WorldWideScience

Sample records for binary encoding method

  1. Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang Tsan Lin; Sheng Lih Yeh

    2014-01-01

    The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matri...

  2. Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Tsan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matrix holographic image contain seven groups of codes used for reconstructing the covert image. The seven groups of codes are identification codes, covert-image dimension codes, covert-image graylevel codes, pre-RSA bit number codes, RSA key codes, post-RSA bit number codes, and information codes. The reconstructed covert image derived from the dot-matrix holographic image and the original covert image are exactly the same.

  3. A simple component-connection method for building binary decision diagrams encoding a fault tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, Y.-S.; Hsia, D.-Y.

    2000-01-01

    A simple new method for building binary decision diagrams (BDDs) encoding a fault tree (FT) is provided in this study. We first decompose the FT into FT-components. Each of them is a single descendant (SD) gate-sequence. Following the node-connection rule, the BDD-component encoding an SD FT-component can each be found to be an SD node-sequence. By successively connecting the BDD-components one by one, the BDD for the entire FT is thus obtained. During the node-connection and component-connection, reduction rules might need to be applied. An example FT is used throughout the article to explain the procedure step by step. Our method proposed is a hybrid one for FT analysis. Some algorithms or techniques used in the conventional FT analysis or the newer BDD approach may be applied to our case; our ideas mentioned in the article might be referred by the two methods

  4. Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Varner, G.; Cooney, M.

    2009-01-01

    The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10 -4 . A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.

  5. An encoding device and a method of encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an encoding device, such as an optical position encoder, for encoding input from an object, and a method for encoding input from an object, for determining a position of an object that interferes with light of the device. The encoding device comprises a light source...... in the area in the space and may interfere with the light, which interference may be encoded into a position or activation....

  6. Three-dimensional trace measurements for fast-moving objects using binary-encoded fringe projection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Hung; Kuo, Cho-Yo; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2014-08-20

    A fringe projection technique to trace the shape of a fast-moving object is proposed. A binary-encoded fringe pattern is illuminated by a strobe lamp and then projected onto the moving object at a sequence of time. Phases of the projected fringes obtained from the sequent measurements are extracted by the Fourier transform method. Unwrapping is then performed with reference to the binary-encoded fringe pattern. Even though the inspected object is colorful, fringe orders can be identified. A stream of profiles is therefore retrieved from the sequent unwrapped phases. This makes it possible to analyze physical properties of the dynamic objects. Advantages of the binary-encoded fringe pattern for phase unwrapping also include (1) reliable performance for colorful objects, spatially isolated objects, and surfaces with large depth discontinuities; (2) unwrapped errors only confined in a local area; and (3) low computation cost.

  7. Method for making an improved magnetic encoding device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A magnetic encoding device and method for making the same are provided for use as magnetic storage mediums in identification control applications which give output signals from a reader that are of shorter duration and substantially greater magnitude than those of the prior art. Magnetic encoding elements are produced by uniformly bending wire or strip stock of a magnetic material longitudinally about a common radius to exceed the elastic limit of the material and subsequently mounting the material so that it is restrained in an unbent position on a substrate of nonmagnetic material. The elements are spot weld attached to a substrate to form a binary coded array of elements according to a desired binary code. The coded substrate may be enclosed in a plastic laminate structure. Such devices may be used for security badges, key cards, and the like and may have many other applications.

  8. Economic modeling using evolutionary algorithms : the effect of binary encoding of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltman, L.R.; Eck, van N.J.; Dekker, Rommert; Kaymak, U.

    2011-01-01

    We are concerned with evolutionary algorithms that are employed for economic modeling purposes. We focus in particular on evolutionary algorithms that use a binary encoding of strategies. These algorithms, commonly referred to as genetic algorithms, are popular in agent-based computational economics

  9. Polarization encoded all-optical quaternary R-S flip-flop using binary latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Chakraborty, Ajoy Kumar

    2009-04-01

    The developments of different multi-valued logic (MVL) systems have received considerable interests in recent years all over the world. In electronics, efforts have already been made to incorporate multi-valued system in logic and arithmetic data processing. But, very little efforts have been given in realization of MVL with optics. In this paper we present novel designs of certain all-optical circuits that can be used for realizing multi-valued logic functions. Polarization encoded all-optical quaternary (4-valued) R-S flip-flop is proposed and described. Two key circuits (all-optical encoder/decoder and a binary latch) are designed first. They are used to realize quaternary flip-flop in all-optical domain. Here the different quaternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch can take an important role. Computer simulation result confirming described methods and conclusion are given in this paper.

  10. A Fast Optimization Method for General Binary Code Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fumin; Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Yang; Song, Jingkuan; Shen, Heng; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-09-22

    Hashing or binary code learning has been recognized to accomplish efficient near neighbor search, and has thus attracted broad interests in recent retrieval, vision and learning studies. One main challenge of learning to hash arises from the involvement of discrete variables in binary code optimization. While the widely-used continuous relaxation may achieve high learning efficiency, the pursued codes are typically less effective due to accumulated quantization error. In this work, we propose a novel binary code optimization method, dubbed Discrete Proximal Linearized Minimization (DPLM), which directly handles the discrete constraints during the learning process. Specifically, the discrete (thus nonsmooth nonconvex) problem is reformulated as minimizing the sum of a smooth loss term with a nonsmooth indicator function. The obtained problem is then efficiently solved by an iterative procedure with each iteration admitting an analytical discrete solution, which is thus shown to converge very fast. In addition, the proposed method supports a large family of empirical loss functions, which is particularly instantiated in this work by both a supervised and an unsupervised hashing losses, together with the bits uncorrelation and balance constraints. In particular, the proposed DPLM with a supervised `2 loss encodes the whole NUS-WIDE database into 64-bit binary codes within 10 seconds on a standard desktop computer. The proposed approach is extensively evaluated on several large-scale datasets and the generated binary codes are shown to achieve very promising results on both retrieval and classification tasks.

  11. A SSVEP Stimuli Encoding Method Using Trinary Frequency-Shift Keying Encoded SSVEP (TFSK-SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available SSVEP is a kind of BCI technology with advantage of high information transfer rate. However, due to its nature, frequencies could be used as stimuli are scarce. To solve such problem, a stimuli encoding method which encodes SSVEP signal using Frequency Shift–Keying (FSK method is developed. In this method, each stimulus is controlled by a FSK signal which contains three different frequencies that represent “Bit 0,” “Bit 1” and “Bit 2” respectively. Different to common BFSK in digital communication, “Bit 0” and “Bit 1” composited the unique identifier of stimuli in binary bit stream form, while “Bit 2” indicates the ending of a stimuli encoding. EEG signal is acquired on channel Oz, O1, O2, Pz, P3, and P4, using ADS1299 at the sample rate of 250 SPS. Before original EEG signal is quadrature demodulated, it is detrended and then band-pass filtered using FFT-based FIR filtering to remove interference. Valid peak of the processed signal is acquired by calculating its derivative and converted into bit stream using window method. Theoretically, this coding method could implement at least 2n−1 (n is the length of bit command stimulus while keeping the ITR the same. This method is suitable to implement stimuli on a monitor and where the frequency and phase could be used to code stimuli is limited as well as implementing portable BCI devices which is not capable of performing complex calculations.

  12. Binary Classification Method of Social Network Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Poryadin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is a binary classification method of social network users based on the data analysis they have placed. Relevance of the task to gain information about a person by examining the content of his/her pages in social networks is exemplified. The most common approach to its solution is a visual browsing. The order of the regional authority in our country illustrates that its using in school education is needed. The article shows restrictions on the visual browsing of pupil’s pages in social networks as a tool for the teacher and the school psychologist and justifies that a process of social network users’ data analysis should be automated. Explores publications, which describe such data acquisition, processing, and analysis methods and considers their advantages and disadvantages. The article also gives arguments to support a proposal to study the classification method of social network users. One such method is credit scoring, which is used in banks and credit institutions to assess the solvency of clients. Based on the high efficiency of the method there is a proposal for significant expansion of its using in other areas of society. The possibility to use logistic regression as the mathematical apparatus of the proposed method of binary classification has been justified. Such an approach enables taking into account the different types of data extracted from social networks. Among them: the personal user data, information about hobbies, friends, graphic and text information, behaviour characteristics. The article describes a number of existing methods of data transformation that can be applied to solve the problem. An experiment of binary gender-based classification of social network users is described. A logistic model obtained for this example includes multiple logical variables obtained by transforming the user surnames. This experiment confirms the feasibility of the proposed method. Further work is to define a system

  13. Influence of non-binary effects on intranuclear cascade method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, E.H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of non binary process effects in the intranuclear cascade method is analysed. It is shown that, in the higher density steps, the non binary collisions lead to baryon density distribution and rapidity differents from the one obtained using the usual intranuclear cascade method (limited to purely binary collisions). The validity of the applications of binary intranuclear cascade method to the simulation of the thermal equilibrium, nuclear transparency and particle production, is discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Binary patterns encoded convolutional neural networks for texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Rao Muhammad; Khan, Fahad Shahbaz; van de Weijer, Joost; Molinier, Matthieu; Laaksonen, Jorma

    2018-04-01

    Designing discriminative powerful texture features robust to realistic imaging conditions is a challenging computer vision problem with many applications, including material recognition and analysis of satellite or aerial imagery. In the past, most texture description approaches were based on dense orderless statistical distribution of local features. However, most recent approaches to texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification are based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). The de facto practice when learning these CNN models is to use RGB patches as input with training performed on large amounts of labeled data (ImageNet). In this paper, we show that Local Binary Patterns (LBP) encoded CNN models, codenamed TEX-Nets, trained using mapped coded images with explicit LBP based texture information provide complementary information to the standard RGB deep models. Additionally, two deep architectures, namely early and late fusion, are investigated to combine the texture and color information. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to investigate Binary Patterns encoded CNNs and different deep network fusion architectures for texture recognition and remote sensing scene classification. We perform comprehensive experiments on four texture recognition datasets and four remote sensing scene classification benchmarks: UC-Merced with 21 scene categories, WHU-RS19 with 19 scene classes, RSSCN7 with 7 categories and the recently introduced large scale aerial image dataset (AID) with 30 aerial scene types. We demonstrate that TEX-Nets provide complementary information to standard RGB deep model of the same network architecture. Our late fusion TEX-Net architecture always improves the overall performance compared to the standard RGB network on both recognition problems. Furthermore, our final combination leads to consistent improvement over the state-of-the-art for remote sensing scene classification.

  15. Evaluation of efficient XML interchange (EXI) for large datasets and as an alternative to binary JSON encodings

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Bruce W.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Current and emerging Navy information concepts, including network-centric warfare and Navy Tactical Cloud, presume high network throughput and interoperability. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) addresses the latter requirement, but its verbosity is problematic for afloat networks. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is an alternative to XML common in web applications and some non-relational databases. Compact, binary encodings exist ...

  16. Improved magnetic encoding device and method for making the same. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R.J.

    A magnetic encoding device and method for making the same are provided for use as magnetic storage media in identification control applications that give output signals from a reader that are of shorter duration and substantially greater magnitude than those of the prior art. Magnetic encoding elements are produced by uniformly bending wire or strip stock of a magnetic material longitudinally about a common radius to exceed the elastic limit of the material and subsequently mounting the material so that it is restrained in an unbent position on a substrate of nonmagnetic material. The elements are spot weld attached to a substrate to form a binary coded array of elements according to a desired binary code. The coded substrate may be enclosed in a plastic laminate structure. Such devices may be used for security badges, key cards, and the like and may have many other applications. 7 figures.

  17. Wide Binaries in TGAS: Search Method and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Chanamé, Julio; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2018-04-01

    Half of all stars reside in binary systems, many of which have orbital separations in excess of 1000 AU. Such binaries are typically identified in astrometric catalogs by matching the proper motions vectors of close stellar pairs. We present a fully Bayesian method that properly takes into account positions, proper motions, parallaxes, and their correlated uncertainties to identify widely separated stellar binaries. After applying our method to the >2 × 106 stars in the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution from Gaia DR1, we identify over 6000 candidate wide binaries. For those pairs with separations less than 40,000 AU, we determine the contamination rate to be ~5%. This sample has an orbital separation (a) distribution that is roughly flat in log space for separations less than ~5000 AU and follows a power law of a -1.6 at larger separations.

  18. Method of implementing frequency-encoded NOT, OR and NOR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 5. Method of implementing frequency-encoded NOT, OR and NOR logic operations using lithium niobate waveguide and reflecting semiconductor optical amplifiers. Sisir Kumar Garai Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay. Volume 73 Issue 5 November 2009 pp 901- ...

  19. A novel asynchronous access method with binary interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Solis Jorge

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally synchronous access strategies require users to comply with one or more time constraints in order to communicate intent with a binary human-machine interface (e.g., mechanical, gestural or neural switches. Asynchronous access methods are preferable, but have not been used with binary interfaces in the control of devices that require more than two commands to be successfully operated. Methods We present the mathematical development and evaluation of a novel asynchronous access method that may be used to translate sporadic activations of binary interfaces into distinct outcomes for the control of devices requiring an arbitrary number of commands to be controlled. With this method, users are required to activate their interfaces only when the device under control behaves erroneously. Then, a recursive algorithm, incorporating contextual assumptions relevant to all possible outcomes, is used to obtain an informed estimate of user intention. We evaluate this method by simulating a control task requiring a series of target commands to be tracked by a model user. Results When compared to a random selection, the proposed asynchronous access method offers a significant reduction in the number of interface activations required from the user. Conclusion This novel access method offers a variety of advantages over traditionally synchronous access strategies and may be adapted to a wide variety of contexts, with primary relevance to applications involving direct object manipulation.

  20. Note: An absolute X-Y-Θ position sensor using a two-dimensional phase-encoded binary scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ahn; Kim, Jae Wan; Kang, Chu-Shik; Jin, Jonghan

    2018-04-01

    This Note presents a new absolute X-Y-Θ position sensor for measuring planar motion of a precision multi-axis stage system. By analyzing the rotated image of a two-dimensional phase-encoded binary scale (2D), the absolute 2D position values at two separated points were obtained and the absolute X-Y-Θ position could be calculated combining these values. The sensor head was constructed using a board-level camera, a light-emitting diode light source, an imaging lens, and a cube beam-splitter. To obtain the uniform intensity profiles from the vignette scale image, we selected the averaging directions deliberately, and higher resolution in the angle measurement could be achieved by increasing the allowable offset size. The performance of a prototype sensor was evaluated in respect of resolution, nonlinearity, and repeatability. The sensor could resolve 25 nm linear and 0.001° angular displacements clearly, and the standard deviations were less than 18 nm when 2D grid positions were measured repeatedly.

  1. Method of generating ploynucleotides encoding enhanced folding variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Kiss, Csaba; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2017-05-02

    The invention provides directed evolution methods for improving the folding, solubility and stability (including thermostability) characteristics of polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides a method for generating folding and stability-enhanced variants of proteins, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins, chromophoric proteins and enzymes. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for generating thermostable variants of a target protein or polypeptide via an internal destabilization baiting strategy. Internally destabilization a protein of interest is achieved by inserting a heterologous, folding-destabilizing sequence (folding interference domain) within DNA encoding the protein of interest, evolving the protein sequences adjacent to the heterologous insertion to overcome the destabilization (using any number of mutagenesis methods), thereby creating a library of variants. The variants in the library are expressed, and those with enhanced folding characteristics selected.

  2. GPU accelerated manifold correction method for spinning compact binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chong-xi; Liu, Song; Zhong, Shuang-ying

    2018-04-01

    The graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration of the manifold correction algorithm based on the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology is designed to simulate the dynamic evolution of the Post-Newtonian (PN) Hamiltonian formulation of spinning compact binaries. The feasibility and the efficiency of parallel computation on GPU have been confirmed by various numerical experiments. The numerical comparisons show that the accuracy on GPU execution of manifold corrections method has a good agreement with the execution of codes on merely central processing unit (CPU-based) method. The acceleration ability when the codes are implemented on GPU can increase enormously through the use of shared memory and register optimization techniques without additional hardware costs, implying that the speedup is nearly 13 times as compared with the codes executed on CPU for phase space scan (including 314 × 314 orbits). In addition, GPU-accelerated manifold correction method is used to numerically study how dynamics are affected by the spin-induced quadrupole-monopole interaction for black hole binary system.

  3. Binary recursive partitioning: background, methods, and application to psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Edgar C; Shaffer, Victoria A

    2011-02-01

    Binary recursive partitioning (BRP) is a computationally intensive statistical method that can be used in situations where linear models are often used. Instead of imposing many assumptions to arrive at a tractable statistical model, BRP simply seeks to accurately predict a response variable based on values of predictor variables. The method outputs a decision tree depicting the predictor variables that were related to the response variable, along with the nature of the variables' relationships. No significance tests are involved, and the tree's 'goodness' is judged based on its predictive accuracy. In this paper, we describe BRP methods in a detailed manner and illustrate their use in psychological research. We also provide R code for carrying out the methods.

  4. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    was compared to a linear frequency modulated signal with amplitude tapering, previously used in clinical studies for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. The latter had a relatively flat spectrum which implied that the waveform tried to excite all frequencies including ones with low amplification. The proposed......In this paper a method for designing waveforms for temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging is described. The method is based on least squares optimization and is used to design nonlinear frequency modulated signals for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. By using the proposed design method...... waveform, on the other hand, was designed so that only frequencies where the transducer had a large amplification were excited. Hereby, unnecessary heating of the transducer could be avoided and the signal-tonoise ratio could be increased. The experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS was used to evaluate...

  5. A novel attack method about double-random-phase-encoding-based image hiding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongsheng; Xiao, Zhijun; Zhu, Xianchen

    2018-03-01

    By using optical image processing techniques, a novel text encryption and hiding method applied by double-random phase-encoding technique is proposed in the paper. The first step is that the secret message is transformed into a 2-dimension array. The higher bits of the elements in the array are used to fill with the bit stream of the secret text, while the lower bits are stored specific values. Then, the transformed array is encoded by double random phase encoding technique. Last, the encoded array is embedded on a public host image to obtain the image embedded with hidden text. The performance of the proposed technique is tested via analytical modeling and test data stream. Experimental results show that the secret text can be recovered either accurately or almost accurately, while maintaining the quality of the host image embedded with hidden data by properly selecting the method of transforming the secret text into an array and the superimposition coefficient.

  6. A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys: Part I: Statistical Calculation of Excess Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The improved form of calculation formula for the activities of the components in binary liquids and solid alloys has been derived based on the free volume theory considering excess entropy and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys. A calculation method of excess thermodynamic functions for binary alloys, the formulas of integral molar excess properties and partial molar excess properties for solid ordered or disordered binary alloys have been developed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  7. Low-complexity video encoding method for wireless image transmission in capsule endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Hamaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a low-complexity video encoding method applicable for wireless image transmission in capsule endoscopes. This encoding method is based on Wyner-Ziv theory, in which side information available at a transmitter is treated as side information at its receiver. Therefore complex processes in video encoding, such as estimation of the motion vector, are moved to the receiver side, which has a larger-capacity battery. As a result, the encoding process is only to decimate coded original data through channel coding. We provide a performance evaluation for a low-density parity check (LDPC) coding method in the AWGN channel.

  8. Key management of the double random-phase-encoding method using public-key encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2010-03-01

    Public-key encryption has been used to encode the key of the encryption process. In the proposed technique, an input image has been encrypted by using the double random-phase-encoding method using extended fractional Fourier transform. The key of the encryption process have been encoded by using the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. The encoded key has then been transmitted to the receiver side along with the encrypted image. In the decryption process, first the encoded key has been decrypted using the secret key and then the encrypted image has been decrypted by using the retrieved key parameters. The proposed technique has advantage over double random-phase-encoding method because the problem associated with the transmission of the key has been eliminated by using public-key encryption. Computer simulation has been carried out to validate the proposed technique.

  9. Fast optimization of binary clusters using a novel dynamic lattice searching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xia; Cheng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Global optimization of binary clusters has been a difficult task despite of much effort and many efficient methods. Directing toward two types of elements (i.e., homotop problem) in binary clusters, two classes of virtual dynamic lattices are constructed and a modified dynamic lattice searching (DLS) method, i.e., binary DLS (BDLS) method, is developed. However, it was found that the BDLS can only be utilized for the optimization of binary clusters with small sizes because homotop problem is hard to be solved without atomic exchange operation. Therefore, the iterated local search (ILS) method is adopted to solve homotop problem and an efficient method based on the BDLS method and ILS, named as BDLS-ILS, is presented for global optimization of binary clusters. In order to assess the efficiency of the proposed method, binary Lennard-Jones clusters with up to 100 atoms are investigated. Results show that the method is proved to be efficient. Furthermore, the BDLS-ILS method is also adopted to study the geometrical structures of (AuPd) 79 clusters with DFT-fit parameters of Gupta potential

  10. Method of statistical estimation of temperature minimums in binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mireev, V.A.; Safonov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of statistical processing of literature data the technique for evaluation of temperature minima on liquidus curves in binary systems with common ion chloride systems being taken as an example, is developed. The systems are formed by 48 chlorides of 45 chemical elements including alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth and transition metals as well as Cd, In, Th. It is shown that calculation error in determining minimum melting points depends on topology of the phase diagram. The comparison of calculated and experimental data for several previously nonstudied systems is given

  11. An optimized encoding method for secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement and its extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Gan

    2015-01-01

    Song [Song D 2004 Phys. Rev. A 69 034301] first proposed two key distribution schemes with the symmetry feature. We find that, in the schemes, the private channels which Alice and Bob publicly announce the initial Bell state or the measurement result through are not needed in discovering keys, and Song’s encoding methods do not arrive at the optimization. Here, an optimized encoding method is given so that the efficiencies of Song’s schemes are improved by 7/3 times. Interestingly, this optimized encoding method can be extended to the key distribution scheme composed of generalized Bell states. (paper)

  12. Method and system for progressive mesh storage and reconstruction using wavelet-encoded height fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxes, Gregory A. (Inventor); Linger, Timothy C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for progressive mesh storage and reconstruction using wavelet-encoded height fields. A method for progressive mesh storage includes reading raster height field data, and processing the raster height field data with a discrete wavelet transform to generate wavelet-encoded height fields. In another embodiment, a method for progressive mesh storage includes reading texture map data, and processing the texture map data with a discrete wavelet transform to generate wavelet-encoded texture map fields. A method for reconstructing a progressive mesh from wavelet-encoded height field data includes determining terrain blocks, and a level of detail required for each terrain block, based upon a viewpoint. Triangle strip constructs are generated from vertices of the terrain blocks, and an image is rendered utilizing the triangle strip constructs. Software products that implement these methods are provided.

  13. Introducing adapted Nelder & Mead's downhill simplex method to a fully automated analysis of eclipsing binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Prsa, A.; Zwitter, T.

    2004-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries are extremely attractive objects because absolute physical parameters (masses, luminosities, radii) of both components may be determined from observations. Since most efforts to extract these parameters were based on dedicated observing programs, existing modeling code is based on interactivity. Gaia will make a revolutionary advance in shear number of observed eclipsing binaries and new methods for automatic handling must be introduced and thoroughly tested. This paper foc...

  14. New Methods of Stereo Encoding for FM Radio Broadcasting Based on Digital Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stranak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes new methods of stereo encoding for FM radio broadcasting. Digital signal processing makes possible to construct an encoder with properties that are not attainable using conventional analog solutions. The article describes the mathematical model of the encoder, on the basis of which a specific program code for DSP was developed. The article further deals with a new method of composite clipping which does not cause impurities in the output spectrum, and at the same time preserves high separation between the left and right audio channels. The application of the new method is useful mainly where there are unwanted signal overshoots on the input of the stereo encoder, e.g., in case of signal transmission from the studio to the transmitter site through a route with psychoacoustic lossy compression of data rate.

  15. Encoding methods for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Desmond H. Y.; Poole, Michael S.; Magill, Arthur W.; Felder, Jörg; Brenner, Daniel; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-08-01

    Parallel radiofrequency (RF) transmission, either in the form of RF shimming or pulse design, has been proposed as a solution to the B1+ inhomogeneity problem in ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging. As a prerequisite, accurate B1+ maps from each of the available transmit channels are required. In this work, four different encoding methods for B1+ mapping, namely 1-channel-on, all-channels-on-except-1, all-channels-on-1-inverted and Fourier phase encoding, were evaluated using dual refocusing acquisition mode (DREAM) at 9.4 T. Fourier phase encoding was demonstrated in both phantom and in vivo to be the least susceptible to artefacts caused by destructive RF interference at 9.4 T. Unlike the other two interferometric encoding schemes, Fourier phase encoding showed negligible dependency on the initial RF phase setting and therefore no prior B1+ knowledge is required. Fourier phase encoding also provides a flexible way to increase the number of measurements to increase SNR, and to allow further reduction of artefacts by weighted decoding. These advantages of Fourier phase encoding suggest that it is a good choice for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field.

  16. Prediction of surface tension of binary mixtures with the parachor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The parachor method for the estimation of the surface tension of binary mixtures is modified by considering temperature-dependent values of the parachor parameters. The temperature dependence is calculated by a least-squares fit of pure-solvent surface tension data to the binary parachor equation utilizing the Peng-Robinson equation of state for the calculation of equilibrium densities. A very good agreement between experimental binary surface tension data and the predictions of the modified parachor method are found for the case of the mixtures of carbon dioxide and butane, benzene, and cyclohexane, respectively. The surface tension is also predicted for three refrigerant mixtures, i.e. propane, isobutane, and chlorodifluoromethane, with carbon dioxide.

  17. AN ENCODING METHOD FOR COMPRESSING GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES IN 3D SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Qian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an encoding method for compressing geographical coordinates in 3D space. By the way of reducing the length of geographical coordinates, it helps to lessen the storage size of geometry information. In addition, the encoding algorithm subdivides the whole space according to octree rules, which enables progressive transmission and loading. Three main steps are included in this method: (1 subdividing the whole 3D geographic space based on octree structure, (2 resampling all the vertices in 3D models, (3 encoding the coordinates of vertices with a combination of Cube Index Code (CIC and Geometry Code. A series of geographical 3D models were applied to evaluate the encoding method. The results showed that this method reduced the storage size of most test data by 90 % or even more under the condition of a speed of encoding and decoding. In conclusion, this method achieved a remarkable compression rate in vertex bit size with a steerable precision loss. It shall be of positive meaning to the web 3d map storing and transmission.

  18. A novel method for intelligent fault diagnosis of rolling bearings using ensemble deep auto-encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haidong; Jiang, Hongkai; Lin, Ying; Li, Xingqiu

    2018-03-01

    Automatic and accurate identification of rolling bearings fault categories, especially for the fault severities and fault orientations, is still a major challenge in rotating machinery fault diagnosis. In this paper, a novel method called ensemble deep auto-encoders (EDAEs) is proposed for intelligent fault diagnosis of rolling bearings. Firstly, different activation functions are employed as the hidden functions to design a series of auto-encoders (AEs) with different characteristics. Secondly, EDAEs are constructed with various auto-encoders for unsupervised feature learning from the measured vibration signals. Finally, a combination strategy is designed to ensure accurate and stable diagnosis results. The proposed method is applied to analyze the experimental bearing vibration signals. The results confirm that the proposed method can get rid of the dependence on manual feature extraction and overcome the limitations of individual deep learning models, which is more effective than the existing intelligent diagnosis methods.

  19. An encoding readout method used for Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) for muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Zeng, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Cheng, J.

    2014-09-01

    A muon tomography facility has been built in Tsinghua University. Because of the low flux of cosmic muon, an encoding readout method, based on the fine-fine configuration, was implemented for the 2880 channels induced signals from the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detectors. With the encoding method, the number of the readout electronics was dramatically reduced and thus the complexity and the cost of the facility was reduced, too. In this paper, the details of the encoding method, and the overall readout system setup in the muon tomography facility are described. With the commissioning of the facility, the readout method works well. The spatial resolution of all MRPC detectors are measured with cosmic muon and the preliminary imaging result are also given.

  20. An encoding readout method used for Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) for muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, X; Zeng, M; Wang, Y; Wang, X; Zeng, Z; Zhao, Z; Cheng, J

    2014-01-01

    A muon tomography facility has been built in Tsinghua University. Because of the low flux of cosmic muon, an encoding readout method, based on the fine-fine configuration, was implemented for the 2880 channels induced signals from the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detectors. With the encoding method, the number of the readout electronics was dramatically reduced and thus the complexity and the cost of the facility was reduced, too. In this paper, the details of the encoding method, and the overall readout system setup in the muon tomography facility are described. With the commissioning of the facility, the readout method works well. The spatial resolution of all MRPC detectors are measured with cosmic muon and the preliminary imaging result are also given

  1. Breaking from binaries - using a sequential mixed methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Patricia Mary; Begley, Cecily Marion; Devane, Declan

    2014-03-01

    To outline the traditional worldviews of healthcare research and discuss the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods approaches in contributing to the development of nursing and midwifery knowledge. There has been much debate about the contribution of mixed methods research to nursing and midwifery knowledge in recent years. A sequential exploratory design is used as an exemplar of a mixed methods approach. The study discussed used a combination of focus-group interviews and a quantitative instrument to obtain a fuller understanding of women's experiences of childbirth. In the mixed methods study example, qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and quantitative data using regression analysis. Polarised debates about the veracity, philosophical integrity and motivation for conducting mixed methods research have largely abated. A mixed methods approach can contribute to a deeper, more contextual understanding of a variety of subjects and experiences; as a result, it furthers knowledge that can be used in clinical practice. The purpose of the research study should be the main instigator when choosing from an array of mixed methods research designs. Mixed methods research offers a variety of models that can augment investigative capabilities and provide richer data than can a discrete method alone. This paper offers an example of an exploratory, sequential approach to investigating women's childbirth experiences. A clear framework for the conduct and integration of the different phases of the mixed methods research process is provided. This approach can be used by practitioners and policy makers to improve practice.

  2. Comparison of a newly developed binary typing with ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing methods for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhirong; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhao, Jianhong; Xu, Kaiyue; Tian, Tiantian; Yang, Jing; Qiang, Cuixin; Shi, Dongyan; Wei, Honglian; Sun, Suju; Cui, Qingqing; Li, Ruxin; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Bixing

    2018-04-01

    Clostridium difficile is the causative pathogen for antibiotic-related nosocomial diarrhea. For epidemiological study and identification of virulent clones, a new binary typing method was developed for C. difficile in this study. The usefulness of this newly developed optimized 10-loci binary typing method was compared with two widely used methods ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in 189 C. difficile samples. The binary typing, ribotyping and MLST typed the samples into 53 binary types (BTs), 26 ribotypes (RTs), and 33 MLST sequence types (STs), respectively. The typing ability of the binary method was better than that of either ribotyping or MLST expressed in Simpson Index (SI) at 0.937, 0.892 and 0.859, respectively. The ease of testing, portability and cost-effectiveness of the new binary typing would make it a useful typing alternative for outbreak investigations within healthcare facilities and epidemiological research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical simulation of binary collisions using a modified surface tension model with particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhongguo; Xi Guang; Chen Xi

    2009-01-01

    The binary collision of liquid droplets is of both practical importance and fundamental value in computational fluid mechanics. We present a modified surface tension model within the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, and carry out two-dimensional simulations to investigate the mechanisms of coalescence and separation of the droplets during binary collision. The modified surface tension model improves accuracy and convergence. A mechanism map is established for various possible deformation pathways encountered during binary collision, as the impact speed is varied; a new pathway is reported when the collision speed is critical. In addition, eccentric collisions are simulated and the effect of the rotation of coalesced particle is explored. The results qualitatively agree with experiments and the numerical protocol may find applications in studying free surface flows and interface deformation

  4. A new design method for fluidized bed conversion of largely heterogeneous binary fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szentannai Pal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Binary fuels of a fluidized bed combustor or gasifier are solids composed of two groups of particles. Their optimal handling in the same bed becomes rather difficult if their hydrodynamic properties differ by two orders of magnitude or more. Both of these fuel classes are directly fed into the reactor in most cases but the rather homogeneous fuel originally fed switches into a binary character inside the reactor in some others. A typical example of the latter case is the thermal utilization of rubber wastes. A novel design is proposed in the present paper by setting up a non-mixing, non-elutriated binary bed. Design criteria and procedure are formulated as well. One of the known calculation methods is proposed to be applied for assuring a segregated bed by means of choosing the bed components, geometry, and gas velocity conveniently. Cold model experiments are proposed to be applied for assuring no elutriation of the fine fuel particles and no sinking of the coarse fuel particles in the same time. A simple experiment is proposed for determining the common minimum fluidization velocity of the binary bed because known calculation methods can not be applied here.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Compression Methods for Storing Binary Image for Low-Memory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Slaby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the statistical comparison of the selected compression methods which are used for compression of the binary images. The aim is to asses, which of presented compression method for low-memory system requires less number of bytes of memory. For assessment of the success rates of the input image to binary image the correlation functions are used. Correlation function is one of the methods of OCR algorithm used for the digitization of printed symbols. Using of compression methods is necessary for systems based on low-power micro-controllers. The data stream saving is very important for such systems with limited memory as well as the time required for decoding the compressed data. The success rate of the selected compression algorithms is evaluated using the basic characteristics of the exploratory analysis. The searched samples represent the amount of bytes needed to compress the test images, representing alphanumeric characters.

  6. A general method for handling missing binary outcome data in randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Dan; White, Ian R; Mason, Dan; Sutton, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Aims The analysis of randomized controlled trials with incomplete binary outcome data is challenging. We develop a general method for exploring the impact of missing data in such trials, with a focus on abstinence outcomes. Design We propose a sensitivity analysis where standard analyses, which could include ‘missing = smoking’ and ‘last observation carried forward’, are embedded in a wider class of models. Setting We apply our general method to data from two smoking cessation trials. Partici...

  7. Simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of pantoprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride by four spectrophotometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Nesrin K.; El-Ragehy, Nariman A.; Ragab, Mona T.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2015-02-01

    Four simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture containing Pantoprazole Sodium Sesquihydrate (PAN) and Itopride Hydrochloride (ITH). Method (A) is the derivative ratio method (1DD), method (B) is the mean centering of ratio spectra method (MCR), method (C) is the ratio difference method (RD) and method (D) is the isoabsorptive point coupled with third derivative method (3D). Linear correlation was obtained in range 8-44 μg/mL for PAN by the four proposed methods, 8-40 μg/mL for ITH by methods A, B and C and 10-40 μg/mL for ITH by method D. The suggested methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the official and a reported method for PAN and ITH, respectively, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

  8. Optical image encryption method based on incoherent imaging and polarized light encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Xiong, D.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.

    2018-05-01

    We propose an incoherent encoding system for image encryption based on a polarized encoding method combined with an incoherent imaging. Incoherent imaging is the core component of this proposal, in which the incoherent point-spread function (PSF) of the imaging system serves as the main key to encode the input intensity distribution thanks to a convolution operation. An array of retarders and polarizers is placed on the input plane of the imaging structure to encrypt the polarized state of light based on Mueller polarization calculus. The proposal makes full use of randomness of polarization parameters and incoherent PSF so that a multidimensional key space is generated to deal with illegal attacks. Mueller polarization calculus and incoherent illumination of imaging structure ensure that only intensity information is manipulated. Another key advantage is that complicated processing and recording related to a complex-valued signal are avoided. The encoded information is just an intensity distribution, which is advantageous for data storage and transition because information expansion accompanying conventional encryption methods is also avoided. The decryption procedure can be performed digitally or using optoelectronic devices. Numerical simulation tests demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme.

  9. Determining the Separation and Position Angles of Orbiting Binary Stars: Comparison of Three Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan; Boule, Cory; Andrews, Katelyn; Penfield, Andrew; Ross, Ian; Lucas, Gaylon; Braught, Trisha; Harfenist, Steven; Goodale, Keith

    2015-07-01

    To initiate a long term binary star research program, undergraduate students compared the accuracy and ease of measuring the separations and position angles of three long period binary pairs using three different measurement techniques. It was found that digital image capture using BackyardEOS software and subsequent analysis in Adobe Photoshop was the most accurate and easiest to use of our three methods. The systems WDS J17419+7209 (STF 2241AB), WDS 19418+5032 (STFA 46AB), and WDS 16362+5255 (STF 2087AB) were found to have separations and position angles of: 30", 16°; 39.7", 133°; and 3.1", 104°, respectively. This method produced separation values within 1.3" and position angle values within 1.3° of the most recently observed values found in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

  10. Application of the finite volume method in the simulation of saturated flows of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murad, M.A.; Gama, R.M.S. da; Sampaio, R.

    1989-12-01

    This work presents the simulation of saturated flows of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a rigid, homogeneous and isotropic porous medium. The employed mathematical model is derived from the Continuum Theory of Mixtures and generalizes the classical one which is based on Darcy's Law form of the momentum equation. In this approach fluid and porous matrix are regarded as continuous constituents of a binary mixture. The finite volume method is employed in the simulation. (author) [pt

  11. A novel diagnosis method for a Hall plates-based rotary encoder with a magnetic concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bumin; Wang, Yaonan; Sun, Wei; Yuan, Xiaofang

    2014-07-31

    In the last few years, rotary encoders based on two-dimensional complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) Hall plates with a magnetic concentrator have been developed to measure contactless absolute angle. There are various error factors influencing the measuring accuracy, which are difficult to locate after the assembly of encoder. In this paper, a model-based rapid diagnosis method is presented. Based on an analysis of the error mechanism, an error model is built to compare minimum residual angle error and to quantify the error factors. Additionally, a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to reduce the calculated amount. The simulation and experimental results show that this diagnosis method is feasible to quantify the causes of the error and to reduce iteration significantly.

  12. Least Square NUFFT Methods Applied to 2D and 3D Radially Encoded MR Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiayu; Liu, Qing H.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Cofer, Gary; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-01-01

    Radially encoded MR imaging (MRI) has gained increasing attention in applications such as hyperpolarized gas imaging, contrast-enhanced MR angiography, and dynamic imaging, due to its motion insensitivity and improved artifact properties. However, since the technique collects k-space samples nonuniformly, multidimensional (especially 3D) radially sampled MRI image reconstruction is challenging. The balance between reconstruction accuracy and speed becomes critical when a large data set is processed. Kaiser-Bessel gridding reconstruction has been widely used for non-Cartesian reconstruction. The objective of this work is to provide an alternative reconstruction option in high dimensions with on-the-fly kernels calculation. The work develops general multi-dimensional least square nonuniform fast Fourier transform (LS-NUFFT) algorithms and incorporates them into a k-space simulation and image reconstruction framework. The method is then applied to reconstruct the radially encoded k-space, although the method addresses general nonuniformity and is applicable to any non-Cartesian patterns. Performance assessments are made by comparing the LS-NUFFT based method with the conventional Kaiser-Bessel gridding method for 2D and 3D radially encoded computer simulated phantoms and physically scanned phantoms. The results show that the LS-NUFFT reconstruction method has better accuracy-speed efficiency than the Kaiser-Bessel gridding method when the kernel weights are calculated on the fly. The accuracy of the LS-NUFFT method depends on the choice of scaling factor, and it is found that for a particular conventional kernel function, using its corresponding deapodization function as scaling factor and utilizing it into the LS-NUFFT framework has the potential to improve accuracy. When a cosine scaling factor is used, in particular, the LS-NUFFT method is faster than Kaiser-Bessel gridding method because of a quasi closed-form solution. The method is successfully applied to 2D and

  13. Analysis and synthesis of a logic control circuit by binary analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicheportiche, Armand

    1974-06-01

    The analytical study of the logic circuits described in this report clearly shows the fruitful efficiency of the methods proposed by Binary Analysis. This study is a very new approach in logic and these mathematical methods are systematically precise in their applications. The detailed operations of an automatic system are to be studied in a way which cannot be reached by other methods. The definition and utilization of transition equations allow the determination of the different commutations in the auxiliary switch functions of a sequential system. This new way of analysis digital circuits will certainly develop in a very near future [fr

  14. A simple method for analyzing data from a randomized trial with a missing binary outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freedman Laurence S

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many randomized trials involve missing binary outcomes. Although many previous adjustments for missing binary outcomes have been proposed, none of these makes explicit use of randomization to bound the bias when the data are not missing at random. Methods We propose a novel approach that uses the randomization distribution to compute the anticipated maximum bias when missing at random does not hold due to an unobserved binary covariate (implying that missingness depends on outcome and treatment group. The anticipated maximum bias equals the product of two factors: (a the anticipated maximum bias if there were complete confounding of the unobserved covariate with treatment group among subjects with an observed outcome and (b an upper bound factor that depends only on the fraction missing in each randomization group. If less than 15% of subjects are missing in each group, the upper bound factor is less than .18. Results We illustrated the methodology using data from the Polyp Prevention Trial. We anticipated a maximum bias under complete confounding of .25. With only 7% and 9% missing in each arm, the upper bound factor, after adjusting for age and sex, was .10. The anticipated maximum bias of .25 × .10 =.025 would not have affected the conclusion of no treatment effect. Conclusion This approach is easy to implement and is particularly informative when less than 15% of subjects are missing in each arm.

  15. Methods for studying short-range order in solid binary solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, Gerard

    1969-12-01

    The short range order definition and its characteristic parameters are first recalled. The different methods to study the short range order are then examined: X ray diffusion, electrical resistivity, specific heat and thermoelectric power, neutron diffraction, electron spin resonance, study of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. The theory of the X ray diffraction effects due to short range order and the subsequent experimental method are emphasized. The principal results obtained from binary Systems, by the different experimental techniques, are reported and briefly discussed. The Au-Cu, Li-Mg, Au-Ni and Cu-Zn Systems are moreover described. (author) [fr

  16. A deep learning method for lincRNA detection using auto-encoder algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ning; Yu, Zeng; Pan, Yi

    2017-12-06

    RNA sequencing technique (RNA-seq) enables scientists to develop novel data-driven methods for discovering more unidentified lincRNAs. Meantime, knowledge-based technologies are experiencing a potential revolution ignited by the new deep learning methods. By scanning the newly found data set from RNA-seq, scientists have found that: (1) the expression of lincRNAs appears to be regulated, that is, the relevance exists along the DNA sequences; (2) lincRNAs contain some conversed patterns/motifs tethered together by non-conserved regions. The two evidences give the reasoning for adopting knowledge-based deep learning methods in lincRNA detection. Similar to coding region transcription, non-coding regions are split at transcriptional sites. However, regulatory RNAs rather than message RNAs are generated. That is, the transcribed RNAs participate the biological process as regulatory units instead of generating proteins. Identifying these transcriptional regions from non-coding regions is the first step towards lincRNA recognition. The auto-encoder method achieves 100% and 92.4% prediction accuracy on transcription sites over the putative data sets. The experimental results also show the excellent performance of predictive deep neural network on the lincRNA data sets compared with support vector machine and traditional neural network. In addition, it is validated through the newly discovered lincRNA data set and one unreported transcription site is found by feeding the whole annotated sequences through the deep learning machine, which indicates that deep learning method has the extensive ability for lincRNA prediction. The transcriptional sequences of lincRNAs are collected from the annotated human DNA genome data. Subsequently, a two-layer deep neural network is developed for the lincRNA detection, which adopts the auto-encoder algorithm and utilizes different encoding schemes to obtain the best performance over intergenic DNA sequence data. Driven by those newly

  17. M/T method based incremental encoder velocity measurement error analysis and self-adaptive error elimination algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yangyang; Yang, Ming; Long, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    For motor control applications, the speed loop performance is largely depended on the accuracy of speed feedback signal. M/T method, due to its high theoretical accuracy, is the most widely used in incremental encoder adopted speed measurement. However, the inherent encoder optical grating error...

  18. An odor interaction model of binary odorant mixtures by a partial differential equation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Wang, Guihua; Wu, Chuandong

    2014-07-09

    A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE) method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method) of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture's odor intensity to the individual odorant's relative odor activity value (OAV). Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors) also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.

  19. An Odor Interaction Model of Binary Odorant Mixtures by a Partial Differential Equation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchun Yan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture’s odor intensity to the individual odorant’s relative odor activity value (OAV. Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.

  20. Application of two-dimensional binary fingerprinting methods for the design of selective Tankyrase I inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddukrishna, B S; Pai, Vasudev; Lobo, Richard; Pai, Aravinda

    2017-11-22

    In the present study, five important binary fingerprinting techniques were used to model novel flavones for the selective inhibition of Tankyrase I. From the fingerprints used: the fingerprint atom pairs resulted in a statistically significant 2D QSAR model using a kernel-based partial least square regression method. This model indicates that the presence of electron-donating groups positively contributes to activity, whereas the presence of electron withdrawing groups negatively contributes to activity. This model could be used to develop more potent as well as selective analogues for the inhibition of Tankyrase I. Schematic representation of 2D QSAR work flow.

  1. An Enhanced Run-Length Encoding Compression Method for Telemetry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yanhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The telemetry data are essential in evaluating the performance of aircraft and diagnosing its failures. This work combines the oversampling technology with the run-length encoding compression algorithm with an error factor to further enhance the compression performance of telemetry data in a multichannel acquisition system. Compression of telemetry data is carried out with the use of FPGAs. In the experiments there are used pulse signals and vibration signals. The proposed method is compared with two existing methods. The experimental results indicate that the compression ratio, precision, and distortion degree of the telemetry data are improved significantly compared with those obtained by the existing methods. The implementation and measurement of the proposed telemetry data compression method show its effectiveness when used in a high-precision high-capacity multichannel acquisition system.

  2. Priority-based methods for reducing the impact of packet loss on HEVC encoded video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2013-02-01

    The rapid growth in the use of video streaming over IP networks has outstripped the rate at which new network infrastructure has been deployed. These bandwidth-hungry applications now comprise a significant part of all Internet traffic and present major challenges for network service providers. The situation is more acute in mobile networks where the available bandwidth is often limited. Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently on track for completion in 2013. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC) for the same quality. However, there has been very little published research on HEVC streaming or the challenges of delivering HEVC streams in resource-constrained network environments. In this paper we consider the problem of adapting an HEVC encoded video stream to meet the bandwidth limitation in a mobile networks environment. Video sequences were encoded using the Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM6) for HEVC. Network abstraction layers (NAL) units were packetized, on a one NAL unit per RTP packet basis, and transmitted over a realistic hybrid wired/wireless testbed configured with dynamically changing network path conditions and multiple independent network paths from the streamer to the client. Two different schemes for the prioritisation of RTP packets, based on the NAL units they contain, have been implemented and empirically compared using a range of video sequences, encoder configurations, bandwidths and network topologies. In the first prioritisation method the importance of an RTP packet was determined by the type of picture and the temporal switching point information carried in the NAL unit header. Packets containing parameter set NAL units and video coding layer (VCL) NAL units of the instantaneous decoder refresh (IDR) and the clean random access (CRA) pictures were given the

  3. RESEARCH ON FEATURE POINTS EXTRACTION METHOD FOR BINARY MULTISCALE AND ROTATION INVARIANT LOCAL FEATURE DESCRIPTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An extreme point of scale space extraction method for binary multiscale and rotation invariant local feature descriptor is studied in this paper in order to obtain a robust and fast method for local image feature descriptor. Classic local feature description algorithms often select neighborhood information of feature points which are extremes of image scale space, obtained by constructing the image pyramid using certain signal transform method. But build the image pyramid always consumes a large amount of computing and storage resources, is not conducive to the actual applications development. This paper presents a dual multiscale FAST algorithm, it does not need to build the image pyramid, but can extract feature points of scale extreme quickly. Feature points extracted by proposed method have the characteristic of multiscale and rotation Invariant and are fit to construct the local feature descriptor.

  4. Discontinuous Galerkin method for computing gravitational waveforms from extreme mass ratio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Scott E; Hesthaven, Jan S; Lau, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from extreme mass ratio binaries (EMRBs) should be detectable by the joint NASA-ESA LISA project, spurring interest in analytical and numerical methods for investigating EMRBs. We describe a discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method for solving the distributionally forced 1+1 wave equations which arise when modeling EMRBs via the perturbation theory of Schwarzschild black holes. Despite the presence of jump discontinuities in the relevant polar and axial gravitational 'master functions', our dG method achieves global spectral accuracy, provided that we know the instantaneous position, velocity and acceleration of the small particle. Here these variables are known, since we assume that the particle follows a timelike geodesic of the Schwarzschild geometry. We document the results of several numerical experiments testing our method, and in our concluding section discuss the possible inclusion of gravitational self-force effects.

  5. Performance and separation occurrence of binary probit regression estimator using maximum likelihood method and Firths approach under different sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiana, Evellin Dewi

    2017-12-01

    The parameters of binary probit regression model are commonly estimated by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. However, MLE method has limitation if the binary data contains separation. Separation is the condition where there are one or several independent variables that exactly grouped the categories in binary response. It will result the estimators of MLE method become non-convergent, so that they cannot be used in modeling. One of the effort to resolve the separation is using Firths approach instead. This research has two aims. First, to identify the chance of separation occurrence in binary probit regression model between MLE method and Firths approach. Second, to compare the performance of binary probit regression model estimator that obtained by MLE method and Firths approach using RMSE criteria. Those are performed using simulation method and under different sample size. The results showed that the chance of separation occurrence in MLE method for small sample size is higher than Firths approach. On the other hand, for larger sample size, the probability decreased and relatively identic between MLE method and Firths approach. Meanwhile, Firths estimators have smaller RMSE than MLEs especially for smaller sample sizes. But for larger sample sizes, the RMSEs are not much different. It means that Firths estimators outperformed MLE estimator.

  6. Novel spectroscopic methods for determination of Cromolyn sodium and Oxymetazoline hydrochloride in binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A. M.; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.

    2014-10-01

    New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include ‘H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5 nm and 274.9 nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0 nm and 216.0-229.0 nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0 nm, using Δλ = 145.0 nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference.

  7. New method of steganalysis for text data obtained by synonym run-length encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Nechta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a new stegoanalysis method for detecting a text obtained by the synonym Run-Length Encoding. The analyzed RLE-method allows us to keep some statistical properties of the text after a secret message embedding. In particular, the probabilities distribution of the bits in the extracted message and the probabilities distribution of using text synonyms keep unchanged, that ensures a high secrecy degree of the considered embedding method. In this paper we show that the embedded message changes the probabilities distribution of bit-series lengths in the extracted message, and this fact is used for our stegoanalysis. It was shown that the embedded message breaks the statistical structure of the container, and this fact is used for the stegoanalysis. The constructed stegotest compares the probability distribution of runs (with length no more than 5 bits in the message extracted from the container with reference distributions corresponding to an empty and embedded containers.  Reference distributions were obtained by analysing of 1000 natural-text containers taken from the Gutenberg Project library. In this paper we consider two approaches for obtaining reference distributions. The first approach deals with analyzing the statistic of the message extracted from the container in the usual way (using the Tyrannosaurus Lex program. The second approach involves an additional decoding of the message in accordance with the analyzed run-length encoding algorithm. Experimental results allow us to assert that the first approach is more effective. The Kullback-Leibler measure is used as a divergence measure of two probability distributions. It was shown that the proposed method makes it possible to detect presence of the secret message in the container with a number of synonyms equal to 500, while false negative error is 1.5% and false positive error is 1.3%. In comparison with the known analogs, the proposed method demonstrates higher

  8. Modelling Status Food Security Households Disease Sufferers Pulmonary Tuberculosis Uses the Method Regression Logistics Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, S. P.; Salamah, M.; Rositawati, A. F. D.

    2018-04-01

    Food security is the condition where the food fulfilment is managed well for the country till the individual. Indonesia is one of the country which has the commitment to create the food security becomes main priority. However, the food necessity becomes common thing means that it doesn’t care about nutrient standard and the health condition of family member, so in the fulfilment of food necessity also has to consider the disease suffered by the family member, one of them is pulmonary tuberculosa. From that reasons, this research is conducted to know the factors which influence on household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya by using binary logistic regression method. The analysis result by using binary logistic regression shows that the variables wife latest education, house density and spacious house ventilation significantly affect on household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya, where the wife education level is University/equivalent, the house density is eligible or 8 m2/person and spacious house ventilation 10% of the floor area has the opportunity to become food secure households amounted to 0.911089. While the chance of becoming food insecure households amounted to 0.088911. The model household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya has been conformable, and the overall percentages of those classifications are at 71.8%.

  9. Validation of different spectrophotometric methods for determination of vildagliptin and metformin in binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghany, Maha F.; Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.

    New, simple, specific, accurate, precise and reproducible spectrophotometric methods have been developed and subsequently validated for determination of vildagliptin (VLG) and metformin (MET) in binary mixture. Zero order spectrophotometric method was the first method used for determination of MET in the range of 2-12 μg mL-1 by measuring the absorbance at 237.6 nm. The second method was derivative spectrophotometric technique; utilized for determination of MET at 247.4 nm, in the range of 1-12 μg mL-1. Derivative ratio spectrophotometric method was the third technique; used for determination of VLG in the range of 4-24 μg mL-1 at 265.8 nm. Fourth and fifth methods adopted for determination of VLG in the range of 4-24 μg mL-1; were ratio subtraction and mean centering spectrophotometric methods, respectively. All the results were statistically compared with the reported methods, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The developed methods were satisfactorily applied to analysis of the investigated drugs and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of them in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  10. MR imaging of ore for heap bioleaching studies using pure phase encode acquisition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Marijke A.; Sederman, Andrew J.; Johns, Michael L.

    2012-03-01

    Various MRI techniques were considered with respect to imaging of aqueous flow fields in low grade copper ore. Spin echo frequency encoded techniques were shown to produce unacceptable image distortions which led to pure phase encoded techniques being considered. Single point imaging multiple point acquisition (SPI-MPA) and spin echo single point imaging (SESPI) techniques were applied. By direct comparison with X-ray tomographic images, both techniques were found to be able to produce distortion-free images of the ore packings at 2 T. The signal to noise ratios (SNRs) of the SESPI images were found to be superior to SPI-MPA for equal total acquisition times; this was explained based on NMR relaxation measurements. SESPI was also found to produce suitable images for a range of particles sizes, whereas SPI-MPA SNR deteriorated markedly as particles size was reduced. Comparisons on a 4.7 T magnet showed significant signal loss from the SPI-MPA images, the effect of which was accentuated in the case of unsaturated flowing systems. Hence it was concluded that SESPI was the most robust imaging method for the study of copper ore heap leaching hydrology.

  11. Cellulolytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A [San Diego, CA; Zhao, Lishan [Emeryville, CA; Cayouette, Michelle H [San Diego, CA

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, a endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase, a beta-glucosidase, a xylanase, a mannanse, a .beta.-xylosidase, an arabinofuranosidase, and/or an oligomerase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having an oligomerase activity, e.g., enzymes that convert recalcitrant soluble oligomers to fermentable sugars in the saccharification of biomass. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  12. Chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of binary mixture of Saxagliptin HCl and Metformin HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan A. Merey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two chromatographic methods were suggested for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture containing Saxagliptin HCl (SAG and Metformin HCl (MET. First method was RP-HPLC method. Chromatographic separation was done on Kinetex™ column–C18 (4.6 × 150 mm, 2.6 µm using mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:phosphate buffer pH = 4.5 ± 0.1 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid (13:87, v/v. Isocratic elution at a flow rate 1.5 mL/min and UV detection at 220.0 nm was performed. Second method was spectro-densitometric method. Chromatographic separation was done on precoated silica gel aluminium plates 60 F254 as a stationary phase and developing system consisting of chloroform:methanol:formic acid (80:20:0.3, by volume. The density of the separated bands was measured by UV detector at 210.0 nm. The proposed methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines parameters like Linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Statistical comparison was done between the obtained results and those obtained by the reported methods, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision. Keywords: Saxagliptin HCl, Metformin HCl, RP-HPLC, TLC

  13. A novel method of developing all optical frequency encoded Fredkin gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2014-02-01

    All optical reversible logic gates have significant applications in the field of optics and optoelectronics for developing different sequential and combinational circuits of optical computing, optical signal processing and in multi-valued logic operations and quantum computing. Here the author proposes a method for developing all optical three-input-output Fredkin gate and modified Fredkin gate using frequency encoded data. For this purpose the author has exploited the properties of efficient frequency conversion and faster switching speed of semiconductor optical amplifiers. Simulation results of the three input-output Fredkin gate testifies to the feasibility of the proposed scheme. These Fredkin gates are universal logic gates, and can be used to develop different all-optical logic and data processors in communication network.

  14. Simultaneous determination of a binary mixture: kinetic method for determination of uranium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianhua, W.; Ronghuan, H.

    1993-01-01

    A kinetic method for simultaneous determination of a binary mixture is proposed, and a procedure for simultaneous determination of uranium (IV) and vanadium (IV) is established based on their inductive effect on chromium (VI)-iodide redox reaction in a weak acidic medium. The reaction was monitored by FIA-spectrophotometry using the I 3 - -starch complex as indicator. The calibration graphs are linear for uranium (IV) and vanadium (IV) within the range of 0 ∼ 3.6 μg/ml and 0 ∼ 2.5 μg/ml respectively. Most foreign ions, except for iron (II) and antimony (III), do not interfere with the determination. The uranium and vanadium content in different samples was determined, and the results were satisfactory. (author). 2 tabs., 2 figs., 9 refs

  15. Pulse shape discrimination and classification methods for continuous depth of interaction encoding PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncali, Emilie; Phipps, Jennifer E; Marcu, Laura; Cherry, Simon R

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we demonstrated the potential of positron emission tomography (PET) detectors with depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding capability based on phosphor-coated crystals. A DOI resolution of 8 mm full-width at half-maximum was obtained for 20 mm long scintillator crystals using a delayed charge integration linear regression method (DCI-LR). Phosphor-coated crystals modify the pulse shape to allow continuous DOI information determination, but the relationship between pulse shape and DOI is complex. We are therefore interested in developing a sensitive and robust method to estimate the DOI. Here, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was implemented to classify the events based on information extracted from the pulse shape. Pulses were acquired with 2×2×20 mm 3 phosphor-coated crystals at five irradiation depths and characterized by their DCI values or Laguerre coefficients. These coefficients were obtained by expanding the pulses on a Laguerre basis set and constituted a unique signature for each pulse. The DOI of individual events was predicted using LDA based on Laguerre coefficients (Laguerre-LDA) or DCI values (DCI-LDA) as discriminant features. Predicted DOIs were compared to true irradiation depths. Laguerre-LDA showed higher sensitivity and accuracy than DCI-LDA and DCI-LR and was also more robust to predict the DOI of pulses with higher statistical noise due to low light levels (interaction depths further from the photodetector face). This indicates that Laguerre-LDA may be more suitable to DOI estimation in smaller crystals where lower collected light levels are expected. This novel approach is promising for calculating DOI using pulse shape discrimination in single-ended readout depth-encoding PET detectors. (paper)

  16. An enhanced component connection method for conversion of fault trees to binary decision diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R.; Andrews, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) is widely applied to assess the failure probability of industrial systems. Many computer packages are available, which are based on conventional kinetic tree theory methods. When dealing with large (possibly non-coherent) fault trees, the limitations of the technique in terms of accuracy of the solutions and the efficiency of the processing time become apparent. Over recent years, the binary decision diagram (BDD) method has been developed that solves fault trees and overcomes the disadvantages of the conventional FTA approach. First of all, a fault tree for a particular system failure mode is constructed and then converted to a BDD for analysis. This paper analyses alternative methods for the fault tree to BDD conversion process. For most fault tree to BDD conversion approaches, the basic events of the fault tree are placed in an ordering. This can dramatically affect the size of the final BDD and the success of qualitative and quantitative analyses of the system. A set of rules is then applied to each gate in the fault tree to generate the BDD. An alternative approach can also be used, where BDD constructs for each of the gate types are first built and then merged to represent a parent gate. A powerful and efficient property, sub-node sharing, is also incorporated in the enhanced method proposed in this paper. Finally, a combined approach is developed taking the best features of the alternative methods. The efficiency of the techniques is analysed and discussed

  17. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  18. A NEW APPLICATION OF THE ASTROMETRIC METHOD TO BREAK SEVERE DEGENERACIES IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Park, Byeong-Gon; Humphrey, Andrew; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    When a source star is microlensed by one stellar component of widely separated binary stellar components, after finishing the lensing event, the event induced by the other binary star can be additionally detected. In this paper, we investigate whether the close/wide degeneracies in binary lensing events can be resolved by detecting the additional centroid shift of the source images induced by the secondary binary star in wide binary lensing events. From this investigation, we find that if the source star passes close to the Einstein ring of the secondary companion, the degeneracy can be easily resolved by using future astrometric follow-up observations with high astrometric precision. We determine the probability of detecting the additional centroid shift in binary lensing events with high magnification. From this, we find that the degeneracy of binary lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU can be resolved with a significant efficiency. We also estimate the waiting time for the detection of the additional centroid shift in wide binary lensing events. We find that for typical Galactic lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU, the additional centroid shift can be detected within 100 days, and thus the degeneracy of those events can be sufficiently broken within a year.

  19. Encoding plaintext by Fourier transform hologram in double random phase encoding using fingerprint keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masafumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that biometric information can be used as a cipher key for binary data encryption by applying double random phase encoding. In such methods, binary data are encoded in a bit pattern image, and the decrypted image becomes a plain image when the key is genuine; otherwise, decrypted images become random images. In some cases, images decrypted by imposters may not be fully random, such that the blurred bit pattern can be partially observed. In this paper, we propose a novel bit coding method based on a Fourier transform hologram, which makes images decrypted by imposters more random. Computer experiments confirm that the method increases the randomness of images decrypted by imposters while keeping the false rejection rate as low as in the conventional method.

  20. Encoding plaintext by Fourier transform hologram in double random phase encoding using fingerprint keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masafumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that biometric information can be used as a cipher key for binary data encryption by applying double random phase encoding. In such methods, binary data are encoded in a bit pattern image, and the decrypted image becomes a plain image when the key is genuine; otherwise, decrypted images become random images. In some cases, images decrypted by imposters may not be fully random, such that the blurred bit pattern can be partially observed. In this paper, we propose a novel bit coding method based on a Fourier transform hologram, which makes images decrypted by imposters more random. Computer experiments confirm that the method increases the randomness of images decrypted by imposters while keeping the false rejection rate as low as in the conventional method. (paper)

  1. Novel Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Salicylamide and Ascorbic acid in their binary mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.W.; Zaazaa, H.E.S.; Abdelrahman, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Simple, selective and precise four spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for quantitative determination of Salicylamide (SAD) and Ascorbic acid (ASC, Vitamin C) in their binary mixture. Method A is Area under curve spectrophotometry, in which the area under curve in the wavelength ranges 225-245 nm and 265-285 nm were selected for determination of SAD and ASC. Method B is based on dual wavelength spectrophotometry, where ASC can be determined by difference in absorbance at 249.8 and 285.8 nm. On the same way; SAD is measured by difference in absorbance at 240.4 and 286.4 nm. Method C utilizes isoabsorptive point spectrophotometry where total concentration of SAD and ASC was calculated at their isoabsorptive points at 246.4 and 287 nm, while SAD concentration alone can be determined by first derivative spectrophotometry (1D) at 315.4 nm, then ASC concentration can be determined by subtraction. Method D is ratio subtraction spectrophotometry, where ASC can be determined by dividing the spectrum of the mixture by the spectrum of the SAD (as a divisor) followed by subtracting the constant absorbance value of the plateau region, then finally multiplying the obtained spectrum by the spectrum of the divisor. The developed methods have been successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in different laboratory prepared mixtures and in their pharmaceutical formulation. Statistical comparison between the results obtained by applying the proposed methods and the reported HPLC method was done, and it was found that there was no significant difference between them regarding both accuracy and precision. (author)

  2. A Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo method for Bayesian inference of supermassive black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Edward K; Carré, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the use of a Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo to map out the posterior density function for supermassive black hole binaries. While previous Markov Chain Monte–Carlo (MCMC) methods, such as Metropolis–Hastings MCMC, have been successfully employed for a number of different gravitational wave sources, these methods are essentially random walk algorithms. The Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo treats the inverse likelihood surface as a ‘gravitational potential’ and by introducing canonical positions and momenta, dynamically evolves the Markov chain by solving Hamilton's equations of motion. This method is not as widely used as other MCMC algorithms due to the necessity of calculating gradients of the log-likelihood, which for most applications results in a bottleneck that makes the algorithm computationally prohibitive. We circumvent this problem by using accepted initial phase-space trajectory points to analytically fit for each of the individual gradients. Eliminating the waveform generation needed for the numerical derivatives reduces the total number of required templates for a 10 6 iteration chain from ∼10 9 to ∼10 6 . The result is in an implementation of the Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo that is faster, and more efficient by a factor of approximately the dimension of the parameter space, than a Hessian MCMC. (paper)

  3. A simple encoding method for Sigma-Delta ADC based biopotential acquisition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Federico N; Spinelli, Enrique M

    2017-10-01

    Sigma Delta analogue-to-digital converters allow acquiring the full dynamic range of biomedical signals at the electrodes, resulting in less complex hardware and increased measurement robustness. However, the increased data size per sample (typically 24 bits) demands the transmission of extremely large volumes of data across the isolation barrier, thus increasing power consumption on the patient side. This problem is accentuated when a large number of channels is used as in current 128-256 electrodes biopotential acquisition systems, that usually opt for an optic fibre link to the computer. An analogous problem occurs for simpler low-power acquisition platforms that transmit data through a wireless link to a computing platform. In this paper, a low-complexity encoding method is presented to decrease sample data size without losses, while preserving the full DC-coupled signal. The method achieved a 2.3 average compression ratio evaluated over an ECG and EMG signal bank acquired with equipment based on Sigma-Delta converters. It demands a very low processing load: a C language implementation is presented that resulted in an 110 clock cycles average execution on an 8-bit microcontroller.

  4. Signal encoding method for a time-of-flight PET detector using a silicon photomultiplier array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun Il; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-10-01

    The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a promising photosensor for magnetic resonance (MR) compatible time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. The compact size of the SiPM allows direct one-to-one coupling between the scintillation crystal and the photosensor, yielding better timing and energy resolutions than the light sharing methods that have to be used in photomultiplier tube (PMT) PET systems. However, the one-to-one coupling scheme requires a huge volume of readout and processing electronics if no electric signal multiplexing or encoding scheme is properly applied. In this paper, we develop an electric signal encoding scheme for SiPM array based TOF PET detector blocks with the aim of reducing the complexity and volume of the signal readout and processing electronics. In an M×N SiPM array, the output signal of each channel in the SiPM array is divided into two signal lines. These output lines are then tied together in row and column lines. The row and column signals are used to measure the energy and timing information (or vice versa) of each incident gamma-ray event, respectively. Each SiPM channel was directly coupled to a 3×3×20 mm3 LGSO crystal. The reference detector, which was used to measure timing, consisted of an R9800 PMT and a 4×4×10 mm3 LYSO crystal and had a single time resolution of ~200 ps (FWHM). Leading edge discriminators were used to determine coincident events. Dedicated front-end electronics were developed, and the timing and energy resolutions of SiPM arrays with different array sizes (4×4, 8×8, and 12×12) were compared. Breakdown voltage of each SiPM channel was measured using energy spectra within various bias voltages. Coincidence events were measured using a 22Na point source. The average coincidence time resolution of 4×4, 8×8, and 12×12 SiPM arrays were 316 ps, 320 ps, and 335 ps (FWHM), respectively. The energy resolution of 4×4, 8×8, and 12×12 SiPM arrays were 11.8%, 12.5%, and 12.8% (FWHM

  5. A device, a system and a method of encoding a position of an object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for encoding a position of an object, comprising a first light source; a first collimating element adapted to form first collimated light from the first light source; a carrier adapted to guide light and comprising a first primary light redirecting...... structure and a second primary light redirecting structure; and a detector device for encoding the position of an object with respect to an active area of an encoding plane; wherein the first primary light redirecting structure is adapted to redirect at least a part of a first light beam through the active...

  6. Testing the Binary Black Hole Nature of a Compact Binary Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnendu, N V; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant

    2017-09-01

    We propose a novel method to test the binary black hole nature of compact binaries detectable by gravitational wave (GW) interferometers and, hence, constrain the parameter space of other exotic compact objects. The spirit of the test lies in the "no-hair" conjecture for black holes where all properties of a Kerr black hole are characterized by its mass and spin. The method relies on observationally measuring the quadrupole moments of the compact binary constituents induced due to their spins. If the compact object is a Kerr black hole (BH), its quadrupole moment is expressible solely in terms of its mass and spin. Otherwise, the quadrupole moment can depend on additional parameters (such as the equation of state of the object). The higher order spin effects in phase and amplitude of a gravitational waveform, which explicitly contains the spin-induced quadrupole moments of compact objects, hence, uniquely encode the nature of the compact binary. Thus, we argue that an independent measurement of the spin-induced quadrupole moment of the compact binaries from GW observations can provide a unique way to distinguish binary BH systems from binaries consisting of exotic compact objects.

  7. Krylov iterative methods and synthetic acceleration for transport in binary statistical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtl, Erin D.; Warsa, James S.; Prinja, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    In particle transport applications there are numerous physical constructs in which heterogeneities are randomly distributed. The quantity of interest in these problems is the ensemble average of the flux, or the average of the flux over all possible material 'realizations.' The Levermore-Pomraning closure assumes Markovian mixing statistics and allows a closed, coupled system of equations to be written for the ensemble averages of the flux in each material. Generally, binary statistical mixtures are considered in which there are two (homogeneous) materials and corresponding coupled equations. The solution process is iterative, but convergence may be slow as either or both materials approach the diffusion and/or atomic mix limits. A three-part acceleration scheme is devised to expedite convergence, particularly in the atomic mix-diffusion limit where computation is extremely slow. The iteration is first divided into a series of 'inner' material and source iterations to attenuate the diffusion and atomic mix error modes separately. Secondly, atomic mix synthetic acceleration is applied to the inner material iteration and S 2 synthetic acceleration to the inner source iterations to offset the cost of doing several inner iterations per outer iteration. Finally, a Krylov iterative solver is wrapped around each iteration, inner and outer, to further expedite convergence. A spectral analysis is conducted and iteration counts and computing cost for the new two-step scheme are compared against those for a simple one-step iteration, to which a Krylov iterative method can also be applied.

  8. Quantitative Characterization of the Toxicities of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr Binary Mixtures Using Combination Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct equipartition ray design was used to construct Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr binary mixtures. Microplate toxicity analysis was used to evaluate the toxicity of individual substance and the Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr mixtures on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum. The interacting toxicity of the mixture was analyzed with concentration addition (CA model. In addition, combination index method (CI was proposed and used to quantitatively characterize the toxicity of the binary mixtures of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr observed in experiment and find the degree of deviation from the predicted outcome of the CA model, that is, the intensity of interacting toxicity. Results indicate that most of the 20 binary mixtures exhibit enhancing and synergistic effect, and only Cd-Cr-R4 and Cd-Cr-R5 mixtures have relatively high antagonistic effects against C. pyrenoidosa. Based on confidence interval, CI can compare the intensities of interaction of the mixtures under varying levels of effect. The characterization methods are applicable for analyzing binary mixture with complex interaction.

  9. Finite Element Methods On Very Large, Dynamic Tubular Grid Encoded Implicit Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemitz, Oliver; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Rumpf, Martin

    2009-01-01

    dynamic tubular grid encoding format for a narrow band. A reaction diffusion model on a fixed surface and surface evolution driven by a nonlinear geometric diffusion approach, by isotropic or truly anisotropic curvature motion, are investigated as characteristic model problems. The proposed methods...

  10. A novel hybrid method of beta-turn identification in protein using binary logistic regression and neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mehdi Poursheikhali; Hayatshahi, Sayyed Hamed Sadat; Abdolmaleki, Parviz

    2012-01-01

    From both the structural and functional points of view, β-turns play important biological roles in proteins. In the present study, a novel two-stage hybrid procedure has been developed to identify β-turns in proteins. Binary logistic regression was initially used for the first time to select significant sequence parameters in identification of β-turns due to a re-substitution test procedure. Sequence parameters were consisted of 80 amino acid positional occurrences and 20 amino acid percentages in sequence. Among these parameters, the most significant ones which were selected by binary logistic regression model, were percentages of Gly, Ser and the occurrence of Asn in position i+2, respectively, in sequence. These significant parameters have the highest effect on the constitution of a β-turn sequence. A neural network model was then constructed and fed by the parameters selected by binary logistic regression to build a hybrid predictor. The networks have been trained and tested on a non-homologous dataset of 565 protein chains. With applying a nine fold cross-validation test on the dataset, the network reached an overall accuracy (Qtotal) of 74, which is comparable with results of the other β-turn prediction methods. In conclusion, this study proves that the parameter selection ability of binary logistic regression together with the prediction capability of neural networks lead to the development of more precise models for identifying β-turns in proteins.

  11. Least-square NUFFT methods applied to 2-D and 3-D radially encoded MR image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiayu; Liu, Yanhui; Gewalt, Sally L; Cofer, Gary; Johnson, G Allan; Liu, Qing Huo

    2009-04-01

    Radially encoded MRI has gained increasing attention due to its motion insensitivity and reduced artifacts. However, because its samples are collected nonuniformly in the k-space, multidimensional (especially 3-D) radially sampled MRI image reconstruction is challenging. The objective of this paper is to develop a reconstruction technique in high dimensions with on-the-fly kernel calculation. It implements general multidimensional nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) algorithms and incorporates them into a k-space image reconstruction framework. The method is then applied to reconstruct from the radially encoded k-space data, although the method is applicable to any non-Cartesian patterns. Performance comparisons are made against the conventional Kaiser-Bessel (KB) gridding method for 2-D and 3-D radially encoded computer-simulated phantoms and physically scanned phantoms. The results show that the NUFFT reconstruction method has better accuracy-efficiency tradeoff than the KB gridding method when the kernel weights are calculated on the fly. It is found that for a particular conventional kernel function, using its corresponding deapodization function as a scaling factor in the NUFFT framework has the potential to improve accuracy. In particular, when a cosine scaling factor is used, the NUFFT method is faster than KB gridding method since a closed-form solution is available and is less computationally expensive than the KB kernel (KB griding requires computation of Bessel functions). The NUFFT method has been successfully applied to 2-D and 3-D in vivo studies on small animals.

  12. Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, R; Raja, A; Thiruppathi, G

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm(-1) (I(COM)), 1473 cm(-1) (I(COD)), 961 cm(-1) (I(HAP)) and 1282 cm(-1) (I(UA)) were used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-definition, single-scan 2D MRI in inhomogeneous fields using spatial encoding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Eliezer, Noam; Shrot, Yoav; Frydman, Lucio

    2010-01-01

    An approach has been recently introduced for acquiring two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance images in a single scan, based on the spatial encoding of the spin interactions. This article explores the potential of integrating this spatial encoding together with conventional temporal encoding principles, to produce 2D single-shot images with moderate field of views. The resulting "hybrid" imaging scheme is shown to be superior to traditional schemes in non-homogeneous magnetic field environments. An enhancement of previously discussed pulse sequences is also proposed, whereby distortions affecting the image along the spatially encoded axis are eliminated. This new variant is also characterized by a refocusing of T(2)(*) effects, leading to a restoration of high-definition images for regions which would otherwise be highly dephased and thus not visible. These single-scan 2D images are characterized by improved signal-to-noise ratios and a genuine T(2) contrast, albeit not free from inhomogeneity distortions. Simple postprocessing algorithms relying on inhomogeneity phase maps of the imaged object can successfully remove most of these residual distortions. Initial results suggest that this acquisition scheme has the potential to overcome strong field inhomogeneities acting over extended acquisition durations, exceeding 100 ms for a single-shot image.

  14. S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems: A comprehensive approach. I. Method and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuntz, M., E-mail: cuntz@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0059 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive approach is provided for the study of both S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems, which in principle can also be expanded to systems of higher order. P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in the case of S-type orbits, the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach encapsulates a variety of different aspects, which include: (1) the consideration of a joint constraint, including orbital stability and a habitable region for a putative system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ({sup r}adiative habitable zone{sup ;} RHZ), needs to be met; (2) the treatment of conservative, general, and extended zones of habitability for the various systems as defined for the solar system and beyond; (3) the provision of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are presented for the kind of system in which S-type and P-type habitability is realized; (4) applications of the attained theoretical approach to standard (theoretical) main-sequence stars. In principle, five different cases of habitability are identified, which are S-type and P-type habitability provided by the full extent of the RHZs; habitability, where the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of planetary orbital stability (referred to as ST- and PT-type, respectively); and cases of no habitability at all. Regarding the treatment of planetary orbital stability, we utilize the formulae of Holman and Wiegert as also used in previous studies. In this work, we focus on binary systems in circular orbits. Future applications will also consider binary systems in elliptical orbits and provide thorough comparisons to other methods and results given in the literature.

  15. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  16. A Simple Educational Method for the Measurement of Liquid Binary Diffusivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicholas P.; de Beer, Martin P.; Williamson, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    A simple low-cost experiment has been developed for the measurement of the binary diffusion coefficients of liquid substances. The experiment is suitable for demonstrating molecular diffusion to small or large undergraduate classes in chemistry or chemical engineering. Students use a cell phone camera in conjunction with open-source image…

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Wide binaries in Tycho-Gaia: search method (Andrews+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. J.; Chaname, J.; Agueros, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    Our catalogue of wide binaries identified in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution catalogue. The Gaia source IDs, Tycho IDs, astrometry, posterior probabilities for both the log-flat prior and power-law prior models, and angular separation are presented. (1 data file).

  18. Application of the Binary Bell Polynomials Method to the Dissipative (2+1)-Dimensional AKNS Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Na; Liu Xi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the binary Bell polynomials, the bilinear representation, bilinear Bäcklund transformation and the Lax pair for the dissipative (2+1)-dimensional Ablowitz—Kaup—Newell—Segur (AKNS) equation are obtained. Moreover, the infinite conservation laws are also derived

  19. Subthreshold resonances and resonances in the R -matrix method for binary reactions and in the Trojan horse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak, Bertulani, C. A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the R -matrix approach to treat the subthreshold resonances for the single-level and one-channel and for the single-level and two-channel cases. In particular, the expression relating the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) with the observable reduced width, when the subthreshold bound state is the only channel or coupled with an open channel, which is a resonance, is formulated. Since the ANC plays a very important role in nuclear astrophysics, these relations significantly enhance the power of the derived equations. We present the relationship between the resonance width and the ANC for the general case and consider two limiting cases: wide and narrow resonances. Different equations for the astrophysical S factors in the R -matrix approach are presented. After that we discuss the Trojan horse method (THM) formalism. The developed equations are obtained using the surface-integral formalism and the generalized R -matrix approach for the three-body resonant reactions. It is shown how the Trojan horse (TH) double-differential cross section can be expressed in terms of the on-the-energy-shell astrophysical S factor for the binary subreaction. Finally, we demonstrate how the THM can be used to calculate the astrophysical S factor for the neutron generator 13C(α ,n )16O in low-mass AGB stars. At astrophysically relevant energies this astrophysical S factor is controlled by the threshold level 1 /2+,Ex=6356 keV. Here, we reanalyzed recent TH data taking into account more accurately the three-body effects and using both assumptions that the threshold level is a subthreshold bound state or it is a resonance state.

  20. Quantitative chemical shift-encoded MRI is an accurate method to quantify hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Jens-Peter; Hernando, Diego; Mensel, Birger; Krüger, Paul C; Ittermann, Till; Mayerle, Julia; Hosten, Norbert; Reeder, Scott B

    2014-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of liver fat quantification using a three-echo chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique without and with correction for confounders with spectroscopy (MRS) as the reference standard. Fifty patients (23 women, mean age 56.6 ± 13.2 years) with fatty liver disease were enrolled. Patients underwent T2-corrected single-voxel MRS and a three-echo chemical shift-encoded gradient echo (GRE) sequence at 3.0T. MRI fat fraction (FF) was calculated without and with T2* and T1 correction and multispectral modeling of fat and compared with MRS-FF using linear regression. The spectroscopic range of liver fat was 0.11%-38.7%. Excellent correlation between MRS-FF and MRI-FF was observed when using T2* correction (R(2)  = 0.96). With use of T2* correction alone, the slope was significantly different from 1 (1.16 ± 0.03, P fat were addressed, the results showed equivalence between fat quantification using MRI and MRS (slope: 1.02 ± 0.03, P = 0.528; intercept: 0.26% ± 0.46%, P = 0.572). Complex three-echo chemical shift-encoded MRI is equivalent to MRS for quantifying liver fat, but only with correction for T2* decay and T1 recovery and use of spectral modeling of fat. This is necessary because T2* decay, T1 recovery, and multispectral complexity of fat are processes which may otherwise bias the measurements. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Celluloytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Kevin A; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H

    2015-11-04

    The invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  2. Celluloytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A.; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H.

    2015-09-08

    The invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  3. SEVEN NEW BINARIES DISCOVERED IN THE KEPLER LIGHT CURVES THROUGH THE BEER METHOD CONFIRMED BY RADIAL-VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.; Tal-Or, L.; Quinn, S. N.; Latham, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity (RV) modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well-known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic RV follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range 0.07-0.4 M ☉ . The binaries discovered establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-period non-eclipsing binaries, with the potential to detect in the near future non-transiting brown-dwarf secondaries, or even massive planets.

  4. Studying stellar binary systems with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna using delayed rejection Markov chain Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trias, Miquel; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian analysis of Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) data sets based on Markov chain Monte Carlo methods has been shown to be a challenging problem, in part due to the complicated structure of the likelihood function consisting of several isolated local maxima that dramatically reduces the efficiency of the sampling techniques. Here we introduce a new fully Markovian algorithm, a delayed rejection Metropolis-Hastings Markov chain Monte Carlo method, to efficiently explore these kind of structures and we demonstrate its performance on selected LISA data sets containing a known number of stellar-mass binary signals embedded in Gaussian stationary noise.

  5. Variation of ratio kinetic profiles as a simple and novel spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous kinetic analysis of binary mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseri Abdolhossein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new and very simple kinetic - spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of binary mixtures without prior separational steps. The method is based on the calculation of the variation of ratio kinetic profiles. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is also illustrated. The proposed method can be used for simultaneous determination of two analytes A and B that react with the same reagent to give the same absorbing species. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, a model data as well as an experimental data were tested. The results from experimental data relating to the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Co (II and V (IV based on their oxidation reactions with Fe (III in the presence 1, 10- Phenanthroline (Phen in micellar media were presented as a real model for resolution of the binary systems. The applicability of the method in tap water and synthesized alloy samples was also assessed by spiking experiments with different amount of Co (II and V (IV.

  6. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  7. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  8. Effect of Iron Fe (II and Fe (III in a Binary System Evaluated Bioluminescent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sorokina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of iron ions Fe2+ and Fe3+ on the bioluminescent recombinant strain of Escherichia coli in a single-component and binary system. Found that for the bacteria E. coli Fe3+ ions are more toxic than Fe2+. Under the combined effect of iron toxicity increases, the percentage of luminescence quenching increases, but the value is much less than the sum of the indicator for the Fe2+ and Fe3+. The biological effect of insertion of iron is not proportional to their content in the mixture.

  9. Study of Molecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures by Acoustical Method at 303K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paul Divakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity and density measurements were made in two binary liquid mixtures Isopropyl acetate (IPA and Isobutyl acetate (IBA with cyclohexanone (CY as a common component at 303K, at fixed frequency of 2MHz using single crystal variable path interferometer and specific gravity bottle respectively. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustic impedance, adiabatic compressibility, inter molecular free length and molar volume. The excess thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and discussed in the light of molecular interactions.

  10. Adaptable recursive binary entropy coding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Aaron B.; Klimesh, Matthew A.

    2002-07-01

    We present a novel data compression technique, called recursive interleaved entropy coding, that is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to variable length binary source codes. A compression module implementing this technique has the same functionality as arithmetic coding and can be used as the engine in various data compression algorithms. The encoder compresses a bit sequence by recursively encoding groups of bits that have similar estimated statistics, ordering the output in a way that is suited to the decoder. As a result, the decoder has low complexity. The encoding process for our technique is adaptable in that each bit to be encoded has an associated probability-of-zero estimate that may depend on previously encoded bits; this adaptability allows more effective compression. Recursive interleaved entropy coding may have advantages over arithmetic coding, including most notably the admission of a simple and fast decoder. Much variation is possible in the choice of component codes and in the interleaving structure, yielding coder designs of varying complexity and compression efficiency; coder designs that achieve arbitrarily small redundancy can be produced. We discuss coder design and performance estimation methods. We present practical encoding and decoding algorithms, as well as measured performance results.

  11. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses

  12. A fast improved fat tree encoder for wave union TDC in an FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qi; Zhao Lei; Liu Shubin; Qi Binxiang; Hu Xueye; An Qi; Liao Shengkai; Peng Chengzhi

    2013-01-01

    Up to now, the wave union method can achieve the best timing performance in FPGA-based TDC designs. However, it should be guaranteed in such a structure that the non-thermometer code to binary code (NTH2B) encoding process should be finished within just one system clock cycle. So the implementation of the NTH2B encoder is quite challenging considering the high speed requirement. Besides, the high resolution wave union TDC also demands that the encoder convert an ultra-wide input code to a binary code. We present a fast improved fat tree encoder (IFTE) to fulfill such requirements, in which bubble error suppression is also integrated. With this encoder scheme, a wave union TDC with 7.7 ps RMS and 3.8 ps effective bin size was implemented in an FPGA from Xilinx Virtex 5 family. An encoding time of 8.33 ns was achieved for a 276-bit non-thermometer code to a 9-bit binary code conversion. We conducted a series of tests on the oscillating period of the wave union launcher, as well as the overall performance of the TDC; test results indicate that the IFTE works well. In fact, in the implementation of this encoder, no manual routing or special constraints were required; therefore, this IFTE structure could also be further applied in other delay-chain-based FPGA TDCs. (authors)

  13. Optimization method for the study of the properties of Al-Sn binary liquid alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, G.K. [University Department of Physics, T.M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur (India); Pulchowk Campus, IOE, Tribhuvan University, Lalitpur (Nepal); Singh, B.K. [University Department of Physics, T.M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur (India); Jha, I.S. [M.M.A.M. Campus, Tribhuvan University, Biratnagar (Nepal); Singh, B.P. [University Department of Physics, T.M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur (India); Adhikari, D., E-mail: adksbdev@yahoo.com [M.M.A.M. Campus, Tribhuvan University, Biratnagar (Nepal)

    2017-06-01

    The best fit value of order energy parameter (W) has been estimated over the entire range of concentration in Al-Sn binary liquid alloy at a specified temperature to determine the thermodynamic properties and concentration fluctuations, obtained by a theoretical formalism in which the combined effect of size ratio, entropic and enthalpic effect is considered. The values of W at different temperatures have been determined by finding the temperature derivative of W which are then used for the optimization procedure in order to determine the corresponding values of excess free energy of mixing, partial excess free energy of mixing and activity of the components involved in the alloy. These parameters have been used to calculate the concentration fluctuations in long wavelength limit {S_c_c(0)} at different temperatures over the entire range of concentration which predict the stability of the alloy at different temperatures.

  14. An evaluation of different delivery methods for teaching binary, hex and decimal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kempthorne

    Full Text Available The ability to convert between binary, hexadecimal, and decimal numbering systems is a fundamental skill commonly taught to tertiary-level computing and ICT students. This paper presents the results of a multiple year investigation into the application of differing approaches for the teaching and learning of these skills. Specifically, the study compares traditional lectures, games, and group activities with student levels of academic achievement. Student prior experience with numbering system conversion is also analysed. The study reveals that, overall, the game-based approach resulted in the highest average test scores; however, when students were divided into groups with and without prior experience, the students with prior experience performed better with a traditional lecture approach.

  15. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method is presented for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination. Gatifloxacin, flurbiprofen and their degradation products were detected at 254 nm using a BDS Hypersil C8 (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm column and mixture of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and methanol 30:70 v/v as mobile phase. Response was linear over the range of 15-105 mg mL-1 for gatifloxacin (r² > 0.998 and of 1.5-10.5 mg mL-1 for flurbiprofen (r² > 0.999. The developed method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products (peak purity index > 0.9999. The method developed can be applied successfully for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in human serum, urine, pharmaceutical formulations, and their stability studies.

  16. Can a combination of the conformal thin-sandwich and puncture methods yield binary black hole solutions in quasiequilibrium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannam, Mark D.; Evans, Charles R.; Cook, Gregory B.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    We consider combining two important methods for constructing quasiequilibrium initial data for binary black holes: the conformal thin-sandwich formalism and the puncture method. The former seeks to enforce stationarity in the conformal three-metric and the latter attempts to avoid internal boundaries, like minimal surfaces or apparent horizons. We show that these two methods make partially conflicting requirements on the boundary conditions that determine the time slices. In particular, it does not seem possible to construct slices that are quasistationary and that avoid physical singularities while simultaneously are connected by an everywhere positive lapse function, a condition which must be obtained if internal boundaries are to be avoided. Some relaxation of these conflicting requirements may yield a soluble system, but some of the advantages that were sought in combining these approaches will be lost

  17. Generalisation to binary mixtures of the second gradient method and application to direct numerical simulation of nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouillet, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we simulate a nucleate boiling problem using direct numerical simulation. The numerical method used is the second gradient method based on a diffuse interface model which represents interfaces as volumetric regions of finite thickness across which the physical properties of the fluid vary continuously. First, this method is successfully applied to nucleate boiling of a pure fluid. Then, the model is extended to dilute binary mixtures. After studying its validity and its limits in simple configurations, it is then applied to nucleate boiling of a dilute mixture. These simulations show a strong decrease of the heat transfer coefficient as the concentration increases, in agreement with the numerous experimental studies published in this domain. (author) [fr

  18. Some methods of encoding simple visual images for use with a sparse distributed memory, with applications to character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    To study the problems of encoding visual images for use with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), I consider a specific class of images- those that consist of several pieces, each of which is a line segment or an arc of a circle. This class includes line drawings of characters such as letters of the alphabet. I give a method of representing a segment of an arc by five numbers in a continuous way; that is, similar arcs have similar representations. I also give methods for encoding these numbers as bit strings in an approximately continuous way. The set of possible segments and arcs may be viewed as a five-dimensional manifold M, whose structure is like a Mobious strip. An image, considered to be an unordered set of segments and arcs, is therefore represented by a set of points in M - one for each piece. I then discuss the problem of constructing a preprocessor to find the segments and arcs in these images, although a preprocessor has not been developed. I also describe a possible extension of the representation.

  19. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  20. Ensuring the integrity of information resources based methods dvooznakovoho structural data encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.К. Юдін

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  Developed methods of estimation of noise stability and correction of structural code constructions to distortion in comunication of data in informatively communication systems and networks taking into account providing of integrity of informative resource.

  1. Xylanases, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Kevin A.; Dirmeier, Richard

    2018-02-27

    The invention relates to enzymes having xylanase, mannanase and/or glucanase activity, e.g., catalyzing hydrolysis of internal .beta.-1,4-xylosidic linkages or endo-.beta.-1,4-glucanase linkages; and/or degrading a linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose. Thus, the invention provides methods and processes for breaking down hemicellulose, which is a major component of the cell wall of plants, including methods and processes for hydrolyzing hemicelluloses in any plant or wood or wood product, wood waste, paper pulp, paper product or paper waste or byproduct. In addition, methods of designing new xylanases, mannanases and/or glucanases and methods of use thereof are also provided. The xylanases, mannanases and/or glucanases have increased activity and stability at increased pH and temperature.

  2. Xylanases, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A; Dirmeier, Reinhard

    2013-07-16

    The invention relates to enzymes having xylanase, mannanase and/or glucanase activity, e.g., catalyzing hydrolysis of internal .beta.-1,4-xylosidic linkages or endo-.beta.-1,4-glucanase linkages; and/or degrading a linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose. Thus, the invention provides methods and processes for breaking down hemicellulose, which is a major component of the cell wall of plants, including methods and processes for hydrolyzing hemicelluloses in any plant or wood or wood product, wood waste, paper pulp, paper product or paper waste or byproduct. In addition, methods of designing new xylanases, mannanases and/or glucanases and methods of use thereof are also provided. The xylanases, mannanases and/or glucanases have increased activity and stability at increased pH and temperature.

  3. A Vector Printing Method for High-Speed Electrohydrodynamic (EHD Jet Printing Based on Encoder Position Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Huy Phung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrohyrodynamic (EHD jet printing has been widely used in the field of direct micro-nano patterning applications, due to its high resolution printing capability. So far, vector line printing using a single nozzle has been widely used for most EHD printing applications. However, the application has been limited to low-speed printing, to avoid non-uniform line width near the end points where line printing starts and ends. At end points of line vector printing, the deposited drop amount is likely to be significantly large compared to the rest of the printed lines, due to unavoidable acceleration and deceleration. In this study, we proposed a method to solve the printing quality problems by producing droplets at an equally spaced distance, irrespective of the printing speed. For this purpose, an encoder processing unit (EPU was developed, so that the jetting trigger could be generated according to user-defined spacing by using encoder position signals, which are used for the positioning control of the two linear stages.

  4. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2017-08-15

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  5. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2016-03-22

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  6. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E

    2013-07-23

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  7. Patient positioning method based on binary image correlation between two edge images for proton-beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Akira; Yoda, Kiyoshi; Numano, Masumi; Futami, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Haruo; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Tsugami, Hironobu

    2005-01-01

    A new technique based on normalized binary image correlation between two edge images has been proposed for positioning proton-beam radiotherapy patients. A Canny edge detector was used to extract two edge images from a reference x-ray image and a test x-ray image of a patient before positioning. While translating and rotating the edged test image, the absolute value of the normalized binary image correlation between the two edge images is iteratively maximized. Each time before rotation, dilation is applied to the edged test image to avoid a steep reduction of the image correlation. To evaluate robustness of the proposed method, a simulation has been carried out using 240 simulated edged head front-view images extracted from a reference image by varying parameters of the Canny algorithm with a given range of rotation angles and translation amounts in x and y directions. It was shown that resulting registration errors have an accuracy of one pixel in x and y directions and zero degrees in rotation, even when the number of edge pixels significantly differs between the edged reference image and the edged simulation image. Subsequently, positioning experiments using several sets of head, lung, and hip data have been performed. We have observed that the differences of translation and rotation between manual positioning and the proposed method were within one pixel in translation and one degree in rotation. From the results of the validation study, it can be concluded that a significant reduction in workload for the physicians and technicians can be achieved with this method

  8. BICEPP: an example-based statistical text mining method for predicting the binary characteristics of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsafnat Guy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of drug characteristics is a clinically important task, but it requires much expert knowledge and consumes substantial resources. We have developed a statistical text-mining approach (BInary Characteristics Extractor and biomedical Properties Predictor: BICEPP to help experts screen drugs that may have important clinical characteristics of interest. Results BICEPP first retrieves MEDLINE abstracts containing drug names, then selects tokens that best predict the list of drugs which represents the characteristic of interest. Machine learning is then used to classify drugs using a document frequency-based measure. Evaluation experiments were performed to validate BICEPP's performance on 484 characteristics of 857 drugs, identified from the Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH and the PharmacoKinetic Interaction Screening (PKIS database. Stratified cross-validations revealed that BICEPP was able to classify drugs into all 20 major therapeutic classes (100% and 157 (of 197 minor drug classes (80% with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC > 0.80. Similarly, AUC > 0.80 could be obtained in the classification of 173 (of 238 adverse events (73%, up to 12 (of 15 groups of clinically significant cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP inducers or inhibitors (80%, and up to 11 (of 14 groups of narrow therapeutic index drugs (79%. Interestingly, it was observed that the keywords used to describe a drug characteristic were not necessarily the most predictive ones for the classification task. Conclusions BICEPP has sufficient classification power to automatically distinguish a wide range of clinical properties of drugs. This may be used in pharmacovigilance applications to assist with rapid screening of large drug databases to identify important characteristics for further evaluation.

  9. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  10. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Performance of Firth-and logF-type penalized methods in risk prediction for small or sparse binary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Shafiqur; Sultana, Mahbuba

    2017-02-23

    When developing risk models for binary data with small or sparse data sets, the standard maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) based logistic regression faces several problems including biased or infinite estimate of the regression coefficient and frequent convergence failure of the likelihood due to separation. The problem of separation occurs commonly even if sample size is large but there is sufficient number of strong predictors. In the presence of separation, even if one develops the model, it produces overfitted model with poor predictive performance. Firth-and logF-type penalized regression methods are popular alternative to MLE, particularly for solving separation-problem. Despite the attractive advantages, their use in risk prediction is very limited. This paper evaluated these methods in risk prediction in comparison with MLE and other commonly used penalized methods such as ridge. The predictive performance of the methods was evaluated through assessing calibration, discrimination and overall predictive performance using an extensive simulation study. Further an illustration of the methods were provided using a real data example with low prevalence of outcome. The MLE showed poor performance in risk prediction in small or sparse data sets. All penalized methods offered some improvements in calibration, discrimination and overall predictive performance. Although the Firth-and logF-type methods showed almost equal amount of improvement, Firth-type penalization produces some bias in the average predicted probability, and the amount of bias is even larger than that produced by MLE. Of the logF(1,1) and logF(2,2) penalization, logF(2,2) provides slight bias in the estimate of regression coefficient of binary predictor and logF(1,1) performed better in all aspects. Similarly, ridge performed well in discrimination and overall predictive performance but it often produces underfitted model and has high rate of convergence failure (even the rate is higher than that

  12. Methods for the Isolation of Genes Encoding Novel PHA Metabolism Enzymes from Complex Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiujun; Nordeste, Ricardo; Trainer, Maria A; Charles, Trevor C

    2017-01-01

    Development of different PHAs as alternatives to petrochemically derived plastics can be facilitated by mining metagenomic libraries for diverse PHA cycle genes that might be useful for synthesis of bio-plastics. The specific phenotypes associated with mutations of the PHA synthesis pathway genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Pseudomonas putida, allows the use of powerful selection and screening tools to identify complementing novel PHA synthesis genes. Identification of novel genes through their function rather than sequence facilitates the functional proteins that may otherwise have been excluded through sequence-only screening methodology. We present here methods that we have developed for the isolation of clones expressing novel PHA metabolism genes from metagenomic libraries.

  13. Methods for the isolation of genes encoding novel PHB cycle enzymes from complex microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeste, Ricardo F; Trainer, Maria A; Charles, Trevor C

    2010-01-01

    Development of different PHAs as alternatives to petrochemically derived plastics can be facilitated by mining metagenomic libraries for diverse PHA cycle genes that might be useful for synthesis of bioplastics. The specific phenotypes associated with mutations of the PHA synthesis pathway genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti allows for the use of powerful selection and screening tools to identify complementing novel PHA synthesis genes. Identification of novel genes through their function rather than sequence facilitates finding functional proteins that may otherwise have been excluded through sequence-only screening methodology. We present here methods that we have developed for the isolation of clones expressing novel PHA metabolism genes from metagenomic libraries.

  14. Displacement encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    In an optical encoder, light from an optical fibre input A is encoded by means of the encoding disc and is subsequently collected for transmission via optical fibre B. At some point in the optical path between the fibres A and B, the light is separated into component form by means of a filtering or dispersive system and each colour component is associated with a respective one of the coding channels of the disc. In this way, the significance of each bit of the coded information is represented by a respective colour thereby enabling the components to be re-combined for transmission by the fibre B without loss of information. (author)

  15. Parallel encoders for pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of fast encoding and determining the multiplicity and coordinates of fired pixels is described. A specific example construction of parallel encodes and MCC for n=49 and t=2 is given. 16 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Determination of the growth restriction factor and grain size for aluminum alloys by a quasi-binary equivalent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrašinović, A.M.; Robles Hernández, F.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new method to determine the growth restricting factor. (Q) is proposed ► The proposed method is highly accurate (R 2 = 0.99) and simple. ► A major novelty of this method is the determination of Q for non-dilute samples. ► The method proposed herein is based on quasi-binary phase diagrams and composition. ► This method can be easily implemented industrially or as a research tool. - Abstract: In the present research paper is suggested a new methodology to determine the growth restricting factor (Q) and grain size (GS) for various Al-alloys. The present method combines a thermodynamical component based on the liquidus behavior of each alloying element that is later incorporated into the well known growth restricting models for multi-component alloys. This approach that can be used to determine Q and/or GS based on the chemical composition and the slope of the liquidus temperature of any Al-alloy solidified in close to equilibrium conditions. This method can be modified further in order to assess the effect of cooling rate or thermomechanical processing on growth restricting factor and grain size. In the present paper is proposed a highly accurate (R 2 = 0.99) and validated model for Al–Si alloys, but it can be modified for any other Al–X alloying system. The present method can be used for alloys with relatively high solute content and due to the use of the thermodynamics of liquidus this system considers the poisoning effects of single and multi-component alloying elements.

  17. Nonlinear inversion of potential-field data using a hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Feng, G.

    2006-01-01

    Using a genetic algorithm to solve an inverse problem of complex nonlinear geophysical equations is advantageous because it does not require computer gradients of models or "good" initial models. The multi-point search of a genetic algorithm makes it easier to find the globally optimal solution while avoiding falling into a local extremum. As is the case in other optimization approaches, the search efficiency for a genetic algorithm is vital in finding desired solutions successfully in a multi-dimensional model space. A binary-encoding genetic algorithm is hardly ever used to resolve an optimization problem such as a simple geophysical inversion with only three unknowns. The encoding mechanism, genetic operators, and population size of the genetic algorithm greatly affect search processes in the evolution. It is clear that improved operators and proper population size promote the convergence. Nevertheless, not all genetic operations perform perfectly while searching under either a uniform binary or a decimal encoding system. With the binary encoding mechanism, the crossover scheme may produce more new individuals than with the decimal encoding. On the other hand, the mutation scheme in a decimal encoding system will create new genes larger in scope than those in the binary encoding. This paper discusses approaches of exploiting the search potential of genetic operations in the two encoding systems and presents an approach with a hybrid-encoding mechanism, multi-point crossover, and dynamic population size for geophysical inversion. We present a method that is based on the routine in which the mutation operation is conducted in the decimal code and multi-point crossover operation in the binary code. The mix-encoding algorithm is called the hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm (HEGA). HEGA provides better genes with a higher probability by a mutation operator and improves genetic algorithms in resolving complicated geophysical inverse problems. Another significant

  18. Three different spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra for determination of binary mixture of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeiny, Badr A.

    2011-12-01

    Three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra are developed for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine besylate (AM) and Atorvastatin calcium (AT) in tablet dosage forms. The first method is first derivative of the ratio spectra ( 1DD), the second is ratio subtraction and the third is the method of mean centering of ratio spectra. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 3-40 and 8-32 μg/ml for AM and AT, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they are applied to commercial pharmaceutical preparation of the subjected drugs. Standard deviation is <1.5 in the assay of raw materials and tablets. Methods are validated as per ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness are found to be within the acceptable limit.

  19. Trojan Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.

  20. A new method of equalizing the optical power by a liquid crystal-based tunable encoder/decoder in SAC-OCDMA PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Qiao, Yang; Zhao, Yanbin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Meilin; Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Bilei

    2015-11-01

    A new method of equalizing the optical power is proposed to enhance the performance in the SAC OCDMA PON. The method is to use a tunable liquid crystal-based tunable encoder for further development by voltage controlling individually, so it is achieved in one device for encoding and power equalization, the experimental results show that the system BER and eye diagram are greatly improved. Since the method does not use additional devices in the condition, the system are lower complexity and cost-effective.

  1. Binary black hole coalescence in the large-mass-ratio limit: The hyperboloidal layer method and waveforms at null infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro; Zenginoglu, Anil

    2011-01-01

    We compute and analyze the gravitational waveform emitted to future null infinity by a system of two black holes in the large-mass-ratio limit. We consider the transition from the quasiadiabatic inspiral to plunge, merger, and ringdown. The relative dynamics is driven by a leading order in the mass ratio, 5PN-resummed, effective-one-body (EOB), analytic-radiation reaction. To compute the waveforms, we solve the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli equations in the time-domain on a spacelike foliation, which coincides with the standard Schwarzschild foliation in the region including the motion of the small black hole, and is globally hyperboloidal, allowing us to include future null infinity in the computational domain by compactification. This method is called the hyperboloidal layer method, and is discussed here for the first time in a study of the gravitational radiation emitted by black hole binaries. We consider binaries characterized by five mass ratios, ν=10 -2,-3,-4,-5,-6 , that are primary targets of space-based or third-generation gravitational wave detectors. We show significative phase differences between finite-radius and null-infinity waveforms. We test, in our context, the reliability of the extrapolation procedure routinely applied to numerical relativity waveforms. We present an updated calculation of the final and maximum gravitational recoil imparted to the merger remnant by the gravitational wave emission, v kick end /(cν 2 )=0.04474±0.00007 and v kick max /(cν 2 )=0.05248±0.00008. As a self-consistency test of the method, we show an excellent fractional agreement (even during the plunge) between the 5PN EOB-resummed mechanical angular momentum loss and the gravitational wave angular momentum flux computed at null infinity. New results concerning the radiation emitted from unstable circular orbits are also presented. The high accuracy waveforms computed here could be considered for the construction of template banks or for calibrating analytic models such

  2. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  3. Designing multiplex PCR system of Campylobacter jejuni for efficient typing by improving monoplex PCR binary typing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuhiro; Ibata, Ami; Suzuki, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Masakado; Yamashita, Teruo; Minagawa, Hiroko; Kurane, Ryuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the majority of Campylobacter infections. As the molecular epidemiological study of outbreaks, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is performed in general. But PFGE has several problems. PCR binary typing (P-BIT) method is a typing method for Campylobacter spp. that was recently developed, and was reported to have a similar discriminatory power and stability to those of PFGE. We modified the P-BIT method from 18 monoplex PCRs to two multiplex PCR systems (mP-BIT). The same results were obtained from monoplex PCRs using original primers and multiplex PCR in the representative isolates. The mP-BIT can analyze 48 strains at a time by using 96-well PCR systems and can identify C. jejuni because mP-BIT includes C. jejuni marker. The typing of the isolates by the mP-BIT and PFGE demonstrated generally concordant results and the mP-BIT method (D = 0.980) has a similar discriminatory power to that of PFGE with SmaI digest (D = 0.975) or KpnI digest (D = 0.987) as with original article. The mP-BIT method is quick, simple and easy, and comes to be able to perform it at low cost by having become a multiplex PCR system. Therefore, the mP-BIT method with two multiplex PCR systems has high potential for a rapid first-line surveillance typing assay of C. jejuni and can be used for routine surveillance and outbreak investigations of C. jejuni in the future. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Method for accurate determination of dissociation constants of optical ratiometric systems: chemical probes, genetically encoded sensors, and interacting molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, Adam; Kochańczyk, Tomasz; Miłoch, Anna; Krężel, Artur

    2013-12-03

    Ratiometric chemical probes and genetically encoded sensors are of high interest for both analytical chemists and molecular biologists. Their high sensitivity toward the target ligand and ability to obtain quantitative results without a known sensor concentration have made them a very useful tool in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Although ratiometric sensors are widely used in many applications, their successful and accurate usage depends on how they are characterized in terms of sensing target molecules. The most important feature of probes and sensors besides their optical parameters is an affinity constant toward analyzed molecules. The literature shows that different analytical approaches are used to determine the stability constants, with the ratio approach being most popular. However, oversimplification and lack of attention to detail results in inaccurate determination of stability constants, which in turn affects the results obtained using these sensors. Here, we present a new method where ratio signal is calibrated for borderline values of intensities of both wavelengths, instead of borderline ratio values that generate errors in many studies. At the same time, the equation takes into account the cooperativity factor or fluorescence artifacts and therefore can be used to characterize systems with various stoichiometries and experimental conditions. Accurate determination of stability constants is demonstrated utilizing four known optical ratiometric probes and sensors, together with a discussion regarding other, currently used methods.

  5. Progress in electrical impedance imaging of binary media: 1: Analytical and numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovacik, Levent; Lin Jentai; Jones, Owen C.

    1998-01-01

    This is the first of two papers summarizing the use of electrical impedance excitation/measurement for producing cross sectional images of the distribution of insulating media imbedded in conducting media. This computed tomographic approach finds the distribution of electrical properties of an electric field which minimizes in the least squares sense the difference between measured and computed boundary response to excitation. In this paper we briefly review the basic analytical methods developed for this system. We then extend these methods to three dimensions, add a method for preconditioning voltages for error correction, describe methods for optimizing the resolution of a target by providing optimal excitation patterns and then describe the overall numerical sensitivity. The second paper then demonstrates the ability of this system to image multiple, separate, differently-sized two-dimensional or three-dimensional targets with demonstrated linear sensitivity of over 30:1 with maximum possible linear sensitivity of one part in 1300 based on our ability to distinguish variations from a homogeneous background. (author)

  6. Methods of quasi-projectile and quasi-target reconstruction in binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Vient, E.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Peter, J.; Tamain, B.

    1997-01-01

    In very dissipative collisions one or more nuclei of hot nuclear matter are formed. According to the stored energy these decay in times varying from several tens of fm/c to several tens of thousands of fm/c. Thus, we have to trace down in time and reconstruct the original nuclei starting from a mixture of decay products of these nuclei and all the particles dynamically emitted in the very first moments of the collision. In this paper different methods of reconstruction of hot nuclei formed after collision at Fermi energies are presented and compared. All the methods have in commune the same theoretical hypotheses and experimental limitations. The first method uses the largest detected fragment which is supposed to preserve the memory of the initial velocity of the quasi-projectile (QP). All the intermediate mass fragments (IMF) situated in the forward hemisphere are considered as statistically emitted by the QP. The initial velocity of the source is determined by summation of the fragment momenta, event by event. Once the decay products assigned to the QP its total charge can be calculated and its mass is obtained from the projectile A/Z ratio. Finally, the QP excitation energy is calculated from calorimetric data. In the second method ('Nautilus') the velocity space is separated by cutting the center-of-mass velocity perpendicular to the main axis of the momentum ellipsoid. We take into consideration all the IMFs situated in the forward part of the ellipsoid to determine the velocity of the rapid source. The charge is constructed by summing the largest detected fragment and doubling the charge of the particles emitted in the forward hemisphere of the rapid source. The mass and excitation energy of QP per nucleon are determined as above. The third method called of 'estoc' is a purely computational one. It is based on the hypothesis that the IMFs coming from a given source are all in the same region of the momentum space. A comparison of the three methods is

  7. Stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of piroxicam and ofloxacin in binary combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Peter; Azeem, Waqar; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Islam Ullah; Razzaq, Syed Naeem

    2015-09-01

    A simple and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of piroxicam and ofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations and human serum. Optimum separations of piroxicam, ofloxacin and stress-induced degradation products were achieved by use of Hypersil BDS C8 column (250 x 4.6mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile: 0.012M K2HPO4: 0.008M sodium citrate (both buffers mixed and pH adjusted to 2.8) (50:25:25 v/v/v) delivered at flow rate of 1.5 mL min⁻¹ using DAD at 254 nm. Response was linear function of concentration over the ranges of 70-130 mg mL⁻¹ for piroxicam and ofloxacin (r² ≥ 0.999). The method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products with acceptable tailing and resolution. The developed method was successfully used for concurrent analysis of piroxicam and ofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations, human serum and in vitro drug interaction studies.

  8. Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.

    1986-01-01

    In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.

  9. Reservoir characterisation by a binary level set method and adaptive multiscale estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Kristian

    2006-01-15

    The main focus of this work is on estimation of the absolute permeability as a solution of an inverse problem. We have both considered a single-phase and a two-phase flow model. Two novel approaches have been introduced and tested numerical for solving the inverse problems. The first approach is a multi scale zonation technique which is treated in Paper A. The purpose of the work in this paper is to find a coarse scale solution based on production data from wells. In the suggested approach, the robustness of an already developed method, the adaptive multi scale estimation (AME), has been improved by utilising information from several candidate solutions generated by a stochastic optimizer. The new approach also suggests a way of combining a stochastic and a gradient search method, which in general is a problematic issue. The second approach is a piecewise constant level set approach and is applied in Paper B, C, D and E. Paper B considers the stationary single-phase problem, while Paper C, D and E use a two-phase flow model. In the two-phase flow problem we have utilised information from both production data in wells and spatially distributed data gathered from seismic surveys. Due to the higher content of information provided by the spatially distributed data, we search solutions on a slightly finer scale than one typically does with only production data included. The applied level set method is suitable for reconstruction of fields with a supposed known facies-type of solution. That is, the solution should be close to piecewise constant. This information is utilised through a strong restriction of the number of constant levels in the estimate. On the other hand, the flexibility in the geometries of the zones is much larger for this method than in a typical zonation approach, for example the multi scale approach applied in Paper A. In all these papers, the numerical studies are done on synthetic data sets. An advantage of synthetic data studies is that the true

  10. Combining phase-field crystal methods with a Cahn-Hilliard model for binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, Ananya Renuka; Carter, W. Craig

    2018-04-01

    Diffusion-induced phase transitions typically change the lattice symmetry of the host material. In battery electrodes, for example, Li ions (diffusing species) are inserted between layers in a crystalline electrode material (host). This diffusion induces lattice distortions and defect formations in the electrode. The structural changes to the lattice symmetry affect the host material's properties. Here, we propose a 2D theoretical framework that couples a Cahn-Hilliard (CH) model, which describes the composition field of a diffusing species, with a phase-field crystal (PFC) model, which describes the host-material lattice symmetry. We couple the two continuum models via coordinate transformation coefficients. We introduce the transformation coefficients in the PFC method to describe affine lattice deformations. These transformation coefficients are modeled as functions of the composition field. Using this coupled approach, we explore the effects of coarse-grained lattice symmetry and distortions on a diffusion-induced phase transition process. In this paper, we demonstrate the working of the CH-PFC model through three representative examples: First, we describe base cases with hexagonal and square symmetries for two composition fields. Next, we illustrate how the CH-PFC method interpolates lattice symmetry across a diffuse phase boundary. Finally, we compute a Cahn-Hilliard type of diffusion and model the accompanying changes to lattice symmetry during a phase transition process.

  11. Automated preparation method for colloidal crystal arrays of monodisperse and binary colloid mixtures by contact printing with a pintool plotter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Klaus; Neumann, Thomas; Wang, Jianjun; Jonas, Ulrich; Knoll, Wolfgang; Ottleben, Holger

    2007-03-13

    Photonic crystals and photonic band gap materials with periodic variation of the dielectric constant in the submicrometer range exhibit unique optical properties such as opalescence, optical stop bands, and photonic band gaps. As such, they represent attractive materials for the active elements in sensor arrays. Colloidal crystals, which are 3D gratings leading to Bragg diffraction, are one potential precursor of such optical materials. They have gained particular interest in many technological areas as a result of their specific properties and ease of fabrication. Although basic techniques for the preparation of regular patterns of colloidal crystals on structured substrates by self-assembly of mesoscopic particles are known, the efficient fabrication of colloidal crystal arrays by simple contact printing has not yet been reported. In this article, we present a spotting technique used to produce a microarray comprising up to 9600 single addressable sensor fields of colloidal crystal structures with dimensions down to 100 mum on a microfabricated substrate in different formats. Both monodisperse colloidal crystals and binary colloidal crystal systems were prepared by contact printing of polystyrene particles in aqueous suspension. The array morphology was characterized by optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed regularly ordered crystalline structures for both systems. In the case of binary crystals, the influence of the concentration ratio of the large and small particles in the printing suspension on the obtained crystal structure was investigated. The optical properties of the colloidal crystal arrays were characterized by reflection spectroscopy. To examine the stop bands of the colloidal crystal arrays in a high-throughput fashion, an optical setup based on a CCD camera was realized that allowed the simultaneous readout of all of the reflection spectra of several thousand sensor fields per array in parallel. In agreement with

  12. A Bayesian method for comparing and combining binary classifiers in the absence of a gold standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Jonathan M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many problems in bioinformatics involve classification based on features such as sequence, structure or morphology. Given multiple classifiers, two crucial questions arise: how does their performance compare, and how can they best be combined to produce a better classifier? A classifier can be evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity using benchmark, or gold standard, data, that is, data for which the true classification is known. However, a gold standard is not always available. Here we demonstrate that a Bayesian model for comparing medical diagnostics without a gold standard can be successfully applied in the bioinformatics domain, to genomic scale data sets. We present a new implementation, which unlike previous implementations is applicable to any number of classifiers. We apply this model, for the first time, to the problem of finding the globally optimal logical combination of classifiers. Results We compared three classifiers of protein subcellular localisation, and evaluated our estimates of sensitivity and specificity against estimates obtained using a gold standard. The method overestimated sensitivity and specificity with only a small discrepancy, and correctly ranked the classifiers. Diagnostic tests for swine flu were then compared on a small data set. Lastly, classifiers for a genome-wide association study of macular degeneration with 541094 SNPs were analysed. In all cases, run times were feasible, and results precise. The optimal logical combination of classifiers was also determined for all three data sets. Code and data are available from http://bioinformatics.monash.edu.au/downloads/. Conclusions The examples demonstrate the methods are suitable for both small and large data sets, applicable to the wide range of bioinformatics classification problems, and robust to dependence between classifiers. In all three test cases, the globally optimal logical combination of the classifiers was found to be

  13. Precipitation kinetics in binary Fe–Cu and ternary Fe–Cu–Ni alloys via kMC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation kinetics of coherent Cu rich precipitates (CRPs in binary Fe–Cu and ternary Fe–Cu–Ni alloys during thermal aging was modelled by the kinetic Monte Carlo method (kMC. A good agreement of the precipitation kinetics of Fe–Cu was found between the simulation and experimental results, as observed by means of advancement factor and cluster number density. This agreement was obtained owing to the correct description of the fast cluster mobility. The simulation results indicate that the effects of Ni are two-fold: Ni promotes the nucleation of Cu clusters; while the precipitation kinetics appears to be delayed by Ni addition during the coarsening stage. The apparent delayed precipitation kinetics is revealed to be related with the cluster mobility, which are reduced by Ni addition. The reduction effect of the cluster mobility weakens when the CRPs sizes increase. The results provide a view angle on the effects of solute elements upon Cu precipitation kinetics through the consideration of the non-conventional cluster growth mechanism, and kMC is verified to be a powerful approach on that.

  14. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  15. Selective micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of some pharmaceutical binary mixtures containing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. El-Kommos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and selective micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC method has been developed for the analysis of five pharmaceutical binary mixtures containing three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. The investigated mixtures were Ibuprofen (IP–Paracetamol (PC, Ibuprofen (IP–Chlorzoxazone (CZ, Ibuprofen (IP–Methocarbamol (MC, Ketoprofen (KP–Chlorzoxazone (CZ and Diclofenac sodium (DS–Lidocaine hydrochloride (LC. The separation was run for all mixtures using borate buffer (20 mM, pH 9 containing 15% (v/v methanol and 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS at 15 kV and the components were detected at 214 nm. Different factors affecting the electrophoretic mobility of the seven investigated drugs were studied and optimized. The method was validated according to international conference of harmonization (ICH guidelines and United States pharmacopoeia (USP. The method was applied to the analysis of five pharmaceutical binary mixtures in their dosage forms. The results were compared with other reported high performance liquid chromatographic methods and no significant differences were observed. Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis, Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Pharmaceutical binary mixtures, Pharmaceutical analysis

  16. Prevalence and Characterization of a Binary Toxin (Actin-Specific ADP-Ribosyltransferase) from Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carina; Decré, Dominique; Barbut, Frédéric; Burghoffer, Béatrice; Petit, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the two large clostridial cytotoxins (TcdA and TcdB), some strains of Clostridium difficile also produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase, called binary toxin CDT. We used a PCR method and Southern blotting for the detection of genes encoding the enzymatic (CDTa) and binding (CDTb) components of the binary toxin in 369 strains isolated from patients with suspected C. difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Twenty-two strains (a prevalence of 6%) harbored both genes. When binary toxin production was assessed by Western blotting, 19 of the 22 strains reacted with antisera against the iota toxin of C. perfringens (anti-Ia and anti-Ib). Additionally, binary toxin activity, detected by the ADP-ribosyltransferase assay, was present in only 17 of the 22 strains. Subsequently, all 22 binary toxin-positive strains were tested for the production of toxins TcdA and TcdB, toxinotyped, and characterized by serogrouping, PCR ribotyping, arbitrarily primed PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All binary toxin-positive strains also produced TcdB and/or TcdA. However, they had significant changes in the tcdA and tcdB genes and belonged to variant toxinotypes III, IV, V, VII, IX, and XIII. We could differentiate 16 profiles by using typing methods, indicating that most of the binary toxin-positive strains were unrelated. PMID:15131151

  17. AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

  18. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  19. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  20. Method of non-interacting thermodynamic calculation of binary phase diagrams containing p disordered phases with variable composition and q phases with constant composition at (p, q) ≤ 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovskij, A.L.; Karpushkin, V.N.; Nikishina, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Method of non-interacting thermodynamic calculation of state diagram of binary systems contacting p disordered phases with variable composition and q phases with constant composition for (p, q) ≤ 10 case is developed. Determination of all possible solutions of phase equilibrium equations is realized in the method. Certain application examples of computer-realized method of T-x thermodynamic calculation using PC for Cr-W, Ni-W, Ni-Al, Ni-Re binary systems are given

  1. A method for testing the performance and the accuracy of the binary MLC used in helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissner, Steffen; Schubert, Kai; Klueter, Sebastian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Juergen [University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-08-01

    During a helical tomotherapy a binary MLC is used for fluence modulation. The 64 pneumatically driven leaves of the MLC are either completely open or closed. Th e fast and frequent leaf movements result in a high demand of accuracy and stability of the MLC. This article is based on the analytical investigation of the accuracy and the stability of the MLC. Different patterns of MLC movements were generated to investigate the characteristics of the MLC. One of the considered aspects contains the friction between the leaves. The influence of variations of the compressed air on the MLC was also explored. The integrated MVCT detector of the tomotherapy system deposits the treatment data in a matrix. The detector is triggered with the linear accelerator, which is pulsed by 300Hz. The data matrix is available after the treatment. An IDL (Interactive Data Language) routine was programmed in order to analyse the matrix. The points of time, at which the leaves open (POT), and the period, in which the leaves stay open (LOT), were measured and compared with the desired values. That procedure has been repeated several times a week for approximately 6 months to investigate the stability of the MLC. Relative deviations of the LOT from -0.4% to -5.4% were measured. The friction between the leaves had no significant influence on the LOT. The available compressed air, that is used to move the leaves, depends on the number of moving leaves and also on the previous movements of the MLC. Variations of the compressed air resulted in deviations of the LOT from -1.8% to -3.7%. The measured POT deviates from the programmed POT up to -18.4ms {+-} 0.7ms. This maximal deviation correlates with a shift of the gantry angle of 0.52 which is negligible. The MLC has shown a stable behaviour over the 6 months. A separate consideration of the leaves showed no higher standard deviation of the LOT than {+-} 0.7ms during the investigated time. The variation between the different leaves is much higher

  2. A method for testing the performance and the accuracy of the binary MLC used in helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissner, Steffen; Schubert, Kai; Klueter, Sebastian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    During a helical tomotherapy a binary MLC is used for fluence modulation. The 64 pneumatically driven leaves of the MLC are either completely open or closed. Th e fast and frequent leaf movements result in a high demand of accuracy and stability of the MLC. This article is based on the analytical investigation of the accuracy and the stability of the MLC. Different patterns of MLC movements were generated to investigate the characteristics of the MLC. One of the considered aspects contains the friction between the leaves. The influence of variations of the compressed air on the MLC was also explored. The integrated MVCT detector of the tomotherapy system deposits the treatment data in a matrix. The detector is triggered with the linear accelerator, which is pulsed by 300Hz. The data matrix is available after the treatment. An IDL (Interactive Data Language) routine was programmed in order to analyse the matrix. The points of time, at which the leaves open (POT), and the period, in which the leaves stay open (LOT), were measured and compared with the desired values. That procedure has been repeated several times a week for approximately 6 months to investigate the stability of the MLC. Relative deviations of the LOT from -0.4% to -5.4% were measured. The friction between the leaves had no significant influence on the LOT. The available compressed air, that is used to move the leaves, depends on the number of moving leaves and also on the previous movements of the MLC. Variations of the compressed air resulted in deviations of the LOT from -1.8% to -3.7%. The measured POT deviates from the programmed POT up to -18.4ms ± 0.7ms. This maximal deviation correlates with a shift of the gantry angle of 0.52 which is negligible. The MLC has shown a stable behaviour over the 6 months. A separate consideration of the leaves showed no higher standard deviation of the LOT than ± 0.7ms during the investigated time. The variation between the different leaves is much higher than

  3. Astronomy of binary and multiple stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Various types of binary stars and methods for their observation are described in a popular form. Some models of formation and evolution of binary and multiple star systems are presented. It is concluded that formation of binary and multiple stars is a regular stage in the process of star production

  4. Binary conductive network for construction of Si/Ag nanowires/rGO integrated composite film by vacuum-filtration method and their application for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Xia, X.H.; Zhang, Y.J.; Tong, Y.Y.; Wang, X.L.; Gu, C.D.; Tu, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Construction of high-capacity anode is highly important for the development of next-generation high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we fabricate Si/Ag nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (Si/Ag NWs/rGO) integrated composite film by introducing binary conductive networks (Ag NWs and rGO) into Si active materials with the help of a facile vacuum-filtration method. Active Si nanoparticles are homogeneously encapsulated by binary Ag NWs-rGO conductive network, in which Ag NWs are interwoven among the rGO sheets. The electrochemical properties of the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film are thoroughly characterized as anode of LIBs. Compared to the Si/rGO composite film, the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances with higher capacity, better high-rate capability and cycling stability (1269 mAh g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1 up to 50 cycles). The binary conductive network plays a positive role in the enhancement of performance due to its faster ion/electron transfer, and better anti-structure degradation caused by volume expansion during the cycling process.

  5. Study of complexation process between 4'-nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 and yttrium(III) cation in binary mixed non-aqueous solvents using conductometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, N.; Rounaghi, G. H.; Mohajeri, M.

    2012-12-01

    The complexation reaction of macrocyclic ligand (4'-nitrobenzo-15C5) with Y3+ cation was studied in acetonitrile-methanol (AN-MeOH), acetonitrile-ethanol (AN-EtOH), acetonitrile-dimethylformamide (AN-DMF) and ethylacetate-methanol (EtOAc-MeOH) binary mixtures at different temperatures using conductometry method. The conductivity data show that in all solvent systems, the stoichiometry of the complex formed between 4'-nitrobenzo-15C5 and Y3+ cation is 1: 1 (ML). The stability order of (4'-nitrobenzo-15C5). Y3+ complex in pure non-aqueous solvents at 25°C was found to be: EtOAc > EtOH > AN ≈ DMF > MeOH, and in the case of most compositions of the binary mixed solvents at 25°C it was: AN≈MeOH ≈ AN-EtOH > AN-DMF > EtOAc-MeOH. But the results indicate that the sequence of the stability of the complex in the binary mixed solutions changes with temperature. A non-linear behavior was observed for changes of log K f of (4'-nitrobenzo-15C5 · Y3+) complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents, which was explained in terms of solvent-solvent interactions and also the hetero-selective solvation of the species involved in the complexation reaction. The values of thermodynamic parameters (Δ H {c/ℴ} and Δ S {c/ℴ}) for formation of the complex were obtained from temperature dependent of the stability constant using the van't Hoff plots. The results represent that in most cases, the complex is both enthalpy and entropy stabilized and the values and also the sign of thermodynamic parameters are influenced by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.

  6. Nanoporous hard data: optical encoding of information within nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-04-21

    Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information.

  7. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  8. Comparison of methods for calculating thermodynamic properties of binary mixtures in the sub and super critical state: Lee-Kesler and cubic equations of state for binary mixtures containing either CO2 or H2S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jyisy; Griffiths, Peter R.; Goodwin, Anthony R.H.

    2003-01-01

    The (ρ,T,p) and (vapor + liquid) equilibria for fluid mixtures containing either CO 2 or H 2 S have been determined from 13 equations of state. The estimated values have been compared with published experimental results. CO 2 and H 2 S were used to represent non-polar and polar fluids, respectively. The equations of state investigated were as follows: (a) the Lee-Kesler equation; (b) two equations that included new reference fluids for the Lee-Kesler method; (c) three so-called extended equations of state; and (d) seven cubic equations of state. After adjustment of the binary interaction parameters the predicted values differed from the experimental data by about 0.8% for CO 2 mixtures while for H 2 S mixtures the uncertainty was about ±2.8%. Somewhat larger errors, although still lower than ±5%, were obtained for co-existing phase densities; the Lee-Kesler method provided results of the highest accuracy. The cubic equations proposed by Schmidt and Wenzel and Valderrama provide the most reliable predictions of both single and co-existing phase densities. Comparison of the predicted (vapor + liquid) equilibrium with experiment shows that each of the seven cubic equations provides results of similar accuracy and all within ±6%

  9. A data processing method for determining instantaneous angular speed and acceleration of crankshaft in an aircraft engine-propeller system using a magnetic encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. D.; Zhang, X.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the instantaneous angular speed and instantaneous angular acceleration of the crankshaft in a reciprocating engine and propeller dynamical system from electrical pulse signals generated by a magnetic encoder. The method is based on accurate determination of the measured global mean angular speed and precise values of times when leading edges of individual magnetic teeth pass through the magnetic sensor. Under a steady-state operating condition, a discrete deviation time vs. shaft rotational angle series of uniform interval is obtained and used for accurate determination of the crankshaft speed and acceleration. The proposed method for identifying sub- and super-harmonic oscillations in the instantaneous angular speeds and accelerations is new and efficient. Experiments were carried out on a three-cylinder four-stroke Saito 450R model aircraft engine and a Solo propeller in connection with a 64-teeth Admotec KL2202 magnetic encoder and an HS-4 data acquisition system. Comparisons with an independent data processing scheme indicate that the proposed method yields noise-free instantaneous angular speeds and is superior to the finite difference based methods commonly used in the literature.

  10. A comparison of confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient in community-based cluster randomization trials with a binary outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschel, Melissa C; Svec, Ivana; Darlington, Gerarda A; Donner, Allan

    2016-04-01

    Many investigators rely on previously published point estimates of the intraclass correlation coefficient rather than on their associated confidence intervals to determine the required size of a newly planned cluster randomized trial. Although confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient that can be applied to community-based trials have been developed for a continuous outcome variable, fewer methods exist for a binary outcome variable. The aim of this study is to evaluate confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient applied to binary outcomes in community intervention trials enrolling a small number of large clusters. Existing methods for confidence interval construction are examined and compared to a new ad hoc approach based on dividing clusters into a large number of smaller sub-clusters and subsequently applying existing methods to the resulting data. Monte Carlo simulation is used to assess the width and coverage of confidence intervals for the intraclass correlation coefficient based on Smith's large sample approximation of the standard error of the one-way analysis of variance estimator, an inverted modified Wald test for the Fleiss-Cuzick estimator, and intervals constructed using a bootstrap-t applied to a variance-stabilizing transformation of the intraclass correlation coefficient estimate. In addition, a new approach is applied in which clusters are randomly divided into a large number of smaller sub-clusters with the same methods applied to these data (with the exception of the bootstrap-t interval, which assumes large cluster sizes). These methods are also applied to a cluster randomized trial on adolescent tobacco use for illustration. When applied to a binary outcome variable in a small number of large clusters, existing confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient provide poor coverage. However, confidence intervals constructed using the new approach combined with Smith

  11. A predictive method for crude oil volatile organic compounds emission from soil: evaporation and diffusion behavior investigation of binary gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijing; Fischer, Thomas; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev

    2015-05-01

    Due to their mobility and toxicity, crude oil volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are representative components for oil pipeline contaminated sites detection. Therefore, contaminated location risk assessment, with airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) survey, in particular, requires ground-based determinative methods for oil VOCs, the interaction between oil VOCs and soil, and information on how they diffuse from underground into atmosphere. First, we developed a method for determination of crude oil VOC binary mixtures (take n-pentane and n-hexane as examples), taking synergistic effects of VOC mixtures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers into consideration. Using this method, we further aim to extract VOCs from small volumes, for example, from soil pores, using a custom-made sampling device for nondestructive SPME fiber intrusion, and to study VOC transport through heterogeneous porous media. Second, specific surface Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis was conducted and used for estimation of VOC isotherm parameters in soil. Finally, two models were fitted for VOC emission prediction, and the results were compared to the experimental emission results. It was found that free diffusion mode worked well, and an empirical correction factor seems to be needed for the other model to adapt to our condition for single and binary systems.

  12. Effect of two virus inactivation methods. Electron beam irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment on determination of reproductive hormones in equine plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Nansen, P. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hoeier, R.; Brueck, I. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Clinical Studies, Section of Reproduction, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Ionizing irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment have previously been shown to be effective for in-vitro inactivation of virus in biological material. In the present study the 2 methods were tested for possible effects on measurable concentrations of reproductive hormones in equine plasma (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P{sub 4}), and oestradiol-17 {beta} (E{sub 2})). The inactivation methods were electron beam irradiation with a dose from 11 to 44 kGy or treatment with binary ethylenimine (BEI) in concentrations of 1 and 5 mmol/L. Generally, there was a close correlation (r>0.8, p<0.001) between pre- and post-treatment hormone levels. Thus, the different phases of the oestrous cycle could be distinguished on the basis of measured hormone concentrations of treated samples. However, both treatments significantly changed hormone concentrations of the plasma samples. For LH, FSH, and E{sub 2} the effect of irradiation and BEI treatment was depressive and dose-dependant. For P{sub 4} the effect of irradiation was also depressive and dose-dependant. However, the highest dose of BEI resulted in an increase of measured P{sub 4} concentration, which may be attributed to changes in the plasma matrix due to the treatment. Although the treatments affected measured hormone concentrations, the close correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements means that the diagnostic value will remain unchanged. (au). 17 refs.

  13. Application of experimental design and derivative spectrophotometry methods in optimization and analysis of biosorption of binary mixtures of basic dyes from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ghezelbash, Gholam Reza; Pepe, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Simultaneous biosorption of malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) on biosorbent Yarrowia lipolytica ISF7 was studied. An appropriate derivative spectrophotometry technique was used to evaluate the concentration of each dye in binary solutions, despite significant interferences in visible light absorbances. The effects of pH, temperature, growth time, initial MG and CV concentration in batch experiments were assessed using Design of Experiment (DOE) according to central composite second order response surface methodology (RSM). The analysis showed that the greatest biosorption efficiency (>99% for both dyes) can be obtained at pH 7.0, T=28°C, 24h mixing and 20mgL -1 initial concentrations for both MG and CV dyes. The quadratic constructed equation ability for fitting experimental data is judged based on criterions like R 2 values, significant p and lack-of-fit value strongly confirm its high adequacy and applicability for prediction of revel behavior of the system under study. The proposed model showed very high correlation coefficients (R 2 =0.9997 for CV and R 2 =0.9989 for MG), while supported by closeness of predicted and experimental value. A kinetic analysis was carried out, showing that for both dyes a pseudo-second order kinetic model adequately describes the available data. The Langmuir isotherm model in single and binary components has better performance for description of dyes biosorption with maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 59.4 and 62.7mgg -1 in single component and 46.4 and 50.0mgg -1 for CV and MB in binary components, respectively. The surface structure of biosorbents and the possible biosorbents-dyes interactions between were also evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The values of thermodynamic parameters including ΔG° and ΔH° strongly confirm which method is spontaneous and endothermic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Prediction of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for binary and ternary systems containing ionic liquids with the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide anion using the ASOG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Pedro A.; Cisternas, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ASOG model was used to predict LLE data for ionic liquid systems. • Twenty five binary and seven ternary systems that include the NTf 2 anion were used. • New group interaction parameters were determined. • The results are satisfactory, with rms deviations of about 3%. - Abstract: Ionic liquids are neoteric, environmentally friendly solvents (as they do not produce emissions) composed of large organic cations and relatively small inorganic anions. They have favorable physical properties, such as negligible volatility and a wide range of liquid existence. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for systems including ionic liquids, although essential for the design, optimization and operation of separation processes, remain scarce. However, some recent studies have presented ternary LLE data involving several ionic liquids and organic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alkanols, ethers and aromatics, as well as water. In this work, the ASOG model for the activity coefficient is used to predict LLE data for 25 binary and 07 ternary systems at 101.3 kPa and several temperatures; all the systems are formed by ionic liquids including the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (NTf 2 ) anion plus alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, alkanols, water, thiophene and aromatics. New group interaction parameters were determined using a modified Simplex method, minimizing a composition-based objective function of experimental data obtained from the literature. The results are satisfactory, with rms deviations of approximately 3%

  15. Synthesis and characterization of binary (CuO)0.6(CeO2)0.4 nanoparticles via a simple heat treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqer, Anwar Ali; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Al-Hada, Naif Mohammed; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Saion, Elias; Chyi, Josephine Liew Ying; Abdullah, Che Azurahanim Che

    2018-06-01

    A binary (CuO)0.6 (CeO2)0.4 nanoparticles were prepared via thermal treatment method, using copper nitrate, cerium nitrate as precursors, PVP as capping agent and de-ionized water as a solvent. The structures, morphology, composition of the element and optical properties of these nanoparticles have been studied under different temperatures using various techniques. The XRD spectrum of the samples at 500 °C and above confirmed the existence of both monoclinic (CuO) and cubic fluorite (CeO2) structures. The findings of FESEM and TEM exhibited the average practical size and agglomeration increment with an elevation in the calcination temperature. The synthesized nanoparticles were also characterized by FTIR, which indicated the formation of binary Cu-O and Ce-O bonds. The EDX analysis was performed to indicate the chemical composition of the sample. The double energy band gaps of (CuO)0.6(CeO2)0.4 reduction with rising calcination temperature, can be referred to the enhancement of the crystallinity of the samples. PL intensity of (CuO)0.6(CeO2)0.4 nanoparticles peaks, which increased with the elevation of the calcination temperature to 800 °C was observed from the PL spectrum; this was due to the increment of the particle size that occurred.

  16. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, N. R.; Chimankar, O. P.; Bhandakkar, V. D.; Padole, N. N.

    2012-12-01

    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.

  17. A novel high-frequency encoding algorithm for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddeq, Mohammed M.; Rodrigues, Marcos A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for image compression is proposed whose quality is demonstrated through accurate 3D reconstruction from 2D images. The method is based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) together with a high-frequency minimization encoding algorithm at compression stage and a new concurrent binary search algorithm at decompression stage. The proposed compression method consists of five main steps: (1) divide the image into blocks and apply DCT to each block; (2) apply a high-frequency minimization method to the AC-coefficients reducing each block by 2/3 resulting in a minimized array; (3) build a look up table of probability data to enable the recovery of the original high frequencies at decompression stage; (4) apply a delta or differential operator to the list of DC-components; and (5) apply arithmetic encoding to the outputs of steps (2) and (4). At decompression stage, the look up table and the concurrent binary search algorithm are used to reconstruct all high-frequency AC-coefficients while the DC-components are decoded by reversing the arithmetic coding. Finally, the inverse DCT recovers the original image. We tested the technique by compressing and decompressing 2D images including images with structured light patterns for 3D reconstruction. The technique is compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 through 2D and 3D RMSE. Results demonstrate that the proposed compression method is perceptually superior to JPEG with equivalent quality to JPEG2000. Concerning 3D surface reconstruction from images, it is demonstrated that the proposed method is superior to both JPEG and JPEG2000.

  18. Binary Solvents Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction (BS-DLLME) Method for Determination of Tramadol in Urine Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiarostami, Vahid; Rouini, Mohamad-Reza; Mohammadian, Razieh; Lavasani, Hoda; Ghazaghi, Mehri

    2014-02-03

    Tramadol is an opioid, synthetic analog of codeine and has been used for the treatment of acute or chronic pain may be abused. In this work, a developed Dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) as binary solvents-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (BS-DLLME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD) was employed for determination of tramadol in the urine samples. This procedure involves the use of an appropriate mixture of binary extraction solvents (70 μL CHCl3 and 30 μL ethyl acetate) and disperser solvent (600 μL acetone) for the formation of cloudy solution in 5 ml urine sample comprising tramadol and NaCl (7.5%, w/v). After centrifuging, the small droplets of extraction solvents were precipitated. In the final step, the HPLC with fluorescence detection was used for determination of tramadol in the precipitated phase. Various factors on the efficiency of the proposed procedure were investigated and optimized. The detection limit (S/N = 3) and quantification limit (S/N = 10) were found 0.2 and 0.9 μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for the extraction of 30 μg L of tramadol was found 4.1% (n = 6). The relative recoveries of tramadol from urine samples at spiking levels of 10, 30 and 60 μg/L were in the range of 95.6 - 99.6%. Compared with other methods, this method provides good figures of merit such as good repeatability, high extraction efficiency, short analysis time, simple procedure and can be used as microextraction technique for routine analysis in clinical laboratories.

  19. Binary Solvents Dispersive Liquid—Liquid Microextraction (BS-DLLME) Method for Determination of Tramadol in Urine Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tramadol is an opioid, synthetic analog of codeine and has been used for the treatment of acute or chronic pain may be abused. In this work, a developed Dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) as binary solvents-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (BS-DLLME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD) was employed for determination of tramadol in the urine samples. This procedure involves the use of an appropriate mixture of binary extraction solvents (70 μL CHCl3 and 30 μL ethyl acetate) and disperser solvent (600 μL acetone) for the formation of cloudy solution in 5 ml urine sample comprising tramadol and NaCl (7.5%, w/v). After centrifuging, the small droplets of extraction solvents were precipitated. In the final step, the HPLC with fluorescence detection was used for determination of tramadol in the precipitated phase. Results Various factors on the efficiency of the proposed procedure were investigated and optimized. The detection limit (S/N = 3) and quantification limit (S/N = 10) were found 0.2 and 0.9 μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for the extraction of 30 μg L of tramadol was found 4.1% (n = 6). The relative recoveries of tramadol from urine samples at spiking levels of 10, 30 and 60 μg/L were in the range of 95.6 – 99.6%. Conclusions Compared with other methods, this method provides good figures of merit such as good repeatability, high extraction efficiency, short analysis time, simple procedure and can be used as microextraction technique for routine analysis in clinical laboratories. PMID:24495475

  20. Synthesis and Mechanical Characterization of Binary and Ternary Intermetallic Alloys Based on Fe-Ti-Al by Resonant Ultrasound Vibrational Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanbi, Daoud; Ogam, Erick; Amara, Sif Eddine; Fellah, Z E A

    2018-05-07

    Precise but simple experimental and inverse methods allowing the recovery of mechanical material parameters are necessary for the exploration of materials with novel crystallographic structures and elastic properties, particularly for new materials and those existing only in theory. The alloys studied herein are of new atomic compositions. This paper reports an experimental study involving the synthesis and development of methods for the determination of the elastic properties of binary (Fe-Al, Fe-Ti and Ti-Al) and ternary (Fe-Ti-Al) intermetallic alloys with different concentrations of their individual constituents. The alloys studied were synthesized from high purity metals using an arc furnace with argon flow to ensure their uniformity and homogeneity. Precise but simple methods for the recovery of the elastic constants of the isotropic metals from resonant ultrasound vibration data were developed. These methods allowed the fine analysis of the relationships between the atomic concentration of a given constituent and the Young’s modulus or alloy density.

  1. Spectrophotometric estimation of ethamsylate and mefenamic acid from a binary mixture by dual wavelength and simultaneous equation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal Anju; Singhvi I

    2008-01-01

    Two simple, accurate, economical and reproducible spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of two-component drug mixture of ethamsylate and mefenamic acid in combined tablet dosage form have been developed. The first developed method involves formation and solving of simultaneous equation using 287.6 nm and 313.2 nm as two wavelengths. Second developed method is based on two wavelength calculation. Two wavelengths selected for estimation of ethamsylate were 274.4 nm and 301.2 nm...

  2. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  3. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  4. Spectrophotometric estimation of ethamsylate and mefenamic Acid from a binary mixture by dual wavelength and simultaneous equation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anju; Singhvi, I

    2008-01-01

    Two simple, accurate, economical and reproducible spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of two-component drug mixture of ethamsylate and mefenamic acid in combined tablet dosage form have been developed. The first developed method involves formation and solving of simultaneous equation using 287.6 nm and 313.2 nm as two wavelengths. Second developed method is based on two wavelength calculation. Two wavelengths selected for estimation of ethamsylate were 274.4 nm and 301.2 nm while that for mefenamic acid were 304.8 nm and 320.4 nm. Both the developed methods obey Beer's law in the concentration ranges employed for the respective methods. The results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  5. Artificially phase-separated binary self-assembled monolayers composed of 11-amino-1-undecanethiolate and 10-carboxy-1-decanethiolate on Au(1 1 1): A comparative study of two preparing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phong, Pham Hong; Tomono, Hyroyuki; Nishi, Naoya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kakiuchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Two methods have been compared for preparing artificially phase-separated two-component SAMs on Au(1 1 1) composed of 11-amino-1-undecanethiolates (AUTe) and 10-carboxyl-1-decanethiolates (CDTe), which would form, thermodynamically, a homogeneously mixed binary SAMs. The first method starts with the formation of a phase-separated binary SAM of AUTe and 2-hydroxy-1-ethanethiolate (HETe) as a template of the artificially phase-separated SAM, followed by the selective desorption of HETe domains and succeeding filling of the vacancy with CDTe. The second method utilizes fluoren-9-ylmethyl N-(11-mercaptoundecyl) carbamate (FMUCe) instead of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol in preparing the template. After the filling with CDTe, the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group is removed to obtain AUTe domains. Both methods yield artificially phase-separated binary SAMs having AUTe domains of tens nanometer across. The molecularly flat SAM surface with nanometer-scale domains of different acid-base and electrostatic properties are thus created. For preparing binary SAMs with a higher degree of phase separation, the second method is a better choice; a more clear-cut phase separation is achieved

  6. A cellular automaton - finite volume method for the simulation of dendritic and eutectic growth in binary alloys using an adaptive mesh refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobravec, Tadej; Mavrič, Boštjan; Šarler, Božidar

    2017-11-01

    A two-dimensional model to simulate the dendritic and eutectic growth in binary alloys is developed. A cellular automaton method is adopted to track the movement of the solid-liquid interface. The diffusion equation is solved in the solid and liquid phases by using an explicit finite volume method. The computational domain is divided into square cells that can be hierarchically refined or coarsened using an adaptive mesh based on the quadtree algorithm. Such a mesh refines the regions of the domain near the solid-liquid interface, where the highest concentration gradients are observed. In the regions where the lowest concentration gradients are observed the cells are coarsened. The originality of the work is in the novel, adaptive approach to the efficient and accurate solution of the posed multiscale problem. The model is verified and assessed by comparison with the analytical results of the Lipton-Glicksman-Kurz model for the steady growth of a dendrite tip and the Jackson-Hunt model for regular eutectic growth. Several examples of typical microstructures are simulated and the features of the method as well as further developments are discussed.

  7. Fast computation of hologram patterns of a 3D object using run-length encoding and novel look-up table methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2009-02-20

    In this paper we propose a new approach for fast generation of computer-generated holograms (CGHs) of a 3D object by using the run-length encoding (RLE) and the novel look-up table (N-LUT) methods. With the RLE method, spatially redundant data of a 3D object are extracted and regrouped into the N-point redundancy map according to the number of the adjacent object points having the same 3D value. Based on this redundancy map, N-point principle fringe patterns (PFPs) are newly calculated by using the 1-point PFP of the N-LUT, and the CGH pattern for the 3D object is generated with these N-point PFPs. In this approach, object points to be involved in calculation of the CGH pattern can be dramatically reduced and, as a result, an increase of computational speed can be obtained. Some experiments with a test 3D object are carried out and the results are compared to those of the conventional methods.

  8. Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of valsartan and substances from the group of statins in binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Mariusz; Apola, Anna; Maślanka, Anna; Kwiecień, Anna; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2017-12-20

    Applicability of derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of valsartan in the presence of a substance from the group of statins was checked. The obtained results indicate that the proposed method may be effective by using appropriate derivatives: for valsartan and fluvastatin - D1, D2 and D3, for valsartan and pravastatin - D1 and D3, for valsartan and atorvastatin - D2 and D3. The method was characterized by high sensitivity and accuracy. Linearity was maintained in the following ranges: 9.28-32.48 mg mL-1 for valsartan, 8.16-28.56 mg mL-1 f or fluvastatin, 14.40-39.90 mg mL-1 for atorvastatin and 9.60-48.00 mg mL-1 for pravastatin. Determination coefficients were in the range of 0.989-0.999 depending on the analyte and the order of derivative. The precision of the method was high with RSD from 0.1 to 2.5 % and recovery of individual components was within the range of 100 ± 5 %. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of valsartan combined with fluvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin in laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical preparations.

  9. Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of valsartan and substances from the group of statins in binary mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolarczyk Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of valsartan in the presence of a substance from the group of statins was checked. The obtained results indicate that the proposed method may be effective by using appropriate derivatives: for valsartan and fluvastatin - D1, D2 and D3, for valsartan and pravastatin - D1 and D3, for valsartan and atorvastatin - D2 and D3. The method was characterized by high sensitivity and accuracy. Linearity was maintained in the following ranges: 9.28-32.48 mg mL-1 for valsartan, 8.16-28.56 mg mL-1 f or fluvastatin, 14.40-39.90 mg mL-1 for atorvastatin and 9.60-48.00 mg mL-1 for pravastatin. Determination coefficients were in the range of 0.989-0.999 depending on the analyte and the order of derivative. The precision of the method was high with RSD from 0.1 to 2.5 % and recovery of individual components was within the range of 100 ± 5 %. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of valsartan combined with fluvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin in laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical preparations.

  10. Optical three-step binary-logic-gate-based MSD arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyath, R. S.; Alsaffar, A. A. W.; Alam, M. S.

    2003-11-01

    A three-step modified signed-digit (MSD) adder is proposed which can be optically implmented using binary logic gates. The proposed scheme depends on encoding each MSD digits into a pair of binary digits using a two-state and multi-position based encoding scheme. The design algorithm depends on constructing the addition truth table of binary-coded MSD numbers and then using Karnaugh map to achieve output minimization. The functions associated with the optical binary logic gates are achieved by simply programming the decoding masks of an optical shadow-casting logic system.

  11. Mendelian randomization analysis of a time-varying exposure for binary disease outcomes using functional data analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Rajan, Suja S; Wei, Peng

    2016-12-01

    A Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis is performed to analyze the causal effect of an exposure variable on a disease outcome in observational studies, by using genetic variants that affect the disease outcome only through the exposure variable. This method has recently gained popularity among epidemiologists given the success of genetic association studies. Many exposure variables of interest in epidemiological studies are time varying, for example, body mass index (BMI). Although longitudinal data have been collected in many cohort studies, current MR studies only use one measurement of a time-varying exposure variable, which cannot adequately capture the long-term time-varying information. We propose using the functional principal component analysis method to recover the underlying individual trajectory of the time-varying exposure from the sparsely and irregularly observed longitudinal data, and then conduct MR analysis using the recovered curves. We further propose two MR analysis methods. The first assumes a cumulative effect of the time-varying exposure variable on the disease risk, while the second assumes a time-varying genetic effect and employs functional regression models. We focus on statistical testing for a causal effect. Our simulation studies mimicking the real data show that the proposed functional data analysis based methods incorporating longitudinal data have substantial power gains compared to standard MR analysis using only one measurement. We used the Framingham Heart Study data to demonstrate the promising performance of the new methods as well as inconsistent results produced by the standard MR analysis that relies on a single measurement of the exposure at some arbitrary time point. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  12. Stability indicating HPLC-DAD method for analysis of Ketorolac binary and ternary mixtures in eye drops: Quantitative analysis in rabbit aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazbi, Fawzy A; Hassan, Ekram M; Khamis, Essam F; Ragab, Marwa A A; Hamdy, Mohamed M A

    2017-11-15

    Ketorolac tromethamine (KTC) with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) binary mixture (mixture 1) and their ternary mixture with chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) (mixture 2) were analyzed using a validated HPLC-DAD method. The developed method was suitable for the in vitro as well as quantitative analysis of the targeted mixtures in rabbit aqueous humor. The analysis in dosage form (eye drops) was a stability indicating one at which drugs were separated from possible degradation products arising from different stress conditions (in vitro analysis). For analysis in aqueous humor, Guaifenesin (GUF) was used as internal standard and the method was validated according to FDA regulation for analysis in biological fluids. Agilent 5 HC-C18(2) 150×4.6mm was used as stationary phase with a gradient eluting solvent of 20mM phosphate buffer pH 4.6 containing 0.2% triethylamine and acetonitrile. The drugs were resolved with retention times of 2.41, 5.26, 7.92 and 9.64min for PHE, GUF, KTC and CPM, respectively. The method was sensitive and selective to analyze simultaneously the three drugs in presence of possible forced degradation products and dosage form excipients (in vitro analysis) and also with the internal standard, in presence of aqueous humor interferences (analysis in biological fluid), at a single wavelength (261nm). No extraction procedure was required for analysis in aqueous humor. The simplicity of the method emphasizes its capability to analyze the drugs in vivo (in rabbit aqueous humor) and in vitro (in pharmaceutical formulations). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  14. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  15. Simultaneous determination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and paracetamol in their binary mixture by RP-HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouruddin W. Ali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available RP-HPLC chromatographic method was developed for the determination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide (HBB and Paracetamol (PAR. In this chromatographic method, HBB and PAR were separated using C18 (25 cm × 4.6 mm i.d. 5 μm particle size column as a stationary phase and water: methanol (50:50, V/V pH adjusted to 3.9 with CF3COOH acid as a mobile phase, maintaining the flow rate at 1.0 mL min−1 with UV detection at 210 nm. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of HBB and PAR in pure form over a concentration range of 2.0–50.0 μg mL−1 for HBB with mean percentage recovery of 100.10 ± 0.475 and over a concentration range of 5.0–200.0 μg mL−1 for PAR with mean percentage recovery of 99.87 ± 0.942 and in their pharmaceutical formulations (Buscopan plus® tablets, Buscamol® tablets and Buscopan plus® suppositories.

  16. A novel method to prepare binary Ni-Fe compounds and ordered mesoporous carbon composite as a supercapacitor electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J.; Tang, B.; Zhao, J.; Liu, P.; Xu, J. [Shanghai Univ. of Engineering Science (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Superapacitor electrodes with nickel/iron compounds and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) nanocomposites were fabricated using a incipient wetness impregnation and hydrothermal methods. The use of the nickel-iron compounds within the OMC framework resulted in a synergistic effect. Resistance was also improved. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses demonstrated that the host structure was preserved during the impregnation and hydrothermal procedures. Nano-sized metal compounds were formed within the mesopore system. Nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherm measurements demonstrated mesoporosity for the host/guest composites.

  17. Characterization of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and refractory metals in binary and ternary silicon-based films using ion beam methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatri-Bouamrane, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ion beam methods (non Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions) have been carried out in order to characterize silicon-based films. The cross sections for the reactions 12 C(α,α), 14 N(α,α), 16 O(α,α), 28 Si(α,α) and 14 N(α,p) have been measured within 2 and 7 MeV. CVD beta SiC films could be analyzed and the interface between silicon carbide and the (100) silicon substrate was studied. The epitaxial growth of the beta SiC film could be modelled by comparing the results obtained with ion beam analysis, infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Moreover, the stoichiometry of low pressure CVD Me-Si-N (Me=Re, W, Ti, Ta) ternary systems was studied. The evolution of the nitrogen content in W-Si-N systems allowed to study their stability with respect to the annealing conditions. (N.T.)

  18. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 Binary Eutectic Ceramic Prepared by Bridgman Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caiyu; Wang, Shunheng; Liu, Juncheng; Zhai, Shuoyan

    2018-01-01

    Directionally solidified Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 (EAG) eutectic ceramic was prepared via vertical Bridgman method with high-frequency induction heating. The effects of the growth rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the solidified ceramic were investigated. The experimental results showed that there were no pores or amorphous phases in the directionally solidified Al2O3/EAG eutectic ceramic. Al2O3 phase was embedded in the EAG matrix phase, and the two phases were intertwined with each other to form a typical binary eutectic “hieroglyphic” structure. With the increase of growth rate, the phase size and spacing of the solidified Al2O3/EAG ceramic both decreased, and the growth rate and phase spacing satisfied the λ2v ≈ 60 formula of Jackson-Hunt theory. The cross section microstructure of the solidified ceramic always exhibited an irregular eutectic growth, while the longitudinal section microstructure presented a directional growth. The mechanical properties of the solidified ceramic gradually increased with the increase of growth rate, and the maximum hardness and fracture toughness could reach 21.57 GPa and 2.98 MPa·m1/2 respectively. It was considered that the crack deflection and branching could enhance the toughness of the solidified ceramic effectively. PMID:29601545

  19. The Binary Offset Effect in CCDs: an Anomalous Readout Artifact Affecting Most Astronomical CCDs in Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Kyle Robert; Aldering, Gregory; Copin, Yannick; Dixon, Samantha; Domagalski, Rachel; Gangler, Emmanuel; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Nearby Supernova Factory Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We discovered an anomalous behavior of CCD readout electronics that affects their use in many astronomical applications, which we call the “binary offset effect”. Due to feedback in the readout electronics, an offset is introduced in the values read out for each pixel that depends on the binary encoding of the previously read-out pixel values. One consequence of this effect is that a pathological local background offset can be introduced in images that only appears where science data are present on the CCD. The amplitude of this introduced offset does not scale monotonically with the amplitude of the objects in the image, and can be up to 4.5 ADU per pixel for certain instruments. Additionally, this background offset will be shifted by several pixels from the science data, potentially distorting the shape of objects in the image. We tested 22 instruments for signs of the binary offset effect and found evidence of it in 16 of them, including LRIS and DEIMOS on the Keck telescopes, WFC3-UVIS and STIS on HST, MegaCam on CFHT, SNIFS on the UH88 telescope, GMOS on the Gemini telescopes, HSC on Subaru, and FORS on VLT. A large amount of archival data is therefore affected by the binary offset effect, and conventional methods of reducing CCD images do not measure or remove the introduced offsets. As a demonstration of how to correct for the binary offset effect, we have developed a model that can accurately predict and remove the introduced offsets for the SNIFS instrument on the UH88 telescope. Accounting for the binary offset effect is essential for precision low-count astronomical observations with CCDs.

  20. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  2. All-optical conversion scheme: Binary to quaternary and quaternary to binary number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath

    2009-04-01

    To achieve the inherent parallelism in optics a suitable number system and efficient encoding/decoding scheme for handling the data are very much essential. Binary number is accepted as the best representing number system in almost all types of existing electronic computers. But, binary number (0 and 1) is insufficient in respect to the demand of the coming generation. Multi-valued logic (with radix >2) can be viewed as an alternative approach to solve many problems in transmission, storage and processing of large amount of information in digital signal processing. Here, in this paper all-optical scheme for the conversion of binary to quaternary number and vice versa have been proposed and described. Simulation has also been done. In this all-optical scheme the numbers are represented by different discrete polarized state of light.

  3. Using a binary logistic regression method and GIS for evaluating and mapping the groundwater spring potential in the Sultan Mountains (Aksehir, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Adnan

    2011-07-01

    SummaryThe purpose of this study is to produce a groundwater spring potential map of the Sultan Mountains in central Turkey, based on a logistic regression method within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Using field surveys, the locations of the springs (440 springs) were determined in the study area. In this study, 17 spring-related factors were used in the analysis: geology, relative permeability, land use/land cover, precipitation, elevation, slope, aspect, total curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport capacity index, distance to drainage, distance to fault, drainage density, and fault density map. The coefficients of the predictor variables were estimated using binary logistic regression analysis and were used to calculate the groundwater spring potential for the entire study area. The accuracy of the final spring potential map was evaluated based on the observed springs. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by calculating the relative operating characteristics. The area value of the relative operating characteristic curve model was found to be 0.82. These results indicate that the model is a good estimator of the spring potential in the study area. The spring potential map shows that the areas of very low, low, moderate and high groundwater spring potential classes are 105.586 km 2 (28.99%), 74.271 km 2 (19.906%), 101.203 km 2 (27.14%), and 90.05 km 2 (24.671%), respectively. The interpretations of the potential map showed that stream power index, relative permeability of lithologies, geology, elevation, aspect, wetness index, plan curvature, and drainage density play major roles in spring occurrence and distribution in the Sultan Mountains. The logistic regression approach has not yet been used to delineate groundwater potential zones. In this study, the logistic regression method was used to locate potential zones for groundwater springs in the Sultan Mountains. The evolved model

  4. On The Validity of the Assumed PDF Method for Modeling Binary Mixing/Reaction of Evaporated Vapor in GAS/Liquid-Droplet Turbulent Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.

    1997-01-01

    An Investigation of the statistical description of binary mixing and/or reaction between a carrier gas and an evaporated vapor species in two-phase gas-liquid turbulent flows is perfomed through both theroetical analysis and comparisons with results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a two-phase mixing layer.

  5. Distinguishing Between Formation Channels for Binary Black Holes with LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-01-01

    The recent detections of GW150914 and GW151226 imply an abundance of stellar-mass binary-black-hole mergers in the local universe. While ground-based gravitational-wave detectors are limited to observing the final moments before a binary merges, space-based detectors, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), can observe binaries at lower orbital frequencies where such systems may still encode information about their formation histories. In particular, the orbital eccentricity and mass of binary black holes in the LISA frequency band can be used together to discriminate between binaries formed in isolation in galactic fields and those formed in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters. In this letter, we explore the orbital eccentricity and mass of binary-black-hole populations as they evolve through the LISA frequency band. Overall we find that there are two distinct populations discernible by LISA. We show that up to ~90% of binaries formed either dynamically or in isolation have eccentricities measurable by LISA. Finally, we note how measured eccentricities of low-mass binary black holes evolved in isolation could provide detailed constraints on the physics of black-hole natal kicks and common-envelope evolution.

  6. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  7. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  8. PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods

  9. Landscape encodings enhance optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Klemm

    Full Text Available Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state.

  10. Landscape Encodings Enhance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Konstantin; Mehta, Anita; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states) of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state. PMID:22496860

  11. Heterogeneous catalysis in liquid-phase oxidation of olefin--2. Dependence of the structure of vanadium-chromium binary oxide catalyst for oxidation of cyclohexene on the method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehira, K; Hayakawa, T; Ishikawa, T

    1978-01-01

    Dependence of the structure of vanadium-chromium binary oxide catalyst for oxidation of cyclohexene on the method of preparation was studied in an extension of previous work by using three series of binary oxide catalysts, D, E, and F, which were prepared by coprecipitation from acidic, neutral, and alkaline media, respectively. The specific activity at 60/sup 0/C, 1 atm oxygen, and benzene solvent decreased in the order D > E > F, but all three series showed maximum activity at 90% chromium. The selectivity for epoxide also followed the order D > E > F, but the maximum selectivity occurred at 50% chromium for D, 75% for E, and 90% for F. Comparison of these results with X-ray diffraction and ESR spectral structural analysis of the various chromium(III) vanadate phases supported the previously proposed mechanism, with cyclohexene autoxidation initiated by free radical decomposition of cyclohexene hydroperoxide occurring on a different type of active site.

  12. Encoder designed to work in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toop, L.

    2007-05-15

    Dynapar has developed the Acuro AX71 absolute encoder for use on offshore or land-based oil rig operations. It provides feedback on the operation of automated systems such as draw works, racking systems, rotary tables and top drives. By ensuring that automated systems function properly, this encoder responds to a need by the oil and gas industry to keep workers safe and improve efficiency, particularly for operations in rugged situations. The encoder provides feedback from motor systems to controllers, giving information about position and speed of downhole drill bits. This newly developed encoder is better than commonly used incremental encoders which are not precise in strong electrical noise environments. Rather, the absolute encoder uses a different method of reporting to the controller. A digital signal is transmitted constantly as the device operates. It is less susceptible to noise issues. It is highly accurate, tolerant of noise and is not affected by power outages. However, the absolute encoder is generally more delicate in drilling applications with high ambient temperatures and shock levels. Dynapar addressed this issue by developing compact stainless steel housing that is useful for corrosion resistance in marine applications. The AX71 absolute encoder can withstand up to 100 G of mechanical shock and ambient temperatures of up to 60 degrees C. The encoder is ATEX certified without barriers, and offers the high resolution feedback of 4,000 counts of multiturn rotation and 16,000 counts of position. 1 fig.

  13. Measuring agreement between rating interpretations and binary clinical interpretations of images: a simulation study of methods for quantifying the clinical relevance of an observer performance paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Dev P

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies, that are often used to evaluate medical imaging systems, differ from ‘live’ clinical interpretations in several respects which could compromise their clinical relevance. The aim was to develop methodology for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory ROC study. A simulator was developed to generate ROC ratings data and binary clinical interpretations classified as correct or incorrect for a common set of images interpreted under clinical and laboratory conditions. The area under the trapezoidal ROC curve (AUC) was used as the laboratory figure-of-merit and the fraction of correct clinical decisions as the clinical figure-of-merit. Conventional agreement measures (Pearson, Spearman, Kendall and kappa) between the bootstrap-induced fluctuations of the two figures of merit were estimated. A jackknife pseudovalue transformation applied to the figures of merit was also investigated as a way to capture agreement existing at the individual image level that could be lost at the figure-of-merit level. It is shown that the pseudovalues define a relevance-ROC curve. The area under this curve (rAUC) measures the ability of the laboratory figure-of-merit-based pseudovalues to correctly classify incorrect versus correct clinical interpretations. Therefore, rAUC is a measure of the clinical relevance of an ROC study. The conventional measures and rAUC were compared under varying simulator conditions. It was found that design details of the ROC study, namely the number of bins, the difficulty level of the images, the ratio of disease-present to disease-absent images and the unavoidable difference between laboratory and clinical performance levels, can lead to serious underestimation of the agreement as indicated by conventional agreement measures, even for perfectly correlated data, while rAUC showed high agreement and was relatively immune to these details. At the same time rAUC was sensitive to factors such

  14. Blind encoding into qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaari, J.S.; Wahiddin, M.R.B.; Mancini, S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of encoding classical information into unknown qudit states belonging to any basis, of a maximal set of mutually unbiased bases, by one party and then decoding by another party who has perfect knowledge of the basis. Working with qudits of prime dimensions, we point out a no-go theorem that forbids 'shift' operations on arbitrary unknown states. We then provide the necessary conditions for reliable encoding/decoding

  15. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  16. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  17. Efficient processing of MPEG-21 metadata in the binary domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerer, Christian; Frank, Thomas; Hellwagner, Hermann; Heuer, Jörg; Hutter, Andreas

    2005-10-01

    XML-based metadata is widely adopted across the different communities and plenty of commercial and open source tools for processing and transforming are available on the market. However, all of these tools have one thing in common: they operate on plain text encoded metadata which may become a burden in constrained and streaming environments, i.e., when metadata needs to be processed together with multimedia content on the fly. In this paper we present an efficient approach for transforming such kind of metadata which are encoded using MPEG's Binary Format for Metadata (BiM) without additional en-/decoding overheads, i.e., within the binary domain. Therefore, we have developed an event-based push parser for BiM encoded metadata which transforms the metadata by a limited set of processing instructions - based on traditional XML transformation techniques - operating on bit patterns instead of cost-intensive string comparisons.

  18. Encoding information using laguerre gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors experimentally demonstrate an information encoding protocol using the two degrees of freedom of Laguerre Gaussian modes having different radial and azimuthal components. A novel method, based on digital holography, for information...

  19. Information-Dispersion-Entropy-Based Blind Recognition of Binary BCH Codes in Soft Decision Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A method of blind recognition of the coding parameters for binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH codes is proposed in this paper. We consider an intelligent communication receiver which can blindly recognize the coding parameters of the received data stream. The only knowledge is that the stream is encoded using binary BCH codes, while the coding parameters are unknown. The problem can be addressed on the context of the non-cooperative communications or adaptive coding and modulations (ACM for cognitive radio networks. The recognition processing includes two major procedures: code length estimation and generator polynomial reconstruction. A hard decision method has been proposed in a previous literature. In this paper we propose the recognition approach in soft decision situations with Binary-Phase-Shift-Key modulations and Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN channels. The code length is estimated by maximizing the root information dispersion entropy function. And then we search for the code roots to reconstruct the primitive and generator polynomials. By utilizing the soft output of the channel, the recognition performance is improved and the simulations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Context based Coding of Binary Shapes by Object Boundary Straightness Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren

    2004-01-01

    A new lossless compression scheme for bilevel images targeted at binary shapes of image and video objects is presented. The scheme is based on a local analysis of the digital straightness of the causal part of the object boundary, which is used in the context definition for arithmetic encoding....... Tested on individual images of binary shapes and binary layers of digital maps the algorithm outperforms PWC, JBIG and MPEG-4 CAE. On the binary shapes the code lengths are reduced by 21%, 25%, and 42%, respectively. On the maps the reductions are 34%, 32%, and 59%, respectively. The algorithm is also...

  1. Binary versus non-binary information in real time series: empirical results and maximum-entropy matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2014-09-01

    The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information.

  2. Binary versus non-binary information in real time series: empirical results and maximum-entropy matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information. (paper)

  3. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  4. GDP-L-fucose: .beta.-D-galactoside 2-.alpha.-L-fucosyltransferases, DNA sequences encoding the same, method for producing the same and a method of genotyping a person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John B.; Lennon, Gregory; Rouquier, Sylvie; Giorgi, Dominique; Kelly, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding GDP-L-fucose: .beta.-D-Galactoside 2-.alpha.-L-fucosyltransferase has been cloned, and a mutation in this gene has been found to be responsible for an individual being a non-secretor.

  5. GDP-L-fucose: {beta}-D-galactoside 2-{alpha}-Lfucosyltransferases, DNA sequences encoding the same, method for producing the same and a method of genotyping a person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J.B.; Lennon, G.; Rouquier, S.; Giorgi, D.; Kelly, R.J.

    1998-09-15

    The gene encoding GDP-L-fucose: {beta}-D-Galactoside 2-{alpha}-Lfucosyltransferase has been cloned, and a mutation in this gene has been found to be responsible for an individual being a non-secretor. 30 figs.

  6. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  7. Binary catalogue of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.

  8. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

  9. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  10. FBC: a flat binary code scheme for fast Manhattan hash retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Wu, Fuzhang; Gao, Lifa; Wu, Yanjun

    2018-04-01

    Hash coding is a widely used technique in approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search, especially in document search and multimedia (such as image and video) retrieval. Based on the difference of distance measurement, hash methods are generally classified into two categories: Hamming hashing and Manhattan hashing. Benefitting from better neighborhood structure preservation, Manhattan hashing methods outperform earlier methods in search effectiveness. However, due to using decimal arithmetic operations instead of bit operations, Manhattan hashing becomes a more time-consuming process, which significantly decreases the whole search efficiency. To solve this problem, we present an intuitive hash scheme which uses Flat Binary Code (FBC) to encode the data points. As a result, the decimal arithmetic used in previous Manhattan hashing can be replaced by more efficient XOR operator. The final experiments show that with a reasonable memory space growth, our FBC speeds up more than 80% averagely without any search accuracy loss when comparing to the state-of-art Manhattan hashing methods.

  11. Dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon

  12. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Nenert

    Full Text Available Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA. All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN. Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  13. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2014-01-01

    Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA) with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA). All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions) and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN). Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s) of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  14. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit ...

  15. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  16. Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.

  17. Fast multiwire proportional chamber data encoding system for proton tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.

    1979-01-01

    A data encoding system that rapidly generates the binary address of an active wire in a 512-wire multiwire proportional chamber has been developed. It can accept a second event on a different wire after a deadtime of 130 ns. The system incorporates preprocessing of the wire data to reject events that would require more than one wire address. It also includes a first-in, first-out memory to buffer the data flow

  18. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  19. Binary tense and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J

    2014-01-01

    The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the

  20. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  1. Non-negative Matrix Factorization for Binary Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Søgaard; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    We propose the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization for decomposition of binary data. Binary data are frequently generated in e.g. text analysis, sensory data, market basket data etc. A common method for analysing non-negative data is the Non-negative Matrix Factorization, though...... this is in theory not appropriate for binary data, and thus we propose a novel Non-negative Matrix Factorization based on the logistic link function. Furthermore we generalize the method to handle missing data. The formulation of the method is compared to a previously proposed method (Tome et al., 2015). We compare...... the performance of the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization to Least Squares Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Kullback-Leibler (KL) Non-negative Matrix Factorization on sets of binary data: a synthetic dataset, a set of student comments on their professors collected in a binary term-document matrix...

  2. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  3. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  4. a permutation encoding te algorithm solution of reso tation encoding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Genetic algorithm, resource constrained. 1. INTRODUCTION. 1. .... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 34, No. 1, January 2015. 128 ... 4. ENCODING OF CHROMOSOME. ENCODING OF CHROMOSOME .... International Multi conference of Engineers and ... method”, Naval Research Logistics, vol 48, issue 2,.

  5. Chemical Space of DNA-Encoded Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Raphael M; Randolph, Cassie

    2016-07-28

    In recent years, DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) have attracted considerable attention as a potential discovery tool in drug development. Screening encoded libraries may offer advantages over conventional hit discovery approaches and has the potential to complement such methods in pharmaceutical research. As a result of the increased application of encoded libraries in drug discovery, a growing number of hit compounds are emerging in scientific literature. In this review we evaluate reported encoded library-derived structures and identify general trends of these compounds in relation to library design parameters. We in particular emphasize the combinatorial nature of these libraries. Generally, the reported molecules demonstrate the ability of this technology to afford hits suitable for further lead development, and on the basis of them, we derive guidelines for DECL design.

  6. Binary classification posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binary classification is posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic problem and solved using the proposed method. Each class in the binary classification problem is modeled as a multidimensional ellipsoid to forma quadratic constraint in the problem. Particle swarms help in determining the optimal hyperplane or ...

  7. TU-AB-BRA-09: A Novel Method of Generating Ultrafast Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Using Prior 4D-MRI and On-Board Phase-Skipped Encoding Acquisition for Radiotherapy Target Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C; Yin, F; Harris, W; Cai, J; Chang, Z; Ren, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique generating ultrafast on-board VC-MRI using prior 4D-MRI and on-board phase-skipped encoding k-space acquisition for real-time 3D target tracking of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-of-expiration (EOE) volume in 4D-MRI acquired during the simulation was selected as the prior volume. 3 major respiratory deformation patterns were extracted through the principal component analysis of the deformation field maps (DFMs) generated between EOE and all other phases. The on-board VC-MRI at each instant was considered as a deformation of the prior volume, and the deformation was modeled as a linear combination of the extracted 3 major deformation patterns. To solve the weighting coefficients of the 3 major patterns, a 2D slice was extracted from VC-MRI volume to match with the 2D on-board sampling data, which was generated by 8-fold phase skipped-encoding k-space acquisition (i.e., sample 1 phase-encoding line out of every 8 lines) to achieve an ultrafast 16–24 volumes/s frame rate. The method was evaluated using XCAT digital phantom to simulate lung cancer patients. The 3D volume of end-ofinhalation (EOI) phase at the treatment day was used as ground-truth onboard VC-MRI with simulated changes in 1) breathing amplitude and 2) breathing amplitude/phase change from the simulation day. A liver cancer patient case was evaluated for in-vivo feasibility demonstration. Results: The comparison between ground truth and estimated on-board VC-MRI shows good agreements. In XCAT study with changed breathing amplitude, the volume-percent-difference(VPD) between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes at EOI was 6.28% and the Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS) was 0.82mm; with changed breathing amplitude and phase, the VPD was 8.50% and the COMS was 0.54mm. The study of liver patient case also demonstrated a promising in vivo feasibility of the proposed method Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest the feasibility to estimate ultrafast VC-MRI for on

  8. TU-AB-BRA-09: A Novel Method of Generating Ultrafast Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Using Prior 4D-MRI and On-Board Phase-Skipped Encoding Acquisition for Radiotherapy Target Localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C; Yin, F; Harris, W; Cai, J; Chang, Z; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique generating ultrafast on-board VC-MRI using prior 4D-MRI and on-board phase-skipped encoding k-space acquisition for real-time 3D target tracking of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-of-expiration (EOE) volume in 4D-MRI acquired during the simulation was selected as the prior volume. 3 major respiratory deformation patterns were extracted through the principal component analysis of the deformation field maps (DFMs) generated between EOE and all other phases. The on-board VC-MRI at each instant was considered as a deformation of the prior volume, and the deformation was modeled as a linear combination of the extracted 3 major deformation patterns. To solve the weighting coefficients of the 3 major patterns, a 2D slice was extracted from VC-MRI volume to match with the 2D on-board sampling data, which was generated by 8-fold phase skipped-encoding k-space acquisition (i.e., sample 1 phase-encoding line out of every 8 lines) to achieve an ultrafast 16–24 volumes/s frame rate. The method was evaluated using XCAT digital phantom to simulate lung cancer patients. The 3D volume of end-ofinhalation (EOI) phase at the treatment day was used as ground-truth onboard VC-MRI with simulated changes in 1) breathing amplitude and 2) breathing amplitude/phase change from the simulation day. A liver cancer patient case was evaluated for in-vivo feasibility demonstration. Results: The comparison between ground truth and estimated on-board VC-MRI shows good agreements. In XCAT study with changed breathing amplitude, the volume-percent-difference(VPD) between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes at EOI was 6.28% and the Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS) was 0.82mm; with changed breathing amplitude and phase, the VPD was 8.50% and the COMS was 0.54mm. The study of liver patient case also demonstrated a promising in vivo feasibility of the proposed method Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest the feasibility to estimate ultrafast VC-MRI for on

  9. Absolute Dimensions of Contact Binary Stars in Baade Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The light curves of the representative 6 contact binary stars observed by OGLE Project of searching for dark matter in our Galaxy have been analyzed by the method of the Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction to find photometric solutions. The orbital inclinations of these binaries are in the range of 52 deg - 69 deg which is lower than that of the solar neighborhood binaries. The Roche lobe filling factor of these binaries are distributed in large range of 0.12 - 0.90. Since absence of spectroscopic observations for these binaries we have found masses of the 6 binary systems based on the intersection between Kepler locus and locus derived from Vandenberg isochrones in the mass - luminosity plane. Then absolute dimensions and distances have been found by combining the masses and the photometric solutions. The distances of the 6 binary systems are distributed in the range of 1 kpc - 6 kpc. This distance range is the limiting range where the contact binaries which have period shorter than a day are visible. Most contact binaries discovered in the Baade window do not belong to the Galactic bulge.

  10. Sputtering yield calculation for binary target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)

  11. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  12. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  13. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-01-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute

  14. Gravitational wave spectroscopy of binary neutron star merger remnants with mode stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Yagi, Kent; Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2018-01-01

    A binary neutron star coalescence event has recently been observed for the first time in gravitational waves, and many more detections are expected once current ground-based detectors begin operating at design sensitivity. As in the case of binary black holes, gravitational waves generated by binary neutron stars consist of inspiral, merger, and postmerger components. Detecting the latter is important because it encodes information about the nuclear equation of state in a regime that cannot be probed prior to merger. The postmerger signal, however, can only be expected to be measurable by current detectors for events closer than roughly ten megaparsecs, which given merger rate estimates implies a low probability of observation within the expected lifetime of these detectors. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations showing that the dominant postmerger signal (the ℓ=m =2 mode) from individual binary neutron star mergers may not have a good chance of observation even with the most sensitive future ground-based gravitational wave detectors proposed so far (the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, for certain equations of state, assuming a full year of operation, the latest merger rates, and a detection threshold corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio of 5). For this reason, we propose two methods that stack the postmerger signal from multiple binary neutron star observations to boost the postmerger detection probability. The first method follows a commonly used practice of multiplying the Bayes factors of individual events. The second method relies on an assumption that the mode phase can be determined from the inspiral waveform, so that coherent mode stacking of the data from different events becomes possible. We find that both methods significantly improve the chances of detecting the dominant postmerger signal, making a detection very likely after a year of observation with Cosmic Explorer for certain equations of state. We also show that in terms of detection

  15. A method for estimating time-frequency characteristics of compact binary mergers to improve searches for inspiral, merger and ring-down phases separately

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Chad; Megevand, Miguel; Palenzuela, Carlos; Ochsner, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the description of compact binary systems have produced gravitational waveforms that include inspiral, merger and ring-down phases. Comparing results from numerical simulations with those of post-Newtonian, and related, expansions has provided motivation for employing post-Newtonian waveforms in near merger epochs when searching for gravitational waves and has encouraged the development of analytic fits to full numerical waveforms. Until searches employ full waveforms as templates, data analysts can still conduct separate inspiral, merger and ring-down searches. Improved knowledge about the end of the inspiral phase, the beginning of the merger and the ring-down frequencies will increase the efficiency of searches over each phase separately without needing the exact waveform. We will show that knowledge of the final spin, of which there are many theoretical models and analytic fits to simulations, may give an insight into the time-frequency properties of the merger. We also present implications on the ability to probe the tidal disruption of neutron stars through gravitational waves.

  16. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lyttleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  17. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs. PMID:21969921

  18. Analysis of Program Obfuscation Schemes with Variable Encoding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuhide; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Program analysis techniques have improved steadily over the past several decades, and software obfuscation schemes have come to be used in many commercial programs. A software obfuscation scheme transforms an original program or a binary file into an obfuscated program that is more complicated and difficult to analyze, while preserving its functionality. However, the security of obfuscation schemes has not been properly evaluated. In this paper, we analyze obfuscation schemes in order to clarify the advantages of our scheme, the XOR-encoding scheme. First, we more clearly define five types of attack models that we defined previously, and define quantitative resistance to these attacks. Then, we compare the security, functionality and efficiency of three obfuscation schemes with encoding variables: (1) Sato et al.'s scheme with linear transformation, (2) our previous scheme with affine transformation, and (3) the XOR-encoding scheme. We show that the XOR-encoding scheme is superior with regard to the following two points: (1) the XOR-encoding scheme is more secure against a data-dependency attack and a brute force attack than our previous scheme, and is as secure against an information-collecting attack and an inverse transformation attack as our previous scheme, (2) the XOR-encoding scheme does not restrict the calculable ranges of programs and the loss of efficiency is less than in our previous scheme.

  19. Face Alignment via Regressing Local Binary Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shaoqing; Cao, Xudong; Wei, Yichen; Sun, Jian

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a highly efficient and accurate regression approach for face alignment. Our approach has two novel components: 1) a set of local binary features and 2) a locality principle for learning those features. The locality principle guides us to learn a set of highly discriminative local binary features for each facial landmark independently. The obtained local binary features are used to jointly learn a linear regression for the final output. This approach achieves the state-of-the-art results when tested on the most challenging benchmarks to date. Furthermore, because extracting and regressing local binary features are computationally very cheap, our system is much faster than previous methods. It achieves over 3000 frames per second (FPS) on a desktop or 300 FPS on a mobile phone for locating a few dozens of landmarks. We also study a key issue that is important but has received little attention in the previous research, which is the face detector used to initialize alignment. We investigate several face detectors and perform quantitative evaluation on how they affect alignment accuracy. We find that an alignment friendly detector can further greatly boost the accuracy of our alignment method, reducing the error up to 16% relatively. To facilitate practical usage of face detection/alignment methods, we also propose a convenient metric to measure how good a detector is for alignment initialization.

  20. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  1. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    of the stars, as they move along their orbits and periodically approach and recede from the observer. Such spectroscopic observations therefore allow to measure the orbital velocities of the stars. It is exactly the same technique that is used to study and weigh extra-solar planets orbiting other stars [3]. However, this method has an important limitation. From the spectroscopical observations alone, it is only possible to deduce limits on the masses, as the inclination of orbits to the line-of-sight is usually unknown. The masses derived in this way (for stars as well as for exoplanets) are therefore only lower limits on the actual masses. Eclipsing Binaries However, fortunate observational circumstances sometimes allow to obtain all information about the stellar orbits. If a binary system is viewed (almost exactly) edge-on, the stars may pass in front of each other from time to time. Astronomers refer to this phenomenon as an "eclipse" and speak about an "eclipsing binary". The effect is similar to a "solar" eclipse as seen on the Earth, whenever the Moon passes in front of the Sun. Like the Moon blocks the sunlight, less light is received from the eclipsed star and thus the combined light from the binary system decreases during the eclipse. The way this happens (astronomers speak about the system's "lightcurve") then provides the additional information about the inclination of the orbit that is needed to determine exactly the stellar masses in a "spectroscopic" binary system. Very accurate values for the stellar diameters and the surface temperatures of the two stars can also be deduced. In short, when a full set of observations is available, it is possible to give a comprehensive description of an eclipsing binary system and its components. Eclipsing, spectroscopic binaries thus represent true cornerstones for the determination of stellar masses , and as such they are fundamental for our understanding of stellar evolution . Rather few such systems are known, but

  2. Binary spectral minutiae representation with multi-sample fusion for fingerprint recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    Biometric fusion is the approach to improve the biometric system performance by combining multiple sources of biometric information. The binary spectral minutiae representation is a method to represent a fingerprint minutiae set as a fixed-length binary string. This binary representation has the

  3. EXTRASOLAR BINARY PLANETS. II. DETECTABILITY BY TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K. M.; Ida, S.; Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the detectability of gravitationally bound pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call “binary planets”) in extrasolar planetary systems that are formed through orbital instability followed by planet–planet dynamical tides during their close encounters, based on the results of N-body simulations by Ochiai et al. (Paper I). Paper I showed that the formation probability of a binary is as much as ∼10% for three giant planet systems that undergo orbital instability, and after post-capture long-term tidal evolution, the typical binary separation is three to five times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. The binary planets are stable during the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars, if the stellarcentric semimajor axis of the binary is larger than 0.3 AU. We show that detecting modulations of transit light curves is the most promising observational method to detect binary planets. Since the likely binary separations are comparable to the stellar diameter, the shape of the transit light curve is different from transit to transit, depending on the phase of the binary’s orbit. The transit durations and depth for binary planet transits are generally longer and deeper than those for the single planet case. We point out that binary planets could exist among the known inflated gas-giant planets or objects classified as false positive detections at orbital radii ≳0.3 AU, propose a binary planet explanation for the CoRoT candidate SRc01 E2 1066, and show that binary planets are likely to be present in, and could be detected using, Kepler-quality data

  4. Indirect Encoding in Neuroevolutionary Ship Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author compares the efficiency of two encoding schemes for artificial intelligence methods used in the neuroevolutionary ship maneuvering system. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of a group of artificial helmsmen - autonomous control units, created with an artificial neural network. The helmsman observes input signals derived form an enfironment and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of this project is to evolve a population of helmsmen with indirect encoding and compare results of simulation with direct encoding method.

  5. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  6. Receptive fields selection for binary feature description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bin; Kong, Qingqun; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Wang, Zhiheng; Pan, Chunhong; Fua, Pascal

    2014-06-01

    Feature description for local image patch is widely used in computer vision. While the conventional way to design local descriptor is based on expert experience and knowledge, learning-based methods for designing local descriptor become more and more popular because of their good performance and data-driven property. This paper proposes a novel data-driven method for designing binary feature descriptor, which we call receptive fields descriptor (RFD). Technically, RFD is constructed by thresholding responses of a set of receptive fields, which are selected from a large number of candidates according to their distinctiveness and correlations in a greedy way. Using two different kinds of receptive fields (namely rectangular pooling area and Gaussian pooling area) for selection, we obtain two binary descriptors RFDR and RFDG .accordingly. Image matching experiments on the well-known patch data set and Oxford data set demonstrate that RFD significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors, and is comparable with the best float-valued descriptors at a fraction of processing time. Finally, experiments on object recognition tasks confirm that both RFDR and RFDG successfully bridge the performance gap between binary descriptors and their floating-point competitors.

  7. Memory Vulnerability Diagnosis for Binary Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability diagnosis is important for program security analysis. It is a further step to understand the vulnerability after it is detected, as well as a preparatory step for vulnerability repair or exploitation. This paper mainly analyses the inner theories of major memory vulnerabilities and the threats of them. And then suggests some methods to diagnose several types of memory vulnerabilities for the binary programs, which is a difficult task due to the lack of source code. The diagnosis methods target at buffer overflow, use after free (UAF and format string vulnerabilities. We carried out some tests on the Linux platform to validate the effectiveness of the diagnosis methods. It is proved that the methods can judge the type of the vulnerability given a binary program.

  8. Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya

    2011-06-01

    Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.

  9. Study of complex formation process between 4′-nitrobenzo-18-crown-6 and yttrium(III cation in some binary mixed non-aqueous solvents using the conductometry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Vafi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexation reaction between Y3+ cation and macrocyclic ligand, 4′-nitrobenzo-18-crown-6 (4′NB18C6, was studied in acetonitrile–methanol (AN–MeOH, acetonitrile–1,2-dichloroethane (AN–DCE, acetonitrile–dimethylformamide (AN–DMF and acetonitrile–ethylacetate (AN–EtOAc binary mixed solvent solutions at different temperatures using the conductometric method. The conductance data show that in most cases, the stoichiometry of the complex formed between 4′NB18C6 and Y3+ cation is 1:1 [M:L], but in the case of AN-DCE binary solution (mol% DCE = 50 at 15, 25 and 35 °C, a 2:1 [M2:L] and also a 2:2 [M2:L2] complexes are formed in solution. The results show that the stoichiometry of the complex formed between 4′NB18C6 and Y3+ cation changes with the composition of the mixed solvents and even with temperature. The stability constant of the 1:1 complex was determined using a computer program, GENPLOT. The stability order of (4′NB18C6.Y3+ complex in pure studied solvents at 25 °C was found to be: EtOAc > AN > MeOH > DMF and in the case of the mixed solvent solutions with 25 mol percent of AN at 25 °C was: AN-DCE > AN-EtOAc > AN-MeOH ∼ AN-DMF. The values of stability constant (logKf of (4′NB18C6.Y3+ complex which were obtained from conductometric data, show that the stability of the complex is not only affected by the nature and composition of the solvent system, but it is also influenced by the temperature. In all cases, a non-linear behavior is observed for changes of logKf of the (4′NB18C6.Y3+ complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents. The values of standard thermodynamic quantities (ΔH°c and ΔS°c for the complexation process which were obtained from temperature dependence of the stability constant of (4′NB18C6.Y3+ complex, show that depending on the solvent system, in most cases, the complex is enthalpy and also entropy stabilized, but in some cases, it is stabilized or

  10. Construction of Fixed Rate Non-Binary WOM Codes Based on Integer Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoju; Wadayama, Tadashi

    In this paper, we propose a construction of non-binary WOM (Write-Once-Memory) codes for WOM storages such as flash memories. The WOM codes discussed in this paper are fixed rate WOM codes where messages in a fixed alphabet of size $M$ can be sequentially written in the WOM storage at least $t^*$-times. In this paper, a WOM storage is modeled by a state transition graph. The proposed construction has the following two features. First, it includes a systematic method to determine the encoding regions in the state transition graph. Second, the proposed construction includes a labeling method for states by using integer programming. Several novel WOM codes for $q$ level flash memories with 2 cells are constructed by the proposed construction. They achieve the worst numbers of writes $t^*$ that meet the known upper bound in many cases. In addition, we constructed fixed rate non-binary WOM codes with the capability to reduce ICI (inter cell interference) of flash cells. One of the advantages of the proposed construction is its flexibility. It can be applied to various storage devices, to various dimensions (i.e, number of cells), and various kind of additional constraints.

  11. Whole Genome Sequencing and Multiplex qPCR Methods to Identify Campylobacter jejuni Encoding cst-II or cst-III Sialyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Neal-McKinney

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni causes more than 2 million cases of gastroenteritis annually in the United States, and is also linked to the autoimmune sequelae Guillan–Barre syndrome (GBS. GBS often results in flaccid paralysis, as the myelin sheaths of nerve cells are degraded by the adaptive immune response. Certain strains of C. jejuni modify their lipooligosaccharide (LOS with the addition of neuraminic acid, resulting in LOS moieties that are structurally similar to gangliosides present on nerve cells. This can trigger GBS in a susceptible host, as antibodies generated against C. jejuni can cross-react with gangliosides, leading to demyelination of nerves and a loss of signal transduction. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR method and use whole genome sequencing data to detect the Campylobactersialyltransferase (cst genes responsible for the addition of neuraminic acid to LOS. The qPCR method was used to screen a library of 89 C. jejuni field samples collected by the Food and Drug Administration Pacific Northwest Lab (PNL as well as clinical isolates transferred to PNL. In silico analysis was used to screen 827 C. jejuni genomes in the FDA GenomeTrakr SRA database. The results indicate that a majority of C. jejuni strains could produce LOS with ganglioside mimicry, as 43.8% of PNL isolates and 46.9% of the GenomeTrakr isolates lacked the cst genes. The methods described in this study can be used by public health laboratories to rapidly determine whether a C. jejuni isolate has the potential to induce GBS. Based on these results, a majority of C. jejuni in the PNL collection and submitted to GenomeTrakr have the potential to produce LOS that mimics human gangliosides.

  12. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  13. Spectral properties of binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  14. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  15. RS CVn binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  16. Data Encoding using Periodic Nano-Optical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoogh-Grayli, Siamack

    Successful trials have been made through a designed algorithm to quantize, compress and optically encode unsigned 8 bit integer values in the form of images using Nano optical features. The periodicity of the Nano-scale features (Nano-gratings) have been designed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally to create distinct states of variation (three on states and one off state). The use of easy to manufacture and machine readable encoded data in secured authentication media has been employed previously in bar-codes for bi-state (binary) models and in color barcodes for multiple state models. This work has focused on implementing 4 states of variation for unit information through periodic Nano-optical structures that separate an incident wavelength into distinct colors (variation states) in order to create an encoding system. Compared to barcodes and magnetic stripes in secured finite length storage media the proposed system encodes and stores more data. The benefits of multiple states of variation in an encoding unit are 1) increased numerically representable range 2) increased storage density and 3) decreased number of typical set elements for any ergodic or semi-ergodic source that emits these encoding units. A thorough investigation has targeted the effects of the use of multi-varied state Nano-optical features on data storage density and consequent data transmission rates. The results show that use of Nano-optical features for encoding data yields a data storage density of circa 800 Kbits/in2 via the implementation of commercially available high resolution flatbed scanner systems for readout. Such storage density is far greater than commercial finite length secured storage media such as Barcode family with maximum practical density of 1kbits/in2 and highest density magnetic stripe cards with maximum density circa 3 Kbits/in2. The numerically representable range of the proposed encoding unit for 4 states of variation is [0 255]. The number of

  17. New model for prediction binary mixture of antihistamine decongestant using artificial neural networks and least squares support vector machine by spectrophotometry method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofavvaz, Shirin; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) as intelligent methods based on absorption spectra in the range of 230-300 nm have been used for determination of antihistamine decongestant contents. In the first step, one type of network (feed-forward back-propagation) from the artificial neural network with two different training algorithms, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate back-propagation (GDX) algorithm, were employed and their performance was evaluated. The performance of the LM algorithm was better than the GDX algorithm. In the second one, the radial basis network was utilized and results compared with the previous network. In the last one, the other intelligent method named least squares support vector machine was proposed to construct the antihistamine decongestant prediction model and the results were compared with two of the aforementioned networks. The values of the statistical parameters mean square error (MSE), Regression coefficient (R2), correlation coefficient (r) and also mean recovery (%), relative standard deviation (RSD) used for selecting the best model between these methods. Moreover, the proposed methods were compared to the high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test at the 95% confidence level applied to the comparison results of suggested and reference methods that there were no significant differences between them.

  18. Probabilistic seismic history matching using binary images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolio, Alessandra; Schiozer, Denis Jose

    2018-02-01

    Currently, the goal of history-matching procedures is not only to provide a model matching any observed data but also to generate multiple matched models to properly handle uncertainties. One such approach is a probabilistic history-matching methodology based on the discrete Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm, proposed in previous works, which was particularly efficient for matching well data (production rates and pressure). 4D seismic (4DS) data have been increasingly included into history-matching procedures. A key issue in seismic history matching (SHM) is to transfer data into a common domain: impedance, amplitude or pressure, and saturation. In any case, seismic inversions and/or modeling are required, which can be time consuming. An alternative to avoid these procedures is using binary images in SHM as they allow the shape, rather than the physical values, of observed anomalies to be matched. This work presents the incorporation of binary images in SHM within the aforementioned probabilistic history matching. The application was performed with real data from a segment of the Norne benchmark case that presents strong 4D anomalies, including softening signals due to pressure build up. The binary images are used to match the pressurized zones observed in time-lapse data. Three history matchings were conducted using: only well data, well and 4DS data, and only 4DS. The methodology is very flexible and successfully utilized the addition of binary images for seismic objective functions. Results proved the good convergence of the method in few iterations for all three cases. The matched models of the first two cases provided the best results, with similar well matching quality. The second case provided models presenting pore pressure changes according to the expected dynamic behavior (pressurized zones) observed on 4DS data. The use of binary images in SHM is relatively new with few examples in the literature. This work enriches this discussion by presenting a new

  19. Creation of an anti-imaging system using binary optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Yang; Gu, Min; Urbach, H. P.; Gan, Fuxi; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    We present a concealing method in which an anti-point spread function (APSF) is generated using binary optics, which produces a large-scale dark area in the focal region that can hide any object located within it. This result is achieved by generating two identical PSFs of opposite signs, one consisting of positive electromagnetic waves from the zero-phase region of the binary optical element and the other consisting of negative electromagnetic waves from the pi-phase region of the binary optical element. PMID:27620068

  20. Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2008-01-01

    The ideal binary mask is often seen as a goal for time-frequency masking algorithms trying to increase speech intelligibility, but the required availability of the unmixed signals makes it difficult to calculate the ideal binary mask in any real-life applications. In this paper we derive the theory...... and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....

  1. Comparative study of the efficiency of computed univariate and multivariate methods for the estimation of the binary mixture of clotrimazole and dexamethasone using two different spectral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayez, Yasmin Mohammed; Tawakkol, Shereen Mostafa; Fahmy, Nesma Mahmoud; Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Shehata, Mostafa Abdel-Aty

    2018-04-01

    Three methods of analysis are conducted that need computational procedures by the Matlab® software. The first is the univariate mean centering method which eliminates the interfering signal of the one component at a selected wave length leaving the amplitude measured to represent the component of interest only. The other two multivariate methods named PLS and PCR depend on a large number of variables that lead to extraction of the maximum amount of information required to determine the component of interest in the presence of the other. Good accurate and precise results are obtained from the three methods for determining clotrimazole in the linearity range 1-12 μg/mL and 75-550 μg/mL with dexamethasone acetate 2-20 μg/mL in synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical formulation using two different spectral regions 205-240 nm and 233-278 nm. The results obtained are compared statistically to each other and to the official methods.

  2. A study of selective spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride and Rabeprazole sodium binary mixture: Resolving sever overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Heba M.

    2015-02-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) are co-formulated together for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Three simple, specific and accurate spectrophotometric methods were applied and validated for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) namely; constant center (CC), ratio difference (RD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) spectrophotometric methods. Linear correlations were obtained in range of 10-110 μg/μL for Itopride hydrochloride and 4-44 μg/mL for Rabeprazole sodium. No preliminary separation steps were required prior the analysis of the two drugs using the proposed methods. Specificity was investigated by analyzing the synthetic mixtures containing the two cited drugs and their capsules dosage form. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the reported method, no significant difference was obtained with respect to accuracy and precision. The three methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and can be used for quality control laboratories for IT and RB.

  3. Mutual information against correlations in binary communication channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregowska, Agnieszka; Szczepanski, Janusz; Wajnryb, Eligiusz

    2015-05-19

    Explaining how the brain processing is so fast remains an open problem (van Hemmen JL, Sejnowski T., 2004). Thus, the analysis of neural transmission (Shannon CE, Weaver W., 1963) processes basically focuses on searching for effective encoding and decoding schemes. According to the Shannon fundamental theorem, mutual information plays a crucial role in characterizing the efficiency of communication channels. It is well known that this efficiency is determined by the channel capacity that is already the maximal mutual information between input and output signals. On the other hand, intuitively speaking, when input and output signals are more correlated, the transmission should be more efficient. A natural question arises about the relation between mutual information and correlation. We analyze the relation between these quantities using the binary representation of signals, which is the most common approach taken in studying neuronal processes of the brain. We present binary communication channels for which mutual information and correlation coefficients behave differently both quantitatively and qualitatively. Despite this difference in behavior, we show that the noncorrelation of binary signals implies their independence, in contrast to the case for general types of signals. Our research shows that the mutual information cannot be replaced by sheer correlations. Our results indicate that neuronal encoding has more complicated nature which cannot be captured by straightforward correlations between input and output signals once the mutual information takes into account the structure and patterns of the signals.

  4. A Binary Offset Effect in CCD Readout and Its Impact on Astronomical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, K.; Aldering, G.; Copin, Y.; Dixon, S.; Domagalski, R. S.; Gangler, E.; Pecontal, E.; Perlmutter, S.

    2018-06-01

    We have discovered an anomalous behavior of CCD readout electronics that affects their use in many astronomical applications. An offset in the digitization of the CCD output voltage that depends on the binary encoding of one pixel is added to pixels that are read out one, two, and/or three pixels later. One result of this effect is the introduction of a differential offset in the background when comparing regions with and without flux from science targets. Conventional data reduction methods do not correct for this offset. We find this effect in 16 of 22 instruments investigated, covering a variety of telescopes and many different front-end electronics systems. The affected instruments include LRIS and DEIMOS on the Keck telescopes, WFC3 UVIS and STIS on HST, MegaCam on CFHT, SNIFS on the UH88 telescope, GMOS on the Gemini telescopes, HSC on Subaru, and FORS on VLT. The amplitude of the introduced offset is up to 4.5 ADU per pixel, and it is not directly proportional to the measured ADU level. We have developed a model that can be used to detect this “binary offset effect” in data, and correct for it. Understanding how data are affected and applying a correction for the effect is essential for precise astronomical measurements.

  5. Accuracy of inference on the physics of binary evolution from gravitational-wave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jim W.; Gaebel, Sebastian M.; Neijssel, Coenraad J.; Vigna-Gómez, Alejandro; Stevenson, Simon; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Farr, Will M.; Mandel, Ilya

    2018-04-01

    The properties of the population of merging binary black holes encode some of the uncertain physics underlying the evolution of massive stars in binaries. The binary black hole merger rate and chirp-mass distribution are being measured by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider isolated binary evolution, and explore how accurately the physical model can be constrained with such observations by applying the Fisher information matrix to the merging black hole population simulated with the rapid binary-population synthesis code COMPAS. We investigate variations in four COMPAS parameters: common-envelope efficiency, kick-velocity dispersion, and mass-loss rates during the luminous blue variable and Wolf-Rayet stellar-evolutionary phases. We find that ˜1000 observations would constrain these model parameters to a fractional accuracy of a few per cent. Given the empirically determined binary black hole merger rate, we can expect gravitational-wave observations alone to place strong constraints on the physics of stellar and binary evolution within a few years. Our approach can be extended to use other observational data sets; combining observations at different evolutionary stages will lead to a better understanding of stellar and binary physics.

  6. Stability-indicating HPLC-DAD methods for determination of two binary mixtures: Rabeprazole sodium-mosapride citrate and rabeprazole sodium-itopride hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fatatry, Hamed M; Mabrouk, Mokhtar M; Hewala, Ismail I; Emam, Ehab H

    2014-08-01

    Two selective stability-indicating HPLC methods are described for determination of rabeprazole sodium (RZ)-mosapride citrate (MR) and RZ-itopride hydrochloride (IO) mixtures in the presence of their ICH-stress formed degradation products. Separations were achieved on X-Bridge C18 column using two mobile phases: the first for RZ-MR mixture consisted of acetonitrile: 0.025 M KH 2 PO 4 solution: TEA (30:69:1 v/v; pH 7.0); the second for RZ-IO mixture was at ratio of 25:74:1 (v/v; pH 9.25). The detection wavelength was 283 nm. The two methods were validated and validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. Peak purity testing using contrast angle theory, relative absorbance and log  A versus the wavelengths plots were presented. The % recoveries of the intact drugs were between 99.1% and 102.2% with RSD% values less than 1.6%. Application of the proposed HPLC methods indicated that the methods could be adopted to follow the stability of their formulations.

  7. Rotation invariant deep binary hashing for fast image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lai; Liu, Jianming; Jiang, Aiwen

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study how to compactly represent image's characteristics for fast image retrieval. We propose supervised rotation invariant compact discriminative binary descriptors through combining convolutional neural network with hashing. In the proposed network, binary codes are learned by employing a hidden layer for representing latent concepts that dominate on class labels. A loss function is proposed to minimize the difference between binary descriptors that describe reference image and the rotated one. Compared with some other supervised methods, the proposed network doesn't have to require pair-wised inputs for binary code learning. Experimental results show that our method is effective and achieves state-of-the-art results on the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets.

  8. Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Anastasios

    X-ray binaries - mass-transferring binary stellar systems with compact object accretors - are unique astrophysical laboratories. They carry information about many complex physical processes such as star formation, compact object formation, and evolution of interacting binaries. My thesis work involves the study of the formation and evolution of Galactic and extra-galacticX-ray binaries using both detailed and realistic simulation tools, and population synthesis techniques. I applied an innovative analysis method that allows the reconstruction of the full evolutionary history of known black hole X-ray binaries back to the time of compact object formation. This analysis takes into account all the available observationally determined properties of a system, and models in detail four of its evolutionary evolutionary phases: mass transfer through the ongoing X-ray phase, tidal evolution before the onset of Roche-lobe overflow, motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of the black hole, and binary orbital dynamics at the time of core collapse. Motivated by deep extra-galactic Chandra survey observations, I worked on population synthesis models of low-mass X-ray binaries in the two elliptical galaxies NGC3379 and NGC4278. These simulations were targeted at understanding the origin of the shape and normalization of the observed X-ray luminosity functions. In a follow up study, I proposed a physically motivated prescription for the modeling of transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary properties, such as duty cycle, outburst duration and recurrence time. This prescription enabled the direct comparison of transient low-mass X-ray binary population synthesis models to the Chandra X-ray survey of the two ellipticals NGC3379 and NGC4278. Finally, I worked on population synthesismodels of black holeX-ray binaries in the MilkyWay. This work was motivated by recent developments in observational techniques for the measurement of black hole spin magnitudes in

  9. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  10. Mesh Denoising based on Normal Voting Tensor and Binary Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. K.; Reitebuch, U.; Polthier, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tensor multiplication based smoothing algorithm that follows a two step denoising method. Unlike other traditional averaging approaches, our approach uses an element based normal voting tensor to compute smooth surfaces. By introducing a binary optimization on the proposed tensor together with a local binary neighborhood concept, our algorithm better retains sharp features and produces smoother umbilical regions than previous approaches. On top of that, we provide a stoc...

  11. Stock Picking via Nonsymmetrically Pruned Binary Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Andriyashin

    2008-01-01

    Stock picking is the field of financial analysis that is of particular interest for many professional investors and researchers. In this study stock picking is implemented via binary classification trees. Optimal tree size is believed to be the crucial factor in forecasting performance of the trees. While there exists a standard method of tree pruning, which is based on the cost-complexity tradeoff and used in the majority of studies employing binary decision trees, this paper introduces a no...

  12. Rotational properties of the binary and non-binary populations in the Trans-Neptunian belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Noll, Keith S.; Ortiz Moreno, Jose Luis; Morales , Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    An exhaustive study about short-term variability as well as derived properties from lightcurves allowed us to draw some conclusions for the Trans-Neptunian belt binary population. Based on Maxwellian fit distributions of the spin rate, we suggested that the binary population rotates slower than the non-binary one. This slowing-down can be attributed to tidal effects between the satellite and the primary, as expected. We showed that no system in this work is tidally locked, but the primary despinning process may have already affected the primary rate (as well as the satellite rotational rate). We used the Gladman et al. (1996) formula to compute the time required to tidally lock the systems, but this formula is based on several assumptions and approximations that do not always hold. The computed times are reasonable in most cases and confirm that none of the systems is tidally locked, assuming that the satellite densities are low and have a high rigidity or have a higher dissipation than usually assumed. The rotational properties of small bodies provide information about important physical properties, such as shape, density, and cohesion (Pravec & Harris 2000; Holsapple 2001, 2004; Thirouin et al. 2010, 2012). For binaries it is also possible to derive several physical parameters of the system components, such as diameters of the primary/secondary and albedo under some assumptions. We compare our results as well as our technique for deriving this information from the lightcurve with other methods, such as: i) thermal or thermophysical modeling, ii) from the mutual orbit of the binary component, iii) from direct imaging or iv) from stellar occultation by Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs). Finally, by studying the specific angular momentum of the sample, we proposed possible formation models for several binary TNOs. In several cases, we obtained hints of the formation mechanism from the angular momentum, but for other cases we do not have enough information about the

  13. Kepler eclipsing binary stars. IV. Precise eclipse times for close binaries and identification of candidate three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of precise eclipse times and analysis of third-body signals among 1279 close binaries in the latest Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog. For these short-period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure time causes significant smearing of light curves. In addition, common astrophysical phenomena such as chromospheric activity, as well as imperfections in the light curve detrending process, can create systematic artifacts that may produce fictitious signals in the eclipse timings. We present a method to measure precise eclipse times in the presence of distorted light curves, such as in contact and near-contact binaries which exhibit continuously changing light levels in and out of eclipse. We identify 236 systems for which we find a timing variation signal compatible with the presence of a third body. These are modeled for the light travel time effect and the basic properties of the third body are derived. This study complements J. A. Orosz et al. (in preparation), which focuses on eclipse timing variations of longer period binaries with flat out-of-eclipse regions. Together, these two papers provide comprehensive eclipse timings for all binaries in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, as an ongoing resource freely accessible online to the community.

  14. Analytical method development of nifedipine and its degradants binary mixture using high performance liquid chromatography through a quality by design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choiri, S.; Ainurofiq, A.; Ratri, R.; Zulmi, M. U.

    2018-03-01

    Nifedipin (NIF) is a photo-labile drug that easily degrades when it exposures a sunlight. This research aimed to develop of an analytical method using a high-performance liquid chromatography and implemented a quality by design approach to obtain effective, efficient, and validated analytical methods of NIF and its degradants. A 22 full factorial design approach with a curvature as a center point was applied to optimize of the analytical condition of NIF and its degradants. Mobile phase composition (MPC) and flow rate (FR) as factors determined on the system suitability parameters. The selected condition was validated by cross-validation using a leave one out technique. Alteration of MPC affected on time retention significantly. Furthermore, an increase of FR reduced the tailing factor. In addition, the interaction of both factors affected on an increase of the theoretical plates and resolution of NIF and its degradants. The selected analytical condition of NIF and its degradants has been validated at range 1 – 16 µg/mL that had good linearity, precision, accuration and efficient due to an analysis time within 10 min.

  15. Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    dissipating gas disk, all the planetesimals eventually converge toward the same forced orbits regardless of their size, leading to the much lower impact velocities. This process progressively increases the net mass accretion and can even trigger the runaway growth for large planetesimals. In chapter 3, for the first time, we adopt a 3-dimensional approach to investigate the planetesimals' mutual accretion in binary systems. We find that the inclusion of a small inclination between the binary orbital plane and the circumstellar disk plane leads to the realization of the differential orbital phasing in 3-dimensional space. In such a case, impacts mainly occur between similar-sized bodies with the impact velocities being significantly reduced, and thus the planetesimal accretion is more favored. In chapter 4, we investigate the planet formation in a specific system, the habitable zone of Alpha Centauri B. For the first time, we develop a scaling method to estimate the planetesimal collisional timescale in binary systems. We find that the accretion-favorable conditions satisfied at 1˜2 AU from Alpha Centauri B after the first 10^5 years. However, the planetesimal accretion is significantly less efficient as compared to the single star case. Our results suggest that the formation of Earth-like planets through the accretion of km-sized planetesimals is possible in Alpha Centauri B, while the formation of gaseous giant planets is not favorable. In chapter 5, we outline a new concept, which we call the ``snowball'' growth mode. In this snowball phase, the isolated planetesimals move in the Keplerian orbits, and grow solely via the direct accretion of subcentimeter-sized dust entrained with the gas in the protoplanetary disk. Using a simplified model in which the planetesimals are progressively produced from the dust, we find that the snowball growth phase can be the dominant mode to transfer mass from the dust to planetesimals. The snowball growth mode could provide an alternative

  16. Binary analysis: 1. part: definitions and treatment of binary functions; 2. part: applications and functions of trans-coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, R.L.

    1968-01-01

    The study of binary groups under their mathematical aspects constitutes the matter of binary analysis, the purpose of which consists in developing altogether simple, rigorous and practical methods needed by the technicians, the engineers and all those who may be mainly concerned by digital processing. This subject, fast extending if not determining, however tends actually to play a main part in nuclear electronics as well as in several other research areas. (authors) [fr

  17. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  18. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  19. Simulations of nearly extremal binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Matthew; Scheel, Mark; Hemberger, Daniel; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Kuper, Kevin; Boyle, Michael; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Astrophysical black holes could have nearly extremal spins; therefore, nearly extremal black holes could be among the binaries that current and future gravitational-wave observatories will detect. Predicting the gravitational waves emitted by merging black holes requires numerical-relativity simulations, but these simulations are especially challenging when one or both holes have mass m and spin S exceeding the Bowen-York limit of S /m2 = 0 . 93 . Using improved methods we simulate an unequal-mass, precessing binary black hole coalescence, where the larger black hole has S /m2 = 0 . 99 . We also use these methods to simulate a nearly extremal non-precessing binary black hole coalescence, where both black holes have S /m2 = 0 . 994 , nearly reaching the Novikov-Thorne upper bound for holes spun up by thin accretion disks. We demonstrate numerical convergence and estimate the numerical errors of the waveforms; we compare numerical waveforms from our simulations with post-Newtonian and effective-one-body waveforms; and we compare the evolution of the black-hole masses and spins with analytic predictions.

  20. Accounting for center in the Early External Cephalic Version trials: an empirical comparison of statistical methods to adjust for center in a multicenter trial with binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Angela; Chu, Rong; Thorpe, Julia; McDonald, Sarah; Thabane, Lehana; Hutton, Eileen

    2014-09-26

    Clustering of outcomes at centers involved in multicenter trials is a type of center effect. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement recommends that multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) should account for center effects in their analysis, however most do not. The Early External Cephalic Version (EECV) trials published in 2003 and 2011 stratified by center at randomization, but did not account for center in the analyses, and due to the nature of the intervention and number of centers, may have been prone to center effects. Using data from the EECV trials, we undertook an empirical study to compare various statistical approaches to account for center effect while estimating the impact of external cephalic version timing (early or delayed) on the outcomes of cesarean section, preterm birth, and non-cephalic presentation at the time of birth. The data from the EECV pilot trial and the EECV2 trial were merged into one dataset. Fisher's exact method was used to test the overall effect of external cephalic version timing unadjusted for center effects. Seven statistical models that accounted for center effects were applied to the data. The models included: i) the Mantel-Haenszel test, ii) logistic regression with fixed center effect and fixed treatment effect, iii) center-size weighted and iv) un-weighted logistic regression with fixed center effect and fixed treatment-by-center interaction, iv) logistic regression with random center effect and fixed treatment effect, v) logistic regression with random center effect and random treatment-by-center interaction, and vi) generalized estimating equations. For each of the three outcomes of interest approaches to account for center effect did not alter the overall findings of the trial. The results were similar for the majority of the methods used to adjust for center, illustrating the robustness of the findings. Despite literature that suggests center effect can change the estimate of effect in

  1. Some properties of spectral binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1978-01-01

    Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed

  2. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  3. Population of Nuclei Via 7Li-Induced Binary Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Rodney M.; Phair, Larry W.; Descovich, M.; Cromaz, Mario; Deleplanque, M.A.; Fall on, Paul; Lee, I-Yang; Macchiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, Margaret A.; Moretto, Luciano G.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Sinha, Shrabani; Stephens, Frank S.; Ward, David; Wiedeking, Mathis

    2005-01-01

    The authors have investigated the population of nuclei formed in binary reactions involving 7 Li beams on targets of 160 Gd and 184 W. The 7 Li + 184 W data were taken in the first experiment using the LIBERACE Ge-array in combination with the STARS Si ΔE-E telescope system at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. By using the Wilczynski binary transfer model, in combination with a standard evaporation model, they are able to reproduce the experimental results. This is a useful method for predicting the population of neutron-rich heavy nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei and will be of use in future spectroscopic studies

  4. Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.

  5. Binary black holes on a budget: simulations using workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bruegmann, Bernd; Gonzalez, Jose; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Binary black hole simulations have traditionally been computationally very expensive: current simulations are performed in supercomputers involving dozens if not hundreds of processors, thus systematic studies of the parameter space of binary black hole encounters still seem prohibitive with current technology. Here we show how the multi-layered refinement level code BAM can be used on dual processor workstations to simulate certain binary black hole systems. BAM, based on the moving punctures method, provides grid structures composed of boxes of increasing resolution near the centre of the grid. In the case of binaries, the highest resolution boxes are placed around each black hole and they track them in their orbits until the final merger when a single set of levels surrounds the black hole remnant. This is particularly useful when simulating spinning black holes since the gravitational fields gradients are larger. We present simulations of binaries with equal mass black holes with spins parallel to the binary axis and intrinsic magnitude of S/m 2 = 0.75. Our results compare favourably to those of previous simulations of this particular system. We show that the moving punctures method produces stable simulations at maximum spatial resolutions up to M/160 and for durations of up to the equivalent of 20 orbital periods

  6. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Affendi Rosdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP.

  7. Finger vein recognition using local line binary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP).

  8. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP). PMID:22247670

  9. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  10. On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl

    2003-07-01

    Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.

  11. Polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan

    2017-05-02

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2018-02-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. Scheme for Entering Binary Data Into a Quantum Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin

    2005-01-01

    A quantum algorithm provides for the encoding of an exponentially large number of classical data bits by use of a smaller (polynomially large) number of quantum bits (qubits). The development of this algorithm was prompted by the need, heretofore not satisfied, for a means of entering real-world binary data into a quantum computer. The data format provided by this algorithm is suitable for subsequent ultrafast quantum processing of the entered data. Potential applications lie in disciplines (e.g., genomics) in which one needs to search for matches between parts of very long sequences of data. For example, the algorithm could be used to encode the N-bit-long human genome in only log2N qubits. The resulting log2N-qubit state could then be used for subsequent quantum data processing - for example, to perform rapid comparisons of sequences.

  14. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sunil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  15. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  16. Evaluation of color encodings for high dynamic range pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitard, Ronan; Mantiuk, Rafal K.; Pouli, Tania

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Low Dynamic Range (LDR) color spaces encode a small fraction of the visible color gamut, which does not encompass the range of colors produced on upcoming High Dynamic Range (HDR) displays. Future imaging systems will require encoding much wider color gamut and luminance range. Such wide color gamut can be represented using floating point HDR pixel values but those are inefficient to encode. They also lack perceptual uniformity of the luminance and color distribution, which is provided (in approximation) by most LDR color spaces. Therefore, there is a need to devise an efficient, perceptually uniform and integer valued representation for high dynamic range pixel values. In this paper we evaluate several methods for encoding colour HDR pixel values, in particular for use in image and video compression. Unlike other studies we test both luminance and color difference encoding in a rigorous 4AFC threshold experiments to determine the minimum bit-depth required. Results show that the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) encoding provides the best perceptual uniformity in the considered luminance range, however the gain in bit-depth is rather modest. More significant difference can be observed between color difference encoding schemes, from which YDuDv encoding seems to be the most efficient.

  17. Encoding and decoding messages with chaotic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsing, P.M.; Gavrielides, A.; Kovanis, V.; Roy, R.; Thornburg, K.S. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the strange attractor of a chaotic loss-modulated solid-state laser utilizing return maps based on a combination of intensity maxima and interspike intervals, as opposed to those utilizing Poincare sections defined by the intensity maxima of the laser (I=0,Ie<0) alone. We find both experimentally and numerically that a simple, intrinsic relationship exists between an intensity maximum and the pair of preceding and succeeding interspike intervals. In addition, we numerically investigate encoding messages on the output of a chaotic transmitter laser and its subsequent decoding by a similar receiver laser. By exploiting the relationship between the intensity maxima and the interspike intervals, we demonstrate that the method utilized to encode the message is vital to the system close-quote s ability to hide the signal from unwanted deciphering. In this work alternative methods are studied in order to encode messages by modulating the magnitude of pumping of the transmitter laser and also by driving its loss modulation with more than one frequency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Multimodal image registration based on binary gradient angle descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongsheng; Shi, Yonghong; Yao, Demin; Fan, Yifeng; Wang, Manning; Song, Zhijian

    2017-12-01

    Multimodal image registration plays an important role in image-guided interventions/therapy and atlas building, and it is still a challenging task due to the complex intensity variations in different modalities. The paper addresses the problem and proposes a simple, compact, fast and generally applicable modality-independent binary gradient angle descriptor (BGA) based on the rationale of gradient orientation alignment. The BGA can be easily calculated at each voxel by coding the quadrant in which a local gradient vector falls, and it has an extremely low computational complexity, requiring only three convolutions, two multiplication operations and two comparison operations. Meanwhile, the binarized encoding of the gradient orientation makes the BGA more resistant to image degradations compared with conventional gradient orientation methods. The BGA can extract similar feature descriptors for different modalities and enable the use of simple similarity measures, which makes it applicable within a wide range of optimization frameworks. The results for pairwise multimodal and monomodal registrations between various images (T1, T2, PD, T1c, Flair) consistently show that the BGA significantly outperforms localized mutual information. The experimental results also confirm that the BGA can be a reliable alternative to the sum of absolute difference in monomodal image registration. The BGA can also achieve an accuracy of [Formula: see text], similar to that of the SSC, for the deformable registration of inhale and exhale CT scans. Specifically, for the highly challenging deformable registration of preoperative MRI and 3D intraoperative ultrasound images, the BGA achieves a similar registration accuracy of [Formula: see text] compared with state-of-the-art approaches, with a computation time of 18.3 s per case. The BGA improves the registration performance in terms of both accuracy and time efficiency. With further acceleration, the framework has the potential for

  19. DOUBLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY STARS IN THE RAVE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Watson, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    We devise a new method for the detection of double-lined binary stars in a sample of the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey spectra. The method is both tested against extensive simulations based on synthetic spectra and compared to direct visual inspection of all RAVE spectra. It is based on the properties and shape of the cross-correlation function, and is able to recover ∼80% of all binaries with an orbital period of order 1 day. Systems with periods up to 1 yr are still within the detection reach. We have applied the method to 25,850 spectra of the RAVE second data release and found 123 double-lined binary candidates, only eight of which are already marked as binaries in the SIMBAD database. Among the candidates, there are seven that show spectral features consistent with the RS CVn type (solar type with active chromosphere) and seven that might be of W UMa type (over-contact binaries). One star, HD 101167, seems to be a triple system composed of three nearly identical G-type dwarfs. The tested classification method could also be applicable to the data of the upcoming Gaia mission.

  20. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  1. The structural and energetic aspects of substrate binding and the mechanism of action of the DapE-encoded N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) investigated using a hybrid QM/MM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debodyuti; Mishra, Sabyashachi

    2014-12-21

    With increasing cases of fatal bacterial infections and growing antibiotic resistance, unrelenting efforts are necessary for identification of novel antibiotic targets and new drug molecules. The dapE-encoded N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) is a di-nuclear Zn containing enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway which is indispensable for bacterial survival and absent in the human host, thus a potential antibiotic target. The DapE enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid (SDAP) to give rise to succinic acid and L,L-diaminopimelic acid. The mechanism of action of the DapE catalyzed SDAP hydrolysis is investigated employing a hybrid QM/MM computational method. The DapE side chains, such as, Arg178, Thr325, Asn345, are found to play a role in substrate identification and stabilization of the enzyme active site. Furthermore, a glycine rich loop (Gly322-Ser326) is found to facilitate tight binding of the substrate in the enzyme active site. The catalytic reaction progresses via a general acid-base hydrolysis mechanism where Glu134 first acts as a Lewis base by activating the catalytic water molecule in the active site, followed by guiding the resulting hydroxyl ion for a nucleophilic attack on the substrate, and finally acts as a Lewis acid by donating a proton to the substrate. The intermediates and transition states along the reaction pathway have been structurally and energetically characterized. A conformational change in the side chain of Asp100, which bridges the two Zn centers of the enzyme, is observed which facilitates the enzymatic action by lowering the activation energy and leads to the formation of a new intermediate during the catalytic reaction. The nucleophilic attack is found to be the rate determining step.

  2. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets.......A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...

  3. Evolution in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components

  4. Steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2013-02-01

    This study presents a steganographic optical image encryption system based on reversible data hiding and double random phase encoding (DRPE) techniques. Conventional optical image encryption systems can securely transmit valuable images using an encryption method for possible application in optical transmission systems. The steganographic optical image encryption system based on the DRPE technique has been investigated to hide secret data in encrypted images. However, the DRPE techniques vulnerable to attacks and many of the data hiding methods in the DRPE system can distort the decrypted images. The proposed system, based on reversible data hiding, uses a JBIG2 compression scheme to achieve lossless decrypted image quality and perform a prior encryption process. Thus, the DRPE technique enables a more secured optical encryption process. The proposed method extracts and compresses the bit planes of the original image using the lossless JBIG2 technique. The secret data are embedded in the remaining storage space. The RSA algorithm can cipher the compressed binary bits and secret data for advanced security. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves a high data embedding capacity and lossless reconstruction of the original images.

  5. Gas dynamics of semidetached binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubow, S.H.; Shu, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    We analyze the gas dynamics of semidetached binary systems within the context of the Rohce model. With the adoption of the assumptions that the contact component rotates synchronously and that the flow occurs isothermally with the thermal speed being a small fraction epsilon of the relative orbital speed, Ωd, of the two stars, we show that the steady flow can be formulated in terms of a problem with multiple length scales. Using this concept, we demonstrate the following by semianalytical methods. (1) The escape of material from the surface of the contact component is accomplished by a highly nonisotropic stellar wind which reaches sonic velocities in a neighborhood of the inner Lagrangian point, L1, of size epsilon in comparison with the orbit separation d. (2) This wind throttles into a narrow stram of material which makes a prescribed angle with respect to the line joining the stellar centers ranging from 19 0 5 to 28 0 4 for the full range of possible stellar mass ratios. (3) The width of the stream scales epsilond while its density scales with epsilon -2 M-dot/Ωd 3 , where M-dot is the mass transfer rate. (4) The stream width remains nearly constant over the part of the stream which is nearly straight, and narrows somewhat as the stream curves toward the detached component. (5) If the detached component is smaller than a certain specified size, the stream results in the formation of a disk of material of prescribed size orbiting the detached component in a direct sense. A subsidi []ry issue examined briefly in this paper is the flow mechanism responsible for moving material to the equator of the contact component, and from there to the L1 region where it is lost by the directed stellar wind. Comparisons of our work are made with previous theoretical studies, and some applications are indicated

  6. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Banaras; Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye; Saifullah; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Khan, Imad; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX 3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures

  7. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Banaras [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saifullah [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)

    2015-10-25

    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX{sub 3} (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures.

  8. A unified kinetic approach to binary nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Physics, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road]|[E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Lazaridis, M. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instittutvein 18, P. O. Box 100, N-2007 Kjeller (Norway); Drossinos, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Georgopoulos, P.G. [E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Two different methods to calculate the steady-state nucleation rate in heteromolecular systems proposed by Stauffer (1976) and Langer (1969) are analyzed. Their mathematical equivalence is explicitly demonstrated, thereby obtaining a generic expression for the rate of binary nucleation. Its numerical evaluation does not entail rotation of the coordinate system at the saddle point, but it only requires data in the natural coordinate system of number fluctuations, namely molecular impingement rates, the droplet free energy and its second order derivatives at the saddle point, and the total density of condensible vapors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  10. Automatic target detection using binary template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Dong-San; Sun, Sun-Gu; Park, HyunWook

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new automatic target detection (ATD) algorithm to detect targets such as battle tanks and armored personal carriers in ground-to-ground scenarios. Whereas most ATD algorithms were developed for forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images, we have developed an ATD algorithm for charge-coupled device (CCD) images, which have superior quality to FLIR images in daylight. The proposed algorithm uses fast binary template matching with an adaptive binarization, which is robust to various light conditions in CCD images and saves computation time. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good detection performance.

  11. Abnormal scattering of polymer in binary solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kiwing; Kim, Chul A.; Choi, Hyoung J.

    The behavior of a high molecular weight polymer (polyethylene-oxide, PEO) in a binary liquid mixture (nitroethane/3-methyl-pentane, NE/MP) is studied at the one-phase temperature of NE/MP by static and dynamic light scattering methods. We found that the scattering intensity increased abruptly near the critical composition of NE/MP although the sample was very far from the critical temperature of NE/MP. Explanations in terms of critical opalescence and wetting layer inversion are discussed.

  12. Computer Vision Using Local Binary Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pietikainen, Matti; Zhao, Guoying; Ahonen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The recent emergence of Local Binary Patterns (LBP) has led to significant progress in applying texture methods to various computer vision problems and applications. The focus of this research has broadened from 2D textures to 3D textures and spatiotemporal (dynamic) textures. Also, where texture was once utilized for applications such as remote sensing, industrial inspection and biomedical image analysis, the introduction of LBP-based approaches have provided outstanding results in problems relating to face and activity analysis, with future scope for face and facial expression recognition, b

  13. Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars PV Pup ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are in good agreement with those obtained using the method of Lehmann-. Filhés. Key words. ... use their method to obtain the orbital elements of the four double-lined spectroscopic binary systems PV Pup, HD ... Observation shows that the photometric phase, φ, which is measured from the pho- tometric reference point ...

  14. Renormalization group decimation technique for disordered binary harmonic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecko, C.; Roman, E.

    1983-10-01

    The density of states of disordered binary harmonic chains is calculated using the Renormalization Group Decimation technique on the displacements of the masses from their equilibrium positions. The results are compared with numerical simulation data and with those obtained with the current method of Goncalves da Silva and Koiller. The advantage of our procedure over other methods is discussed. (author)

  15. Generalization of Supervised Learning for Binary Mask Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Gerkmann, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of speech segregation by es- timating the ideal binary mask (IBM) from noisy speech. Two methods will be compared, one supervised learning approach that incorporates a priori knowledge about the feature distri- bution observed during training. The second method...

  16. Measurement system analysis for binary inspection: Continuous versus dichotomous measurands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Erdmann, T.P.; van Wieringen, W.N.

    2011-01-01

    We review methods for assessing the reliability of binary measurements, such as accept/reject inspection in industry. Our framework introduces two factors that are highly relevant in deciding which method to use: (1) whether a reference value (gold standard) can be obtained and (2) whether the

  17. Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wada, Naoya

    2007-06-11

    We propose a novel reconfigurable time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme for coherent optical code-division-multiple-access application. In the proposed scheme, the ultra-short optical pulse is stretched by dispersive device and the SPE is done in time domain using high speed phase modulator. The time domain SPE scheme is robust to wavelength drift of the light source and is very flexible and compatible with the fiber optical system. Proof-of-principle experiments of encoding with 16-chip, 20 GHz/chip binary-phase-shift-keying codes and 1.25 Gbps data transmission have been successfully demonstrated together with an arrayed-wave-guide decoder.

  18. Low Complexity HEVC Encoder for Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual sensor networks (VSNs can be widely applied in security surveillance, environmental monitoring, smart rooms, etc. However, with the increased number of camera nodes in VSNs, the volume of the visual information data increases significantly, which becomes a challenge for storage, processing and transmitting the visual data. The state-of-the-art video compression standard, high efficiency video coding (HEVC, can effectively compress the raw visual data, while the higher compression rate comes at the cost of heavy computational complexity. Hence, reducing the encoding complexity becomes vital for the HEVC encoder to be used in VSNs. In this paper, we propose a fast coding unit (CU depth decision method to reduce the encoding complexity of the HEVC encoder for VSNs. Firstly, the content property of the CU is analyzed. Then, an early CU depth decision method and a low complexity distortion calculation method are proposed for the CUs with homogenous content. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 71.91% on average encoding time savings for the HEVC encoder for VSNs.

  19. Imaging activity in astrocytes and neurons with genetically encoded calcium indicators following in utero electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael eGee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex interactions between networks of astrocytes and neurons are beginning to be appreciated, but remain poorly understood. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein reporters of cellular activity, such as the GCaMP family of genetically encoded calcium indicators, have been used to explore network behavior. However, in some cases, it may be desirable to use long-established rat models that closely mimic particular aspects of human conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and the development of epilepsy following status epilepticus. Methods for expressing reporter proteins in the rat brain are relatively limited. Transgenic rat technologies exist but are fairly immature. Viral-mediated expression is robust but unstable, requires invasive injections, and only works well for fairly small genes (< 5 kb. In utero electroporation offers a valuable alternative. IUE is a proven method for transfecting populations of astrocytes and neurons in the rat brain without the strict limitations on transgene size. We built a toolset of IUE plasmids carrying GCaMP variants 3, 6s or 6f driven by CAG and targeted to the cytosol or the plasma membrane. Because low baseline fluorescence of GCaMP can hinder identification of transfected cells, we included the option of co-expressing a cytosolic tdTomato protein. A binary system consisting of a plasmid carrying a piggyBac inverted terminal repeat-flanked CAG-GCaMP-IRES-tdTomato cassette and a separate plasmid encoding for expression of piggyBac transposase was employed to stably express GCaMP and tdTomato. The plasmids were co-electroporated on embryonic days 13.5-14.5 and astrocytic and neuronal activity was subsequently imaged in acute or cultured brain slices prepared from the cortex or hippocampus. Large spontaneous transients were detected in slices obtained from rats of varying ages up to 127 days. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of this toolset for interrogating astrocytic and neuronal

  20. The Binary Ties that Bind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mike

    2008-01-01

    As any reader of "About Campus" knows, binary oppositions contribute to the definitions of institutional types--the trade school versus the liberal arts college, for example. They help define disciplines and subdisciplines and the status differentials among them: consider the difference in intellectual cachet as one moves from linguistics to…

  1. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  2. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  3. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  4. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  5. Binary logic is rich enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatrin, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs

  6. The Effect of Novel Binary Accelerator System on Properties of Vulcanized Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Kamoun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties, curing characteristics, and swelling behaviour of vulcanized natural rubber with a novel binary accelerator system are investigated. Results indicate that the mechanical properties were improved. Crosslinking density of vulcanized natural rubber was measured by equilibrium swelling method. As a result, the new binary accelerator was found to be able to improve both cure rate and crosslinking density. Using the numerical analysis of test interaction between binary accelerator and operational modelling of vulcanization-factors experiments, it can be concluded that the interaction (Cystine, N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazyl sulfenamide was significant and the optimum value of binary accelerator was suggested, respectively, at levels 0 and +1.

  7. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  8. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  9. Detecting unresolved binary stars in Euclid VIS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzer, T.; Courbin, F.

    2017-10-01

    Measuring a weak gravitational lensing signal to the level required by the next generation of space-based surveys demands exquisite reconstruction of the point-spread function (PSF). However, unresolved binary stars can significantly distort the PSF shape. In an effort to mitigate this bias, we aim at detecting unresolved binaries in realistic Euclid stellar populations. We tested methods in numerical experiments where (I) the PSF shape is known to Euclid requirements across the field of view; and (II) the PSF shape is unknown. We drew simulated catalogues of PSF shapes for this proof-of-concept paper. Following the Euclid survey plan, the objects were observed four times. We propose three methods to detect unresolved binary stars. The detection is based on the systematic and correlated biases between exposures of the same object. One method is a simple correlation analysis, while the two others use supervised machine-learning algorithms (random forest and artificial neural network). In both experiments, we demonstrate the ability of our methods to detect unresolved binary stars in simulated catalogues. The performance depends on the level of prior knowledge of the PSF shape and the shape measurement errors. Good detection performances are observed in both experiments. Full complexity, in terms of the images and the survey design, is not included, but key aspects of a more mature pipeline are discussed. Finding unresolved binaries in objects used for PSF reconstruction increases the quality of the PSF determination at arbitrary positions. We show, using different approaches, that we are able to detect at least binary stars that are most damaging for the PSF reconstruction process. The code corresponding to the algorithms used in this work and all scripts to reproduce the results are publicly available from a GitHub repository accessible via http://lastro.epfl.ch/software

  10. Binary Linear-Time Erasure Decoding for Non-Binary LDPC codes

    OpenAIRE

    Savin, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce the extended binary representation of non-binary codes, which corresponds to a covering graph of the bipartite graph associated with the non-binary code. Then we show that non-binary codewords correspond to binary codewords of the extended representation that further satisfy some simplex-constraint: that is, bits lying over the same symbol-node of the non-binary graph must form a codeword of a simplex code. Applied to the binary erasure channel, this descript...

  11. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A + + B – → C reaction–diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction–diffusion–precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm

  12. A dual-mask coronagraph for observing faint companions to binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cady, E.; McElwain, M.; Kasdin, N.J.; Thalmann, C.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of binary stars for faint companions with conventional coronagraphic methods are challenging, as both targets will be bright enough to obscure any nearby faint companions if their scattered light is not suppressed. We propose coronagraphic examination of binary stars using an

  13. A biclustering algorithm for binary matrices based on penalized Bernoulli likelihood

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seokho; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new biclustering method for binary data matrices using the maximum penalized Bernoulli likelihood estimation. Our method applies a multi-layer model defined on the logits of the success probabilities, where each layer represents a

  14. Detecting Malicious Code by Binary File Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object, library and executable code is stored in binary files. Functionality of a binary file is altered when its content or program source code is changed, causing undesired effects. A direct content change is possible when the intruder knows the structural information of the binary file. The paper describes the structural properties of the binary object files, how the content can be controlled by a possible intruder and what the ways to identify malicious code in such kind of files. Because the object files are inputs in linking processes, early detection of the malicious content is crucial to avoid infection of the binary executable files.

  15. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  16. PROSPECTS FOR DETECTING ASTEROSEISMIC BINARIES IN KEPLER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglio, A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Handberg, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Farmer, R.; Kolb, U. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Girardi, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, Université Paris XI, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-03-20

    Asteroseismology may in principle be used to detect unresolved stellar binary systems comprised of solar-type stars and/or red giants. This novel method relies on the detection of the presence of two solar-like oscillation spectra in the frequency spectrum of a single light curve. Here, we make predictions of the numbers of systems that may be detectable in data already collected by the NASA Kepler Mission. Our predictions, which are based upon TRILEGAL and BiSEPS simulations of the Kepler field of view, indicate that as many as 200 or more ''asteroseismic binaries'' may be detectable in this manner. Most of these binaries should be comprised of two He-core-burning red giants. Owing largely to the limited numbers of targets with the requisite short-cadence Kepler data, we expect only a small number of detected binaries containing solar-type stars. The predicted yield of detections is sensitive to the assumed initial mass ratio distribution (IMRD) of the binary components and therefore represents a sensitive calibration of the much debated IMRD near mass ratio unity.

  17. Multiple-stage pure phase encoding with biometric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many optical systems have been developed for securing information, and optical encryption/encoding has attracted more and more attention due to the marked advantages, such as parallel processing and multiple-dimensional characteristics. In this paper, an optical security method is presented based on pure phase encoding with biometric information. Biometric information (such as fingerprint) is employed as security keys rather than plaintext used in conventional optical security systems, and multiple-stage phase-encoding-based optical systems are designed for generating several phase-only masks with biometric information. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only masks are further used in an optical setup for encoding an input image (i.e., plaintext). Numerical simulations are conducted to illustrate the validity, and the results demonstrate that high flexibility and high security can be achieved.

  18. Segregation of granular binary mixtures by a ratchet mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Zénó; Szalai, Ferenc; Wolf, Dietrich E; Vicsek, Tamás

    2002-02-01

    We report on a segregation scheme for granular binary mixtures, where the segregation is performed by a ratchet mechanism realized by a vertically shaken asymmetric sawtooth-shaped base in a quasi-two-dimensional box. We have studied this system by computer simulations and found that most binary mixtures can be segregated using an appropriately chosen ratchet, even when the particles in the two components have the same size and differ only in their normal restitution coefficient or friction coefficient. These results suggest that the components of otherwise nonsegregating granular mixtures may be separated using our method.

  19. A study of non-binary discontinuity wavelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Hai; Liu Lianshou

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a study of non-binary discontinuity wavelet, put forward the theory and method of constituting basic wavelet functions, and has constituted concretely a wavelet function using λ=3.4 as an example. It also conducts a theoretical inference on the decomposition algorithm and reconstruction algorithm of non-binary wavelet, and gives a concrete study of the change of matrix in connection with λ=3.4. In the end, it shows the future of application of the result to the study of high energy collision. (authors)

  20. Mesh Denoising based on Normal Voting Tensor and Binary Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Reitebuch, Ulrich; Polthier, Konrad

    2017-08-17

    This paper presents a two-stage mesh denoising algorithm. Unlike other traditional averaging approaches, our approach uses an element-based normal voting tensor to compute smooth surfaces. By introducing a binary optimization on the proposed tensor together with a local binary neighborhood concept, our algorithm better retains sharp features and produces smoother umbilical regions than previous approaches. On top of that, we provide a stochastic analysis on the different kinds of noise based on the average edge length. The quantitative results demonstrate that the performance of our method is better compared to state-of-the-art smoothing approaches.

  1. The Post-Newtonian Approximation for Relativistic Compact Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futamase Toshifumi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries which respect the Lorentz invariance in the post-Newtonian perturbative sense, admit a conserved energy, and are free from any ambiguity.

  2. Many-Body Potentials For Binary Immiscible liquid Metal Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaguelle, H.

    2004-01-01

    The modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type many- body potentials have been constructed for three binary liquid immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Ag- Cu. The MAEAM potential functions are fitted to both solid and liquid state properties for only liquid pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM effective potentials, partial structure factors and pair distribution functions of these binary liquid metal alloys have been calculated using the thermodynamically self-consistent variational modified hypernetted chain (VMHNC) theory of liquids. A good agreement with the available experimental data for structure has

  3. A ROSAT Survey of Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, M. T.; Gettel, S. J.; McKay, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Contact binary stars are common variable stars that are all believed to emit relatively large fluxes of X-rays. In this work we combine a large new sample of contact binary stars derived from the ROTSE-I telescope with X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) to estimate the X-ray volume emissivity of contact binary stars in the Galaxy. We obtained X-ray fluxes for 140 contact binaries from the RASS, as well as two additional stars observed by the XMM-Newton observatory. From these data we confirm the emission of X-rays from all contact binary systems, with typical luminosities of approximately 1.0×1030 ergs s-1. Combining calculated luminosities with an estimated contact binary space density, we find that contact binaries do not have strong enough X-ray emission to account for a significant portion of the Galactic X-ray background.

  4. A parallel algorithm for filtering gravitational waves from coalescing binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyaprakash, B.S.; Dhurandhar, S.V.

    1992-10-01

    Coalescing binary stars are perhaps the most promising sources for the observation of gravitational waves with laser interferometric gravity wave detectors. The waveform from these sources can be predicted with sufficient accuracy for matched filtering techniques to be applied. In this paper we present a parallel algorithm for detecting signals from coalescing compact binaries by the method of matched filtering. We also report the details of its implementation on a 256-node connection machine consisting of a network of transputers. The results of our analysis indicate that parallel processing is a promising approach to on-line analysis of data from gravitational wave detectors to filter out coalescing binary signals. The algorithm described is quite general in that the kernel of the algorithm is applicable to any set of matched filters. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  5. Fractional Gaussian noise-enhanced information capacity of a nonlinear neuron model with binary signal input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng-Yin; Kang, Yan-Mei; Chen, Xi; Chen, Guanrong

    2018-05-01

    This paper reveals the effect of fractional Gaussian noise with Hurst exponent H ∈(1 /2 ,1 ) on the information capacity of a general nonlinear neuron model with binary signal input. The fGn and its corresponding fractional Brownian motion exhibit long-range, strong-dependent increments. It extends standard Brownian motion to many types of fractional processes found in nature, such as the synaptic noise. In the paper, for the subthreshold binary signal, sufficient conditions are given based on the "forbidden interval" theorem to guarantee the occurrence of stochastic resonance, while for the suprathreshold binary signal, the simulated results show that additive fGn with Hurst exponent H ∈(1 /2 ,1 ) could increase the mutual information or bits count. The investigation indicated that the synaptic noise with the characters of long-range dependence and self-similarity might be the driving factor for the efficient encoding and decoding of the nervous system.

  6. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  7. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  8. STABILITY OF BINARY COMPLEXES OF L-ASPARTIC ACID IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Binary complexes, Stability constants, Aspartic acid, Speciation, Dioxan. INTRODUCTION. 1,4-Dioxan (Dox) is ... It is miscible with water, oils, and most organic solvents, including aromatic .... of mineral acid in metal ion and ligand solutions was determined using the Gran plot method. [28, 29]. To assess the ...

  9. Thinking about the Unthinkable: Transgender in an Immutable Binary World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Daniels, Loree

    2010-01-01

    This essay discusses ways in which people attempt to reconcile or resolve their own cognitive dissonance engendered by transgender people in a society in which gender is perceived as both binary (male OR female) and immutable (an unalterable state or condition). The author suggests these cognitive dissonance reduction methods may be utilized in…

  10. The search for massive black hole binaries with LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Neil J; Porter, Edward K

    2007-01-01

    In this work we focus on the search and detection of massive black hole binary (MBHB) systems, including systems at high redshift. As well as expanding on previous works where we used a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), called Metropolis-Hastings Monte Carlo, with simulated annealing, we introduce a new search method based on frequency annealing which leads to a more rapid and robust detection. We compare the two search methods on systems where we do and do not see the merger of the black holes. In the non-merger case, we also examine the posterior distribution exploration using a 7D MCMC algorithm. We demonstrate that this method is effective in dealing with the high correlations between parameters, has a higher acceptance rate than previously proposed methods and produces posterior distribution functions that are close to the prediction from the Fisher information matrix. Finally, after carrying out searches where there is only one binary in the data stream, we examine the case where two black hole binaries are present in the same data stream. We demonstrate that our search algorithm can accurately recover both binaries, and more importantly showing that we can safely extract the MBHB sources without contaminating the rest of the data stream

  11. Coupled binary embedding for large-scale image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Wang, Shengjin; Tian, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Visual matching is a crucial step in image retrieval based on the bag-of-words (BoW) model. In the baseline method, two keypoints are considered as a matching pair if their SIFT descriptors are quantized to the same visual word. However, the SIFT visual word has two limitations. First, it loses most of its discriminative power during quantization. Second, SIFT only describes the local texture feature. Both drawbacks impair the discriminative power of the BoW model and lead to false positive matches. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes to embed multiple binary features at indexing level. To model correlation between features, a multi-IDF scheme is introduced, through which different binary features are coupled into the inverted file. We show that matching verification methods based on binary features, such as Hamming embedding, can be effectively incorporated in our framework. As an extension, we explore the fusion of binary color feature into image retrieval. The joint integration of the SIFT visual word and binary features greatly enhances the precision of visual matching, reducing the impact of false positive matches. Our method is evaluated through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets (Ukbench, Holidays, DupImage, and MIR Flickr 1M). We show that our method significantly improves the baseline approach. In addition, large-scale experiments indicate that the proposed method requires acceptable memory usage and query time compared with other approaches. Further, when global color feature is integrated, our method yields competitive performance with the state-of-the-arts.

  12. A contribution to the design of fast code converters for position encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic, Dragan B.; Dincic, Milan R.; Miljkovic, Goran S.; Peric, Zoran H.

    2016-10-01

    Pseudorandom binary sequences (PRBS) are very useful in many areas of applications. Absolute position encoders based on PRBS have many advantages. However, the pseudorandom code is not directly applicable to the digital electronic systems, hence a converter from pseudorandom to natural binary code is needed. Recently, a fast pseudorandom/natural code converter based on Galois PRBS generator (much faster than previously used converter based on Fibonacci PRBS generator) was proposed. One of the main parts of the Galois code converter is an initial logic. The problem of the design of the initial logic has been solved only for some single values of resolution, but it is still not solved for any value of resolution, which significantly limits the applicability of the fast Galois code converter. This paper solves this problem presenting the solution for the design of the initial logic of the fast Galois pseudorandom/natural code converters used in the pseudorandom position encoders, in general manner, that is for any value of the resolution, allowing for a wide applicability of the fast Galois pseudorandom position encoders. Rigorous mathematical derivation of the formula for the designing of the initial logic is presented. Simulation of the proposed converter is performed in NI MultiSim software. The proposed solution, although developed for pseudorandom position encoders, can be used in many other fields where PRBS are used.

  13. Binary operators and their Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheff, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three topics are considered. First, the Langevin approach to neutron noise is used as a basis and guide to develop solutions and solution techniques for the ChapmanKolmogorov forward equation approach to neutron noise. The approach followed throughout this first part is that of solution by means of Green's functions. A particular form for the binary operator Green's function was picked on the basis of the Langevin method. Second, the basic solution technique using the particular Green's function form mentioned above is proven to be a correct and a general result. It is proven that the binary operator is always separable and that the Green's function could be written as the product of two single operator Green's functions. This is a new result. Third and finally, the forward equation approach of Chapman-Kolmogorov is generalized to include time allowing differential equations for second and higher order correlation functions to be developed directly. The principal result of the last section, the differential equation for correlation function of the neutron density, is new. Its derivation is really outside of or broader than the scope indicated by the title of the paper

  14. GRAVITATIONAL MEMORY IN BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollney, Denis; Reisswig, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the dominant oscillatory gravitational wave signals produced during binary inspirals, a non-oscillatory component arises from the nonlinear 'memory' effect, sourced by the emitted gravitational radiation. The memory grows significantly during the late-inspiral and merger, modifying the signal by an almost step-function profile, and making it difficult to model by approximate methods. We use numerical evolutions of binary black holes (BHs) to evaluate the nonlinear memory during late-inspiral, merger, and ringdown. We identify two main components of the signal: the monotonically growing portion corresponding to the memory, and an oscillatory part which sets in roughly at the time of merger and is due to the BH ringdown. Counterintuitively, the ringdown is most prominent for models with the lowest total spin. Thus, the case of maximally spinning BHs anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum exhibits the highest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for interferometric detectors. The largest memory offset, however, occurs for highly spinning BHs, with an estimated value of h tot 20 ≅ 0.24 in the maximally spinning case. These results are central to determining the detectability of nonlinear memory through pulsar timing array measurements.

  15. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta

    2013-10-16

    We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.

  16. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  17. Modeling and analysis of advanced binary cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, K.

    1997-12-31

    A computer model (Cycle Analysis Simulation Tool, CAST) and a methodology have been developed to perform value analysis for small, low- to moderate-temperature binary geothermal power plants. The value analysis method allows for incremental changes in the levelized electricity cost (LEC) to be determined between a baseline plant and a modified plant. Thermodynamic cycle analyses and component sizing are carried out in the model followed by economic analysis which provides LEC results. The emphasis of the present work is on evaluating the effect of mixed working fluids instead of pure fluids on the LEC of a geothermal binary plant that uses a simple Organic Rankine Cycle. Four resources were studied spanning the range of 265{degrees}F to 375{degrees}F. A variety of isobutane and propane based mixtures, in addition to pure fluids, were used as working fluids. This study shows that the use of propane mixtures at a 265{degrees}F resource can reduce the LEC by 24% when compared to a base case value that utilizes commercial isobutane as its working fluid. The cost savings drop to 6% for a 375{degrees}F resource, where an isobutane mixture is favored. Supercritical cycles were found to have the lowest cost at all resources.

  18. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

  19. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-04-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are implemented using a pseudopotential model. The Nernst-Planck equation, describing the kinetics of dissolved ion species, is solved using a finite difference discretization based on the link-flux method. The colloids are resolved on the lattice and coupled to the hydrodynamics and electrokinetics through appropriate boundary conditions. We present the first full integration of these three elements. The model is validated by comparing with known analytic solutions of ionic distributions at fluid interfaces, dielectric droplet deformations, and the electrophoretic mobility of colloidal suspensions. Its possibilities are explored by considering various physical systems, such as breakup of charged and neutral droplets and colloidal dynamics at either planar or spherical fluid interfaces.

  20. Enthalpies of a binary alloy during solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Nandapurkar, P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present a method of calculating the enthalpy of a dendritic alloy during solidification. The enthalpies of the dendritic solid and interdendritic liquid of alloys of the Pb-Sn system are evaluated, but the method could be applied to other binaries, as well. The enthalpies are consistent with a recent evaluation of the thermodynamics of Pb-Sn alloys and with the redistribution of solute in the same during dendritic solidification. Because of the heat of mixing in Pb-Sn alloys, the interdendritic liquid of hypoeutectic alloys (Pb-rich) of less than 50 wt pct Sn has enthalpies that increase as temperature decreases during solidification.

  1. Flipped-Adversarial AutoEncoders

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiyi; Dang, Hung; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Chang, Ee-Chien

    2018-01-01

    We propose a flipped-Adversarial AutoEncoder (FAAE) that simultaneously trains a generative model G that maps an arbitrary latent code distribution to a data distribution and an encoder E that embodies an "inverse mapping" that encodes a data sample into a latent code vector. Unlike previous hybrid approaches that leverage adversarial training criterion in constructing autoencoders, FAAE minimizes re-encoding errors in the latent space and exploits adversarial criterion in the data space. Exp...

  2. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-09-10

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.

  3. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy

  4. Encoding specificity manipulations do affect retrieval from memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René

    2005-05-01

    In a recent article, P.A. Higham (2002) [Strong cues are not necessarily weak: Thomson and Tulving (1970) and the encoding specificity principle revisited. Memory &Cognition, 30, 67-80] proposed a new way to analyze cued recall performance in terms of three separable aspects of memory (retrieval, monitoring, and report bias) by comparing performance under both free-report and forced-report instructions. He used this method to derive estimates of these aspects of memory in an encoding specificity experiment similar to that reported by D.M. Thomson and E. Tulving (1970) [Associative encoding and retrieval: weak and strong cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 86, 255-262]. Under forced-report instructions, the encoding specificity manipulation did not affect performance. Higham concluded that the manipulation affected monitoring and report bias, but not retrieval. I argue that this interpretation of the results is problematic because the Thomson and Tulving paradigm is confounded, and show in three experiments using a more appropriate design that encoding specificity manipulations do affect performance in forced-report cued recall. Because in Higham's framework forced-report performance provides a measure of retrieval that is uncontaminated by monitoring and report bias it is concluded that encoding specificity manipulations do affect retrieval from memory.

  5. Gravitational waveforms for neutron star binaries from binary black hole simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkett, Kevin; Scheel, Mark; Haas, Roland; Ott, Christian; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brown, Duncan; Szilagyi, Bela; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Lippuner, Jonas; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waves from binary neutron star (BNS) and black-hole/neutron star (BHNS) inspirals are primary sources for detection by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The tidal forces acting on the neutron stars induce changes in the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, and these changes can be used to constrain the nuclear equation of state. Current methods of generating BNS and BHNS waveforms rely on either computationally challenging full 3D hydrodynamical simulations or approximate analytic solutions. We introduce a new method for computing inspiral waveforms for BNS/BHNS systems by adding the post-Newtonian (PN) tidal effects to full numerical simulations of binary black holes (BBHs), effectively replacing the non-tidal terms in the PN expansion with BBH results. Comparing a waveform generated with this method against a full hydrodynamical simulation of a BNS inspiral yields a phase difference of < 1 radian over ~ 15 orbits. The numerical phase accuracy required of BNS simulations to measure the accuracy of the method we present here is estimated as a function of the tidal deformability parameter λ.

  6. Measurement strategy for spatially encoded photonic qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a measurement strategy which can, probabilistically, reproduce the statistics of any observable for spatially encoded photonic qubits. It comprises the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measure followed by a detection in a fixed transverse position, making the displacement of the detection system unnecessary, unlike previous methods. This strategy generalizes a scheme recently demonstrated by one of us and co-workers, restricted to measurement of observables with equatorial eigenvectors only. The method presented here can be implemented with the current technology of programmable multipixel liquid-crystal displays. In addition, it can be straightforwardly extended to high-dimensional qudits and may be a valuable tool in optical implementations of quantum information protocols with spatial qubits and qudits.

  7. Graph Regularized Auto-Encoders for Image Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiyi Liao; Yue Wang; Yong Liu

    2017-06-01

    Image representation has been intensively explored in the domain of computer vision for its significant influence on the relative tasks such as image clustering and classification. It is valuable to learn a low-dimensional representation of an image which preserves its inherent information from the original image space. At the perspective of manifold learning, this is implemented with the local invariant idea to capture the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold embedded in the high-dimensional input space. Inspired by the recent successes of deep architectures, we propose a local invariant deep nonlinear mapping algorithm, called graph regularized auto-encoder (GAE). With the graph regularization, the proposed method preserves the local connectivity from the original image space to the representation space, while the stacked auto-encoders provide explicit encoding model for fast inference and powerful expressive capacity for complex modeling. Theoretical analysis shows that the graph regularizer penalizes the weighted Frobenius norm of the Jacobian matrix of the encoder mapping, where the weight matrix captures the local property in the input space. Furthermore, the underlying effects on the hidden representation space are revealed, providing insightful explanation to the advantage of the proposed method. Finally, the experimental results on both clustering and classification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our GAE as well as the correctness of the proposed theoretical analysis, and it also suggests that GAE is a superior solution to the current deep representation learning techniques comparing with variant auto-encoders and existing local invariant methods.

  8. Binaries discovered by the SPY project V. GD 687 - a massive double degenerate binary progenitor that will merge within a Hubble time

    OpenAIRE

    Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. The ESO SN Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY) aims at finding merging double degenerate binaries as candidates for supernova type Ia (SN Ia) explosions. A white dwarf merger has also been suggested to explain the formation of rare types of stars like R CrB, extreme helium or He sdO stars. Here we present the hot subdwarf B binary GD 687, which will merge in less than a Hubble time. Methods. The orbital parameters of the close binary have been determined from time resolved spectroscopy. Since GD...

  9. Error-free holographic frames encryption with CA pixel-permutation encoding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The security of video data is necessary in network security transmission hence cryptography is technique to make video data secure and unreadable to unauthorized users. In this paper, we propose a holographic frames encryption technique based on the cellular automata (CA) pixel-permutation encoding algorithm. The concise pixel-permutation algorithm is used to address the drawbacks of the traditional CA encoding methods. The effectiveness of the proposed video encoding method is demonstrated by simulation examples.

  10. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  11. An electrophysiological investigation of memory encoding, depth of processing, and word frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunyan; Zhu, Ying; Ding, Jinhong; Fan, Silu; Paller, Ken A

    2004-02-12

    Memory encoding can be studied by monitoring brain activity correlated with subsequent remembering. To understand brain potentials associated with encoding, we compared multiple factors known to affect encoding. Depth of processing was manipulated by requiring subjects to detect animal names (deep encoding) or boldface (shallow encoding) in a series of Chinese words. Recognition was more accurate with deep than shallow encoding, and for low- compared to high-frequency words. Potentials were generally more positive for subsequently recognized versus forgotten words; for deep compared to shallow processing; and, for remembered words only, for low- than for high-frequency words. Latency and topographic differences between these potentials suggested that several factors influence the effectiveness of encoding and can be distinguished using these methods, even with Chinese logographic symbols.

  12. Pulsar magnetospheres in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershkovich, A. I.; Dolan, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The criterion for stability of a tangential discontinuity interface in a magnetized, perfectly conducting inviscid plasma is investigated by deriving the dispersion equation including the effects of both gravitational and centrifugal acceleration. The results are applied to neutron star magnetospheres in X-ray binaries. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears to be important in determining whether MHD waves of large amplitude generated by instability may intermix the plasma effectively, resulting in accretion onto the whole star as suggested by Arons and Lea and leading to no X-ray pulsar behavior.

  13. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  14. Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.

  15. Binary Stochastic Representations for Large Multi-class Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Gerald, Thomas

    2017-10-23

    Classification with a large number of classes is a key problem in machine learning and corresponds to many real-world applications like tagging of images or textual documents in social networks. If one-vs-all methods usually reach top performance in this context, these approaches suffer of a high inference complexity, linear w.r.t. the number of categories. Different models based on the notion of binary codes have been proposed to overcome this limitation, achieving in a sublinear inference complexity. But they a priori need to decide which binary code to associate to which category before learning using more or less complex heuristics. We propose a new end-to-end model which aims at simultaneously learning to associate binary codes with categories, but also learning to map inputs to binary codes. This approach called Deep Stochastic Neural Codes (DSNC) keeps the sublinear inference complexity but do not need any a priori tuning. Experimental results on different datasets show the effectiveness of the approach w.r.t. baseline methods.

  16. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  17. A cell-based design approach for RSFQ circuits using a binary decision diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, N.; Koshiyama, J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a cell-based design approach for rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) circuits based on a binary decision diagram (BDD). The BDD is a way to represent a logical function using a directed graph which consists of binary switches having one input and two outputs. Since complex logic circuits can be implemented in the form of regular arrays of the BDD binary switches, we can use a cell-based layout methodology for the design of the RSFQ circuits. In this study, we implemented the BDD binary switches by a D 2 flip-flop. In the BDD design approach we made a cell library which contains a binary switch, pulse splitters, confluence buffers and Josephson transmission lines. All cell layouts in the library have identical widths and heights, so that any logic function can be laid out by simple connection of the library cells. As a case study, we implemented a 1-bit RSFQ half-adder and a 3-bit encoder for a flash AD converter. (author)

  18. The binary collision approximation: Background and introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1992-08-01

    The binary collision approximation (BCA) has long been used in computer simulations of the interactions of energetic atoms with solid targets, as well as being the basis of most analytical theory in this area. While mainly a high-energy approximation, the BCA retains qualitative significance at low energies and, with proper formulation, gives useful quantitative information as well. Moreover, computer simulations based on the BCA can achieve good statistics in many situations where those based on full classical dynamical models require the most advanced computer hardware or are even impracticable. The foundations of the BCA in classical scattering are reviewed, including methods of evaluating the scattering integrals, interaction potentials, and electron excitation effects. The explicit evaluation of time at significant points on particle trajectories is discussed, as are scheduling algorithms for ordering the collisions in a developing cascade. An approximate treatment of nearly simultaneous collisions is outlined and the searching algorithms used in MARLOWE are presented

  19. Numerical Simulations of Wind Accretion in Symbiotic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2009-08-01

    About half of the binary systems are close enough to each other for mass to be exchanged between them at some point in their evolution, yet the accretion mechanism in wind accreting binaries is not well understood. We study the dynamical effects of gravitational focusing by a binary companion on winds from late-type stars. In particular, we investigate the mass transfer and formation of accretion disks around the secondary in detached systems consisting of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) mass-losing star and an accreting companion. The presence of mass outflows is studied as a function of mass-loss rate, wind temperature, and binary orbital parameters. A two-dimensional hydrodynamical model is used to study the stability of mass transfer in wind accreting symbiotic binary systems. In our simulations we use an adiabatic equation of state and a modified version of the isothermal approximation, where the temperature depends on the distance from the mass losing star and its companion. The code uses a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement method that allows us to have high resolution at the position of the secondary and resolve the formation of bow shocks and accretion disks. We explore the accretion flow between the components and formation of accretion disks for a range of orbital separations and wind parameters. Our results show the formation of stream flow between the stars and accretion disks of various sizes for certain orbital configurations. For a typical slow and massive wind from an AGB star the flow pattern is similar to a Roche lobe overflow with accretion rates of 10% of the mass loss from the primary. Stable disks with exponentially decreasing density profiles and masses of the order 10-4 solar masses are formed when wind acceleration occurs at several stellar radii. The disks are geometrically thin with eccentric streamlines and close to Keplerian velocity profiles. The formation of tidal streams and accretion disks is found to be weakly dependent on

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF WIND ACCRETION IN SYMBIOTIC BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2009-01-01

    About half of the binary systems are close enough to each other for mass to be exchanged between them at some point in their evolution, yet the accretion mechanism in wind accreting binaries is not well understood. We study the dynamical effects of gravitational focusing by a binary companion on winds from late-type stars. In particular, we investigate the mass transfer and formation of accretion disks around the secondary in detached systems consisting of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) mass-losing star and an accreting companion. The presence of mass outflows is studied as a function of mass-loss rate, wind temperature, and binary orbital parameters. A two-dimensional hydrodynamical model is used to study the stability of mass transfer in wind accreting symbiotic binary systems. In our simulations we use an adiabatic equation of state and a modified version of the isothermal approximation, where the temperature depends on the distance from the mass losing star and its companion. The code uses a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement method that allows us to have high resolution at the position of the secondary and resolve the formation of bow shocks and accretion disks. We explore the accretion flow between the components and formation of accretion disks for a range of orbital separations and wind parameters. Our results show the formation of stream flow between the stars and accretion disks of various sizes for certain orbital configurations. For a typical slow and massive wind from an AGB star the flow pattern is similar to a Roche lobe overflow with accretion rates of 10% of the mass loss from the primary. Stable disks with exponentially decreasing density profiles and masses of the order 10 -4 solar masses are formed when wind acceleration occurs at several stellar radii. The disks are geometrically thin with eccentric streamlines and close to Keplerian velocity profiles. The formation of tidal streams and accretion disks is found to be weakly dependent

  1. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  2. Contact Binaries on Their Way Towards Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeas, K.

    2015-07-01

    Contact binaries are the most frequently observed type of eclipsing star system. They are small, cool, low-mass binaries belonging to a relatively old stellar population. They follow certain empirical relationships that closely connect a number of physical parameters with each other, largely because of constraints coming from the Roche geometry. As a result, contact binaries provide an excellent test of stellar evolution, specifically for stellar merger scenarios. Observing campaigns by many authors have led to the cataloging of thousands of contact binaries and enabled statistical studies of many of their properties. A large number of contact binaries have been found to exhibit extraordinary behavior, requiring follow-up observations to study their peculiarities in detail. For example, a doubly-eclipsing quadruple system consisting of a contact binary and a detached binary is a highly constrained system offering an excellent laboratory to test evolutionary theories for binaries. A new observing project was initiated at the University of Athens in 2012 in order to investigate the possible lower limit for the orbital period of binary systems before coalescence, prior to merging.

  3. Encoding qubits into oscillators with atomic ensembles and squeezed light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motes, Keith R.; Baragiola, Ben Q.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-05-01

    The Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) encoding of a qubit within an oscillator provides a number of advantages when used in a fault-tolerant architecture for quantum computing, most notably that Gaussian operations suffice to implement all single- and two-qubit Clifford gates. The main drawback of the encoding is that the logical states themselves are challenging to produce. Here we present a method for generating optical GKP-encoded qubits by coupling an atomic ensemble to a squeezed state of light. Particular outcomes of a subsequent spin measurement of the ensemble herald successful generation of the resource state in the optical mode. We analyze the method in terms of the resources required (total spin and amount of squeezing) and the probability of success. We propose a physical implementation using a Faraday-based quantum nondemolition interaction.

  4. Tagging, Encoding, and Jones Optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Lopez, Pablo E. Martinez

    2003-01-01

    A partial evaluator is said to be Jones-optimal if the result of specializing a self-interpreter with respect to a source program is textually identical to the source program, modulo renaming. Jones optimality has already been obtained if the self-interpreter is untyped. If the selfinterpreter...... is typed, however, residual programs are cluttered with type tags. To obtain the original source program, these tags must be removed. A number of sophisticated solutions have already been proposed. We observe, however, that with a simple representation shift, ordinary partial evaluation is already Jones......-optimal, modulo an encoding. The representation shift amounts to reading the type tags as constructors for higherorder abstract syntax. We substantiate our observation by considering a typed self-interpreter whose input syntax is higher-order. Specializing this interpreter with respect to a source program yields...

  5. Binary-space-partitioned images for resolving image-based visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Wing; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Tong, Wai-Shun; Tang, Chi-Keung; Hanson, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel 2D representation for 3D visibility sorting, the Binary-Space-Partitioned Image (BSPI), to accelerate real-time image-based rendering. BSPI is an efficient 2D realization of a 3D BSP tree, which is commonly used in computer graphics for time-critical visibility sorting. Since the overall structure of a BSP tree is encoded in a BSPI, traversing a BSPI is comparable to traversing the corresponding BSP tree. BSPI performs visibility sorting efficiently and accurately in the 2D image space by warping the reference image triangle-by-triangle instead of pixel-by-pixel. Multiple BSPIs can be combined to solve "disocclusion," when an occluded portion of the scene becomes visible at a novel viewpoint. Our method is highly automatic, including a tensor voting preprocessing step that generates candidate image partition lines for BSPIs, filters the noisy input data by rejecting outliers, and interpolates missing information. Our system has been applied to a variety of real data, including stereo, motion, and range images.

  6. Fitting Markovian binary trees using global and individual demographic data

    OpenAIRE

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Massaro, Melanie; Turner, Katharine

    2017-01-01

    We consider a class of branching processes called Markovian binary trees, in which the individuals lifetime and reproduction epochs are modeled using a transient Markovian arrival process (TMAP). We estimate the parameters of the TMAP based on population data containing information on age-specific fertility and mortality rates. Depending on the degree of detail of the available data, a weighted non-linear regression method or a maximum likelihood method is applied. We discuss the optimal choi...

  7. Emotional arousal and memory after deep encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Camacho, Gabriela L; Ramos Rojas, Maria D; Ruedas, Angelica

    2018-05-22

    Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies. In Study 1, adult participants completed a writing task (deep-encoding) for encoding negative, neutral, and positive picture stimuli, whereby half the emotion stimuli had the ER instruction to reduce the emotion. Memory was strong across conditions, and no memory enhancement was observed for any condition. In Study 2, adult participants completed the same writing task as Study 1, as well as a shallow-encoding task for one-third of negative, neutral, and positive trials. Memory was strongest for deep vs. shallow encoding trials, with no effects of emotion or ER instruction. In Study 3, adult participants completed a shallow-encoding task for negative, neutral, and positive stimuli, with findings indicating enhanced memory for negative emotional stimuli. Findings suggest that deep encoding must be acknowledged as a source of memory enhancement when examining manipulations of emotion-related arousal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Fabricating binary optics: An overview of binary optics process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Margaret B.

    1993-01-01

    A review of binary optics processing technology is presented. Pattern replication techniques have been optimized to generate high-quality efficient microoptics in visible and infrared materials. High resolution optical photolithography and precision alignment is used to fabricate maximally efficient fused silica diffractive microlenses at lambda = 633 nm. The degradation in optical efficiency of four-phase-level fused silica microlenses resulting from an intentional 0.35 micron translational error has been systematically measured as a function of lens speed (F/2 - F/60). Novel processes necessary for high sag refractive IR microoptics arrays, including deep anisotropic Si-etching, planarization of deep topography and multilayer resist techniques, are described. Initial results are presented for monolithic integration of photonic and microoptic systems.

  9. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C Hitz

    Full Text Available The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data has been released as a separate Python package.

  10. Quantum control mechanism analysis through field based Hamiltonian encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Abhra; Rabitz, Herschel

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control of quantum dynamics in the laboratory is proving to be increasingly successful. The control fields can be complex, and the mechanisms by which they operate have often remained obscure. Hamiltonian encoding (HE) has been proposed as a method for understanding mechanisms in quantum dynamics. In this context mechanism is defined in terms of the dominant quantum pathways leading to the final state of the controlled system. HE operates by encoding a special modulation into the Hamiltonian and decoding its signature in the dynamics to determine the dominant pathway amplitudes. Earlier work encoded the modulation directly into the Hamiltonian operators. This present work introduces the alternative scheme of field based HE, where the modulation is encoded into the control field and not directly into the Hamiltonian operators. This distinct form of modulation yields a new perspective on mechanism and is computationally faster than the earlier approach. Field based encoding is also an important step towards a laboratory based algorithm for HE as it is the only form of encoding that may be experimentally executed. HE is also extended to cover systems with noise and uncertainty and finally, a hierarchical algorithm is introduced to reveal mechanism in a stepwise fashion of ever increasing detail as desired. This new hierarchical algorithm is an improvement over earlier approaches to HE where the entire mechanism was determined in one stroke. The improvement comes from the use of less complex modulation schemes, which leads to fewer evaluations of Schroedinger's equation. A number of simulations are presented on simple systems to illustrate the new field based encoding technique for mechanism assessment

  11. Gene selection using hybrid binary black hole algorithm and modified binary particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, Elnaz; Pashaei, Elham; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2018-04-14

    In cancer classification, gene selection is an important data preprocessing technique, but it is a difficult task due to the large search space. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to develop a hybrid meta-heuristic Binary Black Hole Algorithm (BBHA) and Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) (4-2) model that emphasizes gene selection. In this model, the BBHA is embedded in the BPSO (4-2) algorithm to make the BPSO (4-2) more effective and to facilitate the exploration and exploitation of the BPSO (4-2) algorithm to further improve the performance. This model has been associated with Random Forest Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) pre-filtering technique. The classifiers which are evaluated in the proposed framework are Sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (SPLSDA); k-nearest neighbor and Naive Bayes. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on two benchmark and three clinical microarrays. The experimental results and statistical analysis confirm the better performance of the BPSO (4-2)-BBHA compared with the BBHA, the BPSO (4-2) and several state-of-the-art methods in terms of avoiding local minima, convergence rate, accuracy and number of selected genes. The results also show that the BPSO (4-2)-BBHA model can successfully identify known biologically and statistically significant genes from the clinical datasets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Searching for Signatures of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Megan; Gezari, Suvi; Liu, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical studies suggest that supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are an inevitable consequence of major galaxy mergers. Additionally, as SMBHBs coalesce they are expected to be sources of tremendous gravitational wave emission. Interest in these sources motivates the search for detection of the first definitive SMBHB and observational signatures to methodize the search. We present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of candidate SMBHBs selected from quasars demonstrating optical periodic variability from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. The SEDs were constructed using existing archival data spanning from radio to X-ray emission. For each candidate SMBHB, we also present models of the theoretical spectrum emitted from the circumbinary and minidisks of the SMBHB system using the predictions of Roedig et al. (2014) and inferred parameters of the candidates (combined mass, mass ratio, binary separation, accretion rate). We compare the observational SED for each source to its respective binary model as well as to the expected mean SED of a normal non-binary system quasar to look for supporting evidence of a SMBHB system. This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  13. Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.

  14. BHDD: Primordial black hole binaries code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Gaggero, Daniele; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2018-06-01

    BHDD (BlackHolesDarkDress) simulates primordial black hole (PBH) binaries that are clothed in dark matter (DM) halos. The software uses N-body simulations and analytical estimates to follow the evolution of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe.

  15. Main Memory Implementations for Binary Grouping

    OpenAIRE

    May, Norman; Moerkotte, Guido

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of applications depend on efficient storage and analysis features for XML data. Hence, query optimization and efficient evaluation techniques for the emerging XQuery standard become more and more important. Many XQuery queries require nested expressions. Unnesting them often introduces binary grouping. We introduce several algorithms implementing binary grouping and analyze their time and space complexity. Experiments demonstrate their performance.

  16. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  17. Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.

  18. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Miscellaneous binary blends containing solvent neutral-150 (SN-150), ... viscosity, the flash point test has always been a standard part of a lubricant's specification. ... between structure and flash points of organic compounds [5-12] and fuels [13, 14]. ... in binary mixtures, the gaps between flash points would be high enough.

  20. The origin of the RS CVn binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, P.

    1976-01-01

    Six possible origins for the RS CVn binaries are considered based on the following possibilities. RS CVn binaries might now be either pre-main-sequence or post-main-sequence. A pre-main-sequence binary might not always have been a binary but might have resulted from fission of a rapidly rotating single pre-main-sequence star. The main-sequence counterparts might be either single stars or binaries. To decide which of the six origins is possible, the following observed data for the RS CVn binaries are considered: total mass, total angular momentum, lack of observed connection with regions of star formation, large space density, kinematical age, and the visual companion of WW Dra. In addition lifetimes and space densities of single stars and other types of binaries are considered. The only origin possible is that the RS CVn binaries are in a thermal phase following fission of a main-sequence single star. In this explanation the single star had a rapidly rotating core which became unstable due to the core contraction which made it begin to evolve off the main sequence. The present Be stars might be examples of such parent single stars. (Auth.)

  1. Chimeric polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Sweeney, Matthew; Heu, Tia

    2017-06-14

    The present invention relates to chimeric GH61 polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the chimeric GH61 polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the chimeric GH61 polypeptides.

  2. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Shaghasi, Tarana

    2017-06-20

    The present invention relates to polypeptides having xylanase activity, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains, and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains. The present invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains.

  3. Amount of Postcue Encoding Predicts Amount of Directed Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    In list-method directed forgetting, participants are cued to intentionally forget a previously studied list (List 1) before encoding a subsequently presented list (List 2). Compared with remember-cued participants, forget-cued participants typically show impaired recall of List 1 and improved recall of List 2, referred to as List 1 forgetting and…

  4. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA

    2009-05-05

    The present invention provides an endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  5. Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David

    2017-06-27

    The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.

  6. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Golightly, Elizabeth

    2012-11-27

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc D.; Harris, Paul

    2015-10-13

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  8. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Kramer, Randall; Harris, Paul

    2013-10-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Polynucleotides encoding polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Golightly, Elizabeth

    2010-03-02

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  10. NMDA receptors and memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard G M

    2013-11-01

    It is humbling to think that 30 years have passed since the paper by Collingridge, Kehl and McLennan showing that one of Jeff Watkins most interesting compounds, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (d-AP5), blocked the induction of long-term potentiation in vitro at synapses from area CA3 of the hippocampus to CA1 without apparent effect on baseline synaptic transmission (Collingridge et al., 1983). This dissociation was one of the key triggers for an explosion of interest in glutamate receptors, and much has been discovered since that collectively contributes to our contemporary understanding of glutamatergic synapses - their biophysics and subunit composition, of the agonists and antagonists acting on them, and their diverse functions in different networks of the brain and spinal cord. It can be fairly said that Collingridge et al.'s (1983) observation was the stimulus that has led, on the one hand, to structural biological work at the atomic scale describing the key features of NMDA receptors that enables their coincidence function to happen; and, on the other, to work with whole animals investigating the contributions that calcium signalling via this receptor can have on rhythmical activities controlled by spinal circuits, memory encoding in the hippocampus (the topic of this article), visual cortical plasticity, sensitization in pain, and other functions. In this article, I lay out how my then interest in long-term potentiation (LTP) as a model of memory enabled me to recognise the importance of Collingridge et al.'s discovery - and how I and my colleagues endeavoured to take things forward in the area of learning and memory. This is in some respects a personal story, and I tell it as such. The idea that NMDA receptor activation is essential for memory encoding, though not for storage, took time to develop and to be accepted. Along the way, there have been confusions, challenges, and surprises surrounding the idea that activation of NMDA receptors can

  11. Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.

  12. Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanso, Ali; Smaoui, Nejib

    2009-01-01

    Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.

  13. Phonons in fcc binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1992-01-01

    Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  14. Automatic Encoding and Language Detection in the GSDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Pinkas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Automatic detection of encoding and language of the text is part of the Greenstone Digital Library Software (GSDL for building and distributing digital collections. It is developed by the University of Waikato (New Zealand in cooperation with UNESCO. The automatic encoding and language detection in Slavic languages is difficult and it sometimes fails. The aim is to detect cases of failure. The automatic detection in the GSDL is based on n-grams method. The most frequent n-grams for Czech are presented. The whole process of automatic detection in the GSDL is described. The input documents to test collections are plain texts encoded in ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-2 and Windows-1250. We manually evaluated the quality of automatic detection. To the causes of errors belong the improper language model predominance and the incorrect switch to Windows-1250. We carried out further tests on documents that were more complex.

  15. Performance study of large area encoding readout MRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Chen, G.; Han, D.; Wang, X.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Guo, B.

    2018-02-01

    Muon tomography system built by the 2-D readout high spatial resolution Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detector is a project of Tsinghua University. An encoding readout method based on the fine-fine configuration has been used to minimize the number of the readout electronic channels resulting in reducing the complexity and the cost of the system. In this paper, we provide a systematic comparison of the MRPC detector performance with and without fine-fine encoding readout. Our results suggest that the application of the fine-fine encoding readout leads us to achieve a detecting system with slightly worse spatial resolution but dramatically reduce the number of electronic channels.

  16. Fluorescence-Based Multiplex Protein Detection Using Optically Encoded Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hong Jeong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based multiplex detection techniques. Among the various techniques for high-throughput protein screening, optically-encoded beads combined with fluorescence-based target monitoring have great advantages over the planar array-based multiplexing assays. This review discusses recent developments of analytical methods of screening protein molecules on microbead-based platforms. These include various strategies such as barcoded microbeads, molecular beacon-based techniques, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based techniques. Their applications for label-free protein detection are also addressed. Especially, the optically-encoded beads such as multilayer fluorescence beads and SERS-encoded beads are successful for generating a large number of coding.

  17. Determination and correlation of solubility and thermodynamic properties of pyraclostrobin in pure and binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Peng; Du, Shichao; Qin, Yujia; Zhao, Kaifei; Li, Kangli; Hou, Baohong; Gong, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubility data of pyraclostrobin in pure and binary solvents were determined and correlated. • The theory of solubility parameter was used to explain the cosolvency in binary solvents. • A modified mixing rule was proposed to calculate the solubility parameter of binary solvents. • The dissolution thermodynamic properties were calculated and discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of pyraclostrobin in five pure solvents and two binary solvent mixtures was measured from 283.15 K to 308.15 K using a static analytical method. Solubility in five pure solvents was well correlated by the modified Apelblat equation and Wilson model. While the CNIBS/R–K model was applied to correlate the solubility in two binary solvent mixtures, the correlation showed good agreement with experimental results. The solubility of pyraclostrobin reaches its maximum value at a certain cyclohexane mole fraction in the two binary solvent mixtures. The solubility parameter of pyraclostrobin was calculated by the Fedors method and a new modified mixing rule with preferable applicability was proposed to determine the solubility parameter of solvents. Then the co-solvency in the binary solvent mixtures can be explained based on the obtained solubility parameters. In a addition, the dissolution thermodynamic properties were calculated from the experimental values using the Wilson model.

  18. Short-term variability of binary and non-binary Trans-Neptunian Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Noll, K. S.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Ortiz Moreno, J. L.; Morales, N.

    2013-10-01

    Since 1992, more than 1400 Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) have been discovered. Our approach to understand such objects is to study their rotations by monitoring their brightness variations. By studying the rotational properties of the TNOs a wealth of information can be obtained on their physics. So, the study of the spins and shapes of TNOs is a powerful method of gaining information on the formation and evolution of our Solar System. We have observed most of the brightest TNOs and centaurs, and compiled one of the largest lightcurves samples. The main purpose was to increase the number of objects whose short-term variability has been studied and present a homogeneous dataset trying to avoid observational biases. A dataset composed of 54 TNOs/Centaurs is reported and analyzed. Amplitudes and rotational periods have been derived for 45 of them with different degrees of reliability. For 9 objects, only an estimation of the amplitude is reported. Because most of the TNOs/Centaurs have low amplitude lightcurves, it is difficult to distinguish between single- and double-peaked lightcurves. Based on our results and the literature, following Binzel et al. (1989) study about asteroids rotational frequency distribution, we studied the TNOs spin rate distributions. We performed several Maxwellian fits to various histograms obtained considering that the lightcurves are single- or double-peaked. We tested lightcurve amplitude limits to distinguish if the lightcurve is albedo- or shape-dominated. Such a consideration introduces important changes in the distribution. We derived that an amplitude limit of 0.15mag gave a good fit to Maxwellian distribution. So, it seems that 0.15mag is a good measure of the typical variability caused by albedo. We studied the short-term variability of binary TNOs thanks to unresolved lightcurves. Based on our results and those from the literature, we come up with a sample of 32 systems with a rotational period and/or lightcurve amplitude value

  19. SpeX spectroscopy of unresolved very low mass binaries. II. Identification of 14 candidate binaries with late-M/early-L and T dwarf components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Nicholls, Christine P.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Looper, Dagny L.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Cruz, Kelle; West, Andrew A.; Gizis, John E.; Metchev, Stanimir

    2014-01-01

    Multiplicity is a key statistic for understanding the formation of very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs. Currently, the separation distribution of VLM binaries remains poorly constrained at small separations (≤1 AU), leading to uncertainty in the overall binary fraction. We approach this problem by searching for late-M/early-L plus T dwarf spectral binaries whose combined light spectra exhibit distinct peculiarities, allowing for separation-independent identification. We define a set of spectral indices designed to identify these systems, and we use a spectral template fitting method to confirm and characterize spectral binary candidates from a library of 815 spectra from the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries. We present 11 new binary candidates, confirm 3 previously reported candidates, and rule out 2 previously identified candidates, all with primary and secondary spectral types in the range M7-L7 and T1-T8, respectively. We find that subdwarfs and blue L dwarfs are the primary contaminants in our sample and propose a method for segregating these sources. If confirmed by follow-up observations, these systems may add to the growing list of tight separation binaries, whose orbital properties may yield further insight into brown dwarf formation scenarios.

  20. R package to estimate intracluster correlation coefficient with confidence interval for binary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Hossain, Akhtar

    2018-03-01

    The Intracluster Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is a major parameter of interest in cluster randomized trials that measures the degree to which responses within the same cluster are correlated. There are several types of ICC estimators and its confidence intervals (CI) suggested in the literature for binary data. Studies have compared relative weaknesses and advantages of ICC estimators as well as its CI for binary data and suggested situations where one is advantageous in practical research. The commonly used statistical computing systems currently facilitate estimation of only a very few variants of ICC and its CI. To address the limitations of current statistical packages, we developed an R package, ICCbin, to facilitate estimating ICC and its CI for binary responses using different methods. The ICCbin package is designed to provide estimates of ICC in 16 different ways including analysis of variance methods, moments based estimation, direct probabilistic methods, correlation based estimation, and resampling method. CI of ICC is estimated using 5 different methods. It also generates cluster binary data using exchangeable correlation structure. ICCbin package provides two functions for users. The function rcbin() generates cluster binary data and the function iccbin() estimates ICC and it's CI. The users can choose appropriate ICC and its CI estimate from the wide selection of estimates from the outputs. The R package ICCbin presents very flexible and easy to use ways to generate cluster binary data and to estimate ICC and it's CI for binary response using different methods. The package ICCbin is freely available for use with R from the CRAN repository (https://cran.r-project.org/package=ICCbin). We believe that this package can be a very useful tool for researchers to design cluster randomized trials with binary outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Binary model for the coma cluster of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtonen, M.J.; Byrd, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    We study the dynamics of galaxies in the Coma cluster and find that the cluster is probably dominated by a central binary of galaxies NGC 4874--NGC4889. We estimate their total mass to be about 3 x 10 14 M/sub sun/ by two independent methods (assuming in Hubble constant of 100 km s -1 Mpc -1 ). This binary is efficient in dynamically ejecting smaller galaxies, some of of which are seen in projection against the inner 3 0 radius of the cluster and which, if erroneously considered as bound members, cause a serious overestimate of the mass of the entire cluster. Taking account of the ejected galaxies, we estimate the total cluster mass to be 4--9 x 10 14 M/sub sun/, with a corresponding mass-to-light ratio for a typical galaxy in the range of 20--120 solar units. The origin of the secondary maximum observed in the radial surface density profile is studied. We consider it to be a remnant of a shell of galaxies which formed around the central binary. This shell expanded, then collapsed into the binary, and is now reexpanding. This is supported by the coincidence of the minimum in the cluster eccentricity and radical velocity dispersion at the same radial distance as the secondary maximum. Numerical simulations of a cluster model with a massive central binary and a spherical shell of test particles are performed, and they reproduce the observed shape, galaxy density, and radial velocity distributions in the Coma cluster fairly well. Consequences of extending the model to other clusters are discussed

  2. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, J; Weigand, B

    2007-04-10

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model.

  3. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, J.; Weigand, B.

    2007-01-01

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model

  4. Evaluation of self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, T.L.

    1977-10-01

    The feasibility of calculating Wagner self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams was examined. The self-interaction parameters of 22 non-ferrous liquid solutions were calculated utilizing an equation based on the equality of the chemical potentials of a component in two equilibrium phases. Utilization of the equation requires the evaluation of the first and second derivatives of various liquidus and solidus data at infinite dilution of the solute component. Several numerical methods for evaluating the derivatives of tabular data were examined. A method involving power series curve fitting and subsequent differentiation of the power series was found to be the most suitable for the interaction parameter calculations. Comparison of the calculated self-interaction parameters with values obtained from thermodynamic measurements indicates that the Wagner self-interaction parameter can be successfully calculated from binary phase diagrams

  5. Sparse logistic principal components analysis for binary data

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seokho

    2010-09-01

    We develop a new principal components analysis (PCA) type dimension reduction method for binary data. Different from the standard PCA which is defined on the observed data, the proposed PCA is defined on the logit transform of the success probabilities of the binary observations. Sparsity is introduced to the principal component (PC) loading vectors for enhanced interpretability and more stable extraction of the principal components. Our sparse PCA is formulated as solving an optimization problem with a criterion function motivated from a penalized Bernoulli likelihood. A Majorization-Minimization algorithm is developed to efficiently solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed sparse logistic PCA method is illustrated by application to a single nucleotide polymorphism data set and a simulation study. © Institute ol Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  6. An Exact Solution of the Binary Singular Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Singularity problem exists in various branches of applied mathematics. Such ordinary differential equations accompany singular coefficients. In this paper, by using the properties of reproducing kernel, the exact solution expressions of dual singular problem are given in the reproducing kernel space and studied, also for a class of singular problem. For the binary equation of singular points, I put it into the singular problem first, and then reuse some excellent properties which are applied to solve the method of solving differential equations for its exact solution expression of binary singular integral equation in reproducing kernel space, and then obtain its approximate solution through the evaluation of exact solutions. Numerical examples will show the effectiveness of this method.

  7. Modeling binary correlated responses using SAS, SPSS and R

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Statistical tools to analyze correlated binary data are spread out in the existing literature. This book makes these tools accessible to practitioners in a single volume. Chapters cover recently developed statistical tools and statistical packages that are tailored to analyzing correlated binary data. The authors showcase both traditional and new methods for application to health-related research. Data and computer programs will be publicly available in order for readers to replicate model development, but learning a new statistical language is not necessary with this book. The inclusion of code for R, SAS, and SPSS allows for easy implementation by readers. For readers interested in learning more about the languages, though, there are short tutorials in the appendix. Accompanying data sets are available for download through the book s website. Data analysis presented in each chapter will provide step-by-step instructions so these new methods can be readily applied to projects.  Researchers and graduate stu...

  8. Modified analytic EAM potentials for the binary immiscible alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, F.; Shu, X.L.; Deng, H.Q.; Hu, W.Y.; Zhu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type potentials have been constructed for seven binary immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Fe-Cu, Ag-Cu, Cu-Ta, Cu-W and Cu-Co. The potentials are fitted to the lattice constant, cohesive energy, unrelaxed monovacancy formation energy and elastic constants for only pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy systems. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM potentials, formation enthalpies of disordered alloys for those seven binary immiscible alloy systems have been calculated. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental data available and those theoretical results calculated by other authors. As only very limited experimental information is available for alloy properties in immiscible alloy systems, the MAEAM is demonstrated to be a reasonable method to construct the interatomic potentials for immiscible alloy systems because only the properties of pure elements are needed in calculation

  9. A Robust Bayesian Truth Serum for Non-binary Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi

    2013-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed for incentivizing truthful reports of a private signals owned by rational agents, among them the peer prediction method and the Bayesian truth serum. The robust Bayesian truth serum (RBTS) for small populations and binary signals is particularly interesting since it does not require a common prior to be known to the mechanism. We further analyze the problem of the common prior not known to the mechanism and give several results regarding the restrictions ...

  10. CCD Photometry of W UMa Type Binary TY UMa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We present VRI CCD photometry of W UMa type binary TY UMa. The light curves show that the secondary minimum is deeper than theprimary minimum and the maximum I (0.p25 is 0.m023 brighter than the maximum II (0.p75. The V light curve has beenanalyzed and the photometric solutions have been determined by the method of Wilson & Devinney differential correction. Weadopted the spot model to explain the asymetric light curve.

  11. Equilibrium points and associated periodic orbits in the gravity of binary asteroid systems: (66391) 1999 KW4 as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

    2018-04-01

    The motion of a massless particle in the gravity of a binary asteroid system, referred as the restricted full three-body problem (RF3BP), is fundamental, not only for the evolution of the binary system, but also for the design of relevant space missions. In this paper, equilibrium points and associated periodic orbit families in the gravity of a binary system are investigated, with the binary (66391) 1999 KW4 as an example. The polyhedron shape model is used to describe irregular shapes and corresponding gravity fields of the primary and secondary of (66391) 1999 KW4, which is more accurate than the ellipsoid shape model in previous studies and provides a high-fidelity representation of the gravitational environment. Both of the synchronous and non-synchronous states of the binary system are considered. For the synchronous binary system, the equilibrium points and their stability are determined, and periodic orbit families emanating from each equilibrium point are generated by using the shooting (multiple shooting) method and the homotopy method, where the homotopy function connects the circular restricted three-body problem and RF3BP. In the non-synchronous binary system, trajectories of equivalent equilibrium points are calculated, and the associated periodic orbits are obtained by using the homotopy method, where the homotopy function connects the synchronous and non-synchronous systems. Although only the binary (66391) 1999 KW4 is considered, our methods will also be well applicable to other binary systems with polyhedron shape data. Our results on equilibrium points and associated periodic orbits provide general insights into the dynamical environment and orbital behaviors in proximity of small binary asteroids and enable the trajectory design and mission operations in future binary system explorations.

  12. Formation of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries. II. Common Envelope Evolution of Primordial Binaries with Extreme Mass Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogera, Vassiliki; Webbink, Ronald F.

    1998-01-01

    We study the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) through helium star supernovae in binary systems that have each emerged from a common envelope phase. LMXB progenitors must satisfy a large number of evolutionary and structural constraints, including survival through common envelope evolution, through the post-common envelope phase, where the precursor of the neutron star becomes a Wolf-Rayet star, and survival through the supernova event. Furthermore, the binaries that survive the explosion must reach interaction within a Hubble time and must satisfy stability criteria for mass transfer. These constraints, imposed under the assumption of a symmetric supernova explosion, prohibit the formation of short-period LMXBs transferring mass at sub-Eddington rates through any channel in which the intermediate progenitor of the neutron star is not completely degenerate. Barring accretion-induced collapse, the existence of such systems therefore requires that natal kicks be imparted to neutron stars. We use an analytical method to synthesize the distribution of nascent LMXBs over donor masses and orbital periods and evaluate their birthrate and systemic velocity dispersion. Within the limitations imposed by observational incompleteness and selection effects, and our neglect of secular evolution in the LMXB state, we compare our results with observations. However, our principal objective is to evaluate how basic model parameters (common envelope ejection efficiency, rms kick velocity, primordial mass ratio distribution) influence these results. We conclude that the characteristics of newborn LMXBs are primarily determined by age and stability constraints and the efficiency of magnetic braking and are largely independent of the primordial binary population and the evolutionary history of LMXB progenitors (except for extreme values of the average kick magnitude or of the common envelope ejection efficiency). Theoretical estimates of total LMXB birthrates are not credible

  13. Topological and categorical properties of binary trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pajoohesh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Binary trees are very useful tools in computer science for estimating the running time of so-called comparison based algorithms, algorithms in which every action is ultimately based on a prior comparison between two elements. For two given algorithms A and B where the decision tree of A is more balanced than that of B, it is known that the average and worst case times of A will be better than those of B, i.e., ₸A(n ≤₸B(n and TWA (n≤TWB (n. Thus the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees play a main role. Here we consider them as semilattices and characterize the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees by topological and categorical properties. Also we define the composition of binary trees as a commutative binary operation, *, such that for binary trees A and B, A * B is the binary tree obtained by attaching a copy of B to any leaf of A. We show that (T,* is a commutative po-monoid and investigate its properties.

  14. Generation of binary holograms for deep scenes captured with a camera and a depth sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul

    2017-01-01

    This work presents binary hologram generation from images of a real object acquired from a Kinect sensor. Since hologram calculation from a point-cloud or polygon model presents a heavy computational burden, we adopted a depth-layer approach to generate the holograms. This method enables us to obtain holographic data of large scenes quickly. Our investigations focus on the performance of different methods, iterative and noniterative, to convert complex holograms into binary format. Comparisons were performed to examine the reconstruction of the binary holograms at different depths. We also propose to modify the direct binary search algorithm to take into account several reference image planes. Then, deep scenes featuring multiple planes of interest can be reconstructed with better efficiency.

  15. The Arabic Diatessaron Project: Digitalizing, Encoding, Lemmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Lancioni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Diatessaron Project (henceforth ADP is an international research project in Digital Humanities that aims to collect, digitalise and encode all known manuscripts of the Arabic Diatessaron (henceforth AD, a text that has been relatively neglected in scholarly research. ADP’s final goal is to provide a number of tools that can enable scholars to effectively query, compare and investigate all known variants of the text that will be encoded as far as possible in compliance with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI guidelines. The paper addresses a number of issues involved in the process of digitalising manuscripts included in the two existing editions (Ciasca 1888 and Marmardji 1935, adding variants in unedited manuscripts, encoding and lemmatising the text. Issues involved in the design of the ADP include presentation of variants, choice of the standard text, applicability of TEI guidelines, automatic translation between different encodings, cross-edition concordances and principles of lemmatisation.

  16. Datacube Interoperability, Encoding Independence, and Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter; Hirschorn, Eric; Maso, Joan

    2017-04-01

    representations. Further, CIS 1.1 offers a unified model for any kind of regular and irregular grids, also allowing sensor models as per SensorML. Encodings include ASCII formats like GML, JSON, RDF as well as binary formats like GeoTIFF, NetCDF, JPEG2000, and GRIB2; further, a container concept allows mixed representations within one coverage file utilizing zip or other convenient package formats. Through the tight integration with the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE), a lossless "transport" from sensor into coverage world is ensured. The corresponding service model of WCS supports datacube operations ranging from simple data extraction to complex ad-hoc analytics with WPCS. Notably, W3C is working has set out on a coverage model as well; it has been designed relatively independently from the abovementioned standards, but there is informal agreement to link it into the CIS universe (which allows for different, yet interchangeable representations). Particularly interesting in the W3C proposal is the detailed semantic modeling of metadata; as CIS 1.1 supports RDF, a tight coupling seems feasible.

  17. Theoretical studies of binaries in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischler, Johann Sebastian

    This thesis introduces and summarizes four papers dealing with computer simulations of astrophysical processes involving binaries. The first part gives the rational and theoretical background to these papers. In paper I and II a statistical approach to studying eclipsing binaries is described. By using population synthesis models for binaries the probabilities for eclipses are calculated for different luminosity classes of binaries. These are compared with Hipparcos data and they agree well if one uses a standard input distribution for the orbit sizes. If one uses a random pairing model, where both companions are independently picked from an IMF, one finds too feclipsing binaries by an order of magnitude. In paper III we investigate a possible scenario for the origin of the stars observed close to the centre of our galaxy, called S stars. We propose that a cluster falls radially cowards the central black hole. The binaries within the cluster can then, if they have small impact parameters, be broken up by the black hole's tidal held and one of the components of the binary will be captured by the black hole. Paper IV investigates how the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries depends on the eccentricity. To do this we have developed a new two-phase SPH scheme where very light particles are at tire outer edge of our simulated star. This enables us to get a much better resolution of the very small mass that is transferred in close binaries. Our simulations show that the minimum required distance between the stars to have mass transfer decreases with the eccentricity.

  18. Exact Algorithms for Duplication-Transfer-Loss Reconciliation with Non-Binary Gene Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Misagh; Bansal, Mukul S

    2017-06-01

    Duplication-Transfer-Loss (DTL) reconciliation is a powerful method for studying gene family evolution in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. DTL reconciliation seeks to reconcile gene trees with species trees by postulating speciation, duplication, transfer, and loss events. Efficient algorithms exist for finding optimal DTL reconciliations when the gene tree is binary. In practice, however, gene trees are often non-binary due to uncertainty in the gene tree topologies, and DTL reconciliation with non-binary gene trees is known to be NP-hard. In this paper, we present the first exact algorithms for DTL reconciliation with non-binary gene trees. Specifically, we (i) show that the DTL reconciliation problem for non-binary gene trees is fixed-parameter tractable in the maximum degree of the gene tree, (ii) present an exponential-time, but in-practice efficient, algorithm to track and enumerate all optimal binary resolutions of a non-binary input gene tree, and (iii) apply our algorithms to a large empirical data set of over 4700 gene trees from 100 species to study the impact of gene tree uncertainty on DTL-reconciliation and to demonstrate the applicability and utility of our algorithms. The new techniques and algorithms introduced in this paper will help biologists avoid incorrect evolutionary inferences caused by gene tree uncertainty.

  19. Computation of infinite dilute activity coefficients of binary liquid alloys using complex formation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E., E-mail: draweoe2004@yahoo.com; Oshakuade, O.M.

    2016-04-15

    A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ{sup ∞}s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ{sup ∞}s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ{sup ∞}s of 10 binary alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ{sup ∞}s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ{sup ∞}s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ{sup ∞}s and then used the γ{sup ∞}s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ{sup ∞}s of binary liquid alloys.

  20. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  1. Variance in binary stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2016-03-01

    In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations in less than a week, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.

  2. Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán

    2017-09-01

    Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.

  3. Galactic binaries with eLISA

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.

    2013-01-01

    I review what eLISA will see from Galactic binaries -- double stars with orbital periods less than a few hours and white dwarf (or neutron star/black hole) components. I discuss the currently known binaries that are guaranteed (or verification) sources and explain why the expected total number of eLISA Galactic binaries is several thousand, even though there are large uncertainties in our knowledge of this population, in particular that of the interacting AM CVn systems. I very briefly sketch...

  4. Eclipsing binary stars with extreme light curve asymmetries mined from large astronomical surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The O’Connell effect is one of the most perplexing challenges in binary studies as it has not been convincingly explained. Furthermore, a simple method to obtain essential parameters for eclipsing binaries exhibiting this effect and to extract information describing the asymmetry in the light curve maxima is needed. We have developed an automated program that characterizes the morphology of light curves by depth of both minima, height of both maxima and curvature outside the eclipses.

  5. Use of isoconcentrational phase diagrams for prediction of amorphization of binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, A.I.; Belashchenko, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the application of isoconcentrational diagrams of phase equilibria of liquid with solid solutions of various crystal structures the thermodynamic method was considered for prediction of concentration ranges of amorphization in binary systems.To confirm the applicability of the thermodynamic criterion in practice caclulations of phase diagrams were accomplished for complex binary eutectic systems (Hf-Be, Zr-Be) with the known concentration ranges of amorphization

  6. Learning-based encoding with soft assignment for age estimation under unconstrained imaging conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alnajar, F.; Shan, C.; Gevers, T.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose to adopt a learning-based encoding method for age estimation under unconstrained imaging conditions. A similar approach [Cao et al., 2010] is applied to face recognition in real-life face images. However, the feature vectors are encoded in hard manner i.e. each feature

  7. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  8. The symbiotics as binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavec, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The author envisages at least three models that can give a symbiotic object: He has called them, respectively, the PN symbiotic, the Algol symbiotic, and the novalike symbiotic. Their properties are briefly discussed. The most promising model is one of a binary system in the second stage of mass transfer, actually at the beginning of it: The cool component is a red giant ascending the asymptotic branch, expanding but not yet filling its critical lobe. The hot star is a subdwarf located in the same region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as the central stars of planetary nebulae. It may be closely related to them, or it may be a helium star, actually a remnant of an Algol primary which underwent the first stage of mass transfer. In these cases, accretion on this star may not play a significant role (PN symbiotic). Perhaps more often, the subdwarf is a ''rejuvenated'' degenerate dwarf whose nuclear burning shells were ignited and are maintained by accretion of material coming from the red giant in the form of a stellar wind. Eruptions are often inevitable: this is the novalike symbiotic. A third alternative is a system in the first stage of mass transfer, where the photons needed for ionization of the nebula come from an accretion disk surrounding a main sequence star: an Algol symbiotic. In spite of considerable observational effort, the symbiotics are known so poorly that it is hard to decide between the models, or even decide if all three can actually exist. (Auth.)

  9. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.

  10. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results

  11. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  12. Accuracy requirements for the calculation of gravitational waveforms from coalescing compact binaries in numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mark

    2005-01-01

    I discuss the accuracy requirements on numerical relativity calculations of inspiraling compact object binaries whose extracted gravitational waveforms are to be used as templates for matched filtering signal extraction and physical parameter estimation in modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Using a post-Newtonian point particle model for the premerger phase of the binary inspiral, I calculate the maximum allowable errors for the mass and relative velocity and positions of the binary during numerical simulations of the binary inspiral. These maximum allowable errors are compared to the errors of state-of-the-art numerical simulations of multiple-orbit binary neutron star calculations in full general relativity, and are found to be smaller by several orders of magnitude. A post-Newtonian model for the error of these numerical simulations suggests that adaptive mesh refinement coupled with second-order accurate finite difference codes will not be able to robustly obtain the accuracy required for reliable gravitational wave extraction on Terabyte-scale computers. I conclude that higher-order methods (higher-order finite difference methods and/or spectral methods) combined with adaptive mesh refinement and/or multipatch technology will be needed for robustly accurate gravitational wave extraction from numerical relativity calculations of binary coalescence scenarios

  13. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity

  14. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wech, Tobias; Koestler, Herbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Comprehensive Heart Failure Center (CHFC)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity

  15. Encoding of coordination complexes with XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, P; Sankar, P

    2017-09-01

    An in-silico system to encode structure, bonding and properties of coordination complexes is developed. The encoding is achieved through a semantic XML markup frame. Composition of the coordination complexes is captured in terms of central atom and ligands. Structural information of central atom is detailed in terms of electron status of valence electron orbitals. The ligands are encoded with specific reference to the electron environment of ligand centre atoms. Behaviour of ligands to form low or high spin complexes is accomplished by assigning a Ligand Centre Value to every ligand based on the electronic environment of ligand centre atom. Chemical ontologies are used for categorization purpose and to control different hybridization schemes. Complexes formed by the central atoms of transition metal, non-transition elements belonging to s-block, p-block and f-block are encoded with a generic encoding platform. Complexes of homoleptic, heteroleptic and bridged types are also covered by this encoding system. Utility of the encoded system to predict redox electron transfer reaction in the coordination complexes is demonstrated with a simple application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  17. Binary Options as a Modern Fenomenon of Financial Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolková Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary options are a new instrument of the financial market. The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of binary options with trading and to illustrate this on the practical example of trades based on Bollinger bands indicator. Currency pair EUR/USD and 6912 time series values of this instrument will be put to analysis. The contribution will be evaluated 8 strategies based on Bollinger Bands. There will be used a backtesting method. From the results follows the most trades could have been realized with the use of Bollinger bands with a double deviation. This strategy, however, also showed the greatest percentage of failed trades. On the contrary the fewest transactions could have been carried out with Bollinger bands with a triple deviation and the MACD filter.

  18. Shear viscosity of binary mixtures: The Gay-Berne potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khordad, R.

    2012-05-01

    The Gay-Berne (GB) potential model is an interesting and useful model to study the real systems. Using the potential model, we intend to examine the thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases, liquid and gas. For this purpose, we apply the integral equation method and solve numerically the Percus-Yevick (PY) integral equation. Then, we obtain the expansion coefficients of correlation functions to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + ethanol, benzene + ethanol, carbon tetrachloride + ethyl acetate, and methanol + ethanol]. The results show that the GB potential model is capable for predicting the thermodynamical properties of binary mixtures with acceptable accuracy.

  19. Mathematical Simulation of High-Conversion Binary Copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangWei; QinJiguang

    2005-01-01

    A new model for mathematical simulation of high-conversion binary copolymerization was established by combination of the concept of the three stage polymerization model (TSPM) proposed by Qin et al. for bulk free radical homopolymerization with the North equation to describe high-conversion copolymerization reaction exhibiting a strong gel effect, and the mathematical expressions of this new model were derived. Like TSPM, the new model also assmnes that the whole course of binary copolymerization can be divided into three different stages: low conversion, gel effect and glass effect stages. In addition, the reaction rate constants and the initiator efficiency at each copolymerization stage do not vary with conversion. Based on the expressions derived, a plot method for determining the overall rate constants and critical conversions was proposed. The literature data on conversion history for styrene (St)-methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA)-MMA copolymerizations were treated to examine the model, which shows that the model is satisfactory.

  20. QTest: Quantitative Testing of Theories of Binary Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Lim, Shiau Hong; Guo, Ying; Popova, Anna; Zwilling, Chris; Cha, Yun-Shil; Messner, William

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to make modeling and quantitative testing accessible to behavioral decision researchers interested in substantive questions. We provide a novel, rigorous, yet very general, quantitative diagnostic framework for testing theories of binary choice. This permits the nontechnical scholar to proceed far beyond traditionally rather superficial methods of analysis, and it permits the quantitatively savvy scholar to triage theoretical proposals before investing effort into complex and specialized quantitative analyses. Our theoretical framework links static algebraic decision theory with observed variability in behavioral binary choice data. The paper is supplemented with a custom-designed public-domain statistical analysis package, the QTest software. We illustrate our approach with a quantitative analysis using published laboratory data, including tests of novel versions of "Random Cumulative Prospect Theory." A major asset of the approach is the potential to distinguish decision makers who have a fixed preference and commit errors in observed choices from decision makers who waver in their preferences.

  1. Observations of new Wolf-Rayet binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemela, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports here preliminary results of spectrographic observations for three southern WR stars, whose binary nature had not been previously verified: HDE 320102, CD -45 0 4482, HD 62910. The observations were carried out at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, mostly with the Cassegrain spectrograph with IT attached to the 1-m reflector. These spectrograms were secured on Kodak IIIaJ emulsion, and have a dispersion of 45 A/mm. The results suggest that HDE 320102 must be a double-lined 05-7 + WN3 spectroscopic binary, that CD -45 0 4482 appears to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary and that HD 62910 may be a binary. (Auth.)

  2. Shear viscosity of binary mixtures: The Gay–Berne potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khordad, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Most useful potential model to study the real systems is the Gay–Berne (GB) potential. ► We use GB model to examine thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases. ► The integral equation methods are applied to solve numerically the Percus–Yevick (PY) equation. ► We obtain expansion coefficients of correlation functions needed to calculate the properties of studied mixtures. ► The results are compared with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, etc.] - Abstract: The Gay–Berne (GB) potential model is an interesting and useful model to study the real systems. Using the potential model, we intend to examine the thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases, liquid and gas. For this purpose, we apply the integral equation method and solve numerically the Percus–Yevick (PY) integral equation. Then, we obtain the expansion coefficients of correlation functions to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + ethanol, benzene + ethanol, carbon tetrachloride + ethyl acetate, and methanol + ethanol]. The results show that the GB potential model is capable for predicting the thermodynamical properties of binary mixtures with acceptable accuracy.

  3. Extending Binary Collocations: (Lexicographical Implications of Going beyond the Prototypical a – b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Gabrovšek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses primarily on the Sinclairian concept of extended units of meaning in general and on extended collocations in particular, investigating their nature and types. Such extended units are extremely varied and diverse; they are regarded as instances of the functioning of the coselection principle. Some extended forms are used far more commonly that the corresponding prototypical (binary sequences. The final section delves into the ABCs of extended collocations in the context of lexicography, suggesting that dictionaries should make an effort to include a selection of such strings, especially for encoding tasks that are to be shown as examples of use. Most dictionaries incorporate very few such “loose” units, probably because of a powerful tradition to include as examples of use chiefly binary collocations and full sentences.

  4. Stationary Size Distributions of Growing Cells with Binary and Multiple Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rading, M. M.; Engel, T. A.; Lipowsky, R.; Valleriani, A.

    2011-10-01

    Populations of unicellular organisms that grow under constant environmental conditions are considered theoretically. The size distribution of these cells is calculated analytically, both for the usual process of binary division, in which one mother cell produces always two daughter cells, and for the more complex process of multiple division, in which one mother cell can produce 2 n daughter cells with n=1,2,3,… . The latter mode of division is inspired by the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The uniform response of the whole population to different environmental conditions is encoded in the individual rates of growth and division of the cells. The analytical treatment of the problem is based on size-dependent rules for cell growth and stochastic transition processes for cell division. The comparison between binary and multiple division shows that these different division processes lead to qualitatively different results for the size distribution and the population growth rates.

  5. CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maoz, Dan; Badenes, Carles; Bickerton, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to characterize statistically the parameters of a detached binary sample—binary fraction, separation distribution, and mass-ratio distribution—using noisy radial velocity data with as few as two, randomly spaced, epochs per object. To do this, we analyze the distribution of ΔRV max , the maximum radial velocity difference between any two epochs for the same object. At low values, the core of this distribution is dominated by measurement errors, but for large enough samples there is a high-velocity tail that can effectively constrain the parameters of the binary population. We discuss our approach for the case of a population of detached white dwarf (WD) binaries with separations that are decaying via gravitational wave emission. We derive analytic expressions for the present-day distribution of separations, integrated over the star formation history of the Galaxy, for parameterized initial WD separation distributions at the end of the common-envelope phase. We use Monte Carlo techniques to produce grids of simulated ΔRV max distributions with specific binary population parameters, and the same sampling cadences and radial velocity errors as the observations, and we compare them to the real ΔRV max distribution to constrain the properties of the binary population. We illustrate the sensitivity of the method to both the model and observational parameters. In the particular case of binary WDs, every model population predicts a merger rate per star which can easily be compared to specific Type Ia supernova rates. In a companion paper, we apply the method to a sample of ∼4000 WDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The binary fractions and separation distribution parameters allowed by the data indicate a rate of WD-WD mergers per unit stellar mass in the Galactic disk, ∼1 × 10 –13 mergers yr –1 M –1 ☉ , remarkably similar to the rate per unit mass of Type Ia supernovae in Milky Way like galaxies.

  6. Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)

  7. An Introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1996-01-01

    This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996.......This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996....

  8. Encoding entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun-Jiang; Bai Bao-Ming; Li Zhuo; Xiao He-Ling; Peng Jin-Ye

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of encoding entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) and of the corresponding complexity. We present an iterative algorithm from which a quantum circuit composed of CNOT, H, and S gates can be derived directly with complexity O(n 2 ) to encode the qubits being sent. Moreover, we derive the number of each gate consumed in our algorithm according to which we can design EA QECCs with low encoding complexity. Another advantage brought by our algorithm is the easiness and efficiency of programming on classical computers. (general)

  9. Efficiency of template banks for binary black-hole detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokelaer, Thomas; Babak, Stas; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of matched filtering theory, which is the most promising method for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by coalescing binaries, we report on the ability of a template bank to catch a simulated binary black-hole gravitational wave signal. If we suppose that the incoming signal waveform is known a priori, then both the (simulated) signal and the templates can be based on the same physical model and therefore the template bank can be optimal in the sense of Wiener filtering. This turns out to be true for the case of neutron star binaries but not necessarily for the black-hole case. When the templates and the signal are based on different physical models the detection bank may still remain efficient. Nonetheless, it might be a judicious choice to use a phenomenological template family such as the so-called BCV templates to catch all the different physical models. In the first part of that report, we illustrate in a non-exhaustive study, by using Monte Carlo simulations, the efficiency of a template bank based on the stationary phase approximation and show how it catches simulated signals based on the same physical model but fails to catch signals built using other models (Pade, EOB, ...) especially in the case of high mass binaries. In the second part, we construct a BCV-template bank and test its validity by injecting simulated signals based on different physical models such as the PN-approximants, Pade-approximant and the effective one-body method. We show that it is suitable for a search pipeline since it gives a match higher than 95% for all the different physical models. The range of individual mass which has been used is [3-20]M o-dot

  10. Asteroseismic effects in close binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Ofer M.; Shaviv, Nir J.

    2013-09-01

    Turbulent processes in the convective envelopes of the Sun and stars have been shown to be a source of internal acoustic excitations. In single stars, acoustic waves having frequencies below a certain cut-off frequency propagate nearly adiabatically and are effectively trapped below the photosphere where they are internally reflected. This reflection essentially occurs where the local wavelength becomes comparable to the pressure scale height. In close binary stars, the sound speed is a constant on equipotentials, while the pressure scale height, which depends on the local effective gravity, varies on equipotentials and may be much greater near the inner Lagrangian point (L1). As a result, waves reaching the vicinity of L1 may propagate unimpeded into low-density regions, where they tend to dissipate quickly due to non-linear and radiative effects. We study the three-dimensional propagation and enhanced damping of such waves inside a set of close binary stellar models using a WKB approximation of the acoustic field. We find that these waves can have much higher damping rates in close binaries, compared to their non-binary counterparts. We also find that the relative distribution of acoustic energy density at the visible surface of close binaries develops a ring-like feature at specific acoustic frequencies and binary separations.

  11. Towards an Automatic Parameter-Tuning Framework for Cost Optimization on Video Encoding Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of cloud encoding services facilitates many content owners, such as the online video vendors, to transcode their digital videos without infrastructure setup. Such service provider charges the customers only based on their resource consumption. For both the service provider and customers, lowering the resource consumption while maintaining the quality is valuable and desirable. Thus, to choose a cost-effective encoding parameter, configuration is essential and challenging due to the tradeoff between bitrate, encoding speed, and resulting quality. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of an automatic parameter-tuning framework, based on which the above objective can be achieved. We introduce a simple service model, which combines the bitrate and encoding speed into a single value: encoding cost. Then, we conduct an empirical study to examine the relationship between the encoding cost and various parameter settings. Our experiment is based on the one-pass Constant Rate Factor method in x264, which can achieve relatively stable perceptive quality, and we vary each parameter we choose to observe how the encoding cost changes. The experiment results show that the tested parameters can be independently tuned to minimize the encoding cost, which makes the automatic parameter-tuning framework feasible and promising for optimizing the cost on video encoding cloud.

  12. Manifold corrections on spinning compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shuangying; Wu Xin

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with a discussion of three new manifold correction methods and three existing ones, which can numerically preserve or correct all integrals in the conservative post-Newtonian Hamiltonian formulation of spinning compact binaries. Two of them are listed here. One is a new momentum-position scaling scheme for complete consistency of both the total energy and the magnitude of the total angular momentum, and the other is the Nacozy's approach with least-squares correction of the four integrals including the total energy and the total angular momentum vector. The post-Newtonian contributions, the spin effects, and the classification of orbits play an important role in the effectiveness of these six manifold corrections. They are all nearly equivalent to correct the integrals at the level of the machine epsilon for the pure Kepler problem. Once the third-order post-Newtonian contributions are added to the pure orbital part, three of these corrections have only minor effects on controlling the errors of these integrals. When the spin effects are also included, the effectiveness of the Nacozy's approach becomes further weakened, and even gets useless for the chaotic case. In all cases tested, the new momentum-position scaling scheme always shows the optimal performance. It requires a little but not much expensive additional computational cost when the spin effects exist and several time-saving techniques are used. As an interesting case, the efficiency of the correction to chaotic eccentric orbits is generally better than one to quasicircular regular orbits. Besides this, the corrected fast Lyapunov indicators and Lyapunov exponents of chaotic eccentric orbits are large as compared with the uncorrected counterparts. The amplification is a true expression of the original dynamical behavior. With the aid of both the manifold correction added to a certain low-order integration algorithm as a fast and high-precision device and the fast Lyapunov

  13. Origin of very-short orbital-period binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observations of four close binaries have established that there is a group of very-short orbital-period (VSOP) binaries whose orbital periods are less than 60 minutes. The VSOP binaries consist of both X-ray close binaries and cataclysmic variables. Their orbital periods are too short to have a main-sequence companion. However, four binaries, none of which belongs to any globular cluster, are too abundant to be explained by the capturing mechanism of a white dwarf. Therefore it seemed to be worthwhile to present an evolutionary scenario from an original binary system which can be applied for all VSOP binaries. (Auth.)

  14. Generation of binary holograms with a Kinect sensor for a high speed color holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio; Son, Jung-Young

    2017-05-01

    The Kinect sensor is a device that enables to capture a real scene with a camera and a depth sensor. A virtual model of the scene can then be obtained with a point cloud representation. A complex hologram can then be computed. However, complex data cannot be used directly because display devices cannot handle amplitude and phase modulation at the same time. Binary holograms are commonly used since they present several advantages. Among the methods that were proposed to convert holograms into a binary format, the direct-binary search (DBS) not only gives the best performance, it also offers the possibility to choose the display parameters of the binary hologram differently than the original complex hologram. Since wavelength and reconstruction distance can be modified, compensation of chromatic aberrations can be handled. In this study, we examine the potential of DBS for RGB holographic display.

  15. Neutral hydrogen observations of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorsel, G.A. van.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation concerns a detailed neutral hydrogen study of a carefully selected sample of 16 double spiral galaxies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). The observational data provide useful material for a number of questions concerning the dynamics of double galaxies, in particular the question of the mass distribution. In Chapter 2 the criteria used to select a sample of double galaxies for observation with the WSRT are discussed. Observing techniques and the reduction of the data using the GIPSY system are described in Chapter 3. Chapters 4 through 7 contain the observational results. In Chapter 8 the method of analysis is described. Masses for the individual galaxies derived from rotation curves are compared with the ''total'' masses estimated from the orbital motion. In this fashion a direct estimate of the amount of dark matter is obtained that avoids the use of mean M/L values. In Chapter 9 a mass estimator for groups is developed in a way analogous to the binary galaxy mass estimator described in Chapter 8. The question of selection effects and the bias of the mass estimator for the point mass model are discussed extensively in Chapter 10. The final results are discussed in Chapter 11. It is shown that the orbital mass exceeds the sum of the individual masses by a large factor for several pairs, indicating either that there is a large amount of dark matter or that something is amiss with the concept of a physical pair. (Auth.)

  16. Binary and ternary photofission of thorium 232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titterton, E W; Brinkley, T A

    1950-05-01

    Work by Titterton and Goward (1949) has shown that uranium undergoes photofission into three charged fragments. Experiments have been conducted to determine whether a similar process takes place in the photofission of thorium. Some difficulties were encountered in loading plates with /sup 232/Th atoms, but this was finally accomplished by means of a technique described in detail. Plates loaded by this method were irradiated with a continuous spectrum of ..gamma.. rays of maximum energy 24 MeV from the (Atomic Energy Research Establishment) Synchrotron. Three irradiations, of 100, 150, and 180 r, were made and the resulting plates showed a fission density of 2.5 x 10/sup 4//cc at the 150 r level. In an examination involving 2500 binary photofissions, 5 cases of ternary fission involving the emission of a long range light fragment, probably an ..cap alpha..-particle, were observed. These events are described. A number-range curve was determined for the photofission tracks and is compared with a similar curve for tracks formed by the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U in a D/sub 1/ emulsion under conditions of similar emulsion sensitivity. It appears that the energy release in the photofission of /sup 232/Th is smaller than that in the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U. The data indicate that 124 MeV is the mean kinetic energy released in the photofission of /sup 232/Th.

  17. Tracer diffusion study in binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, Jean-Louis

    1973-01-01

    The diffusional properties of dilute alloys are quite well described with 5 vacancy jump frequencies: the diffusion experiments allow as to determine only 3 jump frequency ratios. The first experiment set, found by Howard and Manning, was used in order to determine the 3 frequency ratios in the dilute Cu-Fe alloy. N.V. Doan has shown that the isotope effect measurements may be replaced by easier electromigration experiments: this new method was used with success for the dilute Ag-Zn and Ag-Cd alloys. Two effects which take place in less dilute alloys cannot be explained with the 5 frequency model, these are: the linear enhancement of solute diffusion and the departure from linear enhancement of solvent diffusion versus solute concentration. To explain these effects, we have had to take account of the influence of solute pairs on diffusion via 53 new vacancy jump frequencies. Diffusion in a concentrated alloy can be described with a quasi-chemical approach: we show that a description with 'surrounded atoms' allows the simultaneous explanation of the thermodynamical properties of the binary solid solution, the dependence of atomic jump frequencies with respect to the local concentration of the alloy. In this model, the two atomic species have a jump frequency spectrum at their disposal, which seems to greatly modify Manning's correlation analysis. (author) [fr

  18. Chaotic digital communication by encoding initial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofeng, Gong; Xingang, Wang; Meng, Zhan; Lai, C H

    2004-06-01

    We investigate the possibility to improve the noise performance of a chaotic digital communication scheme by utilizing further dynamical information. We show that by encoding the initial information of the chaotic carrier according to the transmitting bits, extra redundance can be introduced into the segments of chaotic signals corresponding to the consecutive bits. Such redundant information can be exploited effectively at the receiver end to improve the noise performance of the system. Compared to other methods (e.g., differential chaos shift keying), straightforward application of the proposed modulation/demodulation scheme already provides significant performance gain in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region. Furthermore, maximum likelihood precleaning procedure based on the Viterbi algorithm can be applied before the demodulation step to overcome the performance degradation in the high SNR region. The study indicates that it is possible to improve the noise performance of the chaotic digital communication scheme if further dynamics information is added to the system. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  19. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzius, Jed J. W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2013-01-01

    Strains are phenotypic variants, encoded by nucleic acid sequences in chromosomal inheritance and by protein “conformations” in prion inheritance and transmission. But how is a protein “conformation” stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms? Here new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins offer structural mechanisms for prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packings (polymorphs) of β-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in a second mechanism, segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct β-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring “conformations,” capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of information by nucleic acid inheritance, including sequence specificity and recognition by non-covalent bonds. PMID:19684598

  20. Towards predicting the encoding capability of MR fingerprinting sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, K; Amthor, T; Doneva, M; Koken, P; Meineke, J; Börnert, P

    2017-09-01

    Sequence optimization and appropriate sequence selection is still an unmet need in magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF). The main challenge in MRF sequence design is the lack of an appropriate measure of the sequence's encoding capability. To find such a measure, three different candidates for judging the encoding capability have been investigated: local and global dot-product-based measures judging dictionary entry similarity as well as a Monte Carlo method that evaluates the noise propagation properties of an MRF sequence. Consistency of these measures for different sequence lengths as well as the capability to predict actual sequence performance in both phantom and in vivo measurements was analyzed. While the dot-product-based measures yielded inconsistent results for different sequence lengths, the Monte Carlo method was in a good agreement with phantom experiments. In particular, the Monte Carlo method could accurately predict the performance of different flip angle patterns in actual measurements. The proposed Monte Carlo method provides an appropriate measure of MRF sequence encoding capability and may be used for sequence optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.