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Sample records for binaural pitch contours

  1. Detection and identification of monaural and binaural pitch contours in dyslexic listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen;

    2010-01-01

    of dyslexic listeners to Huggins' pitch (HP). The present study clarified whether impaired binaural pitch perception is found in dyslexia. Results from a pitch contour identification test, performed in 31 dyslexic listeners and 31 matched controls, clearly showed that dyslexics perceived HP as well...

  2. Detection and identification of monaural and binaural pitch contours in dyslexic listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Poelmans, Hanne;

    2010-01-01

    Binaural pitch stimuli were used in several recent studies to test for the presence of binaural auditory impairment in reading-disabled subjects. The outcome of three of these studies (Dougherty et al., 1998; Edwards et al., 2004; Chait et al., 2007) has been contradictory: Where the former two...... found that a majority of dyslexic subjects were unable to hear binaural pitch, the latter obtained a clear response of dyslexic listeners to Huggins’ pitch (HP) (Cramer and Huggins, 1958). The present study clarified whether impaired binaural pitch perception is found in dyslexia. Results from a pitch...... and probably reflects impaired cognitive mechanisms related to auditory memory or auditory attention rather than impaired low-level auditory processing per se....

  3. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch percepti...

  4. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    hearingloss; 3: retro-cochlear impairment) were asked to identify the pitch contour of series of five notes of equal duration, ranging from 523 to 784 Hz, played either with Huggins’ binaural pitch stimuli (BP) or perceptually similar, but monaurally detectable, pitches (MP). All subjects from groups 1 and 2...

  5. Binaural pitch perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien; Strelcyk, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    When two white noises differing only in phase in a particular frequency range are presented simultaneously each to one of our ears, a pitch sensation may be perceived inside the head. This phenomenon, called ’binaural pitch’ or ’dichotic pitch’, can be produced by frequency-dependent interaural p...

  6. Binaural pitch perception in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    -pitch perception and performance in measures of spectral and temporal resolution. Reduced frequency discrimination appeared to be linked to poorer melody recognition skills. Reduced frequency selectivity was also found to impede the perception of binaural-pitch stimuli. Overall, binaural-pitch stimuli might......The effects of hearing impairment on the perception of binaural-pitch stimuli were investigated. Several experiments were performed with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, including detection and discrimination of binaural pitch, and melody recognition using different types of binaural...

  7. Relating the absence of binaural pitch percept to retro-cochlear impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    that the salience of binaural pitch was affected by hearing impairment. Specifically, for subjects with a sensorineural impairment, binaural pitch perception was weaker than the normal-hearing average but the pitch sensation was immediately present. In contrast, no binaural pitch sensation at all was......Binaural pitch stimuli, created by introducing an interaural phase difference over a narrow band of otherwise diotic white noise, produce an immediate tonal sensation with a pitch close to the centre of the phase-shifted band. In Santurette and Dau [Hear. Res. 223(1-2):29-47, 2007], it was shown...... cognitive abilities, were obtained in order to investigate the correlation between these outcomes and results from the binaural pitch test. As no spectral cues are provided by binaural pitch stimuli, their perception is expected to heavily depend on the acuity of fine structure coding and the accuracy of...

  8. A statistics-based pitch contour model for Mandarin speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sin-Horng; Lai, Wen-Hsing; Wang, Yih-Ru

    2005-02-01

    A statistics-based syllable pitch contour model for Mandarin speech is proposed. This approach takes the mean and the shape of a syllable log-pitch contour as two basic modeling units and considers several affecting factors that contribute to their variations. The affecting factors include the speaker, prosodic state (which essentially represents the high-level linguistic components of F0 and will be explained more clearly in Sec. I), tone, and initial and final syllable classes. The parameters of the two modeling units were automatically estimated using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Experimental results showed that the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) obtained in the closed and open tests in the reconstructed pitch period were 0.362 and 0.373 ms, respectively. This model provides a way to separate the effects of several major factors. All of the inferred values of the affecting factors were in close agreement with our prior linguistic knowledge. It also gives a quantitative and more complete description of the coarticulation effect of neighboring tones rather than conventional qualitative descriptions of the tone sandhi rules. In addition, the model can provide useful cues to determine the prosodic phrase boundaries, including those occurring at intersyllable locations, with or without punctuation marks. PMID:15759710

  9. Contributions of pitch contour, tonality, rhythm, and meter to melodic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Jon B

    2014-12-01

    The identity of a melody resides in its sequence of pitches and durations, both of which exhibit surface details as well as structural properties. In this study, pitch contour (pattern of ups and downs) served as pitch surface information, and tonality (musical key) as pitch structure; in the temporal dimension, surface information was the ordinal duration ratios of adjacent notes (rhythm), and meter (beat, or pulse) comprised the structure. Factorially manipulating the preservation or alteration of all of these forms of information in 17 novel melodies (typifying Western music) enabled measuring their effect on perceived melodic similarity. In Experiment 1, 34 participants (varied musical training) rated the perceived similarity of melody pairs transposed to new starting pitches. Rhythm was the largest contributor to perceived similarity, then contour, meter, and tonality. Experiment 2 used the same melodies but varied the tempo within a pair, and added a prefix of 3 chords, which oriented the listener to the starting pitch and tempo before the melody began. Now contour was the strongest influence on similarity ratings, followed by tonality, and then rhythm; meter was not significant. Overall, surface features influenced perceived similarity more than structural, but both had observable effects. The primary theoretical advances in melodic similarity research are that (a) the relative emphasis on pitch and temporal factors is flexible; (b) pitch and time functioned independently when factorially manipulated, regardless of which dimension is more influential; and (c) interactions between surface and structural information were unreliable and never occurred between dimensions. PMID:25264859

  10. Ups and Downs in Auditory Development: Preschoolers' Sensitivity to Pitch Contour and Timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C

    2016-03-01

    Much research has explored developing sound representations in language, but less work addresses developing representations of other sound patterns. This study examined preschool children's musical representations using two different tasks: discrimination and sound-picture association. Melodic contour--a musically relevant property--and instrumental timbre, which is (arguably) less musically relevant, were tested. In Experiment 1, children failed to associate cartoon characters to melodies with maximally different pitch contours, with no advantage for melody preexposure. Experiment 2 also used different-contour melodies and found good discrimination, whereas association was at chance. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2, but with a large timbre change instead of a contour change. Here, discrimination and association were both excellent. Preschool-aged children may have stronger or more durable representations of timbre than contour, particularly in more difficult tasks. Reasons for weaker association of contour than timbre information are discussed, along with implications for auditory development. PMID:25846115

  11. Top-Down Modulation on the Perception and Categorization of Identical Pitch Contours in Speech and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Joey L; Roncaglia-Denissen, M P; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    Whether pitch in language and music is governed by domain-specific or domain-general cognitive mechanisms is contentiously debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether mechanisms governing pitch contour perception operate differently when pitch information is interpreted as either speech or music. By modulating listening mode, this study aspired to demonstrate that pitch contour perception relies on domain-specific cognitive mechanisms, which are regulated by top-down influences from language and music. Three groups of participants (Mandarin speakers, Dutch speaking non-musicians, and Dutch musicians) were exposed to identical pitch contours, and tested on their ability to identify these contours in a language and musical context. Stimuli consisted of disyllabic words spoken in Mandarin, and melodic tonal analogs, embedded in a linguistic and melodic carrier phrase, respectively. Participants classified identical pitch contours as significantly different depending on listening mode. Top-down influences from language appeared to alter the perception of pitch contour in speakers of Mandarin. This was not the case for non-musician speakers of Dutch. Moreover, this effect was lacking in Dutch speaking musicians. The classification patterns of pitch contours in language and music seem to suggest that domain-specific categorization is modulated by top-down influences from language and music.

  12. Top–Down Modulation on the Perception and Categorization of Identical Pitch Contours in Speech and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Joey L.; Roncaglia-Denissen, M. P.; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    Whether pitch in language and music is governed by domain-specific or domain-general cognitive mechanisms is contentiously debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether mechanisms governing pitch contour perception operate differently when pitch information is interpreted as either speech or music. By modulating listening mode, this study aspired to demonstrate that pitch contour perception relies on domain-specific cognitive mechanisms, which are regulated by top–down influences from language and music. Three groups of participants (Mandarin speakers, Dutch speaking non-musicians, and Dutch musicians) were exposed to identical pitch contours, and tested on their ability to identify these contours in a language and musical context. Stimuli consisted of disyllabic words spoken in Mandarin, and melodic tonal analogs, embedded in a linguistic and melodic carrier phrase, respectively. Participants classified identical pitch contours as significantly different depending on listening mode. Top–down influences from language appeared to alter the perception of pitch contour in speakers of Mandarin. This was not the case for non-musician speakers of Dutch. Moreover, this effect was lacking in Dutch speaking musicians. The classification patterns of pitch contours in language and music seem to suggest that domain-specific categorization is modulated by top–down influences from language and music. PMID:27313552

  13. Top-Down Modulation on the Perception and Categorization of Identical Pitch Contours in Speech and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey L. Weidema

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whether pitch in language and music is governed by domain-specific or domain-general cognitive mechanisms is contentiously debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether mechanisms governing pitch contour perception operate differently when pitch information is interpreted as either speech or music. By modulating listening mode, this study aspired to demonstrate that pitch contour perception relies on domain-specific cognitive mechanisms, which are regulated by top-down influences from language and music. Three groups of participants (Mandarin speakers, Dutch speaking non-musicians, and Dutch musicians were exposed to identical pitch contours, and tested on their ability to identify these contours in a language and musical context. Stimuli consisted of disyllabic words spoken in Mandarin, and melodic tonal analogues, embedded in a linguistic and melodic carrier phrase, respectively. Participants classified identical pitch contours as significantly different depending on listening mode. Top-down influences from language appeared to alter the perception of pitch contour in speakers of Mandarin. This was not the case for non-musician speakers of Dutch. Moreover, this effect was lacking in Dutch speaking musicians. The classification patterns of pitch contours in language and music seem to suggest that domain-specific categorization is modulated by top-down influences from language and music.

  14. Top-Down Modulation on the Perception and Categorization of Identical Pitch Contours in Speech and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Joey L; Roncaglia-Denissen, M P; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    Whether pitch in language and music is governed by domain-specific or domain-general cognitive mechanisms is contentiously debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether mechanisms governing pitch contour perception operate differently when pitch information is interpreted as either speech or music. By modulating listening mode, this study aspired to demonstrate that pitch contour perception relies on domain-specific cognitive mechanisms, which are regulated by top-down influences from language and music. Three groups of participants (Mandarin speakers, Dutch speaking non-musicians, and Dutch musicians) were exposed to identical pitch contours, and tested on their ability to identify these contours in a language and musical context. Stimuli consisted of disyllabic words spoken in Mandarin, and melodic tonal analogs, embedded in a linguistic and melodic carrier phrase, respectively. Participants classified identical pitch contours as significantly different depending on listening mode. Top-down influences from language appeared to alter the perception of pitch contour in speakers of Mandarin. This was not the case for non-musician speakers of Dutch. Moreover, this effect was lacking in Dutch speaking musicians. The classification patterns of pitch contours in language and music seem to suggest that domain-specific categorization is modulated by top-down influences from language and music. PMID:27313552

  15. Pitch Ranking, Melody Contour and Instrument Recognition Tests Using Two Semitone Frequency Maps for Nucleus Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran SherifA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome harmonic structure distortions of complex tones in the low frequency range due to the frequency to electrode mapping function used in Nucleus cochlear implants, two modified frequency maps based on a semitone frequency scale (Smt-MF and Smt-LF were implemented and evaluated. The semitone maps were compared against standard mapping in three psychoacoustic experiments with the three mappings; pitch ranking, melody contour identification (MCI and instrument recognition. In the pitch ranking test, two tones were presented to normal hearing (NH subjects. The MCI test presented different acoustic patterns to NH and CI recipients to identify the patterns. In the instrument recognition (IR test, a musical piece was played by eight instruments which subjects had to identify. Pitch ranking results showed improvements with semitone mapping over Std mapping. This was reflected in the MCI results with both NH subjects and CI recipients. Smt-LF sounded unnaturally high-pitched due to frequency transposition. Clarinet recognition was significantly enhanced with Smt-MF but the average IR decreased. Pitch ranking and MCI showed improvements with semitone mapping over Std mapping. However, the frequency limits of Smt-LF and Smt-MF produced difficulties when partials were filtered out due to the frequency limits. Although Smt-LF provided better pitch ranking and MCI, the perceived sounds were much higher in pitch and some CI recipients disliked it. Smt-MF maps the tones closer to their natural characteristic frequencies and probably sounded more natural than Smt-LF.

  16. Individual differences in processing pitch contour and rise time in adults: A behavioral and electrophysiological study of Cantonese tone merging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po

    2016-06-01

    One way to understand the relationship between speech perception and production is to examine cases where the two dissociate. This study investigates the hypothesis that perceptual acuity reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) to rise time of sound amplitude envelope and pitch contour [reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN)] may associate with individual differences in production among speakers with otherwise comparable perceptual abilities. To test this hypothesis, advantage was taken of an on-going sound change-tone merging in Cantonese, and compared the ERPs between two groups of typically developed native speakers who could discriminate the high rising and low rising tones with equivalent accuracy but differed in the distinctiveness of their production of these tones. Using a passive oddball paradigm, early positive-going EEG components to rise time and MMN to pitch contour were elicited during perception of the two tones. Significant group differences were found in neural responses to rise time rather than pitch contour. More importantly, individual differences in efficiency of tone discrimination in response latency and magnitude of neural responses to rise time were correlated with acoustic measures of F0 offset and rise time differences in productions of the two rising tones.

  17. A word by any other intonation: fMRI evidence for implicit memory traces for pitch contours of spoken words in adult brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inspector

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Intonation may serve as a cue for facilitated recognition and processing of spoken words and it has been suggested that the pitch contour of spoken words is implicitly remembered. Thus, using the repetition suppression (RS effect of BOLD-fMRI signals, we tested whether the same spoken words are differentially processed in language and auditory brain areas depending on whether or not they retain an arbitrary intonation pattern. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Words were presented repeatedly in three blocks for passive and active listening tasks. There were three prosodic conditions in each of which a different set of words was used and specific task-irrelevant intonation changes were applied: (i All words presented in a set flat monotonous pitch contour (ii Each word had an arbitrary pitch contour that was set throughout the three repetitions. (iii Each word had a different arbitrary pitch contour in each of its repetition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The repeated presentations of words with a set pitch contour, resulted in robust behavioral priming effects as well as in significant RS of the BOLD signals in primary auditory cortex (BA 41, temporal areas (BA 21 22 bilaterally and in Broca's area. However, changing the intonation of the same words on each successive repetition resulted in reduced behavioral priming and the abolition of RS effects. CONCLUSIONS: Intonation patterns are retained in memory even when the intonation is task-irrelevant. Implicit memory traces for the pitch contour of spoken words were reflected in facilitated neuronal processing in auditory and language associated areas. Thus, the results lend support for the notion that prosody and specifically pitch contour is strongly associated with the memory representation of spoken words.

  18. Ups and Downs in Auditory Development: Preschoolers' Sensitivity to Pitch Contour and Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Much research has explored developing sound representations in language, but less work addresses developing representations of other sound patterns. This study examined preschool children's musical representations using two different tasks: discrimination and sound--picture association. Melodic contour--a musically relevant property--and…

  19. The technology of binaural listening

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book reports on the application of advanced models of the human binaural hearing system in modern technology, among others, in the following areas:  binaural analysis of aural scenes, binaural de-reverberation, binaural quality assessment of audio channels, loudspeakers and performance spaces, binaural perceptual coding, binaural processing in hearing aids and cochlea implants, binaural systems in robots, binaural/tactile human-machine interfaces, speech-intelligibility prediction in rooms and/or multi-speaker scenarios. An introduction to binaural modeling and an outlook to the future are provided. Further, the book features a MATLAB toolbox to enable readers to construct their own dedicated binaural models on demand.

  20. Developmental changes in the perception of pitch contour: distinguishing up from down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalinski, Stephanie M; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E

    2008-09-01

    Musically untrained participants in five age groups (5-, 6-, 8-, and 11-year-olds, and adults) heard sequences of three 1 s piano tones in which the first and third tones were identical (A5, or 880 Hz) but the middle tone was displaced upward or downward in pitch. Their task was to identify whether the middle tone was higher or lower than the other two tones. In experiment 1, 5-year-olds successfully identified upward and downward shifts of 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.3 semitones. In experiment 2, older children (6-, 8-, and 11-year-olds) and adults successfully identified the same shifts as well as a smaller shift (0.1 semitone). For all age groups, performance accuracy decreased as the size of the shift decreased. Performance improved from 5 to 8 years of age, reaching adult levels at 8 years. PMID:19045665

  1. Neural coding and perception of pitch in the normal and impaired human auditory system

    OpenAIRE

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Buchholz, Jörg; Wouters, Jan; Andrew J Oxenham

    2011-01-01

    Pitch is an important attribute of hearing that allows us to perceive the musical quality of sounds. Besides music perception, pitch contributes to speech communication, auditory grouping, and perceptual segregation of sound sources. In this work, several aspects of pitch perception in humans were investigated using psychophysical methods. First, hearing loss was found to affect the perception of binaural pitch, a pitch sensation created by the binaural interaction of noise stimuli. Specifica...

  2. Instructional Multiple Binaural Stethoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina C. Platon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation where human ear plays significant part. Long before doctors practiced immediate auscultation meaning placing ear directly on patient’s body by Salinsky (1990, then monaural introduced by Laennec; later binaural, Comins’s invention and Cammann developed further. Several decades numerous innovations made predominantly over chestpiece some had drawbacks. Dr Littman introduced teaching stethoscope with two headset and researcher utilized as prior art.Experimental research method used and the study aimed to determine accuracy and measurement of speed of the device in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and acceptability of user. The subjects were 19 clients and 27 nursing students, government /private registered nurses. The device are comparable to single binaural stethoscope in accuracy performance; speed of sound, former is slightly higher than the latter but still considered as normal; the device are acceptable to users; the utility model have no significant difference in accuracy performance and speed measurements of systolic and diastolic. The utility model may be tried in any acoustic activities and may be pilot tested to the Universities animal science courses, veterinary medicine other Colleges of Nursing and all health allied courses.

  3. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  4. Parametric binaural synthesis: Background, applications and standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breebaart, D.J.; Nater, F.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of information present in HRTFs and the required processing capabilities for real-time and inter-active binaural rendering have long been a challenge for many applications for binaural rendering. More recently, parametric methods to capture the perceptually-relevant information from HRTFs

  5. Control of earphone produced binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    While most people keep a high attention to the significance of the binaural recording method, whether it is e.g. individual or non-individual (as e.g. artificial head recording), many pay less attention to the type of earphone used to reproduce the binaural signals, and to the accurate control of...

  6. Directional dependence of binaural loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Sivonen, Ville Pekka

    2006-01-01

    of experiments determining the effect of sound incidence angle on loudness[1,2,3,4]. The basic experiment to be reported on here was conducted in an anechoic chamber, in which loudspeakers were mounted to present sounds from a number of directions both in the horizontal, and median planes. The...... subject’s task was to produce a loudness match to a frontal reference location, and matches were obtained via a two-interval adaptive forced-choice procedure. Narrow-band noises were used, in order to investigate the frequency-specific effects of direction on loudness. Furthermore, individual HRTFs were...... measured for each incidence angle, in order to relate the changes in actual at-ear exposure to the observed changes in loudness as a function of sound incidence. Combining the listening-test data with the physical measurements, an attempt was made to model the binaural summation underlying the directional...

  7. The impact of binaural beats on creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Reedijk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through stimulating neuronal phase locking. We aimed to investigate whether binaural beats affect creative performance at all, whether they affect divergent thinking, convergent thinking, or both, and whether possible effects may be mediated by the individual striatal dopamine level. Binaural beats were presented at alpha and gamma frequency. Participants completed a divergent and a convergent thinking task to assess two important functions of creativity, and filled out the Positive And Negative Affect Scale – mood State questionnaire (PANAS-S and affect grid to measure current mood. Dopamine levels in the striatum were estimated using spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs. Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking. Individuals with low EBRs mostly benefitted from alpha binaural beat stimulation, while individuals with high EBR were unaffected or even impaired by both alpha and gamma binaural beats. This suggests that binaural beats, and possibly other forms of cognitive entrainment, are not suited for a one-size-fits-all approach, and that individual cognitive-control systems need to be taken into account when studying cognitive enhancement methods.

  8. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II

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    Regina M. Baumgärtel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50 were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users.

  9. Musically Tone-Deaf Individuals Have Difficulty Discriminating Intonation Contours Extracted from Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D.; Foxton, Jessica M.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    Musically tone-deaf individuals have psychophysical deficits in detecting pitch changes, yet their discrimination of intonation contours in speech appears to be normal. One hypothesis for this dissociation is that intonation contours use coarse pitch contrasts which exceed the pitch-change detection thresholds of tone-deaf individuals (Peretz &…

  10. Global and Local Pitch Perception in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated global versus local pitch pattern perception in children with dyslexia aged between 8 and 11 years. Children listened to two consecutive 4-tone pitch sequences while performing a same/different task. On the different trials, sequences either preserved the contour (local condition) or they violated the contour (global…

  11. Contour Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Moira

    1989-01-01

    Argues that contour tones in East Asian languages behave as melodic units consisting of a root node [upper] dominating a branching specification. It is also argued that, with upper as the tonal root node, no more than two rising or falling tones will contrast underlying. (49 references) (JL)

  12. Comparison of binaural microphones for externalization of sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubick, Jens; Sánchez Rodríguez, C.; Song, Wookeun;

    2015-01-01

    or with microphones placed inside the ear canals of a person. In this study, binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were measured with several commercially available binaural microphones, both placed inside the listeners’ ears (individual BRIR) and on a head and torso simulator (generic BRIR). The degree...

  13. Prosodic Transfer: From Chinese Lexical tone to English Pitch Accent

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    Marie Ploquin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese tones are associated with a syllable to convey meaning, English pitch accents are prominence markers associated with stressed syllables.  As both are created by pitch modulation, their pitch contours can be quite similar.  The experiment reported here examines whether native speakers of Chinese produce, when speaking English, the Chinese tone whose phonetic contour most closely matches the contour of the intended English pitch accent.  Six native speakers of Chinese recorded English and Chinese sentences, all including the segment [fan].  Results show that the subjects produced a Chinese tone 2 where a rising pitch accents was required and thus that speakers of Chinese rely on their lexical tones inventory to produce English prosody. The results obtained with falling pitch accents are much less conclusive partly because of the difficulty in measuring tone 3 due to the high level of creak that accompanies it.

  14. Binaural Glimpses at the Cocktail Party?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingner, Andrea; Grothe, Benedikt; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Ewert, Stephan D

    2016-10-01

    Humans often have to focus on a single target sound while ignoring competing maskers in everyday situations. In such conditions, speech intelligibility (SI) is improved when a target speaker is spatially separated from a masker (spatial release from making, SRM) compared to situations where both are co-located. Such asymmetric spatial configurations lead to a 'better-ear effect' with improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at one ear. However, maskers often surround the listener leading to more symmetric configurations where better-ear effects are absent in a long-term, wideband sense. Nevertheless, better-ear glimpses distributed across time and frequency persist and were suggested to account for SRM (Brungart and Iyer 2012). Here, speech reception was assessed using symmetric masker configurations while varying the spatio-temporal distribution of potential better-ear glimpses. Listeners were presented with a frontal target and eight single-talker maskers in four different symmetrical spatial configurations. Compared to the reference condition with co-located target and maskers, an SRM of up to 6 dB was observed. The SRM persisted when the frequency range of the maskers above or below 1500 Hz was replaced with stationary speech-shaped noise. Comparison to a recent short-time binaural SI model showed that better-ear glimpses can account for half the observed SRM, while binaural interaction utilizing phase differences is required to explain the other half. PMID:27412529

  15. Intonation contour in synchronous speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Cummins, Fred

    2003-10-01

    Synchronous Speech (Syn-S), obtained by having pairs of speakers read a prepared text together, has been shown to result in interesting properties in the temporal domain, especially in the reduction of inter-speaker variability in supersegmental timing [F. Cummins, ARLO 3, 7-11 (2002)]. Here we investigate the effect of synchronization among speakers on the intonation contour, with a view to informing models of intonation. Six pairs of speakers (all females) read a short text (176 words) both synchronously and solo. Results show that (1) the pitch accent height above a declining baseline is reduced in Syn-S, compared with solo speech, while the pitch accent location is consistent across speakers in both conditions; (2) in contrast to previous findings on duration matching, there is an asymmetry between speakers, with one speaker exerting a stronger influence on the observed intonation contour than the other; (3) agreement on the boundaries of intonational phrases is greater in Syn-S and intonation contours are well matched from the first syllable of the phrase and throughout.

  16. Comparisons between Binaural In-situ Recordings and Auralizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saher, Konca; Rindel, Jens Holger; Nijs, Lau

    2006-01-01

    -architectural design. This paper deals with comparison between binaural in-situ recordings and auralizations obtained from computer simulations. Listening tests and questionnaires were prepared from auralizations to compare with the reference binaural recordings. The difficulties in evaluation of auralization quality...... are discussed. The results indicate that although auralizations and binaural recordings evoke different aural perception auralization is a strong tool to assess the acoustical environment before the space is built. Two commercial programs are used for the auralizations. (ODEON and CATT-Acoustics)...

  17. Binaural dereverberation based on interaural coherence histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westermann, Adam; Buchholz, Jorg M.; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    A binaural dereverberation algorithm is presented that utilizes the properties of the interaural coherence (IC) inspired by the concepts introduced in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)]. The algorithm introduces a non-linear sigmoidal coherence-to-gain mapping that is controlled...... by an online estimate of the present coherence statistics. The algorithm automatically adapts to a given acoustic environment and provides a stronger dereverberation effect than the original method presented in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)] in most acoustic conditions. The...... Allen et al. were considered as reference systems. The results revealed that the proposed coherence-based approach is most successful in acoustic scenarios that exhibit a significant spread in the coherence distribution where direct sound and reverberation can be segregated. This dereverberation...

  18. Implante coclear Digisonic SP® Binaural: acesso coronal tunelizado Digisonic SP® Binaural cochlear implant: the coronal tunneled approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O implante coclear é um grande avanço no tratamento da surdez. Há grandes evidências que a audição bilateral traz diversas vantagens ao ser humano e muito mais quando se trata de audição binaural. OBJETIVO: Este artigo tem por objetivo descrever o primeiro caso operado no Brasil, sendo o terceiro país das Américas (México e Colômbia a realizar, com implante binaural Neurelec Digisonic SP® demonstrando a técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Descrição da técnica cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: Ver técnica cirúrgica. Procedimento ocorreu sem intercorrências. DISCUSSÃO: O efeito "squelch", a somação binaural, a localização da fonte sonora e o efeito sombra da cabeça são umas das principais razões que justificam a superioridade da reabilitação binaural. O custo do tratamento deve ser levado em conta em políticas de saúde pública. CONCLUSÃO: Custo do implante coclear é um dos grandes limitadores da bilateralidade na reabilitação desse grupo de pacientes, porém, com essa tecnologia, é possível solucionar esse problema, expondo o paciente a poucos riscos, com o uso de uma técnica cirúrgica pouco invasiva.Cochlear implants represent a significant breakthrough in the treatment of hearing loss. Evidence indicates bilateral hearing brings significant benefits to patients, particularly when binaural hearing is offered. OBJECTIVE: To describe the first case of implantation of a Digisonic SP® Binaural Neurelec device in Brazil (the third implant placed in the Americas, after Mexico and Colombia and the chosen surgical approach. METHOD: Description of a surgical approach. RESULTS: The procedure was successfully completed. DISCUSSION: The squelch effect, binaural summation, location of the sound source, and the shadow effect of the head are listed among the reasons to explain the superiority of binaural rehabilitation. Cost of treatment must be considered in the development of public health policies. CONCLUSION: The cost of cochlear

  19. Acceptability of binaural hearing aids: a cross-over study.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, S D; Callaghan, D E; Hogan, S.; Meredith, R.; Rayment, A; Davis, A

    1991-01-01

    Using screening questionnaires we were able to detect individuals aged 50-65 years with hearing disability in a general practice population. Those who had better ear hearing levels of 30 dB or worse were invited to take place in a cross-over study comparing the acceptability of a monaural or binaural hearing-aid fitting. Fifty-five per cent ultimately opted for a binaural fitting and had greater hearing disability and worse mean hearing levels than those who opted for a monaural fitting. They...

  20. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  1. Fairfax County Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This layer contains contours that were derived from the digital terrain model made up of irregularly spaced mass points and breaklines. The contours are 5 foot...

  2. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  3. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  4. A new perspective on binaural integration using response time methodology: super capacity revealed in conditions of binaural masking release

    OpenAIRE

    Lentz, Jennifer J.; He, Yuan; Townsend, James T.

    2014-01-01

    This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time (RT) distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180° out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demon...

  5. A New Perspective on Binaural Integration Using Response Time Methodology: Super Capacity Revealed in Conditions of Binaural Masking Release

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Lentz; Townsend, James T.

    2014-01-01

    This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180o out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demonstra...

  6. CONTOUR 7 Preview catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Gelder, Hilde Van

    2015-01-01

    This is an online publication on the website of CONTOUR 7, including both the English and the Dutch versions of my catalog essay entitled Lessons from Moria / Lessen uit Moria. The weblink is: http://contour7.be/files/uploads/page/CONTOUR7_PREVIEW_FOOLING_UTOPIA_CATALOG.pdf.

  7. Some effects of intonation contour on sentence intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, James M.

    2003-10-01

    This experiment was designed to measure the effects of pitch movement on sentence intelligibility. A source-filter synthesizer was used to generate three synthetic versions of 60 sentences drawn from the TIMIT multi-talker speech database: (1) an original pitch (OP) condition in which the fundamental frequency (F0) contour matched that of the original utterance, (2) a monotone pitch (MP) condition in which F0 was held constant at the median value measured from the original utterance, and (3) an inverted pitch (IP) condition in which the F0 contour was reflected around the median F0 value (i.e., pitch rises were changed to pitch drops, and vice versa). Results from 30 listeners showed a small but statistically reliable drop in intelligibility from the OP condition to either the MP or IP condition, with no difference between the MP and IP conditions. A second group of 22 listeners was tested on the same task, but with overall sentence intelligibility reduced by running all signals through a 2-kHz low-pass filter. As with the unfiltered signals, intelligibility was reduced for the MP and IP conditions relative to OP; however, the decrements in intelligibility were somewhat larger for the filtered signals, and inverting pitch caused a larger intelligibility decrement than flattening pitch.

  8. Melodic Contour Identification Reflects the Cognitive Threshold of Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Eunju; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a natural phenomenon of aging. Although there exists a consensus that sensitivity to acoustic features of music is associated with such decline, no solid evidence has yet shown that structural elements and contexts of music explain this loss of cognitive performance. This study examined the extent and the type of cognitive decline that is related to the contour identification task (CIT) using tones with different pitches (i.e., melodic contours). Both younger and older ad...

  9. Efficiency of brainwave entrainment by binaural beats in reducing anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a fundamental phenomenon that is a common symptom in all mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of brainwave entrainment on anxiety reduction using binaural beats. Methods: In this experimental double-blind study, 30 employees were selected from an engineering research firm through random sampling and replacement and divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. All participants completed the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Then, the experimental group listened to binaural beats which was recorded on a non-vocal piece of music for 4 weeks, 3 sessions each week. Each session lasted about 20 minutes. At the same time, the control group listened to the background music without any entrainment sound. At the end, both groups completed the anxiety questionnaire and the anxiety scores of both groups obtained before and after intervention were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings showed that the brainwave entrainment using binaural beats led to the significant reduction of state anxiety (P<0.001 and trait anxiety (P<0.018. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is an effective factor in decreasing state and trait anxiety; so, it can be used to reduce anxiety in mental health centers.

  10. The effect of overlap-masking on binaural reverberant word intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Brad; Rogers, Peter H.

    2004-11-01

    Reverberation interferes with the ability to understand speech in rooms. Overlap-masking explains this degradation by assuming reverberant phonemes endure in time and mask subsequent reverberant phonemes. Most listeners benefit from binaural listening when reverberation exists, indicating that the listener's binaural system processes the two channels to reduce the reverberation. This paper investigates the hypothesis that the binaural word intelligibility advantage found in reverberation is a result of binaural overlap-masking release with the reverberation acting as masking noise. The tests utilize phonetically balanced word lists (ANSI-S3.2 1989), that are presented diotically and binaurally with recorded reverberation and reverberation-like noise. A small room, 62 m3, reverberates the words. These are recorded using two microphones without additional noise sources. The reverberation-like noise is a modified form of these recordings and has a similar spectral content. It does not contain binaural localization cues due to a phase randomization procedure. Listening to the reverberant words binaurally improves the intelligibility by 6.0% over diotic listening. The binaural intelligibility advantage for reverberation-like noise is only 2.6%. This indicates that binaural overlap-masking release is insufficient to explain the entire binaural word intelligibility advantage in reverberation. .

  11. Cross-Domain Effects of Music and Language Experience on the Representation of Pitch in the Human Auditory Brainstem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Gandour, Jackson T.; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Neural encoding of pitch in the auditory brainstem is known to be shaped by long-term experience with language or music, implying that early sensory processing is subject to experience-dependent neural plasticity. In language, pitch patterns consist of sequences of continuous, curvilinear contours; in music, pitch patterns consist of relatively…

  12. Distributed Contour Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  13. Perception of Melodic Contour and Intonation in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from Mandarin Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wan, Xuan; Jiang, Cunmei

    2015-01-01

    Tone language experience benefits pitch processing in music and speech for typically developing individuals. No known studies have examined pitch processing in individuals with autism who speak a tone language. This study investigated discrimination and identification of melodic contour and speech intonation in a group of Mandarin-speaking…

  14. Auditory cortical processing: Binaural interaction in healthy and ROBO1-deficient subjects

    OpenAIRE

    LamminmÀki, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Two functioning ears provide clear advantages over monaural listening. During natural binaural listening, robust brain-level interaction occurs between the slightly different inputs from the left and the right ear. Binaural interaction requires convergence of inputs from the two ears somewhere in the auditory system, and it therefore relies on midline crossing of auditory pathways, a fundamental property of the mammalian central nervous system. Binaural interaction plays a significant ro...

  15. The effect of cochlear nonlinearities on binaural masking level differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goff, Nicolas; Kohlrausch, Armin

    Background The binaural masking level difference (BMLD) has been shown to be constant (10−15dB) for masker spectrum levels from 70dB/Hz down to 30−40dB/Hz and to gradually decrease with lower levels (McFadden, 1968; Hall and Harvey, 1984). The decrease at low levels was larger in an asymmetric...... that the difference in BMLD between the symmetric and the two asymmetric conditions is constant, in line with the experimental data. Conclusion A model was proposed to account for the effect of level asymmetry on BMLD. The modeling results suggest that cochlear nonlinearites affect the analysis of binaural cues a  at...

  16. The oscillatory entrainment of virtual pitch perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar eAksentijevic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that synchronized brain oscillations in the low gamma range (around 33 Hz are involved in the perceptual integration of harmonic complex tones. This process involves the binding of harmonic components into harmonic templates – neural structures responsible for pitch coding in the brain. We investigated the hypothesis that oscillatory harmonic binding promotes a change in pitch perception style from spectral (frequency to virtual (relational. Using oscillatory priming we asked 24 participants to judge as rapidly as possible, the direction of an ambiguous target with ascending spectral and descending virtual contour. They made significantly more virtual responses when primed at 29, 31 and 33 Hz and when the first target tone was harmonically related to the prime, suggesting that neural synchronization in the low gamma range could facilitate a shift towards virtual pitch processing.

  17. Impact of monaural frequency compression on binaural fusion at the brainstem level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Isabelle; Kohl, Manuel C; Hannemann, Ronny; Kornagel, Ulrich; Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I

    2015-08-01

    A classical objective measure for binaural fusion at the brainstem level is the so-called β-wave of the binaural interaction component (BIC) in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). However, in some cases it appeared that a reliable detection of this component still remains a challenge. In this study, we investigate the wavelet phase synchronization stability (WPSS) of ABR data for the analysis of binaural fusion and compare it to the BIC. In particular, we examine the impact of monaural nonlinear frequency compression on binaural fusion. As the auditory system is tonotopically organized, an interaural frequency mismatch caused by monaural frequency compression could negatively effect binaural fusion. In this study, only few subjects showed a detectable β-wave and in most cases only for low ITDs. However, we present a novel objective measure for binaural fusion that outperforms the current state-of-the-art technique (BIC): the WPSS analysis showed a significant difference between the phase stability of the sum of the monaurally evoked responses and the phase stability of the binaurally evoked ABR. This difference could be an indicator for binaural fusion in the brainstem. Furthermore, we observed that monaural frequency compression could indeed effect binaural fusion, as the WPSS results for this condition vary strongly from the results obtained without frequency compression.

  18. Binaural Integrated Active Noise Control and Noise Reduction in Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizel, Romain; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a binaural approach to integrated active noise control and noise reduction in hearing aids and aims at demonstrating that a binaural setup indeed provides significant advantages in terms of the number of noise sources that can be compensated for and in terms of the causality...

  19. Sound Source Distance Estimation in Rooms based on Statistical Properties of Binaural Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georganti, Eleftheria; May, Tobias; van de Par, Steven;

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for the estimation of the distance of a sound source from binaural speech signals is proposed. The method relies on several statistical features extracted from such signals and their binaural cues. Firstly, the standard deviation of the difference of the magnitude spectra of the left...

  20. A machine-hearing system exploiting head movements for binaural sound localisation in reverberant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Ma, Ning; Wierstorf, Hagen;

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with machine localisation of multiple active speech sources in reverberant environments using two (binaural) microphones. Such conditions typically present a problem for ‘classical’ binaural models. Inspired by the human ability to utilise head movements, the current study...

  1. Reconstruction of surfaces from planar contours through contour interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Kyle; Woo, Boyeong; Pinter, Csaba; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Segmented structures such as targets or organs at risk are typically stored as 2D contours contained on evenly spaced cross sectional images (slices). Contour interpolation algorithms are implemented in radiation oncology treatment planning software to turn 2D contours into a 3D surface, however the results differ between algorithms, causing discrepancies in analysis. Our goal was to create an accurate and consistent contour interpolation algorithm that can handle issues such as keyhole contours, rapid changes, and branching. This was primarily motivated by radiation therapy research using the open source SlicerRT extension for the 3D Slicer platform. The implemented algorithm triangulates the mesh by minimizing the length of edges spanning the contours with dynamic programming. The first step in the algorithm is removing keyholes from contours. Correspondence is then found between contour layers and branching patterns are determined. The final step is triangulating the contours and sealing the external contours. The algorithm was tested on contours segmented on computed tomography (CT) images. Some cases such as inner contours, rapid changes in contour size, and branching were handled well by the algorithm when encountered individually. There were some special cases in which the simultaneous occurrence of several of these problems in the same location could cause the algorithm to produce suboptimal mesh. An open source contour interpolation algorithm was implemented in SlicerRT for reconstructing surfaces from planar contours. The implemented algorithm was able to generate qualitatively good 3D mesh from the set of 2D contours for most tested structures.

  2. Combination of Adaptive Feedback Cancellation and Binaural Adaptive Filtering in Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Anthony; Reindl, Klaus; Kellermann, Walter

    2009-12-01

    We study a system combining adaptive feedback cancellation and adaptive filtering connecting inputs from both ears for signal enhancement in hearing aids. For the first time, such a binaural system is analyzed in terms of system stability, convergence of the algorithms, and possible interaction effects. As major outcomes of this study, a new stability condition adapted to the considered binaural scenario is presented, some already existing and commonly used feedback cancellation performance measures for the unilateral case are adapted to the binaural case, and possible interaction effects between the algorithms are identified. For illustration purposes, a blind source separation algorithm has been chosen as an example for adaptive binaural spatial filtering. Experimental results for binaural hearing aids confirm the theoretical findings and the validity of the new measures.

  3. Combination of Adaptive Feedback Cancellation and Binaural Adaptive Filtering in Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lombard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a system combining adaptive feedback cancellation and adaptive filtering connecting inputs from both ears for signal enhancement in hearing aids. For the first time, such a binaural system is analyzed in terms of system stability, convergence of the algorithms, and possible interaction effects. As major outcomes of this study, a new stability condition adapted to the considered binaural scenario is presented, some already existing and commonly used feedback cancellation performance measures for the unilateral case are adapted to the binaural case, and possible interaction effects between the algorithms are identified. For illustration purposes, a blind source separation algorithm has been chosen as an example for adaptive binaural spatial filtering. Experimental results for binaural hearing aids confirm the theoretical findings and the validity of the new measures.

  4. Binaural integration abilities in bilateral cochlear implant user

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chie Obuchi; Masae Shiroma; Sayaka Ogane; Kimitaka Kaga

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Cochlear implants (CIs) improved speech intelligibility, speech perception in background noise, and sound localization in quiet and noisy situations. However, it is unclear whether these advantages essentially result in binaural integration of acoustic stimuli from each ear. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of binaural integration by bilateral CIs placement using binaural hearing tests and subjective auditory perceptual assessment. A 61-year-old bilateral CIs subject underwent the following four tests:the Japanese Hearing in Noise Test (HINT-J), the dichotic listening test (DLT), the Rapidly Alternating Speech Perception (RASP) test, and subjective auditory perceptual assessment. The HINT-J score was significantly higher for bilateral CIs than for a unilateral CI. However, DLT and the RASP test revealed contradictory results. Subjective auditory perceptual assessment revealed active and bright impressions for bilateral hearing, which were also noisy and strong compared with those for unilateral hearing. The results of this study revealed that bilateral CIs improved speech perception in background noise and an improved auditory impression, although the bilateral integration abilities were not improved. This was probably because the patient was required to combine information from the two ears into a single perception in DLT and the RASP test. More longitudinal data should be collected and analyzed in future studies to evaluate the long-term effects of bilateral CIs. Copyright © 2016, PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. Production and hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  5. A systematic study of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia

    This Ph.D. thesis presents an investigation of the acoustical and psycho-acoustical characteristics of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers. The study was mainly focused on the characteristics of closely spaced loudspeakers – known as stereo-dipoles – when placed at different positi......, on pair behind and one pair above the listener. Experimental results show that a reduction of front-back confusions is obtained with the proposed system. Yet, coloration differences between loudspeaker pairs result in a degradation of the localization performance....

  6. Principles of modulation processing in monaural vs. binaural hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    channels as a detection cue. Durlach [1] introduced the equalization-cancellation (EC) approach as an across-channel mechanism for explaining BMLD and it was recently used to quantitatively account for many binaural listening experiments. Buus [2] was the first to suggest that an EC-type mechanism could...... also be appropriate to account for CMR. However, it was never tested if such an approach is able to quantitatively predict CMR. The aim of the present study is to introduce an EC type model in monaural modulation processing and to test it with a certain stimulus configuration....

  7. Setup for demonstrating interactive binaural synthesis for telepresence applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos;

    2011-01-01

    3 main tasks: Tracking coordinates are combined to calculate directions. This is handled by sharing "global" coordinates across the sites and adding local changes with a low latency, ending with a "direction of sound" for each source. Audio is recorded and transmitted over network. Here bandwidth....... The combined system was evaluated by the user experience at the demonstration, with the overall conclusion that interactive binaural synthesis is an important aspect of a fully immersive telepresence application and that we should continue in this direction examining different approaches....

  8. Absolute Pitch on Music

    OpenAIRE

    Çuhadar, C.Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Musicians are debated people in the academic circles with the claim of they have both various characteristics and different cognitive personalities on the analogy those other people. One of these different characteristics is absolute pitch ability. Absolute pitch (AP) is a cognitive ability which can be characterized as to identify any tones (labeling) at a given pitch without using any external references. According to the different studies which were held in different times, the prevalence ...

  9. A new perspective on binaural integration using response time methodology: super capacity revealed in conditions of binaural masking release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Jennifer J; He, Yuan; Townsend, James T

    2014-01-01

    This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time (RT) distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180° out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demonstrated a much lower signal detection threshold for the dichotic vs. the diotic conditions, but accuracy-based techniques do not allow for assessment of system dynamics or resource allocation across time. Further, RTs allow comparisons between these conditions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we apply a reaction-time based capacity coefficient, which provides an index of workload efficiency and quantifies the resource allocations for single ear vs. two ear presentations. We demonstrate that the release from masking generated by the addition of an identical stimulus to one ear is limited-to-unlimited capacity (efficiency typically less than 1), consistent with less gain than would be expected by probability summation. However, the dichotic presentation leads to a significant increase in workload capacity (increased efficiency)-most specifically at lower signal-to-noise ratios. These experimental results provide further evidence that configural processing plays a critical role in binaural masking release, and that these mechanisms may operate more strongly when the signal stimulus is difficult to detect, albeit still with nearly 100% accuracy. PMID:25202254

  10. A New Perspective on Binaural Integration Using Response Time Methodology: Super Capacity Revealed in Conditions of Binaural Masking Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eLentz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applied reaction-time based methods to assess the workload capacity of binaural integration by comparing reaction time distributions for monaural and binaural tone-in-noise detection tasks. In the diotic contexts, an identical tone + noise stimulus was presented to each ear. In the dichotic contexts, an identical noise was presented to each ear, but the tone was presented to one of the ears 180o out of phase with respect to the other ear. Accuracy-based measurements have demonstrated a much lower signal detection threshold for the dichotic versus the diotic conditions, but accuracy-based techniques do not allow for assessment of system dynamics or resource allocation across time. Further, reaction times allow comparisons between these conditions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we apply a reaction-time based capacity coefficient, which provides an index of workload efficiency and quantifies the resource allocations for single ear versus two ear presentations. We demonstrate that the release from masking generated by the addition of an identical stimulus to one ear is limited-to-unlimited capacity (efficiency typically less than 1, consistent with less gain than would be expected by probability summation. However, the dichotic presentation leads to a significant increase in workload capacity (increased efficiency – most specifically at lower signal-to-noise ratios. These experimental results provide further evidence that configural processing plays a critical role in binaural masking release, and that these mechanisms may operate more strongly when the signal stimulus is difficult to detect, albeit still with nearly 100% accuracy.

  11. Binaural speech discrimination under noise in hearing-impaired listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. V.; Rao, A. B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of speech discrimination by hearing-impaired listeners (sensori-neural, conductive, and mixed groups) under binaural free-field listening in the presence of background noise. Subjects with pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz were presented with a version of the W-22 list of phonetically balanced words under three conditions: (1) 'quiet', with the chamber noise below 28 dB and speech at 60 dB; (2) at a constant S/N ratio of +10 dB, and with a background white noise at 70 dB; and (3) same as condition (2), but with the background noise at 80 dB. The mean speech discrimination scores decreased significantly with noise in all groups. However, the decrease in binaural speech discrimination scores with an increase in hearing impairment was less for material presented under the noise conditions than for the material presented in quiet.

  12. Binaural cues provide for a release from informational masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Sandra; Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Klump, Georg M

    2015-10-01

    Informational masking (IM) describes the insensitivity of detecting a change in sound features in a complex acoustical environment when such a change could easily be detected in the absence of distracting sounds. IM occurs because of the similarity between deviant sound and distracting sounds (so-called similarity-based IM) and/or stimulus uncertainty stemming from trial-to-trial variability (so-called uncertainty-based IM). IM can be abolished if similarity-based or uncertainty-based IM are minimized. Here, we modulated similarity-based IM using binaural cues. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were presented sequentially, and level-increment thresholds were measured. Deviant tones differed from standard tones by a higher sound level. Distracting tones covered a wide range of levels. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were characterized by their interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), or both ITD and ILD. The larger the ITD or ILD was, the better similarity-based IM was overcome. If both interaural differences were applied to standard/deviant tones, the release from IM was larger than when either interaural difference was used. The results show that binaural cues are potent cues to abolish similarity-based IM and that the auditory system makes use of multiple available cues. PMID:26413722

  13. Binaural release from masking with single- and multi-electrode stimulation in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ann E; Goupell, Matthew J; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-07-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide children with access to speech information from a young age. Despite bilateral cochlear implantation becoming common, use of spatial cues in free field is smaller than in normal-hearing children. Clinically fit CIs are not synchronized across the ears; thus binaural experiments must utilize research processors that can control binaural cues with precision. Research to date has used single pairs of electrodes, which is insufficient for representing speech. Little is known about how children with bilateral CIs process binaural information with multi-electrode stimulation. Toward the goal of improving binaural unmasking of speech, this study evaluated binaural unmasking with multi- and single-electrode stimulation. Results showed that performance with multi-electrode stimulation was similar to the best performance with single-electrode stimulation. This was similar to the pattern of performance shown by normal-hearing adults when presented an acoustic CI simulation. Diotic and dichotic signal detection thresholds of the children with CIs were similar to those of normal-hearing children listening to a CI simulation. The magnitude of binaural unmasking was not related to whether the children with CIs had good interaural time difference sensitivity. Results support the potential for benefits from binaural hearing and speech unmasking in children with bilateral CIs. PMID:27475132

  14. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  15. Consonance and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil; Marco, David; Light, Maria; Wilson, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    To date, no consensus exists in the literature as to theories of consonance and dissonance. Experimental data collected over the last century have raised questions about the dominant theories that are based on frequency relationships between the harmonics of music chords. This study provides experimental evidence that strongly challenges these theories and suggests a new theory of dissonance based on relationships between pitch perception and recognition. Experiment 1 shows that dissonance does not increase with increasing numbers of harmonics in chords as predicted by Helmholtz's (1863/1954) roughness theory, nor does it increase with fewer pitch-matching errors as predicted by Stumpf's (1898) tonal fusion theory. Dissonance was strongly correlated with pitch-matching error for chords, which in turn was reduced by chord familiarity and greater music training. This led to the proposition that long-term memory templates for common chords assist the perception of pitches in chords by providing an estimate of the chord intervals from spectral information. When recognition mechanisms based on these templates fail, the spectral pitch estimate is inconsistent with the period of the waveform, leading to cognitive incongruence and the negative affect of dissonance. The cognitive incongruence theory of dissonance was rigorously tested in Experiment 2, in which nonmusicians were trained to match the pitches of a random selection of 2-pitch chords. After 10 training sessions, they rated the chords they had learned to pitch match as less dissonant than the unlearned chords, irrespective of their tuning, providing strong support for a cognitive mechanism of dissonance.

  16. Pitch Processing in Children with Williams Syndrome: Relationships between Music and Prosody Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Sotillo, María

    2014-05-15

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, has been taken as evidence that music and language constitute separate modules. This research focused on the linguistic component of prosody and aimed to assess whether relationships exist between the pitch processing mechanisms for music and prosody in WS. Children with WS and typically developing individuals were presented with a musical pitch and two prosody discrimination tasks. In the musical pitch discrimination task, participants were required to distinguish whether two musical tones were the same or different. The prosody discrimination tasks evaluated participants' skills for discriminating pairs of prosodic contours based on pitch or pitch, loudness and length, jointly. In WS, musical pitch discrimination was significantly correlated with performance on the prosody task assessing the discrimination of prosodic contours based on pitch only. Furthermore, musical pitch discrimination skills predicted performance on the prosody task based on pitch, and this relationship was not better explained by chronological age, vocabulary or auditory memory. These results suggest that children with WS process pitch in music and prosody through shared mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of cognitive modularity. The implications of these results for intervention programs for individuals with WS are also discussed.

  17. Pitch Processing in Children with Williams Syndrome: Relationships between Music and Prosody Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastora Martínez-Castilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS, a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, has been taken as evidence that music and language constitute separate modules. This research focused on the linguistic component of prosody and aimed to assess whether relationships exist between the pitch processing mechanisms for music and prosody in WS. Children with WS and typically developing individuals were presented with a musical pitch and two prosody discrimination tasks. In the musical pitch discrimination task, participants were required to distinguish whether two musical tones were the same or different. The prosody discrimination tasks evaluated participants’ skills for discriminating pairs of prosodic contours based on pitch or pitch, loudness and length, jointly. In WS, musical pitch discrimination was significantly correlated with performance on the prosody task assessing the discrimination of prosodic contours based on pitch only. Furthermore, musical pitch discrimination skills predicted performance on the prosody task based on pitch, and this relationship was not better explained by chronological age, vocabulary or auditory memory. These results suggest that children with WS process pitch in music and prosody through shared mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of cognitive modularity. The implications of these results for intervention programs for individuals with WS are also discussed.

  18. Capturing lightness between contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeer, Mark; van Lier, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneously coloured bars may exhibit lightness differences at the intersections. A well-known example is the Hermann grid illusion, where crossing white bars on a black background show dark patches at the crossings. Jung (1973, Handbook of Sensory Physiology volume VII/3, pp 1-152) found that the dark patches persist when thin outlines are drawn at the intersections, and are even visible in foveal vision. Recently, it has been shown that making distortions to the contours of a Hermann grid-like configuration results in the disappearance of the illusory dark spots (Geier et al, 2008 Perception 37 651 665). We show that thin outlines at the crossings of the distorted Hermann grid induce lightness differences in the same direction as in the original Hermann grid illusion, even in foveal vision and in displays consisting of two crossing bars. Our experiments reveal that the induced lightness differences are independent of the luminance polarity and shape of the contours at the intersection. We suggest that the effect results from lateral inhibition and an additional spreading and capturing of these differences between luminance contours. A similar capturing between collinear contours may play a role in peripheral vision in the original Hermann grid.

  19. Contours, 2006 Contour Lines, Published in 2006, Johnson County, Iowa.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset as of 2006. It is described as '2006 Contour Lines'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Lambert...

  20. Bathymetric Contours - Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of a vector coverage of bathymetric contours with increasing resolution in coastal areas. Contours were derived from gridded National Ocean...

  1. Template-Based Active Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Mogali, Jayanth Krishna; Pediredla, Adithya Kumar; Seelamantula, Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    We develop a generalized active contour formalism for image segmentation based on shape templates. The shape template is subjected to a restricted affine transformation (RAT) in order to segment the object of interest. RAT allows for translation, rotation, and scaling, which give a total of five degrees of freedom. The proposed active contour comprises an inner and outer contour pair, which are closed and concentric. The active contour energy is a contrast function defined based on the intens...

  2. Beamforming under Quantization Errors in Wireless Binaural Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Janse

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving the intelligibility of speech in different environments is one of the main objectives of hearing aid signal processing algorithms. Hearing aids typically employ beamforming techniques using multiple microphones for this task. In this paper, we discuss a binaural beamforming scheme that uses signals from the hearing aids worn on both the left and right ears. Specifically, we analyze the effect of a low bit rate wireless communication link between the left and right hearing aids on the performance of the beamformer. The scheme is comprised of a generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC that has two inputs: observations from one ear, and quantized observations from the other ear, and whose output is an estimate of the desired signal. We analyze the performance of this scheme in the presence of a localized interferer as a function of the communication bit rate using the resultant mean-squared error as the signal distortion measure.

  3. Beamforming under Quantization Errors in Wireless Binaural Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Sriram

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the intelligibility of speech in different environments is one of the main objectives of hearing aid signal processing algorithms. Hearing aids typically employ beamforming techniques using multiple microphones for this task. In this paper, we discuss a binaural beamforming scheme that uses signals from the hearing aids worn on both the left and right ears. Specifically, we analyze the effect of a low bit rate wireless communication link between the left and right hearing aids on the performance of the beamformer. The scheme is comprised of a generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC that has two inputs: observations from one ear, and quantized observations from the other ear, and whose output is an estimate of the desired signal. We analyze the performance of this scheme in the presence of a localized interferer as a function of the communication bit rate using the resultant mean-squared error as the signal distortion measure.

  4. Binaural technology for e.g. rendering auditory virtual environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Jens Blauert's research up through the late 60ties and later, pioneered the field of binaural technology and auditory virtual environments. He mastered the measurement of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) before the term was introduced, and his methods were standard for decades. While most......, helped mediate the understanding that if the transfer functions could be mastered, then important dimensions of the auditory percept could also be controlled. He early understood the potential of using the HRTFs and numerical sound transmission analysis programs for rendering auditory virtual...... environments. Jens Blauert participated in many European cooperation projects exploring  this field (and others), among other the SCATIS project addressing the auditory-tactile dimensions in the absence of visual information....

  5. Multi-pitch estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Mads

    2009-01-01

    Periodic signals can be decomposed into sets of sinusoids having frequencies that are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency. The problem of finding such fundamental frequencies from noisy observations is important in many speech and audio applications, where it is commonly referred to as pitch estimation. These applications include analysis, compression, separation, enhancement, automatic transcription and many more. In this book, an introduction to pitch estimation is given and a number of statistical methods for pitch estimation are presented. The basic signal models and associated es

  6. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U.

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classif...

  7. Binaural advantages in users of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Pak, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent users of bilateral and bimodal fittings should expect to benefit from all three different binaural advantages found to be present in normal-hearing listeners. Head-shadow and binaural squelch are advantages occurring under spatially separated speech and noise, while summation emerges when speech and noise coincide in space. For 14 bilateral or bimodal listeners, speech reception thresholds in the presence of four-talker babble were measured in sound-fiel...

  8. Advantages of Binaural Amplification to Acceptable Noise Level of Directional Hearing Aid Users

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ja-Hee; Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the present study was to examine whether Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) would be lower (greater acceptance of noise) in binaural listening than in monaural listening condition and also whether meaningfulness of background speech noise would affect ANLs for directional microphone hearing aid users. In addition, any relationships between the individual binaural benefits on ANLs and the individuals' demographic information were investigated. Methods Fourteen hearing aid us...

  9. Binaural Unmasking of Multi-channel Stimuli in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users

    OpenAIRE

    Van Deun, Lieselot; Van Wieringen, Astrid; Francart, Tom; Büchner, Andreas; Lenarz, Thomas; Wouters, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Previous work suggests that bilateral cochlear implant users are sensitive to interaural cues if experimental speech processors are used to preserve accurate interaural information in the electrical stimulation pattern. Binaural unmasking occurs in adults and children when an interaural delay is applied to the envelope of a high-rate pulse train. Nevertheless, for speech perception, binaural unmasking benefits have not been demonstrated consistently, even with coordinated stimulation at both ...

  10. The Shape of Nuclear Falls and Their Effect on the Perception of Pitch and Prominence: Peaks vs. Plateaux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rachael-Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the perceptual effect of a high plateau in the intonation contour. Plateaux are flat stretches of contour and have been observed associated with high tones in Standard Southern British (SSB) English. The hypothesis that plateaux may make the accents with which they are associated sound higher in pitch than sharp peaks of…

  11. Pitch range variation in English tonal contrasts: continuous or categorical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Laura C

    2010-01-01

    The importance of pitch range variation for intonational meaning and theory is well known; however, whether pitch range is a phonetic dimension which is treated categorically in English remains unclear. To test this possibility, three intonation continua varying in pitch range were constructed which had endpoints with contrastive representations under autosegmental-metrical (AM) theory: H* vs. L+H*, H* with 'peak delay' vs. L*+H, and %H L* vs. L*. The prediction derived from AM theory was that the reproduction of continuous pitch range variation should show a discrete pattern reflecting a change in the phonological representation of tonal sequences and in the number of tonal targets across each continuum. Participants' reproductions of each stimulus set showed continuous variation in pitch range, suggesting that pitch range is a gradient phonetic dimension in English conveying semantic contrast, similar to the formant space for vowels. Moreover, the gradience observed in productions across all parts of the pitch range suggests that contours within each series had the same number of tonal targets. The results support a version of AM theory in which rises and falls are usually comprised of two tonal targets, with strictly monotonic f(0) interpolation between them. PMID:20798570

  12. Monaural and interaural intensity discrimination: Level effects and the ``binaural advantage''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellmack, Mark A.; Viemeister, Neal F.; Byrne, Andrew J.

    2004-08-01

    This study examined whether the level effects seen in monaural intensity discrimination (Weber's law and the ``near miss'') in a two-interval task are also observed in discrimination of interaural intensity differences (IIDs) in a single-interval task. Both tasks were performed for various standard levels of 4-kHz pure tones and broadband noise. The Weber functions (10 log ΔI/I versus I in dB) in the monaural and binaural conditions were parallel. For noise, the Weber functions had slopes close to zero (Weber's law) while the Weber functions for the tones had a mean slope of -0.089 (near miss). The near miss for the monaural and binaural tasks with tones was eliminated when a high-pass masker was gated with the listening intervals. The near-miss was also observed for 250- and 1000-Hz tones in the binaural task despite overall decreased sensitivity to changes in IID at 1000 Hz. The binaural thresholds showed a small (about 2-dB) advantage over monaural thresholds only in the broadband noise conditions. More important, however, is the fact that the level effects seen monaurally are also seen binaurally. This suggests that the basic mechanisms responsible for Weber's law and the near miss are common to monaural and binaural processing.

  13. A high-density EEG investigation into steady state binaural beat stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Goodin

    Full Text Available Binaural beats are an auditory phenomenon that has been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes including vigilance and brainwave entrainment. Some personality traits measured by the NEO Five Factor Model have been found to alter entrainment using pulsing light stimuli, but as yet no studies have examined if this occurs using steady state presentation of binaural beats for a relatively short presentation of two minutes. This study aimed to examine if binaural beat stimulation altered vigilance or cortical frequencies and if personality traits were involved. Thirty-one participants were played binaural beat stimuli designed to elicit a response at either the Theta (7 Hz or Beta (16 Hz frequency bands while undertaking a zero-back vigilance task. EEG was recorded from a high-density electrode cap. No significant differences were found in vigilance or cortical frequency power during binaural beat stimulation compared to a white noise control period. Furthermore, no significant relationships were detected between the above and the Big Five personality traits. This suggests a short presentation of steady state binaural beats are not sufficient to alter vigilance or entrain cortical frequencies at the two bands examined and that certain personality traits were not more susceptible than others.

  14. Binaural Fusion and Listening Effort in Children Who Use Bilateral Cochlear Implants: A Psychoacoustic and Pupillometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steel, Morrison M.; Papsin, Blake C.; Karen A Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implants aim to provide hearing to both ears for children who are deaf and promote binaural/spatial hearing. Benefits are limited by mismatched devices and unilaterally-driven development which could compromise the normal integration of left and right ear input. We thus asked whether children hear a fused image (ie. 1 vs 2 sounds) from their bilateral implants and if this "binaural fusion" reduces listening effort. Binaural fusion was assessed by asking 25 deaf children wit...

  15. Time-Varying Distortions of Binaural Information by Bilateral Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Francisco A.; Portnuff, Cory D. F.; Goupell, Matthew J.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    In patients with bilateral hearing loss, the use of two hearing aids (HAs) offers the potential to restore the benefits of binaural hearing, including sound source localization and segregation. However, existing evidence suggests that bilateral HA users’ access to binaural information, namely interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs), can be compromised by device processing. Our objective was to characterize the nature and magnitude of binaural distortions caused by modern digital behind-the-ear HAs using a variety of stimuli and HA program settings. Of particular interest was a common frequency-lowering algorithm known as nonlinear frequency compression, which has not previously been assessed for its effects on binaural information. A binaural beamforming algorithm was also assessed. Wide dynamic range compression was enabled in all programs. HAs were placed on a binaural manikin, and stimuli were presented from an arc of loudspeakers inside an anechoic chamber. Stimuli were broadband noise bursts, 10-Hz sinusoidally amplitude-modulated noise bursts, or consonant–vowel–consonant speech tokens. Binaural information was analyzed in terms of ITDs, ILDs, and interaural coherence, both for whole stimuli and in a time-varying sense (i.e., within a running temporal window) across four different frequency bands (1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz). Key findings were: (a) Nonlinear frequency compression caused distortions of high-frequency envelope ITDs and significantly reduced interaural coherence. (b) For modulated stimuli, all programs caused time-varying distortion of ILDs. (c) HAs altered the relationship between ITDs and ILDs, introducing large ITD–ILD conflicts in some cases. Potential perceptual consequences of measured distortions are discussed. PMID:27698258

  16. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  17. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2011-01-01

    We consider a static wind model for a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, pitch-controlled wind turbine. When placed in a wind field, the turbine experiences several mechanical loads, which generate power but also create structural fatigue. We address the problem of finding blade pitch profiles......% compared to any constant pitch profile while sacrificing at most 7% of the maximum attainable output power. Using iterative learning, we show that very similar performance can be achieved by using only load measurements, with no knowledge of the wind field or wind turbine model....... for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  18. Pitch carbon microsphere composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Nelson, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Petroleum pitch carbon microspheres were prepared by flash heating emulsified pitch and carbonizing the resulting microspheres in an inert atmosphere. Microsphere composites were obtained from a mixture of microspheres and tetraester precursor pyrrone powder. Scanning electron micrographs of the composite showed that it was an aggregate of microspheres bonded together by the pyrrone at the sphere contact points, with voids in and among the microspheres. Physical, thermal, and sorption properties of the composite are described. Composite applications could include use as a honeycomb filler in elevated-temperature load-bearing sandwich boards or in patient-treatment tables for radiation treatment of tumors.

  19. Contour Completion Without Region Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yansheng; Li, Hongdong; He, Xuming

    2016-08-01

    Contour completion plays an important role in visual perception, where the goal is to group fragmented low-level edge elements into perceptually coherent and salient contours. Most existing methods for contour completion have focused on pixelwise detection accuracy. In contrast, fewer methods have addressed the global contour closure effect, despite psychological evidences for its importance. This paper proposes a purely contour-based higher order CRF model to achieve contour closure, through local connectedness approximation. This leads to a simplified problem structure, where our higher order inference problem can be transformed into an integer linear program and be solved efficiently. Compared with the methods based on the same bottom-up edge detector, our method achieves a superior contour grouping ability (measured by Rand index), a comparable precision-recall performance, and more visually pleasing results. Our results suggest that contour closure can be effectively achieved in contour domain, in contrast to a popular view that segmentation is essential for this purpose. PMID:27168599

  20. Subjective diffuseness of music signals convolved with binaural impulse responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Tronchin, Lamberto; Cocchi, Alessandro; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2011-07-01

    The spatial impression of sound in a hall can be quantified using sound field factors such as the interaural cross-correlation coefficient (IACC) calculated from binaural impulse response (BIR), henceforth denoted by IACC IR. The subjective diffuseness for the listener is a spatial attribute which depends on factors associated both with the source signal and with the actual sound field, and is quantified using the IACC of the signal received by the listener, henceforth denoted by IACC SR. Therefore, the subjective diffuseness in a given hall may change with the music. The aims of this study are to estimate the IACC SR from the IACC IR and the factors, which is obtained from autocorrelation function (ACF) of music signal, and to evaluate the subjective diffuseness by these factors. First, the relationship between the IACC IR and IACC SR was investigated. Second, subjective diffuseness was measured by a psycho-acoustical experiment. As a result, the IACC SR could be estimated from the IACC IR of the BIR and the effective duration ( τe) from the ACF of music signal. It was found that the effects of BIRs on subjective diffuseness could be evaluated by IACC IR for almost all subjects, while the effects of music signals could be evaluated by the τe and the width of the peak at τ=0 ( Wϕ(0) ) of the ACF.

  1. Directional hearing aid using hybrid adaptive beamformer (HAB) and binaural ITE array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Scott T.; Larow, Andy J.; Gibian, Gary L.; Sherlock, Laguinn P.; Schulein, Robert

    2002-05-01

    A directional hearing aid algorithm called the Hybrid Adaptive Beamformer (HAB), developed for NIH/NIA, can be applied to many different microphone array configurations. In this project the HAB algorithm was applied to a new array employing in-the-ear microphones at each ear (HAB-ITE), to see if previous HAB performance could be achieved with a more cosmetically acceptable package. With diotic output, the average benefit in threshold SNR was 10.9 dB for three HoH and 11.7 dB for five normal-hearing subjects. These results are slightly better than previous results of equivalent tests with a 3-in. array. With an innovative binaural fitting, a small benefit beyond that provided by diotic adaptive beamforming was observed: 12.5 dB for HoH and 13.3 dB for normal-hearing subjects, a 1.6 dB improvement over the diotic presentation. Subjectively, the binaural fitting preserved binaural hearing abilities, giving the user a sense of space, and providing left-right localization. Thus the goal of creating an adaptive beamformer that simultaneously provides excellent noise reduction and binaural hearing was achieved. Further work remains before the HAB-ITE can be incorporated into a real product, optimizing binaural adaptive beamforming, and integrating the concept with other technologies to produce a viable product prototype. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  2. Capturing blocked-entrance binaural signals from open-entrance recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2008-01-01

    Binaural recordings enable us to capture all sound attributes including spatial information, room effect, and source characteristics in a given environment. It has been shown that blocked-entrance binaural recordings provide advantages over open-entrance recordings, primarily because the blocked-...... context. To this purpose, equalization filters are derived from the ratio between blocked and open ear canal transfer functions. Different transfer-function measuring techniques and inverse filtering methods are evaluated.......Binaural recordings enable us to capture all sound attributes including spatial information, room effect, and source characteristics in a given environment. It has been shown that blocked-entrance binaural recordings provide advantages over open-entrance recordings, primarily because the blocked......-entrance recordings is not influenced by the ear canal acoustics of the individual for which it is recorded. However, blocking the ear canal for recoding imposes an obvious disruption to normal hearing conditions, which may be unacceptable for applications in which binaural audio capturing is desired but without...

  3. Detection of elliptical contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation describes the quantitation of myocardial perfusion defects in planar thallium-201 scintigrams. To be able to quantify the distribution of 201Tl in the myocardium as imaged by the scintigram, accurate delineation of the target object is a prerequisite. The distribution of the radionuclide within the contour of the left ventricle can be described by application of circumferential profiles. By comparing the computed circumferential profile with those of normal subjects, humans with no evidence of coronary artery disease, segments of the left ventricle with decreased bloodflow can be detected. In practice there is no real standard to compare with, and due to noise and biological variations, it is not always possible to make a definite decision regarding the presence of a defect in the distribution of the radionuclide. The value and limitations of the developed quantification procedure are discussed. Some future developments are suggested. 108 refs.; 57 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. Pitch features of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A number of soundscape studies have suggested the need for suitable parameters for soundscape measurement, in addition to the conventional acoustic parameters. This paper explores the applicability of pitch features that are often used in music analysis and their algorithms to environmental sounds. Based on the existing alternative pitch algorithms for simulating the perception of the auditory system and simplified algorithms for practical applications in the areas of music and speech, the applicable algorithms have been determined, considering common types of sound in everyday soundscapes. Considering a number of pitch parameters, including pitch value, pitch strength, and percentage of audible pitches over time, different pitch characteristics of various environmental sounds have been shown. Among the four sound categories, i.e. water, wind, birdsongs, and urban sounds, generally speaking, both water and wind sounds have low pitch values and pitch strengths; birdsongs have high pitch values and pitch strengths; and urban sounds have low pitch values and a relatively wide range of pitch strengths.

  5. Rate-constrained source separation for speech enhancement in wireless-communicated binaural hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, David; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    A recent trend in hearing aids is the connection of the left and right devices to collaborate between them. Binaural systems can provide natural binaural hearing and support the improvement of speech intelligibility in noise, but they require data transmission between both devices, which increases the power consumption. This paper presents a novel sound source separation algorithm for binaural speech enhancement based on supervised machine learning and time-frequency masking. The system is designed considering the power restrictions in hearing aids, constraining both the computational cost of the algorithm and the transmission bit rate. The transmission schema is optimized using a tailored evolutionary algorithm that assigns a different number of bits to each frequency band. The proposed algorithm requires less than 10% of the available computational resources for signal processing and obtains good separation performance using bit rates lower than 64 kbps.

  6. Binaurality and azimuth tun-ing of neurons in the auditorycortex of the big brown bat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using a combined closed and free-field stimulation system, binaurality and azimuth tuning of the neurons in the auditory cortex of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, were studied. A variety of azimuth-tuning functions were demonstrated for the binaural neurons. The large majority of EE (contralateral and ipsilateral excitatory) neurons exhibited azimuth selectivity with the best azimuths (BA) at contralateral 30(- 40(, some at ipsilateral 20(-40( and preferred azimuth ranges (PAR, response amplitude ≥75% of maximum) between 8( and 40(. Sound source azimuths strongly modulate spike counts with a mean modulation depth of 83.8% for EE neurons. EI (contralateral excitatory and ipsilateral inhibitory) neurons have simple azimuth tuning with BA located at contralateral 20(-40( and a broad PAR ranged from 30( to 55(. The present results suggest that azimuth-tuning characteristics of binaural neurons in the auditory cortex of the bat are of significance for acoustic behaviour.

  7. The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C

    2009-03-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability. PMID:18663250

  8. Lateralization of tonal and intonational pitch processing: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R; Gussenhoven, C; Jensen, O; Hagoort, P

    2010-04-30

    An MEG experiment was carried out in order to compare the processing of lexical-tonal and intonational contrasts, based on the tonal dialect of Roermond (the Netherlands). A set of words with identical phoneme sequences but distinct pitch contours, which represented different lexical meanings or discourse meanings (statement vs. question), were presented to native speakers as well as to a control group of speakers of Standard Dutch, a non-tone language. The stimuli were arranged in a mismatch paradigm, under three experimental conditions: in the first condition (lexical), the pitch contour differences between standard and deviant stimuli reflected differences between lexical meanings; in the second condition (intonational), the stimuli differed in their discourse meaning; in the third condition (combined), they differed both in their lexical and discourse meaning. In all three conditions, native as well as non-native responses showed a clear MMNm (magnetic mismatch negativity) in a time window from 150 to 250 ms after the divergence point of standard and deviant pitch contours. In the lexical condition, a stronger response was found over the left temporal cortex of native as well as non-native speakers. In the intonational condition, the same activation pattern was observed in the control group, but not in the group of native speakers, who showed a right-hemisphere dominance instead. Finally, in the combined (lexical and intonational) condition, brain reactions appeared to represent the summation of the patterns found in the other two conditions. In sum, the lateralization of pitch processing is condition-dependent in the native group only, which suggests that language experience determines how processes should be distributed over both temporal cortices, according to the functions available in the grammar. PMID:20197065

  9. Pitch Analysis of Ukulele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphattharachai Chomphan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The ukulele is a trendy instrument in the present day. It is a member of the guitar family of instruments which employs four nylon or gut strings or four courses of strings. However, a statistical analysis of the pitch of this instrument has not been conducted. To analysis pitch or fundamental frequency of its main cords should be performed in an appropriate way. This study brings about its effective sound synthesis which is an important issue in the future. Approach: An efficient technique for the analysis of the fundamental frequency (F0 of the human speech had been applied to the analysis of main cords of the ukulele. The autocorrelation-based technique was used with the signal waveform to extract the optimal period or pitch for the corresponding analyzed frame in time domain. Then the corresponding fundamental frequency was calculated in the frequency domain. Results: The 21 main cords were chosen in the study. It had been seen that the existing fundamental frequency values were varied from one to three values. The value was ranging from 65.42 Hz-329.93 Hz. Conclusion: By using the analysis technique of fundamental frequency of the human speech, the output frequencies of all main cords can be extracted. It can be empirically seen that they have their unique values from each others."

  10. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County NE 1ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — 1ft contour file for the northeast portion of Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the USGS corrected elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It...

  11. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County SE 1ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — 1ft contour file for the southeast portion of Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the USGS corrected elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It...

  12. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County NW 1ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — 1ft contour file for the northwest portion of Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the USGS corrected elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It...

  13. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County SW 1ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — 1ft contour file for the southwest portion of Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the USGS corrected elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It...

  14. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County 5ft Contours (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — 5ft cartographic contour file for Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It includes indexes for 10,...

  15. Good pitch memory is widespread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E

    2003-05-01

    Here we show that good pitch memory is widespread among adults with no musical training. We tested unselected college students on their memory for the pitch level of instrumental soundtracks from familiar television programs. Participants heard 5-s excerpts either at the original pitch level or shifted upward or downward by 1 or 2 semitones. They successfully identified the original pitch levels. Other participants who heard comparable excerpts from unfamiliar recordings could not do so. These findings reveal that ordinary listeners retain fine-grained information about pitch level over extended periods. Adults' reportedly poor memory for pitch is likely to be a by-product of their inability to name isolated pitches. PMID:12741751

  16. Language-experience plasticity in neural representation of changes in pitch salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T; Suresh, Chandan H

    2016-04-15

    Neural representation of pitch-relevant information at the brainstem and cortical levels of processing is influenced by language experience. A well-known attribute of pitch is its salience. Brainstem frequency following responses and cortical pitch specific responses, recorded concurrently, were elicited by a pitch salience continuum spanning weak to strong pitch of a dynamic, iterated rippled noise pitch contour-homolog of a Mandarin tone. Our aims were to assess how language experience (Chinese, English) affects i) enhancement of neural activity associated with pitch salience at brainstem and cortical levels, ii) the presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude along the pitch salience continuum. Peak latency (Fz: Na, Pb, and Nb) was shorter in the Chinese than the English group across the continuum. Peak-to-peak amplitude (Fz: Na-Pb, Pb-Nb) of the Chinese group grew larger with increasing pitch salience, but an experience-dependent advantage was limited to the Na-Pb component. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the larger amplitude of the Chinese group across the continuum was both limited to the Na-Pb component and the right temporal site. At the brainstem level, F0 magnitude gets larger as you increase pitch salience, and it too reveals Chinese superiority. A direct comparison of cortical and brainstem responses for the Chinese group reveals different patterns of relative changes in magnitude along the pitch salience continuum. Such differences may point to a transformation in pitch processing at the cortical level presumably mediated by local sensory and/or extrasensory influence overlaid on the brainstem output. PMID:26903418

  17. Brain Activity Varies with Modulation of Dynamic Pitch Variance in Sentence Melody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Martin; Steinhauer, Karsten; Alter, Kai; Friederici, Angela D.; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen native speakers of German heard normal sentences, sentences which were either lacking dynamic pitch variation (flattened speech), or comprised of intonation contour exclusively (degraded speech). Participants were to listen carefully to the sentences and to perform a rehearsal task. Passive listening to flattened speech compared to normal…

  18. Children’s identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eVolkova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4-7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1 the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2 the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo, and (3 the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals. Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues.

  19. Contours--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is...

  20. Visualizing Contour Trees within Histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Many of the topological features of the isosurfaces of a scalar volume field can be compactly represented by its contour tree. Unfortunately, the contour trees of most real-world volume data sets are too complex to be visualized by dot-and-line diagrams. Therefore, we propose a new visualization...... that is suitable for large contour trees and efficiently conveys the topological structure of the most important isosurface components. This visualization is integrated into a histogram of the volume data; thus, it offers strictly more information than a traditional histogram. We present algorithms...... to automatically compute the graph layout and to calculate appropriate approximations of the contour tree and the surface area of the relevant isosurface components. The benefits of this new visualization are demonstrated with the help of several publicly available volume data sets....

  1. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  2. A subjective evaluation of the minimum channel separation for reproducing binaural signals over loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2011-01-01

    While there are a variety of methods and tradeoffs for creating the necessary crosstalk cancellation when reproducing a binaural signal through loudspeakers in a real environment, there are no studies that reveal the minimum required crosstalk. In the current study the authors simulated varying d...

  3. Binaural Model-Based Speech Intelligibility Enhancement and Assessment in Hearing Aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlesinger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The enhancement of speech intelligibility in noise is still the main subject in hearing aid research. Based on the advanced results obtained with the hearing glasses, in the present research the speech intelligibility is even further improved by the application of binaural post-filters. The function

  4. Multivariate elliptically contoured autoregressive process

    OpenAIRE

    Taras Bodnar; Arjun K. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new class of elliptically contoured processes. The suggested process possesses both the generality of the conditional heteroscedastic autoregressive process and the elliptical symmetry of the elliptically contoured distributions. In the empirical study we find the link between the conditional time varying behavior of the covariance matrix of the returns and the time variability of the investor’s coefficient of risk aversion. Moreover, it is shown that the non-dia...

  5. Silicon modeling of pitch perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzaro, J.; Mead, C

    1989-01-01

    We have designed and tested an integrated circuit that models human pitch perception. The chip receives as input a time-varying voltage corresponding to sound pressure at the ear and produces as output a map of perceived pitch. The chip is a physiological model; subcircuits on the chip correspond to known and proposed structures in the auditory system. Chip output approximates human performance in response to a variety of classical pitch-perception stimuli. The 125,000-transistor chip compute...

  6. Development of a contour meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  7. The effects of pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia

    2005-01-01

    The research aim is to investigate that how pitch and duration affect the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese and that which one of the two factors is more important.A psycho-acoustic experiment was conducted, in which the listening stimuli consisted of 15 groups of disyllabic words, and the pitches and durations of the two syllables in each of the words were artificially controlled. Thirty-three standard Chinese native speakers participated in a forced-choice task to judge if the second syllables of the words they heard carried the neutral tone or the normal tones. The results of the experiment indicated that, (1) the effects of both pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone are significant; (2) the effect of pitch is larger than that of duration; (3) both the Fo values of the high point in the pitch contour and the pitch contour pattern have influence on the perception. The results of the experiment were correspondent to some extent to those of the previous acoustic analyses on the neutral tone.The diversity between the results of the presented perceptual study and those of the acoustical studies implies that the acoustic features of the neutral tone that exist in natural speech while do not affect the perception may be phonologically redundant.

  8. Does Fatigue Alter Pitching Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter Nissen; Erickson, Brandon J.; Sgroi, Terrance; Vignona, Peter; Lesniak, Matthew; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Background: Injuries of the adolescent shoulder and elbow are common in baseball pitchers. Fatigue has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for injury. Purpose: To determine if shoulder and elbow kinematics, pitching velocity, accuracy, and pain change during a simulated full baseball game in adolescent pitchers. Methods: Methods: Adolescent pitchers between the ages of 13-16 were recruited to throw a 90 pitch simulated game. Shoulder range of motion was assessed before and after the game. Velocity and accuracy were measured for every pitch and every 15th pitch was videotaped from two orthogonal views in high definition at 240 Hz. Quantitative and qualitative mechanics were measured from these videos. Perceived fatigue and pain were assessed after each inning using the visual analog scale. Data was statistically analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Results: Twenty-eight elite adolescent pitchers were included. These pitchers, on average, were 14.6±0.9 years old (mean ± standard deviation), had been pitching for 6.3±1.7 years, and threw 94±58 pitches per week. Our experimental model functioned as expected in that pitchers became progressively more fatigued and painful and pitched with a lower velocity as pitch number increased (p<0.001, 0.001, and <0.001 respectively). Knee flexion at ball release progressively increased with pitch number (p=0.008). Hip and shoulder separation significantly decreased as pitch number increased, from 90%±40% at pitch 15 to 40%±50% at pitch 90 (p0.271 in all cases, 91% power for elbow flexion at ball release). External rotation and total range of motion in the pitching shoulder significantly increased post-pitching (p=0.007 and 0.047 respectively). Conclusion: Conclusion: As pitchers progress through a simulated game they throw lower velocity pitches and become fatigued and painful. Core and leg musculature becomes fatigued before upper extremity kinematics change. Based upon these

  9. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  10. Binaural fusion and listening effort in children who use bilateral cochlear implants: a psychoacoustic and pupillometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison M Steel

    Full Text Available Bilateral cochlear implants aim to provide hearing to both ears for children who are deaf and promote binaural/spatial hearing. Benefits are limited by mismatched devices and unilaterally-driven development which could compromise the normal integration of left and right ear input. We thus asked whether children hear a fused image (ie. 1 vs 2 sounds from their bilateral implants and if this "binaural fusion" reduces listening effort. Binaural fusion was assessed by asking 25 deaf children with cochlear implants and 24 peers with normal hearing whether they heard one or two sounds when listening to bilaterally presented acoustic click-trains/electric pulses (250 Hz trains of 36 ms presented at 1 Hz. Reaction times and pupillary changes were recorded simultaneously to measure listening effort. Bilaterally implanted children heard one image of bilateral input less frequently than normal hearing peers, particularly when intensity levels on each side were balanced. Binaural fusion declined as brainstem asymmetries increased and age at implantation decreased. Children implanted later had access to acoustic input prior to implantation due to progressive deterioration of hearing. Increases in both pupil diameter and reaction time occurred as perception of binaural fusion decreased. Results indicate that, without binaural level cues, children have difficulty fusing input from their bilateral implants to perceive one sound which costs them increased listening effort. Brainstem asymmetries exacerbate this issue. By contrast, later implantation, reflecting longer access to bilateral acoustic hearing, may have supported development of auditory pathways underlying binaural fusion. Improved integration of bilateral cochlear implant signals for children is required to improve their binaural hearing.

  11. Dynamic stall on a pitching and surging airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Reeve; McKeon, Beverley J.

    2015-08-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine blades undergo dynamic stall due to the large angle of attack variation they experience during a turbine rotation. The flow over a single blade was modeled using a sinusoidally pitching and surging airfoil in a non-rotating frame with a constant freestream flow at a mean chord Reynolds number of . Two-dimensional, time-resolved velocity fields were acquired using particle image velocimetry. Vorticity contours were used to visualize shear layer and vortex activity. A low-order model of dynamic stall was developed using dynamic mode decomposition, from which primary and secondary dynamic separation modes were identified. The interaction between these two modes was able to capture the physics of dynamic stall and as such can be extended to other turbine configurations and problems in unsteady aerodynamics. Results from the linear pitch/surge frame are extrapolated to the rotating VAWT frame to investigate the behavior of identified flow structures.

  12. Children's identification of questions from rising terminal pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Mathieu R; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn; VAN Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Young children are slow to master conventional intonation patterns in their yes/no questions, which may stem from imperfect understanding of the links between terminal pitch contours and pragmatic intentions. In Experiment 1, five- to ten-year-old children and adults were required to judge utterances as questions or statements on the basis of intonation alone. Children eight years of age or younger performed above chance levels but less accurately than adult listeners. To ascertain whether the verbal content of utterances interfered with young children's attention to the relevant acoustic cues, low-pass filtered versions of the same utterances were presented to children and adults in Experiment 2. Low-pass filtering reduced performance comparably for all age groups, perhaps because such filtering reduced the salience of critical pitch cues. Young children's difficulty in differentiating declarative questions from statements is not attributable to basic perceptual difficulties but rather to absent or unstable intonation categories. PMID:26374079

  13. Multivariate elliptically contoured autoregressive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Bodnar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new class of elliptically contoured processes. The suggested process possesses both the generality of the conditional heteroscedastic autoregressive process and the elliptical symmetry of the elliptically contoured distributions. In the empirical study we find the link between the conditional time varying behavior of the covariance matrix of the returns and the time variability of the investor’s coefficient of risk aversion. Moreover, it is shown that the non-diagonal elements of the dispersion matrix are slowly varying in time.

  14. Topological Cacti: Visualizing Contour-based Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio

    2011-05-26

    Contours, the connected components of level sets, play an important role in understanding the global structure of a scalar field. In particular their nestingbehavior and topology-often represented in form of a contour tree-have been used extensively for visualization and analysis. However, traditional contour trees onlyencode structural properties like number of contours or the nesting of contours, but little quantitative information such as volume or other statistics. Here we use thesegmentation implied by a contour tree to compute a large number of per-contour (interval) based statistics of both the function defining the contour tree as well asother co-located functions. We introduce a new visual metaphor for contour trees, called topological cacti, that extends the traditional toporrery display of acontour tree to display additional quantitative information as width of the cactus trunk and length of its spikes. We apply the new technique to scalar fields ofvarying dimension and different measures to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  15. Towards Stabilizing Parametric Active Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Søren Ingvor;

    2014-01-01

    Numerical instability often occurs in evolving of parametric active contours. This is mainly due to the undesired change of parametrization during evolution. In this paper, we propose a new tangential diffusion term to compensate this undesired change. As a result, the parametrization will conver...

  16. Illusory contour formation survives crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jonathan Siu Fung; Cheung, Sing-Hang

    2012-06-12

    Flanked objects are difficult to identify using peripheral vision due to visual crowding, which limits conscious access to target identity. Nonetheless, certain types of visual information have been shown to survive crowding. Such resilience to crowding provides valuable information about the underlying neural mechanism of crowding. Here we ask whether illusory contour formation survives crowding of the inducers. We manipulated the presence of illusory contours through the (mis)alignment of the four inducers of a Kanizsa square. In the inducer-aligned condition, the observers judged the perceived shape (thin vs. fat) of the illusory Kanizsa square, manipulated by small rotations of the inducers. In the inducer-misaligned condition, three of the four inducers (all except the upper-left) were rotated 90°. The observers judged the orientation of the upper-left inducer. Crowding of the inducers worsened observers' performance significantly only in the inducer-misaligned condition. Our findings suggest that information for illusory contour formation survives crowding of the inducers. Crowding happens at a stage where the low-level featural information is integrated for inducer orientation discrimination, but not at a stage where the same information is used for illusory contour formation.

  17. MULTISCALE DISCRETIZATION OF SHAPE CONTOURS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, L.; Rao, R.

    2000-09-01

    We present an efficient multi-scale scheme to adaptively approximate the continuous (or densely sampled) contour of a planar shape at varying resolutions. The notion of shape is intimately related to the notion of contour, and the efficient representation of the contour of a shape is vital to a computational understanding of the shape. Any polygonal approximation of a planar smooth curve is equivalent to a piecewise constant approximation of the parameterized X and Y coordinate functions of a discrete point set obtained by densely sampling the curve. Using the Haar wavelet transform for the piecewise approximation yields a hierarchical scheme in which the size of the approximating point set is traded off against the morphological accuracy of the approximation. Our algorithm compresses the representation of the initial shape contour to a sparse sequence of points in the plane defining the vertices of the shape's polygonal approximation. Furthermore, it is possible to control the overall resolution of the approximation by a single, scale-independent parameter.

  18. The CAVA corpus: synchronised stereoscopic and binaural datasets with head movements

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Elise; Christensen, Heidi; Lu, Yan-Chen; Barker, Jon; Khalidov, Vasil; Hansard, Miles; Holveck, Bertrand; Mathieu, Herve; Narasimha, Ramya; Taillant, Elise; Forbes, Florence; Horaud, Radu

    2008-01-01

    International audience This paper describes the acquisition and content of a new multi-modal database. Some tools for making use of the data streams are also presented. The Computational Audio- Visual Analysis (CAVA) database is a unique collection of three synchronised data streams obtained from a binaural microphone pair, a stereoscopic camera pair and a head tracking device. All recordings are made from the perspective of a person; i.e. what would a human with natural head movements see...

  19. A Combined Feedback and Noise Cancellation Algorithm for Binaural Hearing Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. -W.; JEON, M.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive algorithm for the combined acoustic feedback and noise cancellation in the binaural hearing aids. The proposed algorithm is based on dual microphones for feedback cancellation and the beamforming method for noise cancellation. The coefficients of feedback canceller are updated after subtracting the speech signal from the input signal by dual microphones. And the noise canceller reduces the noise signal in the residual signal excluding the speech by the beam...

  20. A Binaural Cochlear Implant Sound Coding Strategy Inspired by the Contralateral Medial Olivocochlear Reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique A Lopez-Poveda; Eustaquio-Martín, Almudena; Stohl, Joshua S.; Wolford, Robert D.; Schatzer, Reinhold; Wilson, Blake S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In natural hearing, cochlear mechanical compression is dynamically adjusted via the efferent medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR). These adjustments probably help understanding speech in noisy environments and are not available to the users of current cochlear implants (CIs). The aims of the present study are to: (1) present a binaural CI sound processing strategy inspired by the control of cochlear compression provided by the contralateral MOCR in natural hearing; and (2) assess th...

  1. Improving speech intelligibility for binaural voice transmission under disturbing noise and reverberation using virtual speaker lateralization

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. Padilla Ortiz; F. Orduña-Bustamante

    2015-01-01

    Subjective speech intelligibility tests were carried out in order to investigate strategies to improve speech intelligibility in binaural voice transmission when listening from different azimuth angles under adverse listening conditions. Phonetically balanced bi-syllable meaningful words in Spanish were used as speech material. The speech signal was played back through headphones, undisturbed, and also with the addition of high levels of disturbing noise or reverberation, with a signal to ...

  2. A Link Loss Model for the On-Body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rohit; Johansson, Anders J.

    2013-12-01

    Binaural hearing aids communicate with each other through a wireless link for synchronization. A propagation model is needed to estimate the ear-to-ear link loss for such binaural hearing aids. The link loss is a critical parameter in a link budget to decide the sensitivity of the transceiver. In this paper, we have presented a model for the deterministic component of the ear-to-ear link loss. The model takes into account the dominant paths having most of the power of the creeping wave from the transceiver in one ear to the transceiver in other ear and the effect of the protruding part of the outer ear called pinna. Simulations are done to validate the model using in-the-ear (ITE) placement of antennas at 2.45 GHz on two heterogeneous phantoms of different age-group and body size. The model agrees with the simulations. The ear-to-ear link loss between the antennas for the binaural hearing aids in the homogeneous SAM phantom is compared with a heterogeneous phantom. It is found that the absence of the pinna and the lossless shell in the SAM phantom underestimate the link loss. This is verified by the measurements on a phantom where we have included the pinnas fabricated by 3D-printing.

  3. Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband reproducible noise maskers: II. Results for rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Early, Susan J.; Mason, Christine R.; Idrobo, Fabio; Harrison, J. Michael; Carney, Laurel H.

    2002-01-01

    Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband noise maskers was examined by using a Pavlovian-conditioned eyeblink response in rabbits. The target was a tone at 500 Hz, and the maskers were ten individual noise samples having one of two bandwidths, 200 Hz (410 Hz to 610 Hz) or 2900 Hz (100 Hz to 3 kHz). The narrowband noise maskers were created by filtering the wideband noise maskers such that the two sets of maskers had identical spectra in the 200-Hz frequency region surrounding the tone. The responses across the set of noise maskers were compared across bandwidths and across interaural configurations (N0S0 and N0Sπ). Responses across the set of noise waveforms were not strongly correlated across bandwidths; this result is inconsistent with models for binaural detection that depend only upon the narrow band of energy centered at the frequency of the target tone. Responses were correlated across interaural configurations for the wideband masker condition, but not for the narrowband masker. All of these results were consistent with the companion study of human listeners [Evilsizer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 336-345 (2002)] and with the results of human studies of binaural detection that used only wideband [Gilkey et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 78, 1207-1219 (1985)] or narrowband [Isabelle and Colburn, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 352-259 (1991)] individual noise maskers.

  4. A Link Loss Model for the On-body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Binaural hearing aids communicate with each other through a wireless link for synchronization. A propagation model is needed to estimate the ear-to-ear link loss for such binaural hearing aids. The link loss is a critical parameter in a link budget to decide the sensitivity of the transceiver. In this paper, we have presented a model for the deterministic component of the ear-to-ear link loss. The model takes into account the dominant paths having most of the power of the creeping wave from the transceiver in one ear to the transceiver in other ear and the effect of the protruding part of the outer ear called pinna. Simulations are done to validate the model using in-the-ear (ITE) placement of antennas at 2.45 GHz on two heterogeneous phantoms of different age-group and body size. The model agrees with the simulations. The ear-to-ear link loss between the antennas for the binaural hearing aids in the homogeneous SAM phantom is compared with a heterogeneous phantom. It is found that the absence of the pinna an...

  5. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  6. Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Plastic Surgery Statistics ASPS TV News Program History of Plastic Surgery For Medical Professionals ... Major Weight Loss Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss For Men and Women Body contouring following major weight loss improves the ...

  7. Implementation of an Autocorrelation Pitch Detector in Application to Query by Humming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; CHEN Shu-zhen

    2005-01-01

    A pitch detector for application in query by humming (QBH) is implemented in this paper. This algorithm is made up of two parts: note segmentation and pitch detection. In the first part, voiced/silence decision is made on each segment of the input signal by a pattern recognition approach, and further, the preparatory note borders are obtained; then, via analysis of the instantaneous energy contour, the adjacent notes that adhere to each other are separated. In the second part, pitch is estimated for all frames contained in a note's duration by an autocorrelation method and the mean of these pitch values is taken as the average pitch of this note. Moreover, in order to remove the effect of formant structure, a nonlinear preprocessing is adopted in the pitch detection part and the autocorrelation function is properly weighted before peak picking. Finally, hummings of several experimenters with different voice characters are recorded to test this pitch detector, whose efficiency and reliability are proved by the result.

  8. Splines, contours and SVD subroutines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portability of Fortran code is a major concern these days, since hardware and commercial software change faster than the codes themselves. Hence, using public domain, portable, mathematical subroutines is imperative. Here we present a collection of subroutines we have used in the past, and found to be particularly useful. They are: 2-dimensional splines, contour tracing of flux surface (based on 2-D spline), and singular Value Matrix Decomposition (for Chi-square minimization)

  9. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard;

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...... benefit from frequent contact with fixed standard chroma to keep in tune....

  10. Grouping by proximity in haptic contour detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista E Overvliet

    Full Text Available We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots, relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection.

  11. Active Contour with A Tangential Component

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junyan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional edge-based active contours often require the normal component of an edge indicator function on the optimal contours to approximate zero, while the tangential component can still be significant. In real images, the full gradients of the edge indicator function along the object boundaries are often small. Hence, the curve evolution of edge-based active contours can terminate early before converging to the object boundaries with a careless contour initialization. We propose a novel Geodesic Snakes (GeoSnakes) active contour that requires the full gradients of the edge indicator to vanish at the optimal solution. Besides, the conventional curve evolution approach for minimizing active contour energy cannot fully solve the Euler-Lagrange (EL) equation of our GeoSnakes active contour, causing a Pseudo Stationary Phenomenon (PSP). To address the PSP problem, we propose an auxiliary curve evolution equation, named the equilibrium flow (EF) equation. Based on the EF and the conventional curve evolution, w...

  12. Pitch perception beyond the traditional existence region of pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Micheyl, Christophe; Keebler, Michael V.;

    2011-01-01

    Humans’ ability to recognize musical melodies is generally limited to pure-tone frequencies below 4 or 5 kHz. This limit coincides with the highest notes on modern musical instruments and is widely believed to reflect the upper limit of precise stimulusdriven spike timing in the auditory nerve. We...... tested the upper limits of pitch and melody perception in humans using pure and harmonic complex tones, such as those produced by the human voice and musical instruments, in melody recognition and pitchmatching tasks. We found that robust pitch perception can be elicited by harmonic complex tones...

  13. 4D time-frequency representation for binaural speech signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhael, Raed; Szu, Harold H.

    2006-04-01

    Hearing is the ability to detect and process auditory information produced by the vibrating hair cilia residing in the corti of the ears to the auditory cortex of the brain via the auditory nerve. The primary and secondary corti of the brain interact with one another to distinguish and correlate the received information by distinguishing the varying spectrum of arriving frequencies. Binaural hearing is nature's way of employing the power inherent in working in pairs to process information, enhance sound perception, and reduce undesired noise. One ear might play a prominent role in sound recognition, while the other reinforces their perceived mutual information. Developing binaural hearing aid devices can be crucial in emulating the working powers of two ears and may be a step closer to significantly alleviating hearing loss of the inner ear. This can be accomplished by combining current speech research to already existing technologies such as RF communication between PDAs and Bluetooth. Ear Level Instrument (ELI) developed by Micro-tech Hearing Instruments and Starkey Laboratories is a good example of a digital bi-directional signal communicating between a PDA/mobile phone and Bluetooth. The agreement and disagreement of arriving auditory information to the Bluetooth device can be classified as sound and noise, respectively. Finding common features of arriving sound using a four coordinate system for sound analysis (four dimensional time-frequency representation), noise can be greatly reduced and hearing aids would become more efficient. Techniques developed by Szu within an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Blind Source Separation (BSS), Adaptive Wavelets Transform (AWT), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) hold many possibilities to the improvement of acoustic segmentation of phoneme, all of which will be discussed in this paper. Transmitted and perceived acoustic speech signal will improve, as the binaural hearing aid will emulate two ears in sound

  14. Tinnitus pitch and acoustic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahani, M.; Paul, G.; Shahar, A.

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-six subjects complaining of tinnitus underwent an audiometric test and a test for identifying the analogous pitch of their tinnitus. All of the subjects reported that they had been exposed to noise in the past. The subjects were divided into two groups on the basis of their audiometric test results. Group P was composed of subjects who showed a sensorineural hearing loss typical of acoustic trauma. Group N was composed of subjects whose hearing was within normal limits. The pitch of the tinnitus in group P was concentrated in the high-frequency range, whereas in group N tinnitus pitch values were distributed over the low and mid-audiometric frequency spectrum. It was deduced that different processes are involved in the generation of tinnitus in the two groups.

  15. Directional loudness in an anechoic sound field, head-related transfer functions, and binaural summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of sound incidence angle on loudness was investigated using real sound sources positioned in an anechoic chamber. Eight normal-hearing listeners produced loudness matches between a frontal reference location and seven sources placed at other directions, both in the horizontal and median...... a range of up to 10 dB, exhibiting considerable frequency dependence, but only minor effects of overall level. The pattern of results varied substantially between subjects, but was largely accounted for by variations in individual head-related transfer functions. Modeling of binaural loudness based...

  16. ROBUST LOCALISATION OF MULTIPLE SPEAKERS EXPLOITING HEAD MOVEMENTS AND MULTI-CONDITIONAL TRAINING OF BINAURAL CUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Ma, Ning; Brown, Guy

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of localising multiple competing speakers in the presence of room reverberation, where sound sources can be positioned at any azimuth on the horizontal plane. To reduce the amount of front-back confusions which can occur due to the sim- ilarity of interaural time...... differences (ITDs) and interaural level dif- ferences (ILDs) in the front and rear hemifield, a machine hearing system is presented which combines supervised learning of binaural cues using multi-conditional training (MCT) with a head movement strategy. A systematic evaluation showed that this approach...

  17. Blind estimation of the number of speech source in reverberant multisource scenarios based on binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; van de Par, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for estimating the number of active speech sources in the presence of interfering noise sources and reverberation. First, a binaural front-end is used to detect the spatial positions of all active sound sources, resulting in a binary mask for each candidate...... on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. A systematic analysis shows that the proposed algorithm is able to blindly determine the number and the corresponding spatial positions of speech sources in multisource scenarios and generalizes well to unknown acoustic conditions...

  18. A dynamic binaural synthesis system for investigation into situational awareness for truck drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    into the reason for this point to cognitive phenomena such as change blindness, where more visual information won’t help. For other professional vehicle operators such as pilots, auditory solutions adding to a higher situational awareness has proven valuable. This paper describes the development of a dynamic...... binaural synthesis system for investigation into situational awareness for truck drivers. The system is built around several software components enabling the 3D positioning of an auditory representation of a bicycle. The sound is played back over headphones to the truck driver whose head movements......, and initial practical experience with the system used in real driving situations will be discussed....

  19. Are binaural recordings needed for subjective and objective annoyance assessment of traffic noise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía Cortés; Song, Wookeun; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2011-01-01

    Humans are annoyed when they are exposed to environmental noise. Traditional measures such as sound pressure levels may not correlate well with how humans perceive annoyance, therefore it is important to investigate psychoacoustic metrics that may correlate better with the perceived annoyance...... of environmental noise than the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. This study examined whether the use of binaural recordings of sound events improves the correlation between the objective metrics and the perceived annoyance, particularly for road traffic noise. Metrics based on measurement with a single...

  20. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  1. Melodic Contour Identification Reflects the Cognitive Threshold of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a natural phenomenon of aging. Although there exists a consensus that sensitivity to acoustic features of music is associated with such decline, no solid evidence has yet shown that structural elements and contexts of music explain this loss of cognitive performance. This study examined the extent and the type of cognitive decline that is related to the contour identification task (CIT) using tones with different pitches (i.e., melodic contours). Both younger and older adult groups participated in the CIT given in three listening conditions (i.e., focused, selective, and alternating). Behavioral data (accuracy and response times) and hemodynamic reactions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Our findings showed cognitive declines in the older adult group but with a subtle difference from the younger adult group. The accuracy of the melodic CITs given in the target-like distraction task (CIT2) was significantly lower than that in the environmental noise (CIT1) condition in the older adult group, indicating that CIT2 may be a benchmark test for age-specific cognitive decline. The fNIRS findings also agreed with this interpretation, revealing significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) concentration in the younger (p like distraction) is an optimized task that could indicate the degree and type of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27378907

  2. A Novel Model of F0 Contours Prediction for Continuous Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    F0 (fundamental frequency) contour was studied under different prosodic environment in continuous speech and a novel model of F0 contours prediction was proposed. It describes syllabic F0 contour with two points, one curve and duration. The curve represents two optimal points of controlling parameters. The duration represents the syllabic duration. The prosodic characters of controlling parameters were analyzed by CART (Class and Regression Tree). A set of controlling parameters was analyzed, which reflects the linguistic environment and prosodic structure. Then it sets up the model of F0 contours prediction with the two optimal controlling parameters and F0 templates. The end pitch value of previous syllable as special prosodic parameters was used to keep the continuity of fore-and-aft syllable. It focuses on looking out the main prosodic clues hiding in F0 contours and applying it to simplify the model for prediction. The results of synthesis experiment show that the performance of the prediction method is appreciated.

  3. High-frequency complex pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine-structure ......Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine...

  4. Melodic Contour Identification Reflects the Cognitive Threshold of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a natural phenomenon of aging. Although there exists a consensus that sensitivity to acoustic features of music is associated with such decline, no solid evidence has yet shown that structural elements and contexts of music explain this loss of cognitive performance. This study examined the extent and the type of cognitive decline that is related to the contour identification task (CIT) using tones with different pitches (i.e., melodic contours). Both younger and older adult groups participated in the CIT given in three listening conditions (i.e., focused, selective, and alternating). Behavioral data (accuracy and response times) and hemodynamic reactions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Our findings showed cognitive declines in the older adult group but with a subtle difference from the younger adult group. The accuracy of the melodic CITs given in the target-like distraction task (CIT2) was significantly lower than that in the environmental noise (CIT1) condition in the older adult group, indicating that CIT2 may be a benchmark test for age-specific cognitive decline. The fNIRS findings also agreed with this interpretation, revealing significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) concentration in the younger (p < 0.05 for Δpre - on task; p < 0.01 for Δon – post task) rather than the older adult group (n.s for Δpre - on task; n.s for Δon – post task). We further concluded that the oxyHb difference was present in the brain regions near the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these findings suggest that CIT2 (i.e., the melodic contour task in the target-like distraction) is an optimized task that could indicate the degree and type of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27378907

  5. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  6. Antenna surface contour control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Elvin L.; Miller, James B.

    1989-03-01

    The invention is a system for automatically controlling the surface contour of a deployable and restowable antenna having a mesh reflector surface supported by a circular, folding hoop affixed to a central, telescoping column. The antenna, when deployed, forms a quad-aperture reflector with each quadrant of the mesh surface shaped to provide an offset parabolic radio frequency (RF) reflector. The hoop is supported and positioned by quartz support cords attached to the top of a column and by lower graphite hoop control cords that extend between the hoop and base of the column. The antenna, an RF reflective surface, is a gold plated molybdenum wire mesh supported on a graphite cord truss structure that includes the hoop control cords and a plurality of surface control cords attached at selected points on the surface and to the base of the column. The contour of the three-dimensional surface of the antenna is controlled by selectively adjusting the lengths of the surface control cords and the graphite hoop control cords by means of novel actuator assemblies that automatically sense and change the lengths of the lower hoop control cords and surface control cords.

  7. Contouring variability of human- and deformable-generated contours in radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate contouring variability of human-and deformable-generated contours on planning CT (PCT) and CBCT for ten patients with low-or intermediate-risk prostate cancer. For each patient in this study, five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate, bladder, and rectum, on one PCT dataset and five CBCT datasets. Consensus contours were generated using the STAPLE method in the CERR software package. Observer contours were compared to consensus contour, and contour metrics (Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, Contour Distance, Center-of-Mass [COM] Deviation) were calculated. In addition, the first day CBCT was registered to subsequent CBCT fractions (CBCTn: CBCT2–CBCT5) via B-spline Deformable Image Registration (DIR). Contours were transferred from CBCT1 to CBCTn via the deformation field, and contour metrics were calculated through comparison with consensus contours generated from human contour set. The average contour metrics for prostate contours on PCT and CBCT were as follows: Dice coefficient—0.892 (PCT), 0.872 (CBCT-Human), 0.824 (CBCT-Deformed); Hausdorff distance—4.75 mm (PCT), 5.22 mm (CBCT-Human), 5.94 mm (CBCT-Deformed); Contour Distance (overall contour)—1.41 mm (PCT), 1.66 mm (CBCT-Human), 2.30 mm (CBCT-Deformed); COM Deviation—2.01 mm (PCT), 2.78 mm (CBCT-Human), 3.45 mm (CBCT-Deformed). For human contours on PCT and CBCT, the difference in average Dice coefficient between PCT and CBCT (approx. 2%) and Hausdorff distance (approx. 0.5 mm) was small compared to the variation between observers for each patient (standard deviation in Dice coefficient of 5% and Hausdorff distance of 2.0 mm). However, additional contouring variation was found for the deformable-generated contours (approximately 5.0% decrease in Dice coefficient and 0.7 mm increase in Hausdorff distance relative to human-generated contours on CBCT). Though deformable contours provide a reasonable starting point for contouring

  8. Contouring variability of human- and deformable-generated contours in radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Stephen J.; Wen, Ning; Kim, Jinkoo; Liu, Chang; Pradhan, Deepak; Aref, Ibrahim; Cattaneo, Richard, II; Vance, Sean; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J.; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate contouring variability of human-and deformable-generated contours on planning CT (PCT) and CBCT for ten patients with low-or intermediate-risk prostate cancer. For each patient in this study, five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate, bladder, and rectum, on one PCT dataset and five CBCT datasets. Consensus contours were generated using the STAPLE method in the CERR software package. Observer contours were compared to consensus contour, and contour metrics (Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, Contour Distance, Center-of-Mass [COM] Deviation) were calculated. In addition, the first day CBCT was registered to subsequent CBCT fractions (CBCTn: CBCT2-CBCT5) via B-spline Deformable Image Registration (DIR). Contours were transferred from CBCT1 to CBCTn via the deformation field, and contour metrics were calculated through comparison with consensus contours generated from human contour set. The average contour metrics for prostate contours on PCT and CBCT were as follows: Dice coefficient—0.892 (PCT), 0.872 (CBCT-Human), 0.824 (CBCT-Deformed); Hausdorff distance—4.75 mm (PCT), 5.22 mm (CBCT-Human), 5.94 mm (CBCT-Deformed); Contour Distance (overall contour)—1.41 mm (PCT), 1.66 mm (CBCT-Human), 2.30 mm (CBCT-Deformed); COM Deviation—2.01 mm (PCT), 2.78 mm (CBCT-Human), 3.45 mm (CBCT-Deformed). For human contours on PCT and CBCT, the difference in average Dice coefficient between PCT and CBCT (approx. 2%) and Hausdorff distance (approx. 0.5 mm) was small compared to the variation between observers for each patient (standard deviation in Dice coefficient of 5% and Hausdorff distance of 2.0 mm). However, additional contouring variation was found for the deformable-generated contours (approximately 5.0% decrease in Dice coefficient and 0.7 mm increase in Hausdorff distance relative to human-generated contours on CBCT). Though deformable contours provide a reasonable starting point for contouring on

  9. Melodic Pitch Perception and Lexical Tone Perception in Mandarin-Speaking Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Duoduo; Deng, Rui; Jiang, Ye; Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between lexical tone perception and melodic pitch perception in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users, and to investigate the influence of previous acoustic hearing on CI users’ speech and music perception. Design Lexical tone perception and melodic contour identification (MCI) were measured in 21 prelingual and 11 postlingual young (age: 6–26 years old) Mandarin-speaking CI users. Lexical tone recognition was measured for four tonal patterns: Tone 1 (flat F0), Tone 2 (rising F0), Tone 3 (falling-rising F0), and Tone 4 (falling F0). MCI was measured using 9 five-note melodic patterns that contained changes in pitch contour, as well as different semitone spacing between notes. Results Lexical tone recognition was generally good (overall mean = 81% correct), and there was no significant difference between subject groups. MCI performance was generally poor (mean = 23% correct). MCI performance was significantly better for postlingual (mean = 32% correct) than for prelingual CI participants (18% correct). After correcting for outliers, there was no significant correlation between lexical tone recognition and MCI performance for prelingual or post-lingual CI participants. Age at deafness was significantly correlated with MCI performance only for postlingual participants. CI experience was significantly correlated with MCI performance for both prelingual and postlingual participants. Duration of deafness was significantly correlated with tone recognition only for prelingual participants. Conclusions Despite the prevalence of pitch cues in Mandarin, the present CI participants had great difficulty perceiving melodic pitch. The availability of amplitude and duration cues in lexical tones most likely compensated for the poor pitch perception observed with these CI listeners. Previous acoustic hearing experience seemed to benefit postlingual CI users’ melodic pitch perception. Longer CI experience was associated with

  10. The musician effect: Does it persist under degraded pitch conditions of cochlear implant simulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eFuller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CIs are auditory prostheses that restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Compared to normal acoustic hearing, sounds transmitted through the CI are spectro-temporally degraded, causing difficulties in challenging listening tasks such as speech intelligibility in noise and perception of music. In normal hearing (NH, musicians have been shown to better perform than non-musicians in auditory processing and perception, especially for challenging listening tasks. This ‘musician effect’ was attributed to better processing of pitch cues, as well as better overall auditory cognitive functioning in musicians. Does the musician effect persist when pitch cues are degraded, as it would be in signals transmitted through a CI? To answer this question, NH musicians and non-musicians were tested while listening to unprocessed signals or to signals processed by an acoustic CI simulation. The task increasingly depended on pitch perception: 1 speech intelligibility (words and sentences in quiet or in noise, 2 vocal emotion identification, and 3 melodic contour identification. For speech perception, there was no musician effect with the unprocessed stimuli, and a small musician effect only for word identification in one noise condition, in the CI simulation. For emotion identification, there was a small musician effect for both. For melodic contour identification, there was a large musician effect for both. Overall, the effect was stronger as the importance of pitch in the listening task increased. This suggests that the musician effect may be more rooted in pitch perception, rather than in a global advantage in cognitive processing (in which musicians would have performed better in all tasks. The results further suggest that musical training before (and possibly after implantation might offer some advantage in pitch processing that could partially benefit speech perception, and more strongly emotion and music

  11. Reliable Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The key objectives of wind turbine manufactures and buyers are to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership and Total Cost of Energy. Among others, low downtime of a wind turbine is important to increase the amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Historical data indicate that pitch systems...

  12. Using a binaural biomimetic array to identify bottom objects ensonified by echolocating dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiweg, D.A.; Moore, P.W.; Martin, S.W.; Dankiewicz, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a unique dolphin biomimetic sonar produced data that were used to study signal processing methods for object identification. Echoes from four metallic objects proud on the bottom, and a substrate-only condition, were generated by bottlenose dolphins trained to ensonify the targets in very shallow water. Using the two-element ('binaural') receive array, object echo spectra were collected and submitted for identification to four neural network architectures. Identification accuracy was evaluated over two receive array configurations, and five signal processing schemes. The four neural networks included backpropagation, learning vector quantization, genetic learning and probabilistic network architectures. The processing schemes included four methods that capitalized on the binaural data, plus a monaural benchmark process. All the schemes resulted in above-chance identification accuracy when applied to learning vector quantization and backpropagation. Beam-forming or concatenation of spectra from both receive elements outperformed the monaural benchmark, with higher sensitivity and lower bias. Ultimately, best object identification performance was achieved by the learning vector quantization network supplied with beam-formed data. The advantages of multi-element signal processing for object identification are clearly demonstrated in this development of a first-ever dolphin biomimetic sonar. ?? 2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. A Combined Feedback and Noise Cancellation Algorithm for Binaural Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, H.-W.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive algorithm for the combined acoustic feedback and noise cancellation in the binaural hearing aids. The proposed algorithm is based on dual microphones for feedback cancellation and the beamforming method for noise cancellation. The coefficients of feedback canceller are updated after subtracting the speech signal from the input signal by dual microphones. And the noise canceller reduces the noise signal in the residual signal excluding the speech by the beamforming method. Firstly, the feedback canceller operates to cancel the feedback signal in the microphone signal, and then the noise canceller operates to reduce the noise in the residual signal. Also, to assure the stable convergence of binaural hearing aids in the training mode, the coefficients of the left hearing aid are firstly updated, then the coefficients of the right hearing aid are updated. In the normal mode, the feedback and the noise canceller are operated without updating coefficients except an unstable case. To verify performances of the proposed algorithm, we analyzed its convergence behavior and simulated for real speech. From the results of simulations, it was proved that we can advance 14.43dB SFR(speech-to-feedback ratio on average in the feedback canceller, 10.19dB SNR(speech-to-noise ratio improvement on average in the noise canceller, in the case of applying the proposed algorithm.

  14. Contours, Two Foot Contours, Published in 2007, Not Applicable scale, Dunn County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2007. It is described as 'Two Foot Contours'....

  15. NY_GOME_CONTOURS: New York Bight and Gulf of Maine bathymetric contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This bathymetric shapefile contains 10 m contours for the continental shelf and 100 m beyond the 200 m shelf edge. The contours have been derived from the National...

  16. Contours of New Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for a paradigm change in economic thought has been well established, but the contours and fundamental characteristics of a new paradigm in economic theory are yet to be worked out. This article views this transition as an inevitable expression of the maturation of the social sciences into an integrated trans-disciplinary science of society founded on common underlying principles, premises and processes. It calls for evolution of human-centered, value-based economic theory whose objective is to maximize human economic security, welfare and well-being rather than economic growth. It emphasizes the determinative role of fundamental creative social processes expressing in all fields of human endeavor. It argues for extending the boundaries of economics to encompass the entire gamut of political, legal, social, psychological, intellectual, organizational and ecological factors that directly and indirectly contribute to economic security, welfare and well-being. The article concludes with a list of anticipated practical implications.

  17. Sodium Deoxycholate for Submental Contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, S; Beleznay, K; Beleznay, J D A

    2016-09-01

    The chin and jaw line are integral parts of an individual's aesthetic profile, and the presence of submental fat detracts from this and can lead to displeasure with one's facial appearance. While liposuction and cosmetic surgery are regarded as the gold standard in treating submental fat, surgical intervention is not appealing to all patients and has potential surgical complications including longer recovery, and contour irregularities. Despite ample advances in aesthetic medicine to enhance the appearance of the face, very little is available in non-invasive options to reduce submental fat that has been supported by robust evidence. ATX-101, a proprietary formulation of deoxycholic acid that is synthetically derived, has been extensively explored in a vigorous clinical development program that has established the safety and efficacy of the injectable. It has recently received approval by regulatory authorities in Canada (Belkyra™) and the US (Kybella®) for the treatment of submental fat. PMID:27603325

  18. The role of spectral detail in the binaural transfer function on perceived externalization in a reverberant environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Henrik Gert; Gran, Fredrik; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    , a quantitative model is proposed. The model includes an echo-suppression mechanism, a filterbank describing the frequency selectivity in the cochlea and a binaural stage that measures the deviations of the interaural level differences between the considered input and the unmodified input. These deviations...

  19. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  20. Music Lessons, Pitch Processing, and "g"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Moreno, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Musically trained and untrained participants were administered tests of pitch processing and general intelligence ("g"). Trained participants exhibited superior performance on tests of pitch-processing speed and relative pitch. They were also better at frequency discrimination with tones at 400 Hz but not with very high tones (4000 Hz). The two…

  1. Contour extracting networks in early extrastriate cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, Serge O.; Hess, Robert F.; May, Keith A.; Harvey, Ben M.; Rokers, Bas; Barendregt, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the visual cortex process a local region of visual space, but in order to adequately analyze natural images, neurons need to interact. The notion of an ''association field'' proposes that neurons interact to extract extended contours. Here, we identify the site and properties of contour i

  2. RFP for the Comet Nuclei Tour (CONTOUR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Madsen, Peter Buch; Betto, Maurizio;

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to The Johns Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory for their Comet Nuclei TOUR (CONTOUR) Program.......This document describes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to The Johns Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory for their Comet Nuclei TOUR (CONTOUR) Program....

  3. Contour Detection Operators Based on Surround Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called non-classical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, to improve contour detection in images of natural scenes. We augment a Gabor energy operator with non-CRF inhibition. The resulting contour operator responds strongly to isolated lines,

  4. The across frequency independence of equalization of interaural time delay in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2004-08-01

    The equalization stage in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking compensates for the interaural time delay (ITD) of a masking noise by introducing an opposite, internal delay [N. I. Durlach, in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II., edited by J. V. Tobias (Academic, New York, 1972)]. Culling and Summerfield [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 785-797 (1995)] developed a multi-channel version of this model in which equalization was ``free'' to use the optimal delay in each channel. Two experiments were conducted to test if equalization was indeed free or if it was ``restricted'' to the same delay in all channels. One experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, using an adaptive procedure, for 1-, 5-, or 17-component tones against a broadband masking noise, in three binaural configurations (N0S180, N180S0, and N90S270). The thresholds for the 1-component stimuli were used to normalize the levels of each of the 5- and 17-component stimuli so that they were equally detectable. If equalization was restricted, then, for the 5- and 17-component stimuli, the N90S270 and N180S0 configurations would yield a greater threshold than the N0S180 configurations. No such difference was found. A subsequent experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, via psychometric functions, for a 2-component complex tone in the same three binaural configurations. Again, no differential effect of configuration was observed. An analytic model of the detection of a complex tone showed that the results were more consistent with free equalization than restricted equalization, although the size of the differences was found to depend on the shape of the psychometric function for detection.

  5. Perceived pitch of complex FM-AM tones--pitch determination process of vibrato sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamiya, S; Miyakura, T; Satoh, N; Hayashi, Y

    1994-09-01

    Pitch-matching experiments were conducted to clarify the pitch determination process of complex FM-AM tones which consist of components whose frequency and amplitude are simultaneously modulated. The pitch is higher when FM and AM of each component are in phase than when they are out of phase. The pitch shift induced by the phase difference between FM and AM of each component becomes larger as its relative power increases. These experimental results suggest that the pitch of complex FM-AM tones is determined as follows: A complex FM-AM tone is resolved into each FM-AM component by the auditory filter bank. The spectral pitch of each FM-AM component is determined by a loudness-weighted pitch averaging processes. The central pattern recognizer determines the pitch of complex FM-AM tones by integration of virtual pitches derived from the spectral pitches. PMID:7872986

  6. Electrophysiological and psychophysical asymmetries in sensitivity to interaural correlation gaps and implications for binaural integration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüddemann, Helge; Kollmeier, Birger; Riedel, Helmut

    2016-02-01

    Brief deviations of interaural correlation (IAC) can provide valuable cues for detection, segregation and localization of acoustic signals. This study investigated the processing of such "binaural gaps" in continuously running noise (100-2000 Hz), in comparison to silent "monaural gaps", by measuring late auditory evoked potentials (LAEPs) and perceptual thresholds with novel, iteratively optimized stimuli. Mean perceptual binaural gap duration thresholds exhibited a major asymmetry: they were substantially shorter for uncorrelated gaps in correlated and anticorrelated reference noise (1.75 ms and 4.1 ms) than for correlated and anticorrelated gaps in uncorrelated reference noise (26.5 ms and 39.0 ms). The thresholds also showed a minor asymmetry: they were shorter in the positive than in the negative IAC range. The mean behavioral threshold for monaural gaps was 5.5 ms. For all five gap types, the amplitude of LAEP components N1 and P2 increased linearly with the logarithm of gap duration. While perceptual and electrophysiological thresholds matched for monaural gaps, LAEP thresholds were about twice as long as perceptual thresholds for uncorrelated gaps, but half as long for correlated and anticorrelated gaps. Nevertheless, LAEP thresholds showed the same asymmetries as perceptual thresholds. For gap durations below 30 ms, LAEPs were dominated by the processing of the leading edge of a gap. For longer gap durations, in contrast, both the leading and the lagging edge of a gap contributed to the evoked response. Formulae for the equivalent rectangular duration (ERD) of the binaural system's temporal window were derived for three common window shapes. The psychophysical ERD was 68 ms for diotic and about 40 ms for anti- and uncorrelated noise. After a nonlinear Z-transform of the stimulus IAC prior to temporal integration, ERDs were about 10 ms for reference correlations of ±1 and 80 ms for uncorrelated reference. Hence, a physiologically motivated

  7. Perceiving pitch absolutely: Comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaug Gottfried

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceptual-cognitive mechanisms and neural correlates of Absolute Pitch (AP are not fully understood. The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do not. Results We found a common activation pattern for both groups that included the superior temporal gyrus (STG extending into the adjacent superior temporal sulcus (STS, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL extending into the adjacent intraparietal sulcus (IPS, the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, and superior lateral cerebellar regions. Significant between-group differences were seen in the left STS during the early encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in AP musicians and in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL/intraparietal sulcus (IPS during the early perceptual phase (ITP 0–3 and later working memory/multimodal encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in non-AP musicians. Non-significant between-group trends were seen in the posterior IFG (more in AP musicians and the IPL (more anterior activations in the non-AP group and more posterior activations in the AP group. Conclusion Since the increased activation of the left STS in AP musicians was observed during the early perceptual encoding phase and since the STS has been shown to be involved in categorization tasks, its activation might suggest that AP musicians involve categorization regions in tonal tasks. The increased activation of the right SPL/IPS in non-AP musicians indicates either an increased use of regions that are part of a tonal working memory (WM network, or the use of a multimodal encoding strategy such as the utilization of a visual-spatial mapping scheme (i.e., imagining notes on a staff or using a spatial coding for their relative pitch height for pitch

  8. Compensation for pitch-shifted auditory feedback during the production of Mandarin tone sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Larson, Charles R.; Bauer, Jay J.; Hain, Timothy C.

    2004-08-01

    Recent research has found that while speaking, subjects react to perturbations in pitch of voice auditory feedback by changing their voice fundamental frequency (F0) to compensate for the perceived pitch-shift. The long response latencies (150-200 ms) suggest they may be too slow to assist in on-line control of the local pitch contour patterns associated with lexical tones on a syllable-to-syllable basis. In the present study, we introduced pitch-shifted auditory feedback to native speakers of Mandarin Chinese while they produced disyllabic sequences /ma ma/ with different tonal combinations at a natural speaking rate. Voice F0 response latencies (100-150 ms) to the pitch perturbations were shorter than syllable durations reported elsewhere. Response magnitudes increased from 50 cents during static tone to 85 cents during dynamic tone productions. Response latencies and peak times decreased in phrases involving a dynamic change in F0. The larger response magnitudes and shorter latency and peak times in tasks requiring accurate, dynamic control of F0, indicate this automatic system for regulation of voice F0 may be task-dependent. These findings suggest that auditory feedback may be used to help regulate voice F0 during production of bi-tonal Mandarin phrases.

  9. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  10. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as "tone deafness," has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  11. Developing Singing in Third-Grade Music Classrooms: The Effect of a Concurrent-Feedback Computer Game on Pitch-Matching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.; Kay, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of concurrent visual feedback on pitch-matching skill development in third-grade students. Participants played a computer game, "SingingCoach," which scored the accuracy of their singing of the song "America." They followed the contour of the melody on the screen as the…

  12. Lateral reflections are favorable in concert halls due to binaural loudness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokki, Tapio; Pätynen, Jukka

    2011-11-01

    A recent study on perceptual difference in simulated concert halls showed that a concert hall renders stronger sound with more bass when the temporal envelope of a signal is preserved in the reflections [Lokki et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, EL223-EL228 (2011)]. In the same study the lateral reflections were shown to contribute to the perceived envelopment and openness. Moreover, the listening test results suggest that lateral reflections contribute to perception of sound source distance. Here, it is shown that lateral reflections are beneficial due to their increasing effect on binaural loudness-the phenomenon known well in psychoacoustics, but not in architectural acoustics. The reflections from the side are amplified more than median plane reflections, in particular at high frequencies, due to the shape of the human head. PMID:22088039

  13. Technical and perceptual issues on head-related transfer functions sets for use in binaural synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Daniela

    Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are the filters used in binaural synthesis that provide the necessary cues to localize virtual sound sources in virtual 3D space. HRTFs are recorded at the ears of either humans or dummy-heads and are usually implemented as non-individual filters. The success...... the spectral features that cue sound localization in the mid-sagittal plane. Listening tests were conducted from which groups of individual and non-individual HRTFs that evoked the same direction were obtained. Analysis of these HRTFs suggested that the relevant spectral cues covered a broad range...... of frequencies. Parameters describing the spectral features were computed. Those parameters were seen to span ranges of values and frequencies and still evoke the same directions. These ranges seemed to be individual, ruling out the possibility of a unique set of non-individual HRTFs that overperforms current...

  14. Exploring the roles of spectral detail and intonation contour in speech intelligibility: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyong, Jeong S; Scott, Sophie K; Rosen, Stuart; Howe, Timothy B; Agnew, Zarinah K; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2014-08-01

    The melodic contour of speech forms an important perceptual aspect of tonal and nontonal languages and an important limiting factor on the intelligibility of speech heard through a cochlear implant. Previous work exploring the neural correlates of speech comprehension identified a left-dominant pathway in the temporal lobes supporting the extraction of an intelligible linguistic message, whereas the right anterior temporal lobe showed an overall preference for signals clearly conveying dynamic pitch information [Johnsrude, I. S., Penhune, V. B., & Zatorre, R. J. Functional specificity in the right human auditory cortex for perceiving pitch direction. Brain, 123, 155-163, 2000; Scott, S. K., Blank, C. C., Rosen, S., & Wise, R. J. Identification of a pathway for intelligible speech in the left temporal lobe. Brain, 123, 2400-2406, 2000]. The current study combined modulations of overall intelligibility (through vocoding and spectral inversion) with a manipulation of pitch contour (normal vs. falling) to investigate the processing of spoken sentences in functional MRI. Our overall findings replicate and extend those of Scott et al. [Scott, S. K., Blank, C. C., Rosen, S., & Wise, R. J. Identification of a pathway for intelligible speech in the left temporal lobe. Brain, 123, 2400-2406, 2000], where greater sentence intelligibility was predominately associated with increased activity in the left STS, and the greatest response to normal sentence melody was found in right superior temporal gyrus. These data suggest a spatial distinction between brain areas associated with intelligibility and those involved in the processing of dynamic pitch information in speech. By including a set of complexity-matched unintelligible conditions created by spectral inversion, this is additionally the first study reporting a fully factorial exploration of spectrotemporal complexity and spectral inversion as they relate to the neural processing of speech intelligibility. Perhaps

  15. Contours--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  16. Water-table contours of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of water-table contours for Nevada. These data were created as part of an effort to provide statewide information on water table and depth to...

  17. Contours--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map...

  18. Contours--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara...

  19. Contours--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  20. Contours-Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. The vector data file...

  1. Contours--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. The vector data file...

  2. Contours--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  3. Contours, Published in unknown, Sheboygan county.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Sheboygan County Coordinate Grid coordinate system; in a Mercator projection; The...

  4. An Active Contour for Range Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Khaldi Amine; Merouani Hayet Farida

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new classification of range image segmentation method is proposed according to the criterion of homogeneity which obeys the segmentation, then, a deformable model-type active contour “Snake” is applied to segment range images.

  5. Contours--Offshore Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of Offshore Coal Oil Point, California (vector data file is included in...

  6. Contours--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. The vector data file is...

  7. Transgressive Contours--Bolinas to Pescadero, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Bolinas to Pescadero, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  8. Contours--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Contours--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. The vector data file is...

  10. Contours Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. The vector data file...

  11. Scalings of pitches in music

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Y

    1995-01-01

    We investigate correlations among pitches in several songs and pieces of piano music by mapping them to one-dimensional walks. Two kinds of correlations are studied, one is related to the real values of frequencies while they are treated only as different symbols for another. Long-range power law behavior is found in both kinds. The first is more meaningful. The structure of music, such as beat, measure and stanza, are reflected in the change of scaling exponents. Some interesting features are observed. Our results demonstrate the viewpoint that the fundamental principle of music is the balance between repetition and contrast.

  12. Modified Contour-Improved Perturbation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetic, Gorazd; Loewe, Marcelo; Martinez, Cristian; Valenzuela, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    The semihadronic tau decay width allows a clean extraction of the strong coupling constant at low energies. We present a modification of the standard "contour improved" method based on a derivative expansion of the Adler function. The approach eliminates ambiguities coming from the existence of different integral expressions for the semihadronic tau decay ratio. Compared to the standard method, renormalization scale dependence is by more than a factor two weaker in modified contour improved p...

  13. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmei Jiang

    Full Text Available Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  14. Automatic bootstrapping and tracking of object contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiverton, John; Xie, Xianghua; Mirmehdi, Majid

    2012-03-01

    A new fully automatic object tracking and segmentation framework is proposed. The framework consists of a motion-based bootstrapping algorithm concurrent to a shape-based active contour. The shape-based active contour uses finite shape memory that is automatically and continuously built from both the bootstrap process and the active-contour object tracker. A scheme is proposed to ensure that the finite shape memory is continuously updated but forgets unnecessary information. Two new ways of automatically extracting shape information from image data given a region of interest are also proposed. Results demonstrate that the bootstrapping stage provides important motion and shape information to the object tracker. This information is found to be essential for good (fully automatic) initialization of the active contour. Further results also demonstrate convergence properties of the content of the finite shape memory and similar object tracking performance in comparison with an object tracker with unlimited shape memory. Tests with an active contour using a fixed-shape prior also demonstrate superior performance for the proposed bootstrapped finite-shape-memory framework and similar performance when compared with a recently proposed active contour that uses an alternative online learning model. PMID:21908256

  15. Perception of illusory contours enhanced in motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪睿; 王志宏; 吴新年; 汪云九; 李东光

    2003-01-01

    Investigation on illusory contours is important for understanding the mechanisms un-derlying the object recognition of human visual system. Numerous researches have shown that illusory contours formed in motion and stereopsis are generated by the unmatched features. Here we conduct three psychophysical experiments to test if Kanizsa illusory contours are also caused by unmatched information. Different types of motion (including horizontal translation, radial ex-panding and shrinking) are utilized in the experiments. The results show that no matter under what kind of motion, when figures or background move separately illusory contours are perceived stronger, and there is no significant difference between the perceived strength in these two types of motion. However, no such enhancement of perceived strength is found when figures and background move together. It is found that the strengthened unmatched features generate the enhancement effect of illusory contour perception in motion. Thus the results suggest that the process of unmatched information in visual system is a critical step in the formation of illusory contours.

  16. DRIFT study of pitches and separated mesophase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machnikowski, J.; Krzton, A.; Weber, J.V.; Zimny, T.; Petryniak, J.; Wiecek, I. [Technical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland). Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum and Coal

    1995-12-31

    Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) was used to assess the structural changes associated with an early stage of carbonization in pitches of different origin, including coal tar, coal hydrogenation product and petroleum pitch. It was shown that an increase in aromaticity was rather slight in the case of coal tar pitch. It was confirmed that the chemical structure of the mesophase produced at an early stage of carbonization was controlled mostly by the nature of the parent pitch. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Benefits to Speech Perception in Noise From the Binaural Integration of Electric and Acoustic Signals in Simulated Unilateral Deafness

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Ning; Morris, Saffron; Kitterick, Pádraig Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study used vocoder simulations with normal-hearing (NH) listeners to (1) measure their ability to integrate speech information from an NH ear and a simulated cochlear implant (CI), and (2) investigate whether binaural integration is disrupted by a mismatch in the delivery of spectral information between the ears arising from a misalignment in the mapping of frequency to place. Design: Eight NH volunteers participated in the study and listened to sentences embedded in backgrou...

  18. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer

  19. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon Ha [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer.

  20. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates.

  1. How Single or Multiple Pitch Labels Affect Young Children's Identification of Pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Descombes, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether the consistent or inconsistent use of pitch labels during instruction in pitch terminology affected French kindergarten children's identification of pitch in the two chosen classes. Finds that the children who were taught one pair of terms provided significantly more correct verbal responses than did the group who learned two…

  2. The viscoelastic flow behavior of pitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurot, Olivier

    1998-11-01

    For the first time, a commercial impregnating coal-tar pitch was air-blown (or heat-treated) for various periods of time to produce series of treated pitches. Each pitch was chemically and rheologically characterized. During air-blowing, the formation of large, aromatic, cross- linked molecules increased the elasticity of the pitch and prevented mesophase formation. During heat-treatment, large, planar, aromatic molecules formed and aggregated in mesophase spheres. These two-phase materials exhibited yield stress behavior. Also, their elasticity was similar to that of air-blown pitches. The flow/microstructure relationship in mesophase pitches was investigated. It was found that the steady and transient shear behaviors of mesophase pitches were qualitatively similar to that of LCPs. Also, the size of the structure decreased with increasing shear rate. Upon cessation of flow, the structure slowly coarsened. New techniques were proposed to estimate (1) relaxation time for structure recovery, and (2) the average elastic constant of mesophase pitches. Using Marrucci's model (originally designed for LCPs) it was possible for the first time to predict mesophase pitches' structure shrinkage during pure shear. Finally, the flow-induced structural development that occurs during extrusion of mesophase pitch through capillaries was observed and accurately predicted by coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to Marrucci's model. Using a viscoelastic stress tensor to characterize the pitch flow behavior, the model was able to accurately predict the magnitude of the vortex experimentally observed at the spinnerette capillary counterbore as well as the extend of die swell at the exit of the capillary.

  3. Prostate Contouring Variation: Can It Be Fixed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess whether an education program on CT and MRI prostate anatomy would reduce inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variation among experienced radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Three patient CT and MRI datasets were selected. Five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate for each patient on CT first, then MRI, and again between 2 and 4 weeks later. Three education sessions were then conducted. The same contouring process was then repeated with the same datasets and oncologists. The observer variation was assessed according to changes in the ratio of the encompassing volume to intersecting volume (volume ratio [VR]), across sets of target volumes. Results: For interobserver variation, there was a 15% reduction in mean VR with CT, from 2.74 to 2.33, and a 40% reduction in mean VR with MRI, from 2.38 to 1.41 after education. A similar trend was found for intraobserver variation, with a mean VR reduction for CT and MRI of 9% (from 1.51 to 1.38) and 16% (from 1.37 to 1.15), respectively. Conclusion: A well-structured education program has reduced both inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variations. The impact was greater on MRI than on CT. With the ongoing incorporation of new technologies into routine practice, education programs for target contouring should be incorporated as part of the continuing medical education of radiation oncologists.

  4. Development of a CONTOUR-METER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose calculation in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatments requires the knowledge of their anatomical geometry.Making reference to the specific case of breast cancer, one of the measurement that are made on the patients is the acquisition of the breast's contour, determined in an axial plane from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the thorax side under the armpit.This measurement is normally made with a mechanic contour-meter: a device formed by a series of plastic-covered wires designed to be applied on the patient's skin copying the breast contour after it deformation.The geometrical error associated with this procedure is ± 1 cm. The precision of the dose calculation could be increased acquiring a breast contour more accurate.This objective was achieved developing a method based on breast images from a digital camera.The algorithms to obtain an axial-plane image of the contour from digital photographs taken from arbitrary positions were developed.A geometric transformation is applied to the photograph to correct for perspective distortions, obtaining a frontal - undistorted image (axial-plane image).A software tool to make all the image processing was developed under MatLab.The maximum geometrical error detected during the validation of the process was 2 mm

  5. Prostate contouring in MRI guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikal, Siddharth; Haker, Steven; Tempany, Clare; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2009-03-27

    With MRI possibly becoming a modality of choice for detection and staging of prostate cancer, fast and accurate outlining of the prostate is required in the volume of clinical interest. We present a semi-automatic algorithm that uses a priori knowledge of prostate shape to arrive at the final prostate contour. The contour of one slice is then used as initial estimate in the neighboring slices. Thus we propagate the contour in 3D through steps of refinement in each slice. The algorithm makes only minimum assumptions about the prostate shape. A statistical shape model of prostate contour in polar transform space is employed to narrow search space. Further, shape guidance is implicitly imposed by allowing only plausible edge orientations using template matching. The algorithm does not require region-homogeneity, discriminative edge force, or any particular edge profile. Likewise, it makes no assumption on the imaging coils and pulse sequences used and it is robust to the patient's pose (supine, prone, etc.). The contour method was validated using expert segmentation on clinical MRI data. We recorded a mean absolute distance of 2.0 ± 0.6 mm and dice similarity coefficient of 0.93 ± 0.3 in midsection. The algorithm takes about 1 second per slice. PMID:21132083

  6. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. Perceptual limitations may be characterized by measuring an observer’s change in performance when introducting...... external noise in the physical stimulus (Lu and Dosher, 2008). The present study used this approach to attempt to quantify the “internal noise” involved in pitch coding of harmonic complex tones by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required to impair pitch discrimination performance. It remains...... a matter of debate whether pitch perception of natural complex sounds mostly relies on either spectral excitation-based information or temporal periodicity information. Comparing the way internal noise affects the internal representations of such information to how it affects pitch discrimination...

  7. A thermoanalytical study of the co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch and petroleum pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Perez; M. Granda; R. Santamaria; T. Morgan; R. Menendez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    Four pitch blends were prepared at laboratory scale by mixing a coal-tar pitch and a petroleum pitch in several proportions (CTP:PP 85:15, 70:30, 55:45 and 40:60). Single pitches and blends were characterized by standard procedures, infrared spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. Pyrolysis behaviour and interactions between the two pitches in the blends were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that blending does not alter the composition of pitches. However, the TG/DTG curves reveal that coal-tar pitch and petroleum pitch interact actively during pyrolysis, modifying the temperature of initial weight loss and the temperature of the maximum rate of weight loss. Primary quinoline-insoluble particles present in coal-tar pitch and transferable hydrogen seem to be the main factors responsible for these modifications. The DSC curves show that the presence of coal-tar pitch in the blends reduces the reactivity of the petroleum pitch and shifts the exothermic peaks observed at the temperature of the cracking/polymerization reactions ({gt}400{sup o}C) to lower temperatures. 18 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Surface reconstruction from sparse fringe contours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, G.; Parvin, B.

    1998-08-10

    A new approach for reconstruction of 3D surfaces from 2D cross-sectional contours is presented. By using the so-called ''Equal Importance Criterion,'' we reconstruct the surface based on the assumption that every point in the region contributes equally to the surface reconstruction process. In this context, the problem is formulated in terms of a partial differential equation (PDE), and we show that the solution for dense contours can be efficiently derived from distance transform. In the case of sparse contours, we add a regularization term to insure smoothness in surface recovery. The proposed technique allows for surface recovery at any desired resolution. The main advantage of the proposed method is that inherent problems due to correspondence, tiling, and branching are avoided. Furthermore, the computed high resolution surface is better represented for subsequent geometric analysis. We present results on both synthetic and real data.

  9. Modified Contour-Improved Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetic, Gorazd; Martinez, Cristian; Valenzuela, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    The semihadronic tau decay width allows a clean extraction of the strong coupling constant at low energies. We present a modification of the standard "contour improved" method based on a derivative expansion of the Adler function. The approach eliminates ambiguities coming from the existence of different integral expressions for the semihadronic tau decay ratio. Compared to the standard method, renormalization scale dependence is by more than a factor two weaker in modified contour improved perturbation theory. The last term of the expansion is reduced, and renormalization scheme dependence remains approximately equal. The extracted QCD coupling at the tau mass scale is by 2$%$ lower than the "contour improved" value. We find $\\alpha_s(M_Z^2)=0.1211\\pm 0.0010$.

  10. A FUZZY FILTERING MODEL FOR CONTOUR DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Rajakumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Contour detection is the basic property of image processing. Fuzzy Filtering technique is proposed to generate thick edges in two dimensional gray images. Fuzzy logic is applied to extract value for an image and is used for object contour detection. Fuzzy based pixel selection can reduce the drawbacks of conventional methods(Prewitt, Robert. In the traditional methods, filter mask is used for all kinds of images. It may succeed in one kind of image but fail in another one. In this frame work the threshold parameter values are obtained from the fuzzy histogram of the input image. The Fuzzy inference method selects the complete information about the border of the object and the resultant image has less impulse noise and the contrast of the edge is increased. The extracted object contour is thicker than the existing methods. The performance of the algorithm is tested with Peak Signal Noise Ratio(PSNR and Complex Wavelet Structural Similarity Metrics(CWSSIM.

  11. Musicians are more consistent: Gestural cross-modal mappings of pitch, loudness and tempo in real-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats B. Küssner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal mappings of auditory stimuli reveal valuable insights into how humans make sense of sound and music. Whereas researchers have investigated cross-modal mappings of sound features varied in isolation within paradigms such as speeded classification and forced-choice matching tasks, investigations of representations of concurrently varied sound features (e.g., pitch, loudness and tempo with overt gestures—accounting for the intrinsic link between movement and sound—are scant. To explore the role of bodily gestures in cross-modal mappings of auditory stimuli we asked sixty-four musically trained and untrained participants to represent pure tones—continually sounding and concurrently varied in pitch, loudness and tempo—with gestures while the sound stimuli were played. We hypothesised musical training to lead to more consistent mappings between pitch and height, loudness and distance/height, and tempo and speed of hand movement and muscular energy.Our results corroborate previously reported pitch vs. height (higher pitch leading to higher elevation in space and tempo vs. speed (increasing tempo leading to increasing speed of hand movement associations, but also reveal novel findings pertaining to musical training which influenced consistency of pitch mappings, annulling a commonly observed bias for convex (i.e. rising-falling pitch contours. Moreover, we reveal effects of interactions between musical parameters on cross-modal mappings (e.g., pitch and loudness on speed of hand movement, highlighting the importance of studying auditory stimuli concurrently varied in different musical parameters. Results are discussed in light of cross-modal cognition, with particular emphasis on studies within (embodied music cognition. Implications for theoretical refinements and potential clinical applications are provided.

  12. Musicians are more consistent: Gestural cross-modal mappings of pitch, loudness and tempo in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küssner, Mats B; Tidhar, Dan; Prior, Helen M; Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Cross-modal mappings of auditory stimuli reveal valuable insights into how humans make sense of sound and music. Whereas researchers have investigated cross-modal mappings of sound features varied in isolation within paradigms such as speeded classification and forced-choice matching tasks, investigations of representations of concurrently varied sound features (e.g., pitch, loudness and tempo) with overt gestures-accounting for the intrinsic link between movement and sound-are scant. To explore the role of bodily gestures in cross-modal mappings of auditory stimuli we asked 64 musically trained and untrained participants to represent pure tones-continually sounding and concurrently varied in pitch, loudness and tempo-with gestures while the sound stimuli were played. We hypothesized musical training to lead to more consistent mappings between pitch and height, loudness and distance/height, and tempo and speed of hand movement and muscular energy. Our results corroborate previously reported pitch vs. height (higher pitch leading to higher elevation in space) and tempo vs. speed (increasing tempo leading to increasing speed of hand movement) associations, but also reveal novel findings pertaining to musical training which influenced consistency of pitch mappings, annulling a commonly observed bias for convex (i.e., rising-falling) pitch contours. Moreover, we reveal effects of interactions between musical parameters on cross-modal mappings (e.g., pitch and loudness on speed of hand movement), highlighting the importance of studying auditory stimuli concurrently varied in different musical parameters. Results are discussed in light of cross-modal cognition, with particular emphasis on studies within (embodied) music cognition. Implications for theoretical refinements and potential clinical applications are provided. PMID:25120506

  13. Conversion of contours to cartesian grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Broe, Brian Riget

    A robust and efficient method of calculating a cartesian grid of heights or roughnesses from contour line maps is developed. The purpose of the grids is to serve as input for atmospheric flow solvers such as WAsP Engineering or EllipSys3D. The method builds on Delaunay triangulation constrained t...... to include all contour segments in the triangulation. It is furthermore refined to avoid spurious flat areas produced by the Delaunay triangulation. Robust ways to extrapolate beyond the convex hull of the map points are provided....

  14. Connection Skeleton Extraction Based on Contour Connectedness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mang; LIU Yun-cai

    2008-01-01

    A stable skeleton is very important to some applications such as vehicle navigation, object represent and pattern recognition. The connection skeleton is just one that not only can be computed stably but also can figure the connectivity structure of contour. A new method named continuous connectivity detection and a new model named approximate regular polygon (ARP) were proposed for connection skeleton extraction. Both the method and the model were tested by the real maps of road network including flyovers, interchanges and other common object contours. Satisfactory results were obtained.

  15. Timing matters: The processing of pitch relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeise

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms, impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone of a pair higher than pitch of 1st tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs. We measured the Mismatch Negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations to 2nd tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone lower. A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms. In the Long Gap condition the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms, but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms. Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing.

  16. Analysis of CVC roll contour and determination of roll crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Xu; Xianjun Liu; Jiarong Zhao; Junwei Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical analysis of continuous variable crown (CVC) roll contour used in CSP production line was conducted and the roll contour function of CVC roll was obtained. The validation with actual CVC roll contour shows that the calculation values of the roll contour function and the actual roll contour parameters given by equipment provider are the same, which proves that the roll contour function of CVC rolls given in this article is correct. The nonlinear relationship between the roll crown of CVC rolls and roll shift amounts was deduced. The concept of crown extremum was given.

  17. Contours--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 5 [in figs. 1, 2, 3], 7, 10, SIM 3261) of the...

  18. An Active Contour for Range Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldi Amine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new classification of range image segmentation method is proposed according to the criterion of homogeneity which obeys the segmentation, then, a deformable model-type active contour “Snake” is applied to segment range images.

  19. Some Contour Integrals Involving Generalised Hypergeometric Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Bajpai

    1970-04-01

    Full Text Available Contour integral involving Fox's H-function and modified Bessel function of the first kind has been calculated. Some important properties and particular cases of H-function, which is a generalization of G-function, have been derived and discussed.

  20. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  1. An Active Contour for Range Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldi Amine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new classification of range image segmentation method is proposed according to the criterion of homogeneity which obeys the segmentation, then, a deformable model-type active contour “Snake” is applied to segment range images.

  2. Contours--Offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps (see sheets 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map...

  3. Comparative learning of pitch and loudness identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtsma, A J; Durlach, N I; Horowitz, D M

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated possible similarities between the ability to identify pitches and the ability to identify loudnesses. Systematic training of musically naive subjects indicated that frequency identification performance improves at about the same rate as intensity identification performance. Examination of frequency and intensity identification behavior of musically trained subjects showed that their ability to code pitch information efficiently does not generalize to an ability to encode loudness information more efficiently than untrained subjects. Intensity identification training curves of musically trained and untrained subjects are similar, but final performance levels are below frequency identification performance levels exhibited by musically trained subjects, especially those with absolute pitch. PMID:3819170

  4. Study of Wear of Pitched Blade Impellers

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fořt; F. Ambros; J. Medek

    2000-01-01

    A study was made of the erosion of blades of pitched blade impellers in a suspension of solid particles in a liquid under a turbulent regime of flow of an agitated charge. The wear of the impeller is described by an analytical approximation in exponential form, and the influence of the pitch angle on the impeller blade wear was studied experimentally. It follows from the results of the experiments made that the wear rate of the pitched blade impellers increases linearly with the decreasing pi...

  5. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ceres; T. Jirout; Rieger, F.

    2010-01-01

    Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel ...

  6. Subsidence Contours for South Louisiana; UTM 15N NAD83; LRA (2005); [subsidence_contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The GIS data shapefile represents average subsidence contour intervals (0.02 cm/year over 10,000 years) for Coastal LA derived from the following: Kulp, M.A., 2000,...

  7. Studies on Bilateral Cochlear Implants at the University of Wisconsin’s Binaural Hearing and Speech Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Litovsky, Ruth Y.; Goupell, Matthew J.; Godar, Shelly; Grieco-Calub, Tina; Jones, Gary L.; Garadat, Soha N.; Agrawal, Smita; Kan, Alan; Todd, Ann; Hess, Christi; Misurelli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This report highlights research projects relevant to binaural and spatial hearing in adults and children. In the past decade we have made progress in understanding the impact of bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) on performance in adults and children. However, BiCI users typically do not perform as well as normal hearing (NH) listeners. In this paper we describe the benefits from BiCIs compared with a single CI, focusing on measures of spatial hearing and speech understanding in noise. We hi...

  8. Pitch discrimination of patterned electric stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H B; Ishihara, Y C; Zeng, F G

    2005-01-01

    One reason for the poor pitch performance in current cochlear-implant users may be the highly synchronized neural firing in electric hearing that lacks stochastic properties of neural firing in normal acoustic hearing. This study used three different electric stimulation patterns, jittered, probabilistic, and auditory-model-generated pulses, to mimic some aspects of the normal neural firing pattern in acoustic hearing. Pitch discrimination was measured at standard frequencies of 100, 250, 500...

  9. Pitch adsorption on natural and modified talcs

    OpenAIRE

    Tijero Cruz, Antonio; Monte Lara, M. Concepción; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles; Negro Álvarez, Carlos; Tijero Miquel, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Talc is used traditionally for pitch control in papermaking. The effectiveness of talcs as control agent of dissolved and colloidal pitch depends on its structural and surface characteristics of minerals. Talcs are modified by thermal and surface treatments to obtain different properties e.g specific surface, surface energy, surface charge and ratio lypophilic/hydrophilic surface. Five commercial talcs have been tested to determine its capacity to adsorb the lypophilic contaminants by ex...

  10. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  11. Effects of Culture on Musical Pitch Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Patrick C M; Valter Ciocca; Alice H D Chan; Ha, Louisa Y. Y.; Li-Hai Tan; Isabelle Peretz

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-m...

  12. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively. Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages. This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population, we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of

  13. Dual-microphone and binaural noise reduction techniques for improved speech intelligibility by hearing aid users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefian Jazi, Nima

    Spatial filtering and directional discrimination has been shown to be an effective pre-processing approach for noise reduction in microphone array systems. In dual-microphone hearing aids, fixed and adaptive beamforming techniques are the most common solutions for enhancing the desired speech and rejecting unwanted signals captured by the microphones. In fact, beamformers are widely utilized in systems where spatial properties of target source (usually in front of the listener) is assumed to be known. In this dissertation, some dual-microphone coherence-based speech enhancement techniques applicable to hearing aids are proposed. All proposed algorithms operate in the frequency domain and (like traditional beamforming techniques) are purely based on the spatial properties of the desired speech source and does not require any knowledge of noise statistics for calculating the noise reduction filter. This benefit gives our algorithms the ability to address adverse noise conditions, such as situations where interfering talker(s) speaks simultaneously with the target speaker. In such cases, the (adaptive) beamformers lose their effectiveness in suppressing interference, since the noise channel (reference) cannot be built and updated accordingly. This difference is the main advantage of the proposed techniques in the dissertation over traditional adaptive beamformers. Furthermore, since the suggested algorithms are independent of noise estimation, they offer significant improvement in scenarios that the power level of interfering sources are much more than that of target speech. The dissertation also shows the premise behind the proposed algorithms can be extended and employed to binaural hearing aids. The main purpose of the investigated techniques is to enhance the intelligibility level of speech, measured through subjective listening tests with normal hearing and cochlear implant listeners. However, the improvement in quality of the output speech achieved by the

  14. Functional segregation of monaural and binaural selectivity in the pallid bat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Khaleel A

    2016-07-01

    Different fields of the auditory cortex can be distinguished by the extent and level tolerance of spatial selectivity. The mechanisms underlying the range of spatial tuning properties observed across cortical fields are unclear. Here, this issue was addressed in the pallid bat because its auditory cortex contains two segregated regions of response selectivity that serve two different behaviors: echolocation for obstacle avoidance and localization of prey-generated noise. This provides the unique opportunity to examine mechanisms of spatial properties in two functionally distinct regions. Previous studies have shown that spatial selectivity of neurons in the region selective for noise (noise-selective region, NSR) is level tolerant and shaped by interaural level difference (ILD) selectivity. In contrast, spatial selectivity of neurons in the echolocation region ('FM sweep-selective region' or FMSR) is strongly level dependent with many neurons responding to multiple distinct spatial locations for louder sounds. To determine the mechanisms underlying such level dependence, frequency, azimuth, rate-level responses and ILD selectivity were measured from the same FMSR neurons. The majority (∼75%) of FMSR neurons were monaural (ILD insensitive). Azimuth tuning curves expanded or split into multiple peaks with increasing sound level in a manner that was predicted by the rate-level response of neurons. These data suggest that azimuth selectivity of FMSR neurons depends more on monaural ear directionality and rate-level responses. The pallid bat cortex utilizes segregated monaural and binaural regions to process echoes and prey-generated noise. Together the pallid bat FMSR/NSR data provide mechanistic explanations for a broad range of spatial tuning properties seen across species. PMID:27233917

  15. Open Contours Extraction of Rotational Surface Oriented to Layer Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓利伟; 赵毅; 李明辉

    2003-01-01

    With layer-measured contours, an algorithm that can extract the contour segments from a rotational surface is presented. The extraction can be divided into two stages, i. e. the rough segmentation and the refinement. In the rough segmenting stage, an optimal contour matching method is put forward to find similar contour segment from another closed contour with respect to the seed contour. In the refining stage, an iterative way that can extract a circular arc precisely is presented based on parameters identification and contour-ends expanding/shrinking operation. The algorithm can extract the open contour segments from a rotational surface precisely, as demonstrated in the examples. Based on the work of this paper, further research, such as parameter identification of 3 - D surface and CAD model creation, can be conducted.

  16. USGS Elevation Contours Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Elevation Contours service from The National Map (TNM) consists of contours generated for the conterminous United States from 1- and 1/3 arc-second...

  17. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; Nan, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  18. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; Nan, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent. PMID:24474944

  19. Perceptual Pitch Deficits Coexist with Pitch Production Difficulties in Music but Not Mandarin Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-xia eYang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics. To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, 8 amusics, 8 tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  20. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-09-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems. The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours. The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  1. [External contour acquisition system for radiotherapy: an original solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, D; Brochet, F; Bohémier, R; Gagnon, J

    2000-01-01

    A contour acquisition system has been designed in radiotherapy at the Sagamie Hospital complex (Chicoutimi, Québec) to measure the external contours of the patients who do not need a CT exam. This measuring system can produce transversal, sagittal or coronal patient contours in the treatment position. The absolute accuracy of the system is +/- 1 mm. The contours produced by this equipment can be transferred electronically or on paper to the planning system.

  2. Thermal Reactivity and Structure of Carbonized Binder Pitches

    OpenAIRE

    Madshus, Stian

    2005-01-01

    Pitches are used on a large scale in the manufacture of carbon anodes for the production of primary aluminium. The role of the pitch is to act as a binder between the petroleum coke grains. The structure of the carbonized pitch binder (pitch coke) has an important impact on the overall performance of the anode. Even though the binder pitch is the minor constituent in an anode, it is impossible to make a good quality anode without a good quality binder pitch.Pitch is an extremely complex mixtu...

  3. Contours, contours 500 ft, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'contours 500 ft'....

  4. Contours, contours 5m tc, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Tooele County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'contours 5m tc'....

  5. Contours, Tagged Vector Contours obtained from DASC, Published in 2003, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Reno County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2003. It is described as 'Tagged Vector Contours obtained from DASC'. Data by this publisher...

  6. Contours, 2 foot contours, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Green Lake County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2010. It is described as '2 foot contours'....

  7. Contours, contours 100 ft, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'contours 100 ft'....

  8. Contour Propagation With Riemannian Elasticity Regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Sapru, W.;

    2011-01-01

    guided corrections. This study compares manual delineations in replanning CT scans of head-and-neck patients to automatic contour propagation using deformable registration with Riemannian regularization. The potential benefit of locally assigned regularization parameters according to tissue type...... the planning CT onto the rescans and correcting to reflect actual anatomical changes. For deformable registration, a free-form, multi-level, B-spline deformation model with Riemannian elasticity, penalizing non-rigid local deformations, and volumetric changes, was used. Regularization parameters was defined...... regularization parameters was performed. For each replanning scan, the volume of the manually delineated and automatically propagated GTV was determined and Dice’s coefficient was calculated between segmentations from the propagated contours and manual delineations. Results: The replanning segmentations showed...

  9. Human Lips-Contour Recognition and Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasan Tareque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-lip detection is an important criterion for many automated modern system in present day. Like computerized speech reading, face recognition etc. system can work more precisely if human-lip can detect accurately. There are many processes for detecting human-lip. In this paper an approach is developed so that the region of a human-lip can be detected, we called it lip contour. For this a region-based Active Contour Model (ACM is introduced with watershed segmentation. In this model we used global energy terms instead of local energy terms because, global energy gives better convergence rate for malicious environment. At the time of ACM initialization by using H8 based on Lyapunov stability theory, the system gives more accurate and stable result.

  10. Contour detection combined with depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Cai, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Many challenging computer vision problems have been proven to benefit from the incorporation of depth information, to name a few, semantic labellings, pose estimations and even contour detection. Different objects have different depths from a single monocular image. The depth information of one object is coherent and the depth information of different objects may vary discontinuously. Meanwhile, there exists a broad non-classical receptive field (NCRF) outside the classical receptive field (CRF). The response of the central neuron is affected not only by the stimulus inside the CRF, but also modulated by the stimulus surrounding it. The contextual modulation is mediated by horizontal connections across the visual cortex. Based on the findings and researches, a biological-inspired contour detection model which combined with depth information is proposed in this paper.

  11. An Improved Time Domain Pitch Detection Algorithm for Pathological Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd R. Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study proposes a new pitch detection algorithm which could potentially be used to detect pitch for disordered or pathological voices. One of the parameters required for dysphonia diagnosis is pitch and this prompted the development of a new and reliable pitch detection algorithm capable of accurately detect pitch in disordered voices. Approach: The proposed method applies a technique where the frame size of the half wave rectified autocorrelation is adjusted to a smaller frame after two potential pitch candidates are identified within the preliminary frame. Results: The method is compared to PRAATs standard autocorrelation and the result shows a significant improvement in detecting pitch for pathological voices. Conclusion: The proposed method is more reliable way to detect pitch, either in low or high pitched voice without adjusting the window size, fixing the pitch candidate search range and predefining threshold like most of the standard autocorrelation do.

  12. Statistical modeling of violin bowing parameter contours

    OpenAIRE

    Maestre G??mez, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    We present a framework for modeling right-hand gestures in bowed-string instrument playing, applied to violin. Nearly non-intrusive sensing techniques allow for accurate acquisition of relevant timbre-related bowing gesture parameter cues. We model the temporal contour of bow transversal velocity, bow pressing force, and bow-bridge distance as sequences of short segments, in particular B??ezier cubic curve segments. Considering different articulations, dynamics, and contexts, a number of n...

  13. Musical Pattern Design Using Contour Icons

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Charlie; Coyle, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the use of Contour Icons in the design and implementation of musical patterns, for the purposes of detection and recognition. Research work had endeavoured to deliver musical patterns that were both distinct and memorable, and to this end a set of basic melodic shapes were introduced using a Sonification application called TrioSon that had been designed for the purpose. Existing work in the field (such as that concerning Earcon design) has considered the mechanisms by whi...

  14. A variational approach for object contour tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Papadakis, Nicolas; Mémin, Etienne; Cao, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    International audience In this paper we describe a new framework for the tracking of closed curves described through implicit surface modeling. The approach proposed here enables a continuous tracking along an image sequence of deformable object contours. Such an approach is formalized through the minimization of a global spatio-temporal continuous cost functional stemming from a Bayesian Maximum a posteriori estimation of a Gaussian probability distribution. The resulting minimization seq...

  15. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. PMID:27634782

  16. Contour Estimation by Array Processing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourennane Salah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the estimation of rectilinear and distorted contours in images by high-resolution methods. In the case of rectilinear contours, it has been shown that it is possible to transpose this image processing problem to an array processing problem. The existing straight line characterization method called subspace-based line detection (SLIDE leads to models with orientations and offsets of straight lines as the desired parameters. Firstly, a high-resolution method of array processing leads to the orientation of the lines. Secondly, their offset can be estimated by either the well-known method of extension of the Hough transform or another method, namely, the variable speed propagation scheme, that belongs to the array processing applications field. We associate it with the method called "modified forward-backward linear prediction" (MFBLP. The signal generation process devoted to straight lines retrieval is retained for the case of distorted contours estimation. This issue is handled for the first time thanks to an inverse problem formulation and a phase model determination. The proposed method is initialized by means of the SLIDE algorithm.

  17. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  18. Predicting binaural speech intelligibility using the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope power spectrum domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; MacDonald, Ewen N; Dau, Torsten

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a binaural extension to the multi-resolution speech-based envelope power spectrum model (mr-sEPSM) [Jørgensen, Ewert, and Dau (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 436-446]. It consists of a combination of better-ear (BE) and binaural unmasking processes, implemented as two monaural realizations of the mr-sEPSM combined with a short-term equalization-cancellation process, and uses the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv) as the decision metric. The model requires only two parameters to be fitted per speech material and does not require an explicit frequency weighting. The model was validated against three data sets from the literature, which covered the following effects: the number of maskers, the masker types [speech-shaped noise (SSN), speech-modulated SSN, babble, and reversed speech], the masker(s) azimuths, reverberation on the target and masker, and the interaural time difference of the target and masker. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the simulated speech reception thresholds and the data across all experiments was 0.91. A model version that considered only BE processing performed similarly (correlation coefficient of 0.86) to the complete model, suggesting that BE processing could be considered sufficient to predict intelligibility in most realistic conditions. PMID:27475146

  19. Incorporating Prior Shape into Geometric Active Contours for Face Contour Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGFuzhen; SUJianbo; XIYugeng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new method that incorporates prior shape information into geometric active contours for face contour detection is proposed. As in general a human face can be treated as an ellipse with a little shape variation, the prior face shape is represented as an elliptical curve. By combining the prior face shape with the powerful geometric active model proposed by Chan and Vese, the improved geometric active model can retain all the advantage of the Chan-Vese model and can detect face contours in images with complex backgrounds accurately even if the image is noisy. Moreover, by implementing the new model in a variational level set framework, automatic topological changes of the model can be achieved naturally and the transformation parameters that map the face boundary to the prior shape can be roughly estimated simultaneously. The experimental results show our procedure to be eiTicient.

  20. Interferência binaural no processo de seleção e adaptação de próteses auditivas: revisão sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Manoel Azevedo; Ana Valéria de Almeida Vaucher; Mariana Teixeira Duarte; Eliara Pinto Vieira Biaggio; Maristela Julio Costa

    2013-01-01

    O tema deste estudo é a interferência binaural e tem como objetivo descrever, por meio de revisão teórica, o fenômeno caracterizado por interferência binaural. Será realizada revisão sistemática por meio de pesquisa nas bases de dados LILACS, MEDLINE, PUBMED e SCIELO. O fenômeno interferência binaural é uma realidade relatada na literatura, que precisa ser investigado. Pode se confirmar por testes específicos de processamento auditivo, o mais descrito foi o dicótico de dígitos.

  1. Objective correlates of pitch salience using pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Santurette, Sébastien; Wendt, Dorothea;

    2014-01-01

    with increasing effort in performing the task and thus with decreasing pitch salience. A group of normal-hearing listeners first performed a behavioral pitch-discrimination experiment, where fundamental frequency difference limens ( F 0 DLs ) were measured as a function of F 0 . Results showed that pitch salience...... the frequency region and F 0 , were considered. Pupil size was measured for each condition, while the subjects’ task was to detect the deviants by pressing a response button. The expected trend was that pupil size would increase with decreasing salience. Results for musically trained listeners showed...... the expected trend, whereby pupil size significantly increased with decreasing salience of the stimuli. Non-musically trained listeners showed, however, a smaller pupil size for the least salient condition as compared to a medium salient condition, probably due to a too demanding task...

  2. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors are used to drive gears; gears drive blades; the electro-hydraulic proportional valves are used to control hydraulic motors. The hydraulic control part and electrical control part of variable-pitch system is redesigned. The new variable-pitch system is called hydraulic motor driving variable-pitch system. The new variable-pitch system meets the control requirements of blade pitch, makes the structure simple and its application effect is perfect.    

  3. Automated Contour Detection for Intravascular Ultrasound Image Sequences Based on Fast Active Contour Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hai-yan; WANG Hui-nan

    2006-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound can provide high-resolution real-time crosssectional images about lumen, plaque and tissue. Traditionally, the luminal border and medial-adventitial border are traced manually. This process is extremely timeconsuming and the subjective difference would be large. In this paper, a new automated contour detection method is introduced based on fast active contour model.Experimental results found that lumen and vessel area measurements after automated detection showed good agreement with manual tracings with high correlation coefficients (0.94 and 0.95, respectively) and small system difference ( -0.32 and 0.56, respectively). So it can be a reliable and accurate diagnostic tool.

  4. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. The present study aimed at quantifying such “internal noise” by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required...... to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...

  5. DIAGNOSIS OF PITCH AND LOAD DEFECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method, system and computer readable code for diagnosis of pitch and/or load defects of e.g. wind turbines as well as wind turbines using said diagnosis method and/or comprising said diagnosis system.......The invention relates to a method, system and computer readable code for diagnosis of pitch and/or load defects of e.g. wind turbines as well as wind turbines using said diagnosis method and/or comprising said diagnosis system....

  6. Small pixel pitch MCT IR-modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, H.; Breiter, R.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Fries, P.; Rutzinger, S.; Wendler, J.

    2016-05-01

    It is only some years ago, since VGA format detectors in 15μm pitch, manufactured with AIM's MCT n-on-p LPE standard technology, have been introduced to replace TV/4 format detector arrays as a system upgrade. In recent years a rapid increase in the demand for higher resolution, while preserving high thermal resolution, compactness and low power budget is observed. To satisfy these needs AIM has realized first prototypes of MWIR XGA format (1024x768) detector arrays in 10μm pitch. They fit in the same compact dewar as 640x512, 15μm pitch detector arrays. Therefore, they are best suited for system upgrade purposes to benefit from higher spatial resolution and keep cost on system level low. By combining pitch size reduction with recent development progress in the fields of miniature cryocoolers, short dewars and high operating temperatures the way ahead to ultra-compact high performance MWIR-modules is prepared. For cost reduction MBE grown MCT on commercially available GaAs substrates is introduced at AIM. Recently, 640x512, 15μm pitch FPAs, grown with MBE have successfully passed long-term high temperature storage tests as a crucial step towards serial production readiness level for use in future products. Pitch size reduction is not limited to arrays sensitive in the MWIR, but is of great interest for high performance LWIR or 3rd Gen solutions. Some applications such as rotorcraft pilotage require superior spatial resolution in a compact design to master severe weather conditions or degraded visual environment such as brown-out. For these applications AIM is developing both LWIR as well as dual band detector arrays in HD-format (1280x720) with 12μm pitch. This paper will present latest results in the development of detector arrays with small pitch sizes of 10μm and 12μm at AIM, together with their usage to realize compact cooled IR-modules.

  7. Absolute pitch in Costa Rica: Distribution of pitch identification ability and implications for its genetic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria-Soley, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Absolute pitch is the unusual ability to recognize a pitch without an external reference. The current view is that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the acquisition of the trait. In the present study, 127 adult musicians were subjected to a musical tone identification test. Subjects were university music students and volunteers who responded to a newspaper article. The test consisted of the identification of 40 piano and 40 pure tones. Subjects were classified in three categories according to their pitch naming ability: absolute pitch (AP), high accuracy of tone identification (HA), and non-absolute pitch (non-AP). Both the percentage of correct responses and the mean absolute deviation showed a statistically significant variation between categories. A very clear pattern of higher accuracy for white than for black key notes was observed for the HA and the non-AP groups. Meanwhile, the AP group had an almost perfect pitch naming accuracy for both kinds of tones. Each category presented a very different pattern of deviation around the correct response. The age at the beginning of musical training did not differ between categories. The distribution of pitch identification ability in this study suggests a complex inheritance of the trait. PMID:27586721

  8. T /sub 1p/ study of pitch softening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohno, T.; Harrell, J.W.; Sanada, Y.; Yokono, T.

    1985-09-01

    Proton rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation time (T/sub 1//rho/) measurements have been made in 10 samples of pitch from room temperature to 673 K to obtain information about the mechanisms of pitch softening. The T/sub 1//rho/ minimum of pitch was found to occur at approximately the same temperature as the softening point. This result suggests that the softening phenomenon of pitch can be detected at the molecular level by T/sub 1//rho/ measurements. Laboratory frame spin-lattice relaxation time (T /sub l/ ) measurements were also made on pitches to obtain information about the molecular motion of pitch in the high frequency ranges.

  9. Perceptual fusion of polyphonic pitch in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Patrick J; Guo, Benjamin Z; Limb, Charles J

    2009-11-01

    In music, multiple pitches often occur simultaneously, an essential feature of harmony. In the present study, the authors assessed the ability of cochlear implant (CI) users to perceive polyphonic pitch. Acoustically presented stimuli consisted of one, two, or three superposed tones with different fundamental frequencies (f(0)). The normal hearing control group obtained significantly higher mean scores than the CI group. CI users performed near chance levels in recognizing two- and three-pitch stimuli, and demonstrated perceptual fusion of multiple pitches as single-pitch units. These results suggest that limitations in polyphonic pitch perception may significantly impair music perception in CI users.

  10. What is in a contour map? A region-based logical formalization of contour semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Hahmann, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Contours maps (such as topographic maps) compress the information of a function over a two-dimensional area into a discrete set of closed lines that connect points of equal value (isolines), striking a fine balance between expressiveness and cognitive simplicity. They allow humans to perform many common sense reasoning tasks about the underlying function (e.g. elevation).

  11. Two Cases of Lower Body Contouring with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ho Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive weight loss results in skin excess, leading to an unsatisfying body contour. Variousthigh lift procedures can correct flabby skin in the lower leg. We present a lower bodycontouring technique with a report on two patients. The procedure is determined by the bodycontour of the patient. As the skin excess in the thigh area tended to appear mostly on themedial side, a vertical medial thigh lift was considered. Moreover, for patients with a pear/guitar-shaped body contour, we added the spiral thigh lift for skin excess in the buttocks andthe lateral thigh area. The extent of tissue to excise was determined by pinching the patientin a standing position. The inferior skin flap was fixed to non-movable tissue, which was helpfulfor lifting the tissue and preventing the widening of the scar. After the operation, a drain waskept for 3 to 4 days. A compressive garment was used after removing the drain. There wereno complications. The patients were discharged 6 to 8 days after the operation. In conclusion,skin excess, especially in the lower body, can be corrected by a thigh lift combining severalprocedures, varying from person to person.

  12. Automatic Detection of Adenocarcinoma using Active Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NeelapalaAnilKumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CT scan is the one of the image representation for abdomen, where the tumour to be located and specified effectively with clarity, by the medical expert. This role can be hold by using one of the image processing techniques called segmentation. Image segmentation is the technique which isolates the image into different regions to simplify the image and identify the Tumour easily. Image segmentation has been extensively studied by various approaches. This work, focus on the one of the image segmentation technique with a new regularization term that yields an unsupervised segmentation model which identifies different Tumour locations in a given CT image. Active contours form a boundary around a particular part of the image based on an energy function. The energy function may include intensity values of pixels or gradient values. Chen-Vase method of active contour algorithm is adopted for image segmentation. The segmentation is done after properly masking of CT scan image. The cancer prone area is generalized prior to the masking of the image. Effected abdomen cancer can be identified for better analysis of medical experts using image processing MATLAB tools. This paper describes a new method to detect and extract the features in CT scan images, which shows good performance in detection of difficult features. And the developed technique makes use of major image processing methods and fundamentals to detect the cancer with minimum possible human interaction.

  13. Memory for pure tone sequences without contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Christine; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We presented pure tones interspersed with white noise sounds to disrupt contour perception in an acoustic short-term memory (ASTM) experiment during which we recorded the electroencephalogram. The memory set consisted of seven stimuli, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of which were to-be-remembered tones. We estimated each participant׳s capacity, K, for each set size and measured the amplitude of the SAN (sustained anterior negativity, an ERP related to acoustic short-term memory). We correlated their K slopes with their SAN amplitude slopes as a function of set size, and found a significant link between performance and the SAN: a larger increase in SAN amplitude was linked with a larger number of stimuli maintained in ASTM. The SAN decreased in amplitude in the later portion of the silent retention interval, but the correlation between the SAN and capacity remained strong. These results show the SAN is not an index of contour but rather an index of the maintenance of individual objects in STM. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26903419

  14. Is accommodation colorblind? Focusing chromatic contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, J M; Owens, D A

    1981-01-01

    Two adjacent regions define an edge if they differ in either color or luminance. If the difference is purely chromatic, the edge is said to be isoluminant. Isoluminant contours are often perceptually unstable. Perhaps some of this instability could be explained if isoluminant contours were difficult to bring into focus. To test this hypothesis, a vernier optometer was used to measure the accuracy of steady-state accommodation for the vertical boundary of a red-green bipartite field. This edge was presented at optical distances of 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 diopters, with brightness contrasts between the two hemifields of 0% (isoluminant), 15%, 58%, and 100%. Accommodation was essentially unresponsiveness to the isoluminant edge and exhibited increasing focusing accuracy with increased brightness contrast. Control experiments replicated this finding for red-orange, green-blue, and white-white fields. These results imply that luminance contrast is a necessary stimulus for monocular accommodation. Inappropriate accommodation may be a factor contributing to the perceptual instability of isoluminant patterns. PMID:7255083

  15. Wound Image Analysis Using Contour Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sundeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the algorithm described in this paper is to segment wound images from the normal and classify them according to the types of the wound. The segmentation of wounds extravagates color representation, which has been followed by an algorithm of grayscale segmentation based on the stack mathematical approach. Accurate classification of wounds and analyzing wound healing process is a critical task for patient care and health cost reduction at hospital. The tissue uniformity and flatness leads to a simplified approach but requires multispectral imaging for enhanced wound delineation. Contour Evolution method which uses multispectral imaging replaces more complex tools such as, SVM supervised classification, as no training step is required. In Contour Evolution, classification can be done by clustering color information, with differential quantization algorithm, the color centroids of small squares taken from segmented part of the wound image in (C1,C2 plane. Where C1, C2 are two chrominance components. Wound healing is identified by measuring the size of the wound through various means like contact and noncontact methods of wound. The wound tissues proportion is also estimated by a qualitative visual assessment based on the red-yellow-black code. Moreover, involving all the spectral response of the tissue and not only RGB components provides a higher discrimination for separating healed epithelial tissue from granulation tissue.

  16. Effect of Tempo on Pitch Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Robert A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study which investigated the perception of music majors and nonmusic majors concerning their ability to discriminate the way in which altered musical excerpts differed in pitch or tempo (or both) from preceding presentations. Concludes that both groups responded similarly across conditions and replications, and that tempo changes were…

  17. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navalkar, S.T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame

  18. Study of Wear of Pitched Blade Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fořt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the erosion of blades of pitched blade impellers in a suspension of solid particles in a liquid under a turbulent regime of flow of an agitated charge. The wear of the impeller is described by an analytical approximation in exponential form, and the influence of the pitch angle on the impeller blade wear was studied experimentally. It follows from the results of the experiments made that the wear rate of the pitched blade impellers increases linearly with the decreasing pitch angle within the interval a Î á15°; 45° ń. The proposed form of radial profile of the leading edge of the impeller blade enables us to calculate the surface of the worn blade. This quantity significantly decreases with the length of the period when the blades are affected by the solid particles, and its values calculated according to the suggested profile of the worn blade fit fairly well with the experimentally determined values. The results of the experiments performed are valid for homogeneous distribution of solid particles in an agitated suspension.

  19. A Binaural Cochlear Implant Sound Coding Strategy Inspired by the Contralateral Medial Olivocochlear Reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio-Martín, Almudena; Stohl, Joshua S.; Wolford, Robert D.; Schatzer, Reinhold; Wilson, Blake S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In natural hearing, cochlear mechanical compression is dynamically adjusted via the efferent medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR). These adjustments probably help understanding speech in noisy environments and are not available to the users of current cochlear implants (CIs). The aims of the present study are to: (1) present a binaural CI sound processing strategy inspired by the control of cochlear compression provided by the contralateral MOCR in natural hearing; and (2) assess the benefits of the new strategy for understanding speech presented in competition with steady noise with a speech-like spectrum in various spatial configurations of the speech and noise sources. Design: Pairs of CI sound processors (one per ear) were constructed to mimic or not mimic the effects of the contralateral MOCR on compression. For the nonmimicking condition (standard strategy or STD), the two processors in a pair functioned similarly to standard clinical processors (i.e., with fixed back-end compression and independently of each other). When configured to mimic the effects of the MOCR (MOC strategy), the two processors communicated with each other and the amount of back-end compression in a given frequency channel of each processor in the pair decreased/increased dynamically (so that output levels dropped/increased) with increases/decreases in the output energy from the corresponding frequency channel in the contralateral processor. Speech reception thresholds in speech-shaped noise were measured for 3 bilateral CI users and 2 single-sided deaf unilateral CI users. Thresholds were compared for the STD and MOC strategies in unilateral and bilateral listening conditions and for three spatial configurations of the speech and noise sources in simulated free-field conditions: speech and noise sources colocated in front of the listener, speech on the left ear with noise in front of the listener, and speech on the left ear with noise on the right ear. In both bilateral and

  20. A new algorithm of brain volume contours segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建明; 施鹏飞

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores brain CT slices segmentation technique and some related problems, including contours segmentation algorithms, edge detector, algorithm evaluation and experimental results. This article describes a method for contour-based segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical data sets. With this method, the user manually traces one or more 2D contours of an anatomical structure of interest on parallel planes arbitrarily cutting the data set. The experimental results showes the segmentation based on 3D brain volume and 2D CT slices. The main creative contributions in this paper are: (1) contours segmentation algorithm; (2) edge detector; (3) algorithm evaluation.

  1. Predictive Modeling of Complex Contoured Composite Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The existing HDWLT (pictured) contoured composite structure design, its analyses and manufacturing tools, will be used to validate key analyses inputs through...

  2. Probabilistic contour extraction based on shape prior model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; LIANG De-qun

    2005-01-01

    Statistical shape prior model is employed to construct the dynamics in probabilistic contour estimation.By applying principal component analysis,plausible shape samples are efficiently generated to predict contour samples.Based on the shape-dependent dynamics and probabilistic image model,a particle filter is used to estimate the contour with a specific shape.Compared with the deterministic approach with shape information,the proposed method is simple yet more effective in extracting contours from images with shape variations and occlusion.

  3. Contour plotting programs for printer and Calcomp plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contour plotting programs for plotting contour diagrams on printers or Calcomp plotters are described. The subroutines also exist in versions that are useful for the special application of finding minima and saddlepoints of nuclear potential energy surfaces generated by the subroutine PETR3 of another program package. For the general user, however, the most interesting aspect of the plotting package is probably the possibility of generating printer contour plots. The plotting of printer contour plots is a very fast and convenient way of displaying two-dimensional functions. 3 figures

  4. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ye; JiBao QI

    2013-01-01

    The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors ar...

  5. Spatial Representation of Pitch Height: The SMARC Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L.; Umilta, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch height is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch height…

  6. Context effects on pitch perception in musicians and nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, E; Naatanen, R; Tervaniemi, M

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that musical context facilitates pitch discrimination. In the present study, we sought to determine whether pitch context and its familiarity might affect brain responses to pitch change even at the preattentive level. Ten musicians and 10 nonmusicians, while concent...

  7. Memory for Melody: Infants Use a Relative Pitch Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Judy; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2005-01-01

    Pitch perception is fundamental to melody in music and prosody in speech. Unlike many animals, the vast majority of human adults store melodic information primarily in terms of relative not absolute pitch, and readily recognize a melody whether rendered in a high or a low pitch range. We show that at 6 months infants are also primarily relative…

  8. Size matters : Pitch dimensions constrain interactive team behaviour in soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, W.; Van der Plaats, J.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K.

    2013-01-01

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under constraints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour in

  9. Passive cyclic pitch control for horizontal axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrell, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible rotor concept, called the balanced pitch rotor, is described. The system provides passive adjustment of cyclic pitch in response to unbalanced pitching moments across the rotor disk. Various applications are described and performance predictions are made for wind shear and cross wind operating conditions. Comparisons with the teetered hub are made and significant cost savings are predicted.

  10. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. II - Pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The dynamic pitching characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which have a stability curtain are investigated analytically and experimentally. The measured values of moment, lift and cushion pressure are compared with numerical results noting applicability to the pitching motion. The response of ACV to the sinusoidal pitching oscillation of the ground is also studied.

  11. India-Pakistan: Contours of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Mittal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even after about 70 years of separation, India and Pakistan continue to live in the prison of the past. The rhetoric of partition is still alive in the memory of the people of both the countries. They have constructed fixed, unchanging and competing images for each other. While Pakistan became an Islamic Republic, India adopted secularism, thereby, negating the two-nation theory. The ‘differences’ along with memories of partition has made Indian and Pakistani to remain in permanent hostile situation. The leaders of the two countries try to settle their disputes but fails because of lack of support from their social and political institutions. Since its coming into power in 2014, the NDA government under the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi has managed to engage the Pakistani establishment, despite many problems between the two countries. This article tries to highlight upon the contours of relationships post-2014.

  12. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  13. Acuity of mental representations of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr

    2012-04-01

    Singing in one's mind or forming expectations about upcoming notes both require that mental images of one or more pitches will be generated. As with other musical abilities, the acuity with which such images are formed might be expected to vary across individuals and may depend on musical training. Results from several behavioral tasks involving intonation judgments indicate that multiple memory systems contribute to the formation of accurate mental images for pitch, and that the functionality of each is affected by musical training. Electrophysiological measures indicate that the ability to form accurate mental images is associated with greater engagement of auditory areas and associated error-detection circuitry when listeners imagine ascending scales and make intonation judgments about target notes. A view of auditory mental images is espoused in which unified mental image representations are distributed across multiple brain areas. Each brain area helps shape the acuity of the unified representation based on current behavioral demands and past experience. PMID:22524362

  14. Characterization of Coal Tar Pitch and Paving Pitch by UV, EA and NMR%Characterization of Coal Tar Pitch and Paving Pitch by UV,EA and NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yan-hua; FENG Rui-jie; CAO Su-mei; LIU Xiang-yong; GAO Ting; PAN Zhi-quan

    2011-01-01

    In order to enlarge the use of coal tar pitch(CTP) in paving road, CTP and 60th paving pitch (PP) were extracted by n-heptane, toluene and ethanol step by step in a Soxhlet apparatus. The three fractions of CTP and PP were detected using UV-absorption(UV-A) ,elemental analyses(EA) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) firstly as a whole unit after quality characterization of physical nature of CTP and PP were finished. The CTP had more saturate aliphatie and residue compounds dissolved in ethanol. On the other hand there were more continental type structures of aromatic ring than that of PP. There was almost no residue in PP after extracted by ethanol. The results explained why CTP was crisp in cold winter and was soften in summer. The following research will focus on how to change the chemical construction of CTP into the relative similar structures with those of PP through adding polymer.

  15. Boronated mesophase pitch coke for lithium insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackowiak, E.; Machnikowski, J.; Kaczmarska, H.; Béguin, F.

    Boronated carbons from mesophase pitch have been used as materials for lithium storage in Li/carbon cells. Doping by boron has been realized by co-pyrolysis of coal tar pitch with the pyridine-borane complex. Amount of boron in mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) varied from 1.4 to 1.8 wt.% affecting the texture of carbon. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffractograms have shown tendency to more disordered structure for boron-doped carbon. The values of specific reversible capacity ( x) varied from 0.7 to 1.1 depending significantly on the final temperature of pyrolysis (700-1150°C). The optimal charge/discharge performance was observed for boronated carbon heated at 1000°C.

  16. Pitch perception of complex sounds nonlinearity revisited

    CERN Document Server

    González, D L; Sportolari, F; Rosso, O; Cartwright, J H E; Piro, O

    1995-01-01

    The ability of the auditory system to perceive the fundamental frequency of a sound even when this frequency is removed from the stimulus is an interesting phenomenon related to the pitch of complex sounds. This capability is known as ``residue'' or ``virtual pitch'' perception and was first reported last century in the pioneering work of Seebeck. It is residue perception that allows one to listen to music with small transistor radios, which in general have a very poor and sometimes negligible response to low frequencies. The first attempt, due to Helmholtz, to explain the residue as a nonlinear effect in the ear considered it to originate from difference combination tones. However, later experiments have shown that the residue does not coincide with a difference combination tone. These results and the fact that dichotically presented signals also elicit residue perception have led to nonlinear theories being gradually abandoned in favour of central processor models. In this paper we use recent results from t...

  17. Rapid pitch correction in choir singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grell, Anke; Sundberg, Johan; Ternström, Sten; Ptok, Martin; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2009-07-01

    Highly and moderately skilled choral singers listened to a perfect fifth reference, with the instruction to complement the fifth such that a major triad resulted. The fifth was suddenly and unexpectedly shifted in pitch, and the singers' task was to shift the fundamental frequency of the sung tone accordingly. The F0 curves during the transitions often showed two phases, an initial quick and large change followed by a slower and smaller change, apparently intended to fine-tune voice F0 to complement the fifth. Anesthetizing the vocal folds of moderately skilled singers tended to delay the reaction. The means of the response times varied in the range 197- 259 ms depending on direction and size of the pitch shifts, as well as on skill and anesthetization. PMID:19603897

  18. Pitch-asphalts - new binder for road construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stompel, Z.; Collin, G.; Szen, A.; Herion, G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses chemical and physical properties of a mixture of pitches and asphalts produced by the Blachownia Chemical Plant. The mixture consists of coal tar pitches with 25.7% content of toluene-insoluble fractions, anthracene oil and Dex asphalt. The following properties were analyzed: density, softening and softening point, adhesion, viscosity, sedimentation after 14 days. Physical and chemical properties of the pitch-asphalt from Blachownia were compared to those of pitch-asphalt from Ruetgerswerke AG in the FRG. Pitch-asphalt properties were evaluated from the point of view of their use in road construction. 8 refs.

  19. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  20. Flapping propulsion with tip pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    The effect of flexibility in the propulsion performance and efficiency of oscillating pitching foils has received a large amount of attention in the past years. Scientists have used simplified robotic models that mimic the kinematics of flying and swimming animals, in order to get inspiration to build more efficient engineering systems. Compliance is one of the aspects that has received more attention, as it seems to be a common feature in nature's flyers and swimmers. Active or passive control elements are also common in nature. We will show how thrust generation in a pitching fin, can be greatly affected by controlling the tip pitch motion dynamically and independently of the fin itself. This is in fact a controlled local change of curvature of the end of the fin. A robotic system has been designed in a way that not only flapping amplitudes and frequencies can be controlled, but also the amplitudes and frequencies of the tip and the phase difference between the tip and the fin. We measured thrust forces and the vortex dynamics in the near wake of the system, by using planar DPIV (Digital Particle Image Velocimetry) in a wide variety of flapping situations with tip control. Funding from Spanish Ministry of Science through Grant DPI2012-37904 is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. A perceptual pitch boundary in a non-human primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pitch is an auditory percept critical to the perception of music and speech, and for these harmonic sounds, pitch is closely related to the repetition rate of the acoustic wave. This paper reports a test of the assumption that non-human primates and especially rhesus monkeys perceive the pitch of these harmonic sounds much as humans do. A new procedure was developed to train macaques to discriminate the pitch of harmonic sounds and thereby demonstrate that the lower limit for pitch perception in macaques is close to 30 Hz, as it is in humans. Moreover, when the phases of successive harmonics are alternated to cause a pseudo-doubling of the repetition rate, the lower pitch boundary in macaques decreases substantially, as it does in humans. The results suggest that both species use neural firing times to discriminate pitch, at least for sounds with relatively low repetition rates.

  2. Contour integration and segmentation with a new lateral connections model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chao

    2011-11-01

    Automatically target contour detection from cluttered scenes is a very difficult task for computer vision. Humans, however, have a much better background suppress ability. The preceding models could not implement such a task very well. In this letter, an effective contour integration method based on human visual perception mechanism is proposed. The algorithm combines the properties of primary visual cortex and psychology researching results to simulate the contour perception of the V1 cortex. The new lateral connection based computational model have a better texture suppress ability, while, target's contour is enhanced. Compared with traditional methods, experiments show that the new method implement a more reasonable simulation of the V1 function structure, availably enhance the target's contour while suppress the cluttered background, obtain a balance between over and lose detection, besides, it has better accuracy with less computational complexity and time-consuming.

  3. Contour-Based Surface Reconstruction using MPU Implicit Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Ilya; Marker, Jeffrey; Museth, Ken; Nissanov, Jonathan; Breen, David

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a technique for creating a smooth, closed surface from a set of 2D contours, which have been extracted from a 3D scan. The technique interprets the pixels that make up the contours as points in ℝ(3) and employs Multi-level Partition of Unity (MPU) implicit models to create a surface that approximately fits to the 3D points. Since MPU implicit models additionally require surface normal information at each point, an algorithm that estimates normals from the contour data is also described. Contour data frequently contains noise from the scanning and delineation process. MPU implicit models provide a superior approach to the problem of contour-based surface reconstruction, especially in the presence of noise, because they are based on adaptive implicit functions that locally approximate the points within a controllable error bound. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique with a number of example datasets, providing images and error statistics generated from our results.

  4. Target Contour Recovering for Tracking People in Complex Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovering people contours from partial occlusion is a challenging problem in a visual tracking system. Partial occlusions would bring about unreasonable contour changes of the target object. In this paper, a novel method is presented to detect partial occlusion on people contours and recover occluded portions. Unlike other occlusion detection methods, the proposed method is only based on contours, which makes itself more flexible to be extended for further applications. Experiments with synthetic images demonstrate the accuracy of the method for detecting partial occlusions, and experiments on real-world video sequence are also carried out to prove that the method is also good enough to be used to recover target contours.

  5. Evaluation of fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle via thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Hirota, M.; Ouchi, K.; Saito, T.

    2016-03-01

    Shock vector control (SVC) in a converging-diverging nozzle with a rectangular cross-section is discussed as a fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) method. The interaction between the primary nozzle flow and the secondary jet is examined using experiments and numerical simulations. The relationships between FTV parameters [nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and secondary jet pressure ratio (SPR)] and FTV performance (thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment) are investigated. The experiments are conducted with an NPR of up to 10 and an SPR of up to 2.7. Numerical simulations of the nozzle flow are performed using a Navier-Stokes solver with input parameters set to match the experimental conditions. The thrust pitching angle and moment computed from the force-moment balance are used to evaluate FTV performance. The experiment and numerical results indicate that the FTV parameters (NPR and SPR) directly affect FTV performance. Conventionally, FTV performance evaluated by the common method using thrust pitching angle is highly dependent on the location of evaluation. Hence, in this study, we show that the thrust pitching moment, a parameter which is independent of the location, is the appropriate figure of merit to evaluate the performance of FTV systems.

  6. Pitch-angle scattering in magnetostatic turbulence. II. Analytical considerations and pitch-angle isotropization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautz, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    Aims: The process of pitch-angle isotropization is important for many applications ranging from diffusive shock acceleration to large-scale cosmic-ray transport. Here, the basic analytical description is revisited on the basis of recent simulation results. Methods: Both an analytical and a numerical investigation were undertaken of the Fokker-Planck equation for pitch-angle scattering. Additional test-particle simulations obtained with the help of a Monte-Carlo code were used to verify the conclusions. Results: It is shown that the usual definition of the pitch-angle Fokker-Planck coefficient via the mean-square displacement is flawed. The reason can be traced back to the assumption of homogeneity in time which does not hold for pitch-angle scattering. Conclusions: Calculating the mean free path via the Fokker-Planck coefficient has often proven to give an accurate description. For numerical purposes, accordingly, it is the definition that has to be exchanged in favor of the pitch-angle correlation function.

  7. Pitch-angle scattering in magnetostatic turbulence. II. Analytical considerations and pitch-angle isotropization

    CERN Document Server

    Tautz, R C

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The process of pitch-angle isotropization is important for many applications ranging from diffusive shock acceleration to large-scale cosmic-ray transport. Here, the basic analytical description is revisited on the basis of recent simulation results. Methods. Both an analytical and a numerical investigation were undertaken of the Fokker-Planck equation for pitch-angle scattering. Additional test-particle simulations obtained with the help of a Monte-Carlo code were used to verify the conclusions. Results. It is shown that the usual definition of the pitch-angle Fokker-Planck coefficient via the mean-square displacement is flawed. The reason can be traced back to the assumption of homogeneity in time which does not hold for pitch-angle scattering. Conclusions. Calculating the mean free path via the Fokker-Planck coefficient has often proven to give an accurate description. For numerical purposes, accordingly, it is the definition that has to be exchanged in favor of the pitch-angle correlation function.

  8. Material properties from contours: New insights on object perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Deiana, Katia

    2015-10-01

    In this work we explored phenomenologically the visual complexity of the material attributes on the basis of the contours that define the boundaries of a visual object. The starting point is the rich and pioneering work done by Gestalt psychologists and, more in detail, by Rubin, who first demonstrated that contours contain most of the information related to object perception, like the shape, the color and the depth. In fact, by investigating simple conditions like those used by Gestalt psychologists, mostly consisting of contours only, we demonstrated that the phenomenal complexity of the material attributes emerges through appropriate manipulation of the contours. A phenomenological approach, analogous to the one used by Gestalt psychologists, was used to answer the following questions. What are contours? Which attributes can be phenomenally defined by contours? Are material properties determined only by contours? What is the visual syntactic organization of object attributes? The results of this work support the idea of a visual syntactic organization as a new kind of object formation process useful to understand the language of vision that creates well-formed attribute organizations. The syntax of visual attributes can be considered as a new way to investigate the modular coding and, more generally, the binding among attributes, i.e., the issue of how the brain represents the pairing of shape and material properties. PMID:26072333

  9. The contour method: a new approach in experimental mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure complex residual-stress maps in situations where other measurement methods cannot. This talk first describes the principle of the contour method. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contour of the resulting new surface, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, is then measured. Finally, a conceptually simple finite element analysis determines the original residual stresses from the measured contour. Next, this talk gives several examples of applications. The method is validated by comparing with neutron diffraction measurements in an indented steel disk and in a friction stir weld between dissimilar aluminum alloys. Several applications are shown that demonstrate the power of the contour method: large aluminum forgings, railroad rails, and welds. Finally, this talk discusses why the contour method is significant departure from conventional experimental mechanics. Other relaxation method, for example hole-drilling, can only measure a 1-D profile of residual stresses, and yet they require a complicated inverse calculation to determine the stresses from the strain data. The contour method gives a 2-D stress map over a full cross-section, yet a direct calculation is all that is needed to reduce the data. The reason for these advantages lies in a subtle but fundamental departure from conventional experimental mechanics. Applying new technology to old methods like will not give similar advances, but the new approach also introduces new errors.

  10. A fast quantum mechanics based contour extraction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Sun, Yangguang; Ding, Mingyue

    2009-02-01

    A fast algorithm was proposed to decrease the computational cost of the contour extraction approach based on quantum mechanics. The contour extraction approach based on quantum mechanics is a novel method proposed recently by us, which will be presented on the same conference by another paper of us titled "a statistical approach to contour extraction based on quantum mechanics". In our approach, contour extraction was modeled as the locus of a moving particle described by quantum mechanics, which is obtained by the most probable locus of the particle simulated in a large number of iterations. In quantum mechanics, the probability that a particle appears at a point is equivalent to the square amplitude of the wave function. Furthermore, the expression of the wave function can be derived from digital images, making the probability of the locus of a particle available. We employed the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to estimate the square amplitude of the wave function. Finally, our fast quantum mechanics based contour extraction algorithm (referred as our fast algorithm hereafter) was evaluated by a number of different images including synthetic and medical images. It was demonstrated that our fast algorithm can achieve significant improvements in accuracy and robustness compared with the well-known state-of-the-art contour extraction techniques and dramatic reduction of time complexity compared to the statistical approach to contour extraction based on quantum mechanics.

  11. Adaptive Contour Model for Real-Time Foreground Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ying; DING Xiaoqing

    2005-01-01

    A multiscale foreground detection method was developed to segment moving objects from a stationary background. The algorithm is based on a fixed-mesh-based contour model, which starts at the bounding box of the difference map between an input image and its background and ends at a final contour. An adaptive algorithm was developed to calculate an appropriate energy threshold to control the contours to identify the foreground silhouettes. Experiments show that this method more successfully ignores the negative influence of image noise to obtain an accurate foreground map than other foreground detection algorithms. Most shadow pixels are also eliminated by this method.

  12. Contour tracking and corner detection in a logic programming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Benjamin; Pau, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    The added functionality such as contour tracking and corner detection which logic programming lends to standard image operators is described. An environment for implementing low-level imaging operations with Prolog predicates is considered. Within this environment, higher-level image predicates...... (contour tracking and corner detection) are constructed. The emphasis is not on building better corner detectors, but on presenting ways of using the unification and backtracking features of logic programming for these tasks. The performance of this implementation of contour tracking and corner detection...

  13. How to pitch a brilliant idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbach, Kimberly D

    2003-09-01

    Coming up with creative ideas is easy; selling them to strangers is hard. Entrepreneurs, sales executives, and marketing managers often go to great lengths to demonstrate how their new concepts are practical and profitable--only to be rejected by corporate decision makers who don't seem to understand the value of the ideas. Why does this happen? Having studied Hollywood executives who assess screenplay pitches, the author says the person on the receiving end--the "catcher"--tends to gauge the pitcher's creativity as well as the proposal itself. An impression of the pitcher's ability to come up with workable ideas can quickly and permanently overshadow the catcher's feelings about an idea's worth. To determine whether these observations apply to business settings beyond Hollywood, the author attended product design, marketing, and venture-capital pitch sessions and conducted interviews with executives responsible for judging new ideas. The results in those environments were similar to her observations in Hollywood, she says. Catchers subconsciously categorize successful pitchers as showrunners (smooth and professional), artists (quirky and unpolished), or neophytes (inexperienced and naive). The research also reveals that catchers tend to respond well when they believe they are participating in an idea's development. As Oscar-winning writer, director, and producer Oliver Stone puts it, screen-writers pitching an idea should "pull back and project what he needs onto your idea in order to make the story whole for him." To become a successful pitcher, portray yourself as one of the three creative types and engage your catchers in the creative process. By finding ways to give your catchers a chance to shine, you sell yourself as a likable collaborator. PMID:12964399

  14. Design of the small pixel pitch ROIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhai, Yongcheng; Gao, Lei; Ding, Ruijun

    2014-11-01

    Since the technology trend of the third generation IRFPA towards resolution enhancing has steadily progressed,the pixel pitch of IRFPA has been greatly reduced.A 640×512 readout integrated circuit(ROIC) of IRFPA with 15μm pixel pitch is presented in this paper.The 15μm pixel pitch ROIC design will face many challenges.As we all known,the integrating capacitor is a key performance parameter when considering pixel area,charge capacity and dynamic range,so we adopt the effective method of 2 by 2 pixels sharing an integrating capacitor to solve this problem.The input unit cell architecture will contain two paralleled sample and hold parts,which not only allow the FPA to be operated in full frame snapshot mode but also save relatively unit circuit area.Different applications need more matching input unit circuits. Because the dimension of 2×2 pixels is 30μm×30μm, an input stage based on direct injection (DI) which has medium injection ratio and small layout area is proved to be suitable for middle wave (MW) while BDI with three-transistor cascode amplifier for long wave(LW). By adopting the 0.35μm 2P4M mixed signal process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 7.8Me- per pixel with 2.2V output range for MW and 7.3 Me- per pixel with 2.6V output range for LW. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 5V power supply and achieves less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  15. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    . This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and......In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics...

  16. Details of Side Load Test Data and Analysis for a Truncated Ideal Contour Nozzle and a Parabolic Contour Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Brown, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Two cold flow subscale nozzles were tested for side load characteristics during simulated nozzle start transients. The two test article contours were a truncated ideal and a parabolic. The current paper is an extension of a 2009 AIAA JPC paper on the test results for the same two nozzle test articles. The side load moments were measured with the strain tube approach in MSFC s Nozzle Test Facility. The processing techniques implemented to convert the strain gage signals into side load moment data are explained. Nozzle wall pressure profiles for separated nozzle flow at many NPRs are presented and discussed in detail. The effect of the test cell diffuser inlet on the parabolic nozzle s wall pressure profiles for separated flow is shown. The maximum measured side load moments for the two contours are compared. The truncated ideal contour s peak side load moment was 45% of that of the parabolic contour. The calculated side load moments, via mean-plus-three-standard-deviations at each nozzle pressure ratio, reproduced the characteristics and absolute values of measured maximums for both contours. The effect of facility vibration on the measured side load moments is quantified and the effect on uncertainty is calculated. The nozzle contour designs are discussed and the impact of a minor fabrication flaw in the nozzle contours is explained.

  17. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter.

  18. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    ) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones......Understanding how the human auditory system processes the physical properties of an acoustical stimulus to give rise to a pitch percept is a fascinating aspect of hearing research. Since most natural sounds are harmonic complex tones, this work focused on the nature of pitch-relevant cues...... that are necessary for the auditory system to retrieve the pitch of complex sounds. The existence of different pitch-coding mechanisms for low-numbered (spectrally resolved) and high-numbered (unresolved) harmonics was investigated by comparing pitch-discrimination performance across different cohorts of listeners...

  19. A New Pitch Estimation Method Based on AMDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new modified average magnitude difference function (MAMDF is proposed which is robust for noise-corrupt speech pitch estimation. The traditional technology in pitch estimation can easily give rise to the problem of detecting error pitch period. And their estimation performance behaves badly with the occurrence of background noise. In the process of calculation on speech samples, MAMDF presented in this paper has the property of strengthening the characteristic of pitch period and reducing the influence of background noise. And therefore, MAMDF can not only decrease the disadvantage brought by the decreasing tendency of pitch period but also overcome the error caused by severe variation between neighboring samples. The experiment which is implemented in CSTR database shows that MAMDF is greatly superior to AMDF and CAMDF both in clean speech environment and noisy speech environment, representing prominent precision and robustness in pitch estimation

  20. Aerodynamic pitching damping of vehicle-inspired bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Makoto; Cheng, Seeyuan; Nakashima, Takuji; Nouzawa, Takahide; Okada, Yoshihiro

    2010-11-01

    Aerodynamic damping mechanism of road vehicles subjected to pitching oscillation was investigated by using large-eddy simulation technique. The study was based on two kinds of simplified vehicle models, which represent real sedan-type vehicles with different pitching stability in the on-road test. The simplified vehicle modes were developed so as to reproduce the characteristic flow structures above the trunk deck of the real vehicles measured in a wind-tunnel at the static case without oscillation. The forced sinusoidal pitching oscillation was imposed on the models and their pitching damping factors were evaluated through the phase-averaged pitching moment. Then flow structures in the wake of the models were extracted and its contribution to the damping mechanism was discussed. It was found that slight difference of the front and rear pillars' shape drastically affects the flow structures in the wake of the models, which enhance or restrain the vehicles' pitching instability.

  1. The relationship between tinnitus pitch and the audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Tyler, Richard S; Ji, Haihong; Coelho, Claudia; Gehringer, Anne K; Gogel, Stephanie A

    2009-05-01

    We studied the relationship between tinnitus pitch and the audiogram in 195 patients. Patients with tone-like tinnitus reported a higher pitch (mean = 5385 Hz) compared to those with a noise-like quality (mean = 3266 Hz). Those with a flat audiogram were more likely to report: a noise-like tinnitus, a unilateral tinnitus, and have a pitch or=8000 Hz. We failed to find a relationship between the pitch and the edge of a high frequency hearing loss. Some individuals did exhibit a pitch at the low frequency edge of a hearing loss, but we could find no similar characteristics among these subjects. It is possible that a relationship between pitch and audiogram is present only in certain subgroups. PMID:19842803

  2. Wind turbine pitch control using ICPSO-PID algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Tian, Qiangqiang; Shen, Wen Zhong;

    2013-01-01

    For the traditional simplified first-order pitch-control system model, it is difficult to describe a real dynamic characteristic of a variable pitch action system, thus a complete high order mathematical model has to be developed for the pitch control of wind turbine generation (WTG). In the paper......, a pitch controller was designed based on power and wind speed and by considering the inertia and delay characteristics of a pitch-control system to achieve a constant power output when a wind speed was beyond the rated one. A novel ICPSO-PID control algorithm was proposed based on a combination...... controller parameters quickly; and the feed-forward controller for wind speed can improve dynamics of a pitch-control system; additionally the power controller can allow a wind turbine to have a constant power output as a wind speed is over the rated one. Compared with a conventional PID, the controller...

  3. The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones from 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Han, Loc A

    2000-01-01

    The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones has been measured for thirty-one otologically normal test subjects in the age range 18 to 25 years. The frequencies were 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14 and 16 kHz. The signal duration was 1 s measured...... between the half amplitude points of the rise and fall course. The pure tone signals were generated from disk files. The thresholds were determined with the Bracketing Method (ISO 8253-1) using a step size of 5 dB. The results are in good agreement with ISO 389-7 and with other recent determinations...... of the free field hearing threshold. At 1500 Hz a small local peak in the threshold is seen which is not reflected in the present standards.PACS 43.66 Cb; 43.66 Pn...

  4. The observation of theta wave modulation on brain training by 5 Hz-binaural beat stimulation in seven days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamsa-Ard, Traisak; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2015-08-01

    Traditional buddhist meditation method maybe easy for someone with high experience. However, for the beginner, it is very difficult to keep mental concentration with the tradition way for more than 5 minutes. This research aims to observe effect of the new method for meditation in various analysis methods. A piano music mixed with a 5 Hz (theta band enhancement) binaural beat frequency was used to modulate the brain signals continuously for 7 days. Male of the average age of 33.5±3.84 and female of the average age of 28.6±2.49 were participated. All participants were acquired EEGs twice, before the experiment and seven days after the experiment. We also proposed the observations on the changes of absolute powers, relative powers and brain connectivity (coherence) of the participants. After seven days of training, the absolute power, relative power, and coherence were clearly closer to the normative database. We can initially say that the recommended meditation method can efficiently mimic the effect of having the traditional buddhist meditation on enhancing the delta and theta powers in the brain. PMID:26737822

  5. Pitch-Responsive Cortical Regions in Congenital Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman-Haignere, Sam V; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; McDermott, Josh H; Kanwisher, Nancy G; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong deficit in music perception thought to reflect an underlying impairment in the perception and memory of pitch. The neural basis of amusic impairments is actively debated. Some prior studies have suggested that amusia stems from impaired connectivity between auditory and frontal cortex. However, it remains possible that impairments in pitch coding within auditory cortex also contribute to the disorder, in part because prior studies have not measured responses from the cortical regions most implicated in pitch perception in normal individuals. We addressed this question by measuring fMRI responses in 11 subjects with amusia and 11 age- and education-matched controls to a stimulus contrast that reliably identifies pitch-responsive regions in normal individuals: harmonic tones versus frequency-matched noise. Our findings demonstrate that amusic individuals with a substantial pitch perception deficit exhibit clusters of pitch-responsive voxels that are comparable in extent, selectivity, and anatomical location to those of control participants. We discuss possible explanations for why amusics might be impaired at perceiving pitch relations despite exhibiting normal fMRI responses to pitch in their auditory cortex: (1) individual neurons within the pitch-responsive region might exhibit abnormal tuning or temporal coding not detectable with fMRI, (2) anatomical tracts that link pitch-responsive regions to other brain areas (e.g., frontal cortex) might be altered, and (3) cortical regions outside of pitch-responsive cortex might be abnormal. The ability to identify pitch-responsive regions in individual amusic subjects will make it possible to ask more precise questions about their role in amusia in future work. PMID:26961952

  6. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Vanzella; E Glenn Schellenberg

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP pos...

  7. Constant helical pitch of the gramicidin channel in phospholipid bilayers.

    OpenAIRE

    Katsaras, J.; Prosser, R S; Stinson, R H; Davis, J H

    1992-01-01

    X-ray diffraction has been applied in measuring the helical pitch of the gramicidin channel in oriented bilayers of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) at a polypeptide concentration of 9.1 mol %. The diffraction data show the helical pitch of gramicidin to be 4.7 +/- 0.2 A in both gel and liquid-crystalline phase bilayers, with and without monovalent cations. In addition, the width of the reflection due to the pitch of the helical gramicidin channel ...

  8. Shape reconstruction from apparent contours theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bellettini, Giovanni; Paolini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a variational model concerning the depth of the objects in a picture and the problem of hidden and illusory contours, this book investigates one of the central problems of computer vision: the topological and algorithmic reconstruction of a smooth three dimensional scene starting from the visible part of an apparent contour. The authors focus their attention on the manipulation of apparent contours using a finite set of elementary moves, which correspond to diffeomorphic deformations of three dimensional scenes. A large part of the book is devoted to the algorithmic part, with implementations, experiments, and computed examples. The book is intended also as a user's guide to the software code appcontour, written for the manipulation of apparent contours and their invariants. This book is addressed to theoretical and applied scientists working in the field of mathematical models of image segmentation.

  9. Bathymetric Contours for Prairie Rose Lake, Shelby County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Prairie Rose Lake in Shelby Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of...

  10. Bathymetric Contours for Lake Minnewashta, Dickinson County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Lake Minnewashta in Dickinson Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Lake...

  11. Bathymetric Contours for Littlefield Lake, Audubon County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Littlefield Lake in Audubon Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of...

  12. Bathymetric Contours for Nine Eagles Lake, Decatur County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Nine Eagles Lake in Decatur Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Nine...

  13. Bathymetric Contours for Lake Darling, Washington County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Lake Darling in Washington Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Lake...

  14. Bathymetric Contours for Upper Gar Lake, Dickinson County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Upper Gar Lake in Dickinson Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Upper...

  15. Extended Active Contour Algorithm Based on Color Variance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung-tae LEE; Young-jun HAN; Hern-soo HAHN

    2010-01-01

    General active contour algorithm,which uses the intensity of the image,has been used to actively segment chjects.Because the cbjects have a similar intensity but different colors,it is difficult to segment any object from the others.Moreover,this algorithm can only be used in the simple environment since it is very sensitive to noise.In order to solve these problems.This paper proposes an extended active contour algarithm based on a color variance.In complex images,the color variance energy as the image energy is introduced into the general active contour algorithm.Experimental results show that the proposed active contour algorithm is very effective in various environments.

  16. Contours--Offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Half Moon map area, California. The vector data file is...

  17. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Neuron Images

    CERN Document Server

    Leandro, J J G; Costa, L da F

    2008-01-01

    The current work describes a novel system devised for automatic contour extraction of 2D branching structures images obtained from 3D neurons. Most contour-based methods for neuronal cell shape analysis fall short of suitable representation of such cells because overlaps between neuronal processes prevent traditional contour following algorithms from entering the innermost cell regions. The herein-proposed framework is specifically aimed at the problem of contour following even in presence of multiple overlaps. First, the input image is preprocessed in order to obtain an 8-connected skeleton with one-pixel-wide branches, as well as a set of subtree seed pixels and critical regions (i.e., bifurcations and crossings). Next, for each subtree, the tracking algorithm iteratively labels all valid pixel branches, up to a critical region, where the algorithm determines the suitable direction to proceed. Our algorithm has been found to exhibit robustness even for images with close parallel segments. Experimental resul...

  18. Transgressive Contours--Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  19. Contours--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  20. Transgressive Contours--Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the transgressive contours for the Pigeon Point to South Monterey Bay, California, region. The vector file is included in...

  1. Contours Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file...

  2. Pitch Correlogram Clustering for Fast Speaker Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jhanwar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian mixture models (GMMs are commonly used in text-independent speaker identification systems. However, for large speaker databases, their high computational run-time limits their use in online or real-time speaker identification situations. Two-stage identification systems, in which the database is partitioned into clusters based on some proximity criteria and only a single-cluster GMM is run in every test, have been suggested in literature to speed up the identification process. However, most clustering algorithms used have shown limited success, apparently because the clustering and GMM feature spaces used are derived from similar speech characteristics. This paper presents a new clustering approach based on the concept of a pitch correlogram that captures frame-to-frame pitch variations of a speaker rather than short-time spectral characteristics like cepstral coefficient, spectral slopes, and so forth. The effectiveness of this two-stage identification process is demonstrated on the IVIE corpus of 110 speakers. The overall system achieves a run-time advantage of 500% as well as a 10% reduction of error in overall speaker identification.

  3. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26505915

  4. Perception of words and pitch patterns in song and speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerrill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words, pitch and rhythm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the brain activity patterns of six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; as well as the pure musical or speech rhythm.Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and intraparietal sulcus (IPS in processing song and speech. The left IFG was involved in word- and pitch-related processing in speech, the right IFG in processing pitch in song.Furthermore, the IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the activity of IFG and IPS.

  5. Baseball pitching kinematics,joint loads,and injury prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakiko; Oyama

    2012-01-01

    <正>There is a need for the prevention of upper extremity injuries that affect a large number of competitive baseball players.Currently available evidence alludes to three possible ways to prevent these injuries:1) regulation of unsafe participation factors,2) implementation of exercise intervention to modify suboptimal physical characteristics,and 3) instructional intervention to correct improper pitching techniques.Of these three strategies,instruction of proper pitching technique is under-explored as a method of injury prevention.Therefore,the purpose of this review was to explore the utility of pitching technique instruction in prevention of pitching-related upper extremity injuries by presenting evidence linking pitching technique and pitching-related upper extremity injuries,as well as identifying considerations and potential barriers in pursuing this approach to prevent injuries.Various kinematic parameters measured using laboratory-based motion capture system have been linked to excessive joint loading,and thus pitching-related upper extremity injuries.As we gain more knowledge about the influence of pitching kinematics on joint loading and injury risk,it is important to start exploring ways to modify pitching technique through instruction and feedback while considering the specific skill components to address,mode of instruction,target population,duration of program,and ways to effectively collaborate with coaches and parents.

  6. The Effect of Pitch Accenting on Pronoun Referent Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cahn, J E

    1995-01-01

    By strictest interpretation, theories of both centering and intonational meaning fail to predict the existence of pitch accented pronominals. Yet they occur felicitously in spoken discourse. To explain this, I emphasize the dual functions served by pitch accents, as markers of both propositional (semantic/pragmatic) and attentional salience. This distinction underlies my proposals about the attentional consequences of pitch accents when applied to pronominals, in particular, that while most pitch accents may weaken or reinforce a cospecifier's status as the center of attention, a contrastively stressed pronominal may force a shift, even when contraindicated by textual features.

  7. On the pitch of dialogue in Chinese Putonghua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Maolin; LIN Maocan; LI Aijun

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the naturalness of TTS speech so as to represent the cadence of natural speech, it is necessary to have a study on the pitch of spontaneous speech. Based on the 973 telephone corpus, the pitch ranges and pitch registers of 1084 intonation phrases are analyzed. It is found that intonation phrases can be classified according to their ranges and registers, and this is related to their positions in dialogue exchange. Compared with read speech, the pitch patterns in dialogue are more variable.

  8. Statistically Efficient Methods for Pitch and DOA Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, direction-of-arrival (DOA) and pitch estimation of multichannel, periodic sources have been considered as two separate problems. Separate estimation may render the task of resolving sources with similar DOA or pitch impossible, and it may decrease the estimation accuracy. Therefore......, it was recently considered to estimate the DOA and pitch jointly. In this paper, we propose two novel methods for DOA and pitch estimation. They both yield maximum-likelihood estimates in white Gaussian noise scenar- ios, where the SNR may be different across channels, as opposed to state...

  9. Contour tracking and corner detection in a logic programming environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Benjamin; Pau, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    The added functionality such as contour tracking and corner detection which logic programming lends to standard image operators is described. An environment for implementing low-level imaging operations with Prolog predicates is considered. Within this environment, higher-level image predicates (contour tracking and corner detection) are constructed. The emphasis is not on building better corner detectors, but on presenting ways of using the unification and backtracking features of logic prog...

  10. Auto-propagation of contours for adaptive prostate radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to develop an effective technique to automatically propagate contours from planning CT to cone beam CT (CBCT) to facilitate CBCT-guided prostate adaptive radiation therapy. Different from other disease sites, such as the lungs, the contour mapping here is complicated by two factors: (i) the physical one-to-one correspondence may not exist due to the insertion or removal of some image contents within the region of interest (ROI); and (ii) reduced contrast to noise ratio of the CBCT images due to increased scatter. To overcome these issues, we investigate a strategy of excluding the regions with variable contents by a careful design of a narrow shell signifying the contour of an ROI. For rectum, for example, a narrow shell with the delineated contours as its interior surface was constructed to avoid the adverse influence of the day-to-day content change inside the rectum on the contour mapping. The corresponding contours in the CBCT were found by warping the narrow shell through the use of BSpline deformable model. Both digital phantom experiments and clinical case testing were carried out to validate the proposed ROI mapping method. It was found that the approach was able to reliably warp the constructed narrow band with an accuracy better than 1.3 mm. For all five clinical cases enrolled in this study, the method yielded satisfactory results even when there were significant rectal content changes between the planning CT and CBCT scans. The overlapped area of the auto-mapped contours over 90% to the manually drawn contours is readily achievable. The proposed approach permits us to take advantage of the regional calculation algorithm yet avoiding the nuisance of rectum/bladder filling and provide a useful tool for adaptive radiotherapy of prostate in the future

  11. Contour tracking control for the REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Van Reet, Alan R.

    2005-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation. Use of a contour tracking control algorithm in lieu of preprogrammed waypoint navigation offers distinct advantages within new challenges. The difficult nature of this problem lies in the non-trivial connection between the necessary corrective action and the feedback error used in traditional co...

  12. Projection lithography with distortion compensation using reticle chuck contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichenor, Daniel A.

    2001-01-01

    A chuck for holding a reflective reticle where the chuck has an insulator block with a non-planer surface contoured to cause distortion correction of EUV radiation is provided. Upon being placed on the chuck, a thin, pliable reflective reticle will conform to the contour of the chuck's non-planer surface. When employed in a scanning photolithography system, distortion in the scanned direction is corrected.

  13. The influence of music-elicited emotions and relative pitch on absolute pitch memory for familiar melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Levitin's findings that nonmusicians could produce from memory the absolute pitches of self-selected pop songs have been widely cited in the music psychology literature. These findings suggest that latent absolute pitch (AP) memory may be a more widespread trait within the population than traditional AP labelling ability. However, it has been left unclear what factors may facilitate absolute pitch retention for familiar pieces of music. The aim of the present paper was to investigate factors that may contribute to latent AP memory using Levitin's sung production paradigm for AP memory and comparing results to the outcomes of a pitch labelling task, a relative pitch memory test, measures of music-induced emotions, and various measures of participants' musical backgrounds. Our results suggest that relative pitch memory and the quality and degree of music-elicited emotions impact on latent AP memory.

  14. The influence of music-elicited emotions and relative pitch on absolute pitch memory for familiar melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Levitin's findings that nonmusicians could produce from memory the absolute pitches of self-selected pop songs have been widely cited in the music psychology literature. These findings suggest that latent absolute pitch (AP) memory may be a more widespread trait within the population than traditional AP labelling ability. However, it has been left unclear what factors may facilitate absolute pitch retention for familiar pieces of music. The aim of the present paper was to investigate factors that may contribute to latent AP memory using Levitin's sung production paradigm for AP memory and comparing results to the outcomes of a pitch labelling task, a relative pitch memory test, measures of music-induced emotions, and various measures of participants' musical backgrounds. Our results suggest that relative pitch memory and the quality and degree of music-elicited emotions impact on latent AP memory. PMID:23758506

  15. A fast contour descriptor algorithm for supernova imageclassification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Aragon, David Bradburn

    2006-07-16

    We describe a fast contour descriptor algorithm and its application to a distributed supernova detection system (the Nearby Supernova Factory) that processes 600,000 candidate objects in 80 GB of image data per night. Our shape-detection algorithm reduced the number of false positives generated by the supernova search pipeline by 41% while producing no measurable impact on running time. Fourier descriptors are an established method of numerically describing the shapes of object contours, but transform-based techniques are ordinarily avoided in this type of application due to their computational cost. We devised a fast contour descriptor implementation for supernova candidates that meets the tight processing budget of the application. Using the lowest-order descriptors (F{sub 1} and F{sub -1}) and the total variance in the contour, we obtain one feature representing the eccentricity of the object and another denoting its irregularity. Because the number of Fourier terms to be calculated is fixed and small, the algorithm runs in linear time, rather than the O(n log n) time of an FFT. Constraints on object size allow further optimizations so that the total cost of producing the required contour descriptors is about 4n addition/subtraction operations, where n is the length of the contour.

  16. Application Of Moire Contour Fringes To Study Nycticebus Coucany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren-xiang, Zhang; Ming, Lu; Zu-yun, Lan; Wen-ji, Qu

    1984-12-01

    In this paper we have studied the moire contour fringes of the skull and femur knee joint of Nycticebus coucany and obtained the following results: 1. The skull's value K is very useful for comparative study with the different kinds of Primate. 2. The moire contour fringes of the tibia facies of knee joint is convex on one side while the other side is concave. 3. At the same condition the grade of the first moire contour fringe of connection on the femur knee joint between the two condyles and its angle β are smaller than Hylobates concolor leucongeuys. This study is significant, because: 1. The evolution of skull may be related with the increased value K. 2. The moire contour fringes of the Nycticebus coucany's tibia and femur knee joint have lower range of activity. 3. From the moire contour fringes of knee, the Nycticebus coucany and. Hylobates concolor leucongeuys are of one kind. But the moire contour Nycticebus of tibia is different form.

  17. Visual search of illusory contours: Shape and orientation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Illusory contours are specific class of visual stimuli that represent stimuli configurations perceived as integral irrespective of the fact that they are given in fragmented uncompleted wholes. Due to their specific features, illusory contours gained much attention in last decade representing prototype of stimuli used in investigations focused on binding problem. On the other side, investigations of illusory contours are related to problem of the level of their visual processing. Neurophysiologic studies show that processing of illusory contours proceed relatively early, on the V2 level, on the other hand most of experimental studies claim that illusory contours are perceived with engagement of visual attention, binding their elements to whole percept. This research is focused on two experiments in which visual search of illusory contours are based on shape and orientation. The main experimental procedure evolved the task proposed by Bravo and Nakayama where instead of detection, subjects were performing identification of one among two possible targets. In the first experiment subjects detected the presence of illusory square or illusory triangle, while in the second experiment subject were detecting two different orientations of illusory triangle. The results are interpreted in terms of visual search and feature integration theory. Beside the type of visual search task, search type proved to be dependent of specific features of illusory shapes which further complicate theoretical interpretation of the level of their perception.

  18. Contours, Green Co 10' Contours, Published in 2005, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, MSA Professional Services.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. It is described as 'Green Co 10'...

  19. A possible analogy between contours in mathematics--as exemplified by Cauchy's integral formula--and contours in the arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerr, S

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to draw an analogy between contour drawing and a particular mathematical theorem. The analogy is seen to depend on the fact that both methods use definite values along a contour to imply a totality of values within the contour; thus, the use of a part to suggest the whole, by way of a hypothetical 'gestalt-like integration' in the case of the art contour, and the usual process of mathematical integration in the case of Cauchy's formula. Examples illustrating the analogy are drawn from a wide range of artistic work: a modern American drawing, a Cro-Magnon cave painting, and two Chinese works. The traditional Chinese philosophy of painting is invoked in support of the analogy because of its explicit emphasis on the primacy of outline drawing in Chinese painting. Some speculations are offered on further development and application of the analogy. PMID:7182805

  20. Contours - CONTOURS_24K_USGS_ADRIAN: Elevation Contours from 7.5-Minute Topographic Quadrangle Maps, Grouped into the 30' x 1째 Adrian Quadrangle, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio (United States Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — CONTOURS_24K_USGS_ADRIAN is a shapefile containing elevation contours produced at a scale of 1:24,000, grouped into a 30' x 1째 quadrangle block. Elevation values...

  1. Analysis of pitch system data for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; van de Pieterman, René P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of pitch motor torque and current give indirect information about the condition of the pitch system and can therefore potentially be used for condition-based maintenance. This paper presents an analysis of these measurements for a wind turbine, and the measurements are compared...

  2. Phototoxic keratoconjunctivitis from coal-tar pitch volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, E A; Stetzer, L; Taphorn, B

    1977-11-25

    Roofers working with coal-tar pitch develop burning eyes and conjunctivitis which they subjectively associate with sun exposure. A coal-tar pitch distillate instilled in the conjunctivae of rabbits produced minimal or mild irritation in the absence of ultraviolet radiation, but irradiation with long-ultraviolet produced marked photophobia and severe keratoconjunctivitis.

  3. Microstructure and properties of pitch-based carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco; Santamaria; Bermejo; Bonhomme; Menendez

    1999-11-01

    Pitches prepared in the laboratory by thermal treatment and air-blowing of a commercial coal-tar pitch were used as matrix precursors of carbon composites using granular petroleum coke, foundry coke, amorphous graphite and anthracite. Pitches were characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, softening point, solubility tests and carbon yield) and light microscopy (mesophase content). Pitch pyrolysis behaviour was monitored by thermogravimetric analysis and from the optical texture of cokes. Pitch wettability to the different carbons, at different temperatures, was also studied. Experimental conditions selected for the preparation of composites were based on pitch composition and properties. The main microstructural features of composites were determined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Composite properties were described in terms of their density, porosity and compressive strength, and related to composite microstructure and the characteristics of the precursors. Thermal treatment and air-blowing of pitch improved carbon composite structure and properties. The lowest porosities and best mechanical properties were observed in those composites obtained with the thermally treated pitches combined with foundry coke and anthracite.

  4. Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar;

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate...

  5. Pitch Perception, Working Memory, and Second-Language Phonological Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posedel, James; Emery, Lisa; Souza, Benjamin; Fountain, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that training on a musical instrument is associated with improvements in working memory and musical pitch perception ability. Good working memory and musical pitch perception ability, in turn, have been linked to certain aspects of language production. The current study examines whether working memory and/or pitch…

  6. Velocity vector LDA measurement inside a pitched blade impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptacnik, Michal; Lamka, Jaromir; Fort, Ivan

    1993-02-01

    The integral quantities of flow in a mixing system with a pitched blade impeller are generally known, but the flow pattern inside and in the close neighborhood of the impeller is not well documented. This paper describes results of pitched blade impeller synchronous measurements obtained by Laser Doppler Anemometry.

  7. 14 CFR 23.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.33 Section 23.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 23.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits....

  8. 14 CFR 25.33 - Propeller speed and pitch limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller speed and pitch limits. 25.33 Section 25.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. (a) The propeller speed and...

  9. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users’ preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNeher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1 performance on a measure of reading span (RS is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR strength, (2 similar relations exist for two different, nonverbal measures of executive function, (3 pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and microphone directionality (DIR also influence preferred NR strength, and (4 preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker relations between worse performance on one nonverbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings.

  10. Brightness/darkness induction and the genesis of a contour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncato, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Visual contours often result from the integration or interpolation of fragmented edges. The strength of the completion increases when the edges share the same contrast polarity (CP). Here we demonstrate that the appearance in the perceptual field of this integrated unit, or contour of invariant CP, is concomitant with a vivid brightness alteration of the surfaces at its opposite sides. To observe this effect requires some stratagems because the formation in the visual field of a contour of invariant CP normally engenders the formation of a second contour and then the rise of two streams of induction signals that interfere in different ways. Particular configurations have been introduced that allow us to observe the induction effects of one contour taken in isolation. I documented these effects by phenomenological observations and psychophysical measurement of the brightness alteration in relation to luminance contrast. When the edges of the same CP complete to form a contour, the background of homogeneous luminance appears to dim at one side and to brighten at the opposite side (in accord with the CP). The strength of the phenomenon is proportional to the local luminance contrast. This effect weakens or nulls when the contour of the invariant CP separates surfaces filled with different gray shades. These conflicting results stimulate a deeper exploration of the induction phenomena and their role in the computation of brightness contrast. An alternative perspective is offered to account for some brightness illusions and their relation to the phenomenal transparency. The main assumption asserts that, when in the same region induction signals of opposite CP overlap, the filling-in is blocked unless the image is stratified into different layers, one for each signal of the same polarity. Phenomenological observations document this “solution” by the visual system. PMID:25368570

  11. H-Darrieus Wind Turbine with Blade Pitch Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paraschivoiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for computing the optimal variation of the blades' pitch angle of an H-Darrieus wind turbine that maximizes its torque at given operational conditions is proposed and presented along with the results obtained on a 7 kW prototype. The CARDAAV code, based on the “Double-Multiple Streamtube” model developed by the first author, is used to determine the performances of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine. This was coupled with a genetic algorithm optimizer. The azimuthal variation of the blades' pitch angle is modeled with an analytical function whose coefficients are used as variables in the optimization process. Two types of variations were considered for the pitch angle: a simple sinusoidal one and one which is more general, relating closely the blades' pitch to the local flow conditions along their circular path. A gain of almost 30% in the annual energy production was obtained with the polynomial optimal pitch control.

  12. Two LQRI based Blade Pitch Controls for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsu Nam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As the wind turbine size has been increasing and their mechanical components are built lighter, the reduction of the structural loads becomes a very important task of wind turbine control in addition to maximum wind power capture. In this paper, we present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI, and utilize Kalman filters to estimate system states and wind speed. Compared to previous works in this area, our pitch control algorithms can control rotor speed and blade bending moments at the same time to improve the trade-off between rotor speed regulation and load reduction, while both collective and individual pitch controls can be designed separately. Simulation results show that the proposed collective and individual pitch controllers achieve very good rotor speed regulation and significant reduction of blade bending moments.

  13. Recent trends in binder pitches for reduction anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel R.

    1993-11-01

    The properties of coal tar pitches have changed more in the last eight years than in the previous 40. Over the same period of time, the understanding of the influence of these properties on anodes has increased greatly. The definition of a good-quality pitch for the manufacture of anodes for the primary aluminum industry has changed radically. Pitches that would have been rejected 15 years ago are now preferred and are in high demand. Changes have been led in equal proportion by the pitch producers and by the primary aluminum industry. The increased pace of change will continue as the quest for higher performance is unending. Further advances will be achieved through closer cooperation between producer and user to define and redefine pitch quality in terms of what is the best compromise between what the customer wants and what the producer can practicably manufacture.

  14. Polystyrene influence on the structural and thermal pitches properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finqueneisel, G. [Univ. de Metz, Dept. Chimie, Saint-Avold (France); Zimny, T. [Univ. de Metz, Dept. Chimie, Saint-Avold (France); Heintz, O. [Univ. de Metz, Dept. Chimie, Saint-Avold (France); Bertau, R. [H.G.D. SA, Forbach (France); Weber, J.V. [Univ. de Metz, Dept. Chimie, Saint-Avold (France)

    1996-06-01

    Polystyrene (Mn{approx}240 000) is used to prepare doped pitches. Firstly, PS is dissolved in coal tar and the obtained mixtures are studied by several techniques (chromatography, spectroscopy and thermogravimetry) to follow the influence of PS addition. Then, the PS-tar mixtures are distilled and the resulting pitches are characterized by the same methods. During pitch preparation, the PS is depolymerzied and is recovered in the light fractions as substitued monoaromatics (about 90% of wt). The radicals issued from PS induce the oligomerization of some molecules leading to an increase of the residues at high temperature. About 10% in weight of PS are incorporated in doped pitches as substituents. Finally, other pitch properties (viscosity, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentration) are slightly modified. (orig.)

  15. Contours, 2' Contours for Iredell County provided by 2003 NC Floodplain Mapping Program data, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2007. It is described as '2' Contours for...

  16. Contours, Two-foot contours for Oconee County, Georgia, Published in 2006, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Northeast Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2006. It is described as 'Two-foot contours...

  17. Contours, 10ft contours of Lowndes County, GA, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as '10ft contours of Lowndes County, GA'. Data by this publisher are often...

  18. Contours, Two-foot contours for Athens-Clarke County, Georgia, Published in 2005, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Northeast Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2005. It is described as 'Two-foot contours...

  19. Contours, 2 foot contours for the entire MCCOG MPA area., Published in 2003, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Madison County Council of Governments.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2003. It is described as '2 foot contours for...

  20. Contours, Two-foot contours for Morgan County, Georgia, Published in 2006, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Northeast Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2006. It is described as 'Two-foot contours...

  1. Do Musicians with Perfect Pitch Have More Autism Traits than Musicians without Perfect Pitch? An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Heaton, Pamela;

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased...

  2. Infants' perception of subjective contours from apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kanazawa, So; Okamura, Hiromi

    2008-01-01

    We examined infants' perception of subjective contours in Subjective-Contour-from-Apparent-Motion (SCAM) stimuli [e.g., Cicerone, C. M., Hoffman, D. D., Gowdy, P. D., & Kim, J. S. (1995). The perception of color from motion. Perception & Psychophysics, 57, 761-777] using the preferential looking technique. The SCAM stimulus is composed of random dots which are assigned two different colors. Circular region assigned one color moved apparently, keeping all dots' location unchanged. In the SCAM stimulus, adults can perceive subjective color spreading and subjective contours in apparent motion (http://c-faculty.chuo-u.ac.jp/ approximately ymasa/okamura/ibd_demo.html). In the present study, we conducted two experiments by using this type of SCAM stimulus. A total of thirty-six 3-8-month-olds participated. In experiment 1, we presented two stimuli to the infants side by side: a SCAM stimulus consisting of different luminance, and a non-SCAM stimulus consisting of isoluminance dots. The results indicated that the 5-8-month-olds showed preference for the SCAM stimuli. In experiments 2 and 3, we confirmed that the infants' preference for the SCAM stimulus was not generated by the local difference and local change made by luminance of dots but by the subjective contours. These results suggest that 5-8-month-olds were able to perceive subjective contours in the SCAM stimuli. PMID:17727955

  3. Incorporating Stream Features into Groundwater Contouring Tools Within GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Roger; Kennelly, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogeologists often are called upon to estimate surfaces from discrete, sparse data points. This estimation is often accomplished by manually drawing contours on maps using interpolation methods between points of known value while accounting for features known to influence the water table's surface. By contrast, geographic information systems (GIS) are good at creating smooth continuous surfaces from limited data points and allowing the user to represent the resulting surface resulting with contours, but these automated methods often fail to meet the expectations of many hydrogeologists because they do not include knowledge of other influences on the water table. In this study, we seek to fill this gap in the GIS-based methodology for hydrogeologists through an interactive tool that shapes an interpolated surface based on additional knowledge of the water table inferred from gaining or losing streams. The modified surface is reflected in water table contours that, for example, "V" upstream for gaining streams, and can be interactively adjusted to fit the user's expectations. By modifying not only the contours but also the associated interpolated surface, additional contours will follow the same trend, and the modified surface can be used for other analyses like calculating average gradients and flow paths. The tool leverages Esri's ArcGIS Desktop software, building upon a robust suite of mapping tools. We see this as a prototype for other tools that could be developed for hydrogeologists to account for variations in the water table inferred from local topographic trends, pumping or injection wells, and other hydrogeologic features.

  4. Active contour model based on force field analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhi-qiang; HAN Chong-zhao

    2006-01-01

    The traditional snake initial contour should be close to the true boundary of an object of interest in an image;otherwise,an incorrect result will be obtained.Next,active contours have difficulties progressing into boundary concavities.Moreover,the traditional snake as well as almost all of its improved methods can be easily obtained from the local minimum because snake models are nonconvex.An active contour model based on force field analysis (FFA),namely,FFA snake model,is presented in this paper.Based on analyzing force distribution rules of the distance potential force field,a standard is introduced here to distinguish the false one from contour points.The result is not considered as the final solution when the snake energy is minimal.Furthermore,estimation and calculation should be made according to the established standard;only then can the result be considered final.Thus,the snake is prevented from running into the local minimum.The simulation results show that the FFA snake model has a large capture range and can move a snake into the boundary concavities,and that it is able to obtain the object of interest's contour precisely.Compared with the gradient vector flow snake,this new model has a low computational cost.

  5. OPTIMIZATION METHOD ON IMPELLER MERIDIONAL CONTOUR AND 3D BLADE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An optimization method for 3D blade and meridional contour of centrifugal or mixed-flow impeller based on the 3D viscous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is proposed. The blade is indirectly parameterized using the angular momentum and calculated by inverse design method. The design variables are separated into two categories: the meridional contour design variables and the blade design variables. Firstly, only the blade is optimized using genetic algorithm with the meridional contour remained constant. The artificial neural network (ANN) techniques with the training sample data schemed according to design of experiment theory are adopted to construct the response relation between the blade design variables and the impeller performance. Then, based on the ANN approximated relation between the meridional contour design variables and impeller performance, the meridional contour is optimized. Fewer design variables and less calculation effort is required in this method that may be widely used in the optimization of three-dimension impellers. An optimized impeller in a mixed-flow pump, where the head and the efficiency are enhanced by 12.9% and 4.5% respectively, confirms the validity of this newly proposed method.

  6. Performance comparisons of contour-based corner detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Lu, Guojun; Fraser, Clive S

    2012-09-01

    Corner detectors have many applications in computer vision and image identification and retrieval. Contour-based corner detectors directly or indirectly estimate a significance measure (e.g., curvature) on the points of a planar curve, and select the curvature extrema points as corners. While an extensive number of contour-based corner detectors have been proposed over the last four decades, there is no comparative study of recently proposed detectors. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap. The general framework of contour-based corner detection is presented, and two major issues-curve smoothing and curvature estimation, which have major impacts on the corner detection performance, are discussed. A number of promising detectors are compared using both automatic and manual evaluation systems on two large datasets. It is observed that while the detectors using indirect curvature estimation techniques are more robust, the detectors using direct curvature estimation techniques are faster. PMID:22645267

  7. A Novel Global Threshold-Based Active Contour Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuseiba M. Altarawneh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available n this paper, we propose a novel global threshold- based active contour model which employs a new edge-stopping function that controls the direction of the evolution and stops the evolving contour at weak or blurred edges. The model is implemented usi ng selective binary and Gaussian filtering regularized level set (SBGFRLS method. The method has a selective local or global segmentation property. It selectively penalizes the level set fu nction to be a binary function. This is followed by using a Gaussian function to regularize it. The Gau ssian filters smooth the level set function and afford the evolution more stability. The contour co uld be initialized anywhere inside the image to extract object boundaries. The proposed method perf orms well when the intensities inside and outside the object are homogenous. Our method is te sted on synthetic, medical and Arabic- characters images with satisfactory results

  8. A Robust Algorithm of Contour Extraction for Vehicle Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANZhimin; ZHOUJie; GAODashan

    2003-01-01

    Contour extraction of moving vehicle is an important and challenging issue in traffic surveillance. In this paper, a robust algorithm is proposed for contour ex-traction and moving vehicle tracking. First, we establish a modified snake model and utilize the directional infor-mation of the edge map to guide the snaxels' behavior.Then an adaptive shape restriction is embedded into the algorithm to govern the scope of the snake's motion, and Kalman filter is employed to estimate spatio-temporal rela-tionship between successive frames. In addition~ multiple refinements are suggested to compensate for the snake's vulnerability to fake edges. All of them contribute to a ro-bust overall performance in contour extraction and vehicle tracking. Experimental results in real traffic scene prove the effectiveness of our algorithm.The comparison with conventional snakes is also provided.

  9. Scattering Suppression and Absorption Enhancement in Contour Nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Onal, E Doruk

    2015-01-01

    The expanding application spectrum of plasmonic nanoantennas demand versatile design approaches to tailor the antenna properties for specific requirements. The design efforts primarily concentrate on shifting the operation wavelength or enhancing the local fields by manipulating the size and shape of the nanoantenna. Here, we propose a design path to control the absorption and scattering characteristics of a dipole nanoantenna by introducing a hollow region inside the nanostructure. The resulting contour geometry can significantly suppress the scattering of the dipole nanoantenna and enhance its absorption simultaneously. Both the dipole and the contour dipole nanoantenna couple to equivalent amount of the incident radiation. The dipole nanoantenna scatters 84% of the coupled power (absorbs the remaining 16%) whereas the contour dipole structure scatters only 28% of the coupled power (absorbs the remaining 72%). This constitutes the transformation from scatter to absorber nanoantenna. The scattering of a cont...

  10. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athos, E Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-09-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a "perceptual magnet" centered at the note "A." In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the "sharp" direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability.

  11. NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE PITCHING MOTIONS OF SUPERCAVITATING VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Kai-ping; ZHANG Guang; ZHOU Jing-jun; ZOU Wang; LI Zhen-wang

    2012-01-01

    The pitching motions of supercavitating vehicles could not be avoided due to the lost water buoyancy.In order to have some insight for the design of the supercavitating vehicles,the fixed frequency and free pitching motions are investigated.A numerical predicting method based on the relative motion principle and the non-inertia coordinate system is proposed to simulate the free pitching motions of supercavitating vehicles in the longitudinal plane.Homogeneous and two fluid multiphase models are used to predict the natural and the ventilated supercavitating flows.In the fixed frequency pitching motions,a variety of working conditions are considered,including the pitching angular velocities and the supercavity scales and the results are found to be consistent with the available experimental results in literature.The mesh deformation technology controlled by the moment of momentum equation is adopted to study the free pitching motions and finally to obtain the planing states proposed by Savchenko.The numerical method is validated for predicting the pitching motions of supercavitating vehicles and is found to enjoy better calculation efficiency as comparing with the mesh regeneration technology.

  12. Study of the Blending Efficiency of Pitched Blade Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fořt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the blending efficiency of pitched blade impellers under a turbulent regime of flow of an agitated low viscous liquid. The conductivity method is used to determine of the blending (homogenization time of miscible liquids in pilot plant mixing equipment with standard radial baffles. For the given homogeneity degree (98 % a three-blade pitched blade impeller is tested with various off-bottom clearances, vessel/ impeller diameter ratios and various impeller pitch angles. The experimental results show in accordance with theoretical data from the literature, that the greatest effect on the dimensionless blending time is exhibited by the vessel/ impeller diameter ratio and the impeller pitch angle. The number of total circulations necessary for reaching the chosen homogeneity degree depends on the impeller pitch angle and amounts more than three. Finally, the energetic efficiency of the blending process is calculated. The results of this study show, that the highest energetic efficiency of the three-blade pitched blade impeller appears for the pitch angle a = 24°, the impeller/vessel diameter ratio T/D = 2 and the impeller off-bottom clearance h/D = 1.

  13. Petroleum pitch production from heavy crude residues using VPP technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marval, A.; Lira, A.; Rosas, M.; Muller, Y. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Los Teques Miranda (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP

    2009-07-01

    Venezuelan petroleum pitch (VPP) is a technology for petroleum pitch (PP) production from highly aromatic heavy cuts. The technology developed by Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) INTEVEP enables the production of petroleum pitch with the necessary quality needed for anode binders in the aluminium industry as an alternative to coal tar. The petroleum pitch can be obtained under well designed conditions. The process scheme is similar to conventional thermal cracking and visbreaking units equipped with soakers, filtration systems and vacuum distillation tower. Research and development is underway at PDVSA to improve the process and use alternative feedstock. This paper described the methodology used for the technology development and demonstrated the present status of the research and development studies related to this work. The basic industrial process scheme for Venezuelan petroleum pitch production proposed for this technology was illustrated. Pilot and commercial scale tests were performed during the development of this technology. The performance of representative anodes batches made of petroleum pitch base and coal tar pitch base was evaluated on pilot scale and on electrolytic cells, measuring the properties of wasted anodes and poly-aromatics hydrocarbons emissions. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  15. Ideality contours and thermodynamic regularities in supercritical molecular fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Margo, Abigail; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    Using Expanded Wang-Landau simulations, we calculate the ideality contours for 3 molecular fluids (SF6, CO2 and H2O). We analyze how the increase in polarity, and thus, in the strength of the intermolecular interactions, impacts the contours and thermodynamic regularities. This effect results in the increase in the Boyle and H parameters, that underlie the Zeno line and the curve of ideal enthalpy. Furthermore, a detailed analysis reveals that dipole-dipole interactions lead to much larger enthalpic contributions to the Gibbs free energy. This accounts for the much higher temperatures and pressures that are necessary for supercritical H2O to achieve ideal-like thermodynamic properties.

  16. Motion estimation of elastic articulated objects from image contours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hai-lang; DAI Yue-wei; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    A new method of elastic articulated objects (human bodies) modeling was presented based on a new conic curve. The model includes 3D object deform able curves which can represent the deformation of human occluding contours. The deformation of human occluding contour can be represented by adjusting only four de-formation parameters for each limb. Then, the 3D deformation parameters are determined by corresponding 2Dcontours from a sequence of stereo images. The algorithm presented in this paper includes deform able conic curve parameters determination and the plane, 3D conic curve lying on, parameter determination.

  17. Pointed and plateau-shaped pitch accents in North Frisian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Hoekstra, Jarich

    2015-01-01

    for language documentation and conservation purposes. We selected a small part of this corpus – interviews of 10 elderly speakers – and conducted multiparametric F0 and duration measurements, focusing on nuclear rising-falling pitch accent patterns. We found strong evidence for a phonological pitch-accent...... distinction that relies on the difference between a pointed and a plateau-shaped F0 peak. We suggest that the two pitch accents be represented as LþH* and H*þL, and we discuss our findings with regard to possible communicative functions, implications for intonational typology, and the trade-off between F0...

  18. Changes in Pitch with a Cochlear Implant Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Lina A.J.; Turner, Christopher W.; Erenberg, Sheryl R.; Gantz, Bruce J

    2007-01-01

    In the normal auditory system, the perceived pitch of a tone is closely linked to the cochlear place of vibration. It has generally been assumed that high-rate electrical stimulation by a cochlear implant electrode also evokes a pitch sensation corresponding to the electrode’s cochlear place (“place” code) and stimulation rate (“temporal” code). However, other factors may affect electric pitch sensation, such as a substantial loss of nearby nerve fibers or even higher-level perceptual changes...

  19. The pitch-heave dynamics of transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, L. M.; Richardson, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis and design of suspensions for vehicles of finite length using pitch-heave models is presented. Dynamic models for the finite length vehicle include the spatial distribution of the guideway input disturbance over the vehicle length, as well as both pitch and heave degrees-of-freedom. Analytical results relate the vehicle front and rear accelerations to the pitch and heave natural frequencies, which are functions of vehicle suspension geometry and mass distribution. The effects of vehicle asymmetry and suspension contact area are evaluated. Design guidelines are presented for the modification of vehicle and suspension parameters to meet alternative ride quality criteria.

  20. On the playing of monodic pitch in digital music instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Goudard, Vincent; Genevois, Hugues; Feugère, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses the issue of controlling monodic pitch in digital musical instruments (DMIs), with a focus on in- struments for which the pitch needs to be played with accu- racy. Indeed, in many cultures, music is based on discrete sets of ordered notes called scales, so the need to control pitch has a predominant role in acoustical instruments as well as in most of the DMIs. But the freedom of param- eter mapping allowed by computers, as well as the wide range o...

  1. Loudness and pitch of Kunqu opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Sundberg, Johan; Kong, Jiangping

    2014-01-01

    Equivalent sound level (Leq), sound pressure level (SPL), and fundamental frequency (F0) are analyzed in each of five Kunqu Opera roles, Young girl and Young woman, Young man, Old man, and Colorful face. Their pitch ranges are similar to those of some western opera singers (alto, alto, tenor, baritone, and baritone, respectively). Differences among tasks, conditions (stage speech, singing, and reading lyrics), singers, and roles are examined. For all singers, Leq of stage speech and singing were considerably higher than that of conversational speech. Interrole differences of Leq among tasks and singers were larger than the intrarole differences. For most roles, time domain variation of SPL differed between roles both in singing and stage speech. In singing, as compared with stage speech, SPL distribution was more concentrated and variation of SPL with time was smaller. With regard to gender and age, male roles had higher mean Leq and lower average F0, MF0, as compared with female roles. Female singers showed a wider F0 distribution for singing than for stage speech, whereas the opposite was true for male singers. The Leq of stage speech was higher than in singing for young personages. Younger female personages showed higher Leq, whereas older male personages had higher Leq. The roles performed with higher Leq tended to be sung at a lower MF0. PMID:24070593

  2. Learning Pitch with STDP: A Computational Model of Place and Temporal Pitch Perception Using Spiking Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Erfanian Saeedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pitch perception is important for understanding speech prosody, music perception, recognizing tones in tonal languages, and perceiving speech in noisy environments. The two principal pitch perception theories consider the place of maximum neural excitation along the auditory nerve and the temporal pattern of the auditory neurons' action potentials (spikes as pitch cues. This paper describes a biophysical mechanism by which fine-structure temporal information can be extracted from the spikes generated at the auditory periphery. Deriving meaningful pitch-related information from spike times requires neural structures specialized in capturing synchronous or correlated activity from amongst neural events. The emergence of such pitch-processing neural mechanisms is described through a computational model of auditory processing. Simulation results show that a correlation-based, unsupervised, spike-based form of Hebbian learning can explain the development of neural structures required for recognizing the pitch of simple and complex tones, with or without the fundamental frequency. The temporal code is robust to variations in the spectral shape of the signal and thus can explain the phenomenon of pitch constancy.

  3. Learning Pitch with STDP: A Computational Model of Place and Temporal Pitch Perception Using Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian Saeedi, Nafise; Blamey, Peter J; Burkitt, Anthony N; Grayden, David B

    2016-04-01

    Pitch perception is important for understanding speech prosody, music perception, recognizing tones in tonal languages, and perceiving speech in noisy environments. The two principal pitch perception theories consider the place of maximum neural excitation along the auditory nerve and the temporal pattern of the auditory neurons' action potentials (spikes) as pitch cues. This paper describes a biophysical mechanism by which fine-structure temporal information can be extracted from the spikes generated at the auditory periphery. Deriving meaningful pitch-related information from spike times requires neural structures specialized in capturing synchronous or correlated activity from amongst neural events. The emergence of such pitch-processing neural mechanisms is described through a computational model of auditory processing. Simulation results show that a correlation-based, unsupervised, spike-based form of Hebbian learning can explain the development of neural structures required for recognizing the pitch of simple and complex tones, with or without the fundamental frequency. The temporal code is robust to variations in the spectral shape of the signal and thus can explain the phenomenon of pitch constancy. PMID:27049657

  4. Learning Pitch with STDP: A Computational Model of Place and Temporal Pitch Perception Using Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian Saeedi, Nafise; Blamey, Peter J; Burkitt, Anthony N; Grayden, David B

    2016-04-01

    Pitch perception is important for understanding speech prosody, music perception, recognizing tones in tonal languages, and perceiving speech in noisy environments. The two principal pitch perception theories consider the place of maximum neural excitation along the auditory nerve and the temporal pattern of the auditory neurons' action potentials (spikes) as pitch cues. This paper describes a biophysical mechanism by which fine-structure temporal information can be extracted from the spikes generated at the auditory periphery. Deriving meaningful pitch-related information from spike times requires neural structures specialized in capturing synchronous or correlated activity from amongst neural events. The emergence of such pitch-processing neural mechanisms is described through a computational model of auditory processing. Simulation results show that a correlation-based, unsupervised, spike-based form of Hebbian learning can explain the development of neural structures required for recognizing the pitch of simple and complex tones, with or without the fundamental frequency. The temporal code is robust to variations in the spectral shape of the signal and thus can explain the phenomenon of pitch constancy.

  5. Theory on the molecular characteristic contour(Ⅰ)——A new approach to defining molecular characteristic contour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东霞; 杨忠志

    1999-01-01

    Based on the classical turning point of electron movement in a molecule, a model for defining the molecular characteristic boundary contour is advanced. By using an accurate ab initio MELD program and an auxiliary program, some electron parameters in a molecule, such as the potential felt by an electron, have been evaluated. According to our model and definition, the molecular characteristic contour of the equilibrium geometry configuration is drawn and a vivid intuitive picture for describing the forming or breaking of a chemical bond is displayed.

  6. A method of dealing polygon's self-intersection contour in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yong-qiang; MO Jian-hua; HUANG Shu-huai

    2007-01-01

    The contour of the slices of SLA parts is composed of a great deal of small lines. When offsetting the contour to compensate for the radius of laser spot, many self-intersection contours come into being, which decrease the precision of formed parts. A new lemma to judge the local self-intersection contour and the global self-intersection contour separately is put forward, according to which self-intersection contour can be removed reliably. Meanwhile, a new beam offsetting algorithm for SLA parts is described, which brings about good results in the practical manufacturing process.

  7. Algorithms for Accurate and Fast Plotting of Contour Surfaces in 3D Using Hexahedral Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandan; Saini, Jaswinder Singh

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, Fast and accurate algorithms for the generation of contour surfaces in 3D are described using hexahedral elements which are popular in finite element analysis. The contour surfaces are described in the form of groups of boundaries of contour segments and their interior points are derived using the contour equation. The locations of contour boundaries and the interior points on contour surfaces are as accurate as the interpolation results obtained by hexahedral elements and thus there are no discrepancies between the analysis and visualization results.

  8. The role of "contrast enhancement" in the detection and appearance of visual contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R F; Dakin, S C; Field, D J

    1998-03-01

    We test the proposition that the appearance and detection of visual contours is based on an increase in the perceived contrast of contour elements. First we show that detection of contours is quite possible in the presence of very high levels of variability in contrast. Second we show that inclusion in a contour does not induce Gabor patches to appear to be of higher contrast than patches outside of a contour. These results suggest that, contrary to a number of current models, contrast or its assumed physiological correlate (the mean firing rate of early cortical neurons) is not the determining information for identifying the contour.

  9. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The c

  10. Contour detection based on nonclassical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called nonclassical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, more generally surround inhibition or suppression, to improve contour detection in machine vision. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation-selective neurons in the prim

  11. The role of non-CRF inhibition in contour detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.; Skala,

    2003-01-01

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called non-classical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, to improve the performance of contour detectors. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation selective neurons in the primary visual cortex of macaque monkeys and has been

  12. Topology Optimization - Improved Checker-Board Filtering With Sharp Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Gejl; Lund, Jeppe Jessen; Damkilde, Lars;

    2006-01-01

    In topology optimization it is mandatory to use a filtering technique in order to prevent checker-boarder solutions. The paper examines a new filtering principle and demonstrates an improved sharpness in the contours. This was not realized in the original proposal of the filter. Furthermore...

  13. Application of Active Contour Model in Tracking Sequential Nearshore Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Hung HSIAO; Min-Chih HUANG

    2009-01-01

    In the present study,a generalized active contour model of gradient vector flow is combined with the video techniques of Argus system to delineate and track sequential nearshore wave crest profdes in the shoaling process,up to their breaking on the shorehne.Previous applications of active contour models to water wave problems are limited to controllable wave tank experiments.By contrast,our application in this study is in a nearshore field environment where oblique images obtained under natural and varying condition of ambient light are employed.Existing Argus techniques produce plane image data or time series data from a selected small subset of discrete pixels.By contrast,the active contour model produces line image data along continuous visible curves such as wave crest profdes.The combination of these two existing techniques,the active contour model and Argus methodologies,facilitates the estimates of the direction wave field and phase speeds within the whole area covered by camera.These estimates are useful for the purpose of inverse calculation of the water depth.Applications of the present techniques to Hsi-tzu bay where a beach restoration program is currently undertaken are illustrated.This extension of Argus video techniques provides new application of optical remote sensing to study the hydrodynamics and morphology of a nearshore environment.

  14. Multiple LREK active contours for knee meniscus ultrasound image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Amir; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Goh, Siew-Li; George, John; Supriyanto, Eko; Lai, Khin W

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of knee meniscus degeneration and displacement in an ultrasound image requires simultaneous segmentation of femoral condyle, meniscus, and tibial plateau in order to determine the area and the position of the meniscus. In this paper, we present an active contour for image segmentation that uses scalable local regional information on expandable kernel (LREK). It includes using a strategy to adapt the size of a local window in order to avoid being confined locally in a homogeneous region during the segmentation process. We also provide a multiple active contours framework called multiple LREK (MLREK) to deal with multiple object segmentation without merging and overlapping between the neighboring contours in the shared boundaries of separate regions. We compare its performance to other existing active contour models and show an improvement offered by our model. We then investigate the choice of various parameters in the proposed framework in response to the segmentation outcome. Dice coefficient and Hausdorff distance measures over a set of real knee meniscus ultrasound images indicate a potential application of MLREK for assessment of knee meniscus degeneration and displacement. PMID:25910057

  15. Temperature Contours and Ghost-Surfaces for Chaotic Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steady state solutions for anisotropic heat transport in a chaotic magnetic field are determined numerically and compared to a set of 'ghost-surfaces', surfaces constructed via an action-gradient flow between the minimax and minimizing periodic orbits. The ghost-surfaces are in remarkable agreement with the temperature contours.

  16. Integrability and Wilson loops: the wavy line contour

    CERN Document Server

    Cagnazzo, A

    2013-01-01

    The Wilson loop with a wavy line contour is studied using integrable methods. The auxiliary problem is solved and the Lax operator is built to first order in perturbation theory, considering a small perturbation from the straight line. Finally the spectral curve of the solution is considered.

  17. Design of a Vibrotactile Vest for Contour Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A vibrotactile array is a promising human computer interface which could display graphical information to users in a tactile form. This paper presents the design and testing of an image contour display system with a vibrotactile array. The tactile image display system is attached to the back of the user. It converts visual graphics into 2D tactile images and allows subjects to feel the contours of objects through vibration stimulus. The system consists of a USB camera, 48 (6×8 vibrating motors and an embedded control system. The image is captured by the camera and the 2D contour is extracted and transformed into vibrotactile stimuli using a temporal‐spatial dynamic coding method. Preliminary experiments were carried out and the optimal parameters of the vibrating time and duration were explored. To evaluate the feasibility and robustness of this vibration mode, letters were also tactilely displayed and the recognition rate about the alphabet letter display was investigated. It was shown that under the condition of no pre‐training for the subjects, the recognition rate was 82%. Such a recognition rate is higher than that of the scanning mode (47.5% and the improved handwriting mode (76.8%. The results indicated that the proposed method was efficient in conveying the contour information to the visually impaired by means of vibrations.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Convoluted Contouring for Aircraft Afterbody Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Karen A.; Hunter, Craig A.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic effects of external convolutions, placed on the boattail of a nonaxisymmetric nozzle for drag reduction. Boattail angles of 15 and 22 were tested with convolutions placed at a forward location upstream of the boattail curvature, at a mid location along the curvature and at a full location that spanned the entire boattail flap. Each of the baseline nozzle afterbodies (no convolutions) had a parabolic, converging contour with a parabolically decreasing corner radius. Data were obtained at several Mach numbers from static conditions to 1.2 for a range of nozzle pressure ratios and angles of attack. An oil paint flow visualization technique was used to qualitatively assess the effect of the convolutions. Results indicate that afterbody drag reduction by convoluted contouring is convolution location, Mach number, boattail angle, and NPR dependent. The forward convolution location was the most effective contouring geometry for drag reduction on the 22 afterbody, but was only effective for M < 0.95. At M = 0.8, drag was reduced 20 and 36 percent at NPRs of 5.4 and 7, respectively, but drag was increased 10 percent for M = 0.95 at NPR = 7. Convoluted contouring along the 15 boattail angle afterbody was not effective at reducing drag because the flow was minimally separated from the baseline afterbody, unlike the massive separation along the 22 boattail angle baseline afterbody.

  19. Series pid pitch controller of large wind turbines generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micić Aleksandar D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For this stable process with oscillatory dynamics, characterized with small damping ratio and dominant transport delay, design of the series PID pitch controller is based on the model obtained from the open-loop process step response, filtered with the second-order Butterworth filter Fbw. Performance of the series PID pitch controller, with the filter Fbw, is analyzed by simulations of the set-point and input/output disturbance responses, including simulations with a colored noise added to the control variable. Excellent performance/robustness tradeoff is obtained, compared to the recently proposed PI pitch controllers and to the modified internal model pitch controller, developed here, which has a natural mechanism to compensate effect of dominant transport delay. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47016

  20. Investors prefer entrepreneurial ventures pitched by attractive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison Wood; Huang, Laura; Kearney, Sarah Wood; Murray, Fiona E

    2014-03-25

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur's business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs. PMID:24616491

  1. Pitch Angle Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cheng, M;

    2008-01-01

    Pitch angle control is the most common means for adjusting the aerodynamic torque of the wind turbine when wind speed is above rated speed and various controlling variables may be chosen, such as wind speed, generator speed and generator power. As conventional pitch control usually use PI...... controller, the mathematical model of the system should be known well. A fuzzy logic pitch angle controller is developed in this paper, in which it does not need well known about the system and the mean wind speed is used to compensate the non-linear sensitivity. The fuzzy logic control strategy may have...... the potential when the system contains strong non-linearity, such as wind turbulence is strong, or the control objectives include fatigue loads. The design of the fuzzy logic controller and the comparisons with conversional pitch angle control strategies with various controlling variables are carried out...

  2. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of...

  3. Robust Pitch Estimation Using an Optimal Filter on Frequency Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch of such...... signals from unconstrained frequency estimates (UFEs). A minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) method is proposed as an optimal solution to minimize the variance of UFEs considering the constraint of integer harmonics. The MVDR filter is designed based on noise statistics making it robust...... against different noise situations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed MVDR method outperforms the state-of-the-art weighted least squares (WLS) pitch estimator in colored noise and has robust pitch estimates against missing harmonics in some time-frames....

  4. Joint Pitch and DOA Estimation Using the ESPRIT method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yuntao; Amir, Leshem; Jensen, Jesper Rindom;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of joint multi-pitch and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for multi-channel harmonic sinusoidal signals is considered. A spatio-temporal matrix signal model for a uniform linear array is defined, and then the ESPRIT method based on subspace techniques that exploits...... the invariance property in the time domain is first used to estimate the multi pitch frequencies of multiple harmonic signals. Followed by the estimated pitch frequencies, the DOA estimations based on the ESPRIT method are also presented by using the shift invariance structure in the spatial domain....... Compared to the existing stateof-the-art algorithms, the proposed method based on ESPRIT without 2-D searching is computationally more efficient but performs similarly. An asymptotic performance analysis of the DOA and pitch estimation of the proposed method are also presented. Finally, the effectiveness...

  5. Human vertical eye movement responses to earth horizontal pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Petropoulos, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    The vertical eye movements in humans produced in response to head-over-heels constant velocity pitch rotation about a horizontal axis resemble those from other species. At 60 degrees/s these are persistent and tend to have non-reversing slow components that are compensatory to the direction of rotation. In most, but not all subjects, the slow component velocity was well characterized by a rapid build-up followed by an exponential decay to a non-zero baseline. Super-imposed was a cyclic or modulation component whose frequency corresponded to the time for one revolution and whose maximum amplitude occurred during a specific head orientation. All response components (exponential decay, baseline and modulation) were larger during pitch backward compared to pitch forward runs. Decay time constants were shorter during the backward runs, thus, unlike left to right yaw axis rotation, pitch responses display significant asymmetries between paired forward and backward runs.

  6. Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Börner, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Scheffel, M., & Börner, D. (2013, 31 May). Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research. Workshop presentation at the 9th Joint European Summer School on Technology Enhanced Learning, Limassol, Cyprus.

  7. Ladder contours are undetectable in the periphery: a crowding effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Keith A; Hess, Robert F

    2007-10-29

    We studied the perceptual integration of contours consisting of Gabor elements positioned along a smooth path, embedded among distractor elements. Contour elements either formed tangents to the path ("snakes") or were perpendicular to it ("ladders"). Perfectly straight snakes and ladders were easily detected in the fovea but, at an eccentricity of 6 degrees , only the snakes were detectable. The disproportionate impairment of peripheral ladder detection remained when we brought foveal performance away from ceiling by jittering the orientations of the elements. We propose that the failure to detect peripheral ladders is a form of crowding, the phenomenon observed when identification of peripherally located letters is disrupted by flanking letters. D. G. Pelli, M. Palomares, and N. J. Majaj (2004) outlined a model in which simple feature detectors are followed by integration fields, which are involved in tasks, such as letter identification, that require the outputs of several detectors. They proposed that crowding occurs because small integration fields are absent from the periphery, leading to inappropriate feature integration by large peripheral integration fields. We argue that the "association field," which has been proposed to mediate contour integration (D. J. Field, A. Hayes, & R. F. Hess, 1993), is a type of integration field. Our data are explained by an elaboration of Pelli et al.'s model, in which weak ladder integration competes with strong snake integration. In the fovea, the association fields were small, and the model integrated snakes and ladders with little interference. In the periphery, the association fields were large, and integration of ladders was severely disrupted by interference from spurious snake contours. In contrast, the model easily detected snake contours in the periphery. In a further demonstration of the possible link between contour integration and crowding, we ran our contour integration model on groups of three-letter stimuli

  8. Production of graphene oxide from pitch-based carbon fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Miyeon Lee; Jihoon Lee; Sung Young Park; Byunggak Min; Bongsoo Kim; Insik In

    2015-01-01

    Pitch-based graphene oxide (p-GO) whose compositional/structural features are comparable to those of graphene oxide (GO) was firstly produced by chemical exfoliation of pitch-based carbon fiber rather than natural graphite. Incorporation of p-GO as nanofillers into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a matrix polymer resulted in excellent mechanical reinforcement. p-GO/PMMA nanocomposite (1 wt.-% p-GO) demonstrated 800% higher modulus of toughness of neat PMMA.

  9. Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term Pitcher Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013. The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114. With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.

  10. Pyrolysis of petroleum pitches. 1. Non-isothermal kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Okyay, Firuze; Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition and reactivity of petroleum pitches under non-isothermal thermogravimetric conditions were studied. Thermogravimetry (TG) was used to study pyrolysis of petroleum pitches. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data were used to evaluate the kinetics of the pyrolysis of this carbonaceous material. The paper reports application of Ozawa–Flynn–Wall model to deal with non-isothermal TG data for the evaluation of the activation energy corresponding to the pyrolysis of two diffe...

  11. A Method for Low-Delay Pitch Tracking and Smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for pitch tracking is presented. The method is comprised of two steps. In the first step, accurate pitch estimates are obtained on a sample-by-sample basis by updates of the signal statistics with an exponential forgetting factor and subse- quent numerical optimization...... that require fast and sample-by-sample estimates, like tuners for musical instruments, transcription tasks requiring details like vi- brato, and real-time tracking of voiced speech....

  12. Study of the Blending Efficiency of Pitched Blade Impellers

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fořt; T. Jirout; Rieger, F.; Allner, R.; R. Sperling

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the blending efficiency of pitched blade impellers under a turbulent regime of flow of an agitated low viscous liquid. The conductivity method is used to determine of the blending (homogenization) time of miscible liquids in pilot plant mixing equipment with standard radial baffles. For the given homogeneity degree (98 %) a three-blade pitched blade impeller is tested with various off-bottom clearances, vessel/ impeller diameter ratios and various impeller p...

  13. Voice Examination in Patients with Decreased High Pitch after Thyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Hyo Sang; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Hong, Jong Chul; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Kang Dae

    2012-01-01

    Decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy due to injury of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) may be a critical, especially to professional voice users. The author studied the usefulness of VRP (voice range profile) and MDVP (multi-dimensional voice program) to evaluate patients who have decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy. A study was performed with 58 females and 9 males who underwent voice assessment between January 2008 and June 2009. The patients were classified ...

  14. Optimization of propeller pitch and revolutions in behind condition

    OpenAIRE

    Hasfjord, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    To reduce costs and limit pollution from transportation of goods by sea, a method for optimization of the propulsive efficiency of an 8000 dead weight tonnage tanker is investigated. Emphasis is put on the interaction between the propulsion system and the hull.The optimum combination of pitch and propeller rate of revolutions is sought for a controllable pitch propeller, working behind a tanker. Two stern shapes have been examined at the vessel’s design speed, and in bollard pull conditi...

  15. Standardization of surgical techniques used in facial bone contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Sung

    2015-12-01

    Since the introduction of facial bone contouring surgery for cosmetic purposes, various surgical methods have been used to improve the aesthetics of facial contours. In general, by standardizing the surgical techniques, it is possible to decrease complication rates and achieve more predictable surgical outcomes, thereby increasing patient satisfaction. The technical strategies used by the author to standardize facial bone contouring procedures are introduced here. The author uses various pre-manufactured surgical tools and hardware for facial bone contouring. During a reduction malarplasty or genioplasty procedure, double-bladed reciprocating saws and pre-bent titanium plates customized for the zygomatic body, arch and chin are used. Various guarded oscillating saws are used for mandibular angloplasty. The use of double-bladed saws and pre-bent plates to perform reduction malarplasty reduces the chances of post-operative asymmetry or under- or overcorrection of the zygoma contours due to technical faults. Inferior alveolar nerve injury and post-operative jawline asymmetry or irregularity can be reduced by using a guarded saw during mandibular angloplasty. For genioplasty, final placement of the chin in accordance with preoperative quantitative analysis can be easily performed with pre-bent plates, and a double-bladed saw allows more procedural accuracy during osteotomies. Efforts by the surgeon to avoid unintentional faults are key to achieving satisfactory results and reducing the incidence of complications. The surgical techniques described in this study in conjunction with various in-house surgical tools and modified hardware can be used to standardize techniques to achieve aesthetically gratifying outcomes. PMID:26346781

  16. When pitch Accents Encode Speaker Commitment: Evidence from French Intonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelas, Amandine; Portes, Cristel; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies on a variety of languages have shown that a speaker's commitment to the propositional content of his or her utterance can be encoded, among other strategies, by pitch accent types. Since prior research mainly relied on lexical-stress languages, our understanding of how speakers of a non-lexical-stress language encode speaker commitment is limited. This paper explores the contribution of the last pitch accent of an intonation phrase to convey speaker commitment in French, a language that has stress at the phrasal level as well as a restricted set of pitch accents. In a production experiment, participants had to produce sentences in two pragmatic contexts: unbiased questions (the speaker had no particular belief with respect to the expected answer) and negatively biased questions (the speaker believed the proposition to be false). Results revealed that negatively biased questions consistently exhibited an additional unaccented F0 peak in the preaccentual syllable (an H+!H* pitch accent) while unbiased questions were often realized with a rising pattern across the accented syllable (an H* pitch accent). These results provide evidence that pitch accent types in French can signal the speaker's belief about the certainty of the proposition expressed in French. It also has implications for the phonological model of French intonation. PMID:27363256

  17. Processing of pitch and time sequences in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Christiane; Knösche, Thomas R

    2008-08-15

    Pitch and duration -- either as written symbols or in auditory form -- are the basic structural properties in tones that form a melodic sequence. From the cognitive perspective, it is still a matter of debate whether, and at which processing stage, these two factors are processed independently or interdependently. The present study addresses this issue from the neuroscientist's point of view by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in musicians and non-musicians. Either the pitches or the durations of the tones, or both, were permuted randomly over a set of melodies in order to remove all sequential ordering with respect to these factors. Effects of both, pitch and time order, on the peak amplitudes of the P1-N1-P2 complex were observed. ANOVA revealed that sequential processing may depend on the different levels of skill in analytical hearing. For musicians, strong interaction effects for all three ERP components corroborated the interdependence of pitch and time processing. Musicians also seem to rely on coherent time structure more than non-musicians and showed enlarged P1 and P2 components whenever tone duration, either with or without preserved pitch, was at random. Non-musicians tend to use ordered pitch relations for perceptual orientation, and main effects without any interactions might indicate some kind of independent processing of both dimensions at some processing stages. PMID:18584960

  18. Relative saliency of pitch versus phonetic cues in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Gina; Kuhl, Patricia; Sundara, Megha

    2005-09-01

    Infants in their first year are highly sensitive to different acoustic components of speech, including phonetic detail and pitch information. The present investigation examined whether relative sensitivity to these two dimensions changes during this period, as the infant acquires language-specific phonetic categories. If pitch and phonetic discrimination are hierarchical, then the relative salience of pitch and phonetic change may become reversed between 8 and 12 months of age. Thirty-two- and 47-week-old infants were tested using an auditory preference paradigm in which they first heard a recording of a person singing a 4-note song (i.e., ``go-bi-la-tu'') and were then presented with both the familiar and an unfamiliar, modified version of that song. Modifications were either a novel pitch order (keeping syllables constant) or a novel syllable order (keeping melody constant). Compared to the younger group, older infants were predicted to show greater relative sensitivity to syllable order than pitch order, in accordance with an increased tendency to attend to linguistically relevant information (phonetic patterns) as opposed to cues that are initially more salient (pitch patterns). Preliminary data show trends toward the predicted interaction, with preference patterns commensurate with previously reported data. [Work supported by the McDonnell Foundation and NIH.

  19. Speech synthesis with pitch modification using harmonic plus noise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehana, Parveen K.; Pandey, Prem C.

    2003-10-01

    In harmonic plus noise model (HNM) based speech synthesis, the input signal is modeled as two parts: the harmonic part using amplitudes and phases of the harmonics of the fundamental and the noise part using an all-pole filter excited by random white Gaussian noise. This method requires relatively less number of parameters and computations, provides good quality output, and permits pitch and time scaling without explicit estimation of vocal tract parameters. Pitch scaling to synthesize the speech with interpolated original amplitudes and phases at the multiples of the scaled pitch frequency results in an unnatural quality. Our investigation for obtaining natural quality output showed that the frequency scale of the amplitudes and phases of the harmonics of the original signal needed to be modified by a speaker dependent warping function. The function was obtained by studying the relationship between pitch frequency and formant frequencies for the three cardinal vowels naturally occurring with different pitches in a passage with intonation. Listening tests showed that good quality speech was obtained by linear frequency scaling of the amplitude and phase spectra, by the same factor as the pitch-scaling.

  20. SU-E-J-129: Atlas Development for Cardiac Automatic Contouring Using Multi-Atlas Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, R; Yang, J; Pan, T; Milgrom, S; Pinnix, C; Shi, A; Yang, J; Liu, Y; Nguyen, Q; Gomez, D; Dabaja, B; Balter, P; Court, L; Liao, Z [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a set of atlases for automatic contouring of cardiac structures to determine heart radiation dose and the associated toxicity. Methods: Six thoracic cancer patients with both contrast and non-contrast CT images were acquired for this study. Eight radiation oncologists manually and independently delineated cardiac contours on the non-contrast CT by referring to the fused contrast CT and following the RTOG 1106 atlas contouring guideline. Fifteen regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated, including heart, four chambers, four coronary arteries, pulmonary artery and vein, inferior and superior vena cava, and ascending and descending aorta. Individual expert contours were fused using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm for each ROI and each patient. The fused contours became atlases for an in-house multi-atlas segmentation. Using leave-one-out test, we generated auto-segmented contours for each ROI and each patient. The auto-segmented contours were compared with the fused contours using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean surface distance (MSD). Results: Inter-observer variability was not obvious for heart, chambers, and aorta but was large for other structures that were not clearly distinguishable on CT image. The average DSC between individual expert contours and the fused contours were less than 50% for coronary arteries and pulmonary vein, and the average MSD were greater than 4.0 mm. The largest MSD of expert contours deviating from the fused contours was 2.5 cm. The mean DSC and MSD of auto-segmented contours were within one standard deviation of expert contouring variability except the right coronary artery. The coronary arteries, vena cava, and pulmonary vein had DSC<70% and MSD>3.0 mm. Conclusion: A set of cardiac atlases was created for cardiac automatic contouring, the accuracy of which was comparable to the variability in expert contouring. However, substantial modification may need

  1. Active contour-based visual tracking by integrating colors, shapes, and motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Zhou, Xue; Li, Wei; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for active contour-based visual tracking using level sets. The main components of our framework include contour-based tracking initialization, color-based contour evolution, adaptive shape-based contour evolution for non-periodic motions, dynamic shape-based contour evolution for periodic motions, and the handling of abrupt motions. For the initialization of contour-based tracking, we develop an optical flow-based algorithm for automatically initializing contours at the first frame. For the color-based contour evolution, Markov random field theory is used to measure correlations between values of neighboring pixels for posterior probability estimation. For adaptive shape-based contour evolution, the global shape information and the local color information are combined to hierarchically evolve the contour, and a flexible shape updating model is constructed. For the dynamic shape-based contour evolution, a shape mode transition matrix is learnt to characterize the temporal correlations of object shapes. For the handling of abrupt motions, particle swarm optimization is adopted to capture the global motion which is applied to the contour in the current frame to produce an initial contour in the next frame. PMID:23288333

  2. Recognizing the authenticity of emotional expressions: F0 contour matters when you need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Matthis; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Fischer, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Authenticity of vocal emotion expression affects emotion recognition and brain activity in the so-called Theory of Mind (ToM) network, which is implied in the ability to explain and predict behavior by attributing mental states to other individuals. Exploiting the variability of the fundamental frequency (F0 contour), which varies more (higher contour) in play-acted expressions than authentic ones, we examined whether contour biases explicit categorization toward a particular authenticity or emotion category. Moreover, we tested whether contour modulates blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response in the ToM network and explored the role of task as a top-down modulator. The effects of contour on BOLD signal were analyzed by contrasting high and low contour stimuli within two previous fMRI studies that implemented emotion and authenticity rating tasks. Participants preferentially categorized higher contour stimuli as play-acted and lower contour stimuli as sad. Higher contour was found to up-regulate activation task-independently in the primary auditory cortex. Stimulus contour and task were found to interact in a network including medial prefrontal cortex, with an increase in BOLD signal for low-contour stimuli during explicit perception of authenticity and an increase for high-contour stimuli during explicit perception of emotion. Contour-induced BOLD effects appear to be purely stimulus-driven in early auditory and intonation perception, while being strongly task-dependent in regions involved in higher cognition.

  3. Fast Contour-Tracing Algorithm Based on a Pixel-Following Method for Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jonghoon; Chae, Seungho; Shim, Jinwook; Kim, Dongchul; Cheong, Cheolho; Han, Tack-Don

    2016-01-01

    Contour pixels distinguish objects from the background. Tracing and extracting contour pixels are widely used for smart/wearable image sensor devices, because these are simple and useful for detecting objects. In this paper, we present a novel contour-tracing algorithm for fast and accurate contour following. The proposed algorithm classifies the type of contour pixel, based on its local pattern. Then, it traces the next contour using the previous pixel's type. Therefore, it can classify the type of contour pixels as a straight line, inner corner, outer corner and inner-outer corner, and it can extract pixels of a specific contour type. Moreover, it can trace contour pixels rapidly because it can determine the local minimal path using the contour case. In addition, the proposed algorithm is capable of the compressing data of contour pixels using the representative points and inner-outer corner points, and it can accurately restore the contour image from the data. To compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to that of conventional techniques, we measure their processing time and accuracy. In the experimental results, the proposed algorithm shows better performance compared to the others. Furthermore, it can provide the compressed data of contour pixels and restore them accurately, including the inner-outer corner, which cannot be restored using conventional algorithms. PMID:27005632

  4. Fast Contour-Tracing Algorithm Based on a Pixel-Following Method for Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jonghoon; Chae, Seungho; Shim, Jinwook; Kim, Dongchul; Cheong, Cheolho; Han, Tack-Don

    2016-03-09

    Contour pixels distinguish objects from the background. Tracing and extracting contour pixels are widely used for smart/wearable image sensor devices, because these are simple and useful for detecting objects. In this paper, we present a novel contour-tracing algorithm for fast and accurate contour following. The proposed algorithm classifies the type of contour pixel, based on its local pattern. Then, it traces the next contour using the previous pixel's type. Therefore, it can classify the type of contour pixels as a straight line, inner corner, outer corner and inner-outer corner, and it can extract pixels of a specific contour type. Moreover, it can trace contour pixels rapidly because it can determine the local minimal path using the contour case. In addition, the proposed algorithm is capable of the compressing data of contour pixels using the representative points and inner-outer corner points, and it can accurately restore the contour image from the data. To compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to that of conventional techniques, we measure their processing time and accuracy. In the experimental results, the proposed algorithm shows better performance compared to the others. Furthermore, it can provide the compressed data of contour pixels and restore them accurately, including the inner-outer corner, which cannot be restored using conventional algorithms.

  5. Fast Contour-Tracing Algorithm Based on a Pixel-Following Method for Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghoon Seo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Contour pixels distinguish objects from the background. Tracing and extracting contour pixels are widely used for smart/wearable image sensor devices, because these are simple and useful for detecting objects. In this paper, we present a novel contour-tracing algorithm for fast and accurate contour following. The proposed algorithm classifies the type of contour pixel, based on its local pattern. Then, it traces the next contour using the previous pixel’s type. Therefore, it can classify the type of contour pixels as a straight line, inner corner, outer corner and inner-outer corner, and it can extract pixels of a specific contour type. Moreover, it can trace contour pixels rapidly because it can determine the local minimal path using the contour case. In addition, the proposed algorithm is capable of the compressing data of contour pixels using the representative points and inner-outer corner points, and it can accurately restore the contour image from the data. To compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to that of conventional techniques, we measure their processing time and accuracy. In the experimental results, the proposed algorithm shows better performance compared to the others. Furthermore, it can provide the compressed data of contour pixels and restore them accurately, including the inner-outer corner, which cannot be restored using conventional algorithms.

  6. Spirality: A Noval Way to Measure Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Henderson, Casey L.; Hartley, Matthew; Davis, Benjamin L.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the MATLAB code Spirality, a novel method for measuring spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. For a given pitch angle template, the mean pixel value is found along each of typically 1000 spiral axes. The fitting function, which shows a local maximum at the best-fit pitch angle, is the variance of these means. Error bars are found by varying the inner radius of the measurement annulus and finding the standard deviation of the best-fit pitches. Computation time is typically on the order of 2 minutes per galaxy, assuming at least 8 GB of working memory. We tested the code using 128 synthetic spiral images of known pitch. These spirals varied in the number of spiral arms, pitch angle, degree of logarithmicity, radius, SNR, inclination angle, bar length, and bulge radius. A correct result is defined as a result that matches the true pitch within the error bars, with error bars no greater than ±7°. For the non-logarithmic spiral sample, the correct answer is similarly defined, with the mean pitch as function of radius in place of the true pitch. For all synthetic spirals, correct results were obtained so long as SNR > 0.25, the bar length was no more than 60% of the spiral's diameter (when the bar was included in the measurement), the input center of the spiral was no more than 6% of the spiral radius away from the true center, and the inclination angle was no more than 30°. The synthetic spirals were not deprojected prior to measurement. The code produced the correct result for all barred spirals when the measurement annulus was placed outside the bar. Additionally, we compared the code's results against 2DFFT results for 203 visually selected spiral galaxies in GOODS North and South. Among the entire sample, Spirality's error bars overlapped 2DFFT's error bars 64% of the time. For those galaxies in which Source code is available by email request from the primary author.

  7. High-pitch metal-on-glass technology for pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ullán, Miguel; Campabadal, Francesca; Fleta, Celeste; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bernabeu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics and astrophysics strip detectors have increased channel density to levels at which their connection with readout electronics has become very complex due to high pad pitch. Also, direct wire bonding is prevented by the fact that typically detector's pad pitch and electronics' pad pitch do not match. A high- pitch metal-on-glass technology is presented, that allows pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics. It consists of high-density metal lines on top of an insulating glass substrate. A photoresist layer is deposited covering the metal tracks for passivation and protection The technology is tested for conductivity, bondability, bonding pull force, peel off, and radiation hardness, and it is an established technology in the clean room of the CNM Institute in Barcelona. This technology has been chosen by the ATLAS Collaboration for the pad pitch adapters (PPA) of the SCT Endcap Modules, by a Compton camera project, and by other HEP groups for interconnection betwe...

  8. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  9. U.S. Atlantic East Coast bathymetry contours (EGLORIA_CNT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric contours, which comprise this GIS data layer, contains contours for the U.S. Atlantic East Coast. The dataset was created for use with the USGS...

  10. Comprehensive contour prediction model of work rolls in hot wide strip mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Quan Yang; Anrui He; Renzhong Wang

    2007-01-01

    The predictive calculation of comprehensive contour of work rolls in the on-line strip shape control model during hot rolling consists of two important parts of wear contour calculation and thermal contour calculation, which have a direct influence on the accuracy of shape control. A statistical wear model and a finite difference thermal contour model of work rolls were described. The comprehensive contour is the equivalence treatment of the sum of grinding, wear, and thermal contours. This comprehensive contour calculation model has been applied successfully in the real on-line strip shape control model. Its high precision has been proved through the large amounts of actual roll profile measurements and theoretical analyses. The hit rates (percent of shape index satisfying requirement) of crown and head flatness of the strips rolled, by using the shape control model, which includes the comprehensive contour calculation model, have about 16% and 10% increase respectively, compared to those of strips rolled by using manual operation.

  11. Intuitive visualizations of pitch and loudness in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rebecca S; Beijer, Lilian J; Seuskens, Wiel; Rietveld, Toni C M; Sadakata, Makiko

    2016-04-01

    Visualizing acoustic features of speech has proven helpful in speech therapy; however, it is as yet unclear how to create intuitive and fitting visualizations. To better understand the mappings from speech sound aspects to visual space, a large web-based experiment (n = 249) was performed to evaluate spatial parameters that may optimally represent pitch and loudness of speech. To this end, five novel animated visualizations were developed and presented in pairwise comparisons, together with a static visualization. Pitch and loudness of speech were each mapped onto either the vertical (y-axis) or the size (z-axis) dimension, or combined (with size indicating loudness and vertical position indicating pitch height) and visualized as an animation along the horizontal dimension (x-axis) over time. The results indicated that firstly, there is a general preference towards the use of the y-axis for both pitch and loudness, with pitch ranking higher than loudness in terms of fit. Secondly, the data suggest that representing both pitch and loudness combined in a single visualization is preferred over visualization in only one dimension. Finally, the z-axis, although not preferred, was evaluated as corresponding better to loudness than to pitch. This relation between sound and visual space has not been reported previously for speech sounds, and elaborates earlier findings on musical material. In addition to elucidating more general mappings between auditory and visual modalities, the findings provide us with a method of visualizing speech that may be helpful in clinical applications such as computerized speech therapy, or other feedback-based learning paradigms. PMID:26370217

  12. Motion Geometric Active Contours: Tracking Nonrigid Objects in Clutter Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cen Feng (岑峰); Qi Feihu

    2003-01-01

    MGAC (Motion Geometric Active Contours), a new variational framework of geometric active contours to track multiple nonrigid moving objects in the clutter background in image sequences is presented. This framework, incorporating with the motion edge information, consists of motion detection and tracking stages. At the motion detection stage, the motion edge map provides an approximate edge map of the moving objects. Then, a tracking stage, merely using the static edge information, is considered to improve the motion detection result. Force field regularization method is used to extend the capture range of the edge attraction force field in both stages. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework is valid for tracking multiple nonrigid objects in the clutter background.

  13. Segmentation of Coronal Holes Using Active Contours Without Edges

    CERN Document Server

    Boucheron, L E; McAteer, R T J

    2016-01-01

    An application of active contours without edges is presented as an efficient and effective means of extracting and characterizing coronal holes. Coronal holes are regions of low-density plasma on the Sun with open magnetic field lines. As the source of the fast solar wind, the detection and characterization of these regions is important for both testing theories of their formation and evolution and from a space weather perspective. Coronal holes are detected in full disk extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of the corona obtained with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). The proposed method detects coronal boundaries without determining any fixed intensity value in the data. Instead, the active contour segmentation employs an energy-minimization in which coronal holes are assumed to have more homogeneous intensities than surrounding active regions and quiet Sun. The segmented coronal holes tend to correspond to unipolar magnetic regions, are consistent with concurrent solar wind ...

  14. Region-based active contour with noise and shape priors

    CERN Document Server

    Lecellier, François; Fadili, Jalal; Aubert, Gilles; Revenu, Marinette; Saloux, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to combine formally noise and shape priors in region-based active contours. On the one hand, we use the general framework of exponential family as a prior model for noise. On the other hand, translation and scale invariant Legendre moments are considered to incorporate the shape prior (e.g. fidelity to a reference shape). The combination of the two prior terms in the active contour functional yields the final evolution equation whose evolution speed is rigorously derived using shape derivative tools. Experimental results on both synthetic images and real life cardiac echography data clearly demonstrate the robustness to initialization and noise, flexibility and large potential applicability of our segmentation algorithm.

  15. Polygonal Approximation of Contour Shapes Using Corner Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Hermilo Sánchez‐Cruz; Ernesto Bribiesca

    2009-01-01

    A great amount of corner detectors that appear in literature are based on using the Freeman chain code of eight directions,which is used to represent contour shapes. We propose a new method for corner detection based on a three‐symbol chain coderepresentation, which requires lower storage memory and an easy way to obtain shape corners. We compare it with fiveexisting methods, which are well known in the literature, giving our method a better performance. Furthermore, in order toreconstruct th...

  16. Yet another method for triangulation and contouring for automated cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Floriani, L.; Falcidieno, B.; Nasy, G.; Pienovi, C.

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for hierarchical subdivision of a set of three-dimensional surface observations. The data structure used for obtaining the desired triangulation is also singularly appropriate for extracting contours. Some examples are presented, and the results obtained are compared with those given by Delaunay triangulation. The data points selected by the algorithm provide a better approximation to the desired surface than do randomly selected points.

  17. Impact of contour hedgerows on maize yields in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Shively, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper investigates the impact of contour hedgerows on maize yields. The author applies and agricultural production function to assess data from upland Philippine maize farms and hedgerows of double rows of the nitrogen-fixing species Desmodium rensonii and Flemengia macrophylla. Although the findings show a positive long term impact on maize yields, the short term impact of hedgerows is negative; they reduce land available for cultivation and decrease productivity...

  18. Study of detonation wave contours in EFP warhead

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-dong Zu; Zheng-xiang Huang; Chuan-sheng Zhu; Qiang-qiang Xiao

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model for calculating the propagation time of shock wave in a wave shaper is presented in this study. The calculated results show that the contours of three typical detonation waves, such as conical detonation wave, spherical detonation wave, and planar detonation wave, can be formed in the main charge by changing the thickness of wave shaper. The results show that the planar detonation wave do better than the conical detonation and the spherical detonation wave in increasing...

  19. Contours et limites de la comptabilité nationale

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiers, Isabelle

    1998-01-01

    La comptabilité nationale est un instrument qui repose sur nombre de choix et de conventions comptables si bien que la représentation de la vie économique et sociale qu'elle propose demeure partielle. Ces limites sont souvent oubliées dans les interprétations des données économiques. Retour sur les contours exacts du système de comptabilité nationale.

  20. Windows and Facades Retrieval using Similarity on Graph of Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Haugeard, Jean-Emmanuel; Philipp-Foliguet, Sylvie; Precioso, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    International audience The development of street-level geoviewers become recently a very active and challenging research topic. In this context, the detection, representation and classification of windows can be beneficial for the identification of the respective facade. In this paper, a novel method for windows and facade retrieval is presented. This method, based on a similarity of graph of contours, introduces a new kernel on graph for inexact graph matching. We design a kernel similari...

  1. Performance Evaluation of Autonomous Contour Following Algorithms for Industrial Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Said, Samsi; Burhanuddin; Sulaiman, Riza

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the performance evaluations of autonomous contour following task with three different algorithms have been performed for Adept SCARA robot. A prototype of smart tool integrated with sensor has been designed. It can be attached and reattached into robot gripper and interfaced through I/O pins of Adept robot controller for automated robot teaching operation. The algorithms developed were tested on a semicircle object of 40 millimeter radius. The semicircle object was selected bec...

  2. Neuromagnetic brain activities associated with perceptual categorization and sound-content incongruency: a comparison between monosyllabic words and pitch names

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Gia eTsai; Chien-Chung eChen; Ya-Chien eWen; Tai-Li eChou

    2015-01-01

    In human cultures, the perceptual categorization of musical pitches relies on pitch-naming systems. A sung pitch name concurrently holds the information of fundamental frequency and pitch name. These two aspects may be either congruent or incongruent with regard to pitch categorization. The present study aimed to compare the neuromagnetic responses to musical and verbal stimuli for congruency judgments, for example a congruent pair for the pitch C4 sung with the pitch name do in a C-major con...

  3. Study of Pumping Capacity of Pitched Blade Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fořt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the pumping capacity of pitched blade impellers in a cylindrical pilot plant vessel with four standard radial baffles at the wall under a turbulent regime of flow. The pumping capacity was calculated from the radial profile of the axial flow, under the assumption of axial symmetry of the discharge flow. The mean velocity was measured using laser Doppler anemometry in a transparent vessel of diameter T = 400 mm, provided with a standard dished bottom. Three and six blade pitched blade impellers (the pitch angle varied within the interval a Îá24°; 45°ń of impeller/vessel diameter ratio D/T = 0.36, as well as a three blade pitched blade impeller with folded blades of the same diameter, were tested. The calculated results were compared with the results of experiments mentioned in the literature, above all in cylindrical vessels with a flat bottom. Both arrangements of the agitated system were described by the impeller energetic efficiency, i.e, a criterion including in dimensionless form both the impeller energy consumption (impeller power input and the impeller pumping effect (impeller pumping capacity. It follows from the results obtained with various geometrical configurations that the energetic efficiency of pitched blade impellers is significantly lower for configurations suitable for mixing solid-liquid suspensions (low impeller off bottom clearances than for blending miscible liquids in mixing (higher impeller off bottom clearances.

  4. Effect of Configuration Pitching Motion on Twin Tail Buffet Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheta, Essam F.; Kandil, Osama A.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of dynamic pitch-up motion of delta wing on twin-tail buffet response is investigated. The computational model consists of a delta wing-twin tail configuration. The computations are carried out on a dynamic multi-block grid structure. This multidisciplinary problem is solved using three sets of equations which consists of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, the aeroelastic equations, and the grid displacement equations. The configuration is pitched-up from zero up to 60 deg. angle of attack, and the freestream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.3 and 1.25 million, respectively. With the twin tail fixed as rigid surfaces and with no-forced pitch-up motion, the problem is solved for the initial flow conditions. Next, the problem is solved for the twin-tail response for uncoupled bending and torsional vibrations due to the unsteady loads on the twin tail and due to the forced pitch-up motion. The dynamic pitch-up problem is also solved for the flow response with the twin tail kept rigid. The configuration is investigated for inboard position of the twin tail which corresponds to a separation distance between the twin tail of 33% wing chord. The computed results are compared with the available experimental data.

  5. Performance of Pitch and Stall Regulated Tidal Stream Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Swami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Controllers for a pitch and a stall regulated horizontal axial flow, variable-speed tidal stream turbine are developed, and a performance comparison is carried out. Below rated flow speed, both turbines are operated in variable-speed mode so that the optimum tip-speed ratio is maintained. One of the turbines has variable pitch blades, which above rated speed are pitched to feather in order to regulate power. The other turbine has fixed pitch blades and uses speed-assisted stall to regulate power. The control system design behind both strategies is examined in MATLAB, with the performance under turbulent flows, loading and energy yield analysis being evaluated in GH Tidal Bladed. Both strategies provide a satisfactory performance, but the out-of-plane loads on the stall regulated turbine were higher over the entire range of operation. In addition, the dynamic characteristics of the stall regulated turbine require a more complex control design. The results suggest that the pitch regulated turbine would be a more attractive solution for turbine developers.

  6. Contour tracking and probabilistic segmentation of tissue phase mapping MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiboi, Teodora; Hennemuth, Anja; Schnell, Susanne; Chowdhary, Varun; Honarmand, Amir; Markl, Michael; Linsen, Lars; Hahn, Horst

    2016-03-01

    Many cardiovascular diseases manifest as an abnormal motion pattern of the heart muscle (myocardium). Local cardiac motion can be non-invasively quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using methods such as tissue phase mapping (TPM), which directly measures the local myocardial velocities over time with high temporal and spatial resolution. The challenges for routine clinical use of TPM for the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiac function lie in providing a fast and accurate myocardium segmentation and a robust quantitative analysis of the velocity field. Both of these tasks are difficult to automate on routine clinical data because of the reduced contrast in the presence of noise. In this work, we propose to address these challenges with a segmentation approach that combines smooth, iterative contour displacement and probabilistic segmentation using particle tracing, based on the underlying velocity field. The proposed solution enabled the efficient and reproducible segmentation of TPM datasets from 27 patients and 14 volunteers, showing good potential for routine use in clinical studies. Our method allows for a more reliable quantitative analysis of local myocardial velocities, by giving a higher weight to velocity vectors corresponding to pixels more likely to belong to the myocardium. The accuracy of the contour propagation was evaluated on nine subjects, showing an average error smaller than the spatial resolution of the image data. Statistical analysis concluded that the difference between the segmented contours and the ground truths was not significantly higher than the variability between the manual ground truth segmentations.

  7. Pitch Angle Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El-Tous

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design a simple controller to maximize the extracted energy of wind turbines. In this study the pitch angle control of variable speed wind turbine is investigated. In particular, it concentrates on the extraction of maximum available energy, reduction of torque and output power variations, which gives stresses in the gearbox and mechanical structure. The control concentrates on separate wind speed internals as well as on whole wind speed region. It is found that the control structures varies substantially between the wind speed regions. Two different control systems are compared. The results show that pitch actuator with three levels of pitching speed have better response.

  8. Transformation of feelings using pitch parameter for Marathi speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangramsing N. Kayte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Many researches have been done in the transformation of emotion. However, for Marathi not many studies have been done. In this paper we construct a Marathi speech database to study the effects of change of emotion. Emotion is an important element in expressive speech synthesis and is investigated by many researchers. In this research paper we build a Marathi speech database to study the effects of change of emotion. We describe methods to optimize the database for analysis and study. The pitch information is extracted from the database for different emotions like Joy, Angry and Sad. Pitch analysis is done on the database using the extracted pitch points, and a general algorithm is devised for the change of neutral state to emotional state. To perform the experiments, three expressive styles- Joy, Anger and Sad are done with Neutral.

  9. Numerical Prediction of Hydromechanical Behaviour of Controllable Pitch Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Tarbiat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research described in this paper was carried out to predict hydrodynamic and frictional forces of controllable pitch propeller (CPP that bring about fretting problems in a blade bearing. The governing equations are Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS and are solved by OpenFOAM solver for hydrodynamic forces behind the ship’s wake. Frictional forces are calculated by practical mechanical formulae. Different advance velocities with constant rotational speed for blades are used to achieve hydrodynamic coefficients in open water and the wake behind the propeller. Results are compared at four different pitches. Detailed numerical results of 3D modelling of the propeller, hydrodynamic characteristics, and probability of the fretting motion in the propeller are presented. Results show that the probability of the fretting movement is related to the pitch.

  10. Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart; Jugo chart jo deno kyokuchi gensho jikan contour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kametani, T.

    1997-05-27

    Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart is examined for further improvement on the result of the ultimate interpretation in the seismic reflection survey. The policy is made clear from the beginning that local phenomena are to be discussed, and data prior CMP stacking is interpreted in detail. For this purpose, it is effective to make use of the time contour expression in the midpoint-offset plane simultaneously with the CMP and COP panels. For the review of data prior to CMP stacking, it is convenient to use the CMP (CDP) stacking chart in which the data is arranged methodically. In this chart, all the channels which are crude data prior to stacking are plotted on midpoint-offset coordinates, which plane is called the MOD (Midpoint Offset Domain) panel. Various panels can be chosen unrestrictedly, and their mutual relations can be easily grasped. When data points are given a time axis, they can be expressed in a time contour. Studies are conducted about the underground structure, multiple reflection paths divided by it, and characteristics of detour reflection attributable to faults. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  11. A review of methods of analysis in contouring studies for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Inter-observer variability in anatomical contouring is the biggest contributor to uncertainty in radiation treatment planning. Contouring studies are frequently performed to investigate the differences between multiple contours on common datasets. There is, however, no widely accepted method for contour comparisons. The purpose of this study is to review the literature on contouring studies in the context of radiation oncology, with particular consideration of the contouring comparison methods they employ. A literature search, not limited by date, was conducted using Medline and Google Scholar with key words; contour, variation, delineation, inter/intra observer, uncertainty and trial dummy-run. This review includes a description of the contouring processes and contour comparison metrics used. The use of different processes and metrics according to tumour site and other factors were also investigated with limitations described. A total of 69 relevant studies were identified. The most common tumour sites were prostate (26), lung (10), head and neck cancers (8) and breast (7).The most common metric of comparison was volume used 59 times, followed by dimension and shape used 36 times, and centre of volume used 19 times. Of all 69 publications, 67 used a combination of metrics and two used only one metric for comparison. No clear relationships between tumour site or any other factors that may in Auence the contouring process and the metrics used to compare contours were observed from the literature. Further studies are needed to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each metric in various situations.

  12. Boosting pitch encoding with audiovisual interactions in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Lévêque, Yohana; Hyde, Krista L; Bouchet, Patrick; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The combination of information across senses can enhance perception, as revealed for example by decreased reaction times or improved stimulus detection. Interestingly, these facilitatory effects have been shown to be maximal when responses to unisensory modalities are weak. The present study investigated whether audiovisual facilitation can be observed in congenital amusia, a music-specific disorder primarily ascribed to impairments of pitch processing. Amusic individuals and their matched controls performed two tasks. In Task 1, they were required to detect auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli as rapidly as possible. In Task 2, they were required to detect as accurately and as rapidly as possible a pitch change within an otherwise monotonic 5-tone sequence that was presented either only auditorily (A condition), or simultaneously with a temporally congruent, but otherwise uninformative visual stimulus (AV condition). Results of Task 1 showed that amusics exhibit typical auditory and visual detection, and typical audiovisual integration capacities: both amusics and controls exhibited shorter response times for audiovisual stimuli than for either auditory stimuli or visual stimuli. Results of Task 2 revealed that both groups benefited from simultaneous uninformative visual stimuli to detect pitch changes: accuracy was higher and response times shorter in the AV condition than in the A condition. The audiovisual improvements of response times were observed for different pitch interval sizes depending on the group. These results suggest that both typical listeners and amusic individuals can benefit from multisensory integration to improve their pitch processing abilities and that this benefit varies as a function of task difficulty. These findings constitute the first step towards the perspective to exploit multisensory paradigms to reduce pitch-related deficits in congenital amusia, notably by suggesting that audiovisual paradigms are effective in an appropriate

  13. Abnormal pitch perception produced by cochlear implant stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Gang Zeng

    Full Text Available Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects' acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1-2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the "mean" shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large "variance" of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance.

  14. A Contour-Guided Deformable Image Registration Algorithm for Adaptive Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xuejun; Wang, Jing; Yordy, John; Mell, Loren; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

    2013-01-01

    In adaptive radiotherapy, deformable image registration is often conducted between the planning CT and treatment CT (or cone beam CT) to generate a deformation vector field (DVF) for dose accumulation and contour propagation. The auto propagated contours on the treatment CT may contain relatively large errors, especially in low contrast regions. A clinician inspection and editing of the propagated contours are frequently needed. The edited contours are able to meet the clinical requirement for adaptive therapy; however, the DVF is still inaccurate and inconsistent with the edited contours. The purpose of this work is to develop a contour-guided deformable image registration (CG-DIR) algorithm to improve the accuracy and consistency of the DVF for adaptive radiotherapy. Incorporation of the edited contours into the registration algorithm is realized by regularizing the objective function of the original demons algorithm with a term of intensity matching between the delineated structures set pairs. The CG-DIR a...

  15. RBF neural network and active circles based algorithm for contours extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiheng; Zeng Delu; Xie Shengli

    2007-01-01

    For the contours extraction from the images, active contour model and self-organizing map based approach are popular nowadays. But they are still confronted with the problems that the optimization of energy function will trap in local minimums and the contour evolutions greatly depend on the initial contour selection. Addressing to these problems, a contours extraction algorithm based on RBF neural network is proposed here. A series of circles with adaptive radius and center is firstly used to search image feature points that are scattered enough. After the feature points are clustered, a group of radial basis functions are constructed. Using the pixels' intensities and gradients as the input vector, the final object contour can be obtained by the predicting ability of the neural network. The RBF neural network based algorithm is tested on three kinds of images, such as changing topology, complicated background, and blurring or noisy boundary. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs contours extraction greatly.

  16. The precision of visual memory for a complex contour shape measured by a freehand drawing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Takayuki; Takeda, Yuji

    2013-03-01

    Contour information is an important source for object perception and memory. Three experiments examined the precision of visual short-term memory for complex contour shapes. All used a new procedure that assessed recall memory for holistic information in complex contour shapes: Participants studied, then reproduced (without cues), a contoured shape by freehand drawing. In Experiment 1 memory precision was measured by comparing Fourier descriptors for studied and reproduced contours. Results indicated survival of lower (holistic) frequency information (i.e., ⩽5cycles/perimeter) and loss of higher (detail) frequency information. Secondary tasks placed demands on either verbal memory (Experiment 2) or visual spatial memory (Experiment 3). Neither secondary task interfered with recall of complex contour shapes, suggesting that the memory system maintaining holistic shape information was independent of both the verbal memory system and the visual spatial memory subsystem of visual short-term memory. The nature of memory for complex contour shape is discussed. PMID:23296198

  17. Electric Control Substituting Pitch Control for Large Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Kjellin

    2013-01-01

    turbine has fixed pitch and is only controlled electrically accommodated by passive stall of the blades. By electrically controlling the generator rotational speed with the inverter, passive stall regulation is enabled. The first results on experimental verification of stall regulation in gusty wind speeds are presented. The experiments show that the control system can keep the turbine rotational speed constant even at very gusty winds. It is concluded that electrical control accommodated by passive stall is sufficient as control of the wind turbine even at high wind speeds and can substitute mechanical control such as blade pitch.

  18. Pitch and roll hydrodynamics of a pericell hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, David D.

    1986-12-01

    Pitch and roll responses of hovercraft have been extremely difficult to predict due to the complexity of hydrodynamic analyses on one hand and the difficulties of appropriate cushion scale modeling on the other. The paper presents comparisons of pitch and roll stiffness coefficients for overwater and overland operations. Data are presented from model-scale and full-scale trials and analytic-numerical modeling. The effects of model-scale on the cushion dynamics relative to rotational responses are presented and the important characteristics of overwater and overland responses are discussed.

  19. Attenuating wind turbine loads through model based individual pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider wind turbine load attenuation through model based control. Asymmetric loads caused by the wind field can be reduced by pitching the blades individually. To this end we investigate the use of stochastic models of the wind which can be included in a model based individual...... pitch controller design. In this way the variability of the wind can be estimated and compensated for by the controller. The wind turbine model is in general time-variant due to its rotational nature. For this reason the modeling and control is carried out in so-called multiblade coordinates...

  20. Individual pitch control of wind turbines using local inflow measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a model based control approach for individually adjusting the pitch of wind turbine blades and thereby attenuating the effect of asymmetric wind loads. It is assumed that measurements of local inflow along each blade are available. This effectively provides an estimate of the...... load distribution along the blades. The load estimates are used in a predictive setup where inflow measured by one blade is used as basis for calculating future loads for the other blades. Simulations with a full stochastic wind field illustrate the effectiveness of the individual pitch controller as...