemical parameters associated with MetS and circulating levels of microRNA (miR)-33, miR-103, and miR-155. We found that miRNA-33 levels were positively correlated with levels of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol, but negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels. In the cellular study, miR-33 levels were increased in macrophages treated with high glucose and cholesterol-lowering drugs atorvastatin and pitavastatin. miR-33 has been reported to play an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis through ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) regulation and reverse cholesterol transport. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the linkage between miR-33 and statin treatment remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether atorvastatin and pitavastatin exert their functions through the modulation of miR-33 and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The results showed that treatment of the statins up-regulated miR-33 expression, but down-regulated ABCA1 mRNA levels in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Statin-mediated ABCA1 regulation occurs at the post-transcriptional level through targeting of the 3′-UTR of the ABCA1 transcript by miR-33. Additionally, we found significant down-regulation of ABCA1 protein expression in macrophages treated with statins. Finally, we showed that high glucose and statin treatment significantly suppressed cholesterol efflux from macrophages. These findings have highlighted the complexity of statins, which may exert detrimental effects on metabolic abnormalities through regulation of miR-33 target genes. PMID:27139226

  15. A Survey of Subject and Logical Subject

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永亮

    1999-01-01

    @@ This paper discusses Subject and Logical Subject of the English language. The grammar rules complied by some grammarians will be focused on and induced in a fuller account of the survey, aiming simply at a common- sense justification of traditional sentence analysis. Subject, a familiar grammatical term, is one of the most basic to thetraditional of grammatical analysis. It reports the concept of the subject and its history conducted with learners of English who are involved in making further English programme in the education with deep grammar explorations. Both the teachers and the students face many problems in this area, which need to be made clear and definite. The non- finite verbs have their specific rules or objective laws stipulated or summed up by grammarians. These areas of intellectual inquiry ,like most other fields of language study, have represented profoundly intelligent and important investigation in to the English deep grammars.

  16. Tinnitus: distinguishing between subjectively perceived loudness and tinnitus-related distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wallhäusser-Franke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Overall success of current tinnitus therapies is low, which may be due to the heterogeneity of tinnitus patients. Therefore, subclassification of tinnitus patients is expected to improve therapeutic allocation, which, in turn, is hoped to improve therapeutic success for the individual patient. The present study aims to define factors that differentially influence subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress. METHODS: In a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey, the data of 4705 individuals with tinnitus were analyzed. The self-report questionnaire contained items about subjective tinnitus loudness, type of onset, awareness and localization of the tinnitus, hearing impairment, chronic comorbidities, sleep quality, and psychometrically validated questionnaires addressing tinnitus-related distress, depressivity, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity. In a binary step-wise logistic regression model, we tested the predictive power of these variables on subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress. RESULTS: The present data contribute to the distinction between subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress. Whereas subjective loudness was associated with permanent awareness and binaural localization of the tinnitus, tinnitus-related distress was associated with depressivity, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS: Subjective tinnitus loudness and the potential presence of severe depressivity, anxiety, and somatic symptom severity should be assessed separately from tinnitus-related distress. If loud tinnitus is the major complaint together with mild or moderate tinnitus-related distress, therapies should focus on auditory perception. If levels of depressivity, anxiety or somatic symptom severity are severe, therapies and further diagnosis should focus on these symptoms at first.

  17. Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Progress in identification of strengths and weaknesses of amorphous-silicon technology detailed. Report describes achievements in testing reliability of solar-power modules made of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic cells. Based on investigation of modules made by U.S. manufacturers. Modules subjected to field tests, to accelerated-aging tests in laboratory, and to standard sequence of qualification tests developed for modules of crystalline-silicon cells.

  18. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  19. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoelae, Kalle [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Ridout, David [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  20. Adaptive modulations of martensites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaufmann, S.; Roßler, U.K.; Heczko, Oleg; Wuttig, M.; Buschbeck, J.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 14 (2010), 145702/1-145702/4. ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : adaptive concept of modulated martensite * martensitic Ni-Mn-Ga films * austenite * 14M martensite Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.621, year: 2010 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.145702

  1. Gendered Subjectivities of Spacetimematter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juelskjaer, Malou

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…

  2. Are Quantum States Subjective?

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of the quantum states is brought out and it is argued that the objective state assignment is subsequent to the subjective state of the observer regarding his state of knowledge about the system. The collapse postulate is examined in detail to bring out the inherent subjectivity of the quantum state. The role of doubt and faith in quantum state assignment is examined.

  3. Subjectivity in inductive inference

    OpenAIRE

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samuelson, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Working Papers - Yale School of Management's Economics Research Network International audience This paper examines circumstances under which subjectivity enhances the effectiveness of inductive reasoning. We consider a game in which Fate chooses a data generating process and agents are characterized by inference rules that may be purely objective (or data-based) or may incorporate subjective considerations. The basic intuition is that agents who invoke no subjective considerations are d...

  4. THE SUBJECTS OF RAPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana-Narcisa Radu

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the criminal codes of other states as well as the issues raised by the doctrine and jurisprudence, the new Criminal Code brings significant changes to the offense of rape, changes aimed at, among others, aspects regarding its subjects. In this paper are analyzed: the possibility for a legal person to have the quality of active subject of rape, issues concerning the quality of passive subject, the regulation of aggravated forms and its implications, etc.

  5. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  6. Modulation of Autonomous Nervous System activity by gyrosonic stimulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, S K; Choudhuri, R; Bandopadhaya, S

    2010-01-01

    A novel audio binaural stimulus that generates rotational perceptions of sound movement in brain at a particular predetermined frequency is referred as gyrosonics. The influence of gyrosonics on autonomic nervous system of healthy subjects has been examined by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV) in time- and frequency- domain. The M-lagged Poincare plot shows that the parameters SD1, SD2 and ratio SD12 (SD1/SD2) increases with lagged number M, and M-dependence is well described by Pade' approximant $\\chi \\frac{1+\\beta M}{1+\\gamma M}$ where values of $\\chi$, $\\beta$ and $ \\gamma$ depend on parameters SD1,SD2 and SD12. The values of these parameters for different M are augmented after gyrosonic stimulation. The slope and magnitude of curvature of SD1 and SD12 vs M plot increase considerably due to stimulation. The DFA analysis exhibits decrease in value of exponent $\\alpha$ due to stimulation. This stimulation results slower Heart rate, higher values of the standard deviation SD and the root-mean squared suc...

  7. Can Ropinirole Modulate Reinforcing Subjective Effects of Cocaine in Humans?

    OpenAIRE

    Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Pacini, Matteo; Rovai, Luca; Rugani, Fabio; Dell’Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2011-01-01

    In this study we evaluated, by means of the “cocaine rush visual analog scale,” the impact of ropinirole on the expected rush induced by cocaine in a group of heroin addicts abusing cocaine; the self-reported reaction to the rush blockade (if any) on cocaine consumption, and the correlations between this self-reported reaction and individual, clinical, and therapeutic parameters. Nineteen cocaine abuser heroin-dependent patients entered the study. Their experienced cocaine rush was 61.31 ± 32...

  8. Solutions for Subject Guides

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Moses; Jennifer Richard

    2008-01-01

    The following article describes two libraries' experiences with the implementation of newsoftware packages to deliver timely, accurate and dynamic content via library subjectguides. Acadia University in Wolfville, Nova Scotia implemented new subject guidesusing LibGuides in 2007 and Holland College in Charlottetown, PEI recently launchedtheir new guides in the fall of 2008 using SubjectsPlus.

  9. Solutions for Subject Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Moses

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article describes two libraries' experiences with the implementation of newsoftware packages to deliver timely, accurate and dynamic content via library subjectguides. Acadia University in Wolfville, Nova Scotia implemented new subject guidesusing LibGuides in 2007 and Holland College in Charlottetown, PEI recently launchedtheir new guides in the fall of 2008 using SubjectsPlus.

  10. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  11. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, G R; R. Weidner

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance ...

  12. Subjective safety in traffic.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the reasons it warrants policy-related attention. However, research has shown that, at most, there is a weak link between objective and subjective safety in traffic. There are even indications that some subj...

  13. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.;

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments that...

  14. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.;

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake “calibrating adjustments” to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments that...

  15. Education, subjectivity, literature

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Madrussan

    2014-01-01

    What kind of relationship exists between education, subject and literature? In the past this relationship was considered either a learning object or a process of identification with the main character of a novel. After Ricoeur the same re- lationship can be instead be approached from a different methodological point of view, which creates many new networks of meanings. In this context every literary experience becomes an educational experience and the subject is the restless connection betwee...

  16. Aesthetics and subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Bowie, Andrew,

    2003-01-01

    This new, completely revised and re-written edition of aesthetics and subjectivity brings up to date the original book's account of the path of German philosophy from Kant, via Fichte and Holderlin, the early Romantis, Schelling, Hegel, Schleimacher, to Nietzsche, in view of recent historical research and contemporary arguments in philosophy and theory in the humanities. The original book helped make subjectivity, aesthetics, music and language a significant part of debate in the humanity. Bo...

  17. Subjectivity in Incentive Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Nisar, T.

    2006-01-01

    I investigate the determinants and effects of subjectivity in incentive pay. New forms of incentive pay are increasingly being introduced by company management – for example, bonuses are now linked to wider business goals, such as quality and customer service, company reputation and employee hiring and retention policies, replacing the traditional focus on output or profit measures. A new conceptual work on subjectivity is used to evaluate these incentive pay practices. The analysis shows tha...

  18. Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; El-Fakahany, E. E.

    New York: Springer, 2016 - (Mysliveček, J.; Jakubík, J.), s. 95-130. (Neuromethods. 107). ISBN 978-1-4939-2857-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * allosteric modulation * radioligand binding functional response Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  19. Turning subjective into objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria João; Cardoso, Jaime; Amaral, Natália;

    2007-01-01

    asked to subjectively classify the aesthetic results of 30 photographed cases submitted to breast cancer conservative treatment according to the four-point Harris scale. It was pre-established that if at least two-thirds [Cardoso MJ, Cardoso J, Santos AC, Barros H, Oliveira MC. Interobserver agreement...... observer and the consensus, for computer evaluation obtained by the different participants and between software and consensus was calculated using multiple kappa (k) and weighted kappa (wk) statistics. In the subjective assessment, first-round consensus was achieved in 17 (57%) cases. Overall interobserver...

  20. YOGA FOR SELECTED UNDERWEIGHT SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    K Krishna Sharma; Thirumaleshwara Prasada H; Udayakumara K

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga therapy on selected Underweight subjects. The study was conducted on 16 subjects having underweight .These subjects randomly divided into two groups 12 subjects in experimental group, 4 subjects in control group, 12 subjects, selected for experimental were given the yogic treatment .The remaining 4 subjects, of control group, they were asked to continue their routine work in the study period.16 subjects were of t...

  1. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  2. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the...... viewing/reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is...... represented in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a...

  3. Subjectivity of embodiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195. ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. [Subjective memory complaints (SMC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Toji; Iwata, Atushi

    2016-03-01

    Subjective memory complaints without objective cognitive impairments are common in elderly people. Recent evidence indicates subjective memory complaints is not merely a sign of a depressive state or an aging phenomenon, but an important risk factor for proceeding to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in the future. Even when cognitively intact through the life, people with SMC tend to have more Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in the brain, which recently been defined as preclinical AD. Though not having the same clinical significance compared to MCI, we should keep in mind that elderly people with SMC are at risk for future cognitive decline and try to find out what specific biological backgrounds or clinical characters increase this cognitive risk. PMID:27025085

  5. Doing Wholeness, Producing Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünenberg, Kristina; Hillersdal, Line; Walker, Hanne Kjærgaard; Boelsbjerg, Hanne Bess

    2013-01-01

    This article is concerned with the ways in which bodies and subjects are enacted and negotiated in the encounter between client and practitioner within specialized kinesiology - a specific complementary and alternative medical practice. In the article we trace the ideas of connections and...... disconnections, which are conceptualized and practised within kinesiology. We attempt to come to grips with these specific notions of relatedness through the introduction of the concept energetic kinship' and to relate them to more general discussions about the nature of subjects, bodies and social identity in...... late modern society. We argue that through the particular approach to the body as a prime locus of knowledge on which kinesiological treatment practices are based, kinesiology offers clients an alternative understanding of being-in-the-world. The understanding of the body as the locus of knowledge...

  6. Subjective Life Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Nicky Nicholls; Alexander Zimper

    2014-01-01

    Individuals' subjective life-expectancy, as elicited in large-scale surveys, shows underestimation of survival chances at young versus overestimation at old ages. These distorted perceptions of objective survival chances may cause young people to save too little and old people to accumulate too much wealth late in life with respect to the rational expectations benchmark model. Alternative explanations for these differences between perceived and objective survival chances include cognitive sho...

  7. Objectifying Subjective Probabilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Childers, Timothy

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2012 - ( Weber , M.; Dieks, D.; Gonzalez, W.; Hartman, S.; Stadler, F.; Stöltzner, M.), s. 19-28. (The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective. 3). ISBN 978-94-007-3029-8. [Pluralism in the Foundations of Statistics. Canterbury (GB), 09.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1504 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : probabilities * direct Inference Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  8. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical...

  9. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  10. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  11. Q-modules

    OpenAIRE

    Q-modules,

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we characterize Q-modules and almost Q-modules. Next we estblish some equivalent conditions for an almost Q-module to be a Q-module. Using these results, some characterizations are given for Noetherian Q-modules.

  12. Subjective evaluation of higher dynamic range video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is able to capture a wide range of luminance values, closer to what the human eye can perceive. However, for capture and display technologies, it is important to answer the question on the significance of higher dynamic range for user preference. This paper answers this question by investigating the added value of higher dynamic range via a rigorous set of subjective experiments using paired comparison methodology. Video sequences at four different peak luminance levels were displayed side-by-side on a Dolby Research HDR RGB backlight dual modulation display (aka `Pulsar'), which is capable of reliably displaying video content at 4000 cd=m2 peak luminance. The results of the subjective experiment demonstrate that the preference of an average viewer increases logarithmically with the increase in the maximum luminance level at which HDR content is displayed, with 4000 cd=m2 being the most attractive option.

  13. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  14. An optical modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Thévenaz, Luc; Dainesi, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    An optical modulator is arranged to compensate for the thermo-optical modulating effects induced by charge-injection based phase modulators. It comprises first modulator means (3), that receive optical radiation (11, 21), direct it along an optical path, apply a first predetermined optical phase modulation by the injection of free charges into the optical path, and output optical radiation (13, 22) so modulated. Compensator means (4) apply, to optical radiation output from (13, 22), or to be ...

  15. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  16. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  17. Temporary Suppression of Tinnitus by Modulated Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Reavis, Kelly M.; Rothholtz, Vanessa S.; Tang, Qing; Carroll, Jeff A.; Djalilian, Hamid; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Despite high prevalence of tinnitus and its impact on quality life, there is no cure for tinnitus at present. Here, we report an effective means to temporarily suppress tinnitus by amplitude- and frequency-modulated tones. We systematically explored the interaction between subjective tinnitus and 17 external sounds in 20 chronic tinnitus sufferers. The external sounds included traditionally used unmodulated stimuli such as pure tones and white noise and dynamically modulated stimuli known to ...

  18. Concrete and rock cutting using modulated waterjets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef; Ščučka, Jiří; Švehla, B.; Bodnárová, L.; Hela, R.

    Seoul: Korean Society of Water Jet Technology, 2002, s. 235-244. [Pacific Rim International Conference on Water Jetting Technology/7./. Jeju (KR), 27.10.2003-29.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2086001; GA ČR(CZ) GA105/03/0183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : modulated water jet * ultrasonic modulation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  19. Is Piaget's Epistemic Subject Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the Piaget's epistemic subject is not supported by evidence and contains weaknesses. Concludes that the epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive. (PR)

  20. Objective Tests versus Subjective tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林

    2007-01-01

    objective test has only one correct answer, while subjective test has a range of possible answers. Because of this feature, reliability will not be difficult to achieve in the marking of the objective item, while the marking of the subjective items is reliable. On the whole, a good test must contain both subjective and objective test items.

  1. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kooy, H. M.; Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radio...

  2. Evaluation of vardenafil for the treatment of subjective tinnitus: a controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöver Timo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vardenafil (Levitra® represents a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5 inhibitor, which is established for treatment of various diseases. There are several unpublished reports from patients stating that vardenafil has a considerable therapeutic effect on their concomitant tinnitus. This pilot study was conducted to specifically assess the effect of vardenafil in patients with chronic tinnitus. Methods This trial was based on a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Fourty-two consecutive subjects with mon- or binaural chronic tinnitus received 10 mg vardenafil (N = 21 or matching placebo tablets (N = 21 administered orally twice a day over a period of 12 weeks. Clinical examination and data acquisition took place at each visit: at baseline, after 4 weeks, after 12 weeks (end of treatment with study medication, and at non-medicated follow-up after 16 weeks. Assessment of clinical effectiveness was based on a standardized tinnitus questionnaire (TQ, the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36, audiometric measurements (mode, pitch and loudness of tinnitus; auditory thresholds and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients' blood (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, homocysteine and total antioxidative status. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by comparison of subjective and objective parameters with baseline data between both treatment groups (ANCOVA. Results Vardenafil had no superior efficacy over placebo in the treatment of chronic tinnitus during this study. The primary efficacy criterion 'TQ total score' failed to demonstrate significant improvement compared to placebo. Subjective reports of TQ subscales and general quality of life areas (SF-36, objective audiometric examinations as well as investigated biomarkers for oxidative stress did not reveal any significant treatment effects. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that in other vardenafil

  3. Development of a commercial photovoltaic concentrator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifee, S.T.; Hutchison, G. [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The ojective of this work was to develop the design and prototype of a commercial high-concentration photovoltaic (PV) module. The design is for a 282-sun point-focus concentrating module. Most of the components, subassemblies, and design features incorporate simplifications and ease of manufacturing. The Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) module is designed to incorporate high-efficiency, single-crystal silicon PV cells. The housing is made with aluminum laminated for voltage stand-off and simultaneously providing high thermal conductivity. The Fresnel lens injection molded by American Optical (AO) as singles. The cell assembly consists of a copper heat spreader, a photovoltaic cell soldered, a top and bottom contact, and a reflective secondary optical element (SOE). The cell assemblies passed all of the initial electrical characterization and high-potential tests. Under environmental cycling, the only bond that failed was the PV cell-to-heat spreader interface. The other components (top contact, bottom contact, SOE) passed all the environmental cycling tests. The cell assemblies were designed to be mounted onto the receiver section with a thermally conductive RTV. This geometry was subjected to environmental testing. There was no delamination of this bond nor was there electrical breakdown when the assemblies were subjected to the hi-pot test. A mock module was fabricated for environmental evaluation. This module was subjected to the humidity/freeze cycling to assess the performance of the lens mounting design. This module was also subjected to the rain test after the humidity/freeze cycling and checked for water leaks. The lens showed small displacement from its original position after the environmental cycling. One tablespoon of water did collect inside the module.

  4. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  5. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  6. Machine learning analysis of binaural rowing sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johard, Leonard; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Hoffmann, Pablo F.;

    2011-01-01

    Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition metho...... methodology and the evaluation of different machine learning techniques for classifying rowing-sound data. We see that a combination of principal component analysis and shallow networks perform equally well as deep architectures, while being much faster to train....

  7. Machine Learning Analysis of Binaural Rowing Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Filippeschi Alessandro; Hoffmann Pablo; Ruffaldi Emanuele; Johard Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition methodology and the evaluation of different machine learning techniques for classifying rowing-sound data. We see that a combination of principal component analysis and shallow networks perform equally wel...

  8. Machine Learning Analysis of Binaural Rowing Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippeschi Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition methodology and the evaluation of different machine learning techniques for classifying rowing-sound data. We see that a combination of principal component analysis and shallow networks perform equally well as deep architectures, while being much faster to train.

  9. Binaural processing by the gecko auditory periphery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Ye Zhong; Carr, Catherine E

    2011-01-01

    Tokay gecko with neurophysiological recordings from the auditory nerve. Laser vibrometry shows that their ear is a two-input system with approximately unity interaural transmission gain at the peak frequency (around 1.6 kHz). Median interaural delays are 260 μs, almost three times larger than predicted...... from gecko head size, suggesting interaural transmission may be boosted by resonances in the large, open mouth cavity (Vossen et al., 2010). Auditory nerve recordings are sensitive to both interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD), reflecting the acoustical interactions...

  10. Subjective experience and subjective response to neuroleptics in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A; Arduini, L; Stratta, P; Pallanti, S

    2000-01-01

    Although several studies have addressed the issue of the relationship between the subjective response to neuroleptics and drug compliance, very little attention has been given to the study of the subjective experience of psychosis and drug attitudes. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the relationship between the subjective experience of psychosis as assessed by the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF) and subjective response (SR) to neuroleptics as assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) in a group of schizophrenic patients. Significant correlations were found between the total scores on the FBF and DAI (r= .46, P< .01). The DAI total score also correlated with all four factors (central cognitive disturbances, perception and motility, depressivity, and internal and external overstimulation) on the FBF. This finding suggests that the SR neuroleptics is partly explained by a "positive" subjective experience of psychosis. PMID:11086150

  11. The modulated average structure of mullite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Birkenstock, J.; Petříček, Václav; Pedersen, B.; Schneider, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, Jun (2015), 358-368. ISSN 0108-7681 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : 2:1 mullite * disordered modulated structure * ceramics * neutron diffraction * diffuse Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2014

  12. Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; El-Fakahany, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 9 (2010), s. 2838-2860. ISSN 1424-8247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/09/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptors * allosteric modulation * Alzheimer ´s disease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  13. Test system for thermoelectric modules and materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejtmánek, Jiří; Knížek, Karel; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 10 (2014), s. 3726-3732. ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17538S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thermoelectric power module * automatic thermoelectric testing setup * heat flow measurement * power generation * heat recovery Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.798, year: 2014

  14. Engineering Design Modules as Physics Teaching Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Douglas L.; Kane, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Pre-engineering is increasingly being taught as a high school subject. This development presents challenges as well as opportunities for the physics education community. If pre-engineering is taught as a separate class, it may divert resources and students from traditional physics classes. However, design modules can be used as physics teaching…

  15. Modulation of ankle stiffness during postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christopher B; Kearney, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Ankle stiffness is a nonlinear, time-varying system which contributes to the control of human upright stance. This study sought to examine the nature of the contribution of stiffness to postural control by determining how intrinsic and reflex stiffnesses varied with sway. Subjects were instructed to stand quietly on a bilateral electro-hydraulic actuator while perturbations were applied about the ankle. Subjects performed three types of trials: normal stance, forward lean, and backward lean. Position, torque, and EMGs from the tibialis anterior and triceps surae were recorded. Background torque, intrinsic stiffness and reflex stiffness were calculated for each perturbation. Intrinsic and reflex stiffnesses were heavily modulated by postural sway. Moreover, they were modulated in a complimentary manner; intrinsic stiffness was lowest when reflex gain was highest, and vice versa. These findings suggest that intrinsic stiffness is modulated simultaneously with reflex stiffness to optimize the control of balance. PMID:25570884

  16. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Informational Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    Pennsylvania's Department of Education provides eight energy education modules that cover different secondary school disciplines. This introductory publication is designed to accompany each of the eight subject-area modules. It contains background information for teachers on topics ranging from energy's definition and past uses to nuclear waste…

  17. Optimal Configuration of Dispersion Compensation Modules with Installation Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malin; Premaratne; Prashan; Premaratne

    2003-01-01

    Selecting a cost optimum subset of discrete-value dispersion compensation modules (DV-DCMs) subject to maximum module count from an available set of DV-DCMs is a NP-hard problem. We derive a novel dynamic programming algorithm with pseudo-polynomial time bound and show that DV-DCM cost re-scaling can improve the running time.

  18. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  19. Polarization modulators for CMBPol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review a number of technologies that are candidates for active polarization modulators for CMBPol. The technologies are appropriate for instruments that use bolometric detectors and include birefringent crystal-based and metal-mesh-based half-wave plates, variable phase polarization modulator, Faraday rotator, and photolithographed modulators. We also give a current account of the status of millimeter-wave orthomode transducers.

  20. Polarization modulators for CMBPol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P A R; Savini, G [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Chuss, D T [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Hanany, S [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota/Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Haynes, V; Pisano, G [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy - Alan Turing Building, Upper Brooke street, Manchester, M13 4PL (United Kingdom); Keating, B G [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Kogut, A [Code 665 Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ruhl, J E [Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States); Wollack, E J [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    We review a number of technologies that are candidates for active polarization modulators for CMBPol. The technologies are appropriate for instruments that use bolometric detectors and include birefringent crystal-based and metal-mesh-based half-wave plates, variable phase polarization modulator, Faraday rotator, and photolithographed modulators. We also give a current account of the status of millimeter-wave orthomode transducers.

  1. Optical Response of a Liquid Crystal modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress in liquid crystal device technology has led to the development of different electro-optical displays from simple digital watchs to high information content computer screens. In these electro-optical systems modulation of light by means of a liquid crystal device is very important subject both from the point of fundamental physics and for possible technological applications. In this study we describe a liquid crystal modulator which consists of a thin film of liquid crystal contained between parallel conductive glass plates. The surfaces of the plates are treated so that the liquid crystal molecules are parallel to the surfaces but twists about an axis normal to the surfaces by an angle of 90 degree from one substrate to the other. In a liquid crystal modulator the dielectric and optical anisotropies are used to modulate a laser beam passing through the film. If an electric field is applied across the film the molecules realign parallel to the electric field to form the homeotropic structure which has no optical modulation effect. Thus, the electric field-dependent transmission of the liquid crystal modulator is characterized. We also analyze the response behavior of the liquid crystal modulator

  2. CS-Rickart modules

    OpenAIRE

    Abyzov, A. N.; Nhan, T. H. N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of CS-Rickart modules, that is a module analogue of the concept of ACS rings. A ring $R$ is called a right weakly semihereditary ring if every its finitly generated right ideal is of the form $P\\oplus S,$ where $P_R$ is a projective module and $S_R$ is a singular module. We describe the ring $R$ over which $\\mathrm{Mat}_n (R)$ is a right ACS ring for any $n \\in \\mathbb {N}$. We show that every finitely generated projective right $R$-module wil...

  3. Changing the Subject: Psychology, Social Regulation and Subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Julian F.; Hollway, Wendy; Urwin, Cathy; Venn, Couze; Walkerdine, Valerie

    1984-01-01

    Changing the Subject is a classic critique of traditional psychology in which the foundations of critical and feminist psychology are laid down. Pioneering and foundational, it is still the groundbreaking text crucial to furthering the new psychology in both teaching and research. Now reissued with a new foreword describing the changes which have taken place over the last few years, Changing the Subject will continue to have a significant impact on thinking about psychology and social theory.

  4. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei

    2011-05-01

    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  5. Frequency modulation in nuclear magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A version of the frequency-modulation magnetometer based on a particular design of the field-modulation nuclear magnetometer is proposed. Disadvantages of field modulation and advantages of frequency modulation are pointed out

  6. Modulation indices for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to present a modulation index (MI) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the speed and acceleration analysis of modulating-parameters such as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) movements, gantry rotation and dose-rate, comprehensively. The performance of the presented MI (MIt) was evaluated with correlation analyses to the pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) results, differences in modulating-parameters between VMAT plans versus dynamic log files, and differences in dose-volumetric parameters between VMAT plans versus reconstructed plans using dynamic log files. For comparison, the same correlation analyses were performed for the previously suggested modulation complexity score (MCSv), leaf travel modulation complexity score (LTMCS) and MI by Li and Xing (MI Li and Xing). In the two-tailed unpaired parameter condition, p values were acquired. The Spearman’s rho (rs) values of MIt, MCSv, LTMCS and MI Li and Xing to the local gamma passing rate with 2%/2 mm criterion were −0.658 (p < 0.001), 0.186 (p = 0.251), 0.312 (p = 0.05) and −0.455 (p = 0.003), respectively. The values of rs to the modulating-parameter (MLC positions) differences were 0.917, −0.635, −0.857 and 0.795, respectively (p < 0.001). For dose-volumetric parameters, MIt showed higher statistically significant correlations than the conventional MIs. The MIt showed good performance for the evaluation of the modulation-degree of VMAT plans. (paper)

  7. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  8. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  9. Subjective probability models for lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Spizzichino, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    Bayesian methods in reliability cannot be fully utilized and understood without full comprehension of the essential differences that exist between frequentist probability and subjective probability. Switching from the frequentist to the subjective approach requires that some fundamental concepts be rethought and suitably redefined. Subjective Probability Models for Lifetimes details those differences and clarifies aspects of subjective probability that have a direct influence on modeling and drawing inference from failure and survival data. In particular, within a framework of Bayesian theory, the author considers the effects of different levels of information in the analysis of the phenomena of positive and negative aging.The author coherently reviews and compares the various definitions and results concerning stochastic ordering, statistical dependence, reliability, and decision theory. He offers a detailed but accessible mathematical treatment of different aspects of probability distributions for exchangea...

  10. PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PROTECTS RESEARCH SUBJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....

  11. SUBJECT ONTOLOGY INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.С. ФІЛІПЕНКО

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available  The article presents a research of presentive ontology of international economic policy. A subject field of international economic policy in the context of its multilevel methodology is defined.

  12. Ethical Obligation Towards Research Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of biomedical research depends on ready availability of research subjects. But such ready availability, in turn, depends on ethical practices by researchers and sponsoring agencies. The clear-cut power to protect research subjects should be inbuilt in the contract process. Establishment of Best Practice Guidelines for researchers and academic medical centers and Good Publication Practice for sponsoring pharmaceuticals, are two important developments worth a close study and replication to assess feasibility across diverse geographical areas.

  13. Ethical Obligation Towards Research Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajai R.; Shakuntala A. Singh

    2007-01-01

    The progress of biomedical research depends on ready availability of research subjects. But such ready availability, in turn, depends on ethical practices by researchers and sponsoring agencies. The clear-cut power to protect research subjects should be inbuilt in the contract process. Establishment of Best Practice Guidelines for researchers and academic medical centers and Good Publication Practice for sponsoring pharmaceuticals, are two important developments worth a close study and replic...

  14. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lynne Layton

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about wh...

  15. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    OpenAIRE

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of pat...

  16. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  17. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  18. Ecosecent:: Essence, Subject and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachenko Hanna V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that due to multi-laterality the knowledge about security is distributed by various branches, one of which is ecosestate, within which conditions of secure functioning of socio-economic systems and methods of their provision are studied. It shows the essence of ecosecent as a component of the “state – region (branch – subject of economic activity” ecosestate vertical – a set of knowledge about economic security of subjects of economic activity. It considers reasons that cause establishment of ecosecent: practical needs and a necessity to reconsider basic concepts of the essence, limits and factors of economy. It formulates the subject of ecosecent. It considers the status of the “economic security of the subject of economic activity” notion as its state, described with a set of parameters or characteristic features as characteristics of the subject of economic activity as a condition of its activity and as a set of actions that allow ensuring or preservation of the state of security, in other words, protection of the subject of economic activity. It presents general approaches to structuring of ecosecent by activity, functional and branch features.

  19. Directed network modules

    CERN Document Server

    Pálla, G; Farkas, I J; Pollner, P; Vicsek, T; Derenyi, Imre; Farkas, Illes J.; Palla, Gergely; Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e., internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the Clique Percolation Method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own webpages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and among Google's webpages the overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and t...

  20. A photovoltaic module

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Frederik C.; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovolt...

  1. The ANTARES Optical Module

    OpenAIRE

    the ANTARES Collaboration

    2001-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km-squared and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R & D studi...

  2. History of Accelerated and Qualification Testing of Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C. R.; McMahon, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    We review published literature from 1975 to the present for accelerated stress testing of flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules. An important facet of this subject is the standard module test sequences that have been adopted by national and international standards organizations, especially those of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The intent and history of these qualification tests, provided in this review, shows that standard module qualification test results cannot be used to obtain or infer a product lifetime. Closely related subjects also discussed include: other limitations of qualification testing, definitions of module lifetime, module product certification, and accelerated life testing.

  3. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  4. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  5. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  6. Weak Subjectivity, Trans-Subjectivity and the Power of Event

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2010), s. 391-406. ISSN 1387-2842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Heidegger * Nietschean model of thought Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Psychoanalysis and politics: historicising subjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  8. Psychoanalysis and politics: Historicising subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Layton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence.

  9. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  10. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  11. The Collective Subject that speaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lefevre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Discourse of the Collective Subject as a qualitative-quantitative proposal for opinion polling or research on social representations. The authors propose the presentation of collective opinion in research as an empirical variable of qualitative and quantitative nature. This is achieved by introducing a subject of discourse, who is individual and collective at the same time. This empowers the speaker to express him or herself directly, without the intervention of the researcher's meta-discourse and avoids converting opinion in a mere quantitative variable, mutilating its essentially discursive nature.

  12. On philosophical subjects and methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Fuchun

    2006-01-01

    With the consideration of some issues in contemporary philosophy,this thesis attempts to analyze being,thinking and language as philosophical subjects,and clear up the multiple meanings for each of them.It will also inquire the traditional methods in both Chinese and Western philosophy,and those in contemporary thinking.Finally,it puts forward a theory of"the critique without principles".The thesis aims to explore a new way to solve the problems of contemporary philosophy by changing its subjects and methods.

  13. Analysis of Symmetrical Pulse Width Modulation Strategies for Matrix Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, K.B.; Jorgensen, A.H.; Helle, Lars;

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new and easy way to understand the derivation of the modulation functions for matrix converters. It is shown how the duty cycles can be calculated using techniques known from the back-to-back (B2B) voltage source inverter (VSI), thus making the subject accessible to people...... with prior knowledge in standard drives. A new modulation strategy is presented minimizing harmonic distortion compared to the standard double-sided space vector modulation for matrix converters. An improvement to an existing modulator is also presented where the proposed modification improves the...... harmonic performance. The strategies are compared both analytically and by the use of both simulations and measurements on a 12 kW matrix converter prototype.It is found that the proposed modulator has superior performance compared to modulators with equal switching frequencies and an equal number of...

  14. Native American Languages: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce, Comp.

    This document is an eleven-page supplemental subject guide listing reference material that focuses on Native American languages that is not available in the Labriola National American Indian Data Center in the Arizona State University, Tempe (ASU) libraries. The guide is not comprehensive but offers a selective list of resources useful for…

  15. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  16. Subjective perception of personal change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Osecká, Terezie

    Huddersfield : University of Huddersfield, 2005, 59-67. ISBN 1 86218 075 X. [Narrative, Memory, and Everyday Life. Huddersfield (GB), 01.04.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA8025004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : personality * stability * change Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  17. Subjective or objective? What matters?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-43. ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : comparative housing policy * globalisation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  18. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  19. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  20. Teachers' subjective theories on algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Meinke, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This project concerns the impact of the belief system of teachers on their algebra teaching practices in secondary education. The first step is to reconstruct this belief system. The methodological framework is provided by the Research Project Subjective Theories (RPST). The research design is described here.

  1. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report supplements and extends basic information contained in the seminar report 'Use and risk of nuclear energy' (Juel-Conf-17). The contributions deal with nuclear waste management, measures to avoid the misuse of nuclear fuels, and the properties and use of plutonium. As against the last edition, the subject 'Energy and environment' has been added. (orig.)

  2. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries...

  3. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  4. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I-ship c...

  5. The FPAX fastbus module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FPAX is a Fastbus module with 4 independent, 2 slave and 2 master, ports on two segments. It operates as a normal master on either segment or as a Block-Mover on both. The processor board is based on a 68020 microprocessor. A local/network switch allows operation as a host or as a normal module on the Fastbus network

  6. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  7. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  8. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  9. Modulation gamma resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility to control dynamic processes in a matter through gamma-resonance modulation by high-frequency external variable fields in excess of inverse lifetimes of the Moessbauer nuclei excited states, that is, within the megahertz frequency range lies in the heart of the modulation gamma-resonance spectroscopy. Through the use of the gamma-resonance process theoretical analysis methods and of the equation solution method for the density matrix with the secondary quantization of gamma-radiation field one attacks the problems dealing with the effect of both variable fields and relaxation on gamma-resonance. One has studied the gamma-radiation ultrasound modulation stages. One points out a peculiar role of the gamma-magnetic resonance effect in modulation gamma resonance spectroscopy formation. One forecasts development of the modulation gamma-resonance spectroscopy into the nonlinear gamma-resonance spectroscopy

  10. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  11. Subject search study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study gathered information on how users search the database of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), using indicators such as Subject categories, Controlled terms, Subject headings, Free-text words, combinations of the above. Users participated from the Australian, French, Russian and Spanish INIS Centres, that have different national languages. Participants, both intermediaries and end users, replied to a questionnaire and executed search queries. The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA also participated. A protocol of all search strategies used in actual searches in the database was kept. The thought process for Russian and Spanish users is predominantly non-English and also the actual initial search formulation is predominantly non-English among Russian and Spanish users while it tends to be more in English among French users. A total of 1002 searches were executed by the five INIS centres including the IAEA. The search protocols indicate the following search behaviour: 1) free text words represent about 40% of search points on an average query; 2) descriptors used as search keys have the widest range as percentage of search points, from a low of 25% to a high of 48%; 3) search keys consisting of free text that coincides with a descriptor account for about 15% of search points; 4) Subject Categories are not used in many searches; 5) free text words are present as search points in about 80% of all searches; 6) controlled terms (descriptors) are used very extensively and appear in about 90% of all searches; 7) Subject Headings were used in only a few percent of searches. From the results of the study one can conclude that there is a greater reluctance on the part of non-native English speakers in initiating their searches by using free text word searches. Also: Subject Categories are little used in searching the database; both free text terms and controlled terms are the predominant types of search keys used, whereby the controlled terms are used more

  12. Medical students as human subjects in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina L. Kalet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Special concerns often arise when medical students are themselves the subjects of education research. A recently completed large, multi-center randomized controlled trial of computer-assisted learning modules for surgical clerks provided the opportunity to explore the perceived level of risk of studies where medical students serve as human subjects by reporting on: 1 the response of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs at seven institutions to the same study protocol; and 2 the thoughts and feelings of students across study sites about being research subjects. Methods: From July 2009 to August 2010, all third-year medical students at seven collaborating institutions were eligible to participate. Patterns of IRB review of the same protocol were compared. Participation burden was calculated in terms of the time spent interacting with the modules. Focus groups were conducted with medical students at each site. Transcripts were coded by three independent reviewers and analyzed using Atlas.ti. Results: The IRBs at the seven participating institutions granted full (n=1, expedited (n=4, or exempt (n=2 review of the WISE Trial protocol. 995 (73% of those eligible consented to participate, and 207 (20% of these students completed all outcome measures. The average time to complete the computer modules and associated measures was 175 min. Common themes in focus groups with participant students included the desire to contribute to medical education research, the absence of coercion to consent, and the low-risk nature of the research. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate that risk assessment and the extent of review utilized for medical education research vary among IRBs. Despite variability in the perception of risk implied by differing IRB requirements, students themselves felt education research was low risk and did not consider themselves to be vulnerable. The vast majority of eligible medical students were willing to participate as research

  13. Experimental subjects are not different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this "particular" subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  14. A modeling study of the responses of the lateral superior olive to ipsilateral sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Colburn, H Steven

    2012-04-01

    The lateral superior olive (LSO) is a brainstem nucleus that is classically understood to encode binaural information in high-frequency sounds. Previous studies have shown that LSO cells are sensitive to envelope interaural time difference in sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) tones (Joris and Yin, J Neurophysiol 73:1043-1062, 1995; Joris, J Neurophysiol 76:2137-2156, 1996) and that a subpopulation of LSO neurons exhibit low-threshold potassium currents mediated by Kv1 channels (Barnes-Davies et al., Eur J Neurosci 19:325-333, 2004). It has also been shown that in many LSO cells the average response rate to ipsilateral SAM tones decreases with modulation frequency above a few hundred Hertz (Joris and Yin, J Neurophysiol 79:253-269, 1998). This low-pass feature is not directly inherited from the inputs to the LSO since the response rate of these input neurons changes little with increasing modulation frequency. In the current study, an LSO cell model is developed to investigate mechanisms consistent with the responses described above, notably the emergent rate decrease with increasing frequency. The mechanisms explored included the effects of after-hyperpolarization (AHP) channels, the dynamics of low-threshold potassium channels (KLT), and the effects of background inhibition. In the model, AHP channels alone were not sufficient to induce the observed rate decrease at high modulation frequencies. The model also suggests that the background inhibition alone, possibly from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, can account for the small rate decrease seen in some LSO neurons, but could not explain the large rate decrease seen in other LSO neurons at high modulation frequencies. In contrast, both the small and large rate decreases were replicated when KLT channels were included in the LSO neuron model. These results support the conclusion that KLT channels may play a major role in the large rate decreases seen in some units and that background inhibition may be

  15. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  16. On Modules Whose Singular Subgenerated Modules Are Weakly Injective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Dhompongsa; J. Sanwong; S.Plubtieng; H.Tansee

    2001-01-01

    Rings over which every singular right module is injective (briefly,right SI-rings) were introduced and investigated by Goodearl. Weakly injective modules, as a generalization of injective modules, were introduced by Jain and modules are weakly injective, which we call SwI-rings. This concept is extended to SwI-modules, i.e., modules whose singular subgenerated modules are weakly injective. Several characterizations and properties of SwI-rings and SwI-modules are obtained which generalize some earlier known results on SI-rings and weakly semisimple rings.

  17. Conceptual change, subjectivity and Psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Villani; Tânia Cristina Baptista Cabral

    1997-01-01

    We present the Conceptual Change Model (Posner et al., 1982) and detach how the presence of student’s subjectivity deeply marks the four conditions for the accomodation. The fundamental metaphor which supports the model, student as a little scientist, is limited, because does not consider the subjet’s relation with his community via language. We propose another metaphor: the learning process is similar with the psychoanalytic process. The analogy allow us to delineate in a sufficiently precis...

  18. Psychiatric classification and subjective experience

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article does not directly consider the feelings and emotions that occur in mental illness. Rather, it concerns a higher level methodological question: To what extent is an analysis of feelings and felt emotions of importance for psychiatric classification? Some claim that producing a phenomenologically informed descriptive psychopathology is a prerequisite for serious taxonomic endeavor. Others think that classifications of mental disorders may ignore subjective experience. A middle view...

  19. Translating deixis: A subjective experience

    OpenAIRE

    Semlali, Hicham

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes some of the conscious cognitive processes that are inherent in equivalence formation commencing from the transfer of deixis and culminating in the experience of source-to-target and target-to-source indexicality. Its scope is interdisciplinary and the methodology is varied depending on the segment of analysis. It combines a process-oriented analysis with a product based assessment. The stance is also partly subjective because it is based on the pe...

  20. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2015-01-01

    Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separat...

  1. Transforming subjectivities in psychiatric care

    OpenAIRE

    Terkelsen, Toril Borch

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based upon ethnographic fieldwork in a Norwegian psychiatric unit practicing a psycho-educational treatment of young adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. An aim of the programme is that patients learn to detect and monitor their 'symptoms' in order to obtain 'insight into their own illness', thus transforming themselves into self-governed and self-responsible subjects who are able to cope with life outside institutions. The programme is constituted within a medical framework wit...

  2. Strategic analysis of choosen subject

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhart, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Thesis "Strategic Analysis of the selected entity 'of the chosen subject is about strategy BRISK Tabor as The aim is to assess the strategic focus of the company, the discovery and propose changes in the current Strategy. The work is divided into a theoretical part and a practical part of the conclusion. The theoretical part is from the perspective of economic theory and practice is portrayed strategy, strategic management process, thinking and planning. Strategic analysis of the external and...

  3. Immune Modulation by Volatile Anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollings, Lindsay M; Jia, Li-Jie; Tang, Pei; Dou, Huanyu; Lu, Binfeng; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile general anesthetics continue to be an important part of clinical anesthesia worldwide. The impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system has been investigated at both mechanistic and clinical levels, but previous studies have returned conflicting findings due to varied protocols, experimental environments, and subject species. While many of these studies have focused on the immunosuppressive effects of volatile anesthetics, compelling evidence also exists for immunoactivation. Depending on the clinical conditions, immunosuppression and activation due to volatile anesthetics can be either detrimental or beneficial. This review provides a balanced perspective on the anesthetic modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses as well as indirect effectors of immunity. Potential mechanisms of immunomodulation by volatile anesthetics are also discussed. A clearer understanding of these issues will pave the way for clinical guidelines that better account for the impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system, with the ultimate goal of improving perioperative management. PMID:27286478

  4. The ANTARES optical module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km2 and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R and D studies and is reviewed here in detail

  5. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  6. Functorial Test Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Blickle, Manuel; Stäbler, Axel

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce a slight modification of the definition of test modules which is an additive functor $\\tau$ on the category of coherent Cartier modules. We show that in many situations this modification agrees with the usual definition of test modules. Furthermore, we show that for a smooth morphism $f \\colon X \\to Y$ of $F$-finite schemes one has a natural isomorphism $f^! \\circ \\tau \\cong \\tau \\circ f^!$. If $f$ is quasi-finite and of finite type we construct a natural transfor...

  7. Water heater control module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  8. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  9. A photovoltaic module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed...... photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected by a printed interconnecting electrical conductor. The...... carrier substrate comprises a foil and the total thickness of the photovoltaic module is below 500 [mu]m. Moreover, the nominal voltage level between the positive and the negative terminals is at least 5 kV DC....

  10. Ultrasound Modulated Bioluminescence Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly-scattering medium from ultrasound modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  11. Isothermal Containment Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Isothermal Containment Modules are the temperature-controlling carrier that BioServe built to carry Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) and in the future, Space Automated Bioproduct Lab (SABL) to the International Space Station.

  12. Electrical modulation of emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Vassant, Simon; Moldovan Doyen, Ioana Cristina; Marquier, François; Pardo, F.; Gennser, Ulf; Cavanna, Antonella; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the thermal emission through an electrical modulation of the emissivity. The basic idea is to design a device where absorption is due to a resonant phenomenon. If the resonance can be electrically controlled, then absorption and, therefore, thermal emission can be controlled. We demonstrate this general concept using THz resonant absorption by surface phonon polaritons coupled through a gold grating. In our device, absorption is mostly due to a s...

  13. Renewal, Modulation and Superstatistics

    OpenAIRE

    Allegrini, Paolo; Barbi, Francesco; Grigolini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    We consider two different proposals to generate a time series with the same non-Poisson distribution of waiting times, to which we refer to as renewal and modulation. We show that, in spite of the apparent statistical equivalence, the two time series generate different physical effects. Renewal generates aging and anomalous scaling, while modulation yields no aging and either ordinary or anomalous diffusion, according to the prescription used for its generation. We argue, in fact, that the ph...

  14. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  15. Directed network modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illés J.; Pollner, Péter; Derényi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-06-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos Rényi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs.

  16. Second generation SLAC modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory has undertaken the construction of a single pass electron-positron collider. In order to reach required beam energy 235 new klystrons needed upgraded modulator systems. The collider will use 50 GeV electrons and positrons. The increase in accelerator energy from the present 30 GeV necessitates the replacement of existing 35 MW klystrons with new 67 MW units. The doubling of klystron output power required a redesign of the modulator system. The 67 MW klystron needs a 350 kV beam voltage pulse with a 3.7 μs pulse width. A new pulse transformer was designed to deliver the increased voltage and pulse width. Pulse cable design was evaluated to obtain increased reliability of that critical element. The modulator, with the exception of its power supply, was rebuilt to produce the required power increase while enhancing reliability and improving maintainability. An investigation of present thyratron switch tube performance under the new operating conditions resulted in agitation and some warranted panic but these conditions were mitigated after several successful experiments and some evolutionary narrowing of the klystron pulse width. The discussion will cover the upgraded modulator system specifications and some details of the new pulse transformer tank, pulse cable, modulator, and modulator switch tube

  17. Directed network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs

  18. Second generation SLAC modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, A.R.; Cron, J.C.; Hanselman, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory has undertaken the construction of a single pass electron-positron collider. In order to reach required beam energy 235 new klystrons needed upgraded modulator systems. The collider will use 50 GeV electrons and positrons. The increase in accelerator energy from the present 30 GeV necessitates the replacement of existing 35 MW klystrons with new 67 MW units. The doubling of klystron output power required a redesign of the modulator system. The 67 MW klystron needs a 350 kV beam voltage pulse with a 3.7 ..mu..s pulse width. A new pulse transformer was designed to deliver the increased voltage and pulse width. Pulse cable design was evaluated to obtain increased reliability of that critical element. The modulator, with the exception of its power supply, was rebuilt to produce the required power increase while enhancing reliability and improving maintainability. An investigation of present thyratron switch tube performance under the new operating conditions resulted in agitation and some warranted panic but these conditions were mitigated after several successful experiments and some evolutionary narrowing of the klystron pulse width. The discussion will cover the upgraded modulator system specifications and some details of the new pulse transformer tank, pulse cable, modulator, and modulator switch tube.

  19. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  20. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  1. Directed network modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla, Gergely [Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group of HAS, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary); Farkas, Illes J [Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group of HAS, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary); Pollner, Peter [Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group of HAS, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary); Derenyi, Imre [Department of Biological Physics, Eoetvoes University, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary); Vicsek, Tamas [Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group of HAS, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary)

    2007-06-15

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs.

  2. Heart rate variability as important approach for assessment autonomic modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Maycon Jr Ferreira; Angelina Zanesco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alterations in the heart rate recovery and heart rate variability have been associated with greater risk of mortality and early prognosis of cardiac diseases. Thus, strategies for assessing autonomic nervous system and its modulation to the heart are crucial for preventing cardiovascular events in healthy subjects as well as in cardiac patients. In this review, an update of studies examining heart rate variability (HRV) and its use as indicator of cardiac autonomic modulation will be...

  3. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio

    2012-08-01

    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them. PMID:22859325

  4. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  5. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso;

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module’s electrolumin......This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module......’s electroluminescence intensity distribution, applied at module and cell level. These concepts are demonstrated on a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module that was subjected to several rounds of mechanical loading and humidity-freeze cycling, causing increasing levels of solar cell cracks. The proposed method can...

  6. Strictly homogeneous laterally complete modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilin, V. I.; Karimov, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Let A be a laterally complete commutative regular algebra and X be a laterally complete A-module. In this paper we introduce a notion of homogeneous and strictly homogeneous A-modules. It is proved that any homogeneous A-module is strictly homogeneous A-module, if the Boolean algebra of all idempotents in A is multi-σ-finite.

  7. Design and development of neutral beam module components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) injection system consists of twenty 20 keV start-up, and twenty-four 80 keV sustaining neutral beam source modules. The neutral beam modules are mounted in four clusters equally spaced around the waist of the vacuum vessel which contains the superconducting magnets. A module is defined here as an assembly consisting of a beam source and the interfacing components between that beam source and the vacuum chamber. Six major interfacing components are the subject of this paper. They are the magnetic shield, the neutralizer duct, the isolation valve, mounting gimbals, aiming bellows and actuators

  8. Ageing monitoring in IGBT module under sinusoidal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Rannestad, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents monitoring of ageing in high power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules subjected to sinusoidal loading at nominal power level. On-state voltage for IGBT, diode, and rise in interconnection resistance are used as ageing parameters. These are measured in three...... different ways: calibration of power modules after 24 h of operation, offline characterization every 5 min of operation, and continuous measurement during normal converter operation. Four power modules are tested, which are cycled to different degradation levels by number of cycles, where one is tested...

  9. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  10. Separation film module. Bunri maku module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Y.; Takada, N. (, Chiba (Japan))

    1990-10-09

    The separation film module used for the production of dry air by separating vapor from air and for the concentration of alcohol from a mixed gas of alcohol and water has hollow yarn of polyimide resin in a tubular container. The gas permeated through the separation film is discharged from the permeated gas exit provided at an end of the container, and the unpermeated gas is exhausted from the core pipe provided at the center of the tubulsr container. However, the module has a problem of poor airtightness at the connection when the machining is not accurate or when thermal expansion occurs because the core pipe is communicated with the unpermeated gas discharge pipe via a rigid joint pipe. This invention relates to a solution to the problem by providing an expansion joint between the discharge end of the core pipe and the unpermeated gas discharge pipe. A joint pipe with a bellows in the middle is used as the said joint pipe. 3 figs.

  11. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi.

    1989-09-06

    In the conventional solar cell module, the cell cost is elevated because the cross sections of the cell edge is surrounded with frames of various shape and the gap is filled with a sealant. In additionn, the top end of the module frame is placed roughly 1 mm above the glass surface; the photoelectromotive force part is covered with such deposits as soils and sands, thus badly affecting the photovoltaic generation. In this invention, weather-proof opaque paint is coated around the surface glass to interrupt the light irradiation to the adhesive resin layer between the glass and the back sheet, thus preventing the degradation of the resin layer. Cost is low because of using a thin film. The light interruption by the deposits can be prevented. The photoelectromotive force element is a n-type CdS film or CdS/CdTe. The resin layer around the glass is a thermoplastic polyolefin which is modified with acid anhydrides. 5 figs.

  12. Bunch identification module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This module provides bunch identification and timing signals for the PEP Interaction areas. Timing information is referenced to the PEP master oscillator, and adjusted in phase as a function of region. Identification signals are generated in a manner that allows observers in all interaction regions to agree on an unambiguous bunch identity. The module provides bunch identification signals via NIM level logic, upon CAMAC command, and through LED indicators. A front panel ''region select'' switch allows the same module to be used in all regions. The module has two modes of operation: a bunch identification mode and a calibration mode. In the identification mode, signals indicate which of the three bunches of electrons and positrons are interacting, and timing information about beam crossing is provided. The calibration mode is provided to assist experimenters making time of flight measurements. In the calibration mode, three distinct gating signals are referenced to a selected bunch, allowing three timing systems to be calibrated against a common standard. Physically, the bunch identifier is constructed as a single width CAMAC module. 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Nuclear Technology. Course 29: Civil/Structural Inspection. Module 29-4, Concrete Preparation, Production, Placement and Finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fourth in a series of six modules for a course titled Civil/Structural Inspection describes concrete preparation, production, placement, and finishing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  14. NREL module energy rating methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  15. Hilbert modules and their representation

    OpenAIRE

    Takahaschi, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    A Hilbert module over a  C*-algebra A with identity is an unitary A-module H, endowed with an inner product taking values in A. We consider these modules and derive some of their elementary properties. Later we consider fields of Hilbert modules and obtain a representation of H by means of continuous sections. This result will be used in other papers ([7] and [8]) to get a duality  theorem and to study special Hilbert modules.

  16. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation or a...

  17. Optimizing Energy and Modulation Selection in Multi-Resolution Modulation For Wireless Video Broadcast/Multicast

    KAUST Repository

    She, James

    2009-11-01

    Emerging technologies in Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks and video coding have enabled high-quality wireless video broadcast/multicast services in metropolitan areas. Joint source-channel coded wireless transmission, especially using hierarchical/superposition coded modulation at the channel, is recognized as an effective and scalable approach to increase the system scalability while tackling the multi-user channel diversity problem. The power allocation and modulation selection problem, however, is subject to a high computational complexity due to the nonlinear formulation and huge solution space. This paper introduces a dynamic programming framework with conditioned parsing, which significantly reduces the search space. The optimized result is further verified with experiments using real video content. The proposed approach effectively serves as a generalized and practical optimization framework that can gauge and optimize a scalable wireless video broadcast/multicast based on multi-resolution modulation in any BWA network.

  18. Subjectivity NOT Statement and NOT APA!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihelkova, Dana

    2013-01-01

    I inspect in a brief theoretical-philosophical essay the roots of subjectivity and suggest many possible directions for examining the phenomenon of subjectivity so that multiple different meanings can be revealed. For instance, a researcher can explore her or his own subjectivity or he/she can attempt to define subjectivity per se or the…

  19. Phase modulated multiphoton microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Karki, Khadga Jung; Pullerits, Tonu

    2015-01-01

    We show that the modulation of the phases of the laser beams of ultra-short pulses leads to modulation of the two photon fluorescence intensity. The phase modulation technique when used in multi-photon microscopy can improve the signal to noise ratio. The technique can also be used in multiplexing the signals in the frequency domain in multi-focal raster scanning microscopy. As the technique avoids the use of array detectors as well as elaborate spatiotemporal multiplexing schemes it provides a convenient means to multi-focal scanning in axial direction. We show examples of such uses. Similar methodology can be used in other non-linear scanning microscopies, such as second or third harmonic generation microscopy.

  20. Hollow dimension of modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the following general question: Given a module Mwhich has finite hollow dimension and which has a finite collection of submodules Ki (1≤i≤n) such that M=K1+... +Kn, can we find an expression for the hollow dimension of Min terms of hollow dimensions of modules built up in some way from K1 Kn? We prove the following theorem:Let Mbe an amply supplemented module having finite hollow dimension and let Ki (1≤i≤n) be a finite collection of submodules of Msuch that M=K1+...+Kn. Then the hollow dimension h(M) of Mis the sum of the hollow dimensions of Ki (1≤i≤n) ifand only if Ki is a supplement of K1+...+Ki-1+Ki+1+...+Kn in Mfor each 1≤i≤n.

  1. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  2. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  3. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  4. Influence of body position, emotions, placebo and cognitive modulation on pain experience and pain-related somatosensory ERPs

    OpenAIRE

    Fardo, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The present work contributed to our understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying pain modulation through sensory, attentional, emotional and cognitive processes. We used subjective, behavioral, and electrophysiological indexes to reveal the effects of body position, emotions, placebo expectations and cognitive reappraisal on subjective pain experience and pain-related somatosensory potentials. Four studies were conducted to investigate different forms of pain modulation. Study 1 ...

  5. Emotional modulation of visual remapping of touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardini, Flavia; Bertini, Caterina; Serino, Andrea; Ladavas, Elisabetta

    2012-10-01

    The perception of tactile stimuli on the face is modulated if subjects concurrently observe a face being touched; this effect is termed "visual remapping of touch" or the VRT effect. Given the high social value of this mechanism, we investigated whether it might be modulated by specific key information processed in face-to-face interactions: facial emotional expression. In two separate experiments, participants received tactile stimuli, near the perceptual threshold, either on their right, left, or both cheeks. Concurrently, they watched several blocks of movies depicting a face with a neutral, happy, or fearful expression that was touched or just approached by human fingers (Experiment 1). Participants were asked to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral felt tactile stimulation. Tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch toward a fearful face compared with viewing touch toward the other two expressions. In order to test whether this result can be generalized to other negative emotions or whether it is a fear-specific effect, we ran a second experiment, where participants watched movies of faces-touched or approached by fingers-with either a fearful or an angry expression (Experiment 2). In line with the first experiment, tactile perception was enhanced when subjects viewed touch toward a fearful face and not toward an angry face. Results of the present experiments are interpreted in light of different mechanisms underlying different emotions recognition, with a specific involvement of the somatosensory system when viewing a fearful expression and a resulting fear-specific modulation of the VRT effect. PMID:22390704

  6. Individualized training module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An individualized training module is a device for providing an individual trainee with the training he needs in a format where he can proceed on his own, without regard for the capabilities or even the presence of other students. It is based on a pretest, each item of which is referenced to a training activity. Each activity also has a test or performance qualification to verify that the desired learning occurred. Typically, the module as a variety of training activities; the scope is purposely narrow; and the instructional materials combine commercial and instructor made materials. The instructor creates the activities based upon desired scope and depth and the training materials and budget available

  7. Photovoltaic concentrator module technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Chamberlin, Jay L.; Boes, Eldon C.

    Significant developments in the development of photovoltaic (PV) concentrator technology are described. Concentrator cell research, advances in PV concentrator cell technology, and PV concentrator module development are described. Reliability issues currently of concern, including the applicability of wet insulation resistance tests to concentrator modules, correlation of accelerated thermal cycling tests with life expectancy in the field, and the importance of quality assurance during manufacture, are discussed. Two PV concentrator power systems installed in 1989 are discussed. A PV concentrator initiative program established by the DOE is given, and the results of the latest cost study are presented.

  8. Instant node package module

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Juzer

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical exploration of the lifecycle of creating node modules as well as learning all of the top features that npm has to offer.Intended for readers who want to create their first node.js modules. The programming paradigm of JavaScript is not covered so a foundation in these concepts would be beneficial.

  9. Payment expectations for research participation among subjects who tell the truth, subjects who conceal information, and subjects who fabricate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Eric G; Knapp, Clifford M; Sarid-Segal, Ofra; O'Keefe, Sean M; Wardell, Cale; Baskett, Morgan; Pecchia, Ashley; Ferrell, Katie; Ciraulo, Domenic A

    2015-03-01

    Multiple models guide researchers' payment practices but few studies have assessed subjects' expectations for payment. Payments in excess of subjects' expectations may result in undue inducement, while payments below these expectations may be associated with exploitation. Data on subjects' payment expectations will help inform practices to avoid undue inducement and exploitation. This study examined subjects' expectations for payment for common research procedures and explored the relationship between subjects' honesty and payment expectations. One-hundred subjects who participated in two or more studies in the last year reported the minimum payment they expect for completing study procedures. They were also asked about their use of deception while screening for studies. Subjects expected $20 on average to complete the least risky and least burdensome procedure. Subjects' expectations for payment consistently increased with greater procedure risks. Subjects who denied using deception to enroll in studies refused more procedures than subjects who reported using deception. Among subjects who used deception, the rate of procedure refusal increased with procedure risks, suggesting that these subjects have some risk aversion and may act to protect themselves from undue inducement. Although subjects expect greater payments for more risky procedures, ethical considerations for limiting undue inducement may prevent researchers from meeting subjects' expectations. Subjects who use deceptive practices appear to be more risk-tolerant than subjects who deny using deception; nonetheless, these deceptive subjects also exercise some risk aversion when they refuse higher-risk procedures. These subjects may be able to protect themselves from undue inducement by refusing procedures that exceed their risk tolerance. PMID:25530307

  10. Effect of Colour of Object on Simple Visual Reaction Time in Normal Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita B. Kalyanshetti

    2014-01-01

    The measure of simple reaction time has been used to evaluate the processing speed of CNS and the co-ordination between the sensory and motor systems. As the reaction time is influenced by different factors; the impact of colour of objects in modulating the reaction time has been investigated in this study. 200 healthy volunteers (female gender 100 and male gender100) of age group 18-25 yrs were included as subjects. The subjects were presented with two visual stimuli ...

  11. Modelling PV modules' performance in Sahelian climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diarra, D.C.; Akuffo, F.O. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a thermo-optical model designed to evaluate the temperature of a photovoltaic (PV) module in an effort to design a cost-effective cooling system for PV modules operating under high ambient temperatures. The power output of a PV module is greatly reduced when its temperature rises. This loss in efficiency is particularly significant in Sahelian regions where PV modules are subjected to high solar radiation intensities and high ambient temperatures. The newly developed thermo-optical model confirms that most of the heat in a PV module is generated in the solar cell. The results of the analysis include: the optical absorption, reflection and transmission of the solar radiation incident on the module; the temperature distribution in the module; and, the heat transfer through the top and bottom of the module. At incidence angles of 60 degrees, approximately three-quarters of the heat is generated in the solar cell. The optical efficiency is 88.44 per cent at normal incidence angle and 82.48 per cent when the incidence angle is 60 degrees. It was determined that the cooling system should be located as close as possible to the solar cell in order to increase the thermal heat flow from the cell. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Cadmium telluride module development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrigth, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. (Photon Energy, Inc., El Paso, TX (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Efficiencies of up to 12.3% have been achieved on small devices. It is expected that 14% efficiency will be exceeded on small devices by improving the fill factors on the present devices in the reasonably near future. Efficiencies in the range 16%-18% are expected to be achieved in the longer term. Modules of 6 W, approximately 929 cm{sup 2} in area with an active area efficiency of over 8% (aperture efficiency of 7.3%) have been achieved. The feasibility of producing 4 ft{sup 2} modules of CdS/CdTe has been shown and requires further efforts in order to realize the overall potentials. The structural integrity of the encapsulation design has been studied by thermal cycling and outdoor life testing. Submodules have been life tested for over 270 days with no observable degradation by the SERI Outdoor Reliability and Life Testing Laboratory. In addition to further optimization of materials and device structure, module output in the future will be increased by an improvement in the uniformity of the deposition process, and by minimizing the loss of active area due to cell division interconnections. Module output is expected to attain 135 W m{sup -2} in the mid 1990s and over 150 W m{sup -2} in the long term. (orig.).

  13. Modulated Luminescent Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Plamen; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a mathematical model of Modulated Luminescent Tomography. We show that when single X-rays or focused X-rays are used as an excitation, the problem is similar to the inversion of weighted X-ray transforms. In particular, we give an explicit inversion in the case of Dual Cone X-ray excitation.

  14. Modelling the Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanevakis, Markos

    2011-01-01

    This paper refers into various ways in simulation the Photovoltaic (PV) module behaviour under any combination of solar irradiation and ambient temperature. There are three different approaches presented here briefly and one of them is chosen because of its good accuracy and relatively low...

  15. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  16. Special Operation. Module 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  17. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  18. Product Module Rig Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

    2004-01-01

    The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence

  19. Fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemer, Rodger E

    2007-01-01

    This lecture covers the fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation, which can be defined as any modulation technique that requires a transmission bandwidth much greater than the modulating signal bandwidth, independently of the bandwidth of the modulating signal. After reviewing basic digital modulation techniques, the principal forms of spread spectrum modulation are described. One of the most important components of a spread spectrum system is the spreading code, and several types and their characteristics are described. The most essential operation required at the receiver in a spread spect

  20. Commutative algebra constructive methods finite projective modules

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Translated from the popular French edition, this book offers a detailed introduction to various basic concepts, methods, principles, and results of commutative algebra. It takes a constructive viewpoint in commutative algebra and studies algorithmic approaches alongside several abstract classical theories. Indeed, it revisits these traditional topics with a new and simplifying manner, making the subject both accessible and innovative. The algorithmic aspects of such naturally abstract topics as Galois theory, Dedekind rings, Prüfer rings, finitely generated projective modules, dimension theory of commutative rings, and others in the current treatise, are all analysed in the spirit of the great developers of constructive algebra in the nineteenth century. This updated and revised edition contains over 350 well-arranged exercises, together with their helpful hints for solution. A basic knowledge of linear algebra, group theory, elementary number theory as well as the fundamentals of ring and module theory is r...

  1. Emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhudy, Jamie L.; DelVentura, Jennifer L.; Terry, Ellen L.; Bartley, Emily J.; Olech, Ewa; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L.

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain, as well as affective disturbance (e.g., depression). Given that emotional processes are known to modulate pain, a disruption of emotion and emotional modulation of pain and nociception may contribute to FM. The present study used a well-validated affective picture-viewing paradigm to study emotional processing and emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception. Participants were 18 individuals with FM, 18 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 19 healthy pain-free controls (HC). Mutilation, neutral, and erotic pictures were presented in four blocks; two blocks assessed only physiological-emotional reactions (i.e., pleasure/arousal ratings, corrugator EMG, startle modulation, skin conductance) in the absence of pain and two blocks assessed emotional reactivity and emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception) evoked by suprathreshold electric stimulations over the sural nerve. In general, mutilation pictures elicited displeasure, corrugator activity, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation, whereas erotic pictures elicited pleasure, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation. However, FM was associated with deficits in appetitive activation (e.g., reduced pleasure/arousal to erotica). Moreover, emotional modulation of pain was observed in HC and RA, but not FM, even though all three groups evidenced modulation of NFR. Additionally, NFR thresholds were not lower in the FM group, indicating a lack of spinal sensitization. Together, these results suggest that FM is associated with a disruption of supraspinal processes associated with positive affect and emotional modulation of pain, but not brain-to-spinal cord circuitry that modulates spinal nociceptive processes. PMID:23622762

  2. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  3. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the...... same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects with...

  4. Task-modulated coactivation of vergence neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Rajbir; Gohel, Suril; Biswal, Bharat B; Alvarez, Tara L

    2014-10-01

    While functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has identified which regions of interests (ROIs) are functionally active during a vergence movement (inward or outward eye rotation), task-modulated coactivation between ROIs is less understood. This study tested the following hypotheses: (1) significant task-modulated coactivation would be observed between the frontal eye fields (FEFs), the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and the cerebellar vermis (CV); (2) significantly more functional activity and task-modulated coactivation would be observed in binocularly normal controls (BNCs) compared with convergence insufficiency (CI) subjects; and (3) after vergence training, the functional activity and task-modulated coactivation would increase in CIs compared with their baseline measurements. A block design of sustained fixation versus vergence eye movements stimulated activity in the FEFs, PPC, and CV. fMRI data from four CI subjects before and after vergence training were compared with seven BNCs. Functional activity was assessed using the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) percent signal change. Task-modulated coactivation was assessed using an ROI-based task-modulated coactivation analysis that revealed significant correlation between the FEF, PPC, and CV ROIs. Prior to vergence training, the CIs had a reduced BOLD percent signal change compared with BNCs for the CV (pConvergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey were correlated to the percent BOLD signal change from the FEFs and CV (p<0.05). PMID:24773099

  5. Descending pain modulation and its interaction with peripheral sensitization following sustained isometric muscle contraction in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Nie, HongLing; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sustained isometric muscle contraction (fatiguing contraction) recruits segmental and/or extrasegmental descending inhibition in healthy subjects but not in fibromyalgia (FM). We hypothesized that fatiguing contraction may shift descending pain modulation from inhibition towards...

  6. Simulation of modulated protein crystal structure and diffraction data in a supercell and in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lovelace, J.J.; Simone, P.D.; Petříček, Václav; Borgstahl, G.E.O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, Part 6 (2013), 1062-1072. ISSN 0907-4449 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : protein crystallograhy * superspace approach * incommensurately modulated structures Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.232, year: 2013

  7. On Staggered Indecomposable Virasoro Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Kytölä, Kalle

    2009-01-01

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L_0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the "left module", and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the "right module". Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. The text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relev...

  8. Prime Submodules and Flat Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.AZIZI

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some characterizations of prime submodules in fiat modules and, particularly,in free modules are given. Furthermore, the height of prime submodules and some saturated chain of prime submodules are also given.

  9. Generic ISIS Transport Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Generic ISIS Transport Module is to provide a means to bring living specimens to and from orbit. In addition to living specimens, the module can...

  10. Artinianness of local cohomology modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghapournahr, Moharram; Melkersson, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Some uniform theorems on the artinianness of certain local cohomology modules are proven in a general situation. They generalize and imply previous results about the artinianness of some special local cohomology modules in the graded case.

  11. Equatorial noise emissions with quasiperiodic modulation of wave intensity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Hrbáčková, Zuzana; Pickett, J. S.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2015), s. 2649-2661. ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : equatorial noise * magnetosonic waves * quasiperiodic modulation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020816/full

  12. Equatorial Noise Emissions and Their Quasi-Periodic Modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Hrbáčková, Zuzana; Pickett, J.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Parrot, M.; Hayosh, Mykhaylo

    San Francisco: American Geophysical Union, 2015. SM51F-03. [AGU Fall Meeting 2015. 14.12.2015-18.12.2015, San Francisco] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : equatorial noise * magnetosonic waves * quasiperiodic modulation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm15/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/59251

  13. Dosimetry computer module of the gamma irradiator of ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work present the technical specifications for the upgrade of the dosimetry module of the computer system of the gamma irradiator of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) whose result allows the integration and consultation of information in industrial dosimetry subject under an outline client-server. (Author)

  14. Task-dependent modulation of oscillatory neural activity during movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, D. M.; Christensen, M. S.; Reck, C.;

    2011-01-01

    -dependent modulation of frequency coupling within this network. To this end we recorded 122-multichannel EEG in 13 healthy subjects while they performed three simple motor tasks. EEG data source modeling using individual MR images was carried out with a multiple source beamformer approach. A bilateral motor network...

  15. Bond-orientational ordering and shear rigidity in modulated colloidal liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Chinmay; Sood, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    From Landau-Alexander-McTague theory and Monte-Carlo simulation results we show that the modulated liquid obtained by subjecting a colloidal system to a periodic laser modulation has long range bond-orientational order and non-zero shear rigidity. From infinite field simulation results we show that in the modulated liquid phase, the translational order parameter correlation function decays to zero exponentially while the correlation function for the bond-orientational order saturates to a fin...

  16. Corticospinal interaction during isometric compensation for modulated forces with different frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer Christoph; Huethe Frank; Schulte-Mönting Jürgen; Wang Xi; Naranjo José R; Hepp-Reymond Marie-Claude; Kristeva Rumyana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background During isometric compensation of modulated low-level forces corticomuscular coherence (CMC) has been shown to occur in high-beta or gamma-range. The influence of the frequency of force modulation on CMC has up to now remained unexplored. We addressed this question by investigating CMC, motor performance, and cortical spectral power during a visuomotor task in which subjects had to compensate a modulated force of 8% of the maximum voluntary contraction exerted on their righ...

  17. Book review: that obscured subject of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Paul

    2010-01-01

    An extended book review of Slavoj Zizek's 2008 book 'On Violence', published as part of a special issue on Slavoj Zizek and Political Subjectivity, in Subjectivity: International Journal of Critical Psychology, 3(1), April 2010

  18. Beer, wine, spirits and subjective health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M; Mortensen, E L; Mygind, K;

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  19. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mithun; K Porsezian

    2014-02-01

    We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic field triggers the modulational instability and demonstrate that irrespective of the magnetic field effect the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases show modulational instability.

  20. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  1. Innovative approach to advanced modulated waterjet technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušnerová, M.; Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Valíček, Jan; Hloch, S.; Harničárová, M.; Kadnár, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2012), s. 475-480. ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0040/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : modulated waterjet * analytical model * resonance chamber Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.601, year: 2012 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=129051

  2. Microwave frequency modulation of x-ray beam for radio therapy treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a radio therapy treatment system for radiating a subject. It comprises means for generating an x-ray beam; and amplitude modulation means operative with the generating means for providing amplitude modulation of the x-ray beam at a predetermined microwave frequency

  3. Microwave frequency modulation of x-ray beam for radio therapy treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrulaik, R.A.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a radio therapy treatment system for radiating a subject. It comprises means for generating an x-ray beam; and amplitude modulation means operative with the generating means for providing amplitude modulation of the x-ray beam at a predetermined microwave frequency.

  4. Getting Down to Business: Flower and Plant Store, Module 11. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassen, Rachel L.

    This module on owning and operating a flower and plant store is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning activities are…

  5. A Matlab/Simulink-Based Interactive Module for Servo Systems Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliane, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive module for learning both the fundamental and practical issues of servo systems. This module, developed using Simulink in conjunction with the Matlab graphical user interface (Matlab-GUI) tool, is used to supplement conventional lectures in control engineering and robotics subjects. First, the paper introduces the…

  6. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  7. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  8. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  9. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  10. Weighted network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos-Renyi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs

  11. Weighted network modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Illés; Ábel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-06-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos Rényi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

  12. Lightweight Trauma Module - LTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.

  13. NEUROBIOLOGICAL MODULATORS OF ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohale Deepak S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety can be a core symptom of various mental/ behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, panic disorder, adaptive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social withdrawal disorder, and various phobias. The neuroanatomic circuits that support fear and anxiety behavior are modulated by a variety of neurochemicals, these include the peptidergic neurotransmitters, Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF, neuropeptide Y (NPY, and substance P, the monoaminergic transmitters, Norepinephrine (NE, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT, and dopamine (DA, and the amino acid transmitters, Gamma Aminobuteric Acid (GABA and glutamate and many more. These neurochemical systems subserve important adaptive functions in preparing the organism for responding to threat or stress, by increasing vigilance, modulating memory, mobilizing energy stores, and elevating cardiovascular function. Nevertheless, these biological responses to threat and stress can become maladaptive if they are chronically or inappropriately activated.

  14. Weighted network modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Illes [Department of Biological Physics, Eoetvoes University, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary); Abel, Daniel [Department of Biological Physics, Eoetvoes University, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary); Palla, Gergely [Department of Biological Physics, Eoetvoes University, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary); Vicsek, Tamas [Department of Biological Physics, Eoetvoes University, Budapest, H-1117 (Hungary)

    2007-06-15

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos-Renyi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

  15. FERMI multi-chip module

    CERN Multimedia

    This FERMI multi-chip module contains five million transistors. 25 000 of these modules will handle the flood of information through parts of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC. To select interesting events for recording, crucial decisions are taken before the data leaves the detector. FERMI modules are being developed at CERN in partnership with European industry.

  16. Thermal modulation for gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbrink, Ernest F. (Inventor); Libardoni, Mark (Inventor); Stewart, Kristine (Inventor); Waite, J. Hunter (Inventor); Block, Bruce P. (Inventor); Sacks, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thermal modulator device for gas chromatography and associated methods. The thermal modulator device includes a recirculating fluid cooling member, an electrically conductive capillary in direct thermal contact with the cooling member, and a power supply electrically coupled to the capillary and operable for controlled resistive heating of the capillary. The capillary can include more than one separate thermally modulated sections.

  17. Higher Level Orderings on Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Guang Xing ZENG

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate higher level orderings on modules over commutative rings. On the basis of the theory of higher level orderings on fields and commutative rings, some results involving existence of higher level orderings are generalized to the category of modules over commutative rings. Moreover, a strict intersection theorem for higher level orderings on modules is established.

  18. Serotonin modulates immune function in T cells from HIV-seropositive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Afzelius, P; Andresen, L; Iversen, J; Kronborg, G; Aabech, P; Nielsen, J O; Hofmann, B

    1997-01-01

    lymphocyte proliferation was most likely mediated through the serotonin 5HT1a receptor because similar results could be obtained by using DPAT, a specific activator of this receptor. Changes in the expression of 5HT1a receptors as judged by the expression of mRNA could not explain why serotonin in vitro had...

  19. Rhinovirus-induced modulation of gene expression in bronchial epithelial cells from subjects with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bochkov, YA; Hanson, KM; Keles, S.; Brockman-Schneider, RA; Jarjour, NN; Gern, JE

    2009-01-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) infections trigger asthma exacerbations. Genome-wide expression analysis of RV1A-infected primary bronchial epithelial cells from normal and asthmatic donors was performed to determine whether asthma is associated with a unique pattern of RV-induced gene expression. Virus replication rates were similar in cells from normal and asthmatic donors. Overall, RV downregulated 975 and upregulated 69 genes. Comparisons of transcriptional profiles generated from microarrays and confirm...

  20. Physics. Module 1. Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Бовтрук, Алла Георгіївна; Мєняйлов, Сергій Миколайович; Максимов, Сергій Леонідович; Поліщук, Аркадій Петрович

    2009-01-01

    Ukraine’s joining Bologna process requires creating new books in physics (in English in particular). The book is developed for all forms of studying physics on the Credit-based Modular System basis in higher school. «Physics. Module 1. Mechanics» presents Newtonian mechanics and Special theory of relativity. It contains eight Study Units which include theoretical information, test questions, sample problems, laboratory works and individual home tasks. It is designed for students of engi...

  1. Chemical release module facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical release module provides the capability to conduct: (1) thermite based metal vapor releases; (2) pressurized gas releases; (3) dispersed liquid releases; (4) shaped charge releases from ejected submodules; and (5) diagnostic measurements with pi supplied instruments. It also provides a basic R-F and electrical system for: (1) receiving and executing commands; (2) telemetering housekeeping data; (3) tracking; (4) monitoring housekeeping and control units; and (5) ultrasafe disarming and control monitoring.

  2. Digital CAMAC modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data sheets and block diagrams of new CAMAC modules are presented. These consist of a RS232C serial interface, a crate controller for the personnel computer IBM PC/AT, a 24-bit word to 16-bit word converter, a 4K of 16-bit words buffer memory, an input register for ECL logical level signals, a tester for the type A1 crate controllers and a multichannel analyzer tester. 15 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Weighted network modules

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Illes J.; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm (CPMw, Clique Percolation Method with weights) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique per...

  4. Modulating aging and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic...... mild stress. The goal of research on ageing is not to increase human longevity regardless of the consequences, but to increase active longevity free from disability and functional dependence...

  5. COMBINING MODULES FOR MOVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzi, E; Cheung, V.C.K.; d’Avella, A.; Saltiel, P.; Tresch, M.

    2007-01-01

    We review experiments supporting the hypothesis that the vertebrate motor system produces movements by combining a small number of units of motor output. Using a variety of approaches such as microstimulation of the spinal cord, NMDA iontophoresis, and an examination of natural behaviors in intact and deafferented animals we have provided evidence for a modular organization of the spinal cord. A module is a functional unit in the spinal cord that generates a specific motor output by imposing ...

  6. Being subject to quarantine; Unter Quarantaene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Sven

    2013-07-01

    The registration of imports of modules from the People's Republic of China has caused an uncertainty in Europe. The installers now adhere to the wholesalers in order to protect oneself from unpleasant surprises.

  7. Modulated reheating by curvaton

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Ki-Young

    2012-01-01

    There might be a light scalar field during inflation which is not responsible for the accelerating inflationary expansion. Then, its quantum fluctuation is stretched during inflation. This scalar field could be a curvaton, if it decays at a late time. In addition, if the inflaton decay rate depends on the light scalar field expectation value by interactions between them, density perturbations could be generated by the quantum fluctuation of the light field when the inflaton decays. This is modulated reheating mechanism. We study curvature perturbation in models where a light scalar field does not only play a role of curvaton but also induce modulated reheating at the inflaton decay. We calculate the non-linearity parameters as well as the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We find that there is a parameter region where non-linearity parameters are also significantly enhanced by the cancellation between the modulated effect and the curvaton contribution. For the simple quadratic potential mo...

  8. Solar Module Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Amrani

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important steps in the photovoltaic industry is the encapsulation of the solar cells. It consists to connect the cells in order to provide useful power for any application and also protect them from environmental damages which cause corrosion, and mechanical shocks. In this paper, we present the encapsulation process we have developed at Silicon Technology Unit (UDTS for monocrystalline silicon solar cells. We will focus particularly on the thermal treatment, the most critical step in the process, which decides on the quality and the reliability of the module. This thermal treatment is conducted in two steps: the lamination and the polymerization. Several tests of EVA reticulation have been necessary for setting technological parameters such as the level of vacuum, the pressure, the temperature, and the time. The quality of our process has been confirmed by the tests conducted on our modules at the European Laboratory of Joint Research Centre (JRC of ISPRA (Italy. The electrical characterization of the modules has showed that after the encapsulation the current has been improved by a factor of 4% to 6% and the power gain by a factor of 4% to 7%. This is mainly due to the fact of using a treated glass, which reduces the reflection of the light at a level as low as 8%.

  9. Allosteric modulation of caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, Hans-Georg; Sisay, Mihiret Tekeste; Gütschow, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Caspases are proteolytic enzymes mainly involved in the induction and execution phases of apoptosis. This type of programmed cell death is an essential regulatory process required to maintain the integrity and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Inappropriate apoptosis is attributed a key role in many human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, ischemic damage, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Allosteric modulation of the function of a protein occurs when the regulatory trigger, such as the binding of a small effector or inhibitor molecule, takes place some distance from the protein's active site. In recent years, several caspases have been identified that possess allosteric sites and binding of small molecule to these sites resulted in the modulation of enzyme activities. Regulation of caspase activity by small molecule allosteric modulators is believed to be of great therapeutic importance. In this review we give brief highlights on recent developments in identifying and characterizing natural and synthetic allosteric inhibitors as well as activators of caspases and discuss their potential in drug discovery and protein engineering. PMID:21807025

  10. Interindividual differences in H reflex modulation during normal walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Alkjaer, T;

    2002-01-01

    treadmill walking at 4.5 km/h. Using a two-dimensional analysis joint angles, angular velocities, accelerations, linear velocities and accelerations were calculated, and net joint moments about the ankle, knee and hip joint were computed by inverse dynamics from the video and force plate data. Six subjects...... subjects with different H reflex modulation would exhibit different walking mechanics and different EMG activity. Fifteen subjects walked across two force platforms at 4.5 km/h (+/-10%) while the movements were recorded on video. The soleus H reflex and EMG activity were recorded separately during...

  11. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  12. Long-term experimental testing of a-silicon modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term stability of photovoltaic module electrical performance is critically important to the economic viability of PV in large-scale energy-generation applications. Equally important is having the means to conclusively demonstrate long life to potential users; this requires proven test methods that accurately predict field performance trends. To assess the long-term stability of a-Si modules and the usefulness of existing crystalline-Si test methods a number of first generation a-Si photovoltaic modules have been acquired from leading manufacturers and subjected to a variety of accelerated and real-time outdoor aging tests. Data to date indicate that the degradation of a-Si modules involves complex dependencies that negate some of the key test correlations previously established for crystalline-Si modules. Key research priorities are highlighted including light induced effects, cell corrosion leading to increased series resistance, glass breaking strength for large modules, and the development of protective encapsulants that meet the outdoor weathering and voltage isolation required for long module life

  13. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. PMID:24693824

  14. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a device for modulating optical signals based on modulating bending losses in bend, quantum well semiconductor waveguide sections. The complex refractive index of the optical active semiconducting components of the waveguide section is modulated by...... applying a variable electric or electronmagnetic field. The modulation of the complex refractive index results in a modulation of the refractive index contrast and the absorption coefficient for the waveguide at the frequency of the light. By carefully adjusting the composition of the semiconducting...... components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient...

  15. Extension closure of relative syzygy modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兆泳

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of relative syzygy modules. We then study the extensionclosure of the category of modules consisting of relative syzygy modules (resp. relative k-torsionfree modules).

  16. Attentional Modulation of Eye Torsion Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott B.; Mahadevan, Madhumitha S.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movements generally have both reflexive and voluntary aspects, but torsional eye movements are usually thought of as a reflexive response to image rotation around the line of sight (torsional OKN) or to head roll (torsional VOR). In this study we asked whether torsional responses could be modulated by attention in a case where two stimuli rotated independently, and whether attention would influence the latency of responses. The display consisted of rear-projected radial "pinwheel" gratings, with an inner annulus segment extending from the center to 22 degrees eccentricity, and an outer annulus segment extending from 22 degrees out to 45 degrees eccentricity. The two segments rotated around the center in independent random walks, stepping randomly 4 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise at 60 Hz. Subjects were asked to attend to one or the other while keeping fixation steady at the center of the display. To encourage attention on one or the other segment of the display, subjects were asked to move a joystick in synchrony with the back and forth rotations of one part of the image while ignoring the other. Eye torsion was recorded with the scleral search coil technique, sampled at 500 Hz. All four subjects showed roughly 50% stronger torsion responses to the attended compared to unattended segments. Latency varied from 100 to 150 msec across subjects and was unchanged by attention. These findings suggest that attention can influence eye movement responses that are not typically under voluntary control.

  17. Behavioral modulation by mutilation pictures in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally expressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation and erotic or neutral pictures (domestic utensils and objects and compared the data obtained in the present study with those described in a previous study with male subjects. The experiment consisted of three blocks of 24 pictures and each block had an approximate duration of 4 min. Our sample consisted of 36 subjects (age range: 18 to 26 years and each subject performed all blocks. Trials following the presentation of mutilation pictures (283 ms had significantly slower reaction times than those following neutral (270 ms pictures. None of the trials in the "pleasant block" (271 ms was significantly different from those in the "neutral block". The increase in reaction time observed in the unpleasant block may be related in part to the activation of motivational systems leading to an avoidance behavior. The interference effect observed in this study was similar to the pattern previously described for men. Thus, although women may be more emotionally expressive, they were not more reactive to aversive stimuli than men, as measured by emotional interference in a simple reaction time task.

  18. Modulation of whistlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivokon', V. P.; Bogdanov, V. V.; Druzhin, G. I.; Cherneva, N. V.; Kubyshkin, A. V.; Sannikov, D. V.; Agranat, I. V.

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of the experimental data obtained at Paratunka observatory (53.02° N, 158.65° E; L = 2.3) has revealed a nonstandard form of whistlers involving spectral lines that are symmetric with respect to the whistler. We have shown that this form is most likely due to the amplitude modulation of whistlers by electromagnetic pulses with a length of around 1 s and carrier frequency of around 1.1 kHz. We have suggested that these pulses could be emitted by the auroral electrojet modified by heating radiation from the HAARP facility (62.30° N, 145.30° W; L > 4.2).

  19. A photoelectrical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, K.V.; Nevezhin, O.A.; Rosstokinskiy, V.V.; Ryabikov, S.V.; Strebkov, D.S.; Tveryanovich, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    The photoelectric module, which contains an optical element with trapezoidal transverse cross section, whose lateral facets reflect radiation and different sized bases serve as the facets for input and output of radiation, and photoconverters installed in contact with the output facet, is distinguished by the fact that in order to increase the specific power, the optical element is made of a material transparent to solar radiation in the form of a prism of full internal reflection, where the lesser base of the optical element serves as the output facet for the radiation.

  20. Embedding subject guides at NUS Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Hsien,Aaron, Tay Chee

    2010-01-01

    Librarians around the world have begun to experiment with dynamic subject guides, dubbed “Subject Guide 2.0” (Farkas, 2007; Kroski, 2007; Yang, 2009). They took their cue from Web 2.0 sites by incorporating interactive features, social sharing and dynamic layouts to appeal to users. In this paper, the initial efforts to incorporate widgets into the subject guides of NUS Libraries are described.

  1. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  2. Age Changes in Subjective Work Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Solem, Per Erik

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the influence of psychosocial work environment on age-related subjective changes in work ability and discusses differences between work ability and job performance. The results show age and physical health to be strong predictors of subjective decline in work ability. The age effect is independent of age-associated declining health. It is not clear what it is about age that produces the subjective decline in work ability. While primary age changes may produce decline, st...

  3. Subjectivity Making in Undocumented Immigrant Student Organizing

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Resendiz, Chantiri

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis project explores the ways in which the deserving/undeserving immigrant binary politically targets subject for incorporation into a national neoliberal project, while excluding others. Simultaneously, I also investigate the ways in which these targeted subjects have organized in response to structural inequities and in the process, have been making their own sense of political subjectivity. In this research I ask, what are the myths of good immigrant that have been created a...

  4. Subject selection in applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Homer, Andrew L.; Peterson, Lizette; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    1983-01-01

    Past researchers have commented on the role of specifying relevant subject characteristics in determining the generality of experimental findings. Knowledge of subject selection criteria is important in interpreting and replicating research results. Such knowledge, as compared with many other historical and demographic characteristics of the subject, is likely to be related to a procedure's effectiveness. Data indicated that the majority of articles published in the Journal of Applied Behavio...

  5. Obesity in Indian subjects with Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    CHANDRA, Mina; Anand, Kuljeet Singh Anand

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Obesity is considered a public health challenge in South Asia. Obesity is an independent risk factor in vascular dementia. It also contributes to other risk factors of vascular dementia like hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. As the rate of obesity in Indian subjects with vascular dementia is not known, we decided to assess obesity in subjects with vascular dementia. Methods: Subjects with vascular dementia presenting to Mem...

  6. Teachers’ subject competence in digital times

    OpenAIRE

    Kroksmark, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to generate new knowledge regarding how subject teachers in children's and young people's education conceive of the didactic relationship between their own subject knowledge and the computer's infinite possibilities concerning information and knowledge.The theoretic frames of the study lie within modern phenomenology with special inspiration from the concept of the life-world. This applies to both the relationship among subject knowledge, technology and human beings, and the th...

  7. Identity, Subjectivity and Symptom in Contemporaneous Era

    OpenAIRE

    Yvana Coutinho de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the trio identity, subjectivity and symptom in modern times reflectingabout the individual’s working through and subjectivity processes. This is a bibliography study of psychodynamic orientation. The author emphasizes the importance of rethinking and understanding the ways in which individuals process their own subjectivity. Various modern time symptoms result from the fact that individuals end up crushed by their own singularities.

  8. Liminal subjectivities in contemporary film and literature

    OpenAIRE

    McHugh, Ian Paul

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the intersection of subjectivity and the liminal in contemporary literary and filmic texts. In discussion of eight texts, the thesis weighs the dual meaning of “liminal subjectivities” – the liminal space between subjectivities, and the condition of subjectivity as it negotiates the liminal. It aims to explore how liminality manifests in manners both universal and specific to the literary or filmic form, in the embodiments of characters, and the rhythms ...

  9. A subject-specific postural instability parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argatov, I

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical modeling approach is applied for deriving subject-specific stabilometric parameters associated with center-of-pressure sway measurements for assessing balancing ability of subjects in quiet standing on a force platform. Based on the inverted pendulum model, a new combined stabilometric parameter including anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass) is obtained which represents a measure of postural instability. A physical meaning of the subject-specific parameter is related to the effective stiffness of the inverted pendulum model. PMID:22795475

  10. Modulating presence and impulsiveness by external stimulation of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgartner Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "The feeling of being there" is one possible way to describe the phenomenon of feeling present in a virtual environment and to act as if this environment is real. One brain area, which is hypothesized to be critically involved in modulating this feeling (also called presence is the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, an area also associated with the control of impulsive behavior. Methods In our experiment we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the right dlPFC in order to modulate the experience of presence while watching a virtual roller coaster ride. During the ride we also registered electro-dermal activity. Subjects also performed a test measuring impulsiveness and answered a questionnaire about their presence feeling while they were exposed to the virtual roller coaster scenario. Results Application of cathodal tDCS to the right dlPFC while subjects were exposed to a virtual roller coaster scenario modulates the electrodermal response to the virtual reality stimulus. In addition, measures reflecting impulsiveness were also modulated by application of cathodal tDCS to the right dlPFC. Conclusion Modulating the activation with the right dlPFC results in substantial changes in responses of the vegetative nervous system and changed impulsiveness. The effects can be explained by theories discussing the top-down influence of the right dlPFC on the "impulsive system".

  11. Influence diagram in evaluating the subjective judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author developed the idea of the subjective influence diagrams to evaluate subjective judgment. The subjective judgment of a stake holder is a primary decision making proposition. It involves a basic decision process an the individual attitude of the stake holder for his decision purpose. The subjective judgment dominates the some final decisions. A complex decision process may include the subjective judgment. An influence diagram framework is a simplest tool for analyzing subjective judgment process. In the framework, the characters of influence diagrams generate the describing the analyzing, and the evaluating of the subjective judgment. The relationship between the information and the decision, such as independent character between them, is the main issue. Then utility function is the calculating tool to evaluation, the stake holder can make optimal decision. Through the analysis about the decision process and relationship, the building process of the influence diagram identically describes the subjective judgment. Some examples are given to explain the property of subjective judgment and the analysis process

  12. Psychological methods of subjective risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions to situations involving risks can be divided into the following parts/ perception of danger, subjective estimates of the risk and risk taking with respect to action. Several investigations have compared subjective estimates of the risk with an objective measure of that risk. In general there was a mis-match between subjective and objective measures of risk, especially, objective risk involved in routine activities is most commonly underestimated. This implies, for accident prevention, that attempts must be made to induce accurate subjective risk estimates by technical and behavioural measures. (orig.)

  13. CCDTL conditioning report: Module 2 and Module 3

    CERN Document Server

    Muranaka, T; Giguet, J M; Marques Balula, J; Delrieux, M

    2014-01-01

    Two CCDTL modules for Linac4 have been conditioned at SM18. The modules were tuned for resonance at 352.2 MHz, and stable operation has been achieved with 800 μs RF pulses with a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Maximum power of 700 kW loaded in cells has been achieved with a nominal Linac4 klystron and modulator setup. Since those were the first CCDTL modules to be conditioned, both hardware and software have been developed along with the conditionings.

  14. Influence of module requirements on flat plate module design evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, J. C.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic module design features and performance characteristics have undergone significant evolutionary changes between pre-1975 First Generation configurations and current Third Generation design technology. A major contributor to this evolution was an iterative process of continuing design guideline and specification development for major module procurements. Module manufacturers have actively responded to these evolving requirements through progressively improving designs. This iterative/feedback process is described. Interim design guidelines and preliminary design options reflecting the LSA 1982 Module Technical Readiness Specification (November 1979) are described with respect to previous design and performance requirements.

  15. Steam generator module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The module of the steam generator is arranged such that the first working medium flows through the tubes of the heat exchange bundle and the second working medium flows through the intertube space. At least one side of the module is provided with a lid which is provided with a system of through-flow apertures. The apertures are expanded and provided with a thread in the direction of the outer side of the lid. They are coaxial with the tubes of the heat exchange bundle at the point of their anchorage in the tube plate. The apertures are closed with plugs with a male thread and the sealing surfaces are formed between the thread joint and the space of the first working medium. The plugs extend into the space of the heat exchange bundle and form a throttle which replaces the classical stop and allow for dismantling. This arrangement of the modular steam generator allows the control of the inner surfaces of heat exchange pipes and also the cleaning of these inner surfaces. (E.S.)

  16. Team-based learning on a third-year pediatric clerkship improves NBME subject exam blood disorder scores

    OpenAIRE

    Saudek, Kris; Treat, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: At our institution, speculation amongst medical students and faculty exists as to whether team-based learning (TBL) can improve scores on high-stakes examinations over traditional didactic lectures. Faculty with experience using TBL developed and piloted a required TBL blood disorders (BD) module for third-year medical students on their pediatric clerkship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the BD scores from the NBME subject exams before and after the introduction of the modul...

  17. Effects of spectral modulation filtering on vowel identification1

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chang; Eddins, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to measure the effects of global spectral manipulations on vowel identification by progressively high-pass filtering vowel stimuli in the spectral modulation domain. Twelve American-English vowels, naturally spoken by a female talker, were subjected to varied degrees of high-pass filtering in the spectral modulation domain, with cutoff frequencies of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 cycles∕octave. Identification performance for vowels presented at 70 dB sound pressure le...

  18. Modulated optical reflectance method for analysis of magnetoelectric nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed technique of modulated optical reflectance and its applicability to structural and defectoscopic analysis with high spatial resolution of the ferromagnetic LSMO materials is reported. The variation of the optical reflectance is measured within the active area in the laser focus on the surface of the thin film subjected to photothermal modulation. The measurement described is indicative of the magnetoelectric properties of the sample films and is found to be proportional to the thermal variations of the conductance and free carrier density.

  19. Research on Threshold Adjustment Algorithm in Adaptive Modulation and Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Chen; CHEN Mei-ya; SU Li-jun; YANG Da-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) has gained a lot of attentions in the research of High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). The idea is to adapt the transmission to the fast changing channel conditions by the use of different Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS). This paper presents an adaptive AMC algorithm and introduces a theoretical analysis model in order to to investigate its throughput and Frame Error Rate (FER). Subject to the given FER target, our numerical and link level simulation results both show that our algorithm outperforms other existing adaptive algorithms.

  20. Modulated optical reflectance method for analysis of magnetoelectric nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, V.; Penchev, S.; Nedkov, I.; Kutzarova, T.; Naboko, V.

    2010-04-01

    A recently developed technique of modulated optical reflectance and its applicability to structural and defectoscopic analysis with high spatial resolution of the ferromagnetic LSMO materials is reported. The variation of the optical reflectance is measured within the active area in the laser focus on the surface of the thin film subjected to photothermal modulation. The measurement described is indicative of the magnetoelectric properties of the sample films and is found to be proportional to the thermal variations of the conductance and free carrier density.

  1. Semiconductor-laser modulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three simple modulation techniques for semiconductor lasers have been described. The first technique employs a single constant current source and is suitable for low frequency modulation up to 500 Khz. The second and third techniques employ two constant current sources each with current summing of subtraction and are suitable for higher frequency modulation up to several MHz. Schematic diagrams of designed, developed and tested circuits, implementing each of the above mentioned schemes, have also been presented. (author)

  2. Lehmer problem and Drinfeld modules

    OpenAIRE

    Demangos, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We propose a lower bound estimate in Dobrowolski's style of the canonical height on a certain family of Drinfeld modules of characteristic 0, including under some hypothesis on their degree and their base field, the complex multiplication case, extending so a previous result of L. Denis on Carlitz modules. Our study is focused on the highest possible level of precision on the parameters involved with rapport to the main values which characterize the Drinfeld module (height, base field degree ...

  3. Developments in Directional Modulation Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yuan; Fusco, Vincent F.

    2016-01-01

    Directional modulation (DM), as a promising physical-layer security technique, is able to secure wireless communications by virtue of the property of its direction-dependent signal modulation format transmission. Here modulated signal waveform signatures can only be detected by legitimate receiver(s) positioned along a-prior assigned directions. This paper reviews the development in DM technology over recent years, and provides some recommendations for future studies.

  4. Subjective Expected Utility Theory with "Small Worlds"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Jacob; Hansen, Frank

    which is a more general construction than a state space. We retain preference axioms similar in spirit to the Savage axioms and obtain, without abandoning linearity of expectations, a subjective expected utility theory which allows for an intuitive distinction between risk and uncertainty. We also...... obtain separation of subjective probability and utility as in the state space models....

  5. Game-Space: Unfolding Experiments in Subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Jack; LeMieux, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using computer vision techniques and game engine technology, the interactive installation, Game-Space, explores subjectivity in mediated environments. The paper discusses the development of this work and its current conception as a machine for the experimental production of a new subjectivity in the form of a machinic hybrid.

  6. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over o...

  7. "Wo Es War": Psychoanalysis, Marxism, and Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Subjectivity, for Descartes, emerged when he doubted the veracity of his knowledge. Instead of truth, he counted this knowledge to be inherited myth. Cartesian subjectivity has been helpful for forming a critical education predicated on doubting ideology and hegemony. But Marx indicates a very different kind of knowledge in his analysis of…

  8. Inferring Beliefs as Subjectively Imprecise Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.; Hole, Arna Risa; Rutström, E. Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for estimating subjective beliefs, viewed as a subjective probability distribution. The key insight is to characterize beliefs as a parameter to be estimated from observed choices in a well-defined experimental task and to estimate that parameter as a random coefficient. The...... probabilities are indeed best characterized as probability distributions with non-zero variance....

  9. Centring the Subject in Order to Educate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott

    2007-01-01

    It is important for educators to recognise that the various calls to decentre the subject--or self--should not be interpreted as necessarily requiring the removal of the subject altogether. Through the individualism of the Enlightenment the self was centred. This highly individualistic notion of the sovereign self has now been decentred especially…

  10. Objective versus Subjective Assessment of Methylphenidate Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Iris; Meidad, Sheera; Zalsman, Gil; Zemishlany, Zvi; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Subjective improvement-assessment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), following a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) was compared to performance on the Test-of-Variables-of-Attention (TOVA). Self-perception was assessed with the clinical-global-impression-of-change (CGI-C). Participants included 165 ADHD subjects (M:F ratio…

  11. Virtual materiality, potentiality and gendered subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    How do we conceptualize virtual materiality, in terms of for instance avatars and weapons in computer games, virtual discourse, subjectivity and the enactment of masculinity as phenomena intra-acting with real life materiality, discourse, subjectivity and masculinity in children’s everyday lives...

  12. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  13. Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Different Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the favorite subject to teach and enjoyment of teaching of 490 elementary school teachers (K-5) from two rural school districts in the southeastern United States. Reading and language arts were consistently ranked among the favorite and most enjoyed subjects to teach, whereas science and writing were consistently ranked…

  14. The implications of subjective career success

    OpenAIRE

    Dyke, Lorraine; Duxbury, Linda

    2011-01-01

    "The study examined the relationship between employees' ability to achieve subjective success and their work attitudes. Four dimensions of subjective success were measured: fulfilling work, financial rewards, recognition, and authority. Hierarchical regression models predicting job satisfaction, commitment, and turnover were examined. Objective indicators of success (organizational level, promotions, and salary) were included as control variables along with importance scores and achievement s...

  15. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  17. Hybrid grapheme plasmonic waveguide modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D.; Thackray, B. D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thomas, P.; Auton, G. H.; Marshall, O. P.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene allow one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with sub-wavelength field confinement of plasmonic/metallic structures is not fully realized. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for light modulation at telecom and near-infrared. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  18. Water-module interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  19. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  20. Age Changes in Subjective Work Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solem, Per Erik

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the influence of psychosocial work environment on age-related subjective changes in work ability and discusses differences between work ability and job performance. The results show age and physical health to be strong predictors of subjective decline in work ability. The age effect is independent of age-associated declining health. It is not clear what it is about age that produces the subjective decline in work ability. While primary age changes may produce decline, stereotypes and self-stereotypes about ageing may also be important. Among psychosocial factors, options for learning and problems at work are robust predictors of subjective changes in work ability. One practical consequence is to ensure learning opportunities for workers, even for workers approaching retirement age. By giving learning opportunities to senior workers, subjective work ability may be maintained, and competence acquired through learning may in a direct way support stability or improvements in job performance.

  1. Mechanically modulated nozzles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, v. v. i., 2015 - (Šimurda, D.; Bodnár, T.), s. 199-220 ISBN 978-80-87012-55-0. ISSN 2336-5781. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics 2015. Praha (CZ), 11.02.2015-13.02.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : nozzles * needle nozzles * flow separation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  2. Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography with intense acoustic bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Roger J.; Kim, Chulhong; Wang, Lihong V.

    2007-04-01

    Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) detects ultrasonically modulated light to spatially localize multiply scattered photons in turbid media with the ultimate goal of imaging the optical properties in living subjects. A principal challenge of the technique is weak modulated signal strength. We discuss ways to push the limits of signal enhancement with intense acoustic bursts while conforming to optical and ultrasonic safety standards. A CCD-based speckle-contrast detection scheme is used to detect acoustically modulated light by measuring changes in speckle statistics between ultrasound-on and ultrasound-off states. The CCD image capture is synchronized with the ultrasound burst pulse sequence. Transient acoustic radiation force, a consequence of bursts, is seen to produce slight signal enhancement over pure ultrasonic-modulation mechanisms for bursts and CCD exposure times of the order of milliseconds. However, acoustic radiation-force-induced shear waves are launched away from the acoustic sample volume, which degrade UOT spatial resolution. By time gating the CCD camera to capture modulated light before radiation force has an opportunity to accumulate significant tissue displacement, we reduce the effects of shear-wave image degradation, while enabling very high signal-to-noise ratios. Additionally, we maintain high-resolution images representative of optical and not mechanical contrast. Signal-to-noise levels are sufficiently high so as to enable acquisition of 2D images of phantoms with one acoustic burst per pixel.

  3. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerbrunn, S.R.; Crowe, B.S.; Reading, M. [TA Instruments Inc., New Castle, DE (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Modulated DSC (MDSC){sup tm} is a new patent-pending extension to conventional DSC which provides information about the reversing and nonreversing characteristics of thermal events. This additional information aids interpretation and allows unique insights into the structure and behavior of materials. Data presented will demonstrate three uses of MDSC. First, the overlapping crystallization peak and glass transition in a bilayer film of polycarbonate and PET are separated by MDSC. Second, the glass transition and endothermic relaxation of epoxy are separated. Third, MDSC gives a direct measurement of the sample heat capacity. The ability to separate reversing and nonreversing transitions, as well as the ability to directly measure heat capacity, offers thermal analysis another tool for solving tough materials characterization problems.

  4. Modulated structure of nepheline

    OpenAIRE

    Friese, K.; Grzechnik, A.; Petricek, V.; Schönleber, A.; Smaalen, S. van; Morgenroth, W.

    2011-01-01

    The incommensurately modulated structure of a natural nepheline of composition K(0.54)Na(3.24)Ca(0.03)Al(3.84)Si(4.16)O(16) has been determined in superspace. The compound crystallizes in the trigonal centered superspace group X3(00γ)0 with γ = 0.2048 (10), X = (0, 0, 0, 0), (1/3, 2/3, 0, 2/3), (2/3, 1/3, 0, 1/3), a = 17.2889 (8) and c = 8.3622 (10) Å. The structure is characterized by a framework of corner-connected (Al,Si)O(4) tetrahedra. The additional cations are incorporated in two diffe...

  5. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    communication system.   Sessions in class with active participation by the students. The time will be divided between lectures and the students solving problems, including simulating digital communication building blocks in Matlab. Combines lectures and hands-on work. Semester: E2011 Extent: 7.5 ects......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a....... Performance of a Digital Comunication System. Prepare and explain a model for bit-error probability versus the energy used per bit and channel noise, corresponding to the specific course contents. System Simulation. Prepare and explain a simulation program in Matlab for simulating a minor part of a digital...

  6. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    communication system. Sessions in class with active participation by the students. The time will be divided between lectures and the students solving problems, including simulating digital communication building blocks in Matlab. Combines lectures and hands-on work. Semester: F2011 Extent: 7.5 ects......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a....... Performance of a Digital Comunication System. Prepare and explain a model for bit-error probability versus the energy used per bit and channel noise, corresponding to the specific course contents. System Simulation. Prepare and explain a simulation program in Matlab for simulating a minor part of a digital...

  7. Whistler modulational instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinca, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Derivation of the modulational instability characteristics of whistlers in cold and hot plasmas. The cold-plasma analysis considers both ion motion and relativistic effects; the unstable band, with a growth rate proportional to (B/B sub zero)squared, is contiguous to Omega sub e/4 and, depending on the plasma density, lies above or below that frequency (Omega sub e is the electron cyclotron frequency of the static magnetic field; B and B sub zero are the whistler and static magnetic fields). In hot plasmas, stability occurs between Omega sub e/4 and Omega prime (less than Omega sub e), with Omega prime depending mainly on the mean energy and anisotropy of the energetic electron population; the complementary unstable band has a growth rate proportional to (B/B sub zero) to the 1/2 power. The relevance of the instability to whistlers in the magnetosphere is discussed.

  8. Transient heliosheath modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenby, J. J.; Webber, W. R.

    2015-10-01

    Voyager 1 has explored the solar wind-interstellar medium interaction region between the terminal shock and heliopause, following the intensity distribution of Galactic cosmic ray protons above 200 MeV energy. Before this component reached the expected galactic flux level at 121.7 au from the Sun, four episodes of rapid intensity change occurred with a behaviour similar to that found in Forbush Decreases in the inner Solar system, rather than that expected from a mechanism related to models for the long-term modulation found closer to the Sun. Because the mean solar wind flow is both expected and observed to be perpendicular to the radial direction close to the heliopause, an explanation is suggested in terms of transient radial flows related to possible heliopause boundary flapping. It is necessary that the radial flows are of the order either of the sound speed found for conditions downstream of the terminal shock or of the fluctuations found near the boundary by the Voyager 1 Low Energy Charged Particle detector and that the relevant cosmic ray diffusion perpendicular to the mean field is controlled by `slab' fluctuations accounting for about 20 per cent of the total power in the field variance. However, additional radial drift motion related to possible north to south gradients in the magnetic field may allow the inclusion of some diffusion according to the predictions of a theory based upon the presence of 2D turbulence. The required field gradients may arise due to field variation in the field carried by solar plasma flow deflected away from the solar equatorial plane. Modulation amounting to a total 30 per cent drop in galactic intensity requires explanation by a combination of transient effects.

  9. New pulse modulator with low switching frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Golub V. S.

    2014-01-01

    The author presents an integrating pulse modulator (analog signal converter) with the pulse frequency and duration modulation similar to sigma-delta modulation (with low switching frequency), without quantization. The modulator is characterized by the absence of the quantization noise inherent in sigma-delta modulator, and a low switching frequency, unlike the pulse-frequency modulator. The modulator is recommended, in particular, to convert signals at the input of the class D power amplifier.

  10. Doing mathematics convention, subject, calculation, analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Martin H

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses some ways of doing mathematical work and the subject matter that is being worked upon and created. It argues that the conventions we adopt, the subject areas we delimit, what we can prove and calculate about the physical world, and the analogies that work for mathematicians - all depend on mathematics, what will work out and what won't. And the mathematics, as it is done, is shaped and supported, or not, by convention, subject matter, calculation, and analogy. The cases studied include the central limit theorem of statistics, the sound of the shape of a drum, the connection

  11. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechell, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor evaluations to assess the performance of employees who work in complex environments. Doubts persist whether their subjective nature invalidates using these performance measures to learn about careers of individuals and to inform theory in personnel economics. We...... examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employee performances within narrowly defined peer-groups, correlate with objective career outcomes. We find many similarities across firms in how subjective ratings correlate with base...

  12. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  13. Subjective evaluation of noise from neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Rye; Rindel, Jens Holger; Mortensen, Frank Rysgaard

    1998-01-01

    This publication describes the preparations for and the results obtained in subjective listening tests conducted at the Department of Acoustic Technology. The focus area is the annoyance produced by noise from neighbours and transmitted through different types of constructions with special focus ...... low frequencies. The evaluation method was subjective listening tests. In the publication a detailed description can be found.......This publication describes the preparations for and the results obtained in subjective listening tests conducted at the Department of Acoustic Technology. The focus area is the annoyance produced by noise from neighbours and transmitted through different types of constructions with special focus on...

  14. Components of cross-frequency modulation in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia are commonly believed to arise from the abnormal temporal integration of information, however a quantitative approach to assess network coordination is lacking. Here, we propose to use cross-frequency modulation, the dependence of local high-frequency activity on the phase of widespread low-frequency oscillations, as an indicator of network coordination and functional integration. In an exploratory analysis based on pre-existing data, we measured cross-frequency modulation from multi-channel EEG recordings acquired while schizophrenia patients (n = 47 and healthy controls (n = 130 performed an auditory oddball task. Novel application of independent component analysis (ICA to modulation data delineated components with specific spatial and spectral profiles, the weights of which showed co-variation with diagnosis. Global cross-frequency modulation was significantly greater in healthy controls (F1,175=9.25, P<0.005, while modulation at fronto-temporal electrodes was greater in patients (F1,175 =17.5, P<0.0001. We further found that the weights of schizophrenia-relevant components were associated with genetic polymorphisms at previously identified risk loci. Global cross-frequency modulation decreased with copies of 957C allele in the gene for the dopamine D2 receptor (r = −0.20, P < 0.01 across all subjects. Additionally, greater ‘aberrant’ fronto-temporal modulation in schizophrenia patients was correlated with several polymorphisms in the gene for the α2-subunit of the GABAA receptor (GABRA2 as well as the total number of risk alleles in GABRA2 (r = 0.45, P < 0.01. Overall, our results indicate great promise for this approach in establishing patterns of cross-frequency modulation in health and disease and elucidating the roles of oscillatory interactions in functional connectivity.

  15. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyungjin

    2016-08-01

    The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  16. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Kiwoon

    2015-01-01

    The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  17. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwoon Choi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  18. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwoon Choi; Hyungjin Kim

    2016-01-01

    The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  19. Modular crystals as modulated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elcoro, L.; Perez-Mato, J.M.; Friese, K.; Petricek, V.; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Olsen, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of the superspace formalism is extended to the description and refinement of the homologous series of modular structures with two symmetry-related modules with different orientations. The lillianite homologous series has been taken as a study case. Starting from a commensurate modulated...

  20. Input/output interface module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  1. Voice recording module in PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development and implementation of picture archiving and communications system (PACS) modules and their value in reducing the burden of storage, transmission, and access to patient image files. The authors describe the integration of a voice-recording module in the existing PACS system. The implementation procedure is presented and the benefits are given

  2. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Min Kyung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins of EHS remain unclear. Methods In this double-blind study, two volunteer groups of 17 EHS and 20 non-EHS subjects were simultaneously investigated for physiological changes (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiration rate, eight subjective symptoms, and perception of RF-EMFs during real and sham exposure sessions. Experiments were conducted using a dummy phone containing a WCDMA module (average power, 24 dBm at 1950 MHz; specific absorption rate, 1.57 W/kg within a headset placed on the head for 32 min. Results WCDMA RF-EMFs generated no physiological changes or subjective symptoms in either group. There was no evidence that EHS subjects perceived RF-EMFs better than non-EHS subjects. Conclusions Considering the analyzed physiological data, the subjective symptoms surveyed, and the percentages of those who believed they were being exposed, 32 min of RF radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones demonstrated no effects in either EHS or non-EHS subjects.

  3. Modulational instability of two waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of a plasma in the presence of two propagating waves (modulation interaction) is considered. It is shown under what circumstances it is necessary to use open-quotes renormalizedclose quotes expressions for both the linear dielectric function and the effective third-order response. The typical behavior of both kinds of interaction are found for the specific case of Langmuir waves in a uniform and isotropic collisionless plasma. Criteria are established under which it is possible to disregard the effect of the interference terms in both the zeroth approximation and in the equations for the modulational perturbations when studying the modulational interaction of two pump waves. The calculated modulational instability growth rates are compared with the growth rates of the modulational instability for a single monochromatic mode. 13 refs

  4. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  5. Is Chinese as a Subject Important?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In January, six universities in Shanghai held independent admission tests to select students from more than 10,000 appli- cants. At four of the universities, Chinese was not a test subject or science students

  6. Subjective experiences in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Luca; Kalyvoka, Artemis; Stratta, Paolo; Gianfelice, Daniela; Rinaldi, Osvaldo; Rossi, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    Studies comparing 'subjective experiences' in schizophrenic and affective disorders have reached inconclusive results. We investigated the pattern of 'subjective perceived cognitive disturbances' in a group of 55 schizophrenic patients and 39 bipolar patients hospitalized for an index psychotic episode. The assessment of the subjective experiences was made using the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF). Comparing the two groups on the four FBF factors, schizophrenic patients showed significantly higher scores in the areas of 'central cognitive disturbances', 'perception and motility' other than a significantly higher FBF total score. Our results suggest that cognitive, perception and motility disturbances are the most characteristic subjective experiences of schizophrenic patients in comparison with bipolar patients. This finding need to be further explored in light of the issue of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:12056578

  7. Ethical aspects of trade subject to risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper pleads for unrestricted use of the requirement of rational risk comparison. The ethical aspects of the problem are that human beings cannot help expecting certain people to take risks and others to forsake them. Expectation of risk requires an ethical justification. Consideration of justification has of course to originate from the fact that both readiness to accept risk and also the preference system are subject to strong subjective variations. Consequently, intercession has to be made to compare the definition of subjective probability (competitiveness) and a subjective preference matrix as the basis for a rational definition of risk. General liability results first due to the fact that consistency can be expected from each individual in relation to the readiness to accept risk expected of him. According to the requirement for consistency introduced here, a readiness to accept risk may be expected of an individual which is otherwise already accepted. (orig.)

  8. THE SUBJECTIVE HUMAN PRODUCTIVITY IN LEARNING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yurievna Galiullina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relationship of divergent thinking and achievement in learning activities. J. Guilford and some Russian scientists, divergent thinking is understood as a common creative ability. To be creators, to initiate and carry out initial practice and other forms of specifically human activity is to be subject. This ability – the main characteristic of subjectivity. Proved the importance of the relationship of divergent thinking and achievement in learning activities, for disclosure of subject student productivity. The study found «positive» relationship between divergent thinking and academic performance of students of the middle classes and the «negative» relationship among elementary school students. As we know from the writings of SL Rubinstein and N. Bernstein, training activities associated with the mastery of relevant skills. Formation of skills takes time. Therefore subjective productivity in educational activity is observed in the textbooks of the middle classes and does not manifest itself in elementary school students.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of...... cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences...

  10. Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic (PV) modules were subjected to a thorough indoor assessment procedure. The assessment is to be used as a baseline for future evaluation of the modules deployed outdoors as part of an ongoing evaluation of device performance and degradation. The main focus of the study is the long term monitoring of the devices to determine service lifetime. In this paper we will present initial results of the baseline evaluation, namely I-V characteristics, thorough visual inspection and an analysis of performance parameters. The results obtained revealed that the performance of one of the modules was inferior to the others evaluated. In order to further investigate this, laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurements were conducted on regions that had a non-uniform appearance as observed visually

  11. Subjective Probability and the Theory of Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kadane, Joseph B.; Patrick D. Larkey

    1982-01-01

    This paper explores some of the consequences of adopting a modern subjective view of probability for game theory. The consequences are substantial. The subjective view of probability clarifies the important distinction between normative and positive theorizing about behavior in games, a distinction that is often lost in the search for "solution concepts" which largely characterizes game theory since the work of von Neumann and Morgenstern. Many of the distinctions that appear important in con...

  12. Protecting Human Subjects in Internet Research

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    The growth of the Internet as a research venue has led to practical, legal, and ethical problems regarding the protection of human subjects. Among these are difficulty in verifying subjects’ identities, gaining informed consent, and assuring ethically- correct research. The authors summarize the current standards pertaining to the protection of human subjects in online research and present a set of guidelines for dealing ethically, legally, and practically with the issues of priva...

  13. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaakko, T.; Murtomaa, H.; Milgrom, P.; Getz, T.; Ramsay, D. S.; Coldwell, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority...

  14. Finding the student voice in subject blogging

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Maren; Sansom, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Kingston University’s Library and Learning Services launched a set of subject focussed blogs in September 2011 with the aim to provide more timely and relevant information than was previously available via the subject web pages. The blogs have been successful in attracting user views, but there is scope to provide more opportunities for interactivity through student collaboration. Blog content is currently conceived by the information advisors pulling inspiration from help desk and e-mail...

  15. Objective and subjective responsibility in business sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the distinction between objective responsibility – determined by social norms – and subjective responsibility – as a feeling and an attitude of an individual subject. The paper argues that both types of responsibility are necessary for the well functioning of businesses or social production and considers two consequences of the distinction for business sustainability. The first consequence comes through the interpretation of markets as systems to organize objective respons...

  16. Information structure, (inter)subjectivity and objectification

    OpenAIRE

    van der Wal, Jenneke

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses how information structure can be seen as a subjective and intersubjective concept in Verhagen's (2005) and Breban's (2010) definitions, though less so in Traugott's (2010) use of the terms. More difficult is the question of whether markers of information structure can be characterised as (inter)subjective; this is more easily determined for morphological markers than for prosody or word order. For unambiguous markers of information structure, I suggest that their emergenc...

  17. PSA, subjective probability and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSA is the natural way to making decisions in face of uncertainty relative to potentially dangerous plants; subjective probability, subjective utility and Bayes statistics are the ideal tools for carrying out a PSA. This paper reports that in order to support this statement the various stages of the PSA procedure are examined in detail and step by step the superiority of Bayes techniques with respect to sampling theory machinery is proven

  18. Dopamine Transporter Levels in Cocaine Dependent Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Newberg, Andrew; Wintering, Nancy; Ploessl, Karl; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; RING-KURTZ, SARAH; Gallop, Robert; Present, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine use is a significant problem in the US and it is well established that cocaine binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the brain. This study was designed to determine if the DAT levels measured by 99mTc TRODAT SPECT brain scans are altered in cocaine dependent subjects and to explore clinical correlates of such alterations. SPECT brain scans were acquired on 21 cocaine dependent subjects and 21 healthy matched controls. There were significantly higher DAT levels in cocaine dependen...

  19. Incentives for subjects in internet experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Duersch, Peter; Oechssler, Jörg; Burkhard C. Schipper

    2008-01-01

    Internet experiments are a new and convenient way for reaching a large subject pool. Yet, providing incentives to subjects can be a tricky design issue. One cost effective and simple method is the publication of a high score (as in computer games). We test whether a high score provides adequate and non-distortionary incentives by comparing it to the usual performance based incentives. We find significant differences and conclude that high scores are not always appropriate as an incentive devi...

  20. Incentives for Subjects in Internet Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard C. Schipper; Jörg Oechssler

    2008-01-01

    Internet experiments are a new and convenient way for reaching a large subject pool. Yet, providing incentives to subjects can be a tricky design issue. One cost effective and simple method is the publication of a high score (as in computer games). We test whether a high score provides adequate and non-distortionary incentives by comparing it to the usual performance based incentives. We find significant differences and conclude that high scores are not always appropriate as an incentive devi...