Garai, Sisir Kumar
2011-07-20
Conversion of optical data from decimal to binary format is very important in optical computing and optical signal processing. There are many binary code systems to represent decimal numbers, the most common being the binary coded decimal (BCD) and gray code system. There are a wide choice of BCD codes, one of which is a natural BCD having a weighted code of 8421, by means of which it is possible to represent a decimal number from 0 to 9 with a combination of 4 bit binary digits. The reflected binary code, also known as the Gray code, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only 1 bit. The Gray code is very important in digital optical communication as it is used to prevent spurious output from optical switches as well as to facilitate error correction in digital communications in an optical domain. Here in this communication, the author proposes an all-optical frequency encoded method of ":decimal to binary, BCD," "binary to gray," and "gray to binary" data conversion using the high-speed switching actions of semiconductor optical amplifiers. To convert decimal numbers to a binary form, a frequency encoding technique is adopted to represent two binary bits, 0 and 1. The frequency encoding technique offers advantages over conventional encoding techniques in terms of less probability of bit errors and greater reliability. Here the author has exploited the polarization switch made of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a property of nonlinear rotation of the state of polarization of the probe beam in SOA for frequency conversion to develop the method of frequency encoded data conversion. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Han, Fei; Yang, Chun; Wu, Ya-Qi; Zhu, Jian-Sheng; Ling, Qing-Hua; Song, Yu-Qing; Huang, De-Shuang
2017-01-01
Traditional gene selection methods for microarray data mainly considered the features' relevance by evaluating their utility for achieving accurate predication or exploiting data variance and distribution, and the selected genes were usually poorly explicable. To improve the interpretability of the selected genes as well as prediction accuracy, an improved gene selection method based on binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) and prior information is proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, BPSO encoding gene-to-class sensitivity (GCS) information is used to perform gene selection. The gene-to-class sensitivity information, extracted from the samples by extreme learning machine (ELM), is encoded into the selection process in four aspects: initializing particles, updating the particles, modifying maximum velocity, and adopting mutation operation adaptively. Constrained by the gene-to-class sensitivity information, the new method can select functional gene subsets which are significantly sensitive to the samples' classes. With the few discriminative genes selected by the proposed method, ELM, K-nearest neighbor and support vector machine classifiers achieve much high prediction accuracy on five public microarray data, which in turn verifies the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed gene selection method.
Content identification: binary content fingerprinting versus binary content encoding
Ferdowsi, Sohrab; Voloshynovskiy, Svyatoslav; Kostadinov, Dimche
2014-02-01
In this work, we address the problem of content identification. We consider content identification as a special case of multiclass classification. The conventional approach towards identification is based on content fingerprinting where a short binary content description known as a fingerprint is extracted from the content. We propose an alternative solution based on elements of machine learning theory and digital communications. Similar to binary content fingerprinting, binary content representation is generated based on a set of trained binary classifiers. We consider several training/encoding strategies and demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve the upper theoretical performance limits of content identification. The experimental results were carried out both on a synthetic dataset with different parameters and the FAMOS dataset of microstructures from consumer packages.
Viliana, Debora
2014-01-01
This study aims to design a computer application that can compress text files and compare the performance of the algorithm. Compression is done with a text file using a text encoding algorithms Fixed Length Binary Encoding (FLBE) and Variable Length Binary Encoding algorithm, then do the compression process.The end result are a compression of the file extension *. flbe and *.vlbe which can be decompressed. The output of the decompression is a new file that consists of a file header and body f...
Analyzing Influenza Virus Sequences using Binary Encoding Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ham Ching Lam
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Capturing mutation patterns of each individual influenza virus sequence is often challenging; in this paper, we demonstrated that using a binary encoding scheme coupled with dimension reduction technique, we were able to capture the intrinsic mutation pattern of the virus. Our approach looks at the variance between sequences instead of the commonly used p-distance or Hamming distance. We first convert the influenza genetic sequences to a binary strings and form a binary sequence alignment matrix and then apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA to this matrix. PCA also provides identification power to identify reassortant virus by using data projection technique. Due to the sparsity of the binary string, we were able to analyze large volume of influenza sequence data in a very short time. For protein sequences, our scheme also allows the incorporation of biophysical properties of each amino acid. Here, we present various encouraging results from analyzing influenza nucleotide, protein and genome sequences using the proposed approach.
Binary encoded computer generated holograms for temporal phase shifting.
Amphawan, Angela
2011-11-07
The trend towards real-time optical applications predicates the need for real-time interferometry. For real-time interferometric applications, rapid processing of computer generated holograms is crucial as the intractability of rapid phase changes may compromise the input to the system. This paper introduces the design of a set of binary encoded computer generated holograms (CGHs) for real-time five-frame temporal phase shifting interferometry using a binary amplitude spatial light modulator. It is suitable for portable devices with constraints in computational power. The new set of binary encoded CGHs is used for measuring the phase of the generated electric field for a real-time selective launch in multimode fiber. The processing time for the new set of CGHs was reduced by up to 65% relative to the original encoding scheme. The results obtained from the new interferometric technique are in good agreement with the results obtained by phase shifting by means of a piezo-driven flat mirror.
Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoedlmoser, H.; Varner, G.; Cooney, M.
2009-01-01
The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10 -4 . A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.
Zhu, Jiangping; Zhou, Pei; Su, Xianyu; You, Zhisheng
2016-12-12
Balancing the accuracy and speed for 3D surface measurement of object is crucial in many important applications. Binary encoding pattern utilizing the high-speed image switching rate of digital mirror device (DMD)-based projector could be used as the candidate for fast even high-speed 3D measurement, but current most schemes only enable the measurement speed, which limit their application scopes. In this paper, we present a binary encoding method and develop an experimental system aiming to solve such a situation. Our approach encodes one computer-generated standard 8 bit sinusoidal fringe pattern into multiple binary patterns (sequence) with designed temporal-spatial binary encoding tactics. The binary pattern sequence is then high-speed and in-focus projected onto the surface of tested object, and then captured by means of temporal-integration imaging to form one sinusoidal fringe image. Further the combination of phase-shifting technique and temporal phase unwrapping algorithm leads to fast and accurate 3D measurement. The systematic accuracy better than 0.08mm is achievable. The measurement results with mask and palm are given to confirm the feasibility.
The parallel bi-indication encoding аnd renewal of data in binary polyadic space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.K. Yudin
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The parallel bi-indication encoding аnd renewal of data in binary polyadic space, based on simultaneous processing of possible areas of binary bi-indication polyadic numbers is developed.
Su, Wei-Hung; Kuo, Cho-Yo; Kao, Fu-Jen
2014-08-20
A fringe projection technique to trace the shape of a fast-moving object is proposed. A binary-encoded fringe pattern is illuminated by a strobe lamp and then projected onto the moving object at a sequence of time. Phases of the projected fringes obtained from the sequent measurements are extracted by the Fourier transform method. Unwrapping is then performed with reference to the binary-encoded fringe pattern. Even though the inspected object is colorful, fringe orders can be identified. A stream of profiles is therefore retrieved from the sequent unwrapped phases. This makes it possible to analyze physical properties of the dynamic objects. Advantages of the binary-encoded fringe pattern for phase unwrapping also include (1) reliable performance for colorful objects, spatially isolated objects, and surfaces with large depth discontinuities; (2) unwrapped errors only confined in a local area; and (3) low computation cost.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Da Liu
Full Text Available Traditional forecasting models fit a function approximation from dependent invariables to independent variables. However, they usually get into trouble when date are presented in various formats, such as text, voice and image. This study proposes a novel image-encoded forecasting method that input and output binary digital two-dimensional (2D images are transformed from decimal data. Omitting any data analysis or cleansing steps for simplicity, all raw variables were selected and converted to binary digital images as the input of a deep learning model, convolutional neural network (CNN. Using shared weights, pooling and multiple-layer back-propagation techniques, the CNN was adopted to locate the nexus among variations in local binary digital images. Due to the computing capability that was originally developed for binary digital bitmap manipulation, this model has significant potential for forecasting with vast volume of data. The model was validated by a power loads predicting dataset from the Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012.
Memorizing binary vector sequences by a sparsely encoded network.
Baram, Y
1994-01-01
We present a neural network employing Hebbian storage and sparse internal coding, which is capable of memorizing and correcting sequences of binary vectors by association. A ternary version of the Kanerva memory, folded into a feedback configuration, is shown to perform the basic sequence memorization and regeneration function. The inclusion of lateral connections between the internal cells increases the network capacity considerably and facilitates the correction of individual input patterns and the detection of large errors. The introduction of higher delays in the transmission lines between the external input-output layer and the internal memory layer is shown to further improve the network's error correction capability.
Polarization encoded all-optical quaternary R-S flip-flop using binary latch
Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Chakraborty, Ajoy Kumar
2009-04-01
The developments of different multi-valued logic (MVL) systems have received considerable interests in recent years all over the world. In electronics, efforts have already been made to incorporate multi-valued system in logic and arithmetic data processing. But, very little efforts have been given in realization of MVL with optics. In this paper we present novel designs of certain all-optical circuits that can be used for realizing multi-valued logic functions. Polarization encoded all-optical quaternary (4-valued) R-S flip-flop is proposed and described. Two key circuits (all-optical encoder/decoder and a binary latch) are designed first. They are used to realize quaternary flip-flop in all-optical domain. Here the different quaternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch can take an important role. Computer simulation result confirming described methods and conclusion are given in this paper.
An efficient algorithm for encoding and decoding of raptor codes over the binary erasure channel
Zhang, Ya-Hang; Cheng, Bo-Wen; Zou, Guang-Nan; Wen, Wei-Ping; Qing, Si-Han
2009-12-01
As the most advanced rateless fountain codes, Systematic Raptor codes has been adopted by the 3GPP standard as a forward error correction scheme in Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services (MBMS). It has been shown to be an efficient channel coding technique which guarantees high symbol diversity in overlay networks. The 3GPP standard outlined a time-efficient maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding scheme that can be implemented using Gaussian elimination. But when the number of encoding symbols grows large, Gaussian elimination need to deal with a large matrix with O (K3) binary arithmetic operations, so the larger K becomes, the worse ML decoding scheme performs. This paper presents a better time-efficient encoding and decoding scheme while maintaining the same symbol recoverable performance, this encoding and decoding scheme is named Rapid Raptor Code. It will be shown that the proposed Rapid Raptor code Scheme significantly improves traditional Raptor codes' efficiency while maintaining the same performance.
Binary Classification Method of Social Network Users
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. A. Poryadin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The subject of research is a binary classification method of social network users based on the data analysis they have placed. Relevance of the task to gain information about a person by examining the content of his/her pages in social networks is exemplified. The most common approach to its solution is a visual browsing. The order of the regional authority in our country illustrates that its using in school education is needed. The article shows restrictions on the visual browsing of pupil’s pages in social networks as a tool for the teacher and the school psychologist and justifies that a process of social network users’ data analysis should be automated. Explores publications, which describe such data acquisition, processing, and analysis methods and considers their advantages and disadvantages. The article also gives arguments to support a proposal to study the classification method of social network users. One such method is credit scoring, which is used in banks and credit institutions to assess the solvency of clients. Based on the high efficiency of the method there is a proposal for significant expansion of its using in other areas of society. The possibility to use logistic regression as the mathematical apparatus of the proposed method of binary classification has been justified. Such an approach enables taking into account the different types of data extracted from social networks. Among them: the personal user data, information about hobbies, friends, graphic and text information, behaviour characteristics. The article describes a number of existing methods of data transformation that can be applied to solve the problem. An experiment of binary gender-based classification of social network users is described. A logistic model obtained for this example includes multiple logical variables obtained by transforming the user surnames. This experiment confirms the feasibility of the proposed method. Further work is to define a system
A SSVEP Stimuli Encoding Method Using Trinary Frequency-Shift Keying Encoded SSVEP (TFSK-SSVEP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xing Zhao
2017-06-01
Full Text Available SSVEP is a kind of BCI technology with advantage of high information transfer rate. However, due to its nature, frequencies could be used as stimuli are scarce. To solve such problem, a stimuli encoding method which encodes SSVEP signal using Frequency Shift–Keying (FSK method is developed. In this method, each stimulus is controlled by a FSK signal which contains three different frequencies that represent “Bit 0,” “Bit 1” and “Bit 2” respectively. Different to common BFSK in digital communication, “Bit 0” and “Bit 1” composited the unique identifier of stimuli in binary bit stream form, while “Bit 2” indicates the ending of a stimuli encoding. EEG signal is acquired on channel Oz, O1, O2, Pz, P3, and P4, using ADS1299 at the sample rate of 250 SPS. Before original EEG signal is quadrature demodulated, it is detrended and then band-pass filtered using FFT-based FIR filtering to remove interference. Valid peak of the processed signal is acquired by calculating its derivative and converted into bit stream using window method. Theoretically, this coding method could implement at least 2n−1 (n is the length of bit command stimulus while keeping the ITR the same. This method is suitable to implement stimuli on a monitor and where the frequency and phase could be used to code stimuli is limited as well as implementing portable BCI devices which is not capable of performing complex calculations.
Influence of non-binary effects on intranuclear cascade method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomes, E.H.C.
1985-01-01
The importance of non binary process effects in the intranuclear cascade method is analysed. It is shown that, in the higher density steps, the non binary collisions lead to baryon density distribution and rapidity differents from the one obtained using the usual intranuclear cascade method (limited to purely binary collisions). The validity of the applications of binary intranuclear cascade method to the simulation of the thermal equilibrium, nuclear transparency and particle production, is discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt
Rapid method for interconversion of binary and decimal numbers
Lim, R. S.
1970-01-01
Decoding tree consisting of 40-bit semiconductor read-only memories interconverts binary and decimal numbers 50 to 100 times faster than current methods. Decimal-to-binary conversion algorithm is based on a divided-by-2 iterative equation, binary-to-decimal conversion algorithm utilizes multiplied-by-2 iterative equation.
A Clostridioides difficile bacteriophage genome encodes functional binary toxin-associated genes.
Riedel, Thomas; Wittmann, Johannes; Bunk, Boyke; Schober, Isabel; Spröer, Cathrin; Gronow, Sabine; Overmann, Jörg
2017-05-20
Pathogenic clostridia typically produce toxins as virulence factors which cause severe diseases in both humans and animals. Whereas many clostridia like e.g., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum or Clostridium tetani were shown to contain toxin-encoding plasmids, only toxin genes located on the chromosome were detected in Clostridioides difficile so far. In this study, we determined, annotated, and analyzed the complete genome of the bacteriophage phiSemix9P1 using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT). To our knowledge, this represents the first C. difficile-associated bacteriophage genome that carries a complete functional binary toxin locus in its genome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anwer, Rao Muhammad; Khan, Fahad Shahbaz; van de Weijer, Joost; Molinier, Matthieu; Laaksonen, Jorma
2018-04-01
Designing discriminative powerful texture features robust to realistic imaging conditions is a challenging computer vision problem with many applications, including material recognition and analysis of satellite or aerial imagery. In the past, most texture description approaches were based on dense orderless statistical distribution of local features. However, most recent approaches to texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification are based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). The de facto practice when learning these CNN models is to use RGB patches as input with training performed on large amounts of labeled data (ImageNet). In this paper, we show that Local Binary Patterns (LBP) encoded CNN models, codenamed TEX-Nets, trained using mapped coded images with explicit LBP based texture information provide complementary information to the standard RGB deep models. Additionally, two deep architectures, namely early and late fusion, are investigated to combine the texture and color information. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to investigate Binary Patterns encoded CNNs and different deep network fusion architectures for texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification. We perform comprehensive experiments on four texture recognition datasets and four remote sensing scene classification benchmarks: UC-Merced with 21 scene categories, WHU-RS19 with 19 scene classes, RSSCN7 with 7 categories and the recently introduced large scale aerial image dataset (AID) with 30 aerial scene types. We demonstrate that TEX-Nets provide complementary information to standard RGB deep model of the same network architecture. Our late fusion TEX-Net architecture always improves the overall performance compared to the standard RGB network on both recognition problems. Furthermore, our final combination leads to consistent improvement over the state-of-the-art for remote sensing scene classification.
Abdullah, Ade Rani
2016-01-01
Technology has an important role in dispatch information. Compression has a purpose to diminish the measurement of the data becomes smaller from the authentic data. Even-Rodeh Code and Variable Length Binary Encoding (VLBE) Algorithm are the kinds of lossless compression that used in this research, it will be measured the performance by Compression Ratio (CR), Ratio of Compression (RC), Redundancy (RD), Time of Compression (millisecond) and Time of Decompression (millisecond). ...
A novel asynchronous access method with binary interfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Torres-Solis Jorge
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally synchronous access strategies require users to comply with one or more time constraints in order to communicate intent with a binary human-machine interface (e.g., mechanical, gestural or neural switches. Asynchronous access methods are preferable, but have not been used with binary interfaces in the control of devices that require more than two commands to be successfully operated. Methods We present the mathematical development and evaluation of a novel asynchronous access method that may be used to translate sporadic activations of binary interfaces into distinct outcomes for the control of devices requiring an arbitrary number of commands to be controlled. With this method, users are required to activate their interfaces only when the device under control behaves erroneously. Then, a recursive algorithm, incorporating contextual assumptions relevant to all possible outcomes, is used to obtain an informed estimate of user intention. We evaluate this method by simulating a control task requiring a series of target commands to be tracked by a model user. Results When compared to a random selection, the proposed asynchronous access method offers a significant reduction in the number of interface activations required from the user. Conclusion This novel access method offers a variety of advantages over traditionally synchronous access strategies and may be adapted to a wide variety of contexts, with primary relevance to applications involving direct object manipulation.
Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2007-01-01
In this paper a method for designing waveforms for temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging is described. The method is based on least squares optimization and is used to design nonlinear frequency modulated signals for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. By using the proposed design method...... are shown for both methods, wherein the common carotid artery on a 27-year-old healthy male was scanned...
Method of implementing frequency-encoded NOT, OR and NOR ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-11-27
Nov 27, 2015 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 5. Method of implementing frequency-encoded NOT, OR and NOR logic operations using lithium niobate waveguide and reflecting semiconductor optical amplifiers. Sisir Kumar Garai Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay. Volume 73 Issue 5 ...
GPU accelerated manifold correction method for spinning compact binaries
Ran, Chong-xi; Liu, Song; Zhong, Shuang-ying
2018-04-01
The graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration of the manifold correction algorithm based on the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology is designed to simulate the dynamic evolution of the Post-Newtonian (PN) Hamiltonian formulation of spinning compact binaries. The feasibility and the efficiency of parallel computation on GPU have been confirmed by various numerical experiments. The numerical comparisons show that the accuracy on GPU execution of manifold corrections method has a good agreement with the execution of codes on merely central processing unit (CPU-based) method. The acceleration ability when the codes are implemented on GPU can increase enormously through the use of shared memory and register optimization techniques without additional hardware costs, implying that the speedup is nearly 13 times as compared with the codes executed on CPU for phase space scan (including 314 × 314 orbits). In addition, GPU-accelerated manifold correction method is used to numerically study how dynamics are affected by the spin-induced quadrupole-monopole interaction for black hole binary system.
Binary recursive partitioning: background, methods, and application to psychology.
Merkle, Edgar C; Shaffer, Victoria A
2011-02-01
Binary recursive partitioning (BRP) is a computationally intensive statistical method that can be used in situations where linear models are often used. Instead of imposing many assumptions to arrive at a tractable statistical model, BRP simply seeks to accurately predict a response variable based on values of predictor variables. The method outputs a decision tree depicting the predictor variables that were related to the response variable, along with the nature of the variables' relationships. No significance tests are involved, and the tree's 'goodness' is judged based on its predictive accuracy. In this paper, we describe BRP methods in a detailed manner and illustrate their use in psychological research. We also provide R code for carrying out the methods.
Comparing methods for analyzing overdispersed binary data in aquatic toxicology.
Noble, Robert B; Bailer, A John; Noe, Douglas A
2009-05-01
Historically, death is the most commonly studied effect in aquatic toxicity tests. These tests typically employ a gradient of concentrations and exposure with more than one organism in a series of replicate chambers in each concentration. Whereas a binomial distribution commonly is employed for such effects, variability may exceed that predicted by binomial probability models. This additional variability could result from heterogeneity in the probabilities across the chambers in which the organisms are housed and subsequently exposed to concentrations of toxins. Incorrectly assuming a binomial distribution for the statistical analysis may lead to incorrect statistical inference. We consider the analysis of grouped binary data, here motivated by the study of survival. We use a computer simulation study to examine the impact of overdispersion or outliers on the analysis of binary data. We compare methods that assume binomial or generalizations that accommodate this potential overdispersion. These generalizations include adjusting the standard probit model for clustering/correlation or using alternative estimation methods, generalized estimating equations, or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM). When data were binomial or overdispersed binomial, none of the models exhibited any significant bias when estimating regression coefficients. When the data were truly binomial, the probit model controlled type I errors, as did the Donald and Donner method and the GLMM method. When data were overdispersed, the probit model no longer controlled type I error, and the standard errors were too small. In general, the Donald and Donner and the GLMM methods performed reasonably based on this study, although all procedures suffered some impact in the presence of potential outliers.
Mechanics of binary crushable granular assembly through discrete element method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raghuram Karthik Desu
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The mechanical response of a granular system is not only influenced by the bulk material properties but also on various factors due to it’s discrete nature. The factors like topology, packing fraction, friction between particles, particle size distribution etc. influence the behavior of granular systems. For a reliable design of such systems like fusion breeder units comprising of pebble beds, it is essential to understand the various factors influencing the response of the system. Mechanical response of a binary assembly consisting of crushable spherical pebbles is studied using Discrete Element Method (DEM which is based on particle–particle interactions. The influence of above mentioned factors on the macroscopic stress–strain response is investigated using an in-house DEM code. Furthermore, the effect of these factors on the damage in the assembly is investigated. This present investigation helps in understanding the macroscopic response and damage in terms of microscopic factors paving way to develop a unified prediction tool for a binary crushable granular assembly.
Method of generating ploynucleotides encoding enhanced folding variants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradbury, Andrew M.; Kiss, Csaba; Waldo, Geoffrey S.
2017-05-02
The invention provides directed evolution methods for improving the folding, solubility and stability (including thermostability) characteristics of polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides a method for generating folding and stability-enhanced variants of proteins, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins, chromophoric proteins and enzymes. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for generating thermostable variants of a target protein or polypeptide via an internal destabilization baiting strategy. Internally destabilization a protein of interest is achieved by inserting a heterologous, folding-destabilizing sequence (folding interference domain) within DNA encoding the protein of interest, evolving the protein sequences adjacent to the heterologous insertion to overcome the destabilization (using any number of mutagenesis methods), thereby creating a library of variants. The variants in the library are expressed, and those with enhanced folding characteristics selected.
CNN-aware Binary Map for General Semantic Segmentation
Ravanbakhsh, Mahdyar; Mousavi, Hossein; Nabi, Moin; Rastegari, Mohammad; Regazzoni, Carlo
2016-01-01
In this paper we introduce a novel method for general semantic segmentation that can benefit from general semantics of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Our segmentation proposes visually and semantically coherent image segments. We use binary encoding of CNN features to overcome the difficulty of the clustering on the high-dimensional CNN feature space. These binary codes are very robust against noise and non-semantic changes in the image. These binary encoding can be embedded into the CNN...
Fast optimization of binary clusters using a novel dynamic lattice searching method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Xia; Cheng, Wen
2014-01-01
Global optimization of binary clusters has been a difficult task despite of much effort and many efficient methods. Directing toward two types of elements (i.e., homotop problem) in binary clusters, two classes of virtual dynamic lattices are constructed and a modified dynamic lattice searching (DLS) method, i.e., binary DLS (BDLS) method, is developed. However, it was found that the BDLS can only be utilized for the optimization of binary clusters with small sizes because homotop problem is hard to be solved without atomic exchange operation. Therefore, the iterated local search (ILS) method is adopted to solve homotop problem and an efficient method based on the BDLS method and ILS, named as BDLS-ILS, is presented for global optimization of binary clusters. In order to assess the efficiency of the proposed method, binary Lennard-Jones clusters with up to 100 atoms are investigated. Results show that the method is proved to be efficient. Furthermore, the BDLS-ILS method is also adopted to study the geometrical structures of (AuPd) 79 clusters with DFT-fit parameters of Gupta potential
2015-03-01
Pythomnic3k is written in Python . The conversion process reads a JSON file into a Python dictionary object, then serializes the object in binary format as...BSON. 39 (4) JSON to CBOR The process for converting from JSON to CBOR was similar to that in (3) above, but used a CBOR codec written in Python ...converting between XML and JSON, with excellent results. Additionally, HTML5 , CSS3, and JavaScript code can potentially be compressed with EXI-like
Tashima, Hideaki; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki
2010-06-21
We have shown that the application of double random phase encoding (DRPE) to biometrics enables the use of biometrics as cipher keys for binary data encryption. However, DRPE is reported to be vulnerable to known-plaintext attacks (KPAs) using a phase recovery algorithm. In this study, we investigated the vulnerability of DRPE using fingerprints as cipher keys to the KPAs. By means of computational experiments, we estimated the encryption key and restored the fingerprint image using the estimated key. Further, we propose a method for avoiding the KPA on the DRPE that employs the phase retrieval algorithm. The proposed method makes the amplitude component of the encrypted image constant in order to prevent the amplitude component of the encrypted image from being used as a clue for phase retrieval. Computational experiments showed that the proposed method not only avoids revealing the cipher key and the fingerprint but also serves as a sufficiently accurate verification system.
A decoding method of an n length binary BCH code through (n + 1n length binary cyclic code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TARIQ SHAH
2013-09-01
Full Text Available For a given binary BCH code Cn of length n = 2 s - 1 generated by a polynomial of degree r there is no binary BCH code of length (n + 1n generated by a generalized polynomial of degree 2r. However, it does exist a binary cyclic code C (n+1n of length (n + 1n such that the binary BCH code Cn is embedded in C (n+1n . Accordingly a high code rate is attained through a binary cyclic code C (n+1n for a binary BCH code Cn . Furthermore, an algorithm proposed facilitates in a decoding of a binary BCH code Cn through the decoding of a binary cyclic code C (n+1n , while the codes Cn and C (n+1n have the same minimum hamming distance.
Diffuse interface method for a compressible binary fluid.
Liu, Jiewei; Amberg, Gustav; Do-Quang, Minh
2016-01-01
Multicomponent, multiphase, compressible flows are very important in real life, as well as in scientific research, while their modeling is in an early stage. In this paper, we propose a diffuse interface model for compressible binary mixtures, based on the balance of mass, momentum, energy, and the second law of thermodynamics. We show both analytically and numerically that this model is able to describe the phase equilibrium for a real binary mixture (CO_{2} + ethanol is considered in this paper) very well by adjusting the parameter which measures the attraction force between molecules of the two components in the model. We also show that the calculated surface tension of the CO_{2} + ethanol mixture at different concentrations match measurements in the literature when the mixing capillary coefficient is taken to be the geometric mean of the capillary coefficient of each component. Three different cases of two droplets in a shear flow, with the same or different concentration, are simulated, showing that the higher concentration of CO_{2} the smaller the surface tension and the easier the drop deforms.
Chemical ligation methods for the tagging of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.
Keefe, Anthony D; Clark, Matthew A; Hupp, Christopher D; Litovchick, Alexander; Zhang, Ying
2015-06-01
The generation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries requires the unimolecular association of multiple encoding oligonucleotides with encoded chemical entities during combinatorial synthesis processes. This has traditionally been achieved using enzymatic ligation. We discuss a range of chemical ligation methods that provide alternatives to enzymatic ligation. These chemical ligation methods include the generation of modified internucleotide linkages that support polymerase translocation and other modified linkages that while not supporting the translocation of polymerases can also be used to generate individual cDNA molecules containing encoded chemical information specifying individual library members. We also describe which of these approaches have been successfully utilized for the preparation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries and those that were subsequently used for the discovery of inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liyuan Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy multiple criteria group decision making problems based on binary relation. Firstly, the similarity measure between two vectors based on binary relation is defined, which can be utilized to aggregate preference information. Some desirable properties of the similarity measure based on fuzzy binary relation are also studied. Then, a methodology for fuzzy multiple criteria group decision making is proposed, in which the criteria values are in the terms of intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers (ITFNs. Simple and exact formulas are also proposed to determine the vector of the aggregation and group set. According to the weighted expected values of group set, it is easy to rank the alternatives and select the best one. Finally, we apply the proposed method and the Cosine similarity measure method to a numerical example; the numerical results show that our method is effective and practical.
Baxes, Gregory A. (Inventor); Linger, Timothy C. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
Systems and methods are provided for progressive mesh storage and reconstruction using wavelet-encoded height fields. A method for progressive mesh storage includes reading raster height field data, and processing the raster height field data with a discrete wavelet transform to generate wavelet-encoded height fields. In another embodiment, a method for progressive mesh storage includes reading texture map data, and processing the texture map data with a discrete wavelet transform to generate wavelet-encoded texture map fields. A method for reconstructing a progressive mesh from wavelet-encoded height field data includes determining terrain blocks, and a level of detail required for each terrain block, based upon a viewpoint. Triangle strip constructs are generated from vertices of the terrain blocks, and an image is rendered utilizing the triangle strip constructs. Software products that implement these methods are provided.
Novel sulI binary vectors enable an inexpensive foliar selection method in Arabidopsis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smith Jamison
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is conferred by the sulI gene found on many Enterobacteriaceae R plasmids and Tn21 type transposons. The sulI gene encodes a sulfonamide insensitive dihydropteroate synthase enzyme required for folate biosynthesis. Transformation of tobacco, potato or Arabidopsis using sulI as a selectable marker generates sulfadiazine-resistant plants. Typically sulI-based selection of transgenic plants is performed on tissue culture media under sterile conditions. Findings A set of novel binary vectors containing a sulI selectable marker expression cassette were constructed and used to generate transgenic Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the sulI selectable marker can be utilized for direct selection of plants grown in soil with a simple foliar spray application procedure. A highly effective and inexpensive high throughput screening strategy to identify transgenic Arabidopsis without use of tissue culture was developed. Conclusion Novel sulI-containing Agrobacterium binary vectors designed to over-express a gene of interest or to characterize a test promoter in transgenic plants have been constructed. These new vector tools combined with the various beneficial attributes of sulfonamide selection and the simple foliar screening strategy provide an advantageous alternative for plant biotechnology researchers. The set of binary vectors is freely available upon request.
Li, Zhirong; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhao, Jianhong; Xu, Kaiyue; Tian, Tiantian; Yang, Jing; Qiang, Cuixin; Shi, Dongyan; Wei, Honglian; Sun, Suju; Cui, Qingqing; Li, Ruxin; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Bixing
2018-02-24
Clostridium difficile is the causative pathogen for antibiotic-related nosocomial diarrhea. For epidemiological study and identification of virulent clones, a new binary typing method was developed for C. difficile in this study. The usefulness of this newly developed optimized 10-loci binary typing method was compared with two widely used methods ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in 189 C. difficile samples. The binary typing, ribotyping and MLST typed the samples into 53 binary types (BTs), 26 ribotypes (RTs), and 33 MLST sequence types (STs), respectively. The typing ability of the binary method was better than that of either ribotyping or MLST expressed in Simpson Index (SI) at 0.937, 0.892 and 0.859, respectively. The ease of testing, portability and cost-effectiveness of the new binary typing would make it a useful typing alternative for outbreak investigations within healthcare facilities and epidemiological research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
New Methods of Stereo Encoding for FM Radio Broadcasting Based on Digital Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Stranak
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The article describes new methods of stereo encoding for FM radio broadcasting. Digital signal processing makes possible to construct an encoder with properties that are not attainable using conventional analog solutions. The article describes the mathematical model of the encoder, on the basis of which a specific program code for DSP was developed. The article further deals with a new method of composite clipping which does not cause impurities in the output spectrum, and at the same time preserves high separation between the left and right audio channels. The application of the new method is useful mainly where there are unwanted signal overshoots on the input of the stereo encoder, e.g., in case of signal transmission from the studio to the transmitter site through a route with psychoacoustic lossy compression of data rate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Zhongguo; Xi Guang; Chen Xi
2009-01-01
The binary collision of liquid droplets is of both practical importance and fundamental value in computational fluid mechanics. We present a modified surface tension model within the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, and carry out two-dimensional simulations to investigate the mechanisms of coalescence and separation of the droplets during binary collision. The modified surface tension model improves accuracy and convergence. A mechanism map is established for various possible deformation pathways encountered during binary collision, as the impact speed is varied; a new pathway is reported when the collision speed is critical. In addition, eccentric collisions are simulated and the effect of the rotation of coalesced particle is explored. The results qualitatively agree with experiments and the numerical protocol may find applications in studying free surface flows and interface deformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khader M Hasan
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Water diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI is a non-invasive and sensitive modality that is becoming increasingly popular in diagnostic radiology. DT-MRI provides in vivo directional information about the organization and microdynamics of deep brain tissue that is not available by other MRI relaxationbased methods. The DT-MRI experiment involves a host of imaging and diffusion parameters that influence the efficiency (signal-to-noise ratio per unit time, accuracy, and specificity of the information sought. These parameters may include typical imaging parameters such as TE, TR, slice thickness, sampling rate, etc. The DTI relevant parameter space includes pulse duration, separation, direction, number of directions (Ne, order, sign and strength of the diffusion encoding gradient pulses. The goal of this work is to present and compare different tensor encoding strategies used to obtain the DT-MRI information for the whole brain. In this paper an evaluation of tensor encoding advantage is presented using a multi-dimensional non-parametric Bootstrap resampling method. This work also explores the relationship between different tensor encoding schemes using the analytical encoding approach. This work shows that the minimum energy optimization approach can produce uniformly distributed tensor encoding that are comparable to the icosahedral sets. The minimum condition encoding sets are not uniformly distributed and are shown to be suboptimal and related to a commonly used heuristic tensor encoding set. This work shows that the icosahedral set is the only uniformly distributed set with Ne = 6. At equal imaging time, the Bootstrap experiments show that optimal tensor encoding sets can have 6 < Ne < 24.
Encoding methods for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field
Tse, Desmond H. Y.; Poole, Michael S.; Magill, Arthur W.; Felder, Jörg; Brenner, Daniel; Jon Shah, N.
2014-08-01
Parallel radiofrequency (RF) transmission, either in the form of RF shimming or pulse design, has been proposed as a solution to the B1+ inhomogeneity problem in ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging. As a prerequisite, accurate B1+ maps from each of the available transmit channels are required. In this work, four different encoding methods for B1+ mapping, namely 1-channel-on, all-channels-on-except-1, all-channels-on-1-inverted and Fourier phase encoding, were evaluated using dual refocusing acquisition mode (DREAM) at 9.4 T. Fourier phase encoding was demonstrated in both phantom and in vivo to be the least susceptible to artefacts caused by destructive RF interference at 9.4 T. Unlike the other two interferometric encoding schemes, Fourier phase encoding showed negligible dependency on the initial RF phase setting and therefore no prior B1+ knowledge is required. Fourier phase encoding also provides a flexible way to increase the number of measurements to increase SNR, and to allow further reduction of artefacts by weighted decoding. These advantages of Fourier phase encoding suggest that it is a good choice for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field.
Efficient Convolutional Neural Network with Binary Quantization Layer
Ravanbakhsh, Mahdyar; Mousavi, Hossein; Nabi, Moin; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo
2016-01-01
In this paper we introduce a novel method for segmentation that can benefit from general semantics of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Our segmentation proposes visually and semantically coherent image segments. We use binary encoding of CNN features to overcome the difficulty of the clustering on the high-dimensional CNN feature space. These binary encoding can be embedded into the CNN as an extra layer at the end of the network. This results in real-time segmentation. To the best of our ...
A comparison of multiple imputation methods for incomplete longitudinal binary data.
Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Misumi, Toshihiro; Maruo, Kazushi
2017-09-08
Longitudinal binary data are commonly encountered in clinical trials. Multiple imputation is an approach for getting a valid estimation of treatment effects under an assumption of missing at random mechanism. Although there are a variety of multiple imputation methods for the longitudinal binary data, a limited number of researches have reported on relative performances of the methods. Moreover, when focusing on the treatment effect throughout a period that has often been used in clinical evaluations of specific disease areas, no definite investigations comparing the methods have been available. We conducted an extensive simulation study to examine comparative performances of six multiple imputation methods available in the SAS MI procedure for longitudinal binary data, where two endpoints of responder rates at a specified time point and throughout a period were assessed. The simulation study suggested that results from naive approaches of a single imputation with non-responders and a complete case analysis could be very sensitive against missing data. The multiple imputation methods using a monotone method and a full conditional specification with a logistic regression imputation model were recommended for obtaining unbiased and robust estimations of the treatment effect. The methods were illustrated with data from a mental health research.
An Encoding Method for Compressing Geographical Coordinates in 3d Space
Qian, C.; Jiang, R.; Li, M.
2017-09-01
This paper proposed an encoding method for compressing geographical coordinates in 3D space. By the way of reducing the length of geographical coordinates, it helps to lessen the storage size of geometry information. In addition, the encoding algorithm subdivides the whole space according to octree rules, which enables progressive transmission and loading. Three main steps are included in this method: (1) subdividing the whole 3D geographic space based on octree structure, (2) resampling all the vertices in 3D models, (3) encoding the coordinates of vertices with a combination of Cube Index Code (CIC) and Geometry Code. A series of geographical 3D models were applied to evaluate the encoding method. The results showed that this method reduced the storage size of most test data by 90 % or even more under the condition of a speed of encoding and decoding. In conclusion, this method achieved a remarkable compression rate in vertex bit size with a steerable precision loss. It shall be of positive meaning to the web 3d map storing and transmission.
A novel method for intelligent fault diagnosis of rolling bearings using ensemble deep auto-encoders
Shao, Haidong; Jiang, Hongkai; Lin, Ying; Li, Xingqiu
2018-03-01
Automatic and accurate identification of rolling bearings fault categories, especially for the fault severities and fault orientations, is still a major challenge in rotating machinery fault diagnosis. In this paper, a novel method called ensemble deep auto-encoders (EDAEs) is proposed for intelligent fault diagnosis of rolling bearings. Firstly, different activation functions are employed as the hidden functions to design a series of auto-encoders (AEs) with different characteristics. Secondly, EDAEs are constructed with various auto-encoders for unsupervised feature learning from the measured vibration signals. Finally, a combination strategy is designed to ensure accurate and stable diagnosis results. The proposed method is applied to analyze the experimental bearing vibration signals. The results confirm that the proposed method can get rid of the dependence on manual feature extraction and overcome the limitations of individual deep learning models, which is more effective than the existing intelligent diagnosis methods.
Ramadan, Nesrin K.; El-Ragehy, Nariman A.; Ragab, Mona T.; El-Zeany, Badr A.
2015-02-01
Four simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture containing Pantoprazole Sodium Sesquihydrate (PAN) and Itopride Hydrochloride (ITH). Method (A) is the derivative ratio method (1DD), method (B) is the mean centering of ratio spectra method (MCR), method (C) is the ratio difference method (RD) and method (D) is the isoabsorptive point coupled with third derivative method (3D). Linear correlation was obtained in range 8-44 μg/mL for PAN by the four proposed methods, 8-40 μg/mL for ITH by methods A, B and C and 10-40 μg/mL for ITH by method D. The suggested methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the official and a reported method for PAN and ITH, respectively, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.
Lotfy, Hayam M.; Saleh, Sarah S.; Hassan, Nagiba Y.; Salem, Hesham
2015-02-01
This work presents the application of different spectrophotometric techniques based on two wavelengths for the determination of severely overlapped spectral components in a binary mixture without prior separation. Four novel spectrophotometric methods were developed namely: induced dual wavelength method (IDW), dual wavelength resolution technique (DWRT), advanced amplitude modulation method (AAM) and induced amplitude modulation method (IAM). The results of the novel methods were compared to that of three well-established methods which were: dual wavelength method (DW), Vierordt's method (VD) and bivariate method (BV). The developed methods were applied for the analysis of the binary mixture of hydrocortisone acetate (HCA) and fusidic acid (FSA) formulated as topical cream accompanied by the determination of methyl paraben and propyl paraben present as preservatives. The specificity of the novel methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures and the combined dosage form. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines where accuracy, repeatability, inter-day precision and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with official ones where no significant difference was observed. No difference was observed between the obtained results when compared to the reported HPLC method, which proved that the developed methods could be alternative to HPLC techniques in quality control laboratories.
Determining the Separation and Position Angles of Orbiting Binary Stars: Comparison of Three Methods
Walsh, Ryan; Boule, Cory; Andrews, Katelyn; Penfield, Andrew; Ross, Ian; Lucas, Gaylon; Braught, Trisha; Harfenist, Steven; Goodale, Keith
2015-07-01
To initiate a long term binary star research program, undergraduate students compared the accuracy and ease of measuring the separations and position angles of three long period binary pairs using three different measurement techniques. It was found that digital image capture using BackyardEOS software and subsequent analysis in Adobe Photoshop was the most accurate and easiest to use of our three methods. The systems WDS J17419+7209 (STF 2241AB), WDS 19418+5032 (STFA 46AB), and WDS 16362+5255 (STF 2087AB) were found to have separations and position angles of: 30", 16°; 39.7", 133°; and 3.1", 104°, respectively. This method produced separation values within 1.3" and position angle values within 1.3° of the most recently observed values found in the Washington Double Star Catalog.
Butts, Carter T
Stochastic models for finite binary vectors are widely used in sociology, with examples ranging from social influence models on dichotomous behaviors or attitudes to models for random graphs. Exact sampling for such models is difficult in the presence of dependence, leading to the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) as an approximation technique. While often effective, MCMC methods have variable execution time, and the quality of the resulting draws can be difficult to assess. Here, we present a novel alternative method for approximate sampling from binary discrete exponential families having fixed execution time and well-defined quality guarantees. We demonstrate the use of this sampling procedure in the context of random graph generation, with an application to the simulation of a large-scale social network using both geographical covariates and dyadic dependence mechanisms.
Application of the finite volume method in the simulation of saturated flows of binary mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murad, M.A.; Gama, R.M.S. da; Sampaio, R.
1989-12-01
This work presents the simulation of saturated flows of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a rigid, homogeneous and isotropic porous medium. The employed mathematical model is derived from the Continuum Theory of Mixtures and generalizes the classical one which is based on Darcy's Law form of the momentum equation. In this approach fluid and porous matrix are regarded as continuous constituents of a binary mixture. The finite volume method is employed in the simulation. (author) [pt
A QUICK METHOD TO IDENTIFY SECULAR RESONANCES IN MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS WITH A BINARY COMPANION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Bazsó, A.; Funk, B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)
2016-11-01
Gravitational perturbations in multi-planet systems caused by an accompanying star are the subject of this investigation. Our dynamical model is based on the binary star HD 41004 AB where a giant planet orbits HD 41004 A. We modify the orbital parameters of this system and analyze the motion of a hypothetical test planet surrounding HD 41004 A on an interior orbit to the detected giant planet. Our numerical computations indicate perturbations due to mean motion and secular resonances (SRs). The locations of these resonances are usually connected to high eccentricity and highly inclined motion depending strongly on the binary-planet architecture. As the positions of mean motion resonances can easily be determined, the main purpose of this study is to present a new semi-analytical method to determine the location of an SR without huge computational effort.
Robust method for interest region description based on local intensity binary pattern
Yang, Yi; Duan, Fajie; Jiang, Jiajia; Ma, Ling; Zheng, Hao
2017-07-01
This paper proposes a robust method based on a local intensity binary pattern for interest feature description. To avoid estimating reference orientation, local features were calculated on a rotation invariant system. Different from the local binary patterns (LBP) and center-symmetric-LBP operator, our proposed local circular contrast pattern (LCCP) operator calculates a local binary feature by comparing the relative intensity order information of each two adjacent elements in the sequence consisting of the sampling point and its neighboring points. To evaluate the performance of our proposed descriptor LCCP and other existing descriptors (e.g., scale-invariant feature transform, DAISY, HRI-CSLTP, multisupport region order-based gradient histogram-single, local intensity order pattern), image matching experiments were first conducted on the Oxford dataset, additional image pairs with complex light changes, image sequences with different noise, and three-dimensional objects dataset. To further evaluate the discriminative ability of local descriptors, a simple object recognition experiment was carried out on three public datasets. The experimental results show that our descriptor LCCP exhibits a better performance and robustness than other evaluated descriptors.
A simple method for analyzing data from a randomized trial with a missing binary outcome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Freedman Laurence S
2003-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many randomized trials involve missing binary outcomes. Although many previous adjustments for missing binary outcomes have been proposed, none of these makes explicit use of randomization to bound the bias when the data are not missing at random. Methods We propose a novel approach that uses the randomization distribution to compute the anticipated maximum bias when missing at random does not hold due to an unobserved binary covariate (implying that missingness depends on outcome and treatment group. The anticipated maximum bias equals the product of two factors: (a the anticipated maximum bias if there were complete confounding of the unobserved covariate with treatment group among subjects with an observed outcome and (b an upper bound factor that depends only on the fraction missing in each randomization group. If less than 15% of subjects are missing in each group, the upper bound factor is less than .18. Results We illustrated the methodology using data from the Polyp Prevention Trial. We anticipated a maximum bias under complete confounding of .25. With only 7% and 9% missing in each arm, the upper bound factor, after adjusting for age and sex, was .10. The anticipated maximum bias of .25 × .10 =.025 would not have affected the conclusion of no treatment effect. Conclusion This approach is easy to implement and is particularly informative when less than 15% of subjects are missing in each arm.
Optical image encryption method based on incoherent imaging and polarized light encoding
Wang, Q.; Xiong, D.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.
2018-05-01
We propose an incoherent encoding system for image encryption based on a polarized encoding method combined with an incoherent imaging. Incoherent imaging is the core component of this proposal, in which the incoherent point-spread function (PSF) of the imaging system serves as the main key to encode the input intensity distribution thanks to a convolution operation. An array of retarders and polarizers is placed on the input plane of the imaging structure to encrypt the polarized state of light based on Mueller polarization calculus. The proposal makes full use of randomness of polarization parameters and incoherent PSF so that a multidimensional key space is generated to deal with illegal attacks. Mueller polarization calculus and incoherent illumination of imaging structure ensure that only intensity information is manipulated. Another key advantage is that complicated processing and recording related to a complex-valued signal are avoided. The encoded information is just an intensity distribution, which is advantageous for data storage and transition because information expansion accompanying conventional encryption methods is also avoided. The decryption procedure can be performed digitally or using optoelectronic devices. Numerical simulation tests demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme.
Synthesis of gelatin nano/submicron particles by binary nonsolvent aided coacervation (BNAC) method.
Patra, Shamayita; Basak, Piyali; Tibarewala, D N
2016-02-01
A newly developed modified coacervation method is utilized to synthesize gelatin nano/submicron particles (GN/SPs) as a drug carrier. Binary nonsolvent aided coacervation (BNAC) method is a modified single step coacervation method, which has yielded approximately a threefold lower particle size and higher average yield in terms of weight percentage of around 94% in comparison to the conventional phase separation methods. In this study 0.5% (w/v) gelatin aqueous solution with a binary nonsolvent system of acetone and ethanol was used. Nanoparticle synthesis was optimized with respect to nonsolvent system type and pH. pH7 has resulted a minimum particle size of 55.67 (±43.74) nm in anhydrous medium along with a swollen particle size of 776nm (±38.57) in aqueous medium with a zeta potential of (-16.3±3.51) mV in aqueous medium. Swelling ratio of 13.95 confirms the crosslinked hydrogel nature of the particles. Furthermore, drug loading efficiency of the gelatin particles prepared at 7pH was observed with nitrofurazone as the model drug. Results of drug release study indicate the potential use of GN/SPs as drug loading matrix for wound management such as burn wound management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An Odor Interaction Model of Binary Odorant Mixtures by a Partial Differential Equation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luchun Yan
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture’s odor intensity to the individual odorant’s relative odor activity value (OAV. Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.
An odor interaction model of binary odorant mixtures by a partial differential equation method.
Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Wang, Guihua; Wu, Chuandong
2014-07-09
A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE) method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method) of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture's odor intensity to the individual odorant's relative odor activity value (OAV). Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors) also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.
Least Square NUFFT Methods Applied to 2D and 3D Radially Encoded MR Image Reconstruction
Song, Jiayu; Liu, Qing H.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Cofer, Gary; Johnson, G. Allan
2009-01-01
Radially encoded MR imaging (MRI) has gained increasing attention in applications such as hyperpolarized gas imaging, contrast-enhanced MR angiography, and dynamic imaging, due to its motion insensitivity and improved artifact properties. However, since the technique collects k-space samples nonuniformly, multidimensional (especially 3D) radially sampled MRI image reconstruction is challenging. The balance between reconstruction accuracy and speed becomes critical when a large data set is processed. Kaiser-Bessel gridding reconstruction has been widely used for non-Cartesian reconstruction. The objective of this work is to provide an alternative reconstruction option in high dimensions with on-the-fly kernels calculation. The work develops general multi-dimensional least square nonuniform fast Fourier transform (LS-NUFFT) algorithms and incorporates them into a k-space simulation and image reconstruction framework. The method is then applied to reconstruct the radially encoded k-space, although the method addresses general nonuniformity and is applicable to any non-Cartesian patterns. Performance assessments are made by comparing the LS-NUFFT based method with the conventional Kaiser-Bessel gridding method for 2D and 3D radially encoded computer simulated phantoms and physically scanned phantoms. The results show that the LS-NUFFT reconstruction method has better accuracy-speed efficiency than the Kaiser-Bessel gridding method when the kernel weights are calculated on the fly. The accuracy of the LS-NUFFT method depends on the choice of scaling factor, and it is found that for a particular conventional kernel function, using its corresponding deapodization function as scaling factor and utilizing it into the LS-NUFFT framework has the potential to improve accuracy. When a cosine scaling factor is used, in particular, the LS-NUFFT method is faster than Kaiser-Bessel gridding method because of a quasi closed-form solution. The method is successfully applied to 2D and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongwei Ying
2014-08-01
Full Text Available An extreme point of scale space extraction method for binary multiscale and rotation invariant local feature descriptor is studied in this paper in order to obtain a robust and fast method for local image feature descriptor. Classic local feature description algorithms often select neighborhood information of feature points which are extremes of image scale space, obtained by constructing the image pyramid using certain signal transform method. But build the image pyramid always consumes a large amount of computing and storage resources, is not conducive to the actual applications development. This paper presents a dual multiscale FAST algorithm, it does not need to build the image pyramid, but can extract feature points of scale extreme quickly. Feature points extracted by proposed method have the characteristic of multiscale and rotation Invariant and are fit to construct the local feature descriptor.
An assessment of estimation methods for generalized linear mixed models with binary outcomes.
Capanu, Marinela; Gönen, Mithat; Begg, Colin B
2013-11-20
Two main classes of methodology have been developed for addressing the analytical intractability of generalized linear mixed models: likelihood-based methods and Bayesian methods. Likelihood-based methods such as the penalized quasi-likelihood approach have been shown to produce biased estimates especially for binary clustered data with small clusters sizes. More recent methods using adaptive Gaussian quadrature perform well but can be overwhelmed by problems with large numbers of random effects, and efficient algorithms to better handle these situations have not yet been integrated in standard statistical packages. Bayesian methods, although they have good frequentist properties when the model is correct, are known to be computationally intensive and also require specialized code, limiting their use in practice. In this article, we introduce a modification of the hybrid approach of Capanu and Begg, 2011, Biometrics 67, 371-380, as a bridge between the likelihood-based and Bayesian approaches by employing Bayesian estimation for the variance components followed by Laplacian estimation for the regression coefficients. We investigate its performance as well as that of several likelihood-based methods in the setting of generalized linear mixed models with binary outcomes. We apply the methods to three datasets and conduct simulations to illustrate their properties. Simulation results indicate that for moderate to large numbers of observations per random effect, adaptive Gaussian quadrature and the Laplacian approximation are very accurate, with adaptive Gaussian quadrature preferable as the number of observations per random effect increases. The hybrid approach is overall similar to the Laplace method, and it can be superior for data with very sparse random effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A self-consistent TB-LMTO-augmented space recursion method for disordered binary alloys
Chakrabarti, A.; Mookerjee, A.
2005-03-01
We developed a complete self-consistent TB-LMTO-Augmented space recursion (ASR) method for calculating configurational average properties of substitutionally disordered binary alloys. We applied our method to fcc based Cu-Ni, Ag-Pd for different concentrations of constituent elements and body-centered cubic based ferromagnetic Fe-V (50-50) alloy. For this systems we investigated the convergence of total energy and l-dependent potential parameters, charges, magnetic moment, energy moments of density of states with the number of iterations. Our results show good agreement with the existing calculations and also with the experimental results where it is available. The Madelung energy correction due to the charge transfer has also been included by the method developed by Ruban et al.
Effect of Encoder Eccentricity on Rolling Speed Control and Elimination Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Ren-Tao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming to solve the problems of incremental photoelectric encoder eccentricity in the speed control system of rolling mill, this paper deduces the calculation model of actual speed, and gives a high precision approximation calculation method. Furthermore, the effectiveness and accuracy of the simplified model are verified by the simulation results. The online identification method of eccentricity and initial angle is also given in the paper. In addition, on the basis of continuous model, this article derives from the discrete model of traditional speed measurement scheme based on digital control system. This proposed algorithm has simplicity and excellent application value, and the effectiveness of the algorithm has been verified.
Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A. M.; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.
2014-10-01
New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include ‘H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5 nm and 274.9 nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0 nm and 216.0-229.0 nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0 nm, using Δλ = 145.0 nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference.
Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A M; Magdy, N; El Zahar, N M
2014-10-15
New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include 'H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5nm and 274.9nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0nm and 216.0-229.0nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0nm, using Δλ=145.0nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Division Unit for Binary Integer Decimals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto
2009-01-01
In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm and implements binary encodings (binary integer decimal or BID) for significands. Recent decimal division designs are all based on the binary coded decimal (BCD) encoding. We adapt the radix-10 digit...
Wulandari, S. P.; Salamah, M.; Rositawati, A. F. D.
2018-04-01
Food security is the condition where the food fulfilment is managed well for the country till the individual. Indonesia is one of the country which has the commitment to create the food security becomes main priority. However, the food necessity becomes common thing means that it doesn’t care about nutrient standard and the health condition of family member, so in the fulfilment of food necessity also has to consider the disease suffered by the family member, one of them is pulmonary tuberculosa. From that reasons, this research is conducted to know the factors which influence on household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya by using binary logistic regression method. The analysis result by using binary logistic regression shows that the variables wife latest education, house density and spacious house ventilation significantly affect on household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya, where the wife education level is University/equivalent, the house density is eligible or 8 m2/person and spacious house ventilation 10% of the floor area has the opportunity to become food secure households amounted to 0.911089. While the chance of becoming food insecure households amounted to 0.088911. The model household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya has been conformable, and the overall percentages of those classifications are at 71.8%.
A deep learning method for lincRNA detection using auto-encoder algorithm.
Yu, Ning; Yu, Zeng; Pan, Yi
2017-12-06
RNA sequencing technique (RNA-seq) enables scientists to develop novel data-driven methods for discovering more unidentified lincRNAs. Meantime, knowledge-based technologies are experiencing a potential revolution ignited by the new deep learning methods. By scanning the newly found data set from RNA-seq, scientists have found that: (1) the expression of lincRNAs appears to be regulated, that is, the relevance exists along the DNA sequences; (2) lincRNAs contain some conversed patterns/motifs tethered together by non-conserved regions. The two evidences give the reasoning for adopting knowledge-based deep learning methods in lincRNA detection. Similar to coding region transcription, non-coding regions are split at transcriptional sites. However, regulatory RNAs rather than message RNAs are generated. That is, the transcribed RNAs participate the biological process as regulatory units instead of generating proteins. Identifying these transcriptional regions from non-coding regions is the first step towards lincRNA recognition. The auto-encoder method achieves 100% and 92.4% prediction accuracy on transcription sites over the putative data sets. The experimental results also show the excellent performance of predictive deep neural network on the lincRNA data sets compared with support vector machine and traditional neural network. In addition, it is validated through the newly discovered lincRNA data set and one unreported transcription site is found by feeding the whole annotated sequences through the deep learning machine, which indicates that deep learning method has the extensive ability for lincRNA prediction. The transcriptional sequences of lincRNAs are collected from the annotated human DNA genome data. Subsequently, a two-layer deep neural network is developed for the lincRNA detection, which adopts the auto-encoder algorithm and utilizes different encoding schemes to obtain the best performance over intergenic DNA sequence data. Driven by those newly
Cao, Jiefeng; Guo, Chao; Zou, Huamin
2013-12-01
The structure-factor phase method of convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) has been widely applied as an effective tool in determining the polarity of binary compound materials, for example, the typical sphalerite material, GaAs. However, its validity on other polar materials is still unknown. In this paper we extensively investigated its potential applicability onto 11 AB-type semiconductors by dynamical simulations of CBED. Two key factors during the simulation, the difference between A and B atomic numbers and the sample thickness, are discussed in detail. It was found that this method is efficient to determine the polarity for a sphalerite structure under certain conditions, and, reversely, limited to determine the polarity for a wurtzite structure even though it is very similar to the sphalerite structure.
Priority-based methods for reducing the impact of packet loss on HEVC encoded video streams
Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos
2013-02-01
The rapid growth in the use of video streaming over IP networks has outstripped the rate at which new network infrastructure has been deployed. These bandwidth-hungry applications now comprise a significant part of all Internet traffic and present major challenges for network service providers. The situation is more acute in mobile networks where the available bandwidth is often limited. Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently on track for completion in 2013. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC) for the same quality. However, there has been very little published research on HEVC streaming or the challenges of delivering HEVC streams in resource-constrained network environments. In this paper we consider the problem of adapting an HEVC encoded video stream to meet the bandwidth limitation in a mobile networks environment. Video sequences were encoded using the Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM6) for HEVC. Network abstraction layers (NAL) units were packetized, on a one NAL unit per RTP packet basis, and transmitted over a realistic hybrid wired/wireless testbed configured with dynamically changing network path conditions and multiple independent network paths from the streamer to the client. Two different schemes for the prioritisation of RTP packets, based on the NAL units they contain, have been implemented and empirically compared using a range of video sequences, encoder configurations, bandwidths and network topologies. In the first prioritisation method the importance of an RTP packet was determined by the type of picture and the temporal switching point information carried in the NAL unit header. Packets containing parameter set NAL units and video coding layer (VCL) NAL units of the instantaneous decoder refresh (IDR) and the clean random access (CRA) pictures were given the
Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Tao; Xu, Xuanhua
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy multiple criteria group decision making problems based on binary relation. Firstly, the similarity measure between two vectors based on binary relation is defined, which can be utilized to aggregate preference information. Some desirable properties of the similarity measure based on fuzzy binary relation are also studied. Then, a methodology for fuzzy multiple criteria group decision making is proposed, in ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Sun-Ju; Park, Byeong-Gon; Humphrey, Andrew; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun
2009-01-01
When a source star is microlensed by one stellar component of widely separated binary stellar components, after finishing the lensing event, the event induced by the other binary star can be additionally detected. In this paper, we investigate whether the close/wide degeneracies in binary lensing events can be resolved by detecting the additional centroid shift of the source images induced by the secondary binary star in wide binary lensing events. From this investigation, we find that if the source star passes close to the Einstein ring of the secondary companion, the degeneracy can be easily resolved by using future astrometric follow-up observations with high astrometric precision. We determine the probability of detecting the additional centroid shift in binary lensing events with high magnification. From this, we find that the degeneracy of binary lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU can be resolved with a significant efficiency. We also estimate the waiting time for the detection of the additional centroid shift in wide binary lensing events. We find that for typical Galactic lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU, the additional centroid shift can be detected within 100 days, and thus the degeneracy of those events can be sufficiently broken within a year.
Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenhua Guo
Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, N.W.; Zaazaa, H.E.S.; Abdelrahman, M.M.
2014-01-01
Simple, selective and precise four spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for quantitative determination of Salicylamide (SAD) and Ascorbic acid (ASC, Vitamin C) in their binary mixture. Method A is Area under curve spectrophotometry, in which the area under curve in the wavelength ranges 225-245 nm and 265-285 nm were selected for determination of SAD and ASC. Method B is based on dual wavelength spectrophotometry, where ASC can be determined by difference in absorbance at 249.8 and 285.8 nm. On the same way; SAD is measured by difference in absorbance at 240.4 and 286.4 nm. Method C utilizes isoabsorptive point spectrophotometry where total concentration of SAD and ASC was calculated at their isoabsorptive points at 246.4 and 287 nm, while SAD concentration alone can be determined by first derivative spectrophotometry (1D) at 315.4 nm, then ASC concentration can be determined by subtraction. Method D is ratio subtraction spectrophotometry, where ASC can be determined by dividing the spectrum of the mixture by the spectrum of the SAD (as a divisor) followed by subtracting the constant absorbance value of the plateau region, then finally multiplying the obtained spectrum by the spectrum of the divisor. The developed methods have been successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in different laboratory prepared mixtures and in their pharmaceutical formulation. Statistical comparison between the results obtained by applying the proposed methods and the reported HPLC method was done, and it was found that there was no significant difference between them regarding both accuracy and precision. (author)
Cellulolytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them
Gray, Kevin A [San Diego, CA; Zhao, Lishan [Emeryville, CA; Cayouette, Michelle H [San Diego, CA
2012-01-24
The invention provides polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, a endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase, a beta-glucosidase, a xylanase, a mannanse, a .beta.-xylosidase, an arabinofuranosidase, and/or an oligomerase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having an oligomerase activity, e.g., enzymes that convert recalcitrant soluble oligomers to fermentable sugars in the saccharification of biomass. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.
Nucleic acid molecules encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, and methods of use
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Croteau, Rodney B. (Pullman, WA); Lange, Bernd M. (Pullman, WA)
2001-01-01
A cDNA encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase (IPK) from peppermint (Mentha x piperita) has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO:1) is provided which codes for the expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase (SEQ ID NO:2), from peppermint (Mentha x piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant isopentenyl monophosphate kinase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant isopentenyl monophosphate kinase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase in plants in order to enhance the production of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or isoprenoids derived therefrom, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or the production of its products.
Rabiul Islam, Md; Khademul Islam Molla, Md; Nakanishi, Masaki; Tanaka, Toshihisa
2017-04-01
Objective. Recently developed effective methods for detection commands of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) that need calibration for visual stimuli, which cause more time and fatigue prior to the use, as the number of commands increases. This paper develops a novel unsupervised method based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) for accurate detection of stimulus frequency. Approach. A novel unsupervised technique termed as binary subband CCA (BsCCA) is implemented in a multiband approach to enhance the frequency recognition performance of SSVEP. In BsCCA, two subbands are used and a CCA-based correlation coefficient is computed for the individual subbands. In addition, a reduced set of artificial reference signals is used to calculate CCA for the second subband. The analyzing SSVEP is decomposed into multiple subband and the BsCCA is implemented for each one. Then, the overall recognition score is determined by a weighted sum of the canonical correlation coefficients obtained from each band. Main results. A 12-class SSVEP dataset (frequency range: 9.25-14.75 Hz with an interval of 0.5 Hz) for ten healthy subjects are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results suggest that BsCCA significantly improves the performance of SSVEP-based BCI compared to the state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method is an unsupervised approach with averaged information transfer rate (ITR) of 77.04 bits min-1 across 10 subjects. The maximum individual ITR is 107.55 bits min-1 for 12-class SSVEP dataset, whereas, the ITR of 69.29 and 69.44 bits min-1 are achieved with CCA and NCCA respectively. Significance. The statistical test shows that the proposed unsupervised method significantly improves the performance of the SSVEP-based BCI. It can be usable in real world applications.
A novel method of developing all optical frequency encoded Fredkin gates
Garai, Sisir Kumar
2014-02-01
All optical reversible logic gates have significant applications in the field of optics and optoelectronics for developing different sequential and combinational circuits of optical computing, optical signal processing and in multi-valued logic operations and quantum computing. Here the author proposes a method for developing all optical three-input-output Fredkin gate and modified Fredkin gate using frequency encoded data. For this purpose the author has exploited the properties of efficient frequency conversion and faster switching speed of semiconductor optical amplifiers. Simulation results of the three input-output Fredkin gate testifies to the feasibility of the proposed scheme. These Fredkin gates are universal logic gates, and can be used to develop different all-optical logic and data processors in communication network.
Pan, Yi; Haber, Michael; Barnhart, Huiman X
2011-04-15
A new coefficient for assessing agreement between two observers using a permutation-based method is introduced in this article. When observations are binary, this coefficient compares the observed disagreement (probability of discordance) between the observers with its expected value under the hypothesis of individual equivalence. This hypothesis states that for each subject, the conditional distributions of the readings of the two observers are identical, and therefore from a statistical viewpoint it does not matter which observer makes the reading on this subject. Let K and L denote the numbers of replicated observations that are available from observers X and Y, respectively, on a given subject. Then the expected disagreement under individual equivalence for a subject is based on the (K + L) choosing K possible assignments of X's and Y's to the K + L observations made on this subject. Simple methods for the estimation of the new coefficient and its standard error are derived. The new coefficient is compared with kappa and the coefficient of individual agreement, which is based on comparing the inter and intra observer disagreements. Simulation studies confirm the validity of the estimated coefficient and its standard error. Data from a study involving the evaluation of mammograms by 10 radiologists are used to illustrate this new approach to the evaluation of observer agreement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Testing the Binary Black Hole Nature of a Compact Binary Coalescence.
Krishnendu, N V; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant
2017-09-01
We propose a novel method to test the binary black hole nature of compact binaries detectable by gravitational wave (GW) interferometers and, hence, constrain the parameter space of other exotic compact objects. The spirit of the test lies in the "no-hair" conjecture for black holes where all properties of a Kerr black hole are characterized by its mass and spin. The method relies on observationally measuring the quadrupole moments of the compact binary constituents induced due to their spins. If the compact object is a Kerr black hole (BH), its quadrupole moment is expressible solely in terms of its mass and spin. Otherwise, the quadrupole moment can depend on additional parameters (such as the equation of state of the object). The higher order spin effects in phase and amplitude of a gravitational waveform, which explicitly contains the spin-induced quadrupole moments of compact objects, hence, uniquely encode the nature of the compact binary. Thus, we argue that an independent measurement of the spin-induced quadrupole moment of the compact binaries from GW observations can provide a unique way to distinguish binary BH systems from binaries consisting of exotic compact objects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Najib, F.M.; Mustafa, M.S.
2014-01-01
In this work four different UV-spectrophotometric methods are described for simultaneous determination of antiepileptic drugs; carbamazepine (CBZ) and lamotrigine (LMT) in binary synthetic mixtures and urine samples without separation. First method was by solving the two simultaneous equations (SEQ) based on total absorbance according to Beers law. Second was Dual wavelength (DWSP) method; Absorbance difference between 304 and 313 nm was measurable for CBZ but was zero for LMT. Likewise the absorbance difference between 282 and 290 nm was significant for LMT, and zero for CBZ. Third involved the use of zero- crossing first derivative method (ZCDSP) using the amplitudes at 308.9 and 286.6 nm for CBZ and LMT respectively. Ratio Derivative Spectrophotometry (RDSP) was the last. Here, the absorbance at different concentrations of CBZ or LMT, was divided, wavelength by wavelength, by the absorbance of a divisor, which was LMT standard for the analyte CBZ, and vice versa for LMT, (Divisor=2.0 μg.mL -1 ) in both cases. The amplitude of the derivative ratio spectra at 290 nm with wavelength interval (Δλ=6.0nm) and 328 nm (Δλ=4.0 nm) were selected for the determination of CBZ and LMT respectively. CBZ and LMT were simultaneously determined in synthetic mixtures and urine samples by the four methods giving good linearity, r 2 ranged between 0.9990 - 0.9997. Detection Limit (D.L) was mostly less than 0.4 μg.mL -1 ,while in case of ZCDSP and RDSP were between 0.01-0.2 μg.mL -1 with wider linearity range (1-50 for CBZ and 1 - 80 μg.mL -1 for LMT). A slightly lower sensitivity was observed when suppressing solution for urine analysis was used to remove interferences. The recoveries of CBZ and LMT in samples of urine of a healthy person spiked with the drugs and using urine of a healthy person as a blank were, in most cases, around (101.0 % - 103.33 %) and (98.33 % - 102.16 %) with RSD≤3.61 and 3.63 % for CBZ and LMT respectively. The recoveries using suppressing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenkai Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present a novel binary version of multiobjective wind driven optimization (WDO for emitted beamforming of opportunistic array radar, which is assumed as a multiobjective optimization problem. Firstly, the emitted signal model and objective functions of optimization are presented. Then the algorithm proposes a new definition of the position vector of air parcel, and brings a good discretization interpretation of continuous WDO. For multiobjective optimization, the grey relational grade (GRG is then used to measure the similarity between the best two solutions for these two objectives. The best pressure locations with the maximum GRG will be recorded as the best two candidate solutions to the problem, and a final optimization result will be selected according to the importance of the two objectives. Finally, the proposed improved WDO has been applied for the optimal design of beamforming of the opportunistic antenna array, which needs a trade-off between the 3 dB main beam width and sidelobe level. The simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO in the optimal beamforming by achieving more reduction in the sidelobe level and saving more runtime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingyun Mo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Direct equipartition ray design was used to construct Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr binary mixtures. Microplate toxicity analysis was used to evaluate the toxicity of individual substance and the Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr mixtures on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum. The interacting toxicity of the mixture was analyzed with concentration addition (CA model. In addition, combination index method (CI was proposed and used to quantitatively characterize the toxicity of the binary mixtures of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr observed in experiment and find the degree of deviation from the predicted outcome of the CA model, that is, the intensity of interacting toxicity. Results indicate that most of the 20 binary mixtures exhibit enhancing and synergistic effect, and only Cd-Cr-R4 and Cd-Cr-R5 mixtures have relatively high antagonistic effects against C. pyrenoidosa. Based on confidence interval, CI can compare the intensities of interaction of the mixtures under varying levels of effect. The characterization methods are applicable for analyzing binary mixture with complex interaction.
A simple encoding method for Sigma-Delta ADC based biopotential acquisition systems.
Guerrero, Federico N; Spinelli, Enrique M
2017-10-01
Sigma Delta analogue-to-digital converters allow acquiring the full dynamic range of biomedical signals at the electrodes, resulting in less complex hardware and increased measurement robustness. However, the increased data size per sample (typically 24 bits) demands the transmission of extremely large volumes of data across the isolation barrier, thus increasing power consumption on the patient side. This problem is accentuated when a large number of channels is used as in current 128-256 electrodes biopotential acquisition systems, that usually opt for an optic fibre link to the computer. An analogous problem occurs for simpler low-power acquisition platforms that transmit data through a wireless link to a computing platform. In this paper, a low-complexity encoding method is presented to decrease sample data size without losses, while preserving the full DC-coupled signal. The method achieved a 2.3 average compression ratio evaluated over an ECG and EMG signal bank acquired with equipment based on Sigma-Delta converters. It demands a very low processing load: a C language implementation is presented that resulted in an 110 clock cycles average execution on an 8-bit microcontroller.
Universal data-based method for reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics
Li, Jingwen; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Grebogi, Celso; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2017-03-01
To understand, predict, and control complex networked systems, a prerequisite is to reconstruct the network structure from observable data. Despite recent progress in network reconstruction, binary-state dynamics that are ubiquitous in nature, technology, and society still present an outstanding challenge in this field. Here we offer a framework for reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics by developing a universal data-based linearization approach that is applicable to systems with linear, nonlinear, discontinuous, or stochastic dynamics governed by monotonic functions. The linearization procedure enables us to convert the network reconstruction into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be resolved through convex optimization. We demonstrate generally high reconstruction accuracy for a number of complex networks associated with distinct binary-state dynamics from using binary data contaminated by noise and missing data. Our framework is completely data driven, efficient, and robust, and does not require any a priori knowledge about the detailed dynamical process on the network. The framework represents a general paradigm for reconstructing, understanding, and exploiting complex networked systems with binary-state dynamics.
Salu, Yehuda; Tilton, James
1993-01-01
The classification of multispectral image data obtained from satellites has become an important tool for generating ground cover maps. This study deals with the application of nonparametric pixel-by-pixel classification methods in the classification of pixels, based on their multispectral data. A new neural network, the Binary Diamond, is introduced, and its performance is compared with a nearest neighbor algorithm and a back-propagation network. The Binary Diamond is a multilayer, feed-forward neural network, which learns from examples in unsupervised, 'one-shot' mode. It recruits its neurons according to the actual training set, as it learns. The comparisons of the algorithms were done by using a realistic data base, consisting of approximately 90,000 Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper pixels. The Binary Diamond and the nearest neighbor performances were close, with some advantages to the Binary Diamond. The performance of the back-propagation network lagged behind. An efficient nearest neighbor algorithm, the binned nearest neighbor, is described. Ways for improving the performances, such as merging categories, and analyzing nonboundary pixels, are addressed and evaluated.
Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method
Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.
2013-10-01
In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm-1 (ICOM), 1473 cm-1 (ICOD), 961 cm-1 (IHAP) and 1282 cm-1 (IUA) were used.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yangyang; Yang, Ming; Long, Jiang
2017-01-01
For motor control applications, the speed loop performance is largely depended on the accuracy of speed feedback signal. M/T method, due to its high theoretical accuracy, is the most widely used in incremental encoder adopted speed measurement. However, the inherent encoder optical grating error...... and A/D conversion error make it hard to achieve theoretical speed measurement accuracy. In this paper, hardware caused speed measurement errors are analyzed and modeled in detail; a Single-Phase Self-adaptive M/T method is proposed to ideally suppress speed measurement error. In the end, simulation...
A Simple Educational Method for the Measurement of Liquid Binary Diffusivities
Rice, Nicholas P.; de Beer, Martin P.; Williamson, Mark E.
2014-01-01
A simple low-cost experiment has been developed for the measurement of the binary diffusion coefficients of liquid substances. The experiment is suitable for demonstrating molecular diffusion to small or large undergraduate classes in chemistry or chemical engineering. Students use a cell phone camera in conjunction with open-source image…
Least-square NUFFT methods applied to 2-D and 3-D radially encoded MR image reconstruction.
Song, Jiayu; Liu, Yanhui; Gewalt, Sally L; Cofer, Gary; Johnson, G Allan; Liu, Qing Huo
2009-04-01
Radially encoded MRI has gained increasing attention due to its motion insensitivity and reduced artifacts. However, because its samples are collected nonuniformly in the k-space, multidimensional (especially 3-D) radially sampled MRI image reconstruction is challenging. The objective of this paper is to develop a reconstruction technique in high dimensions with on-the-fly kernel calculation. It implements general multidimensional nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) algorithms and incorporates them into a k-space image reconstruction framework. The method is then applied to reconstruct from the radially encoded k-space data, although the method is applicable to any non-Cartesian patterns. Performance comparisons are made against the conventional Kaiser-Bessel (KB) gridding method for 2-D and 3-D radially encoded computer-simulated phantoms and physically scanned phantoms. The results show that the NUFFT reconstruction method has better accuracy-efficiency tradeoff than the KB gridding method when the kernel weights are calculated on the fly. It is found that for a particular conventional kernel function, using its corresponding deapodization function as a scaling factor in the NUFFT framework has the potential to improve accuracy. In particular, when a cosine scaling factor is used, the NUFFT method is faster than KB gridding method since a closed-form solution is available and is less computationally expensive than the KB kernel (KB griding requires computation of Bessel functions). The NUFFT method has been successfully applied to 2-D and 3-D in vivo studies on small animals.
Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak, Bertulani, C. A.
2017-08-01
In this paper we discuss the R -matrix approach to treat the subthreshold resonances for the single-level and one-channel and for the single-level and two-channel cases. In particular, the expression relating the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) with the observable reduced width, when the subthreshold bound state is the only channel or coupled with an open channel, which is a resonance, is formulated. Since the ANC plays a very important role in nuclear astrophysics, these relations significantly enhance the power of the derived equations. We present the relationship between the resonance width and the ANC for the general case and consider two limiting cases: wide and narrow resonances. Different equations for the astrophysical S factors in the R -matrix approach are presented. After that we discuss the Trojan horse method (THM) formalism. The developed equations are obtained using the surface-integral formalism and the generalized R -matrix approach for the three-body resonant reactions. It is shown how the Trojan horse (TH) double-differential cross section can be expressed in terms of the on-the-energy-shell astrophysical S factor for the binary subreaction. Finally, we demonstrate how the THM can be used to calculate the astrophysical S factor for the neutron generator 13C(α ,n )16O in low-mass AGB stars. At astrophysically relevant energies this astrophysical S factor is controlled by the threshold level 1 /2+,Ex=6356 keV. Here, we reanalyzed recent TH data taking into account more accurately the three-body effects and using both assumptions that the threshold level is a subthreshold bound state or it is a resonance state.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trias, Miquel [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa Km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John, E-mail: miquel.trias@uib.e, E-mail: av@star.sr.bham.ac.u, E-mail: jveitch@star.sr.bham.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)
2009-10-21
Bayesian analysis of Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) data sets based on Markov chain Monte Carlo methods has been shown to be a challenging problem, in part due to the complicated structure of the likelihood function consisting of several isolated local maxima that dramatically reduces the efficiency of the sampling techniques. Here we introduce a new fully Markovian algorithm, a delayed rejection Metropolis-Hastings Markov chain Monte Carlo method, to efficiently explore these kind of structures and we demonstrate its performance on selected LISA data sets containing a known number of stellar-mass binary signals embedded in Gaussian stationary noise.
Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D
1978-01-01
Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naseri Abdolhossein
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new and very simple kinetic - spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of binary mixtures without prior separational steps. The method is based on the calculation of the variation of ratio kinetic profiles. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is also illustrated. The proposed method can be used for simultaneous determination of two analytes A and B that react with the same reagent to give the same absorbing species. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, a model data as well as an experimental data were tested. The results from experimental data relating to the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Co (II and V (IV based on their oxidation reactions with Fe (III in the presence 1, 10- Phenanthroline (Phen in micellar media were presented as a real model for resolution of the binary systems. The applicability of the method in tap water and synthesized alloy samples was also assessed by spiking experiments with different amount of Co (II and V (IV.
Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boldt, Jesper
The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...
Effect of Iron Fe (II and Fe (III in a Binary System Evaluated Bioluminescent Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Sorokina
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of iron ions Fe2+ and Fe3+ on the bioluminescent recombinant strain of Escherichia coli in a single-component and binary system. Found that for the bacteria E. coli Fe3+ ions are more toxic than Fe2+. Under the combined effect of iron toxicity increases, the percentage of luminescence quenching increases, but the value is much less than the sum of the indicator for the Fe2+ and Fe3+. The biological effect of insertion of iron is not proportional to their content in the mixture.
Celluloytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them
Gray, Kevin A.; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H.
2015-09-08
The invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.
Embedding intensity image into a binary hologram with strong noise resistant capability
Zhuang, Zhaoyong; Jiao, Shuming; Zou, Wenbin; Li, Xia
2017-11-01
A digital hologram can be employed as a host image for image watermarking applications to protect information security. Past research demonstrates that a gray level intensity image can be embedded into a binary Fresnel hologram by error diffusion method or bit truncation coding method. However, the fidelity of the retrieved watermark image from binary hologram is generally not satisfactory, especially when the binary hologram is contaminated with noise. To address this problem, we propose a JPEG-BCH encoding method in this paper. First, we employ the JPEG standard to compress the intensity image into a binary bit stream. Next, we encode the binary bit stream with BCH code to obtain error correction capability. Finally, the JPEG-BCH code is embedded into the binary hologram. By this way, the intensity image can be retrieved with high fidelity by a BCH-JPEG decoder even if the binary hologram suffers from serious noise contamination. Numerical simulation results show that the image quality of retrieved intensity image with our proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art work reported.
An evaluation of different delivery methods for teaching binary, hex and decimal conversion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Kempthorne
Full Text Available The ability to convert between binary, hexadecimal, and decimal numbering systems is a fundamental skill commonly taught to tertiary-level computing and ICT students. This paper presents the results of a multiple year investigation into the application of differing approaches for the teaching and learning of these skills. Specifically, the study compares traditional lectures, games, and group activities with student levels of academic achievement. Student prior experience with numbering system conversion is also analysed. The study reveals that, overall, the game-based approach resulted in the highest average test scores; however, when students were divided into groups with and without prior experience, the students with prior experience performed better with a traditional lecture approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Islam Ullah Khan
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method is presented for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination. Gatifloxacin, flurbiprofen and their degradation products were detected at 254 nm using a BDS Hypersil C8 (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm column and mixture of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and methanol 30:70 v/v as mobile phase. Response was linear over the range of 15-105 mg mL-1 for gatifloxacin (r² > 0.998 and of 1.5-10.5 mg mL-1 for flurbiprofen (r² > 0.999. The developed method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products (peak purity index > 0.9999. The method developed can be applied successfully for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in human serum, urine, pharmaceutical formulations, and their stability studies.
Resolving phase stability in the Ti-O binary with first-principles statistical mechanics methods
Gunda, N. S. Harsha; Puchala, Brian; Van der Ven, Anton
2018-03-01
The Ti-O system consists of a multitude of stable and metastable oxides that are used in wide ranging applications. In this work we investigate phase stability in the Ti-O binary from first principles. We perform a systematic search for ground state structures as a function of oxygen concentration by considering oxygen-vacancy and/or titanium-vacancy orderings over four parent crystal structures: (i) hcp Ti, (ii) ω -Ti, (iii) rocksalt, and (iv) hcp oxygen containing interstitial titanium. We explore phase stability at finite temperature using cluster expansion Hamiltonians and Monte Carlo simulations. The calculations predict a high oxygen solubility in hcp Ti and the stability of suboxide phases that undergo order-disorder transitions upon heating. Vacancy ordered rocksalt phases are also predicted at low temperature that disorder to form an extended solid solution at high temperatures. Predicted stable and metastable phase diagrams are qualitatively consistent with experimental observations, however, important discrepancies are revealed between first-principles density functional theory predictions of phase stability and the current understanding of phase stability in this system.
Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.
2014-01-01
The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses
A fast improved fat tree encoder for wave union TDC in an FPGA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Qi; Zhao Lei; Liu Shubin; Qi Binxiang; Hu Xueye; An Qi; Liao Shengkai; Peng Chengzhi
2013-01-01
Up to now, the wave union method can achieve the best timing performance in FPGA-based TDC designs. However, it should be guaranteed in such a structure that the non-thermometer code to binary code (NTH2B) encoding process should be finished within just one system clock cycle. So the implementation of the NTH2B encoder is quite challenging considering the high speed requirement. Besides, the high resolution wave union TDC also demands that the encoder convert an ultra-wide input code to a binary code. We present a fast improved fat tree encoder (IFTE) to fulfill such requirements, in which bubble error suppression is also integrated. With this encoder scheme, a wave union TDC with 7.7 ps RMS and 3.8 ps effective bin size was implemented in an FPGA from Xilinx Virtex 5 family. An encoding time of 8.33 ns was achieved for a 276-bit non-thermometer code to a 9-bit binary code conversion. We conducted a series of tests on the oscillating period of the wave union launcher, as well as the overall performance of the TDC; test results indicate that the IFTE works well. In fact, in the implementation of this encoder, no manual routing or special constraints were required; therefore, this IFTE structure could also be further applied in other delay-chain-based FPGA TDCs. (authors)
Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ
1994-01-01
This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsafnat Guy
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of drug characteristics is a clinically important task, but it requires much expert knowledge and consumes substantial resources. We have developed a statistical text-mining approach (BInary Characteristics Extractor and biomedical Properties Predictor: BICEPP to help experts screen drugs that may have important clinical characteristics of interest. Results BICEPP first retrieves MEDLINE abstracts containing drug names, then selects tokens that best predict the list of drugs which represents the characteristic of interest. Machine learning is then used to classify drugs using a document frequency-based measure. Evaluation experiments were performed to validate BICEPP's performance on 484 characteristics of 857 drugs, identified from the Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH and the PharmacoKinetic Interaction Screening (PKIS database. Stratified cross-validations revealed that BICEPP was able to classify drugs into all 20 major therapeutic classes (100% and 157 (of 197 minor drug classes (80% with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC > 0.80. Similarly, AUC > 0.80 could be obtained in the classification of 173 (of 238 adverse events (73%, up to 12 (of 15 groups of clinically significant cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP inducers or inhibitors (80%, and up to 11 (of 14 groups of narrow therapeutic index drugs (79%. Interestingly, it was observed that the keywords used to describe a drug characteristic were not necessarily the most predictive ones for the classification task. Conclusions BICEPP has sufficient classification power to automatically distinguish a wide range of clinical properties of drugs. This may be used in pharmacovigilance applications to assist with rapid screening of large drug databases to identify important characteristics for further evaluation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naeimeh Elkhani
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Membrane computing is a theoretical model of computation inspired by the structure and functioning of cells. Membrane computing models naturally have parallel structure, and this fact is generally for all variants of membrane computing like kernel P system. Most of the simulations of membrane computing have been done in a serial way on a machine with a central processing unit (CPU. This has neglected the advantage of parallelism in membrane computing. This paper uses multiple cores processing tools in MATLAB as a parallel tool to implement proposed feature selection method based on kernel P system-multiobjective binary particle swarm optimization to identify marker genes for cancer classification. Through this implementation, the proposed feature selection model will involve all the features of a P system including communication rule, division rule, parallelism, and nondeterminism.
Rahman, M Shafiqur; Sultana, Mahbuba
2017-02-23
When developing risk models for binary data with small or sparse data sets, the standard maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) based logistic regression faces several problems including biased or infinite estimate of the regression coefficient and frequent convergence failure of the likelihood due to separation. The problem of separation occurs commonly even if sample size is large but there is sufficient number of strong predictors. In the presence of separation, even if one develops the model, it produces overfitted model with poor predictive performance. Firth-and logF-type penalized regression methods are popular alternative to MLE, particularly for solving separation-problem. Despite the attractive advantages, their use in risk prediction is very limited. This paper evaluated these methods in risk prediction in comparison with MLE and other commonly used penalized methods such as ridge. The predictive performance of the methods was evaluated through assessing calibration, discrimination and overall predictive performance using an extensive simulation study. Further an illustration of the methods were provided using a real data example with low prevalence of outcome. The MLE showed poor performance in risk prediction in small or sparse data sets. All penalized methods offered some improvements in calibration, discrimination and overall predictive performance. Although the Firth-and logF-type methods showed almost equal amount of improvement, Firth-type penalization produces some bias in the average predicted probability, and the amount of bias is even larger than that produced by MLE. Of the logF(1,1) and logF(2,2) penalization, logF(2,2) provides slight bias in the estimate of regression coefficient of binary predictor and logF(1,1) performed better in all aspects. Similarly, ridge performed well in discrimination and overall predictive performance but it often produces underfitted model and has high rate of convergence failure (even the rate is higher than that
Jaeckel, Louis A.
1989-01-01
To study the problems of encoding visual images for use with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), I consider a specific class of images- those that consist of several pieces, each of which is a line segment or an arc of a circle. This class includes line drawings of characters such as letters of the alphabet. I give a method of representing a segment of an arc by five numbers in a continuous way; that is, similar arcs have similar representations. I also give methods for encoding these numbers as bit strings in an approximately continuous way. The set of possible segments and arcs may be viewed as a five-dimensional manifold M, whose structure is like a Mobious strip. An image, considered to be an unordered set of segments and arcs, is therefore represented by a set of points in M - one for each piece. I then discuss the problem of constructing a preprocessor to find the segments and arcs in these images, although a preprocessor has not been developed. I also describe a possible extension of the representation.
Wu, Sheng; Crespi, Catherine M; Wong, Weng Kee
2012-09-01
The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is a fundamental parameter of interest in cluster randomized trials as it can greatly affect statistical power. We compare common methods of estimating the ICC in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes, with a specific focus on their application to community-based cancer prevention trials with primary outcome of self-reported cancer screening. Using three real data sets from cancer screening intervention trials with different numbers and types of clusters and cluster sizes, we obtained point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the ICC using five methods: the analysis of variance estimator, the Fleiss-Cuzick estimator, the Pearson estimator, an estimator based on generalized estimating equations and an estimator from a random intercept logistic regression model. We compared estimates of the ICC for the overall sample and by study condition. Our results show that ICC estimates from different methods can be quite different, although confidence intervals generally overlap. The ICC varied substantially by study condition in two studies, suggesting that the common practice of assuming a common ICC across all clusters in the trial is questionable. A simulation study confirmed pitfalls of erroneously assuming a common ICC. Investigators should consider using sample size and analysis methods that allow the ICC to vary by study condition. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Xylanases, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gray, Kevin A.; Dirmeier, Richard
2018-02-27
The invention relates to enzymes having xylanase, mannanase and/or glucanase activity, e.g., catalyzing hydrolysis of internal .beta.-1,4-xylosidic linkages or endo-.beta.-1,4-glucanase linkages; and/or degrading a linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose. Thus, the invention provides methods and processes for breaking down hemicellulose, which is a major component of the cell wall of plants, including methods and processes for hydrolyzing hemicelluloses in any plant or wood or wood product, wood waste, paper pulp, paper product or paper waste or byproduct. In addition, methods of designing new xylanases, mannanases and/or glucanases and methods of use thereof are also provided. The xylanases, mannanases and/or glucanases have increased activity and stability at increased pH and temperature.
Xylanases, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them
Gray, Kevin A; Dirmeier, Reinhard
2013-07-16
The invention relates to enzymes having xylanase, mannanase and/or glucanase activity, e.g., catalyzing hydrolysis of internal .beta.-1,4-xylosidic linkages or endo-.beta.-1,4-glucanase linkages; and/or degrading a linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose. Thus, the invention provides methods and processes for breaking down hemicellulose, which is a major component of the cell wall of plants, including methods and processes for hydrolyzing hemicelluloses in any plant or wood or wood product, wood waste, paper pulp, paper product or paper waste or byproduct. In addition, methods of designing new xylanases, mannanases and/or glucanases and methods of use thereof are also provided. The xylanases, mannanases and/or glucanases have increased activity and stability at increased pH and temperature.
Ensuring the integrity of information resources based methods dvooznakovoho structural data encoding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
О.К. Юдін
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Developed methods of estimation of noise stability and correction of structural code constructions to distortion in comunication of data in informatively communication systems and networks taking into account providing of integrity of informative resource.
A New Quantum Gray-Scale Image Encoding Scheme
Naseri, Mosayeb; Abdolmaleky, Mona; Parandin, Fariborz; Fatahi, Negin; Farouk, Ahmed; Nazari, Reza
2018-02-01
In this paper, a new quantum images encoding scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme mainly consists of four different encoding algorithms. The idea behind of the scheme is a binary key generated randomly for each pixel of the original image. Afterwards, the employed encoding algorithm is selected corresponding to the qubit pair of the generated randomized binary key. The security analysis of the proposed scheme proved its enhancement through both randomization of the generated binary image key and altering the gray-scale value of the image pixels using the qubits of randomized binary key. The simulation of the proposed scheme assures that the final encoded image could not be recognized visually. Moreover, the histogram diagram of encoded image is flatter than the original one. The Shannon entropies of the final encoded images are significantly higher than the original one, which indicates that the attacker can not gain any information about the encoded images. Supported by Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, IRAN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitrašinović, A.M.; Robles Hernández, F.C.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A new method to determine the growth restricting factor. (Q) is proposed ► The proposed method is highly accurate (R 2 = 0.99) and simple. ► A major novelty of this method is the determination of Q for non-dilute samples. ► The method proposed herein is based on quasi-binary phase diagrams and composition. ► This method can be easily implemented industrially or as a research tool. - Abstract: In the present research paper is suggested a new methodology to determine the growth restricting factor (Q) and grain size (GS) for various Al-alloys. The present method combines a thermodynamical component based on the liquidus behavior of each alloying element that is later incorporated into the well known growth restricting models for multi-component alloys. This approach that can be used to determine Q and/or GS based on the chemical composition and the slope of the liquidus temperature of any Al-alloy solidified in close to equilibrium conditions. This method can be modified further in order to assess the effect of cooling rate or thermomechanical processing on growth restricting factor and grain size. In the present paper is proposed a highly accurate (R 2 = 0.99) and validated model for Al–Si alloys, but it can be modified for any other Al–X alloying system. The present method can be used for alloys with relatively high solute content and due to the use of the thermodynamics of liquidus this system considers the poisoning effects of single and multi-component alloying elements.
Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E
2013-07-23
A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E
2014-04-08
A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Ward, Thomas E.
2017-08-15
A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Ward, Thomas E.
2016-03-22
A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thanh Huy Phung
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Electrohyrodynamic (EHD jet printing has been widely used in the field of direct micro-nano patterning applications, due to its high resolution printing capability. So far, vector line printing using a single nozzle has been widely used for most EHD printing applications. However, the application has been limited to low-speed printing, to avoid non-uniform line width near the end points where line printing starts and ends. At end points of line vector printing, the deposited drop amount is likely to be significantly large compared to the rest of the printed lines, due to unavoidable acceleration and deceleration. In this study, we proposed a method to solve the printing quality problems by producing droplets at an equally spaced distance, irrespective of the printing speed. For this purpose, an encoder processing unit (EPU was developed, so that the jetting trigger could be generated according to user-defined spacing by using encoder position signals, which are used for the positioning control of the two linear stages.
A low noise stenography method for medical images with QR encoding of patient information
Patiño-Vanegas, Alberto; Contreras-Ortiz, Sonia H.; Martinez-Santos, Juan C.
2017-03-01
This paper proposes an approach to facilitate the process of individualization of patients from their medical images, without compromising the inherent confidentiality of medical data. The identification of a patient from a medical image is not often the goal of security methods applied to image records. Usually, any identification data is removed from shared records, and security features are applied to determine ownership. We propose a method for embedding a QR-code containing information that can be used to individualize a patient. This is done so that the image to be shared does not differ significantly from the original image. The QR-code is distributed in the image by changing several pixels according to a threshold value based on the average value of adjacent pixels surrounding the point of interest. The results show that the code can be embedded and later fully recovered with minimal changes in the UIQI index - less than 0.1% of different.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsson-Leander, G.
1979-01-01
Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)
A Novel Method of Compression Based on Adaptive Encoding Technology for SoC Design
B.Sakthi Bharathi; S.Saravanan; R.Vijay Sai
2013-01-01
Test data compression is one of the main objectives to make reliable in testing System on chip design. The data compression mainly relies in the areas of hardware, time and power consumed. This paper presents an efficient test data compression method to achieve high compression ratio. The test patterns have 1, 0 and undefined (x) data. The test patterns are grouped such that to improve compression ratio. While grouping the undefined bits is also assigned as 1, 0 and conflict bit (c). The expe...
Post-treatment Method for the Synthesis of Monodisperse Binary FePt-Fe3O4 Nanoparticles
Liu, Zhilu; Wu, Chun; Niu, Liang; Yang, Ganting; Wang, Kai; Pei, Wenli; Wang, Qiang
2017-09-01
To obtain the optimal 1:1 composition of FePt alloy nanomaterials by polyol synthesis, the iron precursor (iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5) must be used in excess, because the Fe(CO)5 exists in the vapor phase at the typical temperatures used for FePt synthesis and cannot be consumed completely. Fabrication of Fe3O4 nanoparticles by consuming the excess iron precursor was an effective strategy to make full use of the iron precursor. In this paper, a facile post-treatment method was applied to consume the excess iron, which was oxidized to Fe3O4 after post-treatment at 150 and 200 °C, and a monodisperse binary FePt-Fe3O4 nanoparticle system was generated. The post-treatment method did not affect the crystal structure, grain size, or composition of the FePt nanoparticles. However, the content and grain size of the fcc-Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be increased simply by increasing the post-treatment temperature from 150 to 200 °C.
John, Peter; Azeem, Waqar; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Islam Ullah; Razzaq, Syed Naeem
2015-09-01
A simple and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of piroxicam and ofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations and human serum. Optimum separations of piroxicam, ofloxacin and stress-induced degradation products were achieved by use of Hypersil BDS C8 column (250 x 4.6mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile: 0.012M K2HPO4: 0.008M sodium citrate (both buffers mixed and pH adjusted to 2.8) (50:25:25 v/v/v) delivered at flow rate of 1.5 mL min⁻¹ using DAD at 254 nm. Response was linear function of concentration over the ranges of 70-130 mg mL⁻¹ for piroxicam and ofloxacin (r² ≥ 0.999). The method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products with acceptable tailing and resolution. The developed method was successfully used for concurrent analysis of piroxicam and ofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations, human serum and in vitro drug interaction studies.
Reservoir characterisation by a binary level set method and adaptive multiscale estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, Lars Kristian
2006-01-15
The main focus of this work is on estimation of the absolute permeability as a solution of an inverse problem. We have both considered a single-phase and a two-phase flow model. Two novel approaches have been introduced and tested numerical for solving the inverse problems. The first approach is a multi scale zonation technique which is treated in Paper A. The purpose of the work in this paper is to find a coarse scale solution based on production data from wells. In the suggested approach, the robustness of an already developed method, the adaptive multi scale estimation (AME), has been improved by utilising information from several candidate solutions generated by a stochastic optimizer. The new approach also suggests a way of combining a stochastic and a gradient search method, which in general is a problematic issue. The second approach is a piecewise constant level set approach and is applied in Paper B, C, D and E. Paper B considers the stationary single-phase problem, while Paper C, D and E use a two-phase flow model. In the two-phase flow problem we have utilised information from both production data in wells and spatially distributed data gathered from seismic surveys. Due to the higher content of information provided by the spatially distributed data, we search solutions on a slightly finer scale than one typically does with only production data included. The applied level set method is suitable for reconstruction of fields with a supposed known facies-type of solution. That is, the solution should be close to piecewise constant. This information is utilised through a strong restriction of the number of constant levels in the estimate. On the other hand, the flexibility in the geometries of the zones is much larger for this method than in a typical zonation approach, for example the multi scale approach applied in Paper A. In all these papers, the numerical studies are done on synthetic data sets. An advantage of synthetic data studies is that the true
Belal, Tarek S; Daabees, Hoda G; Abdel-Khalek, Magdi M; Mahrous, Mohamed S; Khamis, Mona M
2013-04-01
A new simple spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of binary mixtures without prior separation. The method is based on the generation of ratio spectra of compound X by using a standard spectrum of compound Y as a divisor. The peak to trough amplitudes between two selected wavelengths in the ratio spectra are proportional to concentration of X without interference from Y . The method was demonstrated by determination of two drug combinations. The first consists of the two antihyperlipidemics: atorvastatin calcium (ATV) and ezetimibe (EZE), and the second comprises the antihypertensives: candesartan cilexetil (CAN) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). For mixture 1, ATV was determined using 10 μg/mL EZE as the divisor to generate the ratio spectra, and the peak to trough amplitudes between 231 and 276 nm were plotted against ATV concentration. Similarly, by using 10 μg/mL ATV as divisor, the peak to trough amplitudes between 231 and 276 nm were found proportional to EZE concentration. Calibration curves were linear in the range 2.5-40 μg/mL for both drugs. For mixture 2, divisor concentration was 7.5 μg/mL for both drugs. CAN was determined using its peak to trough amplitudes at 251 and 277 nm, while HCT was estimated using the amplitudes between 251 and 276 nm. The measured amplitudes were linearly correlated to concentration in the ranges 2.5-50 and 1-30 μg/mL for CAN and HCT, respectively. The proposed spectrophotometric method was validated and successfully applied for the assay of both drug combinations in several laboratory-prepared mixtures and commercial tablets.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tarek S. Belal
2013-04-01
Full Text Available A new simple spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of binary mixtures without prior separation. The method is based on the generation of ratio spectra of compound X by using a standard spectrum of compound Y as a divisor. The peak to trough amplitudes between two selected wavelengths in the ratio spectra are proportional to concentration of X without interference from Y. The method was demonstrated by determination of two drug combinations. The first consists of the two antihyperlipidemics: atorvastatin calcium (ATV and ezetimibe (EZE, and the second comprises the antihypertensives: candesartan cilexetil (CAN and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT. For mixture 1, ATV was determined using 10Â Î¼g/mL EZE as the divisor to generate the ratio spectra, and the peak to trough amplitudes between 231 and 276Â nm were plotted against ATV concentration. Similarly, by using 10Â Î¼g/mL ATV as divisor, the peak to trough amplitudes between 231 and 276Â nm were found proportional to EZE concentration. Calibration curves were linear in the range 2.5â40Â Î¼g/mL for both drugs. For mixture 2, divisor concentration was 7.5Â Î¼g/mL for both drugs. CAN was determined using its peak to trough amplitudes at 251 and 277Â nm, while HCT was estimated using the amplitudes between 251 and 276Â nm. The measured amplitudes were linearly correlated to concentration in the ranges 2.5â50 and 1â30Â Î¼g/mL for CAN and HCT, respectively. The proposed spectrophotometric method was validated and successfully applied for the assay of both drug combinations in several laboratory-prepared mixtures and commercial tablets. Keywords: Spectrophotometric analysis, Ratio spectra, Atorvastatin, Ezetimibe, Candesartan, Hydrochlorothiazide
Golzari, Fahimeh; Jalili, Saeed
2015-07-21
In protein function prediction (PFP) problem, the goal is to predict function of numerous well-sequenced known proteins whose function is not still known precisely. PFP is one of the special and complex problems in machine learning domain in which a protein (regarded as instance) may have more than one function simultaneously. Furthermore, the functions (regarded as classes) are dependent and also are organized in a hierarchical structure in the form of a tree or directed acyclic graph. One of the common learning methods proposed for solving this problem is decision trees in which, by partitioning data into sharp boundaries sets, small changes in the attribute values of a new instance may cause incorrect change in predicted label of the instance and finally misclassification. In this paper, a Variance Reduction based Binary Fuzzy Decision Tree (VR-BFDT) algorithm is proposed to predict functions of the proteins. This algorithm just fuzzifies the decision boundaries instead of converting the numeric attributes into fuzzy linguistic terms. It has the ability of assigning multiple functions to each protein simultaneously and preserves the hierarchy consistency between functional classes. It uses the label variance reduction as splitting criterion to select the best "attribute-value" at each node of the decision tree. The experimental results show that the overall performance of the proposed algorithm is promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nonlinear inversion of potential-field data using a hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm
Chen, C.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Feng, G.
2006-01-01
Using a genetic algorithm to solve an inverse problem of complex nonlinear geophysical equations is advantageous because it does not require computer gradients of models or "good" initial models. The multi-point search of a genetic algorithm makes it easier to find the globally optimal solution while avoiding falling into a local extremum. As is the case in other optimization approaches, the search efficiency for a genetic algorithm is vital in finding desired solutions successfully in a multi-dimensional model space. A binary-encoding genetic algorithm is hardly ever used to resolve an optimization problem such as a simple geophysical inversion with only three unknowns. The encoding mechanism, genetic operators, and population size of the genetic algorithm greatly affect search processes in the evolution. It is clear that improved operators and proper population size promote the convergence. Nevertheless, not all genetic operations perform perfectly while searching under either a uniform binary or a decimal encoding system. With the binary encoding mechanism, the crossover scheme may produce more new individuals than with the decimal encoding. On the other hand, the mutation scheme in a decimal encoding system will create new genes larger in scope than those in the binary encoding. This paper discusses approaches of exploiting the search potential of genetic operations in the two encoding systems and presents an approach with a hybrid-encoding mechanism, multi-point crossover, and dynamic population size for geophysical inversion. We present a method that is based on the routine in which the mutation operation is conducted in the decimal code and multi-point crossover operation in the binary code. The mix-encoding algorithm is called the hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm (HEGA). HEGA provides better genes with a higher probability by a mutation operator and improves genetic algorithms in resolving complicated geophysical inverse problems. Another significant
Chen, He; Qiao, Yang; Zhao, Yanbin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Meilin; Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Bilei
2015-11-01
A new method of equalizing the optical power is proposed to enhance the performance in the SAC OCDMA PON. The method is to use a tunable liquid crystal-based tunable encoder for further development by voltage controlling individually, so it is achieved in one device for encoding and power equalization, the experimental results show that the system BER and eye diagram are greatly improved. Since the method does not use additional devices in the condition, the system are lower complexity and cost-effective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael E. El-Kommos
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A simple and selective micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC method has been developed for the analysis of five pharmaceutical binary mixtures containing three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. The investigated mixtures were Ibuprofen (IPâParacetamol (PC, Ibuprofen (IPâChlorzoxazone (CZ, Ibuprofen (IPâMethocarbamol (MC, Ketoprofen (KPâChlorzoxazone (CZ and Diclofenac sodium (DSâLidocaine hydrochloride (LC. The separation was run for all mixtures using borate buffer (20Â mM, pH 9 containing 15% (v/v methanol and 100Â mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS at 15Â kV and the components were detected at 214Â nm. Different factors affecting the electrophoretic mobility of the seven investigated drugs were studied and optimized. The method was validated according to international conference of harmonization (ICH guidelines and United States pharmacopoeia (USP. The method was applied to the analysis of five pharmaceutical binary mixtures in their dosage forms. The results were compared with other reported high performance liquid chromatographic methods and no significant differences were observed. Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis, Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Pharmaceutical binary mixtures, Pharmaceutical analysis
Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors
Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.
1986-01-01
In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.
Collett, David
2002-01-01
INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...
Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed
2016-03-01
Different chemometric models were applied for the quantitative analysis of amoxicillin (AMX), and flucloxacillin (FLX) in their binary mixtures, namely, partial least squares (PLS), spectral residual augmented classical least squares (SRACLS), concentration residual augmented classical least squares (CRACLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). All methods were applied with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm GA). The methods were used for the quantitative analysis of the drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and real market sample via handling the UV spectral data. Robust and simpler models were obtained by applying GA. The proposed methods were found to be rapid, simple and required no preliminary separation steps.
A method for testing the performance and the accuracy of the binary MLC used in helical tomotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lissner, Steffen; Schubert, Kai; Klueter, Sebastian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Juergen
2013-01-01
During a helical tomotherapy a binary MLC is used for fluence modulation. The 64 pneumatically driven leaves of the MLC are either completely open or closed. Th e fast and frequent leaf movements result in a high demand of accuracy and stability of the MLC. This article is based on the analytical investigation of the accuracy and the stability of the MLC. Different patterns of MLC movements were generated to investigate the characteristics of the MLC. One of the considered aspects contains the friction between the leaves. The influence of variations of the compressed air on the MLC was also explored. The integrated MVCT detector of the tomotherapy system deposits the treatment data in a matrix. The detector is triggered with the linear accelerator, which is pulsed by 300Hz. The data matrix is available after the treatment. An IDL (Interactive Data Language) routine was programmed in order to analyse the matrix. The points of time, at which the leaves open (POT), and the period, in which the leaves stay open (LOT), were measured and compared with the desired values. That procedure has been repeated several times a week for approximately 6 months to investigate the stability of the MLC. Relative deviations of the LOT from -0.4% to -5.4% were measured. The friction between the leaves had no significant influence on the LOT. The available compressed air, that is used to move the leaves, depends on the number of moving leaves and also on the previous movements of the MLC. Variations of the compressed air resulted in deviations of the LOT from -1.8% to -3.7%. The measured POT deviates from the programmed POT up to -18.4ms ± 0.7ms. This maximal deviation correlates with a shift of the gantry angle of 0.52 which is negligible. The MLC has shown a stable behaviour over the 6 months. A separate consideration of the leaves showed no higher standard deviation of the LOT than ± 0.7ms during the investigated time. The variation between the different leaves is much higher than
Fellner, Marie-Christin; Volberg, Gregor; Wimber, Maria; Goldhacker, Markus; Greenlee, Mark W; Hanslmayr, Simon
2016-01-01
The method of loci is one, if not the most, efficient mnemonic encoding strategy. This spatial mnemonic combines the core cognitive processes commonly linked to medial temporal lobe (MTL) activity: spatial and associative memory processes. During such processes, fMRI studies consistently demonstrate MTL activity, while electrophysiological studies have emphasized the important role of theta oscillations (3-8 Hz) in the MTL. However, it is still unknown whether increases or decreases in theta power co-occur with increased BOLD signal in the MTL during memory encoding. To investigate this question, we recorded EEG and fMRI separately, while human participants used the spatial method of loci or the pegword method, a similarly associative but nonspatial mnemonic. The more effective spatial mnemonic induced a pronounced theta power decrease source localized to the left MTL compared with the nonspatial associative mnemonic strategy. This effect was mirrored by BOLD signal increases in the MTL. Successful encoding, irrespective of the strategy used, elicited decreases in left temporal theta power and increases in MTL BOLD activity. This pattern of results suggests a negative relationship between theta power and BOLD signal changes in the MTL during memory encoding and spatial processing. The findings extend the well known negative relation of alpha/beta oscillations and BOLD signals in the cortex to theta oscillations in the MTL.
Rafiee, Hamid Reza; Rastgar, Mina; Heidari, Neda
2011-08-01
The accurate reduced potential energies for two binary gas mixtures including benzene-methanol and methane-tetrafluoromethane at low density have been obtained by direct inversion of the viscosity collision integral equations. The kinetic theory along with the extended principle of corresponding-states has been used to calculate the viscosity and diffusion coefficients over a wide range of temperature and composition. Good agreements between calculated and experimental data are obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, H.; Xia, X.H.; Zhang, Y.J.; Tong, Y.Y.; Wang, X.L.; Gu, C.D.; Tu, J.P.
2015-01-01
Construction of high-capacity anode is highly important for the development of next-generation high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we fabricate Si/Ag nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (Si/Ag NWs/rGO) integrated composite film by introducing binary conductive networks (Ag NWs and rGO) into Si active materials with the help of a facile vacuum-filtration method. Active Si nanoparticles are homogeneously encapsulated by binary Ag NWs-rGO conductive network, in which Ag NWs are interwoven among the rGO sheets. The electrochemical properties of the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film are thoroughly characterized as anode of LIBs. Compared to the Si/rGO composite film, the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances with higher capacity, better high-rate capability and cycling stability (1269 mAh g −1 at 50 mA g −1 up to 50 cycles). The binary conductive network plays a positive role in the enhancement of performance due to its faster ion/electron transfer, and better anti-structure degradation caused by volume expansion during the cycling process.
BINARY ASTROMETRIC MICROLENSING WITH GAIA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sajadian, Sedighe, E-mail: sajadian@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-04-15
We investigate whether or not Gaia can specify the binary fractions of massive stellar populations in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. Furthermore, we study whether or not some information about their mass distributions can be inferred via this method. In this regard, we simulate the binary astrometric microlensing events due to massive stellar populations according to the Gaia observing strategy by considering (i) stellar-mass black holes, (ii) neutron stars, (iii) white dwarfs, and (iv) main-sequence stars as microlenses. The Gaia efficiency for detecting the binary signatures in binary astrometric microlensing events is ∼10%–20%. By calculating the optical depth due to the mentioned stellar populations, the numbers of the binary astrometric microlensing events being observed with Gaia with detectable binary signatures, for the binary fraction of about 0.1, are estimated to be 6, 11, 77, and 1316, respectively. Consequently, Gaia can potentially specify the binary fractions of these massive stellar populations. However, the binary fraction of black holes measured with this method has a large uncertainty owing to a low number of the estimated events. Knowing the binary fractions in massive stellar populations helps with studying the gravitational waves. Moreover, we investigate the number of massive microlenses for which Gaia specifies masses through astrometric microlensing of single lenses toward the Galactic bulge. The resulting efficiencies of measuring the mass of mentioned populations are 9.8%, 2.9%, 1.2%, and 0.8%, respectively. The numbers of their astrometric microlensing events being observed in the Gaia era in which the lens mass can be inferred with the relative error less than 0.5 toward the Galactic bulge are estimated as 45, 34, 76, and 786, respectively. Hence, Gaia potentially gives us some information about the mass distribution of these massive stellar populations.
Johansson, B S; Lindberg, L G; Svensson, M L
1974-07-01
The Peterson and Peterson (1959) STM experiment was replicated with variation of presentation modality and encoding strategy. The effect of various scoring criteria was also analyzed. The recall data showed that a Peterson and Peterson type forgetting curve was obtained using auditory presentation and instructions to rehearse vocally the trigrams when scoring only completely correct recall within the first 3 sec of the recall interval. With visual presentation and instructions to find meaningful trigram interpretations, the forgetting curve was higher and much more flat, especially when scoring position correct recall within the total 0-10-sec recall interval. In a buildup of PI experiment, no buildup of PI could be detected when visual presentation was used together with instructions to find meaningful trigram interpretations. The importance of the different encoding activities for recall performance was discussed.
Xu, Jun; Xie, Cheng-Wang; Liu, Hai-Wen; Liu, Qiang; Li, Bin-Cheng
2013-05-01
A novel type of DMD-based Hadamard transform spectral imager is introduced. Taking the 7-order S-matrix as an example for discussion, the present paper develops an improved design of Hadamard encoding mask, which makes the dispersed spectrum of all pixels to be encoded by seven elements strictly. A correcting method for the recovered spectral images is proposed, and eventually 6 high-quality spectral images are obtained when Hadamard transform spectral imager operates based on 7-order S-matrix. Similarly, if the spectral imager operates based on n-order S-matrix, n--1 spectral images can be obtained. The experimental results show that the improved design and the correction method are feasible and effective.
Wang, Haijing; Fischer, Thomas; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev
2015-05-01
Due to their mobility and toxicity, crude oil volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are representative components for oil pipeline contaminated sites detection. Therefore, contaminated location risk assessment, with airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) survey, in particular, requires ground-based determinative methods for oil VOCs, the interaction between oil VOCs and soil, and information on how they diffuse from underground into atmosphere. First, we developed a method for determination of crude oil VOC binary mixtures (take n-pentane and n-hexane as examples), taking synergistic effects of VOC mixtures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers into consideration. Using this method, we further aim to extract VOCs from small volumes, for example, from soil pores, using a custom-made sampling device for nondestructive SPME fiber intrusion, and to study VOC transport through heterogeneous porous media. Second, specific surface Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis was conducted and used for estimation of VOC isotherm parameters in soil. Finally, two models were fitted for VOC emission prediction, and the results were compared to the experimental emission results. It was found that free diffusion mode worked well, and an empirical correction factor seems to be needed for the other model to adapt to our condition for single and binary systems.
Watanabe, Sho; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei
This study proposed an estimation method for collectable amount of food waste considering the food waste generator's cooperation ratio ant the amount of food waste generation, and clarified the factors influencing the collectable amount of food waste. In our method, the cooperation ratio was calculated by using the binary logit model which is often used for the traffic multiple choice question. In order to develop a more precise binary logit model, the factors influencing on the cooperation ratio were extracted by a questionnaire survey asking food waste generator's intention, and the preference investigation was then conducted at the second step. As a result, the collectable amount of food waste was estimated to be 72 [t/day] in the Ishikari bay new port area under a condition of current collection system by using our method. In addition, the most critical factor influencing on the collectable amount of food waste was the treatment fee for households, and was the permitted mixture degree of improper materials for retail trade and restaurant businesses
Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan
2016-04-21
Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information.
Do, Hainam; Hirst, Jonathan D; Wheatley, Richard J
2012-04-19
It is challenging to compute the partition function (Q) for systems with enormous configurational spaces, such as fluids. Recently, we developed a Monte Carlo technique (an energy partitioning method) for computing Q [ J. Chem. Phys. 2011 , 135 , 174105 ]. In this paper, we use this approach to compute the partition function of a binary fluid mixture (carbon dioxide + methane); this allows us to obtain the Helmholtz free energy (F) via F = -k(B)T ln Q and the Gibbs free energy (G) via G = F + pV. We then utilize G to obtain the coexisting mole fraction curves. The chemical potential of each species is also obtained. At the vapor-liquid equilibrium condition, the chemical potential of methane significantly increases, while that of carbon dioxide slightly decreases, as the pressure increases along an isotherm. Since Q is obtained from the density of states, which is independent of the temperature, equilibrium thermodynamic properties at any condition can be obtained by varying the total composition and volume of the system. Our methodology can be adapted to explore the free energies of other binary mixtures in general and of those containing CO(2) in particular. Since the method gives access to the free energy and chemical potentials, it will be useful in many other applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Nansen, P. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hoeier, R.; Brueck, I. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Clinical Studies, Section of Reproduction, Frederiksberg (Denmark)
1997-12-31
Ionizing irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment have previously been shown to be effective for in-vitro inactivation of virus in biological material. In the present study the 2 methods were tested for possible effects on measurable concentrations of reproductive hormones in equine plasma (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P{sub 4}), and oestradiol-17 {beta} (E{sub 2})). The inactivation methods were electron beam irradiation with a dose from 11 to 44 kGy or treatment with binary ethylenimine (BEI) in concentrations of 1 and 5 mmol/L. Generally, there was a close correlation (r>0.8, p<0.001) between pre- and post-treatment hormone levels. Thus, the different phases of the oestrous cycle could be distinguished on the basis of measured hormone concentrations of treated samples. However, both treatments significantly changed hormone concentrations of the plasma samples. For LH, FSH, and E{sub 2} the effect of irradiation and BEI treatment was depressive and dose-dependant. For P{sub 4} the effect of irradiation was also depressive and dose-dependant. However, the highest dose of BEI resulted in an increase of measured P{sub 4} concentration, which may be attributed to changes in the plasma matrix due to the treatment. Although the treatments affected measured hormone concentrations, the close correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements means that the diagnostic value will remain unchanged. (au). 17 refs.
Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ghezelbash, Gholam Reza; Pepe, Francesco
2017-05-01
Simultaneous biosorption of malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) on biosorbent Yarrowia lipolytica ISF7 was studied. An appropriate derivative spectrophotometry technique was used to evaluate the concentration of each dye in binary solutions, despite significant interferences in visible light absorbances. The effects of pH, temperature, growth time, initial MG and CV concentration in batch experiments were assessed using Design of Experiment (DOE) according to central composite second order response surface methodology (RSM). The analysis showed that the greatest biosorption efficiency (>99% for both dyes) can be obtained at pH 7.0, T=28°C, 24h mixing and 20mgL -1 initial concentrations for both MG and CV dyes. The quadratic constructed equation ability for fitting experimental data is judged based on criterions like R 2 values, significant p and lack-of-fit value strongly confirm its high adequacy and applicability for prediction of revel behavior of the system under study. The proposed model showed very high correlation coefficients (R 2 =0.9997 for CV and R 2 =0.9989 for MG), while supported by closeness of predicted and experimental value. A kinetic analysis was carried out, showing that for both dyes a pseudo-second order kinetic model adequately describes the available data. The Langmuir isotherm model in single and binary components has better performance for description of dyes biosorption with maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 59.4 and 62.7mgg -1 in single component and 46.4 and 50.0mgg -1 for CV and MB in binary components, respectively. The surface structure of biosorbents and the possible biosorbents-dyes interactions between were also evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The values of thermodynamic parameters including ΔG° and ΔH° strongly confirm which method is spontaneous and endothermic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Yu, S. D.; Zhang, X.
2010-05-01
This paper presents a method for determining the instantaneous angular speed and instantaneous angular acceleration of the crankshaft in a reciprocating engine and propeller dynamical system from electrical pulse signals generated by a magnetic encoder. The method is based on accurate determination of the measured global mean angular speed and precise values of times when leading edges of individual magnetic teeth pass through the magnetic sensor. Under a steady-state operating condition, a discrete deviation time vs. shaft rotational angle series of uniform interval is obtained and used for accurate determination of the crankshaft speed and acceleration. The proposed method for identifying sub- and super-harmonic oscillations in the instantaneous angular speeds and accelerations is new and efficient. Experiments were carried out on a three-cylinder four-stroke Saito 450R model aircraft engine and a Solo propeller in connection with a 64-teeth Admotec KL2202 magnetic encoder and an HS-4 data acquisition system. Comparisons with an independent data processing scheme indicate that the proposed method yields noise-free instantaneous angular speeds and is superior to the finite difference based methods commonly used in the literature.
Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Praczyk
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.
Pawar, N. R.; Chimankar, O. P.; Bhandakkar, V. D.; Padole, N. N.
2012-12-01
The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.
Veitch, J.; Raymond, V.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Graff, P.; Vitale, S.; Aylott, B.; Blackburn, K.; Christensen, N.; Coughlin, M.
2015-01-01
The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational wave (GW) detectors will begin operation in the coming years, with compact binary coalescence events a likely source for the first detections. The gravitational waveforms emitted directly encode information about the sources, including the masses and spins of the compact objects. Recovering the physical parameters of the sources from the GW observations is a key analysis task. This work describes the LALInference software library for Bayesian parameter estimation of compact binary signals, which builds on several previous methods to provide a well-tested toolkit which has already been used for several studies. We show that our implementation is able to correctly recover the parameters of compact binary signals from simulated data from the advanced GW detectors. We demonstrate this with a detailed comparison on three compact binary systems: a binary neutron star (BNS), a neutron star - black hole binary (NSBH) and a binary black hole (BBH), where we show a cross-comparison of results obtained using three independent sampling algorithms. These systems were analysed with non-spinning, aligned spin and generic spin configurations respectively, showing that consistent results can be obtained even with the full 15-dimensional parameter space of the generic spin configurations. We also demonstrate statistically that the Bayesian credible intervals we recover correspond to frequentist confidence intervals under correct prior assumptions by analysing a set of 100 signals drawn from the prior. We discuss the computational cost of these algorithms, and describe the general and problem-specific sampling techniques we have used to improve the efficiency of sampling the compact binary coalescence (CBC) parameter space.
Meidam, Jeroen; Tsang, Ka Wa; Goldstein, Janna; Agathos, Michalis; Ghosh, Archisman; Haster, Carl-Johan; Raymond, Vivien; Samajdar, Anuradha; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; Blackburn, Kent; Del Pozzo, Walter; Field, Scott E.; Li, Tjonnie; Pürrer, Michael; Van Den Broeck, Chris; Veitch, John; Vitale, Salvatore
2018-02-01
Thanks to the recent discoveries of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole mergers by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and Advanced Virgo, the genuinely strong-field dynamics of spacetime can now be probed, allowing for stringent tests of general relativity (GR). One set of tests consists of allowing for parametrized deformations away from GR in the template waveform models and then constraining the size of the deviations, as was done for the detected signals in previous work. In this paper, we construct reduced-order quadratures so as to speed up likelihood calculations for parameter estimation on future events. Next, we explicitly demonstrate the robustness of the parametrized tests by showing that they will correctly indicate consistency with GR if the theory is valid. We also check to what extent deviations from GR can be constrained as information from an increasing number of detections is combined. Finally, we evaluate the sensitivity of the method to possible violations of GR.
P.H. Utomo (Putranto); R.H. Makarim (Rusydi)
2017-01-01
textabstractA Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set (Formula presented.). Let (Formula presented.) be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an (Formula presented.) binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and
Eclipsing binaries in open clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.
2006-01-01
Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...
Bayat, Mehrnoosh; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Ghasemi, Jahan B
2017-10-30
This study suggested a new method for simultaneous quantification of two dyes in complex matrices using second-order data by spectrophotometry. Second-order data was generated simply without any expensive instrument using two independent variables including wavelength and the monotonic addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on amino-rich magnetic single-walled carbon nanotube as an adsorbent was employed prior to second-order data generation. SPE optimization was performed by Box-Behnken design, and parameters and their interaction which were dependent on the simultaneous extraction of dyes were examined. Competitive Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for a binary system and individual dyes could all represent the equilibrium data well. The second-order data was processed by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC and PARAFAC2) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Figures of merit of the model including a limit of detection of 3.0 and 2.5 ng mL -1 for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, were estimated using the MCR-ALS method. The combination of the second-order calibration and SPE presents an easy and versatile method for determination of the mixture of two dyes in the presence of uncalibrated interferences in environmental water, synthetic, and fish samples with the recoveries of 94-104.
Dobravec, Tadej; Mavrič, Boštjan; Šarler, Božidar
2017-11-01
A two-dimensional model to simulate the dendritic and eutectic growth in binary alloys is developed. A cellular automaton method is adopted to track the movement of the solid-liquid interface. The diffusion equation is solved in the solid and liquid phases by using an explicit finite volume method. The computational domain is divided into square cells that can be hierarchically refined or coarsened using an adaptive mesh based on the quadtree algorithm. Such a mesh refines the regions of the domain near the solid-liquid interface, where the highest concentration gradients are observed. In the regions where the lowest concentration gradients are observed the cells are coarsened. The originality of the work is in the novel, adaptive approach to the efficient and accurate solution of the posed multiscale problem. The model is verified and assessed by comparison with the analytical results of the Lipton-Glicksman-Kurz model for the steady growth of a dendrite tip and the Jackson-Hunt model for regular eutectic growth. Several examples of typical microstructures are simulated and the features of the method as well as further developments are discussed.
Takken, F.L.W.; van Wijk, R.; Michielse, C.B.; Houterman, P.M.; Ram, A.F.; Cornelissen, B.J.C.
2004-01-01
Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are widely used for the construction of physical maps, positional-cloning and whole-genome sequencing strategies. Unfortunately, their use for functional genomics is limited, as currently there is no efficient method to use BACs directly for complementation.
Cao, Ying; Rajan, Suja S; Wei, Peng
2016-12-01
A Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis is performed to analyze the causal effect of an exposure variable on a disease outcome in observational studies, by using genetic variants that affect the disease outcome only through the exposure variable. This method has recently gained popularity among epidemiologists given the success of genetic association studies. Many exposure variables of interest in epidemiological studies are time varying, for example, body mass index (BMI). Although longitudinal data have been collected in many cohort studies, current MR studies only use one measurement of a time-varying exposure variable, which cannot adequately capture the long-term time-varying information. We propose using the functional principal component analysis method to recover the underlying individual trajectory of the time-varying exposure from the sparsely and irregularly observed longitudinal data, and then conduct MR analysis using the recovered curves. We further propose two MR analysis methods. The first assumes a cumulative effect of the time-varying exposure variable on the disease risk, while the second assumes a time-varying genetic effect and employs functional regression models. We focus on statistical testing for a causal effect. Our simulation studies mimicking the real data show that the proposed functional data analysis based methods incorporating longitudinal data have substantial power gains compared to standard MR analysis using only one measurement. We used the Framingham Heart Study data to demonstrate the promising performance of the new methods as well as inconsistent results produced by the standard MR analysis that relies on a single measurement of the exposure at some arbitrary time point. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.
El Yazbi, Fawzy A; Hassan, Ekram M; Khamis, Essam F; Ragab, Marwa A A; Hamdy, Mohamed M A
2017-11-15
Ketorolac tromethamine (KTC) with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) binary mixture (mixture 1) and their ternary mixture with chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) (mixture 2) were analyzed using a validated HPLC-DAD method. The developed method was suitable for the in vitro as well as quantitative analysis of the targeted mixtures in rabbit aqueous humor. The analysis in dosage form (eye drops) was a stability indicating one at which drugs were separated from possible degradation products arising from different stress conditions (in vitro analysis). For analysis in aqueous humor, Guaifenesin (GUF) was used as internal standard and the method was validated according to FDA regulation for analysis in biological fluids. Agilent 5 HC-C18(2) 150×4.6mm was used as stationary phase with a gradient eluting solvent of 20mM phosphate buffer pH 4.6 containing 0.2% triethylamine and acetonitrile. The drugs were resolved with retention times of 2.41, 5.26, 7.92 and 9.64min for PHE, GUF, KTC and CPM, respectively. The method was sensitive and selective to analyze simultaneously the three drugs in presence of possible forced degradation products and dosage form excipients (in vitro analysis) and also with the internal standard, in presence of aqueous humor interferences (analysis in biological fluid), at a single wavelength (261nm). No extraction procedure was required for analysis in aqueous humor. The simplicity of the method emphasizes its capability to analyze the drugs in vivo (in rabbit aqueous humor) and in vitro (in pharmaceutical formulations). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)
2012-08-15
Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.
Ya-Ting Tsu; Yu-Wen Chen
2017-01-01
Nano-gold catalyst has been reported to have high activity and selectivity for liquid phase hydrogenation reaction. In this study, gold-containing bimetals were loaded on TiO2. For bimetallic catalysts, gold and different metals were prepared by the deposition-precipitation method, and then used NaBH4 to reduce metal cations. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectr...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nouruddin W. Ali
2017-05-01
Full Text Available RP-HPLC chromatographic method was developed for the determination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide (HBB and Paracetamol (PAR. In this chromatographic method, HBB and PAR were separated using C18 (25 cm × 4.6 mm i.d. 5 μm particle size column as a stationary phase and water: methanol (50:50, V/V pH adjusted to 3.9 with CF3COOH acid as a mobile phase, maintaining the flow rate at 1.0 mL min−1 with UV detection at 210 nm. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of HBB and PAR in pure form over a concentration range of 2.0–50.0 μg mL−1 for HBB with mean percentage recovery of 100.10 ± 0.475 and over a concentration range of 5.0–200.0 μg mL−1 for PAR with mean percentage recovery of 99.87 ± 0.942 and in their pharmaceutical formulations (Buscopan plus® tablets, Buscamol® tablets and Buscopan plus® suppositories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Francés, Jorge; Bleda, Sergio; Gallego, Sergi; Neipp, Cristian; Márquez, Andrés [Instituto Universitario de Física Aplicada a las Ciencias y las Tecnologías, Universidad de Alicante, Crtra. San Vicente del Raspeig S/N, Alicante E-03080 (Spain); Departamento de Física, Ingeniería de Sistemas y Teoría de la Señal, Universidad de Alicante, Crtra. San Vicente del Raspeig S/N, Alicante E-03080 (Spain); Pascual, Inmaculada [Instituto Universitario de Física Aplicada a las Ciencias y las Tecnologías, Universidad de Alicante, Crtra. San Vicente del Raspeig S/N, Alicante E-03080 (Spain); Departamento de Óptica, Farmacología y Anatomía, Universidad de Alicante, Crtra. San Vicente del Raspeig S/N, Alicante E-03080 (Spain); Beléndez, Augusto, E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es [Instituto Universitario de Física Aplicada a las Ciencias y las Tecnologías, Universidad de Alicante, Crtra. San Vicente del Raspeig S/N, Alicante E-03080 (Spain); Departamento de Física, Ingeniería de Sistemas y Teoría de la Señal, Universidad de Alicante, Crtra. San Vicente del Raspeig S/N, Alicante E-03080 (Spain)
2013-11-01
A set of simplified and rigorous electromagnetic vector theories is used for analyzing the transmittance characteristics of diffraction phase gratings. The scalar diffraction theory and the effective medium theory are validated with the exact results obtained via the rigorous coupled-wave theory and the finite-difference time-domain method. The effects of surface profile parameters and also the angle of incidence is demonstrated to be a limiting factor in the accuracy of these theories. Therefore, the error of both simplified theories is also analyzed in non-paraxial domain with the intention of establishing a specific range of validity for both simplified theories.
Binary DNA Nanostructures for Data Encryption
Halvorsen, Ken; Wong, Wesley P.
2012-01-01
We present a simple and secure system for encrypting and decrypting information using DNA self-assembly. Binary data is encoded in the geometry of DNA nanostructures with two distinct conformations. Removing or leaving out a single component reduces these structures to an encrypted solution of ssDNA, whereas adding back this missing "decryption key" causes the spontaneous formation of the message through self-assembly, enabling rapid read out via gel electrophoresis. Applications include auth...
Binary DNA nanostructures for data encryption.
Halvorsen, Ken; Wong, Wesley P
2012-01-01
We present a simple and secure system for encrypting and decrypting information using DNA self-assembly. Binary data is encoded in the geometry of DNA nanostructures with two distinct conformations. Removing or leaving out a single component reduces these structures to an encrypted solution of ssDNA, whereas adding back this missing "decryption key" causes the spontaneous formation of the message through self-assembly, enabling rapid read out via gel electrophoresis. Applications include authentication, secure messaging, and barcoding.
Optical three-step binary-logic-gate-based MSD arithmetic
Fyath, R. S.; Alsaffar, A. A. W.; Alam, M. S.
2003-11-01
A three-step modified signed-digit (MSD) adder is proposed which can be optically implmented using binary logic gates. The proposed scheme depends on encoding each MSD digits into a pair of binary digits using a two-state and multi-position based encoding scheme. The design algorithm depends on constructing the addition truth table of binary-coded MSD numbers and then using Karnaugh map to achieve output minimization. The functions associated with the optical binary logic gates are achieved by simply programming the decoding masks of an optical shadow-casting logic system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ya-Ting Tsu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Nano-gold catalyst has been reported to have high activity and selectivity for liquid phase hydrogenation reaction. In this study, gold-containing bimetals were loaded on TiO2. For bimetallic catalysts, gold and different metals were prepared by the deposition-precipitation method, and then used NaBH4 to reduce metal cations. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic properties of these catalysts were tested by hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB in a batch reactor at 1.1 MPa H2 pressure, 373 K and 500 rpm. Cu, Ag, Ru, and Pd formed nano-alloy with Au. In addition, Cu–Au, Ag–Au, and Ru–Au alloy had Cu-, Ag-, and Ru-enriched surface, respectively. Instead, Pd–Au alloy had Pd-enriched surface. There are two kinds of alloy effects: (1 geometric effects, i.e., the surface-enriched metal would change the distance of Au–Au atoms that is required for facilitating the hydrogenation of chloronitrobenzene; and (2 electronic effects, which involve charge transfer between the metals. The activity decreased in the following order: PdAu/TiO2 > Au/TiO2 > NiAu/TiO2 > AgAu/TiO2 > RuAu/TiO2 > CuAu/TiO2. Comparing with other metals, adding Pd in Au showed a higher activity. Adding palladium could reduce gold-valence state, and increased active sites for reaction.
Programmable spectral design and the binary supergrating
Levner, Daniel
Spectral operations such as wavelength selection, power level manipulation, and chromatic dispersion control are key to many processes in optical telecommunication, spectroscopy, and sensing. In their simplest forms, these functions can be performed using a number of successful devices such as the Fraunhofer ("diffraction") grating, Bragg grating, thin-film filter (TFF), and dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF). More complicated manipulations, however, often require either problematic cascades of many simple elements, the use of custom technologies that offer little adjustment, or the implementation of fully programmable devices, which allow for the desired spectral function to be synthesized ab initio. Here, I present the Binary Supergrating (BSG), a novel technology that permits the programmable and near-arbitrary control of optical amplitude and phase using a simple, robust and practical form. This guided-wave form consists of an aperiodic sequence of binary elements; the sequence, determined through the process of BSG synthesis, encodes an optical program that defines device functionality. The ability to derive optical programs that address broad spectral demands is central to the BSG's extensive capabilities. In consequence, I present a powerful approach to synthesis that exploits existing knowledge in the design of "analog" gratings. This approach is based on a two-step process, which first derives an analog diffractive structure using the best available methods and then transforms it into binary form. Accordingly, I discuss the notion of diffractive structure transformation and introduce the principle of key information. I identify such key information and illustrate its application in grating quantizers based on an atypical form of Delta-Sigma modulation. As a digital approach to spectral engineering, the BSG presents many of the same advantages offered by the digital approach to electronic signal processing (DSP) over its analog predecessors. As such, it
Detection Rates for Close Binaries via Microlensing
Gaudi, B. Scott; Gould, Andrew
1997-06-01
Microlensing is one of the most promising methods of reconstructing the stellar mass function down to masses even below the hydrogen-burning limit. The fundamental limit to this technique is the presence of unresolved binaries, which can, in principle, significantly alter the inferred mass function. Here we quantify the fraction of binaries that can be detected using microlensing, considering specifically the mass ratio and separation of the binary. We find that almost all binary systems with separations greater than b ~ 0.4 of their combined Einstein ring radius are detectable assuming a detection threshold of 3%. For two M dwarfs, this corresponds to a limiting separation of >~1 AU. Since very few observed M dwarfs have companions at separations corrupt the measurements of the mass function. We find that the detectability depends only weakly on the mass ratio. For those events for which individual masses can be determined, we find that binaries can be detected down to b ~ 0.2.
Boone, Kyle Robert; Aldering, Gregory; Copin, Yannick; Dixon, Samantha; Domagalski, Rachel; Gangler, Emmanuel; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Nearby Supernova Factory Collaboration
2018-01-01
We discovered an anomalous behavior of CCD readout electronics that affects their use in many astronomical applications, which we call the “binary offset effect”. Due to feedback in the readout electronics, an offset is introduced in the values read out for each pixel that depends on the binary encoding of the previously read-out pixel values. One consequence of this effect is that a pathological local background offset can be introduced in images that only appears where science data are present on the CCD. The amplitude of this introduced offset does not scale monotonically with the amplitude of the objects in the image, and can be up to 4.5 ADU per pixel for certain instruments. Additionally, this background offset will be shifted by several pixels from the science data, potentially distorting the shape of objects in the image. We tested 22 instruments for signs of the binary offset effect and found evidence of it in 16 of them, including LRIS and DEIMOS on the Keck telescopes, WFC3-UVIS and STIS on HST, MegaCam on CFHT, SNIFS on the UH88 telescope, GMOS on the Gemini telescopes, HSC on Subaru, and FORS on VLT. A large amount of archival data is therefore affected by the binary offset effect, and conventional methods of reducing CCD images do not measure or remove the introduced offsets. As a demonstration of how to correct for the binary offset effect, we have developed a model that can accurately predict and remove the introduced offsets for the SNIFS instrument on the UH88 telescope. Accounting for the binary offset effect is essential for precision low-count astronomical observations with CCDs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel
2006-01-01
effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...
Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.
2005-01-01
Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal
Chen, Yung-Yao; Hong, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Kai-Wen
2015-03-01
This paper proposes a novel message-embedded halftoning scheme that is based on orientation modulation (OM) encoding. To achieve high image quality, we employ a human visual system (HVS)-based error metric between the continuous-tone image and a data-embedded halftone, and integrate a modified direct binary search (DBS) framework into the proposed message-embedded halftoning method. The modified DBS framework ensures that the resulting data-embedded halftones have optimal image quality from the viewpoint of the HVS.
Ozdemir, Adnan
2011-07-01
SummaryThe purpose of this study is to produce a groundwater spring potential map of the Sultan Mountains in central Turkey, based on a logistic regression method within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Using field surveys, the locations of the springs (440 springs) were determined in the study area. In this study, 17 spring-related factors were used in the analysis: geology, relative permeability, land use/land cover, precipitation, elevation, slope, aspect, total curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport capacity index, distance to drainage, distance to fault, drainage density, and fault density map. The coefficients of the predictor variables were estimated using binary logistic regression analysis and were used to calculate the groundwater spring potential for the entire study area. The accuracy of the final spring potential map was evaluated based on the observed springs. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by calculating the relative operating characteristics. The area value of the relative operating characteristic curve model was found to be 0.82. These results indicate that the model is a good estimator of the spring potential in the study area. The spring potential map shows that the areas of very low, low, moderate and high groundwater spring potential classes are 105.586 km 2 (28.99%), 74.271 km 2 (19.906%), 101.203 km 2 (27.14%), and 90.05 km 2 (24.671%), respectively. The interpretations of the potential map showed that stream power index, relative permeability of lithologies, geology, elevation, aspect, wetness index, plan curvature, and drainage density play major roles in spring occurrence and distribution in the Sultan Mountains. The logistic regression approach has not yet been used to delineate groundwater potential zones. In this study, the logistic regression method was used to locate potential zones for groundwater springs in the Sultan Mountains. The evolved model
Zang, Qingda; Rotroff, Daniel M; Judson, Richard S
2013-12-23
There are thousands of environmental chemicals subject to regulatory decisions for endocrine disrupting potential. The ToxCast and Tox21 programs have tested ∼8200 chemicals in a broad screening panel of in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for estrogen receptor (ER) agonist and antagonist activity. The present work uses this large data set to develop in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models using machine learning (ML) methods and a novel approach to manage the imbalanced data distribution. Training compounds from the ToxCast project were categorized as active or inactive (binding or nonbinding) classes based on a composite ER Interaction Score derived from a collection of 13 ER in vitro assays. A total of 1537 chemicals from ToxCast were used to derive and optimize the binary classification models while 5073 additional chemicals from the Tox21 project, evaluated in 2 of the 13 in vitro assays, were used to externally validate the model performance. In order to handle the imbalanced distribution of active and inactive chemicals, we developed a cluster-selection strategy to minimize information loss and increase predictive performance and compared this strategy to three currently popular techniques: cost-sensitive learning, oversampling of the minority class, and undersampling of the majority class. QSAR classification models were built to relate the molecular structures of chemicals to their ER activities using linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), and support vector machines (SVM) with 51 molecular descriptors from QikProp and 4328 bits of structural fingerprints as explanatory variables. A random forest (RF) feature selection method was employed to extract the structural features most relevant to the ER activity. The best model was obtained using SVM in combination with a subset of descriptors identified from a large set via the RF algorithm, which recognized the active and
All-optical conversion scheme: Binary to quaternary and quaternary to binary number
Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath
2009-04-01
To achieve the inherent parallelism in optics a suitable number system and efficient encoding/decoding scheme for handling the data are very much essential. Binary number is accepted as the best representing number system in almost all types of existing electronic computers. But, binary number (0 and 1) is insufficient in respect to the demand of the coming generation. Multi-valued logic (with radix >2) can be viewed as an alternative approach to solve many problems in transmission, storage and processing of large amount of information in digital signal processing. Here, in this paper all-optical scheme for the conversion of binary to quaternary number and vice versa have been proposed and described. Simulation has also been done. In this all-optical scheme the numbers are represented by different discrete polarized state of light.
Binding and Normalization of Binary Sparse Distributed Representations by Context-Dependent Thinning
Rachkovskij, Dmitri A.; Kussul, Ernst M.
2001-01-01
Distributed representations were often criticized as inappropriate for encoding of data with a complex structure. However Plate's Holographic Reduced Representations and Kanerva's Binary Spatter Codes are recent schemes that allow on-the-fly encoding of nested compositional structures by real-valued or dense binary vectors of fixed dimensionality. In this paper we consider procedures of the Context-Dependent Thinning which were developed for representation of complex hierarchical items in the...
General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes
Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico
2017-02-01
The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.
Universal dynamic goniometer for rotary encoders
Smirnov, Nikolai V.; Latyev, Svjatoslav M.; Naumova, Anastasiia I.
2017-06-01
A novel dynamic goniometer for the accuracy of rotary encoders has been developed on the base of the method of comparison with the reference encoder. The set-up of the goniometer considers all constructive and informative characteristics of measured encoders. The novel goniometer construction uses the new compensating method of instrumental errors in automatic working process. The advantages of the dynamic goniometer in combination with an optical rotary encoder at the reduction of the measuring time and a simultaneous increase of the accuracy.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, Dev P
2012-01-01
Laboratory receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies, that are often used to evaluate medical imaging systems, differ from ‘live’ clinical interpretations in several respects which could compromise their clinical relevance. The aim was to develop methodology for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory ROC study. A simulator was developed to generate ROC ratings data and binary clinical interpretations classified as correct or incorrect for a common set of images interpreted under clinical and laboratory conditions. The area under the trapezoidal ROC curve (AUC) was used as the laboratory figure-of-merit and the fraction of correct clinical decisions as the clinical figure-of-merit. Conventional agreement measures (Pearson, Spearman, Kendall and kappa) between the bootstrap-induced fluctuations of the two figures of merit were estimated. A jackknife pseudovalue transformation applied to the figures of merit was also investigated as a way to capture agreement existing at the individual image level that could be lost at the figure-of-merit level. It is shown that the pseudovalues define a relevance-ROC curve. The area under this curve (rAUC) measures the ability of the laboratory figure-of-merit-based pseudovalues to correctly classify incorrect versus correct clinical interpretations. Therefore, rAUC is a measure of the clinical relevance of an ROC study. The conventional measures and rAUC were compared under varying simulator conditions. It was found that design details of the ROC study, namely the number of bins, the difficulty level of the images, the ratio of disease-present to disease-absent images and the unavoidable difference between laboratory and clinical performance levels, can lead to serious underestimation of the agreement as indicated by conventional agreement measures, even for perfectly correlated data, while rAUC showed high agreement and was relatively immune to these details. At the same time rAUC was sensitive to factors such
Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.
Lin, Fa-Hsuan
2013-07-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, D.A.
1986-01-01
Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Lorimer, D. R.
2005-01-01
We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic b...
Optimal Achievable Encoding for Brain Machine Interface
2017-12-22
AFRL-RH-WP-TP-2017-0001 Optimal Achievable Encoding for Brain- Machine Interface Eduardo Chichilnisky Leland Stanford Junior...Oct 2016 – 30 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Optimal Achievable Encoding for Brain- Machine Interface 5b...required. First, we developed novel models of retinal encoding that improve upon the state of the art, by using machine learning methods to
Astrophysics of white dwarf binaries
Nelemans, G.A.
2006-01-01
White dwarf binaries are the most common compact binaries in the Universe and are especially important for low-frequency gravitational wave detectors such as LISA. There are a number of open questions about binary evolution and the Galactic population of white dwarf binaries that can be solved using
Evolution of cataclysmic binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paczynski, B.
1981-01-01
Cataclysmic binaries with short orbital periods have low mass secondary components. Their nuclear time scale is too long to be of evolutionary significance. Angular momentum loss from the binary drives the mass transfer between the two components. As long as the characteristic time scale is compared with the Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale of the mass losing secondary the star remains close to the main sequence, and the binary period decreases with time. If angular momentum loss is due to gravitational radiation then the mass transfer time scale becomes comparable to the Kelvin-Helmoltz time scale when the secondary's mass decreases to 0.12 Msub(sun), and the binary period is reduced to 80 minutes. Later, the mass losing secondary departs from the main sequence and gradually becomes degenerate. Now the orbital period increases with time. The observed lower limit to the orbital periods of hydrogen rich cataclysmic binaries implies that gravitational radiation is the main driving force for the evolution of those systems. It is shown that binaries emerging from a common envelope phase of evolution are well detached. They have to lose additional angular momentum to become semidetached cataclysmic variables. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oscar Mauricio Sánchez Quintero
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, aluminum chromium nitride (Al-Cr-N films were deposited onto AISI H13 steel substrates by a reactive d.c magnetron co-sputtering system in an atmosphere of Ar/N2 (90/10 gas mixture from a binary target composed of chromium (99.95% and aluminum (99.99%. Different powers (40, 50, 60, and 70 W were applied to the target, in order to study the effect of this parameter and the sputtering yield of binary target, on the microstructure and the electrochemical properties of the Al-Cr-N coatings. The corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt. (% NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical corrosion tests (Tafel polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, and the chemical composition, microstructure and the absorption bands by means of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffractometry (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, respectively. EIS results showed that the Al-Cr-N coating deposited at 40 W, exhibited the lower porosity and the highest polarization resistance, and subsequently, when the power applied to the binary target increased, the corrosion rate and the porosity increase.
Binary DNA nanostructures for data encryption.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Halvorsen
Full Text Available We present a simple and secure system for encrypting and decrypting information using DNA self-assembly. Binary data is encoded in the geometry of DNA nanostructures with two distinct conformations. Removing or leaving out a single component reduces these structures to an encrypted solution of ssDNA, whereas adding back this missing "decryption key" causes the spontaneous formation of the message through self-assembly, enabling rapid read out via gel electrophoresis. Applications include authentication, secure messaging, and barcoding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yimeng Zhang
2013-05-01
Full Text Available A method of blind recognition of the coding parameters for binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH codes is proposed in this paper. We consider an intelligent communication receiver which can blindly recognize the coding parameters of the received data stream. The only knowledge is that the stream is encoded using binary BCH codes, while the coding parameters are unknown. The problem can be addressed on the context of the non-cooperative communications or adaptive coding and modulations (ACM for cognitive radio networks. The recognition processing includes two major procedures: code length estimation and generator polynomial reconstruction. A hard decision method has been proposed in a previous literature. In this paper we propose the recognition approach in soft decision situations with Binary-Phase-Shift-Key modulations and Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN channels. The code length is estimated by maximizing the root information dispersion entropy function. And then we search for the code roots to reconstruct the primitive and generator polynomials. By utilizing the soft output of the channel, the recognition performance is improved and the simulations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshua A. Faber
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel
2006-01-01
It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.
1982-01-01
The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.
1982-01-01
The circumstances of mass exchange in close binary systems whose components have a mass < or approx. =1 M/sub sun/ are analyzed for the case where the system is losing orbital angular momentum by radiation of gravitational waves. The mass exchange rate will depend on the mass ratio of the components and on the mass of the component that is overfilling its critical Roche lobe. A comparison of the observed orbital periods, masses of the components losing material, and mass exchange rates against the theoretical values for cataclysmic binaries indicates that the evolution of the close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorimer Duncan R.
2008-11-01
Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.
Optimal static and dynamic recycling of defective binary devices
Challet, Damien; Pérez Castillo, Isaac
2004-11-01
The binary defect combination problem consists in finding a fully working subset from a given ensemble of imperfect binary components. We determine the typical properties of the model using methods of statistical mechanics, in particular the region in the parameter space where there is almost surely at least one fully working subset. Dynamic recycling of a flux of imperfect binary components leads to zero wastage.
Vanbeveren, D., Van Rensbergen, W., De Loore, C.
Massive stars are distributed all over the upper part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram according to their subsequent phases of stellar evolution from main sequence to supernova. Massive stars may either be single or they may be a component of a close binary. The observed single star/binary frequency is known only in a small part of the Galaxy. Whether this holds for the whole galaxy or for the whole cosmos is questionable and needs many more high quality observations. Massive star evolution depends critically on mass loss by stellar wind and this stellar wind mass loss may change dramatically when stars evolve from one phase to another. We start the book with a critical discussion of observations of the different types of massive stars, observations that are of fundamental importance in relation to stellar evolution, with special emphasis on mass loss by stellar wind. We update our knowledge of the physics that models the structure and evolution of massive single stars and we present new calculations. The conclusions resulting from a comparison between these calculations and observations are then used to study the evolution of massive binaries. This book provides our current knowledge of a great variety of massive binaries, and hence of a great variety of evolutionary phases. A large number of case studies illustrates the existence of these phases. Finally, we present the results of massive star population number synthesis, including the effect of binaries. The results indicate that neglecting them leads to a conclusion which may be far from reality. This book is written for researchers in massive star evolution. We hope that, after reading this book, university-level astrophysics students will become fascinated by the exciting world of the `Brightest Binaries'.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikkola, S.
1983-01-01
Gravitational encounters of pairs of binaries have been studied numerically. Various cross-sections have been calculated for qualitative final results of the interaction and for energy transfer between the binding energy and the centre of mass kinetic energy. The distribution of the kinetic energies, resulting from the gravitational collision, were found to be virtually independent of the impact velocity in the case of collision of hard binaries. It was found that one out of five collisions, which are not simple fly-by's, leads to the formation of a stable three-body system. (author)
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duncan R. Lorimer
1998-09-01
Full Text Available Our knowledge of binary and millisecond pulsars has greatly increased in recent years. This is largely due to the success of large-area surveys which have brought the known population of such systems in the Galactic disk to around 50. As well as being interesting as a population of astronomical sources, many pulsars turn out to be superb celestial clocks. In this review we summarise the main properties of binary and millisecond pulsars and highlight some of their applications to relativistic astrophysics.
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorimer Duncan R.
2005-11-01
Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.
Encoder designed to work in harsh environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toop, L.
2007-05-15
Dynapar has developed the Acuro AX71 absolute encoder for use on offshore or land-based oil rig operations. It provides feedback on the operation of automated systems such as draw works, racking systems, rotary tables and top drives. By ensuring that automated systems function properly, this encoder responds to a need by the oil and gas industry to keep workers safe and improve efficiency, particularly for operations in rugged situations. The encoder provides feedback from motor systems to controllers, giving information about position and speed of downhole drill bits. This newly developed encoder is better than commonly used incremental encoders which are not precise in strong electrical noise environments. Rather, the absolute encoder uses a different method of reporting to the controller. A digital signal is transmitted constantly as the device operates. It is less susceptible to noise issues. It is highly accurate, tolerant of noise and is not affected by power outages. However, the absolute encoder is generally more delicate in drilling applications with high ambient temperatures and shock levels. Dynapar addressed this issue by developing compact stainless steel housing that is useful for corrosion resistance in marine applications. The AX71 absolute encoder can withstand up to 100 G of mechanical shock and ambient temperatures of up to 60 degrees C. The encoder is ATEX certified without barriers, and offers the high resolution feedback of 4,000 counts of multiturn rotation and 16,000 counts of position. 1 fig.
Stacking Analysis of Binary Systems with HAWC
Brisbois, Chad; HAWC Collaboration
2017-01-01
Detecting binary systems at TeV energies is an important problem because only a handful of such systems are currently known. The nature of such systems is typically thought to be composed of a compact object and a massive star. The TeV emission from these systems does not obviously correspond to emission in GeV or X-ray, where many binary systems have previously been found. This study focuses on a stacking method to detect TeV emission from LS 5039, a known TeV binary, to test its efficacy in HAWC data. Stacking is a widely employed method for increasing signal to noise ratio in optical astronomy, but has never been attempted previously with HAWC. HAWC is an ideal instrument to search for TeV binaries, because of its wide field of view and high uptime. Applying this method to the entire sky may allow HAWC to detect binary sources of very short or very long periods not sensitive to current analyses. NSF, DOE, Los Alamos, Michigan Tech, CONACyt, UNAM, BUAP.
Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Peng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pringle, J.E.; Wade, R.A.
1985-01-01
This book reviews the theoretical and observational knowledge of interacting binary stars. The topics discussed embrace the following features of these objects: their orbits, evolution, mass transfer, angular momentum losses, X-ray emission, eclipses, variability, and other related phenomena. (U.K.)
Equational binary decision diagrams
J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)
2000-01-01
textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and
Tcheng, Ping
1989-01-01
Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.
Non-negative Matrix Factorization for Binary Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jacob Søgaard; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder
We propose the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization for decomposition of binary data. Binary data are frequently generated in e.g. text analysis, sensory data, market basket data etc. A common method for analysing non-negative data is the Non-negative Matrix Factorization, though...... this is in theory not appropriate for binary data, and thus we propose a novel Non-negative Matrix Factorization based on the logistic link function. Furthermore we generalize the method to handle missing data. The formulation of the method is compared to a previously proposed method (Tome et al., 2015). We compare...... the performance of the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization to Least Squares Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Kullback-Leibler (KL) Non-negative Matrix Factorization on sets of binary data: a synthetic dataset, a set of student comments on their professors collected in a binary term-document matrix...
Wijers, R.A.M.J.
1996-01-01
Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes
Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep
2017-05-01
Binary to octal and octal to binary code converter is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs. Any application of combinational logic circuit can be implemented by using external gates. In this paper, binary to octal and octal to binary code converter is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young-Woon Kang
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Several survey observations have produced light curves of more than five thousand eclipsing binaries for last 15 years. Future missions such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST, the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS and Gaia are expected to yield hundreds thousands of new variable stars and eclipsing binaries. Current methods require a week to analyze the light curves of an eclipsing binary for its physical and orbital parameters. The current methods of analyzing the light curves will be inadequate to treat the overwhelming influx of new data. Therefore we developed a new method to treat large numbers of light curves of eclipsing binaries. We tested the new method by analyzing more than one hundred light curves of the detached and semi-detached eclipsing binaries discovered in the Small Magellan Cloud and present their fitted light curves with observations.
Almeida, L. A.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W.; Barbá, R.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Crowther, P.; Damineli, A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gieles, M.; Grin, N. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Lockwood, S.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Neijssel, C.; Norman, C.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Richardson, N. D.; Schootemeijer, A.; Shenar, T.; Soszyński, I.; Tramper, F.; Vink, J. S.
2017-02-01
Context. Massive binaries play a crucial role in the Universe. Knowing the distributions of their orbital parameters is important for a wide range of topics from stellar feedback to binary evolution channels and from the distribution of supernova types to gravitational wave progenitors, yet no direct measurements exist outside the Milky Way. Aims: The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring project was designed to help fill this gap by obtaining multi-epoch radial velocity (RV) monitoring of 102 massive binaries in the 30 Doradus region. Methods: In this paper we analyze 32 FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations of 93 O- and 7 B-type binaries. We performed a Fourier analysis and obtained orbital solutions for 82 systems: 51 single-lined (SB1) and 31 double-lined (SB2) spectroscopic binaries. Results: Overall, the binary fraction and orbital properties across the 30 Doradus region are found to be similar to existing Galactic samples. This indicates that within these domains environmental effects are of second order in shaping the properties of massive binary systems. A small difference is found in the distribution of orbital periods, which is slightly flatter (in log space) in 30 Doradus than in the Galaxy, although this may be compatible within error estimates and differences in the fitting methodology. Also, orbital periods in 30 Doradus can be as short as 1.1 d, somewhat shorter than seen in Galactic samples. Equal mass binaries (q> 0.95) in 30 Doradus are all found outside NGC 2070, the central association that surrounds R136a, the very young and massive cluster at 30 Doradus's core. Most of the differences, albeit small, are compatible with expectations from binary evolution. One outstanding exception, however, is the fact that earlier spectral types (O2-O7) tend to have shorter orbital periods than later spectral types (O9.2-O9.7). Conclusions: Our results point to a relative universality of the incidence rate of massive binaries and their orbital properties in the
Dark GPC: extended nodal beam areas from binary-only phase
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin
2016-01-01
We show a simplified method of generating extended regions of destructive interference with near arbitrary shapes using the generalized phase contrast (GPC) method. For Gaussian input beams, GPC typically results in a 3×3× intensified user-defined input mask shape against a dark background...... experimentally how “dark GPC” allows the dark regions to be easily reshaped using a binary-only phase mask encoded on a spatial light modulator. Similar to standard GPC, the method does not require complex calculations or the fabrication of complex gray-level phase elements. The simplified approach...... and flexibility in the output shapes make dark GPC attractive for applications such as optical trapping of low-index particles or superresolution microscopy like stimulated emission depletion...
A Comparative Study of the Compaction Properties of Binary and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Purpose: To comparatively evaluate the tableting properties of binary mixtures and bilayer tablets containing plastic deformation and brittle fracture excipients. Methods: Binary mixture and bilayer tablets of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), ethyl cellulose, anhydrous lactose and dextrate were prepared by direct compression ...
Research note : Miscibility behaviour of binary mixtures of benzyl ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Miscibility of binary mixtures of benzyl benzoate and liquid paraffin as functions of temperature and composition has been determined using phase separation method. The binary mixtures demonstrated a critical (upper) solution temperature of 35 °C at 101325 Nm-2 with a mixing gap. A tie-line drawn at 28 °C across the ...
Formation of Thorne–Żytkow objects in close binaries
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bumareyamu Hutilukejiang
2018-03-06
Zytkow, may form as a result of unstable mass transfer in a massive X-ray binary after a neutron star (NS) is engulfed in the envelope of its companion star. Using a rapid binary evolution program and the Monte Carlo method, ...
Absolute Dimensions of Contact Binary Stars in Baade Window
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young Woon Kang
1999-12-01
Full Text Available The light curves of the representative 6 contact binary stars observed by OGLE Project of searching for dark matter in our Galaxy have been analyzed by the method of the Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction to find photometric solutions. The orbital inclinations of these binaries are in the range of 52 deg - 69 deg which is lower than that of the solar neighborhood binaries. The Roche lobe filling factor of these binaries are distributed in large range of 0.12 - 0.90. Since absence of spectroscopic observations for these binaries we have found masses of the 6 binary systems based on the intersection between Kepler locus and locus derived from Vandenberg isochrones in the mass - luminosity plane. Then absolute dimensions and distances have been found by combining the masses and the photometric solutions. The distances of the 6 binary systems are distributed in the range of 1 kpc - 6 kpc. This distance range is the limiting range where the contact binaries which have period shorter than a day are visible. Most contact binaries discovered in the Baade window do not belong to the Galactic bulge.
Sputtering yield calculation for binary target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.
1979-01-01
The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter
2008-01-01
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...
Compact binary hashing for music retrieval
Seo, Jin S.
2014-03-01
With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.
Bokhari, Shahid H.; Crockett, Thomas W.; Nicol, David M.
1993-01-01
Binary dissection is widely used to partition non-uniform domains over parallel computers. This algorithm does not consider the perimeter, surface area, or aspect ratio of the regions being generated and can yield decompositions that have poor communication to computation ratio. Parametric Binary Dissection (PBD) is a new algorithm in which each cut is chosen to minimize load + lambda x(shape). In a 2 (or 3) dimensional problem, load is the amount of computation to be performed in a subregion and shape could refer to the perimeter (respectively surface) of that subregion. Shape is a measure of communication overhead and the parameter permits us to trade off load imbalance against communication overhead. When A is zero, the algorithm reduces to plain binary dissection. This algorithm can be used to partition graphs embedded in 2 or 3-d. Load is the number of nodes in a subregion, shape the number of edges that leave that subregion, and lambda the ratio of time to communicate over an edge to the time to compute at a node. An algorithm is presented that finds the depth d parametric dissection of an embedded graph with n vertices and e edges in O(max(n log n, de)) time, which is an improvement over the O(dn log n) time of plain binary dissection. Parallel versions of this algorithm are also presented; the best of these requires O((n/p) log(sup 3)p) time on a p processor hypercube, assuming graphs of bounded degree. How PBD is applied to 3-d unstructured meshes and yields partitions that are better than those obtained by plain dissection is described. Its application to the color image quantization problem is also discussed, in which samples in a high-resolution color space are mapped onto a lower resolution space in a way that minimizes the color error.
Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility
Boldt, Jesper
2010-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined i...
Efficient reverse time migration with amplitude encoding
Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Huazhong; Zhao, Lei; Shao, Yu; Wang, Meixia; Osen, Are
2015-08-01
Reverse time migration (RTM) is an accurate seismic imaging method for imaging the complex subsurface structure. Traditional common shot RTM suffers from low efficiency due to the large number of single shot gathers, especially for marine seismic data. Phase encoding is commonly used to reduce the computational cost of RTM. Phase encoding in the frequency domain is usually related to time shift in the time domain. Therefore, phase-encoding-based RTM needs time padding to avoid information loss which degrades the efficiency of the time-domain wavefield extrapolator. In this paper, an efficient time-domain RTM scheme based on the amplitude encoding is proposed. This scheme uses the orthogonal cosine basis as the encoding function, which has similar physical meaning to plane wave encoding (i.e. plane-wave components with different surface shooting angles). The proposed scheme can generate a qualified imaging result as well as common shot RTM but with less computational cost. Since this scheme does not need time padding, it is more efficient than the phase encoding schemes and can be conveniently implemented in the time domain. Numerical examples on the Sigsbee2a synthetic dataset demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.
A model for visual memory encoding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodolphe Nenert
Full Text Available Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA. All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN. Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.
A model for visual memory encoding.
Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P
2014-01-01
Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA) with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA). All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions) and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN). Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s) of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.
Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit ...
Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded ex- tended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanna, Chad; Megevand, Miguel; Palenzuela, Carlos; Ochsner, Evan
2009-01-01
Recent advances in the description of compact binary systems have produced gravitational waveforms that include inspiral, merger and ring-down phases. Comparing results from numerical simulations with those of post-Newtonian, and related, expansions has provided motivation for employing post-Newtonian waveforms in near merger epochs when searching for gravitational waves and has encouraged the development of analytic fits to full numerical waveforms. Until searches employ full waveforms as templates, data analysts can still conduct separate inspiral, merger and ring-down searches. Improved knowledge about the end of the inspiral phase, the beginning of the merger and the ring-down frequencies will increase the efficiency of searches over each phase separately without needing the exact waveform. We will show that knowledge of the final spin, of which there are many theoretical models and analytic fits to simulations, may give an insight into the time-frequency properties of the merger. We also present implications on the ability to probe the tidal disruption of neutron stars through gravitational waves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik
2014-11-01
This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.
Persis, Claudio De
2003-01-01
Monitoring large-scale systems is of fundamental importance in modern infrastructures. Many of these large-scale systems are complex interconnections of sub-components which interact by means of communication channels with limited bandwidth. Therefore the information must be encoded in order to be
Gravitational wave spectroscopy of binary neutron star merger remnants with mode stacking
Yang, Huan; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Yagi, Kent; Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás
2018-01-01
A binary neutron star coalescence event has recently been observed for the first time in gravitational waves, and many more detections are expected once current ground-based detectors begin operating at design sensitivity. As in the case of binary black holes, gravitational waves generated by binary neutron stars consist of inspiral, merger, and postmerger components. Detecting the latter is important because it encodes information about the nuclear equation of state in a regime that cannot be probed prior to merger. The postmerger signal, however, can only be expected to be measurable by current detectors for events closer than roughly ten megaparsecs, which given merger rate estimates implies a low probability of observation within the expected lifetime of these detectors. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations showing that the dominant postmerger signal (the ℓ=m =2 mode) from individual binary neutron star mergers may not have a good chance of observation even with the most sensitive future ground-based gravitational wave detectors proposed so far (the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, for certain equations of state, assuming a full year of operation, the latest merger rates, and a detection threshold corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio of 5). For this reason, we propose two methods that stack the postmerger signal from multiple binary neutron star observations to boost the postmerger detection probability. The first method follows a commonly used practice of multiplying the Bayes factors of individual events. The second method relies on an assumption that the mode phase can be determined from the inspiral waveform, so that coherent mode stacking of the data from different events becomes possible. We find that both methods significantly improve the chances of detecting the dominant postmerger signal, making a detection very likely after a year of observation with Cosmic Explorer for certain equations of state. We also show that in terms of detection
Representation and processing of structures with binary sparse distributed codes
Rachkovskij, Dmitri A.
1999-01-01
The schemes for compositional distributed representations include those allowing on-the-fly construction of fixed dimensionality codevectors to encode structures of various complexity. Similarity of such codevectors takes into account both structural and semantic similarity of represented structures. In this paper we provide a comparative description of sparse binary distributed representation developed in the frames of the Associative-Projective Neural Network architecture and more well-know...
Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merritt David
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.
Young and Waltzing Binary Stars
2001-10-01
of the stars, as they move along their orbits and periodically approach and recede from the observer. Such spectroscopic observations therefore allow to measure the orbital velocities of the stars. It is exactly the same technique that is used to study and weigh extra-solar planets orbiting other stars [3]. However, this method has an important limitation. From the spectroscopical observations alone, it is only possible to deduce limits on the masses, as the inclination of orbits to the line-of-sight is usually unknown. The masses derived in this way (for stars as well as for exoplanets) are therefore only lower limits on the actual masses. Eclipsing Binaries However, fortunate observational circumstances sometimes allow to obtain all information about the stellar orbits. If a binary system is viewed (almost exactly) edge-on, the stars may pass in front of each other from time to time. Astronomers refer to this phenomenon as an "eclipse" and speak about an "eclipsing binary". The effect is similar to a "solar" eclipse as seen on the Earth, whenever the Moon passes in front of the Sun. Like the Moon blocks the sunlight, less light is received from the eclipsed star and thus the combined light from the binary system decreases during the eclipse. The way this happens (astronomers speak about the system's "lightcurve") then provides the additional information about the inclination of the orbit that is needed to determine exactly the stellar masses in a "spectroscopic" binary system. Very accurate values for the stellar diameters and the surface temperatures of the two stars can also be deduced. In short, when a full set of observations is available, it is possible to give a comprehensive description of an eclipsing binary system and its components. Eclipsing, spectroscopic binaries thus represent true cornerstones for the determination of stellar masses , and as such they are fundamental for our understanding of stellar evolution . Rather few such systems are known, but
Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Yu, Hong
2017-04-01
We present a memory augmented neural network for natural language understanding: Neural Semantic Encoders. NSE is equipped with a novel memory update rule and has a variable sized encoding memory that evolves over time and maintains the understanding of input sequences through read , compose and write operations. NSE can also access multiple and shared memories. In this paper, we demonstrated the effectiveness and the flexibility of NSE on five different natural language tasks: natural language inference, question answering, sentence classification, document sentiment analysis and machine translation where NSE achieved state-of-the-art performance when evaluated on publically available benchmarks. For example, our shared-memory model showed an encouraging result on neural machine translation, improving an attention-based baseline by approximately 1.0 BLEU.
Receptive fields selection for binary feature description.
Fan, Bin; Kong, Qingqun; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Wang, Zhiheng; Pan, Chunhong; Fua, Pascal
2014-06-01
Feature description for local image patch is widely used in computer vision. While the conventional way to design local descriptor is based on expert experience and knowledge, learning-based methods for designing local descriptor become more and more popular because of their good performance and data-driven property. This paper proposes a novel data-driven method for designing binary feature descriptor, which we call receptive fields descriptor (RFD). Technically, RFD is constructed by thresholding responses of a set of receptive fields, which are selected from a large number of candidates according to their distinctiveness and correlations in a greedy way. Using two different kinds of receptive fields (namely rectangular pooling area and Gaussian pooling area) for selection, we obtain two binary descriptors RFDR and RFDG .accordingly. Image matching experiments on the well-known patch data set and Oxford data set demonstrate that RFD significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors, and is comparable with the best float-valued descriptors at a fraction of processing time. Finally, experiments on object recognition tasks confirm that both RFDR and RFDG successfully bridge the performance gap between binary descriptors and their floating-point competitors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, C; Yin, F; Harris, W; Cai, J; Chang, Z; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To develop a technique generating ultrafast on-board VC-MRI using prior 4D-MRI and on-board phase-skipped encoding k-space acquisition for real-time 3D target tracking of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-of-expiration (EOE) volume in 4D-MRI acquired during the simulation was selected as the prior volume. 3 major respiratory deformation patterns were extracted through the principal component analysis of the deformation field maps (DFMs) generated between EOE and all other phases. The on-board VC-MRI at each instant was considered as a deformation of the prior volume, and the deformation was modeled as a linear combination of the extracted 3 major deformation patterns. To solve the weighting coefficients of the 3 major patterns, a 2D slice was extracted from VC-MRI volume to match with the 2D on-board sampling data, which was generated by 8-fold phase skipped-encoding k-space acquisition (i.e., sample 1 phase-encoding line out of every 8 lines) to achieve an ultrafast 16–24 volumes/s frame rate. The method was evaluated using XCAT digital phantom to simulate lung cancer patients. The 3D volume of end-ofinhalation (EOI) phase at the treatment day was used as ground-truth onboard VC-MRI with simulated changes in 1) breathing amplitude and 2) breathing amplitude/phase change from the simulation day. A liver cancer patient case was evaluated for in-vivo feasibility demonstration. Results: The comparison between ground truth and estimated on-board VC-MRI shows good agreements. In XCAT study with changed breathing amplitude, the volume-percent-difference(VPD) between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes at EOI was 6.28% and the Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS) was 0.82mm; with changed breathing amplitude and phase, the VPD was 8.50% and the COMS was 0.54mm. The study of liver patient case also demonstrated a promising in vivo feasibility of the proposed method Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest the feasibility to estimate ultrafast VC-MRI for on
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, C; Yin, F; Harris, W; Cai, J; Chang, Z; Ren, L
2016-01-01
Purpose: To develop a technique generating ultrafast on-board VC-MRI using prior 4D-MRI and on-board phase-skipped encoding k-space acquisition for real-time 3D target tracking of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-of-expiration (EOE) volume in 4D-MRI acquired during the simulation was selected as the prior volume. 3 major respiratory deformation patterns were extracted through the principal component analysis of the deformation field maps (DFMs) generated between EOE and all other phases. The on-board VC-MRI at each instant was considered as a deformation of the prior volume, and the deformation was modeled as a linear combination of the extracted 3 major deformation patterns. To solve the weighting coefficients of the 3 major patterns, a 2D slice was extracted from VC-MRI volume to match with the 2D on-board sampling data, which was generated by 8-fold phase skipped-encoding k-space acquisition (i.e., sample 1 phase-encoding line out of every 8 lines) to achieve an ultrafast 16–24 volumes/s frame rate. The method was evaluated using XCAT digital phantom to simulate lung cancer patients. The 3D volume of end-ofinhalation (EOI) phase at the treatment day was used as ground-truth onboard VC-MRI with simulated changes in 1) breathing amplitude and 2) breathing amplitude/phase change from the simulation day. A liver cancer patient case was evaluated for in-vivo feasibility demonstration. Results: The comparison between ground truth and estimated on-board VC-MRI shows good agreements. In XCAT study with changed breathing amplitude, the volume-percent-difference(VPD) between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes at EOI was 6.28% and the Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS) was 0.82mm; with changed breathing amplitude and phase, the VPD was 8.50% and the COMS was 0.54mm. The study of liver patient case also demonstrated a promising in vivo feasibility of the proposed method Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest the feasibility to estimate ultrafast VC-MRI for on
Giza, Stephanie A; Miller, Michael R; Parthasarathy, Prasiddha; de Vrijer, Barbra; McKenzie, Charles A
2018-01-10
Fetal fat is indicative of the energy balance within the fetus, which may be disrupted in pregnancy complications such as fetal growth restriction, macrosomia, and gestational diabetes. Water-fat separated MRI is a technique sensitive to tissue lipid content, measured as fat fraction (FF), and can be used to accurately measure fat volumes. Modified two-point Dixon and chemical shift encoded MRI (CSE-MRI) are water-fat separated MRI techniques that could be applied to imaging of fetal fat. Modified two-point Dixon has biases present that are corrected in CSE-MRI which may contribute to differences in the fat measurements. To compare the measurement of fetal fat volume and FF by modified two-point Dixon and CSE-MRI. Cross-sectional study for comparison of two MRI pulse sequences. Twenty-one pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. 1.5T, modified two-point Dixon and CSE-MRI. Manual segmentation of total fetal fat volume and mean FF from modified 2-point Dixon and CSE-MRI FF images. Reliability was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement was assessed using a one-sample t-test on the fat measurements difference values (modified two-point Dixon - CSE-MRI). The difference scores were tested against a value of 0, which would indicate that the measurements were identical. The fat volume and FF measured by modified two-point Dixon and CSE-MRI had excellent reliability, demonstrated by ICCs of 0.93 (P Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Rieger, Samantha
2015-05-01
Recent observations have found that some contact binaries are oriented such that the secondary impacts with the primary at a high inclination. This research investigates the evolution of how such contact binaries came to exist. This process begins with an asteroid pair, where the secondary lies on the Laplace plane. The Laplace plane is a plane normal to the axis about which the pole of a satellites orbit precesses, causing a near constant inclination for such an orbit. For the study of the classical Laplace plane, the secondary asteroid is in circular orbit around an oblate primary with axial tilt. This system is also orbiting the Sun. Thus, there are two perturbations on the secondarys orbit: J2 and third body Sun perturbations. The Laplace surface is defined as the group of orbits that lie on the Laplace plane at varying distances from the primary. If the secondary is very close to the primary, the inclination of the Laplace plane will be near the equator of the asteroid, while further from the primary the inclination will be similar to the asteroid-Sun plane. The secondary will lie on the Laplace plane because near the asteroid the Laplace plane is stable to large deviations in motion, causing the asteroid to come to rest in this orbit. Assuming the secondary is asymmetrical in shape and the bodys rotation is synchronous with its orbit, the secondary will experience the BYORP effect. BYORP can cause secular motion such as the semi-major axis of the secondary expanding or contracting. Assuming the secondary expands due to BYORP, the secondary will eventually reach the unstable region of the Laplace plane. The unstable region exists if the primary has an obliquity of 68.875 degrees or greater. The unstable region exists at 0.9 Laplace radius to 1.25 Laplace radius, where the Laplace radius is defined as the distance from the central body where the inclination of the Laplace plane orbit is half the obliquity. In the unstable region, the eccentricity of the orbit
Disorders of phonological encoding.
Butterworth, B
1992-03-01
Studies of phonological disturbances in aphasic speech are reviewed. It is argued that failure to test for error consistency in individual patients makes it generally improper to draw inferences about specific disorders of phonological encoding. A minimalist interpretation of available data on phonological errors is therefore proposed that involves variable loss of information in transmission between processing subsystems. Proposals for systematic loss or corruption of phonological information in lexical representations or in translation subsystems is shown to be inadequately grounded. The review concludes with some simple methodological prescriptions for future research.
Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid- Encoded ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Purpose: To investigate the distribution of plasmid-encoded extended spectrum beta-lacatamases (ESBLs) in Lahore, Pakistan using different phenotypic and molecular methods. Methods: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp were obtained over a period of nineteen months (June 2007 to December 2008). Both were tested ...
Formation and Evolution of Binary Systems Containing Collapsed Stars
Rappaport, Saul; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
This research includes theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of five types of interacting binary systems. Our main focus has been on developing a number of comprehensive population synthesis codes to study the following types of binary systems: (i) cataclysmic variables (#3, #8, #12, #15), (ii) low- and intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (#13, #20, #21), (iii) high-mass X-ray binaries (#14, #17, #22), (iv) recycled binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters (#5, #10, #ll), and (v) planetary nebulae which form in interacting binaries (#6, #9). The numbers in parentheses refer to papers published or in preparation that are listed in this paper. These codes take a new unified approach to population synthesis studies. The first step involves a Monte Carlo selection of the primordial binaries, including the constituent masses, and orbital separations and eccentricities. Next, a variety of analytic methods are used to evolve the primary star to the point where either a dynamical episode of mass transfer to the secondary occurs (the common envelope phase), or the system evolves down an alternate path. If the residual core of the primary is greater than 2.5 solar mass, it will evolve to Fe core collapse and the production of a neutron star and a supernova explosion. In the case of systems involving neutron stars, a kick velocity is chosen randomly from an appropriate distribution and added to the orbital dynamics which determine the state of the binary system after the supernova explosion. In the third step, all binaries which commence stable mass transfer from the donor star (the original secondary in the binary system) to the compact object, are followed with a detailed binary evolution code. Finally, we include all the relevant dynamics of the binary system. For example, in the case of LMXBs, the binary system, with its recoil velocity from the supernova explosion, is followed in time through its path in the Galactic potential. For our globular cluster
Construction of Fixed Rate Non-Binary WOM Codes Based on Integer Programming
Fujino, Yoju; Wadayama, Tadashi
In this paper, we propose a construction of non-binary WOM (Write-Once-Memory) codes for WOM storages such as flash memories. The WOM codes discussed in this paper are fixed rate WOM codes where messages in a fixed alphabet of size $M$ can be sequentially written in the WOM storage at least $t^*$-times. In this paper, a WOM storage is modeled by a state transition graph. The proposed construction has the following two features. First, it includes a systematic method to determine the encoding regions in the state transition graph. Second, the proposed construction includes a labeling method for states by using integer programming. Several novel WOM codes for $q$ level flash memories with 2 cells are constructed by the proposed construction. They achieve the worst numbers of writes $t^*$ that meet the known upper bound in many cases. In addition, we constructed fixed rate non-binary WOM codes with the capability to reduce ICI (inter cell interference) of flash cells. One of the advantages of the proposed construction is its flexibility. It can be applied to various storage devices, to various dimensions (i.e, number of cells), and various kind of additional constraints.
Analysis of Program Obfuscation Schemes with Variable Encoding Technique
Fukushima, Kazuhide; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi
Program analysis techniques have improved steadily over the past several decades, and software obfuscation schemes have come to be used in many commercial programs. A software obfuscation scheme transforms an original program or a binary file into an obfuscated program that is more complicated and difficult to analyze, while preserving its functionality. However, the security of obfuscation schemes has not been properly evaluated. In this paper, we analyze obfuscation schemes in order to clarify the advantages of our scheme, the XOR-encoding scheme. First, we more clearly define five types of attack models that we defined previously, and define quantitative resistance to these attacks. Then, we compare the security, functionality and efficiency of three obfuscation schemes with encoding variables: (1) Sato et al.'s scheme with linear transformation, (2) our previous scheme with affine transformation, and (3) the XOR-encoding scheme. We show that the XOR-encoding scheme is superior with regard to the following two points: (1) the XOR-encoding scheme is more secure against a data-dependency attack and a brute force attack than our previous scheme, and is as secure against an information-collecting attack and an inverse transformation attack as our previous scheme, (2) the XOR-encoding scheme does not restrict the calculable ranges of programs and the loss of efficiency is less than in our previous scheme.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew J. Benacquista
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Binary Stars and Globular Cluster Dynamics
Fregeau, John M.
2008-05-01
In this brief proceedings article I summarize the review talk I gave at the IAU 246 meeting in Capri, Italy, glossing over the well-known results from the literature, but paying particular attention to new, previously unpublished material. This new material includes a careful comparison of the apparently contradictory results of two independent methods used to simulate the evolution of binary populations in dense stellar systems (the direct N-body method of Hurley, Aarseth, & Shara (2007) and the approximate Monte Carlo method of Ivanova et al. (2005)), that shows that the two methods may not actually yield contradictory results, and suggests future work to more directly compare the two methods.
Spectral properties of binary asteroids
Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme
2018-04-01
We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.
Planets in Binary Star Systems
Haghighipour, Nader
2010-01-01
The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...
Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliver Lyttleton
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.
Mofavvaz, Shirin; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza
2017-07-01
In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) as intelligent methods based on absorption spectra in the range of 230-300 nm have been used for determination of antihistamine decongestant contents. In the first step, one type of network (feed-forward back-propagation) from the artificial neural network with two different training algorithms, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate back-propagation (GDX) algorithm, were employed and their performance was evaluated. The performance of the LM algorithm was better than the GDX algorithm. In the second one, the radial basis network was utilized and results compared with the previous network. In the last one, the other intelligent method named least squares support vector machine was proposed to construct the antihistamine decongestant prediction model and the results were compared with two of the aforementioned networks. The values of the statistical parameters mean square error (MSE), Regression coefficient (R2), correlation coefficient (r) and also mean recovery (%), relative standard deviation (RSD) used for selecting the best model between these methods. Moreover, the proposed methods were compared to the high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test at the 95% confidence level applied to the comparison results of suggested and reference methods that there were no significant differences between them.
Box, Frieke M. A.; van der Geest, Rob J.; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Palm-Meinders, Nge H.; Doornbos, Joost; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; van Buchem, Mark A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.
2007-01-01
PURPOSE: To verify whether wall shear stress (WSS) can be assessed in a reproducible manner using automatic model-based segmentation of phase-contrast MR images by determination of flow volume and maximum flow velocity (Vmax) in cross-sections of these vessels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The approach is
Probabilistic seismic history matching using binary images
Davolio, Alessandra; Schiozer, Denis Jose
2018-02-01
Currently, the goal of history-matching procedures is not only to provide a model matching any observed data but also to generate multiple matched models to properly handle uncertainties. One such approach is a probabilistic history-matching methodology based on the discrete Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm, proposed in previous works, which was particularly efficient for matching well data (production rates and pressure). 4D seismic (4DS) data have been increasingly included into history-matching procedures. A key issue in seismic history matching (SHM) is to transfer data into a common domain: impedance, amplitude or pressure, and saturation. In any case, seismic inversions and/or modeling are required, which can be time consuming. An alternative to avoid these procedures is using binary images in SHM as they allow the shape, rather than the physical values, of observed anomalies to be matched. This work presents the incorporation of binary images in SHM within the aforementioned probabilistic history matching. The application was performed with real data from a segment of the Norne benchmark case that presents strong 4D anomalies, including softening signals due to pressure build up. The binary images are used to match the pressurized zones observed in time-lapse data. Three history matchings were conducted using: only well data, well and 4DS data, and only 4DS. The methodology is very flexible and successfully utilized the addition of binary images for seismic objective functions. Results proved the good convergence of the method in few iterations for all three cases. The matched models of the first two cases provided the best results, with similar well matching quality. The second case provided models presenting pore pressure changes according to the expected dynamic behavior (pressurized zones) observed on 4DS data. The use of binary images in SHM is relatively new with few examples in the literature. This work enriches this discussion by presenting a new
Creation of an anti-imaging system using binary optics
Wang, Haifeng; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Yang; Gu, Min; Urbach, H. P.; Gan, Fuxi; Zhuang, Songlin
2016-01-01
We present a concealing method in which an anti-point spread function (APSF) is generated using binary optics, which produces a large-scale dark area in the focal region that can hide any object located within it. This result is achieved by generating two identical PSFs of opposite signs, one consisting of positive electromagnetic waves from the zero-phase region of the binary optical element and the other consisting of negative electromagnetic waves from the pi-phase region of the binary optical element. PMID:27620068
Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind
2008-01-01
The ideal binary mask is often seen as a goal for time-frequency masking algorithms trying to increase speech intelligibility, but the required availability of the unmixed signals makes it difficult to calculate the ideal binary mask in any real-life applications. In this paper we derive the theory...... and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....
Mohamed, Heba M.
2015-02-01
Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) are co-formulated together for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Three simple, specific and accurate spectrophotometric methods were applied and validated for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) namely; constant center (CC), ratio difference (RD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) spectrophotometric methods. Linear correlations were obtained in range of 10-110 μg/μL for Itopride hydrochloride and 4-44 μg/mL for Rabeprazole sodium. No preliminary separation steps were required prior the analysis of the two drugs using the proposed methods. Specificity was investigated by analyzing the synthetic mixtures containing the two cited drugs and their capsules dosage form. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the reported method, no significant difference was obtained with respect to accuracy and precision. The three methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and can be used for quality control laboratories for IT and RB.
Binary choice models with endogenous regressors
Christopher Baum; Yingying Dong; Arthur Lewbel; Tao Yang
2012-01-01
Dong and Lewbel have developed the theory of simple estimators for binary choice models with endogenous or mismeasured regressors, depending on a `special regressor' as defined by Lewbel (J. Econometrics, 2000). `Control function' methods such as Stata's ivprobit are generally only valid when endogenous regressors are consistent. The estimators proposed here can be used with limited, censored, continuous or discrete endogenous regressors, and have significant advantages over alternatives such...
EXACT LOGISTIC MODELS FOR NESTED BINARY DATA
TROXLER, STEVEN; LALONDE, TRENT; WILSON, JEFFREY R.
2011-01-01
The use of logistic models for independent binary data has relied first on asymptotic theory and later on exact distributions for small samples. However, the use of logistic models for dependent analysis based on exact analysis is not as common. Moreover attention is usually given to one-stage clustering. In this paper we extend the exact techniques to address hypothesis testing (estimation is not addressed) for data with second-stage and probably higher levels of clustering. The methods are ...
Time encoded radiation imaging
Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott
2014-10-21
The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.
El-Fatatry, Hamed M; Mabrouk, Mokhtar M; Hewala, Ismail I; Emam, Ehab H
2014-08-01
Two selective stability-indicating HPLC methods are described for determination of rabeprazole sodium (RZ)-mosapride citrate (MR) and RZ-itopride hydrochloride (IO) mixtures in the presence of their ICH-stress formed degradation products. Separations were achieved on X-Bridge C18 column using two mobile phases: the first for RZ-MR mixture consisted of acetonitrile: 0.025 M KH 2 PO 4 solution: TEA (30:69:1 v/v; pH 7.0); the second for RZ-IO mixture was at ratio of 25:74:1 (v/v; pH 9.25). The detection wavelength was 283 nm. The two methods were validated and validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. Peak purity testing using contrast angle theory, relative absorbance and log A versus the wavelengths plots were presented. The % recoveries of the intact drugs were between 99.1% and 102.2% with RSD% values less than 1.6%. Application of the proposed HPLC methods indicated that the methods could be adopted to follow the stability of their formulations.
Rotation invariant deep binary hashing for fast image retrieval
Dai, Lai; Liu, Jianming; Jiang, Aiwen
2017-07-01
In this paper, we study how to compactly represent image's characteristics for fast image retrieval. We propose supervised rotation invariant compact discriminative binary descriptors through combining convolutional neural network with hashing. In the proposed network, binary codes are learned by employing a hidden layer for representing latent concepts that dominate on class labels. A loss function is proposed to minimize the difference between binary descriptors that describe reference image and the rotated one. Compared with some other supervised methods, the proposed network doesn't have to require pair-wised inputs for binary code learning. Experimental results show that our method is effective and achieves state-of-the-art results on the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets.
Encoding the Factorisation Calculus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reuben N. S. Rowe
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Jay and Given-Wilson have recently introduced the Factorisation (or SF- calculus as a minimal fundamental model of intensional computation. It is a combinatory calculus containing a special combinator, F, which is able to examine the internal structure of its first argument. The calculus is significant in that as well as being combinatorially complete it also exhibits the property of structural completeness, i.e. it is able to represent any function on terms definable using pattern matching on arbitrary normal forms. In particular, it admits a term that can decide the structural equality of any two arbitrary normal forms. Since SF-calculus is combinatorially complete, it is clearly at least as powerful as the more familiar and paradigmatic Turing-powerful computational models of Lambda Calculus and Combinatory Logic. Its relationship to these models in the converse direction is less obvious, however. Jay and Given-Wilson have suggested that SF-calculus is strictly more powerful than the aforementioned models, but a detailed study of the connections between these models is yet to be undertaken. This paper begins to bridge that gap by presenting a faithful encoding of the Factorisation Calculus into the Lambda Calculus preserving both reduction and strong normalisation. The existence of such an encoding is a new result. It also suggests that there is, in some sense, an equivalence between the former model and the latter. We discuss to what extent our result constitutes an equivalence by considering it in the context of some previously defined frameworks for comparing computational power and expressiveness.
Neal-McKinney, Jason M; Liu, Kun C; Jinneman, Karen C; Wu, Wen-Hsin; Rice, Daniel H
2018-01-01
Campylobacter jejuni causes more than 2 million cases of gastroenteritis annually in the United States, and is also linked to the autoimmune sequelae Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS). GBS often results in flaccid paralysis, as the myelin sheaths of nerve cells are degraded by the adaptive immune response. Certain strains of C. jejuni modify their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with the addition of neuraminic acid, resulting in LOS moieties that are structurally similar to gangliosides present on nerve cells. This can trigger GBS in a susceptible host, as antibodies generated against C. jejuni can cross-react with gangliosides, leading to demyelination of nerves and a loss of signal transduction. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and use whole genome sequencing data to detect the Campylobacter sialyltransferase ( cst ) genes responsible for the addition of neuraminic acid to LOS. The qPCR method was used to screen a library of 89 C. jejuni field samples collected by the Food and Drug Administration Pacific Northwest Lab (PNL) as well as clinical isolates transferred to PNL. In silico analysis was used to screen 827 C. jejuni genomes in the FDA GenomeTrakr SRA database. The results indicate that a majority of C. jejuni strains could produce LOS with ganglioside mimicry, as 43.8% of PNL isolates and 46.9% of the GenomeTrakr isolates lacked the cst genes. The methods described in this study can be used by public health laboratories to rapidly determine whether a C. jejuni isolate has the potential to induce GBS. Based on these results, a majority of C. jejuni in the PNL collection and submitted to GenomeTrakr have the potential to produce LOS that mimics human gangliosides.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason M. Neal-McKinney
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni causes more than 2 million cases of gastroenteritis annually in the United States, and is also linked to the autoimmune sequelae Guillan–Barre syndrome (GBS. GBS often results in flaccid paralysis, as the myelin sheaths of nerve cells are degraded by the adaptive immune response. Certain strains of C. jejuni modify their lipooligosaccharide (LOS with the addition of neuraminic acid, resulting in LOS moieties that are structurally similar to gangliosides present on nerve cells. This can trigger GBS in a susceptible host, as antibodies generated against C. jejuni can cross-react with gangliosides, leading to demyelination of nerves and a loss of signal transduction. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR method and use whole genome sequencing data to detect the Campylobactersialyltransferase (cst genes responsible for the addition of neuraminic acid to LOS. The qPCR method was used to screen a library of 89 C. jejuni field samples collected by the Food and Drug Administration Pacific Northwest Lab (PNL as well as clinical isolates transferred to PNL. In silico analysis was used to screen 827 C. jejuni genomes in the FDA GenomeTrakr SRA database. The results indicate that a majority of C. jejuni strains could produce LOS with ganglioside mimicry, as 43.8% of PNL isolates and 46.9% of the GenomeTrakr isolates lacked the cst genes. The methods described in this study can be used by public health laboratories to rapidly determine whether a C. jejuni isolate has the potential to induce GBS. Based on these results, a majority of C. jejuni in the PNL collection and submitted to GenomeTrakr have the potential to produce LOS that mimics human gangliosides.
Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes
Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya
2011-06-01
Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Xianbin; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2009-01-01
In this letter, an all-optical incoherent scheme for generation of binary phase-coded ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse radio signals is proposed. The generated UWB pulses utilize relaxation oscillations of an optically injected distributed feedback laser that are binary phase encoded (0 and ) and meet...
Optimally cloned binary coherent states
Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.
2017-10-01
Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.
Grey-level encoding of openings and closings
Parker, James R.; Horsley, D.
1993-12-01
A distance transform will convert a bi-level image into a gray scale image, where the intensity of the object pixels is proportional to their distance from the nearest back-ground pixel. This can be computed in two passes through an image, and has been used to encode all binary erosions and dilations into one `globally eroded' image. It is also possible to encode all possible binary openings and closings as gray levels, allowing any particular opening or closing to be achieved through a simple thresholding operation, or by non-destructive comparisons. We define nodal points in the distance transform as those which have no neighbors having the maximum possible value (For example, 7 for diagonal pixels, and 12 for others using Euclidean distance). At each of these points a digital circle can be drawn, whose values equal that of the significant point. A simple histogram of the thus encoded image yields the roughness spectrum, but the spectrum found using only the significant points may be just as useful.
DNA as a Binary Code: How the Physical Structure of Nucleotide Bases Carries Information
McCallister, Gary
2005-01-01
The DNA triplet code also functions as a binary code. Because double-ring compounds cannot bind to double-ring compounds in the DNA code, the sequence of bases classified simply as purines or pyrimidines can encode for smaller groups of possible amino acids. This is an intuitive approach to teaching the DNA code. (Contains 6 figures.)
Context based Coding of Binary Shapes by Object Boundary Straightness Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren
2004-01-01
A new lossless compression scheme for bilevel images targeted at binary shapes of image and video objects is presented. The scheme is based on a local analysis of the digital straightness of the causal part of the object boundary, which is used in the context definition for arithmetic encoding...
The Primordial Binary Fractions for a Sample of 35 Galactic Globular Clusters with HST Observations
Ji, Jun; Bregman, J. N.
2011-01-01
Binaries are thought to be the primary heating energy source in globular clusters, since they can convert their binding energy to kinetic energy of the encounter stars through dynamical interactions. Even a small fraction of binaries are sufficient to prevent globular clusters from core collapse for many relaxation times. But the observed global binary fractions in globular clusters are still uncertain. Here we present our preliminary results for the binary fractions of 35 Galactic globular clusters with the HST archival data in the F606W and F814W bands. We use the secondary sequence method on the color-magnitude diagram to statistically account for the main-sequence-main-sequence binaries (primordial binaries). The binary fraction is obtained by fitting the residual color distribution after subtracting the color of the main-sequence ridge line, with properly modeling the photometric errors, field stars, and blending stars. We estimate the binary fractions with 3 different assumed binary mass-ratio distribution functions, and the current data sets are still not good to constrain the binary mass-ratio distributions. In our sample, we obtain a mean binary fraction of (9.1±4.1)% within their half-mass radii assuming a flat binary mass-ratio distribution. There is no clear trend for the binary fractions against the dynamical ages and [Fe/H], but binary fractions tend to increase with the absolute magnitudes of clusters. This is probably because less massive globular clusters consume fewer binaries through dynamical interactions due to their lower stellar density.
Induced Ellipticity for Inspiraling Binary Systems
Randall, Lisa; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi
2018-01-01
Although gravitational waves tend to erase eccentricity of an inspiraling binary system, ellipticity can be generated in the presence of surrounding matter. We present a semianalytical method for understanding the eccentricity distribution of binary black holes (BHs) in the presence of a supermassive BH in a galactic center. Given a matter distribution, we show how to determine the resultant eccentricity analytically in the presence of both tidal forces and evaporation up to one cutoff and one matter-distribution-independent function, paving the way for understanding the environment of detected inspiraling BHs. We furthermore generalize Kozai–Lidov dynamics to situations where perturbation theory breaks down for short time intervals, allowing more general angular momentum exchange, such that eccentricity is generated even when all bodies orbit in the same plane.
Binary fingerprints at fluctuation-enhanced sensing.
Chang, Hung-Chih; Kish, Laszlo B; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman
2010-01-01
We have developed a simple way to generate binary patterns based on spectral slopes in different frequency ranges at fluctuation-enhanced sensing. Such patterns can be considered as binary "fingerprints" of odors. The method has experimentally been demonstrated with a commercial semiconducting metal oxide (Taguchi) sensor exposed to bacterial odors (Escherichia coli and Anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis) and processing their stochastic signals. With a single Taguchi sensor, the situations of empty chamber, tryptic soy agar (TSA) medium, or TSA with bacteria could be distinguished with 100% reproducibility. The bacterium numbers were in the range of 2.5 × 10(4)-10(6). To illustrate the relevance for ultra-low power consumption, we show that this new type of signal processing and pattern recognition task can be implemented by a simple analog circuitry and a few logic gates with total power consumption in the microWatts range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, R.L.
1968-01-01
The study of binary groups under their mathematical aspects constitutes the matter of binary analysis, the purpose of which consists in developing altogether simple, rigorous and practical methods needed by the technicians, the engineers and all those who may be mainly concerned by digital processing. This subject, fast extending if not determining, however tends actually to play a main part in nuclear electronics as well as in several other research areas. (authors) [fr
Binary typing of staphylococcus aureus
W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)
2002-01-01
textabstractThis thesis describes the development. application and validation of straindifferentiating DNA probes for the characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains in a system. that yields a binary output. By comparing the differential hybridization of these DNA probes to staphylococcal
Mesoscopic model for binary fluids
Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.
2017-10-01
We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars
Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.
2017-07-01
The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other
Population of Nuclei Via 7Li-Induced Binary Reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clark, Rodney M.; Phair, Larry W.; Descovich, M.; Cromaz, Mario; Deleplanque, M.A.; Fall on, Paul; Lee, I-Yang; Macchiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, Margaret A.; Moretto, Luciano G.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Sinha,Shrabani; Stephens, Frank S.; Ward, David; Wiedeking, Mathis
2005-08-08
The authors have investigated the population of nuclei formed in binary reactions involving {sup 7}Li beams on targets of {sup 160}Gd and {sup 184}W. The {sup 7}Li + {sup 184}W data were taken in the first experiment using the LIBERACE Ge-array in combination with the STARS Si {Delta}E-E telescope system at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. By using the Wilczynski binary transfer model, in combination with a standard evaporation model, they are able to reproduce the experimental results. This is a useful method for predicting the population of neutron-rich heavy nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei and will be of use in future spectroscopic studies.
Improvements on binary coding using parallel computing
Fuentes, P A; Quintas, D G
2011-01-01
The error-correcting codes have many applications in fields related to communications. This paper tackles some partition algorithms to optimize the data encoding. These algorithms are based on sliding windows and allow for a parallel implementation. We analyse them and then expound a comparative study between the different partition methods that we propose.
Three-dimensional MRI with independent slab excitation and encoding.
Eissa, Amir; Wilman, Alan H
2012-02-01
Three-dimensional MRI is typically performed with the same orientation for radiofrequency slab excitation and slab select phase encoding. We introduce independent slab excitation and encoding to create a new degree of freedom in three-dimensional MRI, which is the angular relationship between the prescribed excitation volume and the voxel encoding grid. By separating the directions of slab excitation and slab phase encoding, the independent slab excitation and encoding method allows choice of optimal voxel orientation, while maintaining volume excitation based on anatomic landmarks. The method requires simple pulse sequence modifications and uses standard image reconstruction followed by removal of aliasing and image reformatting. The independent slab excitation and encoding method enables arbitrary oblique angle imaging using fixed voxel encoding gradients to maintain similar eddy current, concomitant field, or magnetic dipole effects independent of the oblique angle of excitation. We apply independent slab excitation and encoding to phase and susceptibility-weighted imaging using fixed voxel encoding aligned with the main magnetic field to demonstrate its value in both standardizing and improving image contrast, when using arbitrary oblique imaging volumes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Binary black holes on a budget: simulations using workstations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marronetti, Pedro; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bruegmann, Bernd; Gonzalez, Jose; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Sperhake, Ulrich
2007-01-01
Binary black hole simulations have traditionally been computationally very expensive: current simulations are performed in supercomputers involving dozens if not hundreds of processors, thus systematic studies of the parameter space of binary black hole encounters still seem prohibitive with current technology. Here we show how the multi-layered refinement level code BAM can be used on dual processor workstations to simulate certain binary black hole systems. BAM, based on the moving punctures method, provides grid structures composed of boxes of increasing resolution near the centre of the grid. In the case of binaries, the highest resolution boxes are placed around each black hole and they track them in their orbits until the final merger when a single set of levels surrounds the black hole remnant. This is particularly useful when simulating spinning black holes since the gravitational fields gradients are larger. We present simulations of binaries with equal mass black holes with spins parallel to the binary axis and intrinsic magnitude of S/m 2 = 0.75. Our results compare favourably to those of previous simulations of this particular system. We show that the moving punctures method produces stable simulations at maximum spatial resolutions up to M/160 and for durations of up to the equivalent of 20 orbital periods
Katti, Rohan; Prince, Shanthi
2017-02-01
Optical 4-bit binary to gray and gray to binary code conversion has been demonstrated. The encoders are designed by implementing XOR gates in optical domain. Phase modulation in Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been exploited to achieve results at considerably high data rates of up to 60 Gbps. Also, the designs, being reversible in nature, will amount to less power consumption when embedded in an optical network. Performance parameters of the design, such as Q factor and extinction ratio, are analyzed based on simulation results carried out using comprehensive design suite OptiSystem-13.
Cross-indexing of binary SIFT codes for large-scale image search.
Liu, Zhen; Li, Houqiang; Zhang, Liyan; Zhou, Wengang; Tian, Qi
2014-05-01
In recent years, there has been growing interest in mapping visual features into compact binary codes for applications on large-scale image collections. Encoding high-dimensional data as compact binary codes reduces the memory cost for storage. Besides, it benefits the computational efficiency since the computation of similarity can be efficiently measured by Hamming distance. In this paper, we propose a novel flexible scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) binarization (FSB) algorithm for large-scale image search. The FSB algorithm explores the magnitude patterns of SIFT descriptor. It is unsupervised and the generated binary codes are demonstrated to be dispreserving. Besides, we propose a new searching strategy to find target features based on the cross-indexing in the binary SIFT space and original SIFT space. We evaluate our approach on two publicly released data sets. The experiments on large-scale partial duplicate image retrieval system demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl
2003-07-01
Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.
Peri-encoding predictors of memory encoding and consolidation.
Cohen, Noga; Pell, Liat; Edelson, Micah G; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Pine, Alex; Dudai, Yadin
2015-03-01
We review reports of brain activations that occur immediately prior to the onset or following the offset of to-be-remembered information and can predict subsequent mnemonic success. Memory-predictive pre-encoding processes, occurring from fractions of a second to minutes prior to event onset, are mainly associated with activations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), amygdala and midbrain, and with enhanced theta oscillations. These activations may be considered as the neural correlates of one or more cognitive operations, including contextual processing, attention, and the engagement of distinct computational modes associated with prior encoding or retrieval. Post-encoding activations that correlate with subsequent memory performance are mainly observed in the MTL, sensory cortices and frontal regions. These activations may reflect binding of elements of the encoded information and initiation of memory consolidation. In all, the findings reviewed here illustrate the importance of brain states in the immediate peri-encoding time windows in determining encoding success. Understanding these brain states and their specific effects on memory may lead to optimization of the encoding of desired memories and mitigation of undesired ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aris Haryanto
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Tetelo or Newcastle Disease (ND virus is belong to the family Paramyxoviridae, which has a singlestranded RNA (ss RNA genome and it has viral envelope. The viral envelope consists of two majorproteins, namely Haemagglutinin/Neuraminidase (H/N and Fusion (F protein. Molecular diagnosticmethods OneStep RT-PCR is a commonly diagnostic tool that used to diagnose of Tetelo in poultry. In thisstudy the diagnosis of Tetelo is accomplished by amplification of F protein encoding gene of Tetelo virusdirectly from field specimens without inoculation and propagation of Tetelo virus into embryonated chickeneggs. The objective of this study is to conduct rapid diagnosis of Tetelo virus directly from the field specimensbased on the amplification of the F gene by a OneStep RT-PCR method, so that the results of this study canbe used to assist in the identification of Tetelo virus directly from the field specimens. The results showedthat from the 15 samples of virus which isolated from tracheal swabs of clinical poultry showing symptomsof Tetelo virus infection, a total of 12 samples from 15 tested sampels (80% are positive tested for Tetelovirus infection. They were indicated by the amplification product of DNA fragments in size of 362 bp.OneStep RT-PCR is a method for rapid and effective diagnosis which can be used to diagnose of Tetelovirus directly from field specimens.
Testing theory of binary evolution with interacting binary stars
Ergma, E.; Sarna, M. J.
2002-01-01
Of particular interest to us is the study of mass loss and its influence on the evolution of a binary systems. For this we use theoretical evolutionary models, which include: mass accretion, mass loss, novae explosion, super--efficient wind, and mixing processes. To test our theoretical prediction we proposed to determine the 12C / 13C ratio via measurements of the 12CO and 13CO bands around 2.3 micron. The available observations (Exter at al. 2001, in preparation) show good agreement with the theoretical predictions (Sarna 1992), for Algol-type binaries. Our preliminary estimates of the isotopic ratios for pre-CV's and CV's (Catalan et al. 2000, Dhillon et al. 2001) agree with the theoretical predictions from the common--envelope binary evolution models by Sarna et al. (1995). For the SXT we proposed (Ergma & Sarna 2001) similar observational test, which has not been done yet.
Single echo acquisition MRI using RF encoding.
Wright, Steven M; McDougall, Mary Preston
2009-11-01
Encoding of spatial information in magnetic resonance imaging is conventionally accomplished by using magnetic field gradients. During gradient encoding, the position in k-space is determined by a time-integral of the gradient field, resulting in a limitation in imaging speed due to either gradient power or secondary effects such as peripheral nerve stimulation. Partial encoding of spatial information through the sensitivity patterns of an array of coils, known as parallel imaging, is widely used to accelerate the imaging, and is complementary to gradient encoding. This paper describes the one-dimensional limit of parallel imaging in which all spatial localization in one dimension is performed through encoding by the radiofrequency (RF) coil. Using a one-dimensional array of long and narrow parallel elements to localize the image information in one direction, an entire image is obtained from a single line of k-space, avoiding rapid or repeated manipulation of gradients. The technique, called single echo acquisition (SEA) imaging, is described, along with the need for a phase compensation gradient pulse to counteract the phase variation contained in the RF coil pattern which would otherwise cause signal cancellation in each imaging voxel. Image reconstruction and resolution enhancement methods compatible with the speed of the technique are discussed. MR movies at frame rates of 125 frames per second are demonstrated, illustrating the ability to monitor the evolution of transverse magnetization to steady state during an MR experiment as well as demonstrating the ability to image rapid motion. Because this technique, like all RF encoding approaches, relies on the inherent spatially varying pattern of the coil and is not a time-integral, it should enable new applications for MRI that were previously inaccessible due to speed constraints, and should be of interest as an approach to extending the limits of detection in MR imaging.
X-Ray Background from Early Binaries
Kohler, Susanna
2016-11-01
observed X-ray energy (and the total X-ray background is given by the sum of the curves). The two panels show results from two different calculation methods. [Xu et al. 2016]Xu and collaborators have now attempted to model to the impact of this X-ray production from Pop III binaries on the intergalactic medium and determine how much it could have contributed to reionization and the diffuse X-ray background we observe today.Generating a BackgroundThe authorsestimated the X-ray luminosities from Pop III binaries using the results of a series of galaxy-formation simulations, beginning at a redshift of z 25 and evolving up to z = 7.6. They then used these luminosities to calculate the resulting X-ray background.Xu and collaborators find that Pop III binaries can produce significant X-ray radiation throughout the period of reionization, and this radiation builds up gradually into an X-ray background. The team shows that X-rays from Pop III binaries might actually dominate more commonly assumed sources of the X-ray background at high redshifts (such as active galactic nuclei), and this radiation isstrong enough to heat the intergalactic medium to 1000K and ionize a few percent of the neutral hydrogen.If Pop III binaries are indeed this large of a contributor to the X-ray background and to the local and global heating of the intergalactic medium, then its important that we follow up with more detailed modeling to understand what this means for our interpretation of cosmological observations.CitationHao Xu et al 2016 ApJL 832 L5. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/832/1/L5
Polypeptides having laccase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu
2017-08-22
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having laccase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Biclustering sparse binary genomic data.
van Uitert, Miranda; Meuleman, Wouter; Wessels, Lodewyk
2008-12-01
Genomic datasets often consist of large, binary, sparse data matrices. In such a dataset, one is often interested in finding contiguous blocks that (mostly) contain ones. This is a biclustering problem, and while many algorithms have been proposed to deal with gene expression data, only two algorithms have been proposed that specifically deal with binary matrices. None of the gene expression biclustering algorithms can handle the large number of zeros in sparse binary matrices. The two proposed binary algorithms failed to produce meaningful results. In this article, we present a new algorithm that is able to extract biclusters from sparse, binary datasets. A powerful feature is that biclusters with different numbers of rows and columns can be detected, varying from many rows to few columns and few rows to many columns. It allows the user to guide the search towards biclusters of specific dimensions. When applying our algorithm to an input matrix derived from TRANSFAC, we find transcription factors with distinctly dissimilar binding motifs, but a clear set of common targets that are significantly enriched for GO categories.
The Detection and Parameter Estimation of Binary Black Hole Mergers
Biwer, Christopher M.
In this dissertation we study gravitational-wave data analysis techniques for binary neutron star and black hole mergers. During its first observing run, the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) reported the first, direct observations of gravitational waves from two binary black hole mergers. We present the results from the search for binary black hole mergers which unambiguously detected the binary black hole mergers. We determine the effect of calibration errors on the detection statistic of the search. Since the search is not designed to precisely measure the astrophysical parameters of the binary neutron star and black hole mergers, we use Bayesian methods to develop a new parameter estimation analysis. We demonstrate the performance of the analysis on the binary black hole mergers detected during Advanced LIGO's first observing run. We use the parameter estimation analysis to assess the ability of gravitational-wave observatories to observe a gap in the black hole mass distribution between 52 M and 133 M due to pair-instability supernovae. Finally, we use simulated signals added to the Advanced LIGO detectors to validate the search and parameter estimation analyses used to publish the detection of the astrophysical events.
Learning Short Binary Codes for Large-scale Image Retrieval.
Liu, Li; Yu, Mengyang; Shao, Ling
2017-03-01
Large-scale visual information retrieval has become an active research area in this big data era. Recently, hashing/binary coding algorithms prove to be effective for scalable retrieval applications. Most existing hashing methods require relatively long binary codes (i.e., over hundreds of bits, sometimes even thousands of bits) to achieve reasonable retrieval accuracies. However, for some realistic and unique applications, such as on wearable or mobile devices, only short binary codes can be used for efficient image retrieval due to the limitation of computational resources or bandwidth on these devices. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing approach called min-cost ranking (MCR) specifically for learning powerful short binary codes (i.e., usually the code length shorter than 100 b) for scalable image retrieval tasks. By exploring the discriminative ability of each dimension of data, MCR can generate one bit binary code for each dimension and simultaneously rank the discriminative separability of each bit according to the proposed cost function. Only top-ranked bits with minimum cost-values are then selected and grouped together to compose the final salient binary codes. Extensive experimental results on large-scale retrieval demonstrate that MCR can achieve comparative performance as the state-of-the-art hashing algorithms but with significantly shorter codes, leading to much faster large-scale retrieval.
Scheme for Entering Binary Data Into a Quantum Computer
Williams, Colin
2005-01-01
A quantum algorithm provides for the encoding of an exponentially large number of classical data bits by use of a smaller (polynomially large) number of quantum bits (qubits). The development of this algorithm was prompted by the need, heretofore not satisfied, for a means of entering real-world binary data into a quantum computer. The data format provided by this algorithm is suitable for subsequent ultrafast quantum processing of the entered data. Potential applications lie in disciplines (e.g., genomics) in which one needs to search for matches between parts of very long sequences of data. For example, the algorithm could be used to encode the N-bit-long human genome in only log2N qubits. The resulting log2N-qubit state could then be used for subsequent quantum data processing - for example, to perform rapid comparisons of sequences.
The Young Visual Binary Survey
Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal
2018-01-01
Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.
Protocols for quantum binary voting
Thapliyal, Kishore; Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Pathak, Anirban
Two new protocols for quantum binary voting are proposed. One of the proposed protocols is designed using a standard scheme for controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC), and the other one is designed using the idea of quantum cryptographic switch, which uses a technique known as permutation of particles. A few possible alternative approaches to accomplish the same task (quantum binary voting) have also been discussed. Security of the proposed protocols is analyzed. Further, the efficiencies of the proposed protocols are computed, and are compared with that of the existing protocols. The comparison has established that the proposed protocols are more efficient than the existing protocols.
Matter in compact binary mergers
Read, Jocelyn; LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Scientific Collaboration
2018-01-01
Mergers of binary neutron stars or neutron-star/black-hole systems are promising targets for gravitational-wave detection. The dynamics of merging compact objects, and thus their gravitational-wave signatures, are primarily determined by the mass and spin of the components. However, the presence of matter can make an imprint on the final orbits and merger of a binary system. I will outline efforts to understand the impact of neutron-star matter on gravitational waves, using both theoretical and computational input, so that gravitational-wave observations can be used to measure the properties of source systems with neutron-star components.
Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues
Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael
2013-01-01
Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…
Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Banaras [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saifullah [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)
2015-10-25
The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX{sub 3} (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures.
Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Banaras; Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye; Saifullah; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Khan, Imad; Ahmad, Iftikhar
2015-01-01
The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX 3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures
in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaik Babu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.
A unified kinetic approach to binary nucleation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Physics, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road]|[E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Lazaridis, M. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instittutvein 18, P. O. Box 100, N-2007 Kjeller (Norway); Drossinos, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Georgopoulos, P.G. [E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)
1999-11-01
Two different methods to calculate the steady-state nucleation rate in heteromolecular systems proposed by Stauffer (1976) and Langer (1969) are analyzed. Their mathematical equivalence is explicitly demonstrated, thereby obtaining a generic expression for the rate of binary nucleation. Its numerical evaluation does not entail rotation of the coordinate system at the saddle point, but it only requires data in the natural coordinate system of number fluctuations, namely molecular impingement rates, the droplet free energy and its second order derivatives at the saddle point, and the total density of condensible vapors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
A comparative study of models for correlated binary data with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Various methods of modeling correlated binary data are compared as applied to data from health services research. The methods include the standard logistic regression, a simple adjustment of the standard errors of logistic regression by a single inflator, the weighted logistic regression, the generalized estimating equation ...
Generalization of Supervised Learning for Binary Mask Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
May, Tobias; Gerkmann, Timo
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of speech segregation by es- timating the ideal binary mask (IBM) from noisy speech. Two methods will be compared, one supervised learning approach that incorporates a priori knowledge about the feature distri- bution observed during training. The second method...
Renormalization group decimation technique for disordered binary harmonic chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiecko, C.; Roman, E.
1983-10-01
The density of states of disordered binary harmonic chains is calculated using the Renormalization Group Decimation technique on the displacements of the masses from their equilibrium positions. The results are compared with numerical simulation data and with those obtained with the current method of Goncalves da Silva and Koiller. The advantage of our procedure over other methods is discussed. (author)
Eclipsing Binaries From the CSTAR Project at Dome A, Antarctica
Yang, Ming; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Songhu; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Lifan; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Liu, Hui-Gen; Meng, Zeyang; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.; Bayliss, D.; Tinney, Chris; Wang, Ying; Wu, Donghong; Liang, Ensi; Yu, Zhouyi; Fan, Zhou; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, J. S.; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, D. M.; Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Yan, Jun; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhu, Zhenxi; Zou, Hu
2015-04-01
The Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) has observed an area around the Celestial South Pole at Dome A since 2008. About 20,000 light curves in the i band were obtained during the observation season lasting from 2008 March to July. The photometric precision achieves about 4 mmag at i = 7.5 and 20 mmag at i = 12 within a 30 s exposure time. These light curves are analyzed using Lomb-Scargle, Phase Dispersion Minimization, and Box Least Squares methods to search for periodic signals. False positives may appear as a variable signature caused by contaminating stars and the observation mode of CSTAR. Therefore, the period and position of each variable candidate are checked to eliminate false positives. Eclipsing binaries are removed by visual inspection, frequency spectrum analysis, and a locally linear embedding technique. We identify 53 eclipsing binaries in the field of view of CSTAR, containing 24 detached binaries, 8 semi-detached binaries, 18 contact binaries, and 3 ellipsoidal variables. To derive the parameters of these binaries, we use the Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence method. The primary and secondary eclipse timing variations (ETVs) for semi-detached and contact systems are analyzed. Correlated primary and secondary ETVs confirmed by false alarm tests may indicate an unseen perturbing companion. Through ETV analysis, we identify two triple systems (CSTAR J084612.64-883342.9 and CSTAR J220502.55-895206.7). The orbital parameters of the third body in CSTAR J220502.55-895206.7 are derived using a simple dynamical model.
Peptide Signals Encode Protein Localization▿
Russell, Jay H.; Keiler, Kenneth C.
2007-01-01
Many bacterial proteins are localized to precise intracellular locations, but in most cases the mechanism for encoding localization information is not known. Screening libraries of peptides fused to green fluorescent protein identified sequences that directed the protein to helical structures or to midcell. These peptides indicate that protein localization can be encoded in 20-amino-acid peptides instead of complex protein-protein interactions and raise the possibility that the location of a ...
Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kirstin Peters
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.
Elbow, Peter
1993-01-01
Argues that oppositional thinking, if handled in the right way, will serve as a way to avoid the very problems that Jonathan Culler and Paul de Mann are troubled by: "purity, order, and hierarchy." Asserts that binary thinking can serve to encourage difference--indeed, encourage nondominance, nontranscendence, instability, and disorder.…
Biclustering Sparse Binary Genomic Data
Van Uitert, M.; Meuleman, W.; Wessels, L.F.A.
2008-01-01
Genomic datasets often consist of large, binary, sparse data matrices. In such a dataset, one is often interested in finding contiguous blocks that (mostly) contain ones. This is a biclustering problem, and while many algorithms have been proposed to deal with gene expression data, only two
Misclassification in binary choice models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas
2017-01-01
Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016
Misclassification in binary choice models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas
2017-01-01
Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016
Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes
Knight, D.G.
2008-01-01
The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…
BHMcalc: Binary Habitability Mechanism Calculator
Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Mason, Paul; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni
2018-02-01
BHMcalc provides renditions of the instantaneous circumbinary habital zone (CHZ) and also calculates BHM properties of the system including those related to the rotational evolution of the stellar components and the combined XUV and SW fluxes as measured at different distances from the binary. Moreover, it provides numerical results that can be further manipulated and used to calculate other properties.
Armas Padilla, M.
2013-01-01
The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale
The Meritfactor of Binary Seqences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høholdt, Tom
1999-01-01
Binary sequences with small aperiodic correlations play an important role in many applications ranging from radar to modulation and testing of systems. Golay(1977) introduced the merit factor as a measure of the goodness of the sequence and conjectured an upper bound for this. His conjecture...
The Brave New World of Binary Star Studies
Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.
2006-08-01
In this paper we discuss some of the new and exciting developments in the study of binary stars. Recent technological advances (such as CCDs) now make it possible (even easy) to study faint, astrophysically important binaries that in the past could only be done with large 4 + meter class telescopes. Also, the panoramic nature of CCDs (and the use of mosaics), permit large numbers of stars to be imaged and studied. At this conference, most of the observational material discussed was secured typically with smaller aperture 0.5 - 2 m telescopes. Excellent examples are the discovery of over 104 new ˜13 - 20 mag eclipsing (and interacting) binaries now found in nearby galaxies from the EROS, OGLE, MACHO and DIRECT programs. As briefly discussed here, and in more detail in several papers in this volume, a small fraction of these extragalactic eclipsing binaries are now serving as “standard candles” to secure accurate distances to the Magellanic Clouds, as well as to M31 and M33. Moreover, the discovery of increasingly larger numbers of eclipsing binaries has stimulated the development of automatic methods for reducing and analyzing the light curves of thousands of systems. In the near future, hundreds of thousands (possibly millions) of additional systems are expected to be discovered by Pan-STARRS, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescopes (LSST), and later by GAIA. Over the last decade, new classes of binary systems have also been found which contain Jupiter-size planets and binaries containing pulsating stars. Some examples of these important binaries are discussed. Also discussed are the increasing numbers (now eight) of eclipsing binary planet-star systems that have been found from high precision photometry. These systems are very important since the radii and masses of the hosted planets can be directly measured. Moreover, from the upcoming COROT and KEPLER missions hundreds of additional transiting planet-star systems are expected to be found. All in all, we hope
Self-testing of binary observables based on commutation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaniewski, Jędrzej
2017-01-01
We consider the problem of certifying binary observables based on a Bell inequality violation alone, a task known as self-testing of measurements. We introduce a family of commutation-based measures, which encode all the distinct arrangements of two projective observables on a qubit. These quanti......We consider the problem of certifying binary observables based on a Bell inequality violation alone, a task known as self-testing of measurements. We introduce a family of commutation-based measures, which encode all the distinct arrangements of two projective observables on a qubit....... These quantities by construction take into account the usual limitations of self-testing and since they are “weighted” by the (reduced) state, they automatically deal with rank-deficient reduced density matrices. We show that these measures can be estimated from the observed Bell violation in several scenarios...... and the proofs rely only on standard linear algebra. The trade-offs turn out to be tight, and in particular, they give nontrivial statements for arbitrarily small violations. On the other extreme, observing the maximal violation allows us to deduce precisely the form of the observables, which immediately leads...
Interactions in Massive Colliding Wind Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael F. Corcoran
2012-03-01
Full Text Available There are observational difficulties determining dynamical masses of binary star components in the upper HR diagram both due to the scarcity of massive binary systems and spectral and photometric contamination produced by the strong wind outflows in these systems. We discuss how variable X-ray emission in these systems produced by wind-wind collisions in massive binaries can be used to constrain the system parameters, with application to two important massive binaries, Eta Carinae and WR 140.
Identification of partially resolved binaries in Pan-STARRS 1 data
Deacon, N. R.; Magnier, E. A.; Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Dupuy, T. J.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Metcalfe, N.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.
2017-07-01
Using shape measurement techniques developed for weak lensing surveys, we have identified three new ultracool binaries in the Pan-STARRS 1 (Chambers et al.) survey. Binary companions that are not completely resolved can still alter the shapes of stellar images. These shape distortions can be measured if point spread function anisotropy caused by the telescope is properly accounted for. We show using both a sample of known binary stars and simulated binaries that we can reliably recover binaries wider than around 0.3 arcsec and with flux ratios greater than around 0.1. We then applied our method to a sample of ultracool dwarfs within 30 pc with 293 objects having sufficient Pan-STARRS 1 data for our method. In total, we recovered all but one of the 11 binaries wider than 0.3 arcsec in this sample. Our one failure was a true binary detected with a significant but erroneously high ellipticity that led it to be rejected in our analysis. We identify three new binaries, one a simultaneous discovery, with primary spectral types M6.5, L1 and T0.5. These latter two were confirmed with Keck/Near Infrared Camera 2 follow-up imaging. This technique will be useful for identifying large numbers of stellar and substellar binaries in the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Dark Energy Survey sky surveys.
Polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan
2017-05-02
Provided are isolated polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Spodsberg, Nikolaj
2015-07-14
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin
2017-04-18
Provided are isolated polypeptides having beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan
2017-09-26
Provided are isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spodsberg, Nikolaj
2016-06-28
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spodsberg, Nikolaj
2016-12-13
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spodsberg, Nikolaj
2017-11-21
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yu; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan
2017-07-18
Provided are isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Spodsberg, Nikolaj
2015-11-17
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan; Henriksen, Svend Hostgaard Bang
2016-05-17
The present invention provides isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also provides nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spodsberg, Nikolaj
2017-05-02
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activitiy and polynucleotides encoding same
Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin
2015-12-15
The present invention provides isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also provides nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spodsberg, Nikolaj
2018-02-06
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same
Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L
2013-04-23
The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.
Detecting unresolved binary stars in Euclid VIS images
Kuntzer, T.; Courbin, F.
2017-10-01
Measuring a weak gravitational lensing signal to the level required by the next generation of space-based surveys demands exquisite reconstruction of the point-spread function (PSF). However, unresolved binary stars can significantly distort the PSF shape. In an effort to mitigate this bias, we aim at detecting unresolved binaries in realistic Euclid stellar populations. We tested methods in numerical experiments where (I) the PSF shape is known to Euclid requirements across the field of view; and (II) the PSF shape is unknown. We drew simulated catalogues of PSF shapes for this proof-of-concept paper. Following the Euclid survey plan, the objects were observed four times. We propose three methods to detect unresolved binary stars. The detection is based on the systematic and correlated biases between exposures of the same object. One method is a simple correlation analysis, while the two others use supervised machine-learning algorithms (random forest and artificial neural network). In both experiments, we demonstrate the ability of our methods to detect unresolved binary stars in simulated catalogues. The performance depends on the level of prior knowledge of the PSF shape and the shape measurement errors. Good detection performances are observed in both experiments. Full complexity, in terms of the images and the survey design, is not included, but key aspects of a more mature pipeline are discussed. Finding unresolved binaries in objects used for PSF reconstruction increases the quality of the PSF determination at arbitrary positions. We show, using different approaches, that we are able to detect at least binary stars that are most damaging for the PSF reconstruction process. The code corresponding to the algorithms used in this work and all scripts to reproduce the results are publicly available from a GitHub repository accessible via http://lastro.epfl.ch/software
Absolute scale-based imaging position encoder with submicron accuracy
Anisimov, Andrey G.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Lashmanov, Oleg U.; Vasilev, A. S.; Timofeev, Alexander N.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Gordeev, Sergey V.
2013-04-01
Study is devoted to experimental research and development of absolute imaging position encoder based on standard calibrated scale of invar alloy with 1 mm spacing. The encoder uses designed imaging system as a vernier and absolute magnetic encoder as a rough indication. The features of optical design, choice and use of imaging system as long as indexes images processing algorithm are described. A shadow method was implemented: indexes images on a CCD array are formed by the lens focused at the scale surface; the laser module lights up the scale through a beam-splitting prism by a parallel beam. Further dark indexes images on a light scale background are detected and analyzed to estimate the encoder position. Full range of experimental tests was set to calibrate the encoder and to estimate the accuracy. As a result, accuracy close to 1 μm at 1 m was achieved.
Dutta, Debodyuti; Mishra, Sabyashachi
2014-12-21
With increasing cases of fatal bacterial infections and growing antibiotic resistance, unrelenting efforts are necessary for identification of novel antibiotic targets and new drug molecules. The dapE-encoded N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) is a di-nuclear Zn containing enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway which is indispensable for bacterial survival and absent in the human host, thus a potential antibiotic target. The DapE enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid (SDAP) to give rise to succinic acid and L,L-diaminopimelic acid. The mechanism of action of the DapE catalyzed SDAP hydrolysis is investigated employing a hybrid QM/MM computational method. The DapE side chains, such as, Arg178, Thr325, Asn345, are found to play a role in substrate identification and stabilization of the enzyme active site. Furthermore, a glycine rich loop (Gly322-Ser326) is found to facilitate tight binding of the substrate in the enzyme active site. The catalytic reaction progresses via a general acid-base hydrolysis mechanism where Glu134 first acts as a Lewis base by activating the catalytic water molecule in the active site, followed by guiding the resulting hydroxyl ion for a nucleophilic attack on the substrate, and finally acts as a Lewis acid by donating a proton to the substrate. The intermediates and transition states along the reaction pathway have been structurally and energetically characterized. A conformational change in the side chain of Asp100, which bridges the two Zn centers of the enzyme, is observed which facilitates the enzymatic action by lowering the activation energy and leads to the formation of a new intermediate during the catalytic reaction. The nucleophilic attack is found to be the rate determining step.
High-quality binary interactome mapping.
Dreze, Matija; Monachello, Dario; Lurin, Claire; Cusick, Michael E; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Braun, Pascal
2010-01-01
Physical interactions mediated by proteins are critical for most cellular functions and altogether form a complex macromolecular "interactome" network. Systematic mapping of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA, and protein-metabolite interactions at the scale of the whole proteome can advance understanding of interactome networks with applications ranging from single protein functional characterization to discoveries on local and global systems properties. Since the early efforts at mapping protein-protein interactome networks a decade ago, the field has progressed rapidly giving rise to a growing number of interactome maps produced using high-throughput implementations of either binary protein-protein interaction assays or co-complex protein association methods. Although high-throughput methods are often thought to necessarily produce lower quality information than low-throughput experiments, we have recently demonstrated that proteome-scale interactome datasets can be produced with equal or superior quality than that observed in literature-curated datasets derived from large numbers of small-scale experiments. In addition to performing all experimental steps thoroughly and including all necessary controls and quality standards, careful verification of all interacting pairs and validation tests using independent, orthogonal assays are crucial to ensure the release of interactome maps of the highest possible quality. This chapter describes a high-quality, high-throughput binary protein-protein interactome mapping pipeline that includes these features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Studies of Gas Disks in Binary Systems
de Val-Borro, Miguel
There are over 300 exoplanets detected through radial velocity surveys and photometric studies showing a tremendous variety of masses, compositions and orbital parameters. Understanding the way these planets formed and evolved within the circumstellar disks they were initially embedded in is a crucial issue. In the first part of this thesis we study the physical interaction between a gaseous protoplanetary disk and an embedded planet using numerical simulations. In order to trust the results from simulations it is important to compare different methods. However, the standard test problems for hydrodynamic codes differ considerably from the case of a protoplanetary disk interacting with an embedded planet. We have carried out a code comparison in which the problem of a massive planet in a protoplanetary disk was studied with various numerical schemes. We compare the surface density, potential vorticity and azimuthally averaged density profiles at several times. There is overall good agreement between our codes for Neptune and Jupiter-sized planets. We performed simulations for each planet in an inviscid disk and including physical viscosity. The surface density profiles agree within about 5% for the grid-based schemes while the particle codes have less resolution in the low density regions and weaker spiral wakes. In Paper II, we study hydrodynamical instabilities in disks with planets. Vortices are generated close to the gap in our numerical models in agreement with the linear modal analysis. The vortices exert strong perturbations on the planet as they move along the gap and can change its migration rate. In addition, disk viscosity can be modified by the presence of vortices. The last part of this thesis studies the mass transfer in symbiotic binaries and close T Tauri binary systems. Our simulations of gravitationally focused wind accretion in binary systems show the formation of stream flows and enhanced accretion rates onto the compact component.
Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingfeng Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.
2012-01-01
Background There are several common ways to encode a tree as a matrix, such as the adjacency matrix, the Laplacian matrix (that is, the infinitesimal generator of the natural random walk), and the matrix of pairwise distances between leaves. Such representations involve a specific labeling of the vertices or at least the leaves, and so it is natural to attempt to identify trees by some feature of the associated matrices that is invariant under relabeling. An obvious candidate is the spectrum of eigenvalues (or, equivalently, the characteristic polynomial). Results We show for any of these choices of matrix that the fraction of binary trees with a unique spectrum goes to zero as the number of leaves goes to infinity. We investigate the rate of convergence of the above fraction to zero using numerical methods. For the adjacency and Laplacian matrices, we show that the a priori more informative immanantal polynomials have no greater power to distinguish between trees. Conclusion Our results show that a generic large binary tree is highly unlikely to be identified uniquely by common spectral invariants. PMID:22613173
Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uwe Friederich
Full Text Available More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli.
Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.
Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A; Hardie, Roger C; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel
2016-01-01
More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli.
Formation of Thorne-Żytkow objects in close binaries
Hutilukejiang, Bumareyamu; Zhu, Chunhua; Wang, Zhaojun; Lü, Guoliang
2018-04-01
Thorne-Żytkow objects (TŻOs), originally proposed by Thorne and Żytkow, may form as a result of unstable mass transfer in a massive X-ray binary after a neutron star (NS) is engulfed in the envelope of its companion star. Using a rapid binary evolution program and the Monte Carlo method, we simulated the formation of TŻOs in close binary stars. The Galactic birth rate of TŻOs is about 1.5× 10^{-4} yr^{-1}. Their progenitors may be composed of a NS and a main-sequence star, a star in the Hertzsprung gap or a core-helium burning, or a naked helium star. The birth rates of TŻOs via the above different progenitors are 1.7× 10^{-5}, 1.2× 10^{-4}, 0.7× 10^{-5}, 0.6× 10^{-5} yr^{-1}, respectively. These progenitors may be massive X-ray binaries. We found that the observational properties of three massive X-ray binaries (SMC X-1, Cen X-3 and LMC X-4) in which the companions of NSs may fill their Roche robes were consistent with those of their progenitors.
LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra
Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping
2016-06-01
Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.
Segregation of granular binary mixtures by a ratchet mechanism.
Farkas, Zénó; Szalai, Ferenc; Wolf, Dietrich E; Vicsek, Tamás
2002-02-01
We report on a segregation scheme for granular binary mixtures, where the segregation is performed by a ratchet mechanism realized by a vertically shaken asymmetric sawtooth-shaped base in a quasi-two-dimensional box. We have studied this system by computer simulations and found that most binary mixtures can be segregated using an appropriately chosen ratchet, even when the particles in the two components have the same size and differ only in their normal restitution coefficient or friction coefficient. These results suggest that the components of otherwise nonsegregating granular mixtures may be separated using our method.
The Post-Newtonian Approximation for Relativistic Compact Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Futamase Toshifumi
2007-03-01
Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries which respect the Lorentz invariance in the post-Newtonian perturbative sense, admit a conserved energy, and are free from any ambiguity.
Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application.
Wang, Xu; Wada, Naoya
2007-06-11
We propose a novel reconfigurable time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme for coherent optical code-division-multiple-access application. In the proposed scheme, the ultra-short optical pulse is stretched by dispersive device and the SPE is done in time domain using high speed phase modulator. The time domain SPE scheme is robust to wavelength drift of the light source and is very flexible and compatible with the fiber optical system. Proof-of-principle experiments of encoding with 16-chip, 20 GHz/chip binary-phase-shift-keying codes and 1.25 Gbps data transmission have been successfully demonstrated together with an arrayed-wave-guide decoder.
FIR Filter Implementation Based on the RNS with Diminished-1 Encoded Channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dragana Uros Zivaljevic
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A technique, based on the residue number system (RNS with diminished-1 encoded channel, has being used for implementing a finite impulse response (FIR digital filter. The proposed RNS architecture of the filter consists of three main blocks: forward and reverse converter and arithmetic processor for each channel. Architecture for residue to binary (reverse convertor with diminished-1 encoded channel has been proposed. Besides, for all RNS channels, the systolic design is used for the efficient realization of FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of diminished-1 residue arithmetic, signal processing, and decoding for FIR filters.
A parallel algorithm for filtering gravitational waves from coalescing binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sathyaprakash, B.S.; Dhurandhar, S.V.
1992-10-01
Coalescing binary stars are perhaps the most promising sources for the observation of gravitational waves with laser interferometric gravity wave detectors. The waveform from these sources can be predicted with sufficient accuracy for matched filtering techniques to be applied. In this paper we present a parallel algorithm for detecting signals from coalescing compact binaries by the method of matched filtering. We also report the details of its implementation on a 256-node connection machine consisting of a network of transputers. The results of our analysis indicate that parallel processing is a promising approach to on-line analysis of data from gravitational wave detectors to filter out coalescing binary signals. The algorithm described is quite general in that the kernel of the algorithm is applicable to any set of matched filters. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs
Bridging the Gap on Tight Separation Brown Dwarf Binaries
Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Melis, Carl; Blake, Cullen
2015-01-01
Multiplicity is a key statistic for understanding the formation of very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs. Currently, the separation distribution of VLM binaries remains poorly constrained at small separations (candidates from a library of 738 spectra from the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries. We present twelve new binary candidates, confirm two previously reported candidates and rule out other two previously reported candidates. All of our candidates have primary and secondary spectral types between M7-L7 and L8-T8 respectively. We find that blue L dwarfs and subdwarfs are contaminants in our sample and propose a method for segregating these sources. If confirmed by follow-up observations, these systems may potentially add to the growing list of tight separation binaries, giving further insight into brown dwarf formation scenarios.
Collisional Dynamics around Binary Black Holes in Galactic Centers
Hemsendorf, Marc; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Spurzem, Rainer
2002-12-01
We follow the sinking of two massive black holes in a spherical stellar system where the black holes become bound under the influence of dynamical friction. Once bound, the binary hardens by three-body encounters with surrounding stars. We find that the binary wanders inside the core, providing an enhanced supply of reaction partners for the hardening. The binary evolves into a highly eccentric orbit leading to coalescence well beyond a Hubble time. These are the first results from a hybrid ``self-consistent field'' (SCF) and direct Aarseth N-body integrator (NBODY6), which combines the advantages of the direct force calculation with the efficiency of the field method. The code is designed for use on parallel architectures and is therefore applicable to collisional N-body integrations with extraordinarily large particle numbers (>105). This creates the possibility of simulating the dynamics of both globular clusters with realistic collisional relaxation and stellar systems surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei.
Gravity waves from relativistic binaries
Levin, Janna; O'Reilly, Rachel; Copeland, E. J.
1999-01-01
The stability of binary orbits can significantly shape the gravity wave signal which future Earth-based interferometers hope to detect. The inner most stable circular orbit has been of interest as it marks the transition from the late inspiral to final plunge. We consider purely relativistic orbits beyond the circular assumption. Homoclinic orbits are of particular importance to the question of stability as they lie on the boundary between dynamical stability and instability. We identify thes...
Fast Automatic Configuration of Artificial Neural Networks Used for Binary Patterns Recognition
Adrian Horzyk
2001-01-01
This paper presents a powerful method of an automatically generated architecture of neural networks used for binary pattems recognition, which can quickly and automatically reduce synapses in a way of minimally reducing a quality of recognition and a quality of generalization. Moreover, this method computes all weights in two runs over a leaming sequence, what makes this method very fast. First, the method calculates all binary features for each pattem and then weights are computed. Furthermo...
Binary evolution and observational constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loore, C. de
1984-01-01
The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)
STABILITY OF BINARY COMPLEXES OF L-ASPARTIC ACID IN ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Preferred Customer
KEY WORDS: Binary complexes, Stability constants, Aspartic acid, Speciation, Dioxan. INTRODUCTION. 1,4-Dioxan (Dox) is ... It is miscible with water, oils, and most organic solvents, including aromatic .... of mineral acid in metal ion and ligand solutions was determined using the Gran plot method. [28, 29]. To assess the ...
States recognition in random walk Markov chain via binary Entropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Khodabin
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for specification of recurrence or transient of states in one and two dimensional simple random walk based on upper and lower bounds of {it r}-combinations from a set of m elements $(C^{m}_{r}$ via binary entropy is introduced.
The asymptotic formula in the Goldbach binary problem
Matnyak, S. V.
2015-01-01
The binary problem of Goldbach is solved by the method of the trigonometrical sums. The asymptotic formula of distribution of the even numbers formed by the sum of two simple uneven numbers is found for each even number from the set of natural numbers N.
The early-type close binary CV Velorum revisited
Yakut, K.; Aerts, C.C.; Morel, T.
2007-01-01
Aims.Our goal was to improve the fundamental parameters of the massive close double-lined eclipsing B2.5V+B2.5V binary CV Velorum. Methods: We gathered new high-resolution échelle spectroscopy on 13 almost consecutive nights covering two orbits. We computed a simultaneous solution to all the
Thinking about the Unthinkable: Transgender in an Immutable Binary World
Cook-Daniels, Loree
2010-01-01
This essay discusses ways in which people attempt to reconcile or resolve their own cognitive dissonance engendered by transgender people in a society in which gender is perceived as both binary (male OR female) and immutable (an unalterable state or condition). The author suggests these cognitive dissonance reduction methods may be utilized in…
Velocity Curve Studies of Spectroscopic Binary Stars V380 Cygni ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Using measured radial velocity data of five double lined spectroscopic binary systems V380 Cygni, V401 Cyg, V523 Cas, V373 Cas and V2388 Oph, we find corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements via the method introduced by Karami & Mohebi (2007) and Karami &. Teimoorinia (2007). Our numerical ...
Coupled binary embedding for large-scale image retrieval.
Zheng, Liang; Wang, Shengjin; Tian, Qi
2014-08-01
Visual matching is a crucial step in image retrieval based on the bag-of-words (BoW) model. In the baseline method, two keypoints are considered as a matching pair if their SIFT descriptors are quantized to the same visual word. However, the SIFT visual word has two limitations. First, it loses most of its discriminative power during quantization. Second, SIFT only describes the local texture feature. Both drawbacks impair the discriminative power of the BoW model and lead to false positive matches. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes to embed multiple binary features at indexing level. To model correlation between features, a multi-IDF scheme is introduced, through which different binary features are coupled into the inverted file. We show that matching verification methods based on binary features, such as Hamming embedding, can be effectively incorporated in our framework. As an extension, we explore the fusion of binary color feature into image retrieval. The joint integration of the SIFT visual word and binary features greatly enhances the precision of visual matching, reducing the impact of false positive matches. Our method is evaluated through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets (Ukbench, Holidays, DupImage, and MIR Flickr 1M). We show that our method significantly improves the baseline approach. In addition, large-scale experiments indicate that the proposed method requires acceptable memory usage and query time compared with other approaches. Further, when global color feature is integrated, our method yields competitive performance with the state-of-the-arts.
Structure Defect Property Relationships in Binary Intermetallics
Medasani, Bharat; Ding, Hong; Chen, Wei; Persson, Kristin; Canning, Andrew; Haranczyk, Maciej; Asta, Mark
2015-03-01
Ordered intermetallics are light weight materials with technologically useful high temperature properties such as creep resistance. Knowledge of constitutional and thermal defects is required to understand these properties. Vacancies and antisites are the dominant defects in the intermetallics and their concentrations and formation enthalpies could be computed by using first principles density functional theory and thermodynamic formalisms such as dilute solution method. Previously many properties of the intermetallics such as melting temperatures and formation enthalpies were statistically analyzed for large number of intermetallics using structure maps and data mining approaches. We undertook a similar exercise to establish the dependence of the defect properties in binary intermetallics on the underlying structural and chemical composition. For more than 200 binary intermetallics comprising of AB, AB2 and AB3 structures, we computed the concentrations and formation enthalpies of vacancies and antisites in a small range of stoichiometries deviating from ideal stoichiometry. The calculated defect properties were datamined to gain predictive capabilities of defect properties as well as to classify the intermetallics for their suitability in high-T applications. Supported by the US DOE under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231 under the Materials Project Center grant (Award No. EDCBEE).
GRAVITATIONAL MEMORY IN BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pollney, Denis; Reisswig, Christian
2011-01-01
In addition to the dominant oscillatory gravitational wave signals produced during binary inspirals, a non-oscillatory component arises from the nonlinear 'memory' effect, sourced by the emitted gravitational radiation. The memory grows significantly during the late-inspiral and merger, modifying the signal by an almost step-function profile, and making it difficult to model by approximate methods. We use numerical evolutions of binary black holes (BHs) to evaluate the nonlinear memory during late-inspiral, merger, and ringdown. We identify two main components of the signal: the monotonically growing portion corresponding to the memory, and an oscillatory part which sets in roughly at the time of merger and is due to the BH ringdown. Counterintuitively, the ringdown is most prominent for models with the lowest total spin. Thus, the case of maximally spinning BHs anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum exhibits the highest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for interferometric detectors. The largest memory offset, however, occurs for highly spinning BHs, with an estimated value of h tot 20 ≅ 0.24 in the maximally spinning case. These results are central to determining the detectability of nonlinear memory through pulsar timing array measurements.
Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.
Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander
2015-06-17
The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.
Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data
Serban, Nicoleta
2013-10-16
We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.
Modeling and analysis of advanced binary cycles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gawlik, K.
1997-12-31
A computer model (Cycle Analysis Simulation Tool, CAST) and a methodology have been developed to perform value analysis for small, low- to moderate-temperature binary geothermal power plants. The value analysis method allows for incremental changes in the levelized electricity cost (LEC) to be determined between a baseline plant and a modified plant. Thermodynamic cycle analyses and component sizing are carried out in the model followed by economic analysis which provides LEC results. The emphasis of the present work is on evaluating the effect of mixed working fluids instead of pure fluids on the LEC of a geothermal binary plant that uses a simple Organic Rankine Cycle. Four resources were studied spanning the range of 265{degrees}F to 375{degrees}F. A variety of isobutane and propane based mixtures, in addition to pure fluids, were used as working fluids. This study shows that the use of propane mixtures at a 265{degrees}F resource can reduce the LEC by 24% when compared to a base case value that utilizes commercial isobutane as its working fluid. The cost savings drop to 6% for a 375{degrees}F resource, where an isobutane mixture is favored. Supercritical cycles were found to have the lowest cost at all resources.
Design of optical decoders using a polarization-encoded optical shadow-casting scheme
Rizvi, Rizwan A.; Zaheer, K.; Zubairy, M. Zuhail
1988-12-01
The design of various decoders in the polarization-encoded optical shadow-casting scheme is presented. A general algorithm is used to design these multioutput combinational logic units with separate and simultaneous generation of outputs. In particular, the design of a binary coded decimal (BCD) to an Octal decoder and a BCD to an Excess-3 converter is presented for a fixed source plane as well as a fixed decoding mask. The results have been verified experimentally.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R
2001-01-01
expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....
Low Complexity HEVC Encoder for Visual Sensor Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaoqing Pan
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Visual sensor networks (VSNs can be widely applied in security surveillance, environmental monitoring, smart rooms, etc. However, with the increased number of camera nodes in VSNs, the volume of the visual information data increases significantly, which becomes a challenge for storage, processing and transmitting the visual data. The state-of-the-art video compression standard, high efficiency video coding (HEVC, can effectively compress the raw visual data, while the higher compression rate comes at the cost of heavy computational complexity. Hence, reducing the encoding complexity becomes vital for the HEVC encoder to be used in VSNs. In this paper, we propose a fast coding unit (CU depth decision method to reduce the encoding complexity of the HEVC encoder for VSNs. Firstly, the content property of the CU is analyzed. Then, an early CU depth decision method and a low complexity distortion calculation method are proposed for the CUs with homogenous content. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 71.91% on average encoding time savings for the HEVC encoder for VSNs.
The structures of binary compounds
Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR
1990-01-01
- Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders
Pulsar magnetospheres in binary systems
Ershkovich, A. I.; Dolan, J. F.
1985-01-01
The criterion for stability of a tangential discontinuity interface in a magnetized, perfectly conducting inviscid plasma is investigated by deriving the dispersion equation including the effects of both gravitational and centrifugal acceleration. The results are applied to neutron star magnetospheres in X-ray binaries. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears to be important in determining whether MHD waves of large amplitude generated by instability may intermix the plasma effectively, resulting in accretion onto the whole star as suggested by Arons and Lea and leading to no X-ray pulsar behavior.
Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François
2012-01-01
A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.
Encoding information into precipitation structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan
2008-01-01
Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A + + B – → C reaction–diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction–diffusion–precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm
Searching for the full symphony of black hole binary mergers
Harry, Ian; Bustillo, Juan Calderón; Nitz, Alex
2018-01-01
Current searches for the gravitational-wave signature of compact binary mergers rely on matched-filtering data from interferometric observatories with sets of modeled gravitational waveforms. These searches currently use model waveforms that do not include the higher-order mode content of the gravitational-wave signal. Higher-order modes are important for many compact binary mergers and their omission reduces the sensitivity to such sources. In this work we explore the sensitivity loss incurred from omitting higher-order modes. We present a new method for searching for compact binary mergers using waveforms that include higher-order mode effects, and evaluate the sensitivity increase that using our new method would allow. We find that, when evaluating sensitivity at a constant rate-of-false alarm, and when including the fact that signal-consistency tests can reject some signals that include higher-order mode content, we observe a sensitivity increase of up to a factor of 2 in volume for high mass ratio, high total-mass systems. For systems with equal mass, or with total mass ˜50 M⊙, we see more modest sensitivity increases, applicable in searches for generic compact binaries.
Binary Stochastic Representations for Large Multi-class Classification
Gerald, Thomas
2017-10-23
Classification with a large number of classes is a key problem in machine learning and corresponds to many real-world applications like tagging of images or textual documents in social networks. If one-vs-all methods usually reach top performance in this context, these approaches suffer of a high inference complexity, linear w.r.t. the number of categories. Different models based on the notion of binary codes have been proposed to overcome this limitation, achieving in a sublinear inference complexity. But they a priori need to decide which binary code to associate to which category before learning using more or less complex heuristics. We propose a new end-to-end model which aims at simultaneously learning to associate binary codes with categories, but also learning to map inputs to binary codes. This approach called Deep Stochastic Neural Codes (DSNC) keeps the sublinear inference complexity but do not need any a priori tuning. Experimental results on different datasets show the effectiveness of the approach w.r.t. baseline methods.
Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson
2012-01-01
We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.
The binary collision approximation: Background and introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, M.T.
1992-08-01
The binary collision approximation (BCA) has long been used in computer simulations of the interactions of energetic atoms with solid targets, as well as being the basis of most analytical theory in this area. While mainly a high-energy approximation, the BCA retains qualitative significance at low energies and, with proper formulation, gives useful quantitative information as well. Moreover, computer simulations based on the BCA can achieve good statistics in many situations where those based on full classical dynamical models require the most advanced computer hardware or are even impracticable. The foundations of the BCA in classical scattering are reviewed, including methods of evaluating the scattering integrals, interaction potentials, and electron excitation effects. The explicit evaluation of time at significant points on particle trajectories is discussed, as are scheduling algorithms for ordering the collisions in a developing cascade. An approximate treatment of nearly simultaneous collisions is outlined and the searching algorithms used in MARLOWE are presented
Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries
Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong
2015-01-01
The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov–Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like. PMID:26159412
Speech perception of noise with binary gains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, DeLiang; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind
2008-01-01
For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed...... by the ideal binary mask. Only 16 filter channels and a frame rate of 100 Hz are sufficient for high intelligibility. The results show that, despite a dramatic reduction of speech information, a pattern of binary gains provides an adequate basis for speech perception....
Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.
Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong
2015-07-28
The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.
Multiple-stage pure phase encoding with biometric information
Chen, Wen
2018-01-01
In recent years, many optical systems have been developed for securing information, and optical encryption/encoding has attracted more and more attention due to the marked advantages, such as parallel processing and multiple-dimensional characteristics. In this paper, an optical security method is presented based on pure phase encoding with biometric information. Biometric information (such as fingerprint) is employed as security keys rather than plaintext used in conventional optical security systems, and multiple-stage phase-encoding-based optical systems are designed for generating several phase-only masks with biometric information. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only masks are further used in an optical setup for encoding an input image (i.e., plaintext). Numerical simulations are conducted to illustrate the validity, and the results demonstrate that high flexibility and high security can be achieved.
A contribution to the design of fast code converters for position encoders
Denic, Dragan B.; Dincic, Milan R.; Miljkovic, Goran S.; Peric, Zoran H.
2016-10-01
Pseudorandom binary sequences (PRBS) are very useful in many areas of applications. Absolute position encoders based on PRBS have many advantages. However, the pseudorandom code is not directly applicable to the digital electronic systems, hence a converter from pseudorandom to natural binary code is needed. Recently, a fast pseudorandom/natural code converter based on Galois PRBS generator (much faster than previously used converter based on Fibonacci PRBS generator) was proposed. One of the main parts of the Galois code converter is an initial logic. The problem of the design of the initial logic has been solved only for some single values of resolution, but it is still not solved for any value of resolution, which significantly limits the applicability of the fast Galois code converter. This paper solves this problem presenting the solution for the design of the initial logic of the fast Galois pseudorandom/natural code converters used in the pseudorandom position encoders, in general manner, that is for any value of the resolution, allowing for a wide applicability of the fast Galois pseudorandom position encoders. Rigorous mathematical derivation of the formula for the designing of the initial logic is presented. Simulation of the proposed converter is performed in NI MultiSim software. The proposed solution, although developed for pseudorandom position encoders, can be used in many other fields where PRBS are used.
Solving traveling salesman problems with DNA molecules encoding numerical values.
Lee, Ji Youn; Shin, Soo-Yong; Park, Tai Hyun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak
2004-12-01
We introduce a DNA encoding method to represent numerical values and a biased molecular algorithm based on the thermodynamic properties of DNA. DNA strands are designed to encode real values by variation of their melting temperatures. The thermodynamic properties of DNA are used for effective local search of optimal solutions using biochemical techniques, such as denaturation temperature gradient polymerase chain reaction and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. The proposed method was successfully applied to the traveling salesman problem, an instance of optimization problems on weighted graphs. This work extends the capability of DNA computing to solving numerical optimization problems, which is contrasted with other DNA computing methods focusing on logical problem solving.
Pashaei, Elnaz; Pashaei, Elham; Aydin, Nizamettin
2018-04-14
In cancer classification, gene selection is an important data preprocessing technique, but it is a difficult task due to the large search space. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to develop a hybrid meta-heuristic Binary Black Hole Algorithm (BBHA) and Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) (4-2) model that emphasizes gene selection. In this model, the BBHA is embedded in the BPSO (4-2) algorithm to make the BPSO (4-2) more effective and to facilitate the exploration and exploitation of the BPSO (4-2) algorithm to further improve the performance. This model has been associated with Random Forest Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) pre-filtering technique. The classifiers which are evaluated in the proposed framework are Sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (SPLSDA); k-nearest neighbor and Naive Bayes. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on two benchmark and three clinical microarrays. The experimental results and statistical analysis confirm the better performance of the BPSO (4-2)-BBHA compared with the BBHA, the BPSO (4-2) and several state-of-the-art methods in terms of avoiding local minima, convergence rate, accuracy and number of selected genes. The results also show that the BPSO (4-2)-BBHA model can successfully identify known biologically and statistically significant genes from the clinical datasets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Estimating Mass Parameters of Doubly Synchronous Binary Asteroids
Davis, Alex; Scheeres, Daniel J.
2017-10-01
The non-spherical mass distributions of binary asteroid systems lead to coupled mutual gravitational forces and torques. Observations of the coupled attitude and orbital dynamics can be leveraged to provide information about the mass parameters of the binary system. The full 3-dimensional motion has 9 degrees of freedom, and coupled dynamics require the use of numerical investigation only. In the current study we simplify the system to a planar ellipsoid-ellipsoid binary system in a doubly synchronous orbit. Three modes are identified for the system, which has 4 degrees of freedom, with one degree of freedom corresponding to an ignorable coordinate. The three modes correspond to the three major librational modes of the system when it is in a doubly synchronous orbit. The linearized periods of each mode are a function of the mass parameters of the two asteroids, enabling measurement of these parameters based on observations of the librational motion. Here we implement estimation techniques to evaluate the capabilities of this mass measurement method. We apply this methodology to the Trojan binary asteroid system 617 Patroclus and Menoetius (1906 VY), the final flyby target of the recently announced LUCY Discovery mission. This system is of interest because a stellar occultation campaign of the Patroclus and Menoetius system has suggested that the asteroids are similarly sized oblate ellipsoids moving in a doubly-synchronous orbit, making the system an ideal test for this investigation. A number of missed observations during the campaign also suggested the possibility of a crater on the southern limb of Menoetius, the presence of which could be evaluated by our mass estimation method. This presentation will review the methodology and potential accuracy of our approach in addition to evaluating how the dynamical coupling can be used to help understand light curve and stellar occultation observations for librating binary systems.
Chicone, Carmen; Mashhoon, Bahram; Retzloff, David
1996-01-01
The method of averaging is used to investigate the phenomenon of capture into resonance for a model that describes a Keplerian binary system influenced by radiation damping and external normally incident periodic gravitational radiation. The dynamical evolution of the binary orbit while trapped in resonance is elucidated using the second order partially averaged system. This method provides a theoretical framework that can be used to explain the main evolutionary dynamics of a physical system...
Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors
Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.
1970-01-01
Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.
Dynamics of spinning compact binaries in general relativity
Hartl, Michael David
This thesis investigates the dynamics of binary systems composed of spinning compact objects in the context of general relativity. Compact binaries are promising sources of gravitational radiation for both ground- and space-based gravitational-wave detectors. If the dynamics of these systems were chaotic, the number of waveform templates needed to match a given gravitational-wave signal would grow exponentially with increasing detection sensitivity, rendering the preferred matched filter detection method computationally impractical. It is therefore urgent to understand whether the binary dynamics can be chaotic, and, if so, how prevalent this chaos is. We first consider the dynamics of a spinning compact object orbiting a much more massive rotating black hole, as modeled by the Papapetrou equations in Kerr spacetime. We find that many initial conditions lead to positive Lyapunov exponents, indicating chaotic dynamics. Despite the formal existence of chaotic solutions, we find that chaos occurs only for physically unrealistic values of the small body's spin. As a result, chaos will not affect theoretical templates in the extreme mass-ratio limit for which the Papapetrou equations are valid. We next consider the dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries, as modeled by the post-Newtonian (PN) equations, which are valid for orbital velocities much smaller than the speed of light. We study thoroughly the special case of quasi-circular orbits with comparable mass ratios. Our survey shows that chaos occurs in a negligible fraction of possible configurations, and only for such small radii that the PN approximation is likely to be invalid. As a result, at least in the case of comparable mass black-hole binaries, theoretical templates will not be significantly affected by chaos. In a final, self-contained chapter, we discuss various methods for the calculation of Lyapunov exponents in systems of ordinary differential equations. We introduce several new techniques applicable
Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics
Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.
2007-01-01
We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a
Novel quantum inspired binary neural network algorithm
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, a quantum based binary neural network algorithm is proposed, named as novel quantum binary neural network algorithm (NQ-BNN). It forms a neural network structure by deciding weights and separability parameter in quantum based manner. Quantum computing concept represents solution probabilistically ...
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.
Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R
2014-01-01
We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yungelson, Lev R.
2006-12-01
Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.
Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries
Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico
2018-01-01
Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantin A. Postnov
2014-05-01
Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.
Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.
2012-01-01
Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches....
Statistical properties of spectroscopic binary stars
Hogeveen, S.J.
1992-01-01
As part of a study of the mass-ratio distribution of spectroscopic binary stars, the statistical properties of the systems in the Eighth Catalogue of the Orbital Elements of Spectroscopic Binary Stars, compiled by Batten et al. (1989), are investigated. Histograms are presented of the
An Acidity Scale for Binary Oxides.
Smith, Derek W.
1987-01-01
Discusses the classification of binary oxides as acidic, basic, or amphoteric. Demonstrates how a numerical scale for acidity/basicity of binary oxides can be constructed using thermochemical data for oxoacid salts. Presents the calculations derived from the data that provide the numeric scale values. (TW)
Binary trees equipped with semivaluations | Pajoohesh ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Our interest in this lattice stems from its application to binary decision trees. Binary decision trees form a crucial tool for algorithmic time analysis. The lattice properties of Tn are studied and we show that every Tn has a sublattice isomorphic to Tn-1 and prove that Tn is generated by Tn-1. Also we show that the distance from ...
Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...
Encoding of compatible micro-operations in LUT-based FSMs
Mielcarek, Kamil; Barkalov, Alexander; Titarenko, Larysa
2017-08-01
This article shows a method of encoding of microoperations for LUT-based Mealy FSMs. The proposed design approach is based on two methods of structural decomposition of FSMs for diminishing the number of arguments for input memory functions in output functions. This method is viewed as an alternative to the encoding of collections of output functions. An example of design is given.
A Permutation Encoding Technique Applied to Genetic Algorithm ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, a permutation chromosome encoding scheme is proposed for obtaining solution to resource constrained project scheduling problem. The proposed chromosome coding method is applied to Genetic algorithm procedure and implemented through object oriented programming. The method is applied to a ...
Encoded Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Produced by ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Purpose: To investigate the distribution of plasmid-encoded extended spectrum beta-lacatamases. (ESBLs) in Lahore, Pakistan using different phenotypic and molecular methods. Methods: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp were obtained over a period of nineteen months (June. 2007 to December 2008). Both were tested ...
Measurement of safety rod trajectory using digital optical encoder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milovanovic, S.; Pesic, M.; Milovanovic, T.
1996-01-01
In this paper a rod drop position - time function z(t) is measured using new method - with a digital displacement transducer and digital optical incremental encoder connected to a serial communication port of a personal computer. Some improvements, comparing to the previously proposed method are explained. Also, some possible applications in analysis of reactor dynamics and kinetics are proposed. (author)
Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanso, Ali; Smaoui, Nejib
2009-01-01
Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.
Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed S.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.
Evolution of Supermassive Black-Hole Binaries
Milosavljevic, M.; Merritt, D.
2000-10-01
Binary supermassive black holes are expected to form in galactic nuclei following galaxy mergers. We report large-scale N-body simulations using the Aarseth/Spurzem parallel code NBODY6++ of the formation and evolution of such binaries. Initial conditions are drawn from a tree-code simulation of the merger of two spherical galaxies with ρ ~ r-2 density cusps (Cruz & Merritt, AAS Poster). Once the two black holes form a bound pair at the center of the merged galaxies, the evolution is continued using NBODY6++ at much higher resolution. Its exact force calculations generate faithful binary dynamics until the onset of gravity wave-dominated dissipation. We discuss the binary hardening rate, the amplitude of the binary's wandering, and the evolution of the structure of the galactic stellar nucleus.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.
1992-01-01
Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Peng; Du, Shichao; Qin, Yujia; Zhao, Kaifei; Li, Kangli; Hou, Baohong; Gong, Junbo
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The solubility data of pyraclostrobin in pure and binary solvents were determined and correlated. • The theory of solubility parameter was used to explain the cosolvency in binary solvents. • A modified mixing rule was proposed to calculate the solubility parameter of binary solvents. • The dissolution thermodynamic properties were calculated and discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of pyraclostrobin in five pure solvents and two binary solvent mixtures was measured from 283.15 K to 308.15 K using a static analytical method. Solubility in five pure solvents was well correlated by the modified Apelblat equation and Wilson model. While the CNIBS/R–K model was applied to correlate the solubility in two binary solvent mixtures, the correlation showed good agreement with experimental results. The solubility of pyraclostrobin reaches its maximum value at a certain cyclohexane mole fraction in the two binary solvent mixtures. The solubility parameter of pyraclostrobin was calculated by the Fedors method and a new modified mixing rule with preferable applicability was proposed to determine the solubility parameter of solvents. Then the co-solvency in the binary solvent mixtures can be explained based on the obtained solubility parameters. In a addition, the dissolution thermodynamic properties were calculated from the experimental values using the Wilson model.
Encoding !-tensors as !-graphs with neighbourhood orders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Quick
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Diagrammatic reasoning using string diagrams provides an intuitive language for reasoning about morphisms in a symmetric monoidal category. To allow working with infinite families of string diagrams, !-graphs were introduced as a method to mark repeated structure inside a diagram. This led to !-graphs being implemented in the diagrammatic proof assistant Quantomatic. Having a partially automated program for rewriting diagrams has proven very useful, but being based on !-graphs, only commutative theories are allowed. An enriched abstract tensor notation, called !-tensors, has been used to formalise the notion of !-boxes in non-commutative structures. This work-in-progress paper presents a method to encode !-tensors as !-graphs with some additional structure. This will allow us to leverage the existing code from Quantomatic and quickly provide various tools for non-commutative diagrammatic reasoning.
Measurement strategy for spatially encoded photonic qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.
2010-01-01
We propose a measurement strategy which can, probabilistically, reproduce the statistics of any observable for spatially encoded photonic qubits. It comprises the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measure followed by a detection in a fixed transverse position, making the displacement of the detection system unnecessary, unlike previous methods. This strategy generalizes a scheme recently demonstrated by one of us and co-workers, restricted to measurement of observables with equatorial eigenvectors only. The method presented here can be implemented with the current technology of programmable multipixel liquid-crystal displays. In addition, it can be straightforwardly extended to high-dimensional qudits and may be a valuable tool in optical implementations of quantum information protocols with spatial qubits and qudits.
Graph Regularized Auto-Encoders for Image Representation.
Yiyi Liao; Yue Wang; Yong Liu
2017-06-01
Image representation has been intensively explored in the domain of computer vision for its significant influence on the relative tasks such as image clustering and classification. It is valuable to learn a low-dimensional representation of an image which preserves its inherent information from the original image space. At the perspective of manifold learning, this is implemented with the local invariant idea to capture the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold embedded in the high-dimensional input space. Inspired by the recent successes of deep architectures, we propose a local invariant deep nonlinear mapping algorithm, called graph regularized auto-encoder (GAE). With the graph regularization, the proposed method preserves the local connectivity from the original image space to the representation space, while the stacked auto-encoders provide explicit encoding model for fast inference and powerful expressive capacity for complex modeling. Theoretical analysis shows that the graph regularizer penalizes the weighted Frobenius norm of the Jacobian matrix of the encoder mapping, where the weight matrix captures the local property in the input space. Furthermore, the underlying effects on the hidden representation space are revealed, providing insightful explanation to the advantage of the proposed method. Finally, the experimental results on both clustering and classification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our GAE as well as the correctness of the proposed theoretical analysis, and it also suggests that GAE is a superior solution to the current deep representation learning techniques comparing with variant auto-encoders and existing local invariant methods.
Error-free holographic frames encryption with CA pixel-permutation encoding algorithm
Li, Xiaowei; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Qiong-Hua
2018-01-01
The security of video data is necessary in network security transmission hence cryptography is technique to make video data secure and unreadable to unauthorized users. In this paper, we propose a holographic frames encryption technique based on the cellular automata (CA) pixel-permutation encoding algorithm. The concise pixel-permutation algorithm is used to address the drawbacks of the traditional CA encoding methods. The effectiveness of the proposed video encoding method is demonstrated by simulation examples.
R package to estimate intracluster correlation coefficient with confidence interval for binary data.
Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Hossain, Akhtar
2018-03-01
The Intracluster Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is a major parameter of interest in cluster randomized trials that measures the degree to which responses within the same cluster are correlated. There are several types of ICC estimators and its confidence intervals (CI) suggested in the literature for binary data. Studies have compared relative weaknesses and advantages of ICC estimators as well as its CI for binary data and suggested situations where one is advantageous in practical research. The commonly used statistical computing systems currently facilitate estimation of only a very few variants of ICC and its CI. To address the limitations of current statistical packages, we developed an R package, ICCbin, to facilitate estimating ICC and its CI for binary responses using different methods. The ICCbin package is designed to provide estimates of ICC in 16 different ways including analysis of variance methods, moments based estimation, direct probabilistic methods, correlation based estimation, and resampling method. CI of ICC is estimated using 5 different methods. It also generates cluster binary data using exchangeable correlation structure. ICCbin package provides two functions for users. The function rcbin() generates cluster binary data and the function iccbin() estimates ICC and it's CI. The users can choose appropriate ICC and its CI estimate from the wide selection of estimates from the outputs. The R package ICCbin presents very flexible and easy to use ways to generate cluster binary data and to estimate ICC and it's CI for binary response using different methods. The package ICCbin is freely available for use with R from the CRAN repository (https://cran.r-project.org/package=ICCbin). We believe that this package can be a very useful tool for researchers to design cluster randomized trials with binary outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Binary gene induction and protein expression in individual cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Conolly Rory B
2006-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic gene transcription is believed to occur in either a binary or a graded fashion. With binary induction, a transcription activator (TA regulates the probability with which a gene template is switched from the inactive to the active state without affecting the rate at which RNA molecules are produced from the template. With graded, also called rheostat-like, induction the gene template has continuously varying levels of transcriptional activity, and the TA regulates the rate of RNA production. Support for each of these two mechanisms arises primarily from experimental studies measuring reporter proteins in individual cells, rather than from direct measurement of induction events at the gene template. Methods and results In this paper, using a computational model of stochastic gene expression, we have studied the biological and experimental conditions under which a binary induction mode operating at the gene template can give rise to differentially expressed "phenotypes" (i.e., binary, hybrid or graded at the protein level. We have also investigated whether the choice of reporter genes plays a significant role in determining the observed protein expression patterns in individual cells, given the diverse properties of commonly-used reporter genes. Our simulation confirmed early findings that the lifetimes of active/inactive promoters and half-lives of downstream mRNA/protein products are important determinants of various protein expression patterns, but showed that the induction time and the sensitivity with which the expressed genes are detected are also important experimental variables. Using parameter conditions representative of reporter genes including green fluorescence protein (GFP and β-galactosidase, we also demonstrated that graded gene expression is more likely to be observed with GFP, a longer-lived protein with low detection sensitivity. Conclusion The choice of reporter genes may determine whether protein
Sparse logistic principal components analysis for binary data
Lee, Seokho
2010-09-01
We develop a new principal components analysis (PCA) type dimension reduction method for binary data. Different from the standard PCA which is defined on the observed data, the proposed PCA is defined on the logit transform of the success probabilities of the binary observations. Sparsity is introduced to the principal component (PC) loading vectors for enhanced interpretability and more stable extraction of the principal components. Our sparse PCA is formulated as solving an optimization problem with a criterion function motivated from a penalized Bernoulli likelihood. A Majorization-Minimization algorithm is developed to efficiently solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed sparse logistic PCA method is illustrated by application to a single nucleotide polymorphism data set and a simulation study. © Institute ol Mathematical Statistics, 2010.
Evaluation of self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellison, T.L.
1977-10-01
The feasibility of calculating Wagner self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams was examined. The self-interaction parameters of 22 non-ferrous liquid solutions were calculated utilizing an equation based on the equality of the chemical potentials of a component in two equilibrium phases. Utilization of the equation requires the evaluation of the first and second derivatives of various liquidus and solidus data at infinite dilution of the solute component. Several numerical methods for evaluating the derivatives of tabular data were examined. A method involving power series curve fitting and subsequent differentiation of the power series was found to be the most suitable for the interaction parameter calculations. Comparison of the calculated self-interaction parameters with values obtained from thermodynamic measurements indicates that the Wagner self-interaction parameter can be successfully calculated from binary phase diagrams
Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry.
Wilms, J; Weigand, B
2007-04-10
So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model.
Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilms, J.; Weigand, B.
2007-01-01
So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model
Modeling binary correlated responses using SAS, SPSS and R
Wilson, Jeffrey R
2015-01-01
Statistical tools to analyze correlated binary data are spread out in the existing literature. This book makes these tools accessible to practitioners in a single volume. Chapters cover recently developed statistical tools and statistical packages that are tailored to analyzing correlated binary data. The authors showcase both traditional and new methods for application to health-related research. Data and computer programs will be publicly available in order for readers to replicate model development, but learning a new statistical language is not necessary with this book. The inclusion of code for R, SAS, and SPSS allows for easy implementation by readers. For readers interested in learning more about the languages, though, there are short tutorials in the appendix. Accompanying data sets are available for download through the book s website. Data analysis presented in each chapter will provide step-by-step instructions so these new methods can be readily applied to projects. Researchers and graduate stu...
Evaluation of Griseofulvin Binary and Ternary Solid Dispersions with HPMCAS
Al-Obaidi, Hisham; Buckton, Graham
2009-01-01
The stability and dissolution properties of griseofulvin binary and ternary solid dispersions were evaluated. Solid dispersions of griseofulvin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared using the spray drying method. A third polymer, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylate] (PHPMA), was incorporated to investigate its effect on the interaction of griseofulvin with HPMCAS. In this case, HPMCAS can form H bonds with griseofulvin directly; the addition of PHPMA to t...
Kalogera, Vassiliki; Webbink, Ronald F.
1998-01-01
We study the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) through helium star supernovae in binary systems that have each emerged from a common envelope phase. LMXB progenitors must satisfy a large number of evolutionary and structural constraints, including survival through common envelope evolution, through the post-common envelope phase, where the precursor of the neutron star becomes a Wolf-Rayet star, and survival through the supernova event. Furthermore, the binaries that survive the explosion must reach interaction within a Hubble time and must satisfy stability criteria for mass transfer. These constraints, imposed under the assumption of a symmetric supernova explosion, prohibit the formation of short-period LMXBs transferring mass at sub-Eddington rates through any channel in which the intermediate progenitor of the neutron star is not completely degenerate. Barring accretion-induced collapse, the existence of such systems therefore requires that natal kicks be imparted to neutron stars. We use an analytical method to synthesize the distribution of nascent LMXBs over donor masses and orbital periods and evaluate their birthrate and systemic velocity dispersion. Within the limitations imposed by observational incompleteness and selection effects, and our neglect of secular evolution in the LMXB state, we compare our results with observations. However, our principal objective is to evaluate how basic model parameters (common envelope ejection efficiency, rms kick velocity, primordial mass ratio distribution) influence these results. We conclude that the characteristics of newborn LMXBs are primarily determined by age and stability constraints and the efficiency of magnetic braking and are largely independent of the primordial binary population and the evolutionary history of LMXB progenitors (except for extreme values of the average kick magnitude or of the common envelope ejection efficiency). Theoretical estimates of total LMXB birthrates are not credible
BPASS predictions for binary black hole mergers
Eldridge, J. J.; Stanway, E. R.
2016-11-01
Using the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis code, BPASS, we have calculated the rates, time-scales and mass distributions for binary black hole (BH) mergers as a function of metallicity. We consider these in the context of the recently reported first Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) event detection. We find that the event has a very low probability of arising from a stellar population with initial metallicity mass fraction above Z = 0.010 (Z ≳ 0.5 Z⊙). Binary BH merger events with the reported masses are most likely in populations below 0.008 (Z ≲ 0.4 Z⊙). Events of this kind can occur at all stellar population ages from 3 Myr up to the age of the Universe, but constitute only 0.1-0.4 per cent of binary BH mergers between metallicities of Z = 0.001 and 0.008. However at metallicity Z = 10-4, 26 per cent of binary BH mergers would be expected to have the reported masses. At this metallicity, the progenitor merger times can be close to ≈10 Gyr and rotationally mixed stars evolving through quasi-homogeneous evolution, due to mass transfer in a binary, dominate the rate. The masses inferred for the BHs in the binary progenitor of GW 150914 are amongst the most massive expected at anything but the lowest metallicities in our models. We discuss the implications of our analysis for the electromagnetic follow-up of future LIGO event detections.
Topological and categorical properties of binary trees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Pajoohesh
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Binary trees are very useful tools in computer science for estimating the running time of so-called comparison based algorithms, algorithms in which every action is ultimately based on a prior comparison between two elements. For two given algorithms A and B where the decision tree of A is more balanced than that of B, it is known that the average and worst case times of A will be better than those of B, i.e., ₸A(n ≤₸B(n and TWA (n≤TWB (n. Thus the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees play a main role. Here we consider them as semilattices and characterize the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees by topological and categorical properties. Also we define the composition of binary trees as a commutative binary operation, *, such that for binary trees A and B, A * B is the binary tree obtained by attaching a copy of B to any leaf of A. We show that (T,* is a commutative po-monoid and investigate its properties.
Amplitude holographic LPCC filters for 4-f correlator: variants of binary realization
Evtikhiev, N. N.; Zlokazov, E. Yu.; Starikov, S. N.; Starikov, R. S.; Shaulskiy, D. V.
2010-10-01
Invariant correlation filters application is the method to achieve invariance of image recognition in presence of input object distortions. Composite filter with linear phase coefficients (LPCC filter) is one of the perspective types of correlation filters. LPCCF can be realized in a scheme of optoelectronic Vander Lught's correlator as synthesized holographic filters for recognition in real time conditions. Application of binary spatial light modulators for realization of holographic LPCCF is especially interesting. Variants of "pixel to pixel" binarization methods or representation of grayscale gradation using binary "subpixel" raster can be used for binary representation of the initial hologram. The results of correlation recognition with binary amplitude holographic LPCCF application are represented in the paper.
Engineering Genetically Encoded FRET Sensors
Lindenburg, Laurens; Merkx, Maarten
2014-01-01
Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between two fluorescent proteins can be exploited to create fully genetically encoded and thus subcellularly targetable sensors. FRET sensors report changes in energy transfer between a donor and an acceptor fluorescent protein that occur when an attached sensor domain undergoes a change in conformation in response to ligand binding. The design of sensitive FRET sensors remains challenging as there are few generally applicable design rules and each sensor must be optimized anew. In this review we discuss various strategies that address this shortcoming, including rational design approaches that exploit self-associating fluorescent domains and the directed evolution of FRET sensors using high-throughput screening. PMID:24991940
Exact Algorithms for Duplication-Transfer-Loss Reconciliation with Non-Binary Gene Trees.
Kordi, Misagh; Bansal, Mukul S
2017-06-01
Duplication-Transfer-Loss (DTL) reconciliation is a powerful method for studying gene family evolution in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. DTL reconciliation seeks to reconcile gene trees with species trees by postulating speciation, duplication, transfer, and loss events. Efficient algorithms exist for finding optimal DTL reconciliations when the gene tree is binary. In practice, however, gene trees are often non-binary due to uncertainty in the gene tree topologies, and DTL reconciliation with non-binary gene trees is known to be NP-hard. In this paper, we present the first exact algorithms for DTL reconciliation with non-binary gene trees. Specifically, we (i) show that the DTL reconciliation problem for non-binary gene trees is fixed-parameter tractable in the maximum degree of the gene tree, (ii) present an exponential-time, but in-practice efficient, algorithm to track and enumerate all optimal binary resolutions of a non-binary input gene tree, and (iii) apply our algorithms to a large empirical data set of over 4700 gene trees from 100 species to study the impact of gene tree uncertainty on DTL-reconciliation and to demonstrate the applicability and utility of our algorithms. The new techniques and algorithms introduced in this paper will help biologists avoid incorrect evolutionary inferences caused by gene tree uncertainty.
Fast Matching of Binary Descriptors for Large-Scale Applications in Robot Vision
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Persson
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The introduction of computationally efficient binary feature descriptors has raised new opportunities for real-world robot vision applications. However, brute force feature matching of binary descriptors is only practical for smaller datasets. In the literature, there has therefore been an increasing interest in representing and matching binary descriptors more efficiently. In this article, we follow this trend and present a method for efficiently and dynamically quantizing binary descriptors through a summarized frequency count into compact representations (called fsum for improved feature matching of binary point-features. With the motivation that real-world robot applications must adapt to a changing environment, we further present an overview of the field of algorithms, which concerns the efficient matching of binary descriptors and which are able to incorporate changes over time, such as clustered search trees and bag-of-features improved by vocabulary adaptation. The focus for this article is on evaluation, particularly large scale evaluation, compared to alternatives that exist within the field. Throughout this evaluation it is shown that the fsum approach is both efficient in terms of computational cost and memory requirements, while retaining adequate retrieval accuracy. It is further shown that the presented algorithm is equally suited to binary descriptors of arbitrary type and that the algorithm is therefore a valid option for several types of vision applications.
Cornelius, Angela J; Gilpin, Brent; Carter, Philip; Nicol, Carolyn; On, Stephen L W
2010-03-01
To overcome some of the deficiencies with current molecular typing schema for Campylobacter spp., we developed a prototype PCR binary typing (P-BIT) approach. We investigated the distribution of 68 gene targets in 58 Campylobacter jejuni strains, one Campylobacter lari strain, and two Campylobacter coli strains for this purpose. Gene targets were selected on the basis of distribution in multiple genomes or plasmids, and known or putative status as an epidemicity factor. Strains were examined with Penner serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE; using SmaI and KpnI enzymes), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches for comparison. P-BIT provided 100% typeability for strains and gave a diversity index of 98.5%, compared with 97.0% for SmaI PFGE, 99.4% for KpnI PFGE, 96.1% for MLST, and 92.8% for serotyping. Numerical analysis of the P-BIT data clearly distinguished strains of the three Campylobacter species examined and correlated somewhat with MLST clonal complex assignations and with previous classifications of "high" and "low" risk. We identified 18 gene targets that conferred the same level of discrimination as the 68 initially examined. We conclude that P-BIT is a useful approach for subtyping, offering advantages of speed, cost, and potential for strain risk ranking unavailable from current molecular typing schema for Campylobacter spp.
Binary neutron star merger simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)
2016-11-01
Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that
Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
2014-01-01
We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...
Eclipsing binary stars with extreme light curve asymmetries mined from large astronomical surveys
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Papageorgiou Athanasios
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The O’Connell effect is one of the most perplexing challenges in binary studies as it has not been convincingly explained. Furthermore, a simple method to obtain essential parameters for eclipsing binaries exhibiting this effect and to extract information describing the asymmetry in the light curve maxima is needed. We have developed an automated program that characterizes the morphology of light curves by depth of both minima, height of both maxima and curvature outside the eclipses.
Report on the first binary black hole inspiral search in LIGO data
Messaritaki, Eirini; Collaboration, for the LIGO Scientific
2005-01-01
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration is currently engaged in the first search for binary black hole inspiral signals in real data. We are using the data from the second LIGO science run and we focus on inspiral signals coming from binary systems with component masses between 3 and 20 solar masses. We describe the analysis methods used and report on preliminary estimates for the sensitivities of the LIGO instruments during the second science run.
Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)
2014-12-21
This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.
SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.
Hitz, Benjamin C; Rowe, Laurence D; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Glick, David I; Baymuradov, Ulugbek K; Malladi, Venkat S; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Gabdank, Idan; Narayana, Aditi K; Onate, Kathrina C; Hilton, Jason; Ho, Marcus C; Lee, Brian T; Miyasato, Stuart R; Dreszer, Timothy R; Sloan, Cricket A; Strattan, J Seth; Tanaka, Forrest Y; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael
2017-01-01
The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database) and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data) has been released as a separate Python package.
SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin C Hitz
Full Text Available The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data has been released as a separate Python package.
Quantum control mechanism analysis through field based Hamiltonian encoding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitra, Abhra; Rabitz, Herschel
2006-01-01
Optimal control of quantum dynamics in the laboratory is proving to be increasingly successful. The control fields can be complex, and the mechanisms by which they operate have often remained obscure. Hamiltonian encoding (HE) has been proposed as a method for understanding mechanisms in quantum dynamics. In this context mechanism is defined in terms of the dominant quantum pathways leading to the final state of the controlled system. HE operates by encoding a special modulation into the Hamiltonian and decoding its signature in the dynamics to determine the dominant pathway amplitudes. Earlier work encoded the modulation directly into the Hamiltonian operators. This present work introduces the alternative scheme of field based HE, where the modulation is encoded into the control field and not directly into the Hamiltonian operators. This distinct form of modulation yields a new perspective on mechanism and is computationally faster than the earlier approach. Field based encoding is also an important step towards a laboratory based algorithm for HE as it is the only form of encoding that may be experimentally executed. HE is also extended to cover systems with noise and uncertainty and finally, a hierarchical algorithm is introduced to reveal mechanism in a stepwise fashion of ever increasing detail as desired. This new hierarchical algorithm is an improvement over earlier approaches to HE where the entire mechanism was determined in one stroke. The improvement comes from the use of less complex modulation schemes, which leads to fewer evaluations of Schroedinger's equation. A number of simulations are presented on simple systems to illustrate the new field based encoding technique for mechanism assessment
Binary Options as a Modern Fenomenon of Financial Business
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kolková Andrea
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Binary options are a new instrument of the financial market. The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of binary options with trading and to illustrate this on the practical example of trades based on Bollinger bands indicator. Currency pair EUR/USD and 6912 time series values of this instrument will be put to analysis. The contribution will be evaluated 8 strategies based on Bollinger Bands. There will be used a backtesting method. From the results follows the most trades could have been realized with the use of Bollinger bands with a double deviation. This strategy, however, also showed the greatest percentage of failed trades. On the contrary the fewest transactions could have been carried out with Bollinger bands with a triple deviation and the MACD filter.
Simultaneous inference of a binary composite endpoint and its components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Große Ruse, Mareile; Ritz, Christian; Hothorn, Ludwig A.
2017-01-01
Binary composite endpoints offer some advantages as a way to succinctly combine evidence from a number of related binary endpoints recorded in the same clinical trial into a single outcome. However, as some concerns about the clinical relevance as well as the interpretation of such composite...... endpoints have been raised, it is recommended to evaluate the composite endpoint jointly with the involved components. We propose an approach for carrying out simultaneous inference based on separate model fits for each endpoint, yet controlling the family-wise type I error rate asymptotically. The key idea......). The method is compared to the gatekeeping approach and results are provided in the Supplementary Material. In two data examples we show how the procedure may be adapted to handle local significance levels specified through a priori given weights....
Enhanced parametric processes in binary metamaterials
Gorkunov, Maxim V.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2005-01-01
We suggest double-resonant (binary) metamaterials composed of two types of magnetic resonant elements, and demonstrate that in the nonlinear regime such metamaterials provide unique possibilities for phase-matched parametric interaction and enhanced second-harmonic generation.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a data table giving basic physical and orbital parameters for known binary minor planets in the Solar System (and Pluto/Charon) based on published...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present data tables giving basic orbital and physical parameters for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets and the Pluto system, based on a...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present data tables giving basic orbital and physical parameters for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets and the Pluto system, based on a...
A Type System for Certified Binaries
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shao, Zhong; Trifonov, Valery; Saha, Bratin; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos
2004-01-01
... (CPS and closure conversion) while preserving proofs represented in the type system. Our work provides a foundation for the process of automatically generating certified binaries in a type-theoretic framework.
ON THE BINARY DIGITS OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS
KANEKO, HAJIME
2010-01-01
Borel conjectured that all algebraic irrational numbers are normal in base 2. However, very little is known about this problem. We improve the lower bounds for the number of digit changes in the binary expansions of algebraic irrational numbers.
Computer controlled evaluation of binary images
Schouten, Th.E.; van den Broek, Egon
2010-01-01
The present invention relates to computer controlled image processing and, in particular, to computer controlled evaluation of two dimensional, 2D, and three dimensional, 3D, binary images including sequences of images using a distance map.
On the Maximum Separation of Visual Binaries
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
minimum) angular separation ρmax(ρmin), the corresponding apparent position angles (|ρmax , |ρmin) and the individual masses of visual binary systems. The algorithm uses Reed's formulae (1984) for the masses, and a ...
Red-giant stars in eccentric binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beck P. G.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.
Observations of new Wolf-Rayet binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemela, V.S.
1982-01-01
The author reports here preliminary results of spectrographic observations for three southern WR stars, whose binary nature had not been previously verified: HDE 320102, CD -45 0 4482, HD 62910. The observations were carried out at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, mostly with the Cassegrain spectrograph with IT attached to the 1-m reflector. These spectrograms were secured on Kodak IIIaJ emulsion, and have a dispersion of 45 A/mm. The results suggest that HDE 320102 must be a double-lined 05-7 + WN3 spectroscopic binary, that CD -45 0 4482 appears to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary and that HD 62910 may be a binary. (Auth.)
Shear viscosity of binary mixtures: The Gay–Berne potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khordad, R.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Most useful potential model to study the real systems is the Gay–Berne (GB) potential. ► We use GB model to examine thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases. ► The integral equation methods are applied to solve numerically the Percus–Yevick (PY) equation. ► We obtain expansion coefficients of correlation functions needed to calculate the properties of studied mixtures. ► The results are compared with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, etc.] - Abstract: The Gay–Berne (GB) potential model is an interesting and useful model to study the real systems. Using the potential model, we intend to examine the thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases, liquid and gas. For this purpose, we apply the integral equation method and solve numerically the Percus–Yevick (PY) integral equation. Then, we obtain the expansion coefficients of correlation functions to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + ethanol, benzene + ethanol, carbon tetrachloride + ethyl acetate, and methanol + ethanol]. The results show that the GB potential model is capable for predicting the thermodynamical properties of binary mixtures with acceptable accuracy.
Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David
2017-06-27
The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.
EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA
2012-02-14
The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.
Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Shaghasi, Tarana
2017-06-20
The present invention relates to polypeptides having xylanase activity, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains, and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains. The present invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains.
Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Spodsberg, Nikolaj
2016-02-23
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall
2016-04-05
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
PROTOTIPE KOMPRESI LOSSLESS AUDIO CODEC MENGGUNAKAN ENTROPY ENCODING
Andreas Soegandi
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to perform lossless compression on the uncompress audio file audio to minimize file size without reducing the quality. The application is developed using the entropy encoding compression method with rice coding technique. For the result, the compression ratio is good enough and easy to be developed because the algorithm is quite simple.
Prototipe Kompresi Lossless Audio Codec Menggunakan Entropy Encoding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Soegandi
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform lossless compression on the uncompress audio file audio to minimize file size without reducing the quality. The application is developed using the entropy encoding compression method with rice coding technique. For the result, the compression ratio is good enough and easy to be developed because the algorithm is quite simple.
Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Harris, Paul; Golightly, Elizabeth
2007-07-17
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall
2017-08-08
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yu; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; McBrayer, Brett
2017-07-04
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael
2017-09-26
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin
2017-02-07
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding the same
Duan, Junxin; Schnorr, Kirk Matthew; Wu, Wenping
2013-11-19
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Chimeric polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Wogulis, Mark; Sweeney, Matthew; Heu, Tia
2017-06-14
The present invention relates to chimeric GH61 polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the chimeric GH61 polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the chimeric GH61 polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stringer, Mary Ann; McBrayer, Brett
2016-11-29
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity, catalytic domains, and cellulose binding domains and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and cellulose binding domains. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains, or cellulose binding domains.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Joergensen, Christian; Kramer, Randall
2016-11-29
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Hanshu, Ding
2012-10-30
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polynucleotides encoding polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity
Harris, Paul; Golightly, Elizabeth
2010-03-02
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Maiyuran, Suchindra; Kramer, Randall; Harris, Paul
2013-10-29
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; Wu, Wenping
2016-11-22
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same
Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo
2012-10-16
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael
2016-05-31
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; Wu, Wenping
2016-06-14
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Wu, Wenping; Kramer, Randall
2017-09-19
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Shagasi, Tarana
2017-05-30
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity, catalytic domains, cellulose binding domains and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains or cellulose binding domains. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains or cellulose binding domains.
Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Harris, Paul; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael; Ding, Hanshu; Vlasenko, Elena
2010-11-02
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo
2016-08-09
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo
2017-09-05
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall
2016-08-09
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the same
Spodsberg, Nikolaj [Bagsvaed, DK
2014-01-07
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The inventino also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Morant, Marc Dominique
2014-10-14
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same
Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA
2008-04-01
The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.
EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same
Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA
2009-05-05
The present invention provides an endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.
EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same
Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian
2013-07-16
The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.
EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same
Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian
2006-06-06
The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.
EGVIII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same
Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian
2006-05-23
The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl8, and the corresponding EGVIII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVIII, recombinant EGVIII proteins and methods for producing the same.
Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yu; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan
2018-01-30
The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.
Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stolwijk, N.A.
1980-01-01
This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)
Reflection effect in close binary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanlandingham, F.G.
1974-01-01
The investigation studies the effects of the irradiation of the hotter component in a close binary system on the atmosphere of the secondary and on the observed flux distribution of the binary system. An existing model atmospheres computer program is modified to include the effects of non-zero incident radiation. Computations reveal that the irradiation can significantly raise the temperature in the upper layers of the atmosphere. (U.S.)
Detecting Black Hole Binaries by Gaia
Yamaguchi, Masaki S.; Kawanaka, Norita; Bulik, Tomasz; Piran, Tsvi
2017-01-01
We study the prospect of the Gaia satellite to identify black hole binary systems by detecting the orbital motion of the companion stars. Taking into account the initial mass function, mass transfer, common envelope phase, interstellar absorption and identifiability of black holes, we estimate the number of black hole binaries detected by Gaia and their distributions with respect to the black hole mass for several models with different parameters. We find that $\\sim 300-6000$ black hole binar...
Search for binary nuclei in planetary nebulae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jasniewicz, G.
1987-01-01
Two planetary nebulae with central stars of late spectral type were observed: LT 5 and Abell 35. The variation of the systemic velocity of the G-binary in HD 112313 gives strong support to the idea of a third body in the nucleus of LT 5. In addition, it is concluded that observed photometric variations of BD -22 deg 3467 (the central star of Abell 35) can best be explained by the binary nature of the star. 9 references
Search for binary nuclei in planetary nebulae
Jasniewicz, G.
Two planetary nebulae with central stars of late spectral type were observed: LT 5 and Abell 35. The variation of the systemic velocity of the G-binary in HD 112313 gives strong support to the idea of a third body in the nucleus of LT 5. In addition, it is concluded that observed photometric variations of BD -22 deg 3467 (the central star of Abell 35) can best be explained by the binary nature of the star.