WorldWideScience

Sample records for binary circinus x-1

  1. Timing and Spectral Studies of the Peculiar X-ray Binary Circinus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) is an X-ray binary displaying an array of phenomena which makes it unique in our Galaxy. Despite several decades of observation, controversy surrounds even the most basic facts about this system. It is generally classified as a Neutron Star (NS) Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB),though this classification is based primarily on the observation of Type I X-ray Bursts by EXOSAT in 1985. It is believed to be in a very eccentric ∼ 16.5 day orbit, displaying periodic outbursts in the radio and other frequency bands (including optical and IR) which reinforce the notion that this is in fact the orbital period. Cir X-1 lies in the plane of the Galaxy, where optical identification of the companion is made difficult due to dust obscuration. The companion is thought to be a low mass star, though a high mass companion has not currently been ruled out. In this work, the author analyzes recent observations of Cir X-1 made with the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) experiment, as well as archival observations of Cir X-1 made by a variety of instruments, from as early as 1969. The fast (dot) mass of a neutron star, possibly partly explaining why this object appears so different to other neutron stars. The spectral evolution of Cir X-1 is studied by constructing both instrument-independent and model-independent color-color diagrams. Spectral fits are performed on all USA observations and physical parameters are derived. Cir X-1 periodically evolves from a high/soft state to a low/hard state within each orbital cycle. The spectral fits obtained indicate that a two-component model provides an appropriate description of the Cir X-1 spectrum with one component representing the emission from a multicolor blackbody accretion disk while the other component represents the higher energy Comptonized emission probably coming from a boundary layer on the surface of the neutron star. To study the long-term X-ray variability of Cir X-1 the author analyzes archival data from

  2. VLBI observations of a radio flare of Circinus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, R. A.; Morabito, D. D.; Wehrle, A. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Batty, M. J.; Haynes, R. F.; Wright, A. E.; Nicolson, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    VLBI 2.3 GHz observations of a strong radio flare of the binary star system Circinus X-1 indicate a radio source flaring component angular size of 0.0015-0.015 arcsec. This is equivalent to a linear size of 15-150 AU at the 10 kpc distance of Circinus X-1, although interstellar medium scattering may have enlarged the apparent angular source size. Since the radio source quiescent component, observed prior to the flare, had an angular size greater than 0.2 arcsec (equivalent to more than 2000 AU at 10 kpc), the quiescent radio emission comes from a region much larger than that proposed in recent models for Circinus X-1. The quiescent component appears to be variable on a time scale of years, and is probably fueled by the Circinus X-1 binary system.

  3. Timing and spectral studies of the peculiar x-ray binary Circinus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Pablo Miguel Saz

    Cir X-1 is a unique Galactic X-ray binary which was initially classified as a black hole candidate but later reclassified as a neutron star due primarily to the observation of Type I X-ray Bursts by EXOSAT in 1985. In this work, I examine the timing and spectral properties of Cir X-1. FFT analyses are used to study the short (independent and model-independent color-color diagrams. Spectral fits were performed on USA data, from which physical parameters were derived. The spectral parameters indicate that a two-component model is valid for describing the Cir X-1 spectrum: a multicolor blackbody emission from an accretion disk and a Comptonized emission from a hot plasma (boundary layer or corona). The temperature of the disk remains constant, while there is an indication that the Comptonizing component increases in temperature with orbital phase. From the relative contribution of the disk I infer the neutron star is spinning very rapidly (>1 kHz). The long-term variability of Cir X-1 is studied using data from instruments going back over thirty years. I derive an X-ray ephemeris based showing that the period of Cir X-1 decreases rapidly (P/P˙ < 3000 yrs), possibly implying a very young age. I compute dynamic periodograms and find new, unexplained periodicities. A 250 day segment of data shows no detectable orbital period while displaying a new ˜40 day periodicity. A 335 day super-orbital period is found with hardness ratio perfectly anti-correlated, making it possible that this period is due to an obscuration effect from a precessing orbit.

  4. A radio nebula associated with Circinus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R. F.; Komesaroff, M. M.; Jauncey, D. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Milne, D. K.; Kesteven, M. J.; Wellington, K. J.; Preston, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the variable source Circinus X-1 is reported that reveals that this eccentric double-star system is embedded in a nebula of steady radio emission extending over several parsecs, orders of magnitude larger than the binary stellar system responsible for the fluctuating component of emission. This is in marked constrast to most X-ray binaries, where an envelope of radio emission in conspicuously absent. There are difficulties in explaining the emission, but analogies with SS433 and the Crab nebula suggest possible models.

  5. The nature of the companion star in Circinus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Helen M; Gibson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We present optical spectra and images of the X-ray binary Circinus X-1. The optical light curve of Cir X-1 is strongly variable, changing in brightness by 1.2 magnitudes in the space of four days. The shape of the light curve is consistent with that seen in the 1980s, when the X-ray and radio counterparts of the source were at least ten times as bright as they are currently. We detect strong, variable H-alpha emission lines, consisting of multiple components which vary with orbital phase. We estimate the extinction to the source from the strength of the diffuse interstellar bands and the Balmer decrement; the two methods give A_V = 7.6 +/- 0.6 mag and A_V > 9.1 mag respectively. The optical light curve can be modelled as arising from irradiation of the companion star by the central X-ray source, where a low-temperature star fills its Roche lobe in an orbit of moderate eccentricity (e ~ 0.4). We suggest that the companion star is over-luminous and under-dense, due to the impact of the supernova which occurred ...

  6. The nature of the companion star in Circinus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Helen M.; Soria, Roberto; Gibson, Joel

    2016-02-01

    We present optical spectra and images of the X-ray binary Circinus X-1. The optical light curve of Cir X-1 is strongly variable, changing in brightness by 1.2 mag in the space of four days. The shape of the light curve is consistent with that seen in the 1980s, when the X-ray and radio counterparts of the source were at least ten times as bright as they are currently. We detect strong, variable H α emission lines, consisting of multiple components which vary with orbital phase. We estimate the extinction to the source from the strength of the diffuse interstellar bands and the Balmer decrement; the two methods give AV = 7.6 ± 0.6 mag and AV > 9.1 mag, respectively. The optical light curve can be modelled as arising from irradiation of the companion star by the central X-ray source, where a low-temperature star fills its Roche lobe in an orbit of moderate eccentricity (e ˜ 0.4). We suggest that the companion star is overluminous and underdense, due to the impact of the supernova which occurred less than 5000 yr ago.

  7. The Variable Warm Absorber in Circinus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, N S; Galloway, D K; Brandt, W N

    2007-01-01

    We observed Circinus X-1 twice during a newly reached low-flux phase near zero orbital phase using the High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) onboard Chandra. In both observations the source did not show the P Cygni lines we observed during the high-flux phases of the source in 2000 and 2001. During pre-zero phase the source did not exhibit significant variability and exhibited an emission-line spectrum rich in H- and He-like lines from high Z elements such as Si, S, Ar, and Ca. We analyzed all high resolution X-ray spectra by fitting photoionization and absorption models from the most recent version of the XSTAR code. The pre-zero phase spectrum could be fully modeled with a very hot photoionized plasma with an ionization parameter of log xi = 3.0. Post-zero phase episodes feature absorbers with variable high columns, ionization parameter, and luminosity. While cold absorption remains at levels quite similar to the one observed in previous years, the new observations show unprecedented levels ...

  8. The Variable Warm Absorber in Circinus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, N. S.; Kallman, T. E.; Galloway, D. K.; Brandt, W. N.

    2008-01-01

    We observed Circinus X-1 twice during a newly reached low-flux phase near zero orbital phase using the High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) onboard Chandra. In both observations the source did not show the P Cygni lines we observed during the high-flux phases of the source in 2000 and 2001. During the prezero phase the source did not exhibit significant variability but did exhibit an emission-line spectrum rich in H- and He-like lines from high-Z elements such as Si, S, Ar, and Ca. The light curve in the postdip observation showed quiescent and flaring episodes. Only in these flaring episodes was the source luminosity significantly higher than observed during the prezero phase. We analyzed all high-resolution X-ray spectra by fitting photoionization and absorption models from the most recent version of the XSTAR code. The prezero-phase spectrum could be fully modeled with a very hot photoionized plasma with an ionization parameter of log ξ = 3.0, down from log ξ = 4.0 in the high-flux state. The ionization balances we measure from the spectra during the postzero-phase episodes are significantly different. Both episodes feature absorbers with variable high columns, ionization parameters, and luminosity. While cold absorption remains at levels quite similar to that observed in previous years, the new observations show unprecedented levels of variable warm absorption. The line emissivities also indicate that the observed low source luminosity is inconsistent with a static hot accretion disk corona (ADC), an effect that seems common to other near-edge-on ADC sources as well. We conclude that unless there exists some means of coronal heating other than X-rays, the true source luminosity is likely much higher, and we observe obscuration in analogy to the extragalactic Seyfert 2 sources. We discuss possible consequences and relate cold, lukewarm, warm, and hot absorbers to dynamic accretion scenarios.

  9. Detection of compact radio emission from Circinus X-1 with the first Southern hemisphere e-VLBI experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Phillips; A. Deller; S.W. Amy; S.J. Tingay; A.K. Tzioumis; J.E. Reynolds; D.L. Jauncey; J. Stevens; S.P. Ellingsen; J. Dickey; R.P. Fender; V.M. Tudose; G.D. Nicolson

    2007-01-01

    Circinus X-1 has recently returned to a state of strong radio flaring. Here we report on the first VLBI observations, and detection, undertaken in the 25 years since the 1975-1985 period of strong recurrent flaring activity. We detected Circinus X-1 with the first observations conducted by a recentl

  10. Herschel Observations of Circinus X-1 during Outburst and Quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Buxton, Michelle; Fost, Tyler

    2014-07-01

    We have used the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe Cir X-1 both in and out of outburst. We detected Cir X-1 during outburst at 70 μm. Unfortunately, a cold background source dominates Cir X-1 at longer wavelengths. We have assembled optical and infrared (IR) data for Cir X-1 to model its spectral energy distribution (SED) in both quiescence and outburst and find that in both states it is consistent with a heavily reddened, 10,000 K blackbody. We believe this behavior is completely consistent with previous suggestions that these outbursts are due to accretion disk events, not unlike those of dwarf novae. To explore the behavior of other low-mass X-ray binaries with reported synchrotron jets, we have extracted and/or compiled optical and near- and mid-IR data sets for five such systems to construct their SEDs. The Z-source GX 349+2 and the black hole system GRS 1915+105 have strong and variable mid-IR excesses that suggest synchrotron emission. The other Z-sources have rather weak (or no) IR excesses that can be explained as reddened blackbody spectra with the addition of either synchrotron or bremsstrahlung components. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  11. Millimetre observations of a sub-arcsecond jet from Circinus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Calvelo, D E; Tzioumis, A K; Broderick, J W

    2011-01-01

    We present results from the first successful millimetre (combined 33 GHz and 35 GHz) observations of the neutron star X-ray binary Circinus X-1, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The source was clearly detected in all three observing epochs. We see strong evidence for a periastron flare beginning at MJD 55519.9 \\pm 0.04 with estimated peak flux densities of up to 50 mJy and which proceeds to decline over the following four days. We directly resolve jet structures on sub-arcsecond scales. Flux density variability and distance from the core of nearby components suggests recent shock re-energisation, though we are unable to directly connect this with the observed flare. We suggest that, if the emission is powered by an unseen outflow, then a phase delay exists between flare onset and subsequent brightening of nearby components, with flows reaching mildly relativistic velocities. Given resolved structure positions, in comparison to past observations of Cir X-1, we find evidence that jet direction may v...

  12. Circinus X-1 - X-ray observations with SAS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dower, R. G.; Bradt, H. V.; Morgan, E. H.

    1982-01-01

    Eight observations of Cir X-1 with SAS 3, each lasting 1-6 days, have yielded a variety of new phenomena, viz., a luminous state of steady emission, rapid large-intensity dips, an extremely rapid X-ray transition, and bright flares. Through searches for periodic X-ray pulsations were carried out on data trains of duration up to 6 days; upper limits for pulsations with periods greater than 250 microsec range down to 0.3%. Aperiodic variability with characteristic times of 0.4-1.0 sec was observed but is not well characterized by a simple shot noise model. No millisecond bursts were observed during 40,000 sec in three separate observations. Spectral parameters derived before and after several X-ray transitions indicate that the transitions are not due to absorption of X-rays by intervening gas. Models previously proposed for the Cir X-1 system do not easily provide explanations for all the complex phenomena reported herein.

  13. A return to strong radio flaring by Circinus X-1 observed with the Karoo Array Telescope test array KAT-7

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, R P; Nicolson, G D; Ratcliffe, S; Linares, M; Horrell, J; Richter, L; Schurch, M P E; Coriat, M; Woudt, P; Jonas, J; Booth, R; Fanaroff, B

    2013-01-01

    Circinus X-1 is a bright and highly variable X-ray binary which displays strong and rapid evolution in all wavebands. Radio flaring, associated with the production of a relativistic jet, occurs periodically on a ~17-day timescale. A longer-term envelope modulates the peak radio fluxes in flares, ranging from peaks in excess of a Jansky in the 1970s to an historic low of milliJanskys during the years 1994 to 2007. Here we report first observations of this source with the MeerKAT test array, KAT-7, part of the pathfinder development for the African dish component of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), demonstrating successful scientific operation for variable and transient sources with the test array. The KAT-7 observations at 1.9 GHz during the period 13 December 2011 to 16 January 2012 reveal in temporal detail the return to the Jansky-level events observed in the 1970s. We compare these data to contemporaneous single-dish measurements at 4.8 and 8.5 GHz with the HartRAO 26-m telescope and X-ray monitoring from...

  14. Lord of the Rings: A Kinematic Distance to Circinus X-1 from a Giant X-Ray Light Echo

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Sebastian; Braiding, Catherine; Brandt, William N; Jonker, Peter G; Sell, Paul; Fender, Robert P; Nowak, Michael A; Schulz, Norbert S

    2015-01-01

    Circinus X-1 exhibited a bright X-ray flare in late 2013. Follow-up observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton from 40 to 80 days after the flare reveal a bright X-ray light echo in the form of four well-defined rings with radii from 5 to 13 arcminutes, growing in radius with time. The large fluence of the flare and the large column density of interstellar dust towards Circinus X-1 make this the largest and brightest set of rings from an X-ray light echo observed to date. By deconvolving the radial intensity profile of the echo with the MAXI X-ray lightcurve of the flare we reconstruct the dust distribution towards Circinus X-1 into four distinct dust concentrations. By comparing the peak in scattering intensity with the peak intensity in CO maps of molecular clouds from the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey we identify the two innermost rings with clouds at radial velocity ~ -74 km/s and ~ -81 km/s, respectively. We identify a prominent band of foreground photoelectric absorption with a lane of CO gas at...

  15. Sudden End of X-Ray Outbursts around Periastron of Circinus X-1 Observed with MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, Kazumi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Okazaki, Atsuo T

    2014-01-01

    MAXI/GSC observed 21 outbursts from Circinus X-1 between 2009 August and 2013 December. Although 14 outbursts showed ordinary gradual decays, in 7 outbursts we found sudden luminosity decrease in a time scale of a few hours around the periastron, and then the outbursts terminated. These sudden decreases started at the estimated luminosity of a few times $10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$ and reached to $\\lesssim3\\times10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$. We propose three interpretations for the sudden luminosity decrease: (1) the end of the outburst during the dip, (2) the propeller effect, and (3) the stripping effect by the stellar wind of the companion star. It is difficult to explain the phenomenon with any of these interpretations alone. The interpretation of (1) is possible for only two outbursts assuming rapid decay. The propeller effect (2) is expected to occur at a constant luminosity, which is incompatible with the observed facts. In wind stripping effect (3), the ram pressure of a typical stellar wind is not sufficient to b...

  16. Coordinated Axaf/rxte Zero Phase Spectroscopy of Circinus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, William

    ASCA and RXTE studies of Cir X-1 suggest that its variable iron K spectral features can be explained using a model in which we see both direct flux and flux scattered by an accretion disk corona (ADC). As part of the AXAF Cycle 1 program, we will make a 30 ks observation of Cir X-1 using the AXAF High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. We plan to study line emission from the ADC as well as iron K line/edge features thought to be associated with the accretion disk. Here we propose a simultaneous RXTE observation to precisely define the broad- band continuum shape and variability during our AXAF observation. We need the high-energy response of RXTE to constrain the covering fraction and column density of the heavy absorption known to occur during zero phase.

  17. NGC300 X-1 and IC10 X-1: a new breed of black hole binary?

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, R.; Clark, J. S.; Kolb, U. C.

    2008-01-01

    Context. IC 10 X-1 has recently been confirmed as a black hole (BH) + Wolf-Rayet (WR) X-ray binary, and NGC 300 X-1 is thought to be. The only other known BH+WR candidate is Cygnus X-3. IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1 have similar X-ray properties, with 0.3-10 keV luminosities ~1038 erg s-1, and their X-ray lightcurves exhibit orbital periods ~30 h. Aims. We investigate similarities between IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1, as well as differences between these systems and the known Galactic BH bina...

  18. NGC300 X-1 and IC10 X-1: a new breed of black hole binary?

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Kolb, U C

    2008-01-01

    [ABRIDGED] IC10 X-1 has recently been confirmed as a black hole (BH) + Wolf-Rayet (WR) X-ray binary, and NGC300 X-1 is thought to be. IC10 X-1 and NGC300 X-1 have similar X-ray properties, with luminosities ~10^38 erg/s, and orbital periods ~30 hr. We investigate similarities between these two, as well as differences between them and the known Galactic BH binary systems. We have examined XMM-Newton observations of NGC300 X-1 and IC10 X-1. We extracted lightcurves and spectra; power density spectra (PDS) were constructed from the lightcurves, and the X-ray emission spectra were modeled. Each source exhibits PDS that are characteristic of disc-accreting X-ray binaries (XBs) in the high state. In this state, Galactic XBs with known BH primaries have soft, thermal emission; however the emission spectra of our targets are predominantly non-thermal. Furthermore, the Observation 1 spectrum of NGC300 X-1 is strikingly similar to that of IC10 X-1. The remarkable similarity between the behaviour of NGC300 X-1 in Observ...

  19. NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1: a new breed of black hole binary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, R.; Clark, J. S.; Kolb, U. C.

    2008-09-01

    Context: IC 10 X-1 has recently been confirmed as a black hole (BH) + Wolf-Rayet (WR) X-ray binary, and NGC 300 X-1 is thought to be. The only other known BH+WR candidate is Cygnus X-3. IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1 have similar X-ray properties, with 0.3-10 keV luminosities ~1038 erg s-1, and their X-ray lightcurves exhibit orbital periods ~30 h. Aims: We investigate similarities between IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1, as well as differences between these systems and the known Galactic BH binary systems. Methods: We have examined all four XMM-Newton observations of NGC 300 X-1, as well as the single XMM-Newton observation of IC 10 X-1. For each observation, we extracted lightcurves and spectra from the pn, MOS1 and MOS2 cameras; power density spectra were constructed from the lightcurves, and the X-ray emission spectra were modeled. Results: Each source exhibits power density spectra that are well described by a power law with index, γ, ~1. Such variability is characteristic of turbulence in wind accretion or disc-accreting X-ray binaries (XBs) in the high state. In this state, Galactic XBs with known BH primaries have soft, thermal emission; however the emission spectra of NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1 in the XMM-Newton observations are predominantly non-thermal. Furthermore, the Observation 1 spectrum of NGC 300 X-1 is strikingly similar to that of IC 10 X-1. Conclusions: The remarkable similarity between the behaviour of NGC 300 X-1 in Observation 1 and that of IC 10 X-1 lends strong evidence for NGC 300 X-1 being a BH+WR binary. Our spectral modeling rules out Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a neutron star (NS) for NGC 300 X-1, but not a disc-accreting NS+WR system, nor a NS low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is merely coincident with the WR. We favour disc accretion for both systems, but cannot exclude Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a BH. The unusual spectra of NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1 may be due to these systems existing in a persistently high state, whereas all known BH LMXBs

  20. A search for very high-energy flares from the microquasars GRS 1915+105, Circinus X-1, and V4641 Sgr using contemporaneous H.E.S.S. and \\textit{RXTE} observations

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, H; Aharonian, F; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E O; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chadwick, P M; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J -P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; -P., J; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Leser, E; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Liu, R; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Öttl, S; Ohm, S; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Shilon, I; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-01-01

    Microquasars are potential $\\gamma$-ray emitters. Indications of transient episodes of $\\gamma$-ray emission were recently reported in at least two systems: Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3. The identification of additional $\\gamma$-ray-emitting microquasars is required to better understand how $\\gamma$-ray emission can be produced in these systems. Theoretical models have predicted very high-energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray emission from microquasars during periods of transient outburst. Observations reported herein were undertaken with the objective of observing a broadband flaring event in the $\\gamma$-ray and X-ray bands. Contemporaneous observations of three microquasars, GRS 1915+105, Circinus X-1, and V4641 Sgr, were obtained using the High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) telescope array and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite. X-ray analyses for each microquasar were performed and VHE $\\gamma$-ray upper limits from contemporaneous H.E.S.S. observations were derived. No significant $\\gamma$-ray signal ...

  1. Understanding Black Hole X-ray Binaries: The Case of Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Black Hole X-ray Binaries are known to display distinct emission states that differ in their X-ray spectra, their X-ray timing properties (on times scales less than 1 s) and their radio emission. In recent years monitoring observations, specially with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), have provided us with detailed empirical modeling of the phenomenology of the different states as well as a unification scheme of the long term evolution of black holes, transient and persistent, in terms of these states. Observations of the persistent High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) Cygnus X-l have been at the forefront of learning about black hole states since its optical identification through a state transition in 1973. In this talk I will present in depth studies of several different aspects of the accretion process in this system. The main data base for these studies is an ongoing RXTE and Ryle radio telescope bi-weekly monitoring campaign that started in 1997. I will discuss high-resolution timing results, especially power spectra, which first gave rise to the Lorentzian description now widely used for black hole and neutron star binaries, and time lags, which we found to be especially well suited to identify state transitions. The evolution of spectral, timing, and radio parameters over years will be shown, including the rms-flux relation and the observation of a clearly correlated radio/x-ray flare. We also observed Cygnus X-1 with INTEGRAL, which allowed us to extend timing and spectral studies to higher energies, with XMM, which provided strong constraints on the parameters of the 6.4 keV iron fluorescence line, and with Chandra, which provided the most in depth study to date of the stellar wind in this system. Models based on the physical conditions in the accretion region are still mainly concentrated on the one or other of the observational areas but they are expanding: as an example I will review results from a jet model for the quantitative description of the

  2. On the origin of black hole spin in high-mass black hole binaries: Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Axelsson, Magnus; Davies, Melvyn B; Levan, Andrew J; Ryde, Felix

    2010-01-01

    To date, there have been several detections of high-mass black hole binaries in both the Milky Way and other galaxies. For some of these, the spin parameter of the black hole has been estimated. As many of these systems are quite tight, a suggested origin of the spin is angular momentum imparted by the synchronous rotation of the black hole progenitor with its binary companion. Using Cygnus X-1, the best studied high-mass black hole binary, we investigate this possibility. We find that such an origin of the spin is not likely, and our results point rather to the spin being the result of processes during the collapse.

  3. A Study of the Evolution of the Close Binaries Cyg X-3, IC 10 X-1, NGC 300 X-1, SS 433, and M33 X-7 Using the "Scenario Machine"

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomazov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary tracks for the X-ray binaries Cyg X-3, IC 10 X-1, NGC 300 X-1, SS 433, and M33 X-7 are computed using the Scenario Machine code. The compact objects in IC 10 X-1, NGC 300 X-1, and M33 X-7 are the most massive stellar mass black hole candidates. Cyg X-3, IC 10 X-1, and NGC 300 X-1 are the only currently known Wolf-Rayet stars with degenerate companions. SS 433 is the only known superaccretor in the Milky Way. Therefore, the stars studied provide excellent laboratories for testing scenarios for the evolution of binaries under extreme conditions. The classical evolutionary scenario is consistent with modern observational data. During the evolution of these binaries, hypernova explosions accompanied by the collapse of stellar cores with large angular momenta can occur, leading to long gamma-ray bursts. At the end of their evolution, Cyg X-3, IC 10 X-1, NGC 300 X-1, and SS 433 may form binary relativistic objects, which will subsequently merge due to the radiation of gravitational waves. The gravitati...

  4. Tuning into Scorpius X-1: adapting a continuous gravitational-wave search for a known binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadors, Grant David; Goetz, Evan; Riles, Keith

    2016-05-01

    We describe how the TwoSpect data analysis method for continuous gravitational waves (GWs) has been tuned for directed sources such as the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB), Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1). A comparison of five search algorithms generated simulations of the orbital and GW parameters of Sco X-1. Whereas that comparison focused on relative performance, here the simulations help quantify the sensitivity enhancement and parameter estimation abilities of this directed method, derived from an all-sky search for unknown sources, using doubly Fourier-transformed data. Sensitivity is shown to be enhanced when the source sky location and period are known, because we can run a fully templated search, bypassing the all-sky hierarchical stage using an incoherent harmonic sum. The GW strain and frequency, as well as the projected semi-major axis of the binary system, are recovered and uncertainty estimated, for simulated signals that are detected. Upper limits for GW strain are set for undetected signals. Applications to future GW observatory data are discussed. Robust against spin-wandering and computationally tractable despite an unknown frequency, this directed search is an important new tool for finding gravitational signals from LMXBs.

  5. On the Inner Radius Evolution with Fluxes of the Neutron Star Binary Serpens X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Chia-Ying; Cackett, Edward M; Miller, Jon M; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the latest Suzaku observation of the bright neutron star system Serpens X-1 taken in 2013 October and 2014 April. The observation was taken using the burst mode and only suffered mild pile-up effects. A broad iron line is detected in the X-ray spectrum. We test different models and find that the iron line is asymmetric and best interpreted by relativistic reflection. The relativistically broadened iron line is generally believed to originate from the innermost regions of the accretion disk, where strong gravity causes a series of special and general relativistic effects. The iron line profile indicates an inner radius of ~8 $R_{\\rm G}$. The asymmetric iron line has been observed in a number of previous observations, which gives several inner radius measurements at different flux states. We find the inner radius to be consistent over a wide range of luminosity, implying that the inner radius of Serpens X-1 does not evolve significantly over the range of $L/L_{\\rm Edd}$ ~ 0.2-0.6.

  6. Discovery of two Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in Circinus

    CERN Document Server

    Roman-Lopes, A

    2010-01-01

    I report the discovery of two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in Circinus via detection of their C, N and He Near-Infrared emission lines, using ESO-NTT-SOFI archival data. The H- and K-band spectra of WR67a and WR67b, indicate that they are Wolf-Rayet stars of WN6h and WC8 sub-types, respectively. WR67a presents a weak-lined spectrum probably reminiscent of young hydrogen rich main-sequence stars such as WR25 in Car OB1 and HD97950 in NGC3603. Indeed, this conclusion is reinforced by the close morphological match of the WR67a H- and K-band spectra with that for WR21a, a known extremely massive binary system. WR67b is probably a non-dusty WC8 Wolf-Rayet star that has a estimated heliocentric distance of 2.7(0.9) kpc, which for its Galactic coordinates, puts the star probably in the near portion of the Scutum-Centaurus arm.

  7. Discovery of two Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in Circinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Lopes, A.

    2011-01-01

    I report the discovery of two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in Circinus via detection of their C, N and He near-infrared emission lines, using ESO-NTT-SOFI archival data. The H- and K-band spectra of WR 67a and WR 67b indicate that these are Wolf-Rayet stars of WN 6h and WC 8 subtypes, respectively. WR 67a presents a weak-lined spectrum probably reminiscent of young hydrogen-rich main-sequence stars, such as WR 25 in Car OB1 and HD 97950 in NGC 3603. Indeed, this conclusion is reinforced by the close morphological match of the WR 67a H- and K-band spectra with that for WR 21a, a known extremely massive binary system. WR 67b is probably a non-dusty WC 8 Wolf-Rayet star that has an estimated heliocentric distance of 2.7 ± 0.9 kpc, which for its Galactic coordinates puts the star probably in the near portion of the Scutum-Centaurus arm.

  8. On the Nature of the Variability Power Decay towards Soft Spectral States in X-Ray Binaries. Case Study in Cyg X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhinikov, Nikolai

    2007-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the Fourier Power Density Spectrum (PDS) observed from black hole X-ray binaries in low/hard and intermediate spectral states is a broad band-limited noise, characterized by a constant below some frequency (a "break" frequency) and a power law above this frequency. It has been shown that the variability of this type can be produced by the inward diffusion of the local driving perturbations in a bounded configuration (accretion disk or corona). In the framework of this model, the perturbation diffusion time to is related to the phenomenological break frequency, while the PDS power-law slope above the "break" is determined by the viscosity distribution over the configuration. The perturbation diffusion scenario explains the decay of the power of X-ray variability observed in a number of compact sources (containing black hole and neutron star) during an evolution of theses sources from low/hard to high/soft states. We compare the model predictions with the subset of data from Cyg X-1 collected by the Rossi X-ray Time Explorer (RXTE). Our extensive analysis of the Cyg X-1 PDSs demonstrates that the observed integrated power P(sub x), decreases approximately as a square root of the characteristic frequency of the driving oscillations v(sub dr). The RXTE observations of Cyg X-1 allow us to infer P(sub dr), and t(sub o) as a function of v(sub dr). We also apply the basic parameters of observed PDSs, power-law index and low frequency quasiperiodic oscillations. to infer Reynolds (Re) number from the observations using the method developed in our previous paper. Our analysis shows that Re-number increases from values about 10 in low/hard state to that about 70 during the high/soft state. Subject headings: accretion, accretion disks-black hole physics-stars:individual (Cyg X-1) :radiation mechanisms: nonthermal-physical data and processes

  9. Tomography of X-Ray Binary CYG X-1 Based on the High-Resolution Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karitskaya, E. A.; Agafonov, M. I.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Sharova, O. I.

    2007-08-01

    We used the optical spectra with resolution R=13000 obtained in the course of Cyg~X-1 spectral monitoring over 2003-2004, carried out with the echelle spectrometer of the 2-m telescope of Peak Terskol Observatory (3100 m, Caucasus). The high-precision spectra show clearly the sequence of line profile variations with orbital phases. The Doppler images were reconstructed by an improved Doppler tomography method developed by Agafonov (2004) (radioastronomical approach) on the base of HeII λ4686Å profiles of 2003 ("soft" X-ray state) and of 2004 ("hard" X-ray state). The main features of the reconstruction are: de-convolution in the image space with the introduction of the synthesized beam (equivalent summarized transfer function) and the removal of the distortions on the summarized image (after back projecting) caused by the sidelobes of this beam using CLEAN algorithm. The method is developed specially for a small number of irregularly distributed observations. The Doppler images and Roche lobe model allowed putting a limitation on the black hole to supergiant mass ratio 1/4≤M[X]/M[O]≤1/3. The emission may come from the accretion disk outer regions heated by the hot supergiant emission, from the "hot line" discussed by Kuznetsov et al.(2001), or/and from the accretion stream (focused stellar wind).

  10. Measurement of the masses of the neutron star, Her X-1, and its binary companion, HZ Her, as derived from the study of 1.24-second optical pulsations from the Hz Her - Her X-1 binary system and the x ray-to-optical reprocessing reflection and transmission mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermittent optical pulsations at the 0.1--0.3 percent level have been detected from this binary system in over 500 hours of optical observations. These pulsations are present only for well defined values of the 1.7-day (binary) and 35-day phases. Positions of the pulsation-emitting regions, projected onto the orbital plane, have been measured and three distinct regions have been resolved. A simple model is put forth which accounts for the observed binary behavior, which gives a direct determination of the mass ratio, M/sub HZ Her//M/sub Her X-1/ = 1.69 +- 0.05, and which establishes that the spin of the pulsar is prograde. Additionally it is shown that HZ Her fills its critical Roche lobe. Using the above, the known x ray eclipse duration, and the mass function, the orbital inclination is calculated to be i = 850 +- 50 and the masses to be M/sub Her X-1/ = 1.28 +- 0.08 M/sub solar/ and M/sub HZ Her/ = 2.16 +- 0.07 M/sub solar/. Constraints on the physical parameters of the accretion stream and disk are derived from the data. The nature of the 35-day modulation of the data is discussed in relation to various models

  11. An Extremely Luminous and Variable Ultraluminous X-ray Source in the Outskirts of Circinus Observed with Nustar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Bauer, F.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Madsen, K. K.; Miller, J. M.; Ptak, Andrew Francis; Rana, V.; Webb, N. A.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multiepoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-Newton+NuSTAR follow-up observations. The NuSTAR data presented here represent one of the first instances of a ULX reliably detected at hard (E greater than 10 keV) X-rays. CircinusULX5is variable on long time scales by at least a factor of approx. 5 in flux, and was caught in a historically bright state during our 2013 observations (0.3-30.0 keV luminosity of 1.6 × 10(exp 40) erg s(exp-1)). During this epoch, the source displayed a curved 3-10 keV spectrum, broadly similar to other bright ULXs. Although pure thermal models result in a high energy excess in the NuSTAR data, this excess is too weak to be modeled with the disk reflection interpretation previously proposed to explain the 3-10 keV curvature in other ULXs. In addition to flux variability, clear spectral variability is also observed. While in many cases the interpretation of spectral components in ULXs is uncertain, the spectral and temporal properties of all the high quality data sets currently available strongly support a simple disk-corona model reminiscent of that invoked for Galactic binaries, with the accretion disk becoming more prominent as the luminosity increases. However, although the disk temperature and luminosity are well correlated across all time scales currently probed, the observed luminosity follows L alpha T (exp 1.70+/-0.17), flatter than expected for simple blackbody radiation. The spectral variability displayed here is highly reminiscent of that observed from known Galactic black hole binaries (BHBs) at high luminosities. This comparison implies a black hole mass of approx. 90M for Circinus ULX5. However, given the diverse behavior observed from Galactic BHB accretion disks, this mass

  12. Prospects for experimental research on black holes in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    Cygnus X-1, the single widely accepted example of a black hole in a binary system, is characterized by unusual X-ray properties. The X-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-1 is not cut off above 20 keV, as in most strong X-ray sources. Recent scintillation counter measurements reveal a power law spectrum extending from 40 to 200 keV with a photon spectral index of approximately 2.2. However, it is not clear that these and other X-ray properties of the system are related to the black-hole nature of Cygnus X-1. It is suggested that without a direct test to show that the mass of the compact object in other systems similar to Cygnus X-1 (Circinus X-1 and GX339-4) exceeds the limit of the neutron star mass, a better understanding of the accretion disk phenomenon must be achieved to demonstrate how the properties peculiar to these systems are related to the black hole nature of the compact object. Current accretion disk models are examined, including the alpha-accretion disk and two-temperature accretion disk models.

  13. STAR FORMATION AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF GAS AND DUST IN THE CIRCINUS CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of a study on the Circinus cloud based on 13CO (J = 1 - 0) data as well as visual to near-infrared (JHKS) extinction maps, to investigate the distributions of gas and dust around the cloud. The global 13CO distribution of the Circinus cloud is revealed for the first time, and the total molecular mass of the cloud is estimated to be 2.5 x 104 Msun for the assumed distance 700 pc. Two massive clumps in the cloud, called Circinus-W and Circinus-E, have a mass of ∼5 x 103 Msun. These clumps are associated with a number of young stellar objects (YSOs) searched for in the literature, indicating that they are the most active star-forming sites in Circinus. All of the extinction maps show good agreement with the 13CO distribution. We derived the average N(13CO)/AV ratio in the Circinus cloud to be 1.25 x 1015 cm-2 mag-1 by comparing the extinction maps with the 13CO data. The extinction maps also allowed us to probe into the reddening law over the Circinus cloud. We found that there is a clear change in dust properties in the densest regions of Circinus-W and Circinus-E, possibly due to grain growth in the dense cloud interior. Among the YSOs found in the literature, we attempted to infer the ages and masses of the Hα emission-line stars forming in the two clumps, and found that they are likely to be younger than 1 Myr, having a relatively small mass of ∼sun at the zero-age main sequence.

  14. The spectral and temporal behavior of the variable X-ray binary star Cyg X-1 in the hard region of X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the measurements of the X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 in the energy range 15 to 160 keV in the years 1975, 1976, 1977 are investigated. The measurements are of such a good quality, that a simple power spectrum as the best fit of a model to the data of Cyg X-1 can be excluded because the spectrum breaks off in the range 70-100 keV. The model of Sunyaev and Titarchuk which describes the comptonizing of protons will low energy in a hot plasma is used first time for filling to the Cyg X-1 spectra and it is seen, that the shape of the spectrum is represented in an excellent manner. From the parameters of the best fit to the spectrum from 1977 an electron temperature of 3.4 x 108 K and an optical depth tau = 5 for the plasma in which the photons are scattered are found. (orig./WB)

  15. Discovery of two Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in Circinus

    OpenAIRE

    Roman-Lopes, A.

    2010-01-01

    I report the discovery of two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars in Circinus via detection of their C, N and He Near-Infrared emission lines, using ESO-NTT-SOFI archival data. The H- and K-band spectra of WR67a and WR67b, indicate that they are Wolf-Rayet stars of WN6h and WC8 sub-types, respectively. WR67a presents a weak-lined spectrum probably reminiscent of young hydrogen rich main-sequence stars such as WR25 in Car OB1 and HD97950 in NGC3603. Indeed, this conclusion is reinforced by the close...

  16. The nuclear dust lane of Circinus: collimation without a torus

    CERN Document Server

    Mezcua, M; Fernández-Ontiveros, J A; Tristram, K R W

    2016-01-01

    In some AGN, nuclear dust lanes connected to kpc-scale dust structures provide all the extinction required to obscure the nucleus, challenging the role of the dusty torus proposed by the Unified Model. In this letter we show the pc-scale dust and ionized gas maps of Circinus constructed using sub-arcsec-accuracy registration of infrared VLT AO images with optical \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} images. We find that the collimation of the ionized gas does not require a torus but is caused by the distribution of dust lanes of the host galaxy on $\\sim$10 pc scales. This finding questions the presumed torus morphology and its role at parsec scales, as one of its main attributes is to collimate the nuclear radiation, and is in line with interferometric observations which show that most of the pc-scale dust is in the polar direction. We estimate that the nuclear dust lane in Circinus provides $1/3$ of the extinction required to obscure the nucleus. This constitutes a conservative lower limit to the obscuration at t...

  17. The close environment of high-mass X-ray binaries at high angular resolution I. VLTI/AMBER and VLTI/PIONIER near-infrared interferometric observations of Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet, E; Bouquin, J -B Le; Merand, A; Berger, J -P; Haubois, X; Perrin, G; Petrucci, P -O; Lazareff, B; Pott, J -U

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements on the sensitivity and spectral resolution of X-ray observations have led to a better understanding of the properties of matter in the vicinity of High Mass X-ray Binaries hosting a supergiant star and a compact object. However the geometry and physical properties of their environment at larger scales are currently only predicted by simulations. We aim at exploring the environment of Vela X-1 at a few stellar radii of the supergiant using spatially resolved observations in the near-infrared and at studying its dynamical evolution along the 9-day orbital period of the system. We observed Vela X-1 in 2010 and 2012 using long baseline interferometry at VLTI, respectively with the AMBER instrument in the K band and the PIONIER instrument in the H band. The PIONIER observations span through one orbital period to monitor possible evolutions in the geometry of the system. We resolved a structure of $8\\pm3~R_\\star$ from the AMBER data and $2.0\\,_{-1.2}^{+0.7}~R_\\star$ from the PIONIER data. From t...

  18. Measuring the stellar wind parameters in IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 constrains the accretion physics in Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient and classical Supergiant X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez-Garcia, A; Torrejon, J M; Oskinova, L; Martinez-Nunez, S; Hamann, W -R; Rodes-Roca, J J; Gonzalez-Galan, A; Alonso-Santiago, J; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C; Bernabeu, G; Sander, A

    2016-01-01

    Classical Supergiant X-ray Binaries (SGXBs) and Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are two types of High-mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) that present similar donors but, at the same time, show very different behavior in the X-rays. The reason for this dichotomy of wind-fed HMXBs is still a matter of debate. Among the several explanations that have been proposed, some of them invoke specific stellar wind properties of the donor stars. Only dedicated empiric analysis of the donors' stellar wind can provide the required information to accomplish an adequate test of these theories. However, such analyses are scarce. To close this gap, we perform a comparative analysis of the optical companion in two important systems: IGR J17544-2619 (SFXT) and Vela X-1 (SGXB). We analyse the spectra of each star in detail and derive their stellar and wind properties. We compare the wind parameters, giving us an excellent chance of recognizing key differences between donor winds in SFXTs and SGXBs. We find that the stellar para...

  19. The results of X-ray binary Cyg X-1 investigations based on the optical photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karitskaya, Eugenia A.

    2007-04-01

    Selected results of multi-year optical photometric and high-resolution spectral observations including obtained in the frame of coordinated CIS countries campaign "Optical Monitoring of Unique Astrophysical Objects" are briefly reviewed. Comparison with ASM/RXTE X-ray data is used. Besides of orbital variations different kinds of flares, dips and so-called precession period 147/294 days were revealed. The observational evidences of instability of matter flowing from one component to another have been appeared. Cross-correlation analysis yielded the lags between the optical and X-ray (2-10 keV) long time variations with the delaying of the last ones on 7d in 1996 and 12d in 1997-1998. The very same lags were revealed between the optical and X-ray flares in these years. So the characteristic time of the matter transfer through the accretion disk was about 7 days in Summer and Autumn 1996 and about 12 days in 1997-1998 and alpha-model of accretion disc does not work. Optical spectral line profile variations were found during X-ray flare. The comparison of observed and non-LTE model profiles for HI, HeI and MgII is given taking into account tidal distortion of Cyg X-1 optical component and its illumination by X-ray emission of secondary one. We set limits on the optical component main characteristics T[eff] = 30400±500K, log g = 3.31±0.07 and overabundance of He and Mg: [He/H] = 0.43±0.06 dex, [Mg/H] = 0.75±0.15 dex by using spectra of 2003-2004. The Doppler images were reconstructed by an improved Doppler tomography method on the base of 9 HeIIλ4686Å profiles of 2003 ("soft" X-ray state) and 6 profiles of 2004 ("hard" X-ray state). It allowed putting a limitation on the black hole to supergiant mass ratio 1/4 ≤ M[X]/M[O] ≤ 1/3. The photometric and spectral variations point to the supergiant parameters changes on the time scale of tens of years. Line profile non-LTE simulations lead to the conclusion that the star radius has grown about 1-4% from 1997 to 2003

  20. Measuring the stellar wind parameters in IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 constrains the accretion physics in supergiant fast X-ray transient and classical supergiant X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-García, A.; Shenar, T.; Torrejón, J. M.; Oskinova, L.; Martínez-Núñez, S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Rodes-Roca, J. J.; González-Galán, A.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; González-Fernández, C.; Bernabeu, G.; Sander, A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Classical supergiant X-ray binaries (SGXBs) and supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) are two types of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) that present similar donors but, at the same time, show very different behavior in the X-rays. The reason for this dichotomy of wind-fed HMXBs is still a matter of debate. Among the several explanations that have been proposed, some of them invoke specific stellar wind properties of the donor stars. Only dedicated empiric analysis of the donors' stellar wind can provide the required information to accomplish an adequate test of these theories. However, such analyses are scarce. Aims: To close this gap, we perform a comparative analysis of the optical companion in two important systems: IGR J17544-2619 (SFXT) and Vela X-1 (SGXB). We analyze the spectra of each star in detail and derive their stellar and wind properties. As a next step, we compare the wind parameters, giving us an excellent chance of recognizing key differences between donor winds in SFXTs and SGXBs. Methods: We use archival infrared, optical and ultraviolet observations, and analyze them with the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmosphere code. We derive the physical properties of the stars and their stellar winds, accounting for the influence of X-rays on the stellar winds. Results: We find that the stellar parameters derived from the analysis generally agree well with the spectral types of the two donors: O9I (IGR J17544-2619) and B0.5Iae (Vela X-1). The distance to the sources have been revised and also agree well with the estimations already available in the literature. In IGR J17544-2619 we are able to narrow the uncertainty to d = 3.0 ± 0.2 kpc. From the stellar radius of the donor and its X-ray behavior, the eccentricity of IGR J17544-2619 is constrained to e< 0.25. The derived chemical abundances point to certain mixing during the lifetime of the donors. An important difference between the stellar winds of the

  1. Measuring the stellar wind parameters in IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 constrains the accretion physics in supergiant fast X-ray transient and classical supergiant X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-García, A.; Shenar, T.; Torrejón, J. M.; Oskinova, L.; Martínez-Núñez, S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Rodes-Roca, J. J.; González-Galán, A.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; González-Fernández, C.; Bernabeu, G.; Sander, A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Classical supergiant X-ray binaries (SGXBs) and supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) are two types of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) that present similar donors but, at the same time, show very different behavior in the X-rays. The reason for this dichotomy of wind-fed HMXBs is still a matter of debate. Among the several explanations that have been proposed, some of them invoke specific stellar wind properties of the donor stars. Only dedicated empiric analysis of the donors' stellar wind can provide the required information to accomplish an adequate test of these theories. However, such analyses are scarce. Aims: To close this gap, we perform a comparative analysis of the optical companion in two important systems: IGR J17544-2619 (SFXT) and Vela X-1 (SGXB). We analyze the spectra of each star in detail and derive their stellar and wind properties. As a next step, we compare the wind parameters, giving us an excellent chance of recognizing key differences between donor winds in SFXTs and SGXBs. Methods: We use archival infrared, optical and ultraviolet observations, and analyze them with the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmosphere code. We derive the physical properties of the stars and their stellar winds, accounting for the influence of X-rays on the stellar winds. Results: We find that the stellar parameters derived from the analysis generally agree well with the spectral types of the two donors: O9I (IGR J17544-2619) and B0.5Iae (Vela X-1). The distance to the sources have been revised and also agree well with the estimations already available in the literature. In IGR J17544-2619 we are able to narrow the uncertainty to d = 3.0 ± 0.2 kpc. From the stellar radius of the donor and its X-ray behavior, the eccentricity of IGR J17544-2619 is constrained to ephysically characterize them and their spectra. In addition, the orbital parameters of the systems are similar too, with a nearly circular orbit and short

  2. An extremely luminous and variable ultraluminous x-ray source in the outskirts of circinus observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.;

    2013-01-01

    -Newton+NuSTAR follow-up observations. The NuSTAR data presented here represent one of the first instances of a ULX reliably detected at hard (E > 10 keV) X-rays. Circinus ULX5 is variable on long time scales by at least a factor of similar to 5 in flux, and was caught in a historically bright state during our 2013...... observations (0.3-30.0 keV luminosity of 1.6 x 10(40) erg s(-1)). During this epoch, the source displayed a curved 3-10 keV spectrum, broadly similar to other bright ULXs. Although pure thermal models result in a high energy excess in the NuSTAR data, this excess is too weak to be modeled with the disk...... quality data sets currently available strongly support a simple disk-corona model reminiscent of that invoked for Galactic binaries, with the accretion disk becoming more prominent as the luminosity increases. However, although the disk temperature and luminosity are well correlated across all time scales...

  3. Optical observations of Aql X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guver, Tolga; Ak, Tansel; Gungor, Can; Eksi, Yavuz

    2013-06-01

    Following the recent reports by Meshcheryakov et al. (ATel #5114) and Degenaar & Wijnands (Atel #5117) showing that the X-ray binary Aql X-1 is entering a new outburst, we obtained R and I band images of the field with the 1.0 meter T100 telescope (TUBITAK National Observatory, Antalya - Turkey) on June 12 using an SI 1100 CCD.

  4. Source tracking for Sco X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sco X-1, the brightest low mass x-ray binary, is likely to be a source for gravitational wave emission. In one mechanism, emission of a gravitational wave arrests the increase in spin frequency due to the accretion torque in a low mass x-ray binary. Since the gravitational waveform is unknown, a detection method assuming no a priori knowledge of the signal is preferable. In this paper, we propose to search for a gravitational wave from Sco X-1 using a source tracking method based on a coherent network analysis. In the method, we combine data from several interferometric gravitational wave detectors taking into account the direction to Sco X-1 and reconstruct two polarization waveforms. Then one can do source tracking by reconstructing the waveforms at the location of Sco X-1 in the sky as Sco X-1 is moving. The source tracking method opens up the possibility of searching for a wide variety of signals. We perform Monte Carlo simulations and show results for bursts, modeled, short duration periodic sources using a simple excess power and a matched filter method on the reconstructed signals

  5. Source Tracking for Sco X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Mohanty, Soumya D; Rakhmanov, Malik; Summerscales, Tiffany; Yoshida, Sanichiro

    2008-01-01

    Sco X-1, the brightest low mass X-ray binary, is likely to be a source for gravitational wave emission. In one mechanism, emission of a gravitational wave arrests the increase in spin frequency due to the accretion torque in a low mass X-ray binary. Since the gravitational waveform is unknown, a detection method assuming no apriori knowledge of the signal is preferable. In this paper, we propose to search for a gravitational wave from Sco X-1 using a {{\\it source tracking}} method based on a coherent network analysis. In the method, we combine data from several interferometric gravitational wave detectors taking into account of the direction to Sco X-1, and reconstruct two polarization waveforms at the location of Sco X-1 in the sky as Sco X-1 is moving. The source tracking method opens up the possibility of searching for a wide variety of signals. We perform Monte Carlo simulations and show results for bursts, modeled, short duration periodic sources using a simple excess power and a matched filter method on...

  6. Submillimeter H$_2$O megamasers in NGC 4945 and the Circinus galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pesce, D W; Impellizzeri, C M V

    2016-01-01

    We present 321 GHz observations of five AGN from ALMA Cycle 0 archival data: NGC 5793, NGC 1068, NGC 1386, NGC 4945, and the Circinus galaxy. Submillimeter maser emission is detected for the first time towards NGC 4945, and we present a new analysis of the submillimeter maser system in Circinus. None of the other three galaxies show maser emission, though we have detected and imaged the continuum from every galaxy. Both NGC 4945 and Circinus are known to host strong ($\\gtrsim 10$ Jy) 22 GHz megamaser emission, and VLBI observations have shown that the masers reside in the innermost $\\sim 1$ parsec of the galaxies. The peak flux densities of the 321 GHz masers in both systems are substantially weaker (by a factor of $\\sim$100) than what is observed at 22 GHz, though the corresponding isotropic luminosities are more closely matched (within a factor of $\\sim$10) between the two transitions. We compare the structure of the submillimeter spectra presented here to the known 22 GHz spectra, and we argue that in both...

  7. THE ROTATION PERIOD OF HD-77581 (VELA X-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZUIDERWIJK, EJ

    1995-01-01

    The rotation period of HD 77581, supergiant primary in the X-ray binary Vela X-1, is determined from an analysis of selected absorption line profiles. The rotation rate determined from He I line profiles is 0.67 +/- 0.04 times that of the binary angular velocity, corresponding to a rotation velocity

  8. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy Circinus with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai; Brandt, W. N.; Chartas, G.; Garmire, G. P.; Nousek, John A.; Weaver, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    Results from a 60 ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) observation of the nearby Seyfert 2 Circinus are presented. The spectrum shows a wealth of emission lines at both soft and hard X-rays, including lines of Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, and a prominent Fe K(alpha) line at 6.4 keV. We identify several of the He-like components and measure several of the Lyman lines of the N-like ions. The lines' profiles are unresolved at the limited signal-to-noise ratio of the data. Our analysis of the zeroth-order image in a companion paper constrains the size of the emission region to be 20-60 pc, suggesting that emission within this volume is almost entirely due to the reprocessing of the obscured central source. Here we show that a model containing two distinct components can reproduce almost all the observed properties of this gas. The ionized component can explain the observed intensities of the ionized species, assuming twice-solar composition and an N is proportional r(exp -1.5) density distribution. The neutral component is highly concentrated, well within the 0.8" point source, and is responsible for almost all of the observed K(alpha) (6.4 keV) emission. Circinus seems to be different than Mkn 3 in terms of its gas distribution.

  9. Discovery of GeV emission from the Circinus galaxy with the Fermi large area telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of γ-ray emission from the Circinus galaxy using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Circinus is a nearby (∼4 Mpc) starburst with a heavily obscured Seyfert-type active nucleus, bipolar radio lobes perpendicular to the spiral disk, and kpc-scale jet-like structures. Our analysis of 0.1-100 GeV events collected during 4 yr of LAT observations reveals a significant (≅ 7.3σ) excess above the background. We find no indications of variability or spatial extension beyond the LAT point-spread function. A power-law model used to describe the 0.1-100 GeV γ-ray spectrum yields a flux of (18.8 ± 5.8) × 10–9 photon cm–2 s–1 and photon index 2.19 ± 0.12, corresponding to an isotropic γ-ray luminosity of 3 × 1040 erg s–1. This observed γ-ray luminosity exceeds the luminosity expected from cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium and inverse Compton radiation from the radio lobes. Thus, the origin of the GeV excess requires further investigation.

  10. Accretion and Outflow Traced by Water Masers in the Circinus AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhill, L J; Booth, R S; Ellingsen, S P; McCulloch, P M; Jauncey, D L; Norris, R P; Reynolds, J E; Tzioumis, A K; Herrnstein, J R

    2000-01-01

    The first VLBI images of water maser emission in the Circinus Galaxy AGN show both a warped, edge-on accretion disk and an outflow 0.1 to 1 pc from the central engine. The inferred central mass is 1.3 million suns, while the disk mass may be on the order of 0.1 million suns, based on a nearly Keplerian rotation curve. The bipolar, wide-angle outflow appears to contain ``bullets'' ejected from within <0.1 pc of the central mass. The positions of filaments and bullets observed in the AGN ionization cone on kpc-scales suggest that the disk channels the flow to a radius of about 0.4 pc, at which the flow appears to disrupt the disk.

  11. 12CO 4-3 and [CI] 1-0 at the centers of NGC 4945 and Circinus

    CERN Document Server

    Hitschfeld, M; Kramer, C; Bertoldi, F; Stutzki, J; Bensch, F; Bronfman, L; Cubick, M; Fujishita, M; Fukui, Y; Graf, U U; Honingh, N; Ito, S; Jakob, H; Jacobs, K; Klein, U; Koo, B -C; May, J; Miller, M; Miyamoto, Y; Mizuno, N; Onishi, T; Park, Y -S; Pineda, J L; Rabanus, D; Roellig, M; Sasago, H; Schieder, R; Simon, R; Sun, K; Volgenau, N; Yamamoto, H; Yonekura, Y

    2007-01-01

    Studying molecular gas in the central regions of the star burst galaxies NGC4945 and Circinus enables us to characterize the physical conditions and compare them to previous local and high-z studies. We estimate temperature, molecular density and column densities of CO and atomic carbon. Using model predictions we give a range of estimated CO/C abundance ratios. Using the new NANTEN2 4m sub-millimeter telescope in Pampa La Bola, Chile, we observed for the first time CO 4-3 and [CI] 3P1-3 P0 at the centers of both galaxies at linear scale of 682 pc and 732 pc respectively. We compute the cooling curves of 12CO and 13CO using radiative transfer models and estimate the physical conditions of CO and [CI]. The centers of NGC4945 and Circinus are very [CI] bright objects, exhibiting [CI] 3P1 - 3 P0 luminosities of 91 and 67Kkms-1kpc2, respectively. The [CI] 3P1-3 P0/CO 4-3 ratio of integrated intensities are large at 1.2 in NGC4945 and 2.8 in Circinus. Combining previous CO J= 1-0, 2-1 and 3-2 and 13CO J= 1-0, 2-1 ...

  12. Statistical (3x+1) -- problem

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Yakov

    2002-01-01

    Take an odd number x >0. Then 3x+1 is even and one can find an integer k> 0 so that y= 3x+1/2^k is again odd. We get in this way the mapping T, Tx=y. The paper contains two theorems describing statistical properties of T. The first describes statistical properties of trajectories for large x. The second gives some information about the probability distribution appearing in this problem.

  13. Broadband Spectral Analysis of Aql X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Raichur, H; Dewangan, G

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a broadband spectral study of the transient Low Mass X-ray Binary Aql X-1 observed by Suzaku and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellites. The source was observed during its 2007 outburst in the High/Soft (Banana) state and in the Low/Hard (Extreme Island) state. Both the Banana state and the Extreme Island state spectra are best described by a two component model consisting of a soft multi-colour blackbody emission likely originating from the accretion disk and a harder Comptonized emission from the boundary layer. Evidence for a hard tail (extending to ~50 keV) is found during the Banana state; this further (transient) component, accounting for atleast ~1.5% of the source luminosity, is modeled by a power-law. Aql X-1 is the second Atoll source after GX 13+1 to show a high energy tail. The presence of a weak but broad Fe line provides further support for a standard accretion disk extending nearly to the neutron star surface. The input photons for the Comptonizing boundary layer could...

  14. Discovery of a bow shock around Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Kaper, L; Augusteijn, T; Goudfrooij, P; Patat, N; Zijlstra, A A; Waters, R; Kaper, Lex; Loon, Jacco van; Augusteijn, Thomas; Goudfrooij, Paul; Patat, Nando; Zijlstra, Albert; Waters, Rens

    1996-01-01

    We report the discovery of a symmetric bow shock around the well-known high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) Vela X-1. Wind bow shocks are a ubiquitous phenomenon around OB-runaway stars, but now such a structure is found around a HMXB. The presence of a bow shock indicates that the system has a high (supersonic) velocity with respect to the interstellar medium. From the symmetry of the bow shock, the direction of motion and, moreover, the origin and age of the system can be derived. Our observation supports Blaauw's scenario for the formation of an OB-runaway star by the supernova explosion of the binary companion.

  15. EVN detection of Aql X-1 in outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Miller-Jones, J.; Garrett, M.; Fender, R.; Rushton, A.; Spencer, R.

    2009-11-01

    The X-ray binary Aql X-1 has been in outburst in the last few weeks (ATEL #2288, #2296, #2299, #2302, #2303). We observed the system on 2009 November 19 between 14:30-19:00 UT at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e-VLBI technique. The participating radio telescopes were Effelsberg (1 Gbps), Medicina (896 Mbps), Onsala 25m (1 Gbps), Torun (1 Gbps), Westerbork (1 Gbps), Yebes (896 Mbps), and Cambridge (128 Mbps).

  16. The dusty torus in the Circinus galaxy: a dense disk and the torus funnel

    CERN Document Server

    Tristram, K R W; Jaffe, W; Meisenheimer, K; Hönig, S F; Kishimoto, M; Schartmann, M; Weigelt, G

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) With infrared interferometry it is possible to resolve the nuclear dust distributions that are commonly associated with the dusty torus in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The Circinus galaxy hosts the closest Seyfert 2 nucleus and previous interferometric observations have shown that its nuclear dust emission is well resolved. To better constrain the dust morphology in this active nucleus, extensive new observations were carried out with MIDI at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. The emission is distributed in two distinct components: a disk-like emission component with a size of ~ 0.2 $\\times$ 1.1 pc and an extended component with a size of ~ 0.8 $\\times$ 1.9 pc. The disk-like component is elongated along PA ~ 46{\\deg} and oriented perpendicular to the ionisation cone and outflow. The extended component is elongated along PA ~ 107{\\deg}, roughly perpendicular to the disk component and thus in polar direction. It is interpreted as emission from the inner funnel of an extended dust distribution ...

  17. The Physical Conditions of the X-ray Emission Line Regions in the Circinus Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Sako, M; Paerels, F B S; Liedahl, D A; Sako, Masao; Kahn, Steven M.; Paerels, Frits; Liedahl, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    We present a detailed X-ray spectral analysis of the Circinus Galaxy using archival data obtained with the ASCA satellite. The spectrum shows numerous emission lines in the soft X-ray band from highly ionized ions, as well as Compton reflection and fluorescent lines from neutral or near-neutral matter. We analyze the spectrum in the context of a self-consistent recombination cascade model and find that a nearly flat differential emission measure (DEM) distribution in ionization parameter fits the data. For a fixed solid angle distribution of matter surrounding a point source, this corresponds to a run of electron density of the form, n(r) ~ r^(-3/2), which is suggestive of Bondi accretion onto a central compact mass. Using this density profile and comparing the resulting emission spectra with the ASCA data, the size of the X-ray emission line region is estimated to be < 1 kpc. We also show that the derived density as a function of radius is compatible with the X-ray recombination line emission region being...

  18. A Warped Accretion Disk and Wide Angle Outflow in the Inner Parsec of the Circinus Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhill, L J; Ellingsen, S P; Herrnstein, J R; Jauncey, D L; McCulloch, P M; Moran, J M; Norris, R P; Reynolds, J E; Tzioumis, A K

    2003-01-01

    We present the first VLBI maps of H2O maser emission (lambda 1.3cm) in the nucleus of the Circinus Galaxy, constructed from data obtained with the Australia Telescope Long Baseline Array. The maser emission traces a warped, edge-on accretion disk between radii of 0.11+/-0.02 and ~0.40 pc, as well as a wide-angle outflow that extends up to ~1 pc from the estimated disk center. The disk rotation is close to Keplerian (v varies as 1/sqrt(r)), the maximum detected rotation speed is 260 km/s, and the inferred central mass is 1.7+/-0.3 x 10^6 solar masses. The outflowing masers are irregularly distributed above and below the disk, with relative outflow velocities up to ~+/-160 km/s, projected along the line of sight. The flow probably originates closer than 0.1 pc to the central engine, possibly in an inward extension of the accretion disk, though there is only weak evidence of rotation in the outward moving material. We observe that the warp of the disk appears to collimate the outflow and to fix the extent of the...

  19. The roAp star α Circinus as seen by BRITE-Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. W.; Fröhlich, H.-E.; Pigulski, A.; Popowicz, A.; Huber, D.; Kuschnig, R.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Matthews, J. M.; Saio, H.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Grant, C. C.; Koudelka, O.; Lüftinger, T.; Rucinski, S. M.; Wade, G. A.; Alves, J.; Guedel, M.; Handler, G.; Mochnacki, St.; Orleanski, P.; Pablo, B.; Pamyatnykh, A.; Ramiaramanantsoa, T.; Rowe, J.; Whittaker, G.; Zawistowski, T.; Zocłońska, E.; Zwintz, K.

    2016-04-01

    & Technology (FNiTP MNiSW), and National Centre for Science (NCN).The light curves and the reduced data for α Circinus are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A54 Member of the BRITE Executive Science Team (BEST).Member of the Photometry Tiger Team (PHOTT).

  20. SMC X-1 variability observed from HEAO 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, D. E.; Rothschild, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are reported of the slow variability of SMC X-1 and its spectrum. An analysis of red-noise random variability is based on a method discussed by Deeter and Boynton (1982). The 0.7 s X-ray pulsar SMC X-1 is in a 3.89 day eclipsing binary system with a B0 I supergiant companion. Observations of the pulsar were conducted with the aid of the UCSD/MIT instrument on HEAO 1 from 1977 August through 1979 January. A light curve was constructed for the period 1977 September to 1978 December. The apparent tendency of SMC X-1 to be in one of two states, high or low, suggests the acquisition of average spectra separately for each state. The total (steady plus pulsed) emission from SMC X-1 displays a continuum spectrum with a dominant exponential form which implies a temperature of 17 keV for thin thermal bremsstrahlung emission or 5 keV if the other limit of a Wien spectrum is assumed.

  1. Radio non-detection of Aql X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Altamirano, D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Garrett, M.; Fender, R.; Rushton, A.; Spencer, R.; Maitra, D.

    2010-10-01

    The neutron star X-ray binary Aql X-1 is on the decaying phase of a major outburst that peaked at optical and X-ray bands in mid-September (ATEL #2850, #2871, #2891, #2902). We observed the object at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in the e-VLBI mode on 2010 October 4th between 18:20-22:09 UT. The participating stations were Cambridge, Effelsberg, Jodrell Bank (MkII), Hartebeesthoek, Medicina, Onsala, Torun, Westerbork and Yebes.

  2. Optical studies of massive X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photometric and spectroscopic studies of several optical counterparts of massive X-ray binaries are presented. Subjects of study were the binary systems:HD77581/4U0900-40 (Vela X-1), HD153919/4U1700-37, Wray 977/4U1223-62 and Sk160/4U0115-74 (=SMC X-1). (Auth.)

  3. X-1A in flight over lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1A (48-1384) returning from an Air Force test flight over Edwards Air Force Base, California in late 1953. A North American F-86A Sabre as chase plane will follow the X-1A to touchdown. The Rogers Dry Lake is the whitish area under the planes with the airfield at the edge of the dry lake. Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler made six flights between 14 February and 25 April 1953. Air Force test pilots Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager and Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray made 18 test flights between 21 November 1953 and 26 August 1954. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made one successful flight on 20 July 1955. During a second flight attempt, on 8 August 1955, an explosion damaged the aircraft shortly before launch. Walker, unhurt, climbed up into the JTB-29A mothership, and the X-1A was jettisoned over the Edwards AFB bombing range. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system

  4. 华为荣耀X1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    华为荣耀X1拥有7英寸1920×1200像素LTPS全贴合屏幕。为了更好地与手机身份相符,X1不仅加入超窄边框设计,使屏占比达到了80%,更是将机身厚度压缩至7.18mm。当然了,即便双管齐下,荣耀X1仍然不是单手控用户的菜。

  5. Calibration Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    2011-09-01

    Two Excel Spreadsheet files are offered to help calibrate telescope or camera image scale and orientation with binary stars for any time. One is a personally selected list of fixed position binaries and binaries with well-determined orbits, and the other contains all binaries with published orbits. Both are derived from the web site of the Washington Double Star Library. The spreadsheets give the position angle and separation of the binaries for any entered time by taking advantage of Excel's built in iteration function to solve Kepler's transcendental equation.

  6. Energy-Dependent Orbital Phases in NGC 300 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, Breanna; Williams, Benjamin F; Simons, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    NGC~300 X-1 is a Wolf Rayet + black hole binary that exhibits periodic decreases in X-ray flux. We present two new observations of NGC~300 X-1 from the Chandra X-ray Observatory (totaling $\\sim$130 ks) along with ACS imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We observe significant short-term variability in the X-ray emission that is inconsistent with an occultation by the donor star, but is consistent with structure in the outer accretion disk or the wind of the donor star. We simultaneously fit a partially-covered disk blackbody and Comptonized corona model to the eclipse egress and non-eclipsing portions of the X-ray spectrum. We find that the only model parameters that varied between the eclipse egress and non-eclipsing portions of the spectra were the partial covering fraction ($\\sim$86% during eclipse egress and $\\sim$44% during non-eclipse) and absorbing column ($\\sim$12.3$\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ during eclipse egress, compared to $\\sim$1.4$\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ during non-eclipse). The X-ray sp...

  7. Shell-Shocked: The Interstellar Medium Near Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Sell, P H; Richards, E; Maccarone, T J; Russell, D M; Gallo, E; Fender, R; Markoff, S; Nowak, M

    2014-01-01

    We conduct a detailed case-study of the interstellar shell near the high-mass X-ray binary, Cygnus X-1. We present new WIYN optical spectroscopic and Chandra X-ray observations of this region, which we compare with detailed MAPPINGS III shock models, to investigate the outflow powering the shell. Our analysis places improved, physically motivated constraints on the nature of the shockwave and the interstellar medium (ISM) it is plowing through. We find that the shock is traveling at less than a few hundred km/s through a low-density ISM (< 5 cm^-3). We calculate a robust, 3 sigma upper limit to the total, time-averaged power needed to drive the shockwave and inflate the bubble, < 2 x 10^38 erg/s. We then review possible origins of the shockwave. We find that a supernova origin to the shockwave is unlikely and that the black hole jet and/or O-star wind can both be central drivers of the shockwave. We conclude that the source of the Cygnus X-1 shockwave is far from solved.

  8. Cray X1 Evaluation Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, J.S.

    2004-02-09

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science The Cray X1 is an attempt to incorporate the best aspects of previous Cray vector systems and massively-parallel-processing (MPP) systems into one design. Like the Cray T90, the X1 has high memory bandwidth, which is key to realizing a high percentage of theoretical peak performance. Like the Cray T3E, the X1 has a high-bandwidth, low-latency, scalable interconnect, and scalable system software. And, like the Cray SV1, the X1 leverages commodity off-the-shelf (CMOS) technology and incorporates non-traditional vector concepts, like vector caches and multi-streaming processors. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel benchmarks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation.

  9. SUPERORBITAL PHASE-RESOLVED ANALYSIS OF SMC X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao, E-mail: m929011@astro.ncu.edu.tw, E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-10

    The high-mass X-ray binary SMC X-1 is an eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 3.89 days. This system exhibits a superorbital modulation with a period varying between {approx}40 days and {approx}65 days. The instantaneous frequency and the corresponding phase of the superorbital modulation can be obtained by a recently developed time-frequency analysis technique, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). We present a phase-resolved analysis of both the spectra and the orbital profiles with the superorbital phase derived from the HHT. The X-ray spectra observed by the Proportional Counter Array on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer are fitted well by a blackbody plus a Comptonized component. The plasma optical depth, which is a good indicator of the distribution of material along the line of sight, is significantly anti-correlated with the flux detected at 2.5-25 keV. However, the relationship between the plasma optical depth and the equivalent width of the iron line is not monotonic. There is no significant correlation for fluxes higher than {approx}35 mCrab but clear positive correlation when the intensity is lower than {approx}20 mCrab. This indicates that the iron line production is dominated by different regions of this binary system in different superorbital phases. To study the dependence of the orbital profile on the superorbital phase, we obtained the eclipse profiles by folding the All Sky Monitor light curve with the orbital period for different superorbital states. A dip feature, similar to the pre-eclipse dip in Her X-1, lying at orbital phase {approx}0.6-0.85, was discovered during the superorbital transition state. This indicates that the accretion disk has a bulge that absorbs considerable X-ray emission in the stream-disk interaction region. The dip width is anti-correlated with the flux, and this relation can be interpreted by the precessing tilted accretion disk scenario.

  10. The Reflection Component from Cygnus X-1 in the Soft State Measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomsick, John A.; Nowak, Michael A.; Parker, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late-2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ~1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power-law, and reflection components along wit...... most recently reported binary values for Cyg X-1. This may indicate that there is a >13 degree misalignment between the orbital plane and the inner accretion disk (i.e., a warped accretion disk) or that there is missing physics in the spectral models....

  11. NACA Aircraft on Lakebed - D-558-2, X-1B, and X-1E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    Early NACA research aircraft on the lakebed at the High Speed Research Station in 1955: Left to right: X-1E, D-558-2, X-1B There were four versions of the original Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E. The modifications included adding a conventional canopy, an ejection seat, a low-pressure fuel system

  12. Spectroastrometry of rotating gas disks for the detection of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. III. CRIRES observations of the Circinus galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Gnerucci, A; Capetti, A; Axon, D J; Robinson, A

    2012-01-01

    We present new CRIRES spectroscopic observations of BrGamma in the nuclear region of the Circinus galaxy, obtained with the aim of measuring the black hole (BH) mass with the spectroastrometric technique. The Circinus galaxy is an ideal benchmark for the spectroastrometric technique given its proximity and secure BH measurement obtained with the observation of its nuclear H2O maser disk. The kinematical data have been analyzed both with the classical method based on the analysis of the rotation curves and with the new method developed by us and based on spectroastrometry. The classical method indicates that the gas disk rotates in the gravitational potential of an extended stellar mass distribution and a spatially unresolved mass of (1.7 +- 0.2) 10^7 Msun, concentrated within r < 7 pc. The new method is capable of probing gas rotation at scales which are a factor ~3.5 smaller than those probed by the rotation curve analysis. The dynamical mass spatially unresolved with the spectroastrometric method is a fa...

  13. K2 and MAXI observations of Sco X-1 - Evidence for disc precession?

    CERN Document Server

    Hakala, Pasi; Barclay, Thomas; Charles, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Sco X-1 is the archetypal low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) and the brightest persistent extra-solar X-ray source in the sky. It was included in the K2 Campaign 2 field and was observed continuously for 71 days with 1 minute time resolution. In this paper we report these results and underline the potential of K2 for similar observations of other accreting compact binaries. We reconfirm that Sco X-1 shows a bimodal distribution of optical "high" and "low" states and rapid transitions between them on timescales less than 3 hours (or 0.15 orbits). We also find evidence that this behaviour has a typical systemic timescale of 4.8 days, which we interpret as a possible disc precession period in the system. Finally, we confirm the complex optical vs. X-ray correlation/anticorrelation behaviour for "high" and "low" optical states respectively.

  14. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  15. Multiband Echo Tomography of Sco X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Mu~noz-Darias, T; Casares, J; Marsh, T R; Cornelisse, R; Steeghs, D; Dhillon, V S; Charles, P A

    2005-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a simultaneous X-ray/optical campaign of the prototypical LMXB Sco X-1 at 1-10 Hz time resolution. Lightcurves of the high excitation Bowen/HeII emission lines and a red continuum at lambda ~ 6000 Ang were obtained through narrow interference filters with ULTRACAM, and these were cross-correlated with simultaneous RXTE X-ray lightcurves. We find evidence for correlated variability, in particular when Sco X-1 enters the Flaring Branch. The Bowen/HeII lightcurves lag the X-ray lightcurves with a light travel time which is consistent with reprocessing in the companion star while the continuum lightcurves have shorter delays consistent with reprocessing in the accretion disc

  16. The donor of Aquila X-1 revealed by high angular resolution near-infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, D Mata; Casares, J; Jiménez-Ibarra, F

    2016-01-01

    The low mass X-ray binary Aquila X-1 is one of the most active neutron star X-ray transients. Despite it has a relatively bright quiescent optical counterpart, the detection of its companion has been hampered by the presence of a nearby interloper star. Using the infrared integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the VLT-8.2m telescope, we unambiguously single out Aquila X-1 from the interloper. Phase-resolved near infrared spectroscopy reveals absorption features from a K4 +- 2 companion star moving at a projected velocity of K_2= 139 +- 4 km/s. We here present the first dynamical solution and associated fundamental parameters of Aquila X-1, imposing new constraints to the orbital inclination (36 deg < i < 49 deg) and the distance (d = 6 +- 2 kpc) to this prototypical neutron star transient.

  17. 10 microsecond time resolution studies of Cygnus X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, H.C.

    1997-06-01

    Time variability analyses have been applied to data composed of event times of X-rays emitted from the binary system Cygnus X-1 to search for unique black hole signatures. The X-ray data analyzed was collected at ten microsecond time resolution or better from two instruments, the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory (HEAO) A-1 detector and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA). HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA collected data from 1977--79 and from 1996 on with energy sensitivity from 1--25 keV and 2--60 keV, respectively. Variability characteristics predicted by various models of an accretion disk around a black hole have been searched for in the data. Drop-offs or quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the Fourier power spectra are expected from some of these models. The Fourier spectral technique was applied to the HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA data with careful consideration given for correcting the Poisson noise floor for instrumental effects. Evidence for a drop-off may be interpreted from the faster fall off in variability at frequencies greater than the observed breaks. Both breaks occur within the range of Keplerian frequencies associated with the inner edge radii of advection-dominated accretion disks predicted for Cyg X-1. The break between 10--20 Hz is also near the sharp rollover predicted by Nowak and Wagoner`s model of accretion disk turbulence. No QPOs were observed in the data for quality factors Q > 9 with a 95% confidence level upper limit for the fractional rms amplitude at 1.2% for a 16 M{sub {circle_dot}} black hole.

  18. Detection of a bright radio flare of Cygnus X-1 at 7.2 GHz with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Bachetti, M.; Navarrini, A.; Trois, A.; Pilia, M.; Iacolina, M. N.; Melis, A.; Concu, R.; Loru, S.; Sessini, A.; Grinberg, V.; Nowak, M.; Markoff, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Wilms, J.; Ballhausen, R.; Corbel, S.; Eikmann, W.; Fuerst, F.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Marongiu, M.; Possenti, A.

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of radio monitoring of NS/BH Galactic Binaries with Sardinia Radio Telescope (www.srt.inaf.it) during SRT Early Science Program S0013 (PI Egron), we detected Cyg X-1 in C-band through on-the-fly mapping centered on the source position (see also Atels #8921, #8849, #8821).

  19. Gravitational waves from Sco X-1: A comparison of search methods and prospects for detection with advanced detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, C; Crowder, S G; Dergachev, V; Galloway, D K; Goetz, E; Jonker, R J G; Lasky, P D; Meadors, G D; Melatos, A; Premachandra, S; Riles, K; Sammut, L; Thrane, E H; Whelan, J T; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) is potentially the most luminous source of continuous gravitational-wave radiation for interferometers such as LIGO and Virgo. For low-mass X-ray binaries this radiation would be sustained by active accretion of matter from its binary companion. With the Advanced Detector Era fast approaching, work is underway to develop an array of robust tools for maximizing the science and detection potential of Sco X-1. We describe the plans and progress of a project designed to compare the numerous independent search algorithms currently available. We employ a mock-data challenge in which the search pipelines are tested for their relative proficiencies in parameter estimation, computational efficiency, robust- ness, and most importantly, search sensitivity. The mock-data challenge data contains an ensemble of 50 Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) type signals, simulated within a frequency band of 50-1500 Hz. Simulated detector noise was generated assuming the expected best strain sens...

  20. Spectroastrometry of rotating gas disks for the detection of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. III. CRIRES observations of the Circinus galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnerucci, A.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present new CRIRES spectroscopic observations of the Brγ emission line in the nuclear region of the Circinus galaxy, obtained with the aim of measuring the black hole (BH) mass with the spectroastrometric technique. The Circinus galaxy is an ideal benchmark for the spectroastrometric technique given its proximity and secure BH measurement obtained with the observation of its nuclear H2O maser disk. The kinematical data have been analyzed both with the classical method based on the analysis of the rotation curves and with the new method developed by us that is based on spectroastrometry. The classical method indicates that the gas disk rotates in a gravitational potential resulting from an extended stellar mass distribution and a spatially unresolved dynamical mass of (1.7 ± 0.2) × 107 M⊙, concentrated within r observations. The new method is capable of probing the gas rotation at scales that are a factor ~3.5 smaller than those probed by the rotation curve analysis, highlighting the potential of spectroastrometry. The dynamical mass, which is spatially unresolved with the spectroastrometric method, is a factor ~2 smaller, 7.9+1.4-1.1 × 106M⊙, indicating that spectroastrometry has been able to spatially resolve the nuclear mass distribution down to 2 pc scales. This unresolved mass is still a factor ~4.5 larger than the BH mass measurement obtained with the H2O maser emission, indicating that even with spectroastrometry, it has not been possible to resolve the sphere of influence of the BH. Based on literature data, this spatially unresolved dynamical mass distribution is likely dominated by warm molecular gas and has been tentatively identified with the circum-nuclear torus that prevents a direct view of the central BH in Circinus. This mass distribution, with a size of ~2 pc, is similar in shape to that of the star cluster of the Milky Way, suggesting that a molecular torus, forming stars at a high rate, might be the earlier evolutionary stage of the

  1. ORNL Cray X1 evaluation status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, P.K.; Alexander, R.A.; Apra, E.; Balay, S.; Bland, A.S; Colgan, J.; D' Azevedo, E.F.; Dongarra, J.J.; Dunigan Jr., T.H.; Fahey, M.R.; Fahey, R.A.; Geist, A.; Gordon, M.; Harrison, R.J.; Kaushik, D.; Krishnakumar, M.; Luszczek, P.; Mezzacappa, A.; Nichols, J.A.; Nieplocha, J.; Oliker, L.; Packwood, T.; Pindzola, M.S.; Schulthess, T.C.; Vetter, J.S.; White III, J.B.; Windus, T.L.; Worley, P.H.; Zacharia, T.

    2004-05-01

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel bench marks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation. Application performance is found to be markedly improved by this architecture: - Large-scale simulations of high-temperature superconductors run 25 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Best performance of the parallel ocean program (POP v1.4.3) is 50 percent higher than on Japan s Earth Simulator and 5 times higher than on an IBM Power4 cluster. - A fusion application, global GYRO transport, was found to be 16 times faster on the X1 than on an IBM Power3. The increased performance allowed simulations to fully resolve questions raised by a prior study. - The transport kernel in the AGILE-BOLTZTRAN astrophysics code runs 15 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Molecular dynamics simulations

  2. ORNL Cray X1 evaluation status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel bench marks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation. Application performance is found to be markedly improved by this architecture: - Large-scale simulations of high-temperature superconductors run 25 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Best performance of the parallel ocean program (POP v1.4.3) is 50 percent higher than on Japan s Earth Simulator and 5 times higher than on an IBM Power4 cluster. - A fusion application, global GYRO transport, was found to be 16 times faster on the X1 than on an IBM Power3. The increased performance allowed simulations to fully resolve questions raised by a prior study. - The transport kernel in the AGILE-BOLTZTRAN astrophysics code runs 15 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Molecular dynamics simulations related to the phenomenon of

  3. Serpens X-1 observed by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masetti, N.; Foschini, L.; Palazzi, E.; Beckmann, V.; Lund, Niels; Brandt, Søren Kristian; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Amati, L.; Caroli, E.; Del Sordo, S.; Di Cocco, G.; Durouchoux, P.; Farinelli, R.; Frontera, F.; Orlandini, M.; Zdziarski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Here we report results of an INTEGRAL-AO1 observation of the X-ray burst and atoll source Ser X-1 performed in May 2003. The object was observed for a total on-source time of 400 ks but nearly 8degrees off-axis due to its amalgamation with an observation of SS 433, the pointing target source. Ser X...... soft spectrum during the INTEGRAL pointing. A (non simultaneous) radio-to-gamma-rays broad-band spectral energy distribution is also presented for the first time and discussed....

  4. X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome systems in the Neotropical Gymnotiformes electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Lima Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes.

  5. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL;

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increas...

  6. Long-term change in the cyclotron line energy in Her X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubert, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution in the centroid energy of the Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) in the spectrum of the binary X-ray pulsar Her X-1. After the discovery in 1976 by the MPE/AIT balloon telescope HEXE, the line feature was confirmed by several other instruments, establishing the centroid energy at around 35 keV, thereby providing the first direct measure of the B-filed strength of a neutron star at a few 10^12 Gauss. Between 1991 and 1993 an upward jump by ~7 keV occurred, first noted by BATSE and soon confirmed by RXTE and Beppo/SAX. Since then a systematic effort to monitor the cyclotron line energy E_cyc with all available instruments has led to two further discoveries: 1) E_cyc correlates positively with the X-ray luminosity (this feature is now found in four more binary X-ray pulsars). 2) Over the last 20 years the (flux normalized) E_cyc in Her X-1 has decayed by ~5 keV, down to 36.5 keV in August 2015. Her X-1 is the first and so far the only source showing such a variation. We will discuss possible physical scenarios relevant for accretion mounds/columns on highly magnetized neutron stars.

  7. Understanding compact object formation and natal kicks. IV. The case of IC 10 X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Valsecchi, Francesca; Ansari, Asna; Kalogera, Vassiliki [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Fragos, Tassos; McClintock, Jeffrey [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Glebbeek, Evert, E-mail: tsingwong2012@u.northwestern.edu, E-mail: francesca@u.northwestern.edu, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu, E-mail: tfragos@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jem@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: ansari@ldeo.columbia.edu, E-mail: e.glebbeek@astro.ru.nl [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-08-01

    The extragalactic X-ray binary IC 10 X-1 has attracted attention as it is possibly the host of the most massive stellar-mass black-hole (BH) known to date. Here we consider all available observational constraints and construct its evolutionary history up to the instant just before the formation of the BH. Our analysis accounts for the simplest possible history, which includes three evolutionary phases: binary orbital dynamics at core collapse, common envelope (CE) evolution, and evolution of the BH-helium star binary progenitor of the observed system. We derive the complete set of constraints on the progenitor system at various evolutionary stages. Specifically, right before the core collapse event, we find the mass of the BH immediate progenitor to be ≳ 31 M{sub ☉} (at 95% of confidence, same hereafter). The magnitude of the natal kick imparted to the BH is constrained to be ≲ 130 km s{sup –1}. Furthermore, we find that the 'enthalpy' formalism recently suggested by Ivanova and Chaichenets is able to explain the existence of IC 10 X-1 without the need to invoke unreasonably high CE efficiencies. With this physically motivated formalism, we find that the CE efficiency required to explain the system is in the range of ≅ 0.6-1.

  8. Binary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  9. Gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1: A comparison of search methods and prospects for detection with advanced detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, C.; Bulten, H. J.; Crowder, S. G.; Dergachev, V.; Galloway, D. K.; Goetz, E.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Lasky, P. D.; Meadors, G. D.; Melatos, A.; Premachandra, S.; Riles, K.; Sammut, L.; Thrane, E. H.; Whelan, J. T.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) is potentially the most luminous source of continuous gravitational-wave radiation for interferometers such as LIGO and Virgo. For low-mass X-ray binaries this radiation would be sustained by active accretion of matter from its binary companion. With the Advanced Detector Era fast approaching, work is underway to develop an array of robust tools for maximizing the science and detection potential of Sco X-1. We describe the plans and progress of a project designed to compare the numerous independent search algorithms currently available. We employ a mock-data challenge in which the search pipelines are tested for their relative proficiencies in parameter estimation, computational efficiency, robustness, and most importantly, search sensitivity. The mock-data challenge data contains an ensemble of 50 Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) type signals, simulated within a frequency band of 50-1500 Hz. Simulated detector noise was generated assuming the expected best strain sensitivity of Advanced LIGO [1] and Advanced VIRGO [2] (4 ×10-24 Hz-1 /2 ). A distribution of signal amplitudes was then chosen so as to allow a useful comparison of search methodologies. A factor of 2 in strain separates the quietest detected signal, at 6.8 ×10-26 strain, from the torque-balance limit at a spin frequency of 300 Hz, although this limit could range from 1.2 ×10-25 (25 Hz) to 2.2 ×10-26 (750 Hz) depending on the unknown frequency of Sco X-1. With future improvements to the search algorithms and using advanced detector data, our expectations for probing below the theoretical torque-balance strain limit are optimistic.

  10. e-EVN radio detection of Aql X-1 in outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Yang, J.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M.; Rushton, A.; Spencer, R.

    2013-06-01

    The neutron star X-ray binary Aql X-1 is currently in outburst (ATel #5114, #5117, #5129, #5136, #5148). Using the European VLBI Network (e-EVN) we observed Aql X-1 at 5 GHz in two time-slots: 2013 June 18 between 19:48 - 20:36 UT (MJD 56461.825 - 56461.858), and 2013 June 19 between 02:53 - 05:54 UT (MJD 56462.120 - 56462.246). The two datasets were combined together and then calibrated. The participating radio telescopes were: Effelsberg (Germany), Jodrell Bank Mk2 (UK), Medicina (Italy), Noto (Italy), Onsala 25m (Sweden), Torun (Poland), Yebes (Spain), Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (Netherlands), Shanghai (China), Hartebeesthoek (South Africa).

  11. THE HARD X-RAY BEHAVIOR OF AQL X-1 DURING TYPE-I BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of an anti-correlation between the soft and hard X-ray light curves of the X-ray binary Aql X-1 when bursting. This behavior may indicate that the corona is cooled by the soft X-ray shower fed by the type-I X-ray bursts, and that this process happens within a few seconds. Stacking the Aql X-1 light curves of type-I bursts, we find a shortage in the 40-50 keV band, delayed by 4.5 ± 1.4 s with respect to the soft X-rays. The photospheric radius expansion bursts are different in that neither a shortage nor an excess shows up in the hard X-ray light curve

  12. The Photoionized Accretion Disk in Her X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L.; Schulz, N.; Nowak, M.; Marshall, H. L.; Kallman, T.

    2009-08-01

    We present an analysis of several high-resolution Chandra grating observations of the X-ray binary pulsar Her X-1. With a total exposure of 170 ks, the observations are separated by years and cover three combinations of orbital and superorbital phases. Our goal is to determine distinct properties of the photoionized emission and its dependence on phase-dependent variations of the continuum. We find that the continua can be described by a partial covering model which above 2 keV is consistent with recent results from Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer studies and at low energies is consistent with recent XMM-Newton and BeppoSAX studies. Besides a power law with fixed index, an additional thermal blackbody of 114 eV is required to fit wavelengths above 12 Å (~1 keV). We find that likely all the variability is caused by highly variable absorption columns in the range (1-3) × 1023 cm-2. Strong Fe K line fluorescence in almost all observations reveals that dense, cool material is present not only in the outer regions of the disk but interspersed throughout the disk. Most spectra show strong line emission stemming from a photoionized accretion disk corona (ADC). We model the line emission with generic thermal plasma models as well as with the photoionization code XSTAR and investigate changes of the ionization balance with orbital and superorbital phases. Most accretion disk coronal properties such as disk radii, temperatures, and plasma densities are consistent with previous findings for the low state. We find that these properties change negligibly with respect to orbital and superorbital phases. A couple of the higher energy lines exhibit emissivities that are significantly in excess of expectations from a static ADC.

  13. THE PHOTOIONIZED ACCRETION DISK IN HER X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of several high-resolution Chandra grating observations of the X-ray binary pulsar Her X-1. With a total exposure of 170 ks, the observations are separated by years and cover three combinations of orbital and superorbital phases. Our goal is to determine distinct properties of the photoionized emission and its dependence on phase-dependent variations of the continuum. We find that the continua can be described by a partial covering model which above 2 keV is consistent with recent results from Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer studies and at low energies is consistent with recent XMM-Newton and BeppoSAX studies. Besides a power law with fixed index, an additional thermal blackbody of 114 eV is required to fit wavelengths above 12 A (∼1 keV). We find that likely all the variability is caused by highly variable absorption columns in the range (1-3) x 1023 cm-2. Strong Fe K line fluorescence in almost all observations reveals that dense, cool material is present not only in the outer regions of the disk but interspersed throughout the disk. Most spectra show strong line emission stemming from a photoionized accretion disk corona (ADC). We model the line emission with generic thermal plasma models as well as with the photoionization code XSTAR and investigate changes of the ionization balance with orbital and superorbital phases. Most accretion disk coronal properties such as disk radii, temperatures, and plasma densities are consistent with previous findings for the low state. We find that these properties change negligibly with respect to orbital and superorbital phases. A couple of the higher energy lines exhibit emissivities that are significantly in excess of expectations from a static ADC.

  14. GBM Monitoring of Cyg X-1 During the Recent State Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Case, G L; Cherry, M L; Camero-Arranz, A; Finger, M; Jenke, P; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Chaplin, V

    2011-01-01

    Cygnus X-1 is a high-mass x-ray binary with a black hole compact object. It is normally extremely bright in hard x-rays and low energy gamma rays and resides in the canonical hard spectral state. Recently, however, Cyg X-1 made a transition to the canonical soft state, with a rise in the soft x-ray flux and a decrease in the flux in the hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray energy bands. We have been using the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor on Fermi to monitor the fluxes of a number of sources in the 8--1000 keV energy range, including Cyg X-1. We present light curves of Cyg X-1 showing the flux decrease in hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray energy bands during the state transition as well as the several long flares observed in these higher energies during the soft state. We also present preliminary spectra from GBM for the pre-transition state, showing the spectral evolution to the soft state, and the post-transition state.

  15. Low frequency QPOs and Variable Broad Iron line from LMC X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, G.; Alam, S.; Belloni, T.; Mukherjee, D.; Jhingan, S.

    2014-07-01

    We have performed temporal and energy spectral study of the persistent black hole X-ray binary LMC X-1 using XMM-Newton, Suzaku and RXTE observations. We report the discovery of low frequency (26-56 mHz) QPOs and variable broad iron line from LMC X-1. The QPOs are generally weak with rms amplitudes in the 1-6% range and coherence (quality factor Q˜2-10). The QPOs are accompanied by weak red-noise with rms variability in the 1.3-4% level. The energy spectra of LMC X-1 consist of three components - multicolor disk blackbody (kT˜0.7-0.9 keV), high energy power law tail (photon index ˜2.4-3.3), and broad iron line at 6.4-6.9 keV. The QPOs were detected only in the presence of a strong powerlaw component. The strong broad and relativistic iron line was observed in the presence of both the strong powerlaw and an accretion disk extending to the innermost regions. The iron line is found to be weaker when the disk is truncated and absent when the powerlaw component almost vanished. Our results imply that LMC X-1 does not always remain in the canonical soft state but also transits to the soft intermediate or the steep powerlaw state.

  16. Five Years in the Life of Cygnus X-1: BATSE Long-Term Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Paciesas, W; Robinson, C.R.; McCollough, M. L.; Zhang, S. N.; Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C A

    1997-01-01

    The hard X-ray emission from Cygnus X-1 has been monitored continually by BATSE since the launch of CGRO in April 1991. We present the hard X-ray intensity and spectral history of the source covering a period of more than five years. Power spectral analysis shows a significant peak at the binary orbital period. The 20-100 keV orbital light curve is roughly sinusoidal with a minimum near superior conjunction of the X-ray source and an rms modulation fraction of approximately 1.7%. No longer-te...

  17. A directed search for gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 with initial LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.

    2014-01-01

    19 pages, 8 figures International audience We present results of a search for continuously-emitted gravitational radiation, directed at the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1. Our semi-coherent analysis covers 10 days of LIGO S5 data ranging from 50-550 Hz, and performs an incoherent sum of coherent $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic power distributed amongst frequency-modulated orbital sidebands. All candidates not removed at the veto stage were found to be consistent with noise at a 1...

  18. Stellar wind variations during the X-ray high and low states of Cygnus X-1

    OpenAIRE

    Gies, D.R.; Bolton, C. T.; Blake, R. M.; Caballero-Nieves, S. M.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Hadrava, P.; Herrero, A; Hillwig, T. C.; Howell, S. B.; W. Huang; Kaper, L.; Koubsky, P.; McSwain, M. V.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from Hubble Space Telescope UV spectroscopy of the massive X-ray binary system, HD226868 = Cyg X-1. The spectra were obtained at both orbital conjunction phases in two separate runs in 2002 and 2003 when the system was in the X-ray high/soft state. The stellar wind lines suffer large reductions in strength when the black hole is in the foreground due to the X-ray ionization of the wind ions. A comparison of HST and archival IUE spectra shows that similar photoionization eff...

  19. On the formation of SMC X-1: The effect of mass and orbital angular momentum loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tao; Li, X.-D., E-mail: litao@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-01-01

    SMC X-1 is a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period of 3.9 days. The mass of the neutron star is as low as ∼1M {sub ☉}, suggesting that it was likely formed through an electron-capture supernova rather than an iron-core collapse supernova. From the present system configurations, we argue that the orbital period at the supernova was ≲ 10 days. Since the mass transfer process between the neutron star's progenitor and the companion star before the supernova should have increased the orbital period to tens of days, a mechanism with efficient orbit angular momentum loss and relatively small mass loss is required to account for its current orbital period. We have calculated the evolution of the progenitor binary systems from zero-age main sequence to the pre-supernova stage with different initial parameters and various mass and angular momentum loss mechanisms. Our results show that the outflow from the outer Lagrangian point or a circumbinary disk formed during the mass transfer phase may be qualified for this purpose. We point out that these mechanisms may be popular in binary evolution and significantly affect the formation of compact star binaries.

  20. On the formation of SMC X-1: The effect of mass and orbital angular momentum loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMC X-1 is a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period of 3.9 days. The mass of the neutron star is as low as ∼1M ☉, suggesting that it was likely formed through an electron-capture supernova rather than an iron-core collapse supernova. From the present system configurations, we argue that the orbital period at the supernova was ≲ 10 days. Since the mass transfer process between the neutron star's progenitor and the companion star before the supernova should have increased the orbital period to tens of days, a mechanism with efficient orbit angular momentum loss and relatively small mass loss is required to account for its current orbital period. We have calculated the evolution of the progenitor binary systems from zero-age main sequence to the pre-supernova stage with different initial parameters and various mass and angular momentum loss mechanisms. Our results show that the outflow from the outer Lagrangian point or a circumbinary disk formed during the mass transfer phase may be qualified for this purpose. We point out that these mechanisms may be popular in binary evolution and significantly affect the formation of compact star binaries.

  1. High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with the XMM-Newton RGS: CNO Element Abundance Measurements and Density Diagnostics of a Photoionized Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Garate, M. A.; Hailey, C. J.; Herder, J. W. den; Zane, S.; Ramsay, G

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1, an intermediate-mass X-ray binary, which was observed with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. We measure the elemental abundance ratios by use of spectral models, and we detect material processed through the CNO-cycle. The CNO abundances, and in particular the ratio N/O > 4.0 times solar, provide stringent constraints on the evolution of the binary system. The low and short-on flux states of Her X-1 exhibit narrow lin...

  2. Probing the stellar wind environment of Vela X-1 with MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Malacaria, C; Santangelo, A; Makishima, K; Matsuoka, M; Morii, M; Sugizaki, M

    2016-01-01

    Vela X-1 is among the best studied and most luminous accreting X-ray pulsars. The supergiant optical companion produces a strong radiatively-driven stellar wind, which is accreted onto the neutron star producing highly variable X-ray emission. A complex phenomenology, due to both gravitational and radiative effects, needs to be taken into account in order to reproduce orbital spectral variations. We have investigated the spectral and light curve properties of the X-ray emission from Vela X-1 along the binary orbit. These studies allow to constrain the stellar wind properties and its perturbations induced by the compact object. We took advantage of the All Sky Monitor MAXI/GSC data to analyze Vela X-1 spectra and light curves. By studying the orbital profiles in the $4-10$ and $10-20$ keV energy bands, we extracted a sample of orbital light curves (${\\sim}15$% of the total) showing a dip around the inferior conjunction, i.e., a double-peaked shape. We analyzed orbital phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra ...

  3. Monitoring of pulse period in Her X-1 with Swift/BAT: evidence of mass ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Klochkov, D; Postnov, K; Shakura, N; Santangelo, A

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of pulse period variations in accreting binary pulsars is an important tool to study the interaction between the magnetosphere of the neutron star and the accretion disk. While the X-ray flux of the brightest X-ray pulsars have been successfully monitored over many years (e.g. with RXTE/ASM, CGRO/BATSE, Swift/BAT), the possibility to monitor their pulse timing properties continuously has so far been very limited. In our work we use Swift/BAT observations to study one of the most enigmatic X-ray pulsars, Hercules X-1. For the first time, a quasi-continuous monitoring of the pulse period and the pulse period derivative of Her X-1, is achieved over a long time (> 4 yrs). We argue that together with the long-term decrease of the orbital period in Her X-1 the measured pulse period behaviour requires the presence of mass ejection from the inner parts of the accretion disk along the open magnetic field lines. The mass ejection episodes probably take place during strong spin-down episodes which are associa...

  4. Detection of gamma rays of likely jet origin in Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Roberta; de Oña-Wilhelmi, Emma; Aharonian, Felix; Blanch, Oscar; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Galindo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Probe the high-energy ($>$60 MeV) emission from the black hole X-ray binary system, Cygnus X-1, and investigate its origin. Methods: We analysed 7.5 yr of data by Fermi/LAT with the latest PASS8 software version. Results: We report the detection of a signal at $\\sim$8 $\\sigma$ statistical significance spatially coincident with Cygnus X-1 and a luminosity above 60 MeV of 5.5$\\times$10$^{33}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The signal is correlated with the hard X-ray flux: the source is observed at high energies only during the hard X-ray spectral state, when the source is known to display persistent, relativistic radio emitting jets. The energy spectrum, extending up to $\\sim$20 GeV without any sign of spectral break, is well fitted by a power-law function with a photon index of 2.3$\\pm$0.2. There is a hint of orbital flux variability, with high-energy emission mostly coming around the superior conjunction. Conclusions: We detected GeV emission from Cygnus X-1 and probed that the emission is most likely associated with t...

  5. Atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M D; Ball, J C; Wallington, T J;

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  6. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the Circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully Compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Puccetti, S. [ASDC-ASI, Via del Politecnico, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Koss, M. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brightman, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Christensen, F. E. [Danish Technical University, Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Madejski, G. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Marinucci, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-08-20

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical parameters for the obscuring material. Chandra's high angular resolution allows a separation of nuclear and off-nuclear galactic emission. In the off-nuclear diffuse emission, we find signatures of strong cold reflection, including high equivalent-width neutral Fe lines. This Compton-scattered off-nuclear emission amounts to 18% of the nuclear flux in the Fe line region, but becomes comparable to the nuclear emission above 30 keV. The new analysis no longer supports a prominent transmitted AGN component in the observed band. We find that the nuclear spectrum is consistent with Compton scattering by an optically thick torus, where the intrinsic spectrum is a power law of photon index Γ = 2.2-2.4, the torus has an equatorial column density of N {sub H} = (6-10) × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}, and the intrinsic AGN 2-10 keV luminosity is (2.3-5.1) × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}. These values place Circinus along the same relations as unobscured AGNs in accretion rate versus Γ and L{sub X} versus L {sub IR} phase space. NuSTAR's high sensitivity and low background allow us to study the short timescale variability of Circinus at X-ray energies above 10 keV for the first time. The lack of detected variability favors a Compton-thick absorber, in line with the spectral fitting results.

  7. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the Circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully Compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical parameters for the obscuring material. Chandra's high angular resolution allows a separation of nuclear and off-nuclear galactic emission. In the off-nuclear diffuse emission, we find signatures of strong cold reflection, including high equivalent-width neutral Fe lines. This Compton-scattered off-nuclear emission amounts to 18% of the nuclear flux in the Fe line region, but becomes comparable to the nuclear emission above 30 keV. The new analysis no longer supports a prominent transmitted AGN component in the observed band. We find that the nuclear spectrum is consistent with Compton scattering by an optically thick torus, where the intrinsic spectrum is a power law of photon index Γ = 2.2-2.4, the torus has an equatorial column density of N H = (6-10) × 1024 cm–2, and the intrinsic AGN 2-10 keV luminosity is (2.3-5.1) × 1042 erg s–1. These values place Circinus along the same relations as unobscured AGNs in accretion rate versus Γ and LX versus L IR phase space. NuSTAR's high sensitivity and low background allow us to study the short timescale variability of Circinus at X-ray energies above 10 keV for the first time. The lack of detected variability favors a Compton-thick absorber, in line with the spectral fitting results.

  8. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1: VII. Orbital variability of the focussed wind in Cyg X-1 / HDE 226868 system

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, V; Hell, N; Pottschmidt, K; Böck, M; García, J A; Hanke, M; Nowak, M A; Sundqvist, J O; Townsend, R H D; Wilms, J

    2015-01-01

    Binary systems with an accreting compact object are a unique chance to investigate the strong, clumpy, line-driven winds of early type supergiants by using the compact object's X-rays to probe the wind structure. We analyze the two-component wind of HDE 226868, the O9.7Iab giant companion of the black hole Cyg X-1 using 4.77 Ms of RXTE observations of the system taken over the course of 16 years. Absorption changes strongly over the 5.6 d binary orbit, but also shows a large scatter at a given orbital phase, especially at superior conjunction. The orbital variability is most prominent when the black hole is in the hard X-ray state. Our data are poorer for the intermediate and soft state, but show signs for orbital variability of the absorption column in the intermediate state. We quantitatively compare the data in the hard state to a toy model of a focussed Castor-Abbott-Klein-wind: as it does not incorporate clumping, the model does not describe the observations well. A qualitative comparison to a simplified...

  9. Spectroscopic parameters and molecular constants of HI(X1Σ+), DI(X1Σ+) and TI(X1Σ+) isotope molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential energy curve (PEC) of HI(X1Σ+) molecule is studied using the complete active space self-consistent field method followed by the highly accurate valence internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach at the correlation-consistent basis sets, aug-cc-pV6Z for H and aug-cc-pV5Z-pp for I atom. Using the PEC of HI(X1Σ+), the spectroscopic parameters of three isotopes, HI(X1Σ+), DI(X1Σ+) and TI(X1Σ+), are determined in the present work. For the HI(X1Σ+), the values of D0, De, Re, ωe, ωeχe, αe and Be are 3.1551 eV, 3.2958 eV, 0.16183 nm, 2290.60 cm−1, 40.0703 cm−1, 0.1699 cm−1 and 6.4373 cm−1, respectively; for the DI (X1Σ+), the values of D0, De, Re, ωe, ωeχe, αe and Be are 3.1965 eV, 3.2967 eV, 0.16183 nm, 1626.8 cm−1, 20.8581 cm−1, 0.0611 cm−1 and 3.2468 cm−1, respectively; for the TI (X1Σ+), the values of D0, De, Re, ωe, ωeχe, αe and Be are of 3.2144 eV, 3.2967 eV, 0.16183 nm, 1334.43 cm−1, 14.0765 cm−1, 0.0338 cm−1 and 2.1850 cm−1, respectively. These results accord well with the available experimental results. With the PEC of HI(X1Σ+) molecule obtained at present, a total of 19 vibrational states are predicted for the HI, 26 for the DI, and 32 for the TI, when the rotational quantum number J is equal to zero (J = 0). For each vibrational state, vibrational level G(v), inertial rotation constant Bv and centrifugal distortion constant Dv are determined when J = 0 for the first time, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. (atomic and molecular physics)

  10. X-1E on Lakebed with Collapsed Nose Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    This photo was taken June 18, 1956 on Rogers Dry Lakebed after Flight 7 of the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E with NACA High-Speed Flight Station test pilot Joseph `Joe' Walker at the controls. The first generation X-1s were well known for nose gear failures and the X-1E was no exception. The hard pitch down on landing usually resulted in a collapsed nose gear. The damage rarely was serious but required several days of down-time for repair. The X-1E was the only one to have a true tail skid to protect the empennage from over-rotation during landing. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25

  11. X-1-2 on ramp during ground engine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    Ground engine test run on the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 airplane at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit service area. Notice the front on the lower part of the aircraft aft of the nose section. The frost forms from the mixture of the propellants (including liquid oxygen) in the internal tanks. This photograph was taken in 1947. The aircraft shown is still painted in its original saffron (orange) paint finish. This was later changed to white, which was more visible against the dark blue sky than saffron turned out to be. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December

  12. Design and synthesis of a quintessential self-transmissible IncX1 plasmid, pX1.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars H Hansen

    Full Text Available DNA exchange in bacteria via conjugative plasmids is believed to be among the most important contributing factors to the rapid evolution- and diversification rates observed in bacterial species. The IncX1 plasmids are particularly interesting in relation to enteric bacteria, and typically carry genetic loads like antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors. So far, however, a "pure" version of these molecular parasites, without genetic loads, has yet to be isolated from the environment. Here we report the construction of pX1.0, a fully synthesized IncX1 plasmid capable of horizontal transfer between different enteric bacteria. The designed pX1.0 sequence was derived from the consensus gene content of five IncX1 plasmids and three other, more divergent, members of the same phylogenetic group. The pX1.0 plasmid was shown to replicate stably in E. coli with a plasmid DNA per total DNA ratio corresponding to approximately 3-9 plasmids per chromosome depending on the growth phase of the host. Through conjugation, pX1.0 was able to self-transfer horizontally into an isogenic strain of E. coli as well as into two additional species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Our results demonstrate the immediate applicability of recent advances made within the field of synthetic biology for designing and constructing DNA systems, previously existing only in silica.

  13. Continued decay in the cyclotron line energy in Hercules X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Staubert, R; Vybornov, V; Wilms, J; Harrison, F A

    2016-01-01

    The centroid energy Ecyc of the cyclotron line in the spectrum of the binary X-ray pulsar Her X-1 had been found to decrease with time on a time scale of a few tens of years - surprisingly short astrophysically. This was found for the pulse phase averaged line centroid energy using observational data from various X-ray satellites over the time frame 1996 to 2012, establishing a reduction of about 4 keV. Here we report on the result of a new observation by NuSTAR performed in August 2015. The earlier results are confirmed and strengthened, with respect to both, the dependence of Ecyc on flux (it is still present after 2006) and the dependence on time: the long-term decay continued with the same rate, corresponding to a reduction of about 5 keV in 20 years.

  14. X-1E launch from B-50 mothership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-01-01

    Beginning in 1946, two XS-1 experimental research aircraft (later redesignated X-1s) conducted pioneering tests at Muroc Army Air Field (now Edwards Air Force Base) in California to obtain flight data on conditions in the transonic speed range. These early tests culminated on October 14, 1947, in the first piloted flight faster than Mach 1.0, the speed of sound. During November, 1947, the Air Force authorized studies that led to a contract (W-33-038-ac-20062) with Bell Aircraft to build four (later three) improved X-1 aircraft (the X-1C being cancelled). Designated X-1A (#48-1384), X-1B (#48-1385), and X-1D (#48-1386), the airplanes were ready by late 1950. The aircraft were about five feet longer and 2,500 lbs. heavier than the original X-craft planes. They used the 8-percent wing like the earlier X-craft. The D-model had a low-pressure turbo-pump and the B model was fitted with a prototype hydrogen peroxide reaction control system for later aircraft to use in exoatmospheric research flights. Access was through a lift-off canopy. The planes were finished in their bare metal color and white. The X-1D was ready first, but on what was intended to be its second flight (August 22, 1951) it was jettisoned and crashed at Muroc after an aerial explosion while still mated to its mother (B-50A [#46-006A]) ship. The long-delayed X-1 #3 airplane with the turbine pump was finally completed for the NACA in 1951. It made its first glide flight on July 20, 1951, with NACA pilot Joseph Cannon. Its second and final captive flight was on November 9, 1951. It was destroyed on the ground by an explosion and fire along with its B-50A mother ship while attempting to jettison fuel. The X-1A arrived at Muroc in January, 1953 and had its first powered flight on February 21, 1953. On December 8, 1953 with Yeager as pilot, the aircraft investigated high-speed stability and control issues. The X-1A was turned over to the NACA, but was lost to aerial explosion on August 8, 1955, shortly before

  15. IBIS preliminary results on Cygnus X-1 spectral and temporal characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzano, A; Capitanio, F; Santo, M D; Ubertini, P; Zdziarski, A A; Cocco, G D; Falanga, M; Goldoni, P; Goldwurm, A; Laurent, P; Lebrun, F; Malaguti, G; Segreto, A

    2003-01-01

    We report preliminary results of a broadband spectral and temporal study of the black-hole binary Cyg X-1 performed with the IBIS telescope. Cyg X-1 was the first pointed celestial target of IBIS during the INTEGRAL Performance and Verification Phase, 2002 Nov.-Dec., for a total observing time of 2 Ms in both staring and dithering mode. Here, we report on only the staring, on-axis, observation performed in a stable instrument configuration. During the observing period the source was in its characteristic low/hard state, in which a few flares and dips have been detected. The IBIS/ISGRI results demonstrate that the INTEGRAL observatory offers a unique capability for studying correlations between hardness and/or flux in different bands over a wide photon energy range. One of our new results is finding that the hardness-flux correlation changes the sign twice over the 20-220 keV; first from positive to negative at 50 keV, and then back to positive at 120 keV. The former change appears to be due to the spectral cu...

  16. Challenging times: a re-analysis of NGC 5408 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, M J; Done, C; Jackson, F E

    2010-01-01

    The ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), NGC 5408 X-1, is one of only 3 such objects to show a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in its power spectrum. Previous analysis of this signal identified it with the well-studied type C low-frequency QPO (LFQPO) seen in black hole binaries (BHBs), implying an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH). However, in BHBs this QPO has a centroid frequency which scales tightly with the position of the low-frequency break in the broad band power spectrum. We use this relation to predict the frequency of the power spectral break in NGC 5408 X-1, and show that this is inconsistent with the break frequencies in both available, archival XMM-Newton observations. Thus the broad band power spectral shape does not support this identification of the QPO. The energy spectra also do not support an IMBH interpretation. They can be fit by a two-component model, best described by soft thermal emission at low energies, together with low-temperature, optically thick Comptonisation producing a tail w...

  17. The Nature and Cause of Spectral Variability in LMC X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlen, L.; Smith, D. M.; Scank, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a long-term observation campaign of the extragalactic wind-accreting black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-1, using the Proportional Counter Array on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observations show that LMC X-1's accretion disk exhibits an anomalous temperature-luminosity relation. We use deep archival RXTE observations to show that large movements across the temperature-luminosity space occupied by the system can take place on time scales as short as half an hour. These changes cannot be adequately explained by perturbations that propagate from the outer disk on a viscous timescale. We propose instead that the apparent disk variations reflect rapid fluctuations within the Compton up-scattering coronal material, which occults the inner parts of the disk. The expected relationship between the observed disk luminosity and apparent disk temperature derived from the variable occultation model is quantitatively shown to be in good agreement with the observations. Two other observations support this picture: an inverse correlation between the flux in the power-law spectral component and the fitted inner disk temperature, and a near-constant total photon flux, suggesting that the inner disk is not ejected when a lower temperature is observed.

  18. X-ray variation statistics and wind clumping in Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Fürst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jörn; Hanke, Manfred; Rothschild, Richard E; Kretschmar, Peter; Schulz, Norbert S; Huenemoerder, David P; Klochkov, Dmitry; Staubert, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the wind in the neutron star X-ray binary system Vela X-1 by analyzing its flaring behavior. Vela X-1 shows constant flaring, with some flares reaching fluxes of more than 3.0 Crab between 20-60 keV for several 100 seconds, while the average flux is around 250 mCrab. We analyzed all archival INTEGRAL data, calculating the brightness distribution in the 20-60 keV band, which, as we show, closely follows a log-normal distribution. Orbital resolved analysis shows that the structure is strongly variable, explainable by shocks and a fluctuating accretion wake. Analysis of RXTE ASM data suggests a strong orbital change of N_H. Accreted clump masses derived from the INTEGRAL data are on the order of 5 x 10^19 -10^21 g. We show that the lightcurve can be described with a model of multiplicative random numbers. In the course of the simulation we calculate the power spectral density of the system in the 20-100 keV energy band and show that it follows a red-noise power law. We suggest tha...

  19. The smooth cyclotron line in Her X-1 as seen with NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Fuerst, Felix; Staubert, Ruediger; Tomsick, John A; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Bellm, Eric C; Boggs, Steven E; Chenevez, Jerome; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona; Klochkov, Dmitry; Madsen, Kristin K; Pottschmidt, Katja; Stern, Daniel; Walton, Dominic J; Wilms, Joern; Zhang, William

    2013-01-01

    Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resolution. We observed Her X-1 three times, coordinated with Suzaku, during one of the high flux intervals of its 35d super-orbital period. This paper focuses on the shape and evolution of the hard X-ray spectrum. The broad-band spectra can be fitted with a powerlaw with a high-energy cutoff, an iron line, and a CRSF. We find that the CRSF has a very smooth and symmetric shape, in all observations and at all pulse-phases. We compare the residuals of a line with a Gaussian optical depth profile to a Lorentzian optical depth profile and find no significant differences, strongly constraining the very smooth shape of the line. Even though the line energy changes dramatically with pulse phase, we find that its smooth shape does n...

  20. A directed search for gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 with initial LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J S; Ashton, G; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barclay, S; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauer, Th S; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Benacquista, M; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, C D; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchman, S; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio,, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, C; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dartez, L; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Dominguez, E; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fuentes-Tapia, S; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C J; Guo, X; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Hee, S; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Islas, G; Isler, J C; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N G; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Le, J; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Magee, R; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; McWilliams, S; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moore, B; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Nardecchia, I; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A H; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; Oram, R; O'Reilly, B; Ortega, W; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Pai, S; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patrick, Z; Pedraza, M; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Post, A; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Reula, O; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sawadsky, A; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Serafinelli, R; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szczepanczyk, M; Szeifert, G; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Tellez, G; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Tshilumba, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C van den; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Xie, S; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, Q; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J

    2014-01-01

    We present results of a search for continuously-emitted gravitational radiation, directed at the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1. Our semi-coherent analysis covers 10 days of LIGO S5 data ranging from 50-550 Hz, and performs an incoherent sum of coherent $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic power distributed amongst frequency-modulated orbital sidebands. All candidates not removed at the veto stage were found to be consistent with noise at a 1% false alarm rate. We present Bayesian 95% confidence upper limits on gravitational-wave strain amplitude using two different prior distributions: a standard one, with no a priori assumptions about the orientation of Scorpius X-1; and an angle-restricted one, using a prior derived from electromagnetic observations. Median strain upper limits of 1.3e-24 and 8e-25 are reported at 150 Hz for the standard and angle-restricted searches respectively. This proof of principle analysis was limited to a short observation time by unknown effects of accretion on the intrinsic spin...

  1. Variation in Emission and Absorption Lines and Continuum Flux by Orbital Phase in Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, G R; Blank, D

    2004-01-01

    High resolution spectral studies were undertaken at orbital phases 0, 0.25 and 0.5 on the high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) Vela X-1 using archival Chandra data. We present (a) the first detailed analysis of the multiple strong narrow emission lines present in phase 0.5 (b) an analysis of the absorption of the continuum in phase 0.5, and (c) the first detection of narrow emission and absorption lines in phase 0.25. Multiple fluorescent and H-and He-like emission lines in the band 1.6 - 20 Angstrom in eclipse are partially obscured at phase 0.25 by the X-ray continuum. The phase 0.25 spectrum displays 3 triplets, 2 with a blue-shifted resonance (r) line in absorption and the intercombination (i) and forbidden (f) lines in emission, and shows in absorption other blue-shifted lines seen in emission in eclipse. At phase 0.5 the soft X-ray continuum diminishes revealing an "eclipse-like" spectrum, however line flux values are around 13-fold those in eclipse. We conclude the narrow emission lines in Vela X-1 become app...

  2. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  A social choice rule (SCR) is a collection of social choice correspondences, one for each agenda. An effectivity rule is a collection of effectivity functions, one for each agenda. We prove that every monotonic and superadditive effectivity rule is the effectivity rule of some SCR. A SCR...... is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  3. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  4. Revisiting the Dynamical Case for a Massive Black Hole in IC10 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Silas G T; Christodoulou, Dimitris M

    2015-01-01

    The relative phasing of the X-ray eclipse ephemeris and optical radial velocity (RV) curve for the X-ray binary IC10 X-1 suggests the He[$\\lambda$4686] emission-line originates in a shadowed sector of the stellar wind that avoids ionization by X-rays from the compact object. The line attains maximum blueshift when the wind is directly toward us at mid X-ray eclipse, as is also seen in Cygnus X-3. If the RV curve is unrelated to stellar motion, evidence for a massive black hole evaporates because the mass function of the binary is unknown. The reported X-ray luminosity, spectrum, slow QPO, and broad eclipses caused by absorption/scattering in the WR wind are all consistent with either a low-stellar-mass BH or a NS. For a NS, the centre of mass lies inside the WR envelope whose motion is then far below the observed 370 km/s RV amplitude, while the velocity of the compact object is as high as 600 km/s. The resulting 0.4\\% doppler variation of X-ray spectral lines could be confirmed by missions in development. Th...

  5. On the Formation of SMC X-1: the Effect of Mass and Orbital Angular Momentum Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tao

    2013-01-01

    SMC X-1 is a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period of 3.9 days. The mass of the neutron star is as low as $\\sim 1 M_{\\sun}$, suggesting that it was likely to be formed through an electron-capture supernova rather an iron-core collapse supernova. From the present system configurations, we argue that the orbital period at the supernova was $\\lesssim 10$ days. Since the mass transfer process between the neutron star's progenitor and the companion star before the supernova should have increased the orbital period to tens of days, a mechanism with efficient orbit angular momentum loss and relatively small mass loss is required to account for its current orbital period. We have calculated the evolution of the progenitor binary systems from zero-age main-sequence to the pre-supernova stage with different initial parameters and various mass and angular momentum loss mechanisms. Our results show that the outflow from the outer Langrangian point or a circumbinary disk formed during the mass transfer phase may b...

  6. X-ray variability and energy spectra from NGC5408 X-1 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Garcia, M D; Wolter, A

    2013-01-01

    The notion of source states characterizing the X-ray emission from black hole binaries has revealed to be a very useful tool to disentangle the complex spectral and aperiodic phenomenology displayed by those classes of accreting objects. We seek to use the same tools for Ultra-Luminous X-ray (ULX) sources. We analyzed the data from the longest observations obtained from the ULX source in NGC 5408 (NGC 5408 X-1) taken by XMM-Newton. We performed a study of the timing and spectral properties of the source. In accordance with previous studies on similar sources, the intrinsic energy spectra of the source are well described by a cold accretion disc emission plus a curved high-energy emission component. We studied the broad-band noise variability of the source and found an anti-correlation between the root mean square variability in the 0.0001-0.2Hz and intensity, similarly to what is observed in black-hole binaries during the hard states. We discuss the physical processes responsible for the X-ray features observ...

  7. What is special about Cygnus X-1 - Black holes in theory and observation: X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, E.; Holt, S.; Rothschild, R.; Serlemitsos, P.

    1975-01-01

    Of the eight X-ray sources now known which may be associated with binary stellar systems, Cygnus X-1 is the most likely candidate for being a black hole. The X-ray evidence from several experiments is reviewed, with special emphasis on those characteristics which appear to distinguish Cygnus X-1 from other compact X-ray emitting objects. Data are examined within the context of a model in which millisecond bursts (Rothschild et al., 1974) are superposed on shot-noise fluctuations (Terrell, 1972) arising from 'events' of durations on the order of a second. Possible spectral-temporal correlations are investigated which indicate new measurements that need to be made in future experiments.

  8. Echoes from the companion star in Sco X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Darias, T; Casares, J; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Cornelisse, R; Steeghs, D; Charles, P A

    2007-01-01

    We present simultaneous X-ray (RXTE) and optical (ULTRACAM) narrow band (Bowen blend/HeII and nearby continuum) observations of Sco X-1 at 2-10 Hz time resolution. We find that the Bowen/HeII emission lags the X-ray light-curves with a light travel time of ~11-16s which is consistent with reprocessing in the companion star. The echo from the donor is detected at orbital phase ~0.5 when Sco X-1 is at the top of the Flaring Branch. Evidence of echoes is also seen at the bottom of the Flaring Branch but with time-lags of 5-10s which are consistent with reprocessing in an accretion disc with a radial temperature profile. We discuss the implication of our results for the orbital parameters of Sco X-1.

  9. Precision ephemerides for gravitational-wave searches. I. Sco X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly rotating neutron stars are the only candidates for persistent high-frequency gravitational wave emission, for which a targeted search can be performed based on the spin period measured from electromagnetic (e.g., radio and X-ray) observations. The principal factor determining the sensitivity of such searches is the measurement precision of the physical parameters of the system. Neutron stars in X-ray binaries present additional computational demands for searches due to the uncertainty in the binary parameters. We present the results of a pilot study with the goal of improving the measurement precision of binary orbital parameters for candidate gravitational wave sources. We observed the optical counterpart of Sco X-1 in 2011 June with the William Herschel Telescope and also made use of Very Large Telescope observations in 2011 to provide an additional epoch of radial-velocity measurements to earlier measurements in 1999. From a circular orbit fit to the combined data set, we obtained an improvement of a factor of 2 in the orbital period precision and a factor of 2.5 in the epoch of inferior conjunction T 0. While the new orbital period is consistent with the previous value of Gottlieb et al., the new T 0 (and the amplitude of variation of the Bowen line velocities) exhibited a significant shift, which we attribute to variations in the emission geometry with epoch. We propagate the uncertainties on these parameters through to the expected Advanced LIGO-Virgo detector network observation epochs and quantify the improvement obtained with additional optical observations.

  10. Precision ephemerides for gravitational-wave searches. I. Sco X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Duncan K.; Premachandra, Sammanani [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Steeghs, Danny; Marsh, Tom [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Astrophysics Group, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Casares, Jorge; Cornelisse, Rémon, E-mail: Duncan.Galloway@monash.edu [Instituto de Astrofísica, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-01-20

    Rapidly rotating neutron stars are the only candidates for persistent high-frequency gravitational wave emission, for which a targeted search can be performed based on the spin period measured from electromagnetic (e.g., radio and X-ray) observations. The principal factor determining the sensitivity of such searches is the measurement precision of the physical parameters of the system. Neutron stars in X-ray binaries present additional computational demands for searches due to the uncertainty in the binary parameters. We present the results of a pilot study with the goal of improving the measurement precision of binary orbital parameters for candidate gravitational wave sources. We observed the optical counterpart of Sco X-1 in 2011 June with the William Herschel Telescope and also made use of Very Large Telescope observations in 2011 to provide an additional epoch of radial-velocity measurements to earlier measurements in 1999. From a circular orbit fit to the combined data set, we obtained an improvement of a factor of 2 in the orbital period precision and a factor of 2.5 in the epoch of inferior conjunction T {sub 0}. While the new orbital period is consistent with the previous value of Gottlieb et al., the new T {sub 0} (and the amplitude of variation of the Bowen line velocities) exhibited a significant shift, which we attribute to variations in the emission geometry with epoch. We propagate the uncertainties on these parameters through to the expected Advanced LIGO-Virgo detector network observation epochs and quantify the improvement obtained with additional optical observations.

  11. Structure and Stability of Si(114)-(2x1)

    CERN Document Server

    Erwin, S C; Whitman, L J; Erwin, Steven C.; Baski, Alison A.; Whitman, Lloyd J.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a recently discovered stable planar surface of silicon, Si(114). This high-index surface, oriented 19.5 degrees away from (001) toward (111), undergoes a 2x1 reconstruction. We propose a complete model for the reconstructed surface based on scanning tunneling microscopy images and first-principles total-energy calculations. The structure and stability of Si(114)-(2x1) arises from a balance between surface dangling bond reduction and surface stress relief, and provides a key to understanding the morphology of a family of surfaces oriented between (001) and (114).

  12. Echo Tomography of Sco X-1 using Bowen Fluorescence Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, J; Martínez-Pais, I G; Cornelisse, R; Charles, P A; Marsh, T R; Dhillon, V S; Steeghs, D

    2005-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a simultaneous X-ray/optical campaign of the prototypical LMXB Sco X-1 at 1-10 Hz time resolution. Lightcurves of the high excitation Bowen/HeII emission lines were obtained through narrow interference filters with ULTRACAM, and these were cross-correlated with X-ray lightcurves. We find evidence for correlated variability, in particular when Sco X-1 enters the Flaring Branch. The Bowen/HeII lightcurves lag the X-ray lightcurves with a light travel time which is consistent with reprocessing in the companion star.

  13. Adsorption of Ag on Ge(100)-(2 x 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T.; Rosenwinkel, E.; Chiang, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    The initial stages of interface formation of Ag deposited onto Ge(100)-(2 x 1) were studied with high-energy electron diffraction and high-resolution photoemission. The surface core-level energies for clean Ge(100)-(2 x 1) were not changed with the deposition of about one monolayer of Ag, indicating that there was no chemical reaction or atomic intermixing. The Ag nucleated at a coverage of about 1/3 monolayer and showed three-dimensional growth for higher coverages. 13 references, 3 figures.

  14. P2X1 receptors and the endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Harrington

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP is now established as a principle vaso-active mediator in the vasculature. Its actions on arteries are complex, and are mediated by the P2X and P2Y receptor families. It is generally accepted that ATP induces a bi-phasic response in arteries, inducing contraction via the P2X and P2Y receptors on the smooth muscle cells, and vasodilation via the actions of P2Y receptors located on the endothelium. However, a number of recent studies have placed P2X1 receptors on the endothelium of some arteries. The use of a specific P2X1 receptor ligand, a, b methylene ATP has demonstrated that P2X1 receptors also have a bi-functional role. The actions of ATP on P2X1 receptors is therefore dependant on its location, inducing contraction when located on the smooth muscle cells, and dilation when expressed on the endothelium, comparable to that of P2Y receptors.

  15. Method Study on the 3x+1 Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Lizhi

    2012-01-01

    The 3x+1 problem is one of the most classical problems in computer science, related to many fields. As it is thought by scientists a highly hard problem, resolving it successfully not only can improve the research in many relating fields, but also be meaningful to the method study. By deep analyzing the 3x+1 calculation process with the input positive integer becoming greater, we find a useful way for solving this problem with high probability. By making use of the greater calculating ability of great computers and the internet, our way is a valid and powerful way for utterly solving the 3x+1 problem. This way can be expressed in three points: 1) If we can find a positive integer N, for any positive integer less than 2N, the times of dividing 2 out of its stopping time is less than or equal to N, then the 3x+1 conjecture is true; 2) This N may be big, so the calculation may be too big. Our way for solving this is: to find a positive integer K, for all positive integers less than 2K, not all the times of divid...

  16. INTEGRAL-RXTE observations of Cygnus X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.; Chernyakova, M.;

    2003-01-01

    We present first results from contemporaneous observations of Cygnus X-1 with INTEGRAL and RXTE, made during INTEGRAL's performance verification phase in 2002 November and December. Consistent with earlier results, the 3-250 keV data are well described by Comptonization spectra from a Compton...

  17. PHOEBE: PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Matijevic, Gal; Latkovic, Olivera; Vilardell, Francesc; Wils, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs) is a modeling package for eclipsing binary stars, built on top of the widely used WD program (Wilson & Devinney 1971). This introductory paper overviews most important scientific extensions (incorporating observational spectra of eclipsing binaries into the solution-seeking process, extracting individual temperatures from observed color indices, main-sequence constraining and proper treatment of the reddening), numerical innovations (suggested improvements to WD's Differential Corrections method, the new Nelder & Mead's downhill Simplex method) and technical aspects (back-end scripter structure, graphical user interface). While PHOEBE retains 100% WD compatibility, its add-ons are a powerful way to enhance WD by encompassing even more physics and solution reliability.

  18. The reflection component from Cygnus X-1 in the soft state measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late 2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ∼1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power law, and reflection components along with absorption from highly ionized material in the system. The high throughput of NuSTAR allows for a very high quality measurement of the complex iron line region as well as the rest of the reflection component. The iron line is clearly broadened and is well described by a relativistic blurring model, providing an opportunity to constrain the black hole spin. Although the spin constraint depends somewhat on which continuum model is used, we obtain a * > 0.83 for all models that provide a good description of the spectrum. However, none of our spectral fits give a disk inclination that is consistent with the most recently reported binary values for Cyg X-1. This may indicate that there is a >13° misalignment between the orbital plane and the inner accretion disk (i.e., a warped accretion disk) or that there is missing physics in the spectral models.

  19. Spectral Signature of Atmospheric Reflection in Hercules X-1/HZ Hercules During Low and Short-High States

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, M H

    2015-01-01

    We analyse RXTE/PCA X-ray spectra of the binary X-ray pulsar Her X-1/HZ Her during short high state and one binary orbit in the preceding low state, just before short high turn-on. The spectrum is well described by two continuum components (absorbed and unabsorbed). The resulting spectral parameters are modulated with orbital phase. During low state a significant component of the flux, and its spectrum, is consistent with X-ray reflection off the face of the companion star HZ Her. This component has a significantly harder X-ray spectrum than the rest of the flux from the Her X-1 system. A second component in low state is consistent with emission from the accretion disk corona. During short high a third strong component is present with a softer spectrum, which is associated with the neutron star and accretion disk. Due to this direct emission from the neutron star and accretion disk, the reflected emission is less clear, however parameters and fluxes modulations during short high state indicate its presence. I...

  20. The Reflection Component from Cygnus X-1 in the Soft State Measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Tomsick, John A; Parker, Michael; Miller, Jon M; Fabian, Andy C; Harrison, Fiona A; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Forster, Karl; Fuerst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W; Hailey, Charles J; King, Ashley L; Madsen, Kristin K; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ross, Randy R; Stern, Daniel; Walton, Dominic J; Wilms, Joern; Zhang, William W

    2013-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late-2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ~1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power-law, and reflection components along with absorption from highly ionized material in the system. The high throughput of NuSTAR allows for a very high quality measurement of the complex iron line region as well as the rest of the reflection component. The iron line is clearly broadened and is well-described by a relativistic blurring model, providing an opportunity to constrain the black hole spin. Although the spin constraint depends somewhat on which continuum model is used, we obtain a*>0.83 for all models that provide a good description of the spectrum. However, none of our spectral fits give a disk inclination that is consistent with the most recently reported binary values for Cyg X-1. This may indicate that there is a >13 degree misalignment between t...

  1. Encounters of binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical integrations of encounters of pairs of binaries have been used to study the class of interactions, called fly-bys, in which the two-binary configuration survives. It is shown that these typically weak interactions can be treated by means of a first-order perturbation theory. A simple simulation model for obtaining the energy transfer rate between various degrees of freedom has been constructed. The model was employed to estimate the additional energy transfer arising from impact parameters larger than those used in the numerical experiments. In the hard binary limit the total energy transfer caused by binary-binary encounters is dominated by the collisional interactions in which the two-binary configuration is destroyed. (author)

  2. Statistical analysis of archival Vela X-1 data

    CERN Document Server

    Fürst, Felix; Wilms, Jörn; Kretschmar, Peter; Klochkov, Dmitry; Santangelo, Andrea; Staubert, Rüdiger

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of all archival INTEGRAL data of the accreting X-ray pulsar Vela X-1. We extracted lightcurves in several energy bands from 20 keV up to 60 keV. The lightcurves show that the source was found in very active as well as quiet states. During the active states several giant flares were detected. For these states spectra between 5 keV and 120 keV were obtained. The spectra of the active states were found to be significantly softer than those from the quiet states. We performed a statistical analysis of the flaring behavior. The resulting log-normal distribution of the intensity of Vela X-1 shows that the source spends most of the time at an average flux level of 300 mCrab but also that the distribution extends well up to more than 2.0 Crab.

  3. Pulsed TeV radiation from Hercules X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four-year database (spring 1984 through spring 1987) of observations of Hercules X-1 by the Whipple Observatory Collaboration is being analyzed as a whole for evidence of TeV γ-ray emission. The full distribution of Rayleigh powers near the X-ray pulsar frequency differs significantly from the background distribution, giving evidence for sporadic emission at better than a 99% confidence level. (orig.)

  4. Cygnus X-1: Dips and Low Frequency Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Joern

    2000-01-01

    The primary science result to come out of this work is the discovery that the time lags between hard and soft variability in Cyg X-1 show dramatic spikes during the transitions between hard and soft states (and possibly during "failed transitions" to the soft state), but are remarkably similar between the main soft and hard states. This work is being continued and elaborated upon with ongoing RXTE monitoring campaigns.

  5. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  6. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHo (x=1,3,4): Mechanism of the CxF2x+1C(O)O-2+HO2 reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Stenby, C; Nielsen, OJ;

    2004-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the gas-phase reaction of CxF2x+1C(O)O-2 (x = 1, 3, 4) with HO2 radicals in 700 Torr of air, or O-2, diluent at 296 +/- 2 K. The reactions proceed by three pathways leading to formation of CxF2x+1C(O)OOH and O-2, C2F2x+1C(O)OH and O-3, or CxF2x+1C(O...

  7. The Si(100)-Sb 2x1 and Ge(100) 2x1 surfaces: A multi-technique study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic and geometric structures of the clean and Sb terminated Si(100)2x1 and Ge(100)-2x1 surfaces have been investigated using a multi-technique approach. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), surface extended X-ray absorption fine structure (SEXAFS) spectroscopy and angle-integrated core-level photoemission electron spectroscopy (PES) were employed to measure the surface symmetry, defect structure, relevant bond lengths, atomic coordination and electronic structure. By employing a multi-technique approach, it is possible to correlate changes in the geometric structure to specific features of the core-level lineshape of the substrate. This allows for the assignment of components of the core-level lineshape to be assigned to specific surface and near-surface atoms

  8. Energy-dependent evolution in IC10 X-1: hard evidence for an extended corona, and implications

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Prestwich, A F; Stevens, I R; Clark, J S; Kolb, U C

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed a ~130 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dynamically confirmed black hole + Wolf-Rayet (BH+WR) X-ray binary (XB) IC10 X-1, covering ~1 orbital cycle. This system experiences periodic intensity dips every ~35 hours. We find that energy-independent evolution is rejected at a >5 sigma level. The spectral and timing evolution of IC10 X-1 are best explained by a compact disk blackbody and an extended Comptonized component, where the thermal component is completely absorbed and the Comptonized component is partially covered during the dip. We consider three possibilities for the absorber: cold material in the outer accretion disk, as is well documented for Galactic neutron star (NS) XBs at high inclination; a stream of stellar wind that is enhanced by traveling through the L1 point; and a spherical wind. We estimated the corona radius (r_ADC) for IC10 X-1 from the dip ingress to be ~1 E+6 km, assuming absorption from the outer disk, and found it to be consistent with the relation between r_m ADC and...

  9. Constraints on the Neutron Star and Inner Accretion Flow in Serpens X-1 Using Nustar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. M.; Parker, M. L.; Fuerst, F.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Tendulkar, S.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Chakrabarty, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Hailey, C. J.; Natalucci, L.; Paerels, F.; Rana, V.; Stern, D. K.; Tomsick, J. A.; Zhang, Will

    2013-01-01

    We report on an observation of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Serpens X-1, made with NuSTAR. The extraordinary sensitivity afforded by NuSTAR facilitated the detection of a clear, robust, relativistic Fe K emission line from the inner disk. A relativistic profile is required over a single Gaussian line from any charge state of Fe at the 5 sigma level of confidence, and any two Gaussians of equal width at the same confidence. The Compton back-scattering "hump" peaking in the 10-20 keV band is detected for the first time in a neutron star X-ray binary. Fits with relativistically blurred disk reflection models suggest that the disk likely extends close to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) or stellar surface. The best-fit blurred reflection models constrain the gravitational redshift from the stellar surface to be ZnS (is) greater than 0.16. The data are broadly compatible with the disk extending to the ISCO; in that case,ZnS(is) greater than 0.22 and RNS (is) less than12.6 km (assuming MnS = 1.4 solar mass and a = 0, where a = cJ/GM2). If the star is as large or larger than its ISCO, or if the effective reflecting disk leaks across the ISCO to the surface, the redshift constraints become measurements. We discuss our results in the context of efforts to measure fundamental properties of neutron stars, and models for accretion onto compact objects.

  10. Probing the stellar wind environment of Vela X-1 with MAXI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacaria, C.; Mihara, T.; Santangelo, A.; Makishima, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Morii, M.; Sugizaki, M.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Vela X-1 is one of the best-studied and most luminous accreting X-ray pulsars. The supergiant optical companion produces a strong radiatively driven stellar wind that is accreted onto the neutron star, producing highly variable X-ray emission. A complex phenomenology that is due to both gravitational and radiative effects needs to be taken into account to reproduce orbital spectral variations. Aims: We have investigated the spectral and light curve properties of the X-ray emission from Vela X-1 along the binary orbit. These studies allow constraining the stellar wind properties and its perturbations that are induced by the pulsating neutron star. Methods: We took advantage of the All Sky Monitor MAXI/GSC data to analyze Vela X-1 spectra and light curves. By studying the orbital profiles in the 4-10 and 10-20 keV energy bands, we extracted a sample of orbital light curves (~15% of the total) showing a dip around the inferior conjunction, that is, a double-peaked shape. We analyzed orbital phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra of both the double-peaked and the standard sample. Results: The dip in the double-peaked sample needs NH ~ 2 × 1024cm-2 to be explained by absorption alone, which is not observed in our analysis. We show that Thomson scattering from an extended and ionized accretion wake can contribute to the observed dip. Fit by a cutoff power-law model, the two analyzed samples show orbital modulation of the photon index that hardens by ~0.3 around the inferior conjunction, compared to earlier and later phases. This indicates a possible inadequacy of this model. In contrast, including a partial covering component at certain orbital phase bins allows a constant photon index along the orbital phases, indicating a highly inhomogeneous environment whose column density has a local peak around the inferior conjunction. We discuss our results in the framework of possible scenarios.

  11. Comprehensive spectral analysis of Cyg X-1 using RXTE data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rizwan Shahid; Ranjeev Misra; S.N.A.Jaaffrey

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a large number (> 500) of pointed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of Cyg X- 1 and model the spectrum of each one.A subset of the observations for which there is a simultaneous reliable measure of the hardness ratio by the All Sky Monitor shows that the sample covers nearly all the spectral shapes of Cyg X-1.Each observation is fitted with a generic empirical model consisting of a disk black body spectrum,a Comptonized component whose input photon shape is the same as the disk emission,a Gaussian to represent the iron line and a reflection feature.The relative strength,width of the iron line and the reflection parameter are in general correlated with the high energy photon spectral index Γ.This is broadly consistent with a geometry where for the hard state (low Γ ~ 1.7) there is a hot inner Comptonizing region surrounded by a truncated cold disk.The inner edge of the disk moves inwards as the source becomes softer till finally in the soft state (high Γ > 2.2) the disk fills the inner region and active regions above the disk produce the Comptonized component.However,the reflection parameter shows non-monotonic behavior near the transition region (Γ ~ 2),which suggests a more complex geometry or physical state of the reflector.In addition,the inner disk temperature,during the hard state,is on average higher than in the soft one,albeit with large scatter.These inconsistencies could be due to limitations in the data and the empirical model used to fit them.The flux of each spectral component is well correlated with Γ,which shows that unlike some other black hole systems,Cyg X- 1 does not show any hysteresis behavior.In the soft state,the flux of the Comptonized component is always similar to the disk one,which confirms that the ultra-soft state (seen in other brighter black hole systems) is not exhibited by Cyg X- 1.The rapid variation of the Compton amplification factor with Γ naturally explains the absence of spectra with Γ

  12. The X-Ray Spectrum and Global Structure of the Stellar Wind in Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Sako, M; Kahn, S M; Paerels, F B S; Sako, Masao; Liedahl, Duane A.; Kahn, Steven M.; Paerels, Frits

    1999-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the X-ray spectrum of the eclipsing high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 (4U 0900-40) using archival data from ASCA. The observation covers a time interval centered on eclipse of the X-ray pulsar by the companion. The spectrum exhibits two distinct sets of discrete features: (1) recombination lines and radiative recombination continua from mostly H- and He-like species produced by photoionization in an extended stellar wind; and (2) fluorescent K-shell lines associated with near-neutral species also present in the circumsource medium. Using a detailed spectral model that explicitly accounts for the recombination cascade kinetics for each of the constituent charge states, we are able to obtain a statistically acceptable (chi_r^2=0.88) fit to the observed spectrum and to derive emission measures associated with the individual K-shell ions of several elements. We find a best-fit mass loss rate of ~2.7 x 10^-7 M-solar/yr, which is approximately a factor of 10 lower than previous e...

  13. Rapid Spectral Changes of Cygnus X-1 in the Low/Hard State with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S; Torii, S; Noda, H; Mineshige, S; Makishima, K

    2013-01-01

    Rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray on a time scale down to ~0.1 s are studied by applying "shot analysis" technique to the Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1, performed on 2008 April 18 during the low/hard state. We successfully obtained the shot profiles covering 10--200 keV with the Suzaku HXD-PIN and HXD-GSO detector. It is notable that the 100-200 keV shot profile is acquired for the first time owing to the HXD-GSO detector. The intensity changes in a time-symmetric way, though the hardness does in a time-asymmetric way. When the shot-phase-resolved spectra are quantified with the Compton model, the Compton y-parameter and the electron temperature are found to decrease gradually through the rising phase of the shot, while the optical depth appears to increase. All the parameters return to their time-averaged values immediately within 0.1 s past the shot peak. We have not only confirmed this feature previously found in energies below ~60 keV, but also found that the spectral chan...

  14. Anisotropy of partially self-absorbed jets and the jet of Cyg X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Rao, A R

    2016-01-01

    We study the angular dependence of the flux from partially synchrotron self-absorbed conical jets (proposed by Blandford & Koenigl. We consider the jet viewed (in the comoving frame) from either a side or close to on axis, and in the latter case, either from the jet top or bottom. We derive analytical formulae for the flux in each of these cases. We find that the maximum of the emission occurs when the jet is viewed from top on-axis, which is contrast to a previous result, which found the maximum at some intermediate angle and null emission on-axis. We then calculate the ratio of the jet-to-counterjet emission for this model, which depends on the viewing angle and the index of power-law electrons. We apply our results to the black-hole binary Cyg X-1. Given the jet-to-counterjet flux ratio of >50 found observationally and the current estimates of the inclination, we find the jet Lorentz factor of Gamma>1.6. We also point out that when the projection effect is taken into account, the radio observations imp...

  15. Simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of rapid variability in Scorpius X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copernicus and SAS-3 observations of Sco-X-1 during very active states show strong and rapid X-ray flickering with time scales as short as 20 s. Simultaneous optical photometry reveals similar and remarkably well correlated flickering of lower amplitude. The level of correlation decreases when the X-ray source becomes fainter, but optical and X-ray fluxes, averaged over 1 min, are usually well correlated for B < 12.9. Cross-correlation analysis of the data during periods of high activity shows no really significant time delay between X-ray and optical features, although the cross-correlation function peaks systematically for positive lag values (optical following X-rays). The amplitude of the X-ray flickering exhibits a strong energy-dependence consistent with the well-known intensity versus spectral-hardness relation derived from previous observations. The highly correlated optical activity is interpreted as due to reprocessing of X-ray photons in the binary system. (author)

  16. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  17. A Peculiar Flaring Episode of Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, W; Ertmer, M; Cui, Wei; Feng, Yuxin; Ertmer, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Recent monitoring of Cyg X-1 with {\\em RXTE} revealed a period of intense flaring, which started in October of 2000 and lasted until March of 2001. The source exhibited some quite unusual behaviors during this period. The soft X-ray flux of the source went up and down three times on a timescale of about one month, as discovered by the ASM aboard RXTE, before finally returning to the normal level (of the hard state). The observed spectral and temporal X-ray properties of Cyg X-1 are mostly intermediate between the canonical hard and soft states. This is known previously for strong X-ray flares, however, we show that the source did enter a period that resembles, in many ways, a sustained soft state during the last of the three flares. We make detailed comparisons between this flare and the 1996 state transition, in terms of the observed X-ray properties, such as flux--hardness correlation, X-ray spectrum, and power density spectrum. We point out the similarities and differences, and discuss possible implication...

  18. Classification and Spectral Evolution of Outbursts of Aql X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, Can; Ekşi, K Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    We present a broad classification of all outbursts detected with the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Monitor of All Sky X-Ray Image (MAXI) of Aql X-1. We identify three types of outbursts; long-high, medium-low, and short-low, based on the duration and maximum flux. We analyse the trends in the "phase-space" of flux-derivative versus flux to demonstrate the differences in the three identified outburst types. We present a spectral analysis of the observations of Aql X-1 performed by the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard RXTE during the 2000 and 2011 outbursts of the long-high class and the 2010 outburst of the medium-low class. We model the source spectrum with a hybrid thermal/non-thermal hot plasma emission model (EQPAIR in XSPEC, Coppi 2000) together with a Gaussian component to model the Fe K_alpha emission line. We construct time histories of the source flux, the optical depth of the corona (tau), the seed photon temperature (kT_bb) and the hard state compact...

  19. The binary proletariat

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Nate

    2000-01-01

    In the endless quest to transform itself, capitalism has spawned a new working class. The proletariat was an essential product of the industrial revolution, and the lighter, more efficient capitalism of the digital revolution has created the Binary Proletariat.

  20. Timing in the Time Domain: Cygnus X-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Quantities characterizing temporal property, e.g., power density, co-herence, and time lag, can be defined and calculated directly in the time domain without using the Fourier transformation. Spectral hardness, variability duration,and correlation between different characteristic quantities on different time scale can be studied in the time domain as well. The temporal analysis technique in the time domain is a powerful tool, particularly in studying rapid variability on short time scales (or in high frequencies). Results of studying variabilities of X-rays from Cyg X-1 with the analysis technique in the time domain and RXTE data reveal valu-able clues to understanding production and propagation processes of X-rays and structure of accretion disk in the black hole system.

  1. INTEGRAL/RXTE Observations of Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from simultaneous observations of Cyg X-1 with INTEGRAL and RXTE in 2002 November and December, employing the new RXTE calibration from HEASOFT 5.3. The broad-band X-ray/γ-ray spectrum is well described by Comptonization spectra with an additional reflection component. The temperature of the Comptonizing plasma is kTe ∼ 60-80 keV and its optical depth is τ ∼ 0.8-1.2. The covering factor of the reflector is Ω/2π ∼ 0.1. There is a possible soft excess below 10 keV, interpreted as emission from the accretion disk. The spectral parameters are slightly different from those obtained by us earlier due to the different RXTE-PCA calibration

  2. Eclipsing Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2004-01-01

    The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.

  3. Binary Evolutionary Models

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Z

    2008-01-01

    In this talk, we present the general principles of binary evolution and give two examples. The first example is the formation of subdwarf B stars (sdBs) and their application to the long-standing problem of ultraviolet excess (also known as UV-upturn) in elliptical galaxies. The second is for the progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We discuss the main binary interactions, i.e., stable Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) and common envelope (CE) evolution, and show evolutionary channels leading to the formation of various binary-related objects. In the first example, we show that the binary model of sdB stars of Han et al. (2002, 2003) can reproduce field sdB stars and their counterparts, extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars, in globular clusters. By applying the binary model to the study of evolutionary population synthesis, we have obtained an ``a priori'' model for the UV-upturn of elliptical galaxies and showed that the UV-upturn is most likely resulted from binary interactions. This has major implications...

  4. The quasi-periodic oscillations and very low frequency noise of Scorpius X-1 as transient chaos - A dripping handrail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas; Young, Karl; Donoho, David L.; Crutchfield, James P.; Imamura, James

    1993-01-01

    We present evidence that the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise (VLFN) characteristic of many accretion sources are different aspects of the same physical process. We analyzed a long, high time resolution EXOSAT observation of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Sco X-1. The X-ray luminosity varies stochastically on time scales from milliseconds to hours. The nature of this variability - as quantified with both power spectrum analysis and a new wavelet technique, the scalegram - agrees well with the dripping handrail accretion model, a simple dynamical system which exhibits transient chaos. In this model both the QPO and VLFN are produced by radiation from blobs with a wide size distribution, resulting from accretion and subsequent diffusion of hot gas, the density of which is limited by an unspecified instability to lie below a threshold.

  5. Probing the outer edge of an accretion disk: A Her X-1 turn-on observed with RXTE

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Staubert, R; Heindl, W A; Rothschild, R E; Shakura, N I; Postnov, K A

    2005-01-01

    We present the analysis of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the turn-on phase of a 35 day cycle of the X-ray binary Her X-1. During the early phases of the turn-on, the energy spectrum is composed of X-rays scattered into the line of sight plus heavily absorbed X-rays. The energy spectra in the 3-17 keV range can be described by a partial covering model, where one of the components is influenced by photoelectric absorption and Thomson scattering in cold material plus an iron emission line at 6.5 keV. In this paper we show the evolution of spectral parameters as well as the evolution of the pulse profile during the turn-on. We describe this evolution using Monte Carlo simulations which self-consistently describe the evolution of the X-ray pulse profile and of the energy spectrum.

  6. Spectral signature of atmospheric reflection in Hercules X-1/HZ Hercules during low and short high states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, M. H.; Leahy, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    We analyse RXTE/PCA X-ray spectra of the binary X-ray pulsar Her X-1/HZ Her during short high state and one binary orbit in the preceding low state, just before short high turn-on. The spectrum is well described by two continuum components (absorbed and unabsorbed). The resulting spectral parameters are modulated with orbital phase. During low state, a significant component of the flux, and its spectrum, is consistent with X-ray reflection off the face of the companion star HZ Her. This component has a significantly harder X-ray spectrum than the rest of the flux from the Her X-1 system. A second component in low state is consistent with emission from the accretion disc corona. During short high, a third strong component is present with a softer spectrum, which is associated with the neutron star and accretion disc. Due to this direct emission from the neutron star and accretion disc, the reflected emission is less clear; however, parameters and fluxes modulations during short high state indicate its presence. In low state, the hard X-ray flux (hν > 10 keV) peaks at orbital phase φorb ≃ 0.55, which is expected from a simple model of atmospheric reflection from the companion star. The offset indicates an asymmetry in the X-ray illumination of the companion, which could be due to shadowing of the the inner face of HZ Her by the accretion disc and/or stream.

  7. Searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources and Scorpius X-1: Results from the second LIGO science run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carry out two searches for periodic gravitational waves using the most sensitive few hours of data from the second LIGO science run. Both searches exploit fully coherent matched filtering and cover wide areas of parameter space, an innovation over previous analyses which requires considerable algorithm development and computational power. The first search is targeted at isolated, previously unknown neutron stars, covers the entire sky in the frequency band 160-728.8 Hz, and assumes a frequency derivative of less than 4x10-10 Hz/s. The second search targets the accreting neutron star in the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 and covers the frequency bands 464-484 Hz and 604-624 Hz as well as the two relevant binary orbit parameters. Because of the high computational cost of these searches we limit the analyses to the most sensitive 10 hours and 6 hours of data, respectively. Given the limited sensitivity and duration of the analyzed data set, we do not attempt deep follow-up studies. Rather we concentrate on demonstrating the data analysis method on a real data set and present our results as upper limits over large volumes of the parameter space. In order to achieve this, we look for coincidences in parameter space between the Livingston and Hanford 4-km interferometers. For isolated neutron stars our 95% confidence level upper limits on the gravitational wave strain amplitude range from 6.6x10-23 to 1x10-21 across the frequency band; for Scorpius X-1 they range from 1.7x10-22 to 1.3x10-21 across the two 20-Hz frequency bands. The upper limits presented in this paper are the first broadband wide parameter space upper limits on periodic gravitational waves from coherent search techniques. The methods developed here lay the foundations for upcoming hierarchical searches of more sensitive data which may detect astrophysical signals

  8. Confirming the 115.5-day periodicity in the X-ray light curve of ULX NGC 5408 X-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Han; Tao An; Jun-Yi Wang; Ji-Ming Lin; Ming-Jie Xie; Hai-Guang Xu; Xiao-Yu Hong; Sandor Frey

    2012-01-01

    The Swift/XRT light curve of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 was re-analyzed with two new numerical approaches,the Weighted Wavelet Ztransform and CLEANest,and the results are different from previous studies.Both techniques detected a prominent periodicity with a time scale of 115.5 ± 1.5 days,in excellent agreement with the detection of the same periodicity first reported by Strohmayer.Monte Carlo simulations were employed to test the statisitical confidence of the 115.5-day periodicity,yielding a statistical significance of > 99.98% (or >3.8σ).The robust detection of the 115.5-day quasi-periodic oscillations,if they are due to the orbital motion of the binary,would infer a mass of a few thousand M⊙ for the central black hole,implying there is an intermediate-mass black hole in NGC 5408 X-1.

  9. Coupling between the 45 Hz Horizontal-Branch Oscillation and the Normal-Branch Oscillation in Scorpius X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenfei

    2007-04-01

    The observations of the bright persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Sco X-1 performed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) show a ~6 Hz normal-branch oscillation (NBO), a ~45 Hz horizontal-branch oscillation (HBO), and twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) on its normal branch simultaneously. We have found that the fractional amplitude of the HBO corresponding to the NBO phase of high flux is 1.1%, while that of the NBO phase of low flux is undetectable, with a 3 σ upper limit of 0.4%, implying that the HBO strength varies with the NBO phase in a manner opposite that of the lower kHz QPO previously found, and suggests that the condition for the generation of the HBO is met when the NBO flux is high. The 6 Hz NBO in Sco X-1 connects the 45 Hz HBO and the twin kHz QPO together, showing a unique picture indicating a coupling between the QPOs, which has never been observed in other neutron star LMXBs. We discuss the implications for current models of the 45 Hz HBO, the 6 Hz NBO, and the twin kHz QPOs.

  10. Coupling between the 45 Hz Horizontal-Branch Oscillation and the Normal Branch Oscillation in Scorpius X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, W

    2007-01-01

    The observations of the bright persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Sco X-1 performed with the {\\it Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer} (RXTE) show a $\\sim$ 6 Hz normal-branch oscillation (NBO), a $\\sim$ 45 Hz horizontal-branch oscillation (HBO), and twin kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) on its normal branch simultaneously. We have found that the fractional amplitude of the HBO corresponding to the NBO phase of high flux is 1.1%, while that of the NBO phase of low flux is undetectable, with a 3$\\sigma$ upper limit of 0.4%, implying that the HBO strength varies with the NBO phase in an opposite way to that of the lower kHz QPO previously found, and suggests that the condition for the generation of the HBO is met when the NBO flux is high. The 6 Hz NBO in Sco X-1 connects the 45 Hz HBO and the twin kHz QPO together, showing a unique picture indicating a coupling between the QPOs, which has never been observed in other neutron star LMXBs. We discuss the implications for current models of the 45 Hz...

  11. NuSTAR and Suzaku observations of the hard state in Cygnus X-1: locating the inner accretion disk

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, M L; Miller, J M; Yamaoka, K; Lohfink, A; Nowak, M; Fabian, A C; Alston, W N; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fuerst, F; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, B W; Grinberg, V; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Kara, E; King, A L; Stern, D; Walton, D J; Wilms, J; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    We present simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR ) and Suzaku observations of the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 in the hard state. This is the first time this state has been observed in Cyg X-1 with NuSTAR, which enables us to study the reflection and broad-band spectra in unprecedented detail. We confirm that the iron line cannot be fit with a combination of narrow lines and absorption features, and instead requires a relativistically blurred profile in combination with a narrow line and absorption from the companion wind. We use the reflection models of Garcia et al. (2014) to simultaneously measure the black hole spin, disk inner radius, and coronal height in a self-consistent manner. Detailed fits to the iron line profile indicate a high level of relativistic blurring, indicative of reflection from the inner accretion disk. We find a high spin, a small inner disk radius, and a low source height, and rule out truncation to greater than three gravitational radii at the 3{\\sigma} confidence le...

  12. THE FATE OF Cyg X-1: AN EMPIRICAL LOWER LIMIT ON BLACK-HOLE-NEUTRON-STAR MERGER RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent distance determination allowed precise estimation of the orbital parameters of Cyg X-1, which contains a massive 14.8 M☉ black hole (BH) with a 19.2 M☉ O star companion. This system appears to be the clearest example of a potential progenitor of a black hole + neutron star (BH-NS) system. We follow the future evolution of Cyg X-1, and show that it will soon encounter a Roche lobe overflow episode, followed shortly by a Type Ib/c supernova and the formation of a neutron star (NS). It is demonstrated that in majority of cases (∼> 70%) the supernova and associated natal kick disrupt the binary due to the fact that the orbit expanded significantly in the Roche lobe overflow episode. In the reminder of cases (∼–1. This rate is so low that the detection of BH-NS systems in gravitational radiation is highly unlikely, generating Advanced LIGO/VIRGO detection rates at the level of only ∼1 per century. If BH-NS inspirals are in fact detected, it will indicate that the formation of these systems proceeds via some alternative and yet unobserved channels.

  13. Infrared CO line for the X 1 Sigma(+) state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorvitch, D.

    1994-01-01

    A complete line list with improved accuracy for all the rotation-vibration transitions of the fundamental, first, and second overtone bands up to v = 20 and J = 149 of the gradual state X 1 Sigma(+) of the seven CO isotopes -- (12)C(16)O, (13)C(16)O, (12)C(17)O, (12)C(18)O, (13)C(18)O, (14)C(16)O, and (13)c(17)O -- is made available to the astronomical community. A line list of the pure rotational transitions up to v = 5 and J = 60 is also made available for these seven isotopes. This line list contains the transition frequency, the lower state energy, the Einstein A-value, the g f-value, the transition strength at 3000 K or 1000 K for the pure rotational transitions, the expectation value of the effective dipole moment operator, and the quantum numbers of each transition. Individual partition functions are reported in the temperature range of 500 to 10,000 K. This line list is available as four text files from the author using an anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp) transfer and in computer-readable form in the AAS CD-ROM Series, Vol. 3.

  14. The 1999 Hercules X-1 Anomalous Low State

    CERN Document Server

    Coburn, W; Wilms, J; Gruber, D; Staubert, R; Rothschild, R E; Postnov, K A; Shakura, N; Risse, P; Kreykenbohm, I; Pelling, M R

    1999-01-01

    A failed main-on in the 35 d cycle of Her X-1 was observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) on 1999 April 26. Exceptions to the normal 35d cycle have been seen only twice before; in 1983 and again 1993. We present timing and spectral results of this latest Anomalous Low State (ALS) along with comparisons to the main-on and normal low states. Pulsations were observed in the 2.5-20 keV band with a pulsed fraction of (4.7+-0.2)%. Spectral analysis indicates that the ALS spectrum has the same shape as the main-on but is modified by heavy absorption and scattering. We find that 70% of the observed emission has passed through a cold absorber (nh=5.6x10^{23} cm^{-2}). This partially absorbing spectral fit can be applied to the normal low state with similar results. We find that the ALS observations may be interpreted as a decrease in inclination of the accretion disk causing the central X-Ray source to be obscured over the entire 35 d cycle.

  15. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  16. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees. For...... all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  17. Power colours: simple X-ray binary variability comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, L. M.; Uttley, P.; Klein-Wolt, M.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a new method of variability classification using observations of black hole X-ray binaries. Using `power colours' - ratios of integrated power in different Fourier frequency bands - we can clearly differentiate different canonical black hole states as the objects evolve during outburst. We analyse (˜2400) Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of 12 transient low-mass black hole X-ray binaries and find that the path taken around the power colour-colour diagram as the sources evolve is highly consistent from object to object. We discuss how the consistency observed in the power colour-colour diagram between different objects allows for easy state classification based on only a few observations, and show how the power-spectral shapes can be simply classified using a single parameter, the power-spectral `hue'. To illustrate the benefits of our simple model-independent approach, we show that the persistent high-mass X-ray binary Cyg X-1 shows very similar power-spectral evolution to the transient black hole sources, with the main difference being caused by a combination of a lack of quasi-periodic oscillations and an excess of low-frequency power-law noise in the Cyg X-1 power spectra during the transitional state. We also compare the transient objects to the neutron star atoll source Aquila X-1, demonstrating that it traces a different path in the power colour-colour plot. Thus, power colours could be an effective method to classify newly discovered X-ray binaries.

  18. Constraints on the Neutron Star and Inner Accretion Flow in Serpens X-1 Using NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Fuerst, F; Bachetti, M; Barret, D; Grefenstette, B W; Tendulkar, S; Harrison, F A; Boggs, S E; Chakrabarty, D; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Hailey, C J; Natalucci, L; Paerels, F; Rana, V; Stern, D K; Tomsick, J A; Zhang, W W

    2013-01-01

    We report on an observation of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Serpens X-1, made with NuSTAR. The extraordinary sensitivity afforded by NuSTAR facilitated the detection of a clear, robust, relativistic Fe K emission line from the inner disk. A relativistic profile is required over a single Gaussian line from any charge state of Fe at the 5-sigma level of confidence, and any two Gaussians of equal width at the same confidence. The Compton back-scattering "hump" peaking in the 10-20 keV band is detected for the first time in a neutron star X-ray binary. Fits with relativistically-blurred disk reflection models suggest that the disk likely extends close to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) or stellar surface. The best-fit blurred reflection models constrain the gravitational redshift from the stellar surface to be z > 0.16. The data are broadly compatible with the disk extending to the ISCO; in that case, z > 0.22 and R < 12.6 km (assuming M = 1.4 Msun and a=0, where a = cJ/GM^2). If the star ...

  19. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1 AND ITS STELLAR ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg IX X-1 is an archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). Here we study the properties of the optical counterpart and of its stellar environment using optical data from SUBARU/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph, GEMINI/GMOS-N and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys, as well as simultaneous Chandra X-ray data. The V ∼ 22.6 spectroscopically identified optical counterpart is part of a loose cluster with an age ∼sun. The counterpart is more luminous than the other stars of the association, suggesting a non-negligible optical contribution from the accretion disk. An observed UV excess also points to non-stellar light similar to X-ray active low-mass X-ray binaries. A broad He II λ4686 emission line identified in the optical spectrum of the ULX further suggests optical light from X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disk. Using stellar evolutionary tracks, we have constrained the mass of the counterpart to be ∼> 10 Msun, even if the accretion disk contributes significantly to the optical luminosity. Comparison of the photometric properties of the counterpart with binary models show that the donor may be more massive, ∼> 25 Msun, with the ULX system likely undergoing case AB mass transfer. Finally, the counterpart exhibits photometric variability of 0.14 mag between two HST observations separated by 50 days which could be due to ellipsoidal variations and/or disk reprocessing of variable X-ray emission.

  20. A Search for Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Scorpius X-1 with the Magic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2011-07-01

    The acceleration of particles up to GeV or higher energies in microquasars has been the subject of considerable theoretical and observational efforts in the past few years. Sco X-1 is a microquasar from which evidence of highly energetic particles in the jet has been found when it is in the so-called Horizontal Branch (HB), a state when the radio and hard X-ray fluxes are higher and a powerful relativistic jet is present. Here we present the first very high energy gamma-ray observations of Sco X-1, obtained with the MAGIC telescopes. An analysis of the whole data set does not yield a significant signal, with 95% CL flux upper limits above 300 GeV at the level of 2.4 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. Simultaneous RXTE observations were conducted to provide the X-ray state of the source. A selection of the gamma-ray data obtained during the HB based on the X-ray colors did not yield a signal either, with an upper limit of 3.4 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. These upper limits place a constraint on the maximum TeV luminosity to non-thermal X-ray luminosity of L VHE/L ntX <~ 0.02 that can be related to a maximum TeV luminosity to jet power ratio of L VHE/L j <~ 10-3. Our upper limits indicate that the underlying high-energy emission physics in Sco X-1 must be inherently different from that of the hitherto detected gamma-ray binaries.

  1. Energy-dependent evolution in IC10 X-1: hard evidence for an extended corona and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed a ∼130 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dynamically confirmed black hole + Wolf-Rayet (BH+WR) X-ray binary (XB) IC10 X-1, covering ∼1 orbital cycle. This system experiences periodic intensity dips every ∼35 hr. We find that energy-independent evolution is rejected at a >5σ level. The spectral and timing evolution of IC10 X-1 are best explained by a compact disk blackbody and an extended Comptonized component, where the thermal component is completely absorbed and the Comptonized component is partially covered during the dip. We consider three possibilities for the absorber: cold material in the outer accretion disk, as is well documented for Galactic neutron star (NS) XBs at high inclination; a stream of stellar wind that is enhanced by traveling through the L1 point; and a spherical wind. We estimated the corona radius (r ADC) for IC10 X-1 from the dip ingress to be ∼106 km, assuming absorption from the outer disk, and found it to be consistent with the relation between r ADC and 1-30 keV luminosity observed in Galactic NS XBs that spans two orders of magnitude. For the other two scenarios, the corona would be larger. Prior BH mass (M BH) estimates range over 23-38 M ☉, depending on the inclination and WR mass. For disk absorption, the inclination, i, is likely to be ∼60-80°, with M BH ∼ 24-41 M ☉. Alternatively, the L1-enhanced wind requires i ∼ 80°, suggesting ∼24-33 M ☉. For a spherical absorber, i ∼ 40°, and M BH ∼ 50-65 M ☉.

  2. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed with NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Grinberg, V.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Clavel, M.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Parker, M. L.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Tao, L.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability, we construct a model incorporating both the standard disk-corona continuum and relativistic reflection from the accretion disk, based on prior work on Cygnus X-1, and apply this model to each epoch independently. We find excellent consistency for the black hole spin and the iron abundance of the accretion disk, which are expected to remain constant on observational timescales. In particular, we confirm that Cygnus X-1 hosts a rapidly rotating black hole, 0.93≲ {a}* ≲ 0.96, in broad agreement with the majority of prior studies of the relativistic disk reflection and constraints on the spin obtained through studies of the thermal accretion disk continuum. Our work also confirms the apparent misalignment between the inner disk and the orbital plane of the binary system reported previously, finding the magnitude of this warp to be ˜10°–15°. This level of misalignment does not significantly change (and may even improve) the agreement between our reflection results and the thermal continuum results regarding the black hole spin. The spectral variability observed by NuSTAR is dominated by the primary continuum, implying variability in the temperature of the scattering electron plasma. Finally, we consistently observe absorption from ionized iron at ˜6.7 keV, which varies in strength as a function of orbital phase in a manner consistent with the absorbing material being an ionized phase of the focused stellar wind from the supergiant companion star.

  3. Energy-dependent evolution in IC10 X-1: hard evidence for an extended corona and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.; Steiner, J. F.; Prestwich, A. F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CFA), Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stevens, I. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Clark, J. S.; Kolb, U. C. [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-10

    We have analyzed a ∼130 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dynamically confirmed black hole + Wolf-Rayet (BH+WR) X-ray binary (XB) IC10 X-1, covering ∼1 orbital cycle. This system experiences periodic intensity dips every ∼35 hr. We find that energy-independent evolution is rejected at a >5σ level. The spectral and timing evolution of IC10 X-1 are best explained by a compact disk blackbody and an extended Comptonized component, where the thermal component is completely absorbed and the Comptonized component is partially covered during the dip. We consider three possibilities for the absorber: cold material in the outer accretion disk, as is well documented for Galactic neutron star (NS) XBs at high inclination; a stream of stellar wind that is enhanced by traveling through the L1 point; and a spherical wind. We estimated the corona radius (r {sub ADC}) for IC10 X-1 from the dip ingress to be ∼10{sup 6} km, assuming absorption from the outer disk, and found it to be consistent with the relation between r {sub ADC} and 1-30 keV luminosity observed in Galactic NS XBs that spans two orders of magnitude. For the other two scenarios, the corona would be larger. Prior BH mass (M {sub BH}) estimates range over 23-38 M {sub ☉}, depending on the inclination and WR mass. For disk absorption, the inclination, i, is likely to be ∼60-80°, with M {sub BH} ∼ 24-41 M {sub ☉}. Alternatively, the L1-enhanced wind requires i ∼ 80°, suggesting ∼24-33 M {sub ☉}. For a spherical absorber, i ∼ 40°, and M {sub BH} ∼ 50-65 M {sub ☉}.

  4. The Swift-BAT monitoring reveals a long term decay of the cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; D'Aì, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the behaviour of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 using the long-term hard X-ray monitoring performed by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift. High statistics, intensity selected spectra were built along 11 years of BAT survey. While the fundamental line is not revealed, the second harmonic of the CRSF can be clearly detected in all the spectra, at an energy varying between ˜53 keV and ˜58 keV, directly correlated with the luminosity. We have further investigated the evolution of the CRSF in time, by studying the intensity selected spectra built along four 33-month time intervals along the survey. For the first time we find in this source a secular variation in the CRSF energy: independent of the source luminosity, the CRSF second harmonic energy decreases by ˜0.36 keV/year between the first and the third time interval, corresponding to an apparent decay of the magnetic field of ˜3 × 1010 G/year. The intensity-cyclotron energy pattern is consistent between the third and the last time intervals. A possible interpretation for this decay could be the settling of an accreted mound that produces either a distortion of the poloidal magnetic field on the polar cap or a geometrical displacement of the line forming region. This hypothesis seems supported by the correspondance between the rate of the line shift per unit accreted mass and the mass accreted on the polar cap per unit area in Vela X-1 and Her X-1, respectively.

  5. SAS 3 observations of Cygnus X-1 - The intensity dips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, R. A.; Canizares, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    In general, the dips are observed to occur near superior conjunctions of the X-ray source, but one pair of 2-minute dips occurs when the X-ray source is closer to the observer than is the supergiant companion. The dips are analyzed spectrally with the aid of seven energy channels in the range 1.2-50 keV. Essentially, there is no change in the spectral index during the dips. Reductions in the count rates are observed at energies exceeding 6 keV for some of the dips, but the dip amplitude is always significantly greater in the 1.2-3 keV band. It is believed that absorption by partially ionized gas may best explain these results, since the observations of Pravdo et al. (1980) rule out absorption by unionized material. Estimates for the intervening gas density, extent, and distance from the X-ray source are presented. Attention is also given to the problems confronting the models for the injection of gas through the line of sight, believed to be inclined by approximately 30 deg from the binary pole.

  6. When is $f(x_1, x_2, \\ldots , x_n) = u_1 (x_1) + u_2(x_2) + \\cdots + u_n (x_n)$?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Kłopotowski; M G Nadkarni; K P S Bhaskara Rao

    2003-02-01

    We discuss subsets of $\\mathbb{R}^n$ such that every real valued function on is of the form $$f(x_1, x_2, \\ldots , x_n) = u_1(x_1) + u_2(x_2) + \\cdots + u_n (x_n),$$ and the related concepts and situations in analysis.

  7. Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    Binary population synthesis (BPS), an approach to evolving millions of stars (including binaries) simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis (EPS) model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.

  8. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  9. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, D R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 solar masses, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e=0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion.

  10. Hypervelocity binary stars: smoking gun of massive binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Youjun; Lin, D N C

    2007-01-01

    The hypervelocity stars recently found in the Galactic halo are expelled from the Galactic center through interactions between binary stars and the central massive black hole or between single stars and a hypothetical massive binary black hole. In this paper, we demonstrate that binary stars can be ejected out of the Galactic center with velocities up to 10^3 km/s, while preserving their integrity, through interactions with a massive binary black hole. Binary stars are unlikely to attain such high velocities via scattering by a single massive black hole or through any other mechanisms. Based on the above theoretical prediction, we propose a search for binary systems among the hypervelocity stars. Discovery of hypervelocity binary stars, even one, is a definitive evidence of the existence of a massive binary black hole in the Galactic center.

  11. MAXI monitoring of blazars and blackhole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Negoro, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Isobe, Naoki; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Matsuoka, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Since August 2009, MAXI experiment on the ISS has been performing all-sky X-ray monitoring. With MAXI, we detected flaring activities of some blazers, including Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 3C 273. Recently, new X-ray flaring activities were detected from two blazers, MAXI J1930+093 = 2FGL J1931.1+0938 (Atel#5943) and 2MAXI J0243-582 = BZB J0244-5819 (Atel#6012). The MAXI monitoring also covers black hole binaries, including Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3 which emit GeV gamma-rays. Their gamma-ray emission was found to coincide with their X-ray state transitions. We present light curves and outstanding events of these sources.

  12. Milli-arcsecond Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, R M; Mioduszewki, A; Rodríguez, L F

    2008-01-01

    As part of an astrometric program, we have used the Very Long Baseline Array to measure the trigonometric parallax of several young stars in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions with great accuracy. Additionally, we have obtained an unprecedented sample of high-resolution (~ 1 mas) images of several young stellar systems. These images revealed that about 70% of the stars in our sample are very tight binary stars (with separations of a few mas). Since it is highly unlikely that 70% of all stars are such tight binaries, we argue that selection effects are at work.

  13. Binary Cumulant Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic statistics for binary random variables is concerned with highly structured algebraic varieties in the space of 2x2x...x2-tensors. We demonstrate the advantages of representing such varieties in the coordinate system of binary cumulants. Our primary focus lies on hidden subset models. Parametrizations and implicit equations in cumulants are derived for hyperdeterminants, for secant and tangential varieties of Segre varieties, and for certain context-specific independence models. Extending work of Rota and collaborators, we explore the polynomial inequalities satisfied by cumulants.

  14. Formation of binary radio pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the standard scenario of the evolution of massive binary stars a study is made of the formation of final binary systems in which at least one of the components is a neutron star. It is found that about every fortieth radio pulsar must be a member of a close binary system. This is confirmed by observations. Radio pulsars are not formed in wide binary systems, possibly because of the very slow rotation of the presupernova stars

  15. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  16. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de

    2000-01-01

    We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin

  17. Atomistic study on phase stability and electronic structures of Z phase CrNbN{sub x} (x = 1, 2, 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Z.Q., E-mail: zhiqinglv@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging and Stamping Technology and Science, Ministry of Education of China, College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, R.H.; Dong, F.; Wang, B. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Z.H. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging and Stamping Technology and Science, Ministry of Education of China, College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Fu, W.T., E-mail: wtfu@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • The Z-phase CrNbN will not spontaneously change into two phases ([Cr{sub 2}N] + [V{sub 2}N]). • Increasing N can promote Z phase changing into corresponding binary compounds. • The mechanical stability of the Z phases with N (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) is lower than other Z phases. - Abstract: The site preference of N in Z-phase CrNbN{sub x} (x = 1, 2, 3) is investigated based on the phase stability from density functional theory. The electronic structures and elastic properties of Z-phase CrNbN{sub x} are also studied from first principles. The formation enthalpies of the Z phases and related N-rich Z phases with respect to the binary Cr- and Nb-nitride phases are calculated. The formation enthalpy of Z-phase CrNbN{sub x} (x = 1, 2, 3) and the Cr–N/Nb–N binary phases are negative, which indicates that these phases are energetic stable. The stability of N-rich Cr–N (Nb–N) binary compound is higher than that corresponding to N-poor binary compound, whereas the stability of the N-rich Z phase is lower than that of the Z-phase CrNbN. The ΔE{sub f} of CrNbN is more negative than ([Cr{sub 2}N] + [Nb{sub 2}N])/2, which indicates that the Z-phase CrNbN is more stable than ([Cr{sub 2}N] + [Nb{sub 2}N])/2. The ΔE{sub f} of CrNbN{sub 2} is less negative than ([CrN] + [NbN]), which indicates the CrNbN{sub 2} phase will spontaneously change into two phases (CrN and NbN). Z-phase CrNbN and II-CrNbN{sub 2} are mechanically stable; however, CrNbN{sub 3} and I-CrNbN{sub 2} are mechanically unstable. Evidently, the mechanical stability of the N-rich Z phases with N (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) is lower than that of the Z phases without N (0.5, 0.5, 0.5). The all results indicate that increasing N can suppress Z phase formation and promote Z phase changing into corresponding binary compounds for a system with sufficient Nb.

  18. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X-ray coverage of this remarkable source up to ∼30 keV. Broadband observations were undertaken at two epochs, between which Holmberg IX X-1 exhibited both flux and strong spectral variability, increasing in luminosity from L X = (1.90 ± 0.03) × 1040 erg s–1 to L X = (3.35 ± 0.03) × 1040 erg s–1. Neither epoch exhibits a spectrum consistent with emission from the standard low/hard accretion state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, which would have been expected if Holmberg IX X-1 harbors a truly massive black hole accreting at substantially sub-Eddington accretion rates. The NuSTAR data confirm that the curvature observed previously in the 3-10 keV bandpass does represent a true spectral cutoff. During each epoch, the spectrum appears to be dominated by two optically thick thermal components, likely associated with an accretion disk. The spectrum also shows some evidence for a nonthermal tail at the highest energies, which may further support this scenario. The available data allow for either of the two thermal components to dominate the spectral evolution, although both scenarios require highly nonstandard behavior for thermal accretion disk emission.

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of perfluorinated aldehyde hydrates (n-C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)2, x = 1, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Toft, A.; Nielsen, O.J.;

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used to measure k(Cl+C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)(2)) (x = 1, 3, 4) = (5.84 +/- 0.92) x 10(-13) and k(OH+C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)(2)) = (1.22 +/- 0.26) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) in 700 Torr of N(2) or air at 296 +/- 2 K. The Cl initiated...... oxidation of CF(3)CH(OH)(2) in 700 Torr of air gave CF(3)COOH in a molar yield of 101 +/- 6%. IR spectra of C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)(2) (x = 1, 3, 4) were recorded and are presented. An upper limit of k(CF(3)CHO+H(2)O) x 10(-23) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was established for the gas-phase hydration of CF(3)CHO....... Bubbling CF(3)CHO/air mixtures through liquid water led to >80% conversion of CF(3)CHO into the hydrate within the approximately 2 s taken for passage through the bubbler. These results suggest that OH radical initiated oxidation of C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)(2) hydrates could be a significant source...

  20. Binary MEMS gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel sensing mechanism for electrostatic MEMS that employs static bifurcation-based sensing and binary detection is demonstrated. It is implemented as an ethanol vapour sensor that exploits the static pull-in bifurcation. Sensor detection of 5 ppm of ethanol vapour in dry nitrogen, equivalent to a detectable mass of 165 pg, is experimentally demonstrated. Sensor robustness to external disturbances is also demonstrated. A closed-form expression for the sensitivity of statically detected electrostatic MEMS sensors is derived. It is shown that the sensitivity of static bifurcation-based binary electrostatic MEMS sensors represents an upper bound on the sensitivity of static detection for given sensor dimensions and material properties. (paper)

  1. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  2. Coherent searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources and Scorpius X-1: results from the second LIGO science run

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Ageev, A; Agresti, J; Allen, B; Allen, J; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Luna, M; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswaran, A J; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sanchodela, L; Jordana; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Spjeld, O; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, 2K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ward, R; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C

    2006-01-01

    We carry out two searches for periodic gravitational waves using the most sensitive few hours of data from the second LIGO science run. The first search is targeted at isolated, previously unknown neutron stars and covers the entire sky in the frequency band 160-728.8 Hz. The second search targets the accreting neutron star in the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1, covers the frequency bands 464-484 Hz and 604-624 Hz, and two binary orbit parameters. Both searches look for coincidences between the Livingston and Hanford 4-km interferometers. For isolated neutron stars our 95% confidence upper limits on the gravitational wave strain amplitude range from 6.6E-23 to 1E-21 across the frequency band; For Scorpius X-1 they range from 1.7E-22 to 1.3E-21 across the two 20-Hz frequency bands. The upper limits presented in this paper are the first broad-band wide parameter space upper limits on periodic gravitational waves using coherent search techniques. The methods developed here lay the foundations for upcoming hi...

  3. High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with the XMM-Newton RGS CNO Element Abundance Measurements and Density Diagnostics of a Photoionized Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Garate, M A; Den Herder, J W A; Zane, S; Ramsay, G

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1, an intermediate-mass X-ray binary, which was observed with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. We measure the elemental abundance ratios by use of spectral models, and we detect material processed through the CNO-cycle. The CNO abundances, and in particular the ratio N/O > 4.0 times solar, provide stringent constraints on the evolution of the binary system. The low and short-on flux states of Her X-1 exhibit narrow line emission from C VI, N VI, N VII, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, and Ne X ions. The spectra show signatures of photoionization. We measure the electron temperature, quantify photoexcitation in the He alpha lines, and set limits on the location and density of the gas. The recombination lines may originate in the accretion disk atmosphere and corona, or on the X-ray illuminated face of the mass donor (HZ Her). The spectral variation over the course of the 35 d period provides additional evidence for the precession of the disk. Duri...

  4. Molecular analysis of PinX1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Chae, Kwang Jo; Park, Chanil; Park, Young Nyun

    2004-10-01

    PinX1 is located at 8p23, a region with frequent loss of heterozygosity in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Overexpression of PinX1 is known to inhibit telomerase activity, shorten telomeres and induce crisis while its depletion increases tumorigenesis in nude mice. These results suggest that PinX1 might be critical for hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, we assessed transcript expression of PinX1, the correlation between PinX1 mRNA level and telomere length and telomerase activity, as well as sequence alteration, in 24 HCCs and their adjacent non-HCC tissues from patients with B viral chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis. There was no significant difference between the levels of PinX1 mRNA in HCCs and those in non-HCCs. The PinX1 mRNA tended to increase as the telomere shortened in the HCCs (p=0.067, R(2)=0.166), but no correlation was found in non-HCCs. The PinX1 level revealed no significant relationship with telomerase activity in HCCs and non-HCCs. The missense mutations of PinX1, at the 254 and 265 residues, were found in 17% of the HCCs and their adjacent non-HCCs. The mutations were located in the non-conserved region and revealed no relation with PinX1 expression, telomere length and telomerase activity, suggesting that they are likely polymorphisms. Our findings suggest that PinX1 may not play a major role in hepatocarcinogenesis as a target tumor suppressor gene. PinX1, however, might be involved in the telomere length regulation of HCCs. PMID:15375513

  5. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.

  6. Binary-Signal Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  7. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  8. (3x1)-Br/Pt(110) structure and the charge-density-wave-assisted c(2x2) to (3x1) phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After our recent report on the formation of a (3x1) charge-density-wave phase in the quasi-one-dimensional system Br/Pt(110) we present a detailed investigation of the c(2x2) implies (3x1) transition in the Br/Pt(110) adsorption system. This includes the atomic structure of the (3x1) phase as determined by quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and density functional theory calculations. While in the parent c(2x2) phase with coverage Θ=1/2 ML the Br atoms occupy every second short-bridge site on the unreconstructed (1x1)-Pt(110) surface, the adatoms in the (3x1) phase at coverage Θ=2/3 ML reside in every third short-bridge and long-bridge sites. Charge densities and vertical relaxations of the Pt atoms forming the short- and long-bridge sites are different, thus yielding a modulation of both, the charge and the position of the outermost Pt atoms with a period of three nearest-neighbor spacings. For 1/2 ML<Θ≤0.58 ML LEED intensity and scanning tunneling microscope (STM) measurements reveal the nucleation of (3x1) islands surrounded by areas with a local coverage of 1/2 ML. Within the latter areas the STM measurements indicate dynamical fluctuations of the Br positions at room temperature. In the time average every short-bridge site is sampled by the mobile Br atoms, but in the neighborhood of (3x1) islands every third short-bridge site seems to be preferentially occupied

  9. Chandra X-ray spectroscopy of the focused wind in the Cygnus X-1 system I. The non-dip spectrum in the low/hard state

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, Manfred; Nowak, Michael A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert S; Lee, Julia C

    2008-01-01

    We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system Cygnus X-1/HDE 226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). Cyg X-1 was in its spectrally hard state and the observation was performed during superior conjunction of the black hole, allowing for the spectroscopic analysis of the accreted stellar wind along the line of sight. A significant part of the observation covers X-ray dips as commonly observed for Cyg X-1 at this orbital phase, however, here we only analyze the high count rate non-dip spectrum. The full 0.5-10 keV continuum can be described by a single model consisting of a disk, a narrow and a relativistically broadened Fe Kalpha line, and a power law component, which is consistent with simultaneous RXTE broad band data. We detect absorption edges from overabundant neutral O, Ne and Fe, and absorption line series from highly ionized ions and infer column densities and Doppler shifts. With emission lines of He-like Mg XI, we detect t...

  10. X-ray time lags and nonlinear variability in the ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 5408 X-1 and NGC 6946 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-García, L; Roberts, T P; Middleton, M

    2015-01-01

    We present our analysis of the X-ray variability of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) based on multiple XMM--Newton observations. We show the linear rms-flux relation is present in eight observations of NGC5408 X-1 and also in three observations of NGC6946 X-1, but data from other ULXs are generally not sufficient to constrain any rms-flux relation. The presence of this relation was previously reported in only two observations of NGC 5408X-1; our results show this is a persistent property of the variability of NGC5408 X-1 and extends to at least one other variable ULX. We speculate this is a ubiquitous property of ULX variability, as it is for X-ray variability in other luminous accreting sources. We also recover the time delay between hard and soft bands in NGC5408 X-1, with the soft band (1 keV) by up to ~10 s (~0.2 rad) at frequencies above ~few mHz. For the first time, we extend the lag analysis to lower frequencies and find some evidence for a reversal of the lag, a hard lag of ~1 ks at frequencies ...

  11. Biclustering Sparse Binary Genomic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Van Uitert, M.; Meuleman, W.; Wessels, L. F. A.

    2008-01-01

    Genomic datasets often consist of large, binary, sparse data matrices. In such a dataset, one is often interested in finding contiguous blocks that (mostly) contain ones. This is a biclustering problem, and while many algorithms have been proposed to deal with gene expression data, only two algorithms have been proposed that specifically deal with binary matrices. None of the gene expression biclustering algorithms can handle the large number of zeros in sparse binary matrices. The two propos...

  12. X-ray diffraction investigation of the sulphur induced 4x1 reconstruction of Ni(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, M.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Nielsen, M.; Findeisen, E.; Buslaps, T.; Johnson, R.L.; Besenbacher, F.; Stensgaard, I.

    1993-01-01

    The atomic structure of the Ni(110)4 x 1-S reconstruction has been determined on the basis of surface X-ray diffraction measurements. An analysis of the in-plane diffraction data shows that the model consists of Ni rows along the [001] direction, two for every 4 x 1 unit cell, corresponding to 0...

  13. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  14. Report IAU Comm. 42, Close Binary Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Ignasi; Scarfe, Colin D.; Torres, Guillermo; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Sion, Edward M.; Richards, Mercedes T.; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Olah, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Brief summaries are given about (1) close binary research from the perspective of the Bibliography of Close Binaries, (2) low-mass binaries and model discrepancies, (3) W UMa-type binaries, (4) cataclysmic variables, (5) Algol binaries, (6) the oEA stars, (7) effects of binarity on stellar activity.

  15. Ranked solutions of the matric equation A1X1=A2X2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Duane Porter

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Let GF(pz denote the finite field of pz elements. Let A1 be s×m of rank r1 and A2 be s×n of rank r2 with elements from GF(pz. In this paper, formulas are given for finding the number of X1,X2 over GF(pz which satisfy the matric equation A1X1=A2X2, where X1 is m×t of rank k1, and X2 is n×t of rank k2. These results are then used to find the number of solutions X1,…,Xn, Y1,…,Ym, m,n>1, of the matric equation A1X1…Xn=A2Y1…Ym.

  16. Ranked solutions of the matric equation A1X1=A2X2

    OpenAIRE

    A. Duane Porter; Nick Mousouris

    1980-01-01

    Let GF(pz) denote the finite field of pz elements. Let A1 be s×m of rank r1 and A2 be s×n of rank r2 with elements from GF(pz). In this paper, formulas are given for finding the number of X1,X2 over GF(pz) which satisfy the matric equation A1X1=A2X2, where X1 is m×t of rank k1, and X2 is n×t of rank k2. These results are then used to find the number of solutions X1,…,Xn, Y1,…,Ym, m,n>1, of the matric equation A1X1…Xn=A2Y1…Ym.

  17. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  18. The quest for collapsed/frozen stars in single-line spectroscopic binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Trimble, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Black holes are now commonplace, among the stars, in Galactic centers, and perhaps other places. But within living memory, their very existence was doubted by many, and few chose to look for them. Zeldovich and Guseinov were first, followed by Trimble and Thorne, using a method that would have identified HDE 226868 as a plausible candidate, if it had been in the 1968 catalogue of spectroscopic binaries. That it was not arose from an unhappy accident in the observing program of Daniel M. Popper long before the discovery of X-ray binaries and the identification of Cygnus X-1 with that hot, massive star and its collapsed companion.

  19. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  20. Computing on Binary Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Tian-Ming; Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Many problems in Computer Science can be abstracted to the following question: given a set of objects and rules respectively, which new objects can be produced? In the paper, we consider a succinct version of the question: given a set of binary strings and several operations like conjunction and disjunction, which new binary strings can be generated? Although it is a fundamental problem, to the best of our knowledge, the problem hasn't been studied yet. In this paper, an O(m^2n) algorithm is presented to determine whether a string s is representable by a set W, where n is the number of strings in W and each string has the same length m. However, looking for the minimum subset from a set to represent a given string is shown to be NP-hard. In addition, we prove that counting the number of strings representable is #P-complete. But if the operator negation can be used, the number is some power of 2. This di?erence maybe help us understand the problem more profoundly.

  1. Kepler K2 Observations of Sco X-1: Orbital Modulations and Correlations with Fermi GBM and MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Hynes, R I; Baum, Z A; Hsu, C -C; Cherry, M L; Scaringi, S

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1 using Kepler K2 optical data and Fermi GBM and MAXI X-ray data. We recover a clear sinusoidal orbital modulation from the Kepler data. Optical fluxes are distributed bimodally around the mean orbital light curve, with both high and low states showing the same modulation. The high state is broadly consistent with the flaring branch of the Z diagram and the low state with the normal branch. We see both rapid optical flares and slower dips in the high state, and slow brightenings in the low state. High state flares exhibit a narrow range of amplitudes with a striking cut-off at a maximum amplitude. Optical fluxes correlate with X-ray fluxes in the high state, but in the low state they are anti-correlated. These patterns can be seen clearly in both flux-flux diagrams and cross-correlation functions and are consistent between MAXI and GBM. The high state correlation arises promptly with at most a few minutes lag. We attribute this to thermal ...

  2. HEXTE Studies of Sco X-1 Spectra Detections of Hard X-Ray Tails Beyond 200 keV

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, F; Rothschild, R E; Peterson, L E; Gruber, D E; Pelling, M R; Tomsick, J A

    2001-01-01

    Using the HEXTE experiment on-board the RXTE satellite, we performed a search for hard X-ray tails in Sco X-1 spectra. We found strong evidence for the presence of such a non-thermal component on several occasions. Using the PCA/RXTE we were able to track the position of the source along the Z diagram, and we observed that the presence of the hard X-ray tail is not confined to a particular region. However, we found a correlation between the power law index of the non-thermal component and the position of the source in the Z diagram, suggesting that the hard X-ray spectrum (i.e., E > 50 keV) becomes flatter as the mass accretion rate increases. We were also able to study the temporal variation of the appearance/absence of the hard X-ray component. With our derived luminosities, we were also able to test the idea that X-ray luminosities can be used to distinguish between X-ray binary systems containing neutron stars and black holes.

  3. The Swift-BAT monitoring reveals a long term decay of the cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    La Parola, V; Segreto, A; D'Aì, A

    2016-01-01

    We study the behaviour of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 using the long-term hard X-ray monitoring performed by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift. High statistics, intensity selected spectra were built along 11 years of BAT survey. While the fundamental line is not revealed, the second harmonic of the CRSF can be clearly detected in all the spectra, at an energy varying between $\\sim 53$ keV and $\\sim 58$ keV, directly correlated with the luminosity. We have further investigated the evolution of the CRSF in time, by studying the intensity selected spectra built along four 33-month time intervals along the survey. For the first time we find in this source a secular variation in the CRSF energy: independent of the source luminosity, the CRSF second harmonic energy decreases by $\\sim 0.36$ keV/year between the first and the third time interval, corresponding to an apparent decay of the magnetic field of $\\sim 3\\times 10^{10}$ G/year. The inten...

  4. Highly Ionized Fe-K Absorption Line from Cygnus X-1 in the High/Soft State Observed with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S; Mineshige, S; Ueda, Y; Kubota, A; Gandhi, P; Done, C; Noda, H; Yoshikawa, A; Makishima, K

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of a transient He-like Fe K alpha absorption line in Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 on 2011 October 5 near superior conjunction during the high/soft state, which enable us to map the full evolution from the start and the end of the episodic accretion phenomena or dips for the first time. We model the X-ray spectra during the event and trace their evolution. The absorption line is rather weak in the first half of the observation, but instantly deepens for ~10 ks, and weakens thereafter. The overall change in equivalent width is a factor of ~3, peaking at an orbital phase of ~0.08. This is evidence that the companion stellar wind feeding the black hole is clumpy. By analyzing the line with a Voigt profile, it is found to be consistent with a slightly redshifted Fe XXV transition, or possibly a mixture of several species less ionized than Fe XXV. The data may be explained by a clump located at a distance of ~10^(10-12) cm with a density of ~10^((-13)-(-11)) g cm^-...

  5. A Her X-1 Turn-On Using the pulse profile to probe the outer edge of an accretion disk

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Staubert, R; Risse, P; Heindl, W A; Rothschild, R; Shakura, N I; Postnov, K A

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray binary pulsar Her X-1 shows a wide variety of long and short term variabilities in the X-ray light curve. The 35 d variability of the source is interpreted as the influence of a warped, inclined, and twisted accretion disk periodically covering the line of sight to the central neutron star. In 1997 September we observed the ``turn-on'' of a 35 d cycle with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Spectral analysis reveals that during early phases of the turn-on the overall spectrum is composed of X-rays scattered into the line of sight plus heavily absorbed X-rays. This interpretation is consistent with the variation of the pulse profile observed at the same time. The overall shape of the pulse profile is not changing, but towards earlier phases of the turn-on the pulse signature is steadily ``washed out''. This behavior can be understood as an influence of scattering and absorption due to the presence of the accretion disk rim. Using a Monte Carlo code we simulate the influence of both processes on ...

  6. Very High Energy Gamma-ray Radiation from the Stellar-mass Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Anderhub, H; Antoranz, P; Armada, A; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Böck, R K; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Coarasa, J A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Curtef, V; Danielyan, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; Delgado, C; De Los Reyes, R; Delotto, B; Domingo-Santamaria, E; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Flix, J; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fuchs, M; Galante, N; Garcia-Lopez, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giller, M; Göbel, F; Hakobyan, D; Hayashida, M; Hengstebeck, T; Herrero, A; Hohn, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Jacon, P; Jogler, T; Kosyra, R; Kranich, D; Kritzer, R; Laille, A; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, J; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Mansutti, O; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Merck, C; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Ona-Wilhelmi, E; otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Panniello, M; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rugamer, S; Saggion, A; Saitô, T; Sánchez, A; Sartori, P; Scalzotto, V; SCAPIN, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; teshima, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wibig, T; Wittek, W; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2007-01-01

    We report on the results from the observations in very high energy band (VHE, E>100 GeV) of the black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) Cygnus X-1. The observations were performed with the MAGIC telescope, for a total of 40 hours during 26 nights, spanning the period between June and November 2006. Searches for steady gamma-ray signals yielded no positive result and upper limits to the integral flux ranging between 1 and 2% of the Crab nebula flux, depending on the energy, have been established. We also analyzed each observation night independently, obtaining evidence of gamma-ray signals at the 4.0 standard deviations (sigma) significance level (3.2 sigma after trial correction) for 154 minutes effective on-time (EOT) between MJD 54002.875 and 54002.987, coinciding with an X-ray flare seen by RXTE, Swift and INTEGRAL. A search for faster-varying signals within a night resulted in an excess with a significance of 4.9 sigma (4.1 sigma after trial correction) for 79 minutes EOT between MJD 54002.928 and 54002.987. The m...

  7. Karyotype description and evidence of multiple sex chromosome system X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y in Potamotrygon aff. motoro and P. falkneri (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae in the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Paes da Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis of Potamotrygon aff. motoro and P. falkneri indicated the occurrence of an X1X1X2X2/X1X2 Y multiple sex chromosome system in both species, with 2n = 66 chromosomes for females and 2n = 65 chromosomes for males. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs identified using Ag-NOR technique showed that both species have multiple Ag-NORs (5 to 7 chromosomes stained. C-banding technique indicated the presence of heterochromatic blocks in the centromeric regions of almost all chromosomes in both species. Through this study there was evidence of heterogeneity in the karyotypes, which suggests that chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions and/or translocations occurred during the chromosomal evolution in two species of this genus.Análises citogenéticas de Potamotrygon aff. motoro e P. falkneri identificaram a ocorrência de um sistema múltiplo de cromossomos sexuais do tipo X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y, em ambas as espécies, com 2n = 66 cromossomos em fêmeas e 2n = 65 cromossomos nos machos. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolos (RONs identificadas pela reação Ag-RON, evidenciaram marcações múltiplas em ambas as espécies (com variações de 5 a 7 RONs. A técnica de bandamento C, revelou a presença de blocos heterocromáticos localizados nas regiões centromérica em quase todos os cromossomos nas duas espécies em estudo. Através do presente estudo foi evidenciada uma heterogeneidade nos cariótipos, permitindo sugerir que rearranjos cromossômicos, como inversões e/ou translocações, ocorreram durante a evolução cromossômica nas duas espécies desse gênero.

  8. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  9. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  10. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  11. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  12. Conditioning and Characterization of Dowex X1 CI resin for back up CAC had been done

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization procedure applicated from Rohm and Haas. Standard solution of NaOH and HCI titration was calibrated using mix borate acid, borax, and glycerine. The results of that 0,177 mol HCI, and 0,042 mol NaOH. H2S04 molarity calibrated with heating titration, so that resulted 245 mg/l mol H2SO4. Sulfate standard curves made by UV Spectrometer measurements in 420nm. The Nitrate Capacity of bed column resin OH 0,178 meq/ml, and bed column resin CI 0,060 meq/ml. OH anion equivalent Dowex X1 OH resin 16,071 eq/kg, and CO3 anion equivalent Dowex X1 OH resin 46,714 eq/kg. For Dowex X1 CI resin, is 1,071 eq/kg and 1,510 eq/kg. Chlorides capacity of Dowex X1 OH resin 21 eq/kg and for Dowex X1 CI resin -0,37 eq/kg. Dry and wet density of Dowex X1 OH resin are 0,9326 gr/ml and 0,7668 gr/ml. Dry and wet density of Dowex X1 CI resin 0,9090 gr/ml and 0,9074 gr/ml. The resin conditioning before and after process applicated in 0,5 M NaOH elution. (author)

  13. Pairing mechanisms for binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Goodwin, S P; Zwart, S F Portegies; Kaper, L; 10.1002/asna.200811061

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments. Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In these proceedings we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as the pairing function. Many pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for the mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. These quantities, when derived from a binary survey with a mass-limited sample of target stars, ...

  14. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  15. Nonlinear Matrix Equation X + A * X-1 A =I%非线性矩阵方程X+A X^-1A=I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤秋; 伍国兴

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the convergence of the sequence generate from the iteration method is discussed, we introduce another method.%在给出非线性矩阵方程X+A’X^-1 A=I的迭代方法基础上,用了一种新的方法证明迭代公式的收敛性.

  16. Towards Physarum Binary Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.04.005

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show --- in computer models --- that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate $ \\to $ and three-input two-output $ \\to $. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  17. Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the recent discovery of several millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in eccentric binary systems. Timing these MSPs we were able to estimate (and in one case precisely measure) their masses. These results suggest that, as a class, MSPs have a much wider range of masses (1.3 to > 2 solar masses) than the normal and mildly recycled pulsars found in double neutron star (DNS) systems (1.25 < Mp < 1.44 solar masses). This is very likely to be due to the prolonged accretion episode that is thought to be required to form a MSP. The likely existence of massive MSPs makes them a powerful probe for understanding the behavior of matter at densities larger than that of the atomic nucleus; in particular, the precise measurement of the mass of PSR J1903+0327 ($1.67 +/- 0.01 solar masses) excludes several "soft" equations of state for dense matter.

  18. Binaries and distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbaix, D.; Arenou, F.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Siopis, C.

    2013-02-01

    Gaia's five-year observation baseline might naively lead to the expectation that it will be possible to fit the parallax of any sufficiently nearby object with the default five-parameter model (position at a reference epoch, parallax and proper motion). However, simulated Gaia observations of a `model Universe' composed of nearly 107 objects, 50% of which turn out to be multiple stars, show that the single-star hypothesis can severely affect parallax estimation and that more sophisticated models must be adopted. In principle, screening these spurious single-star solutions is rather straightforward, for example by evaluating the quality of the fits. However, the simulated Gaia observations also reveal that some seemingly acceptable single-star solutions can nonetheless lead to erroneous distances. These solutions turn out to be binaries with an orbital period close to one year. Without auxiliary (e.g., spectroscopic) data, they will remain unnoticed.

  19. No time for dead time: timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick;

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time ...... techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105....

  20. 1-deg x 1-deg Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1x1 degree Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Gravity Anomaly and Geoid Undulations Data Base was compiled and developed by the Ohio State University. This data base was...

  1. The gold and oxygen (3 x 1) structures on W(1 1 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losovyj, Ya.B. [Louisiana State University, CAMD, 6980 Jefferson Highway, 70806 Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, P.O. Box 880111, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)], E-mail: ylosovyj@lsu.edu; Ketsman, Ihor [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, P.O. Box 880111, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Lozova, N.; Scott, John [Louisiana State University, CAMD, 6980 Jefferson Highway, 70806 Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Dowben, P.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, P.O. Box 880111, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Yakovkin, I.N. [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospect Nauki 46, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Zuber, S.M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna 9, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2008-05-15

    The adsorption of two very different adsorbates, gold and oxygen, induce the formation of a (3 x 1) surface structure on both W(1 1 2) and Mo(1 1 2). In spite of similar adsorbate unit cells, the surface electronic structure, derived from photoemission, exhibits pronounced differences for the two adsorbates. Indeed, both experiment and simulations indicate substantial changes in electronic structures of (1 x 1) and (3 x 1) gold overlayers supported by highly anisotropic (1 1 2) plane. We speculate that (3 x 1) is a favored periodicity in the atomic rearrangement of the (1 1 2) surfaces of molybdenum and tungsten due in part as a result of the initial state band structure of these surfaces.

  2. On the System of Diophantine Equations x+1 =3pqu2 and x2-x+1 =3v2%关于Diophantine方程组x+1=3pqu2,x2-x+1=3v2的整数解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管训贵

    2015-01-01

    设p,q是互异的奇素数,p≡q≡1 (mod 6),主要利用递归序列、Pell方程和四次Diophantine方程解的性质证明了Diophantine方程组x+1=3 pqu2,x2-x+1=3v2除开pq=7×13有非平凡解外,仅有平凡解.

  3. Bifurcation timescales in power spectra of black hole binaries and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For black hole binaries(BHBs) and active galactic nuclei(AGNs),bifurcation timescales(BTs) Δtb exist,below which time-domain power is significantly higher than the corresponding Fourier power.Quasi-periodic oscillations(QPOs) are removed from the Fourier spectra of BHBs.A relationship between BT,black hole mass and bolometric luminosity is derived.Strong anti-correlation between BT and luminosity of Cyg X-1 is found.After removing the QPOs,BTs are also obtained for two ultraluminous X-ray sources(ULXs),M82 X-1 and NGC5408 X-1.The results support that they harbor intermediate mass black holes(IMBHs).

  4. Binary black hole spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study parameter estimation with post-Newtonian (PN) gravitational waveforms for the quasi-circular, adiabatic inspiral of spinning binary compact objects. In particular, the performance of amplitude-corrected waveforms is compared with that of the more commonly used restricted waveforms, in Advanced LIGO and EGO. With restricted waveforms, the properties of the source can only be extracted from the phasing. In the case of amplitude-corrected waveforms, the spectrum encodes a wealth of additional information, which leads to dramatic improvements in parameter estimation. At distances of ∼100 Mpc, the full PN waveforms allow for high-accuracy parameter extraction for total mass up to several hundred solar masses, while with the restricted ones the errors are steep functions of mass, and accurate parameter estimation is only possible for relatively light stellar mass binaries. At the low-mass end, the inclusion of amplitude corrections reduces the error on the time of coalescence by an order of magnitude in Advanced LIGO and a factor of 5 in EGO compared to the restricted waveforms; at higher masses these differences are much larger. The individual component masses, which are very poorly determined with restricted waveforms, become measurable with high accuracy if amplitude-corrected waveforms are used, with errors as low as a few per cent in Advanced LIGO and a few tenths of a per cent in EGO. The usual spin-orbit parameter β is also poorly determined with restricted waveforms (except for low-mass systems in EGO), but the full waveforms give errors that are small compared to the largest possible value consistent with the Kerr bound. This suggests a way of finding out if one or both of the component objects violate this bound. On the other hand, we find that the spin-spin parameter σ remains poorly determined even when the full waveform is used. Generally, all errors have but a weak dependence on the magnitudes and orientations of the spins. We also briefly

  5. New results from Ooty EAS array for cosmic sources at PeV energies: Cygnus X-3, Crab pulsar and Sco X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooty group has reported detection of a steady signal from Cyg X-3 based on observations made during 1984-86 through detection of a directional excess. Further analysis of data has revealed a significant flux enhancement during April 1986, confirming observations reported by the CYGNUS group at Los Alamos and the Baksan group. These results show conclusively that the flux from Cyg X-3 is variable over a time scale of few weeks. We also report here the details of an unusual burst from Cyg X-3, consisting of 5 showers in 13 minutes, on June 19, 1985, which shows the variability of the flux from Cyg X-3 on a much shorter time scale of few minutes. Our analysis of showers arriving from the direction of the Crab pulsar has shown only a small time-averaged excess. But these data, when folded with the Crab pulsar period, show a very significant excess at the expected phase of the optical interpulse. This is the first detection of 33 ms pulsation in the PeV energy flux from the Crab pulsar. The exact alignment of the phase of emission over nearly 20 decades of energy, from meter wavelengths to PeV, makes the Crab pulsar a really unique source to study and understand details of mechanisms for emission and acceleration of particles in compact sources. We also present here a discussion of our observations on another X-ray binary, Sco X-1. Ooty data show a very significant excess in the number of showers from the direction of Sco X-1 during a two month period in 1986, in agreement with observations reported by the Mt. Chacaltaya group. These observations establish this X-ray binary as another important source of PeV energy radiation. (orig.)

  6. High-energy observations of black hole binaries with the INTEGRAL satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Del Santo, Melania

    2012-01-01

    Black-hole binaries are important sources through which studying accretion onto compact objects. In the X/gamma-ray domain, these objects show several and complex spectral behaviours and transitions. Based on INTEGRAL observations collected during the last eightyears, we have now a new view on the high energy emission of black-hole binary. An additional component above 200 keV has been observed in a few systems, during either hard/intermediate or low/hard states. The nature of this hard-tail is still debated, as also the one observed in soft states. However, among a number of models, it is usually attributed to the presence of a small fraction of non-thermal electrons in a hot-Comptonising plasma. I review the high energy emission from black hole binary systems and report on some INTEGRAL observations of three different objects: 1E 1740.7-2942, GX 339-4, Cyg X-1.

  7. Strong Lensing by Binary Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, E M

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of gravitational lensing by binary galaxies, idealized as two isothermal spheres. In a wide binary, each galaxy possesses individual tangential, nearly astroidal, caustics and roundish radial caustics. As the separation of the binary is made smaller, the caustics undergo a sequence of metamorphoses. The first metamorphosis occurs when the tangential caustics merge to form a single six-cusped caustic, lying interior to the radial caustics. At still smaller separations, the six-cusped caustic undergoes the second metamorphosis and splits into a four-cusped caustic and two three-cusped caustics, which shrink to zero size (an elliptic umbilic catastrophe) before they enlarge again and move away from the origin perpendicular to the binary axis. Finally, a third metamorphosis occurs as the three-cusp caustics join the radial caustics, leaving an inner distorted astroid caustic enclosed by two outer caustics. The maximum number of images possible is 7. Classifying the multiple imaging according ...

  8. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  9. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  10. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'. PMID:10963862

  11. AN IMPROVED DESIGN OF REVERSIBLE BINARY TO BINARY CODED DECIMAL CONVERTER FOR BINARY CODED DECIMAL MULTIPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic gates under ideal conditions produce zero power dissipation. This factor highlights the usage of these gates in optical computing, low power CMOS design, quantum optics and quantum computing. The growth of decimal arithmetic in various applications as stressed the need to propose the study on reversible binary to BCD converter which plays a greater role in decimal multiplication for providing faster results. The different parameters such as gate count,garbage output and constant input are more optimized in the proposed fixed bit binary to binary coded decimal converter than the existing design.

  12. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  13. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption is taken into account within Gibbsian approximation. Binary clusters are treated by means of statistical-mechanical considerations: tracing out the molecular degrees of freedom of the more volatil...

  14. Clostridium difficile binary toxin CDT

    OpenAIRE

    Gerding, Dale N.; Johnson, Stuart; Rupnik, Maja; Aktories, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Binary toxin (CDT) is frequently observed in Clostridium difficile strains associated with increased severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). CDT belongs to the family of binary ADP-ribosylating toxins consisting of two separate toxin components: CDTa, the enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase which modifies actin, and CDTb which binds to host cells and translocates CDTa into the cytosol. CDTb is activated by serine proteases and binds to lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor. ADP-ribosylatio...

  15. Coalescence of Binary Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Oohara, Ken-ichi; Namamura, Takashi

    1996-01-01

    The most important sources for laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors like LIGO or VIRGO are catastrophic events such as coalescence of a neutron-star binary. The final phase, or the last three milliseconds, of coalescence is considered. We describe results of numerical simulations of coalescing binary neutron stars using Newtonian and post-Newtonian hydrodynamics code and then discuss recent development of our 3D GR code.

  16. A deep XMM-Newton observation of the ultraluminous X-ray source HoII X-1 the case against a 1000 solar mass black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, M R; Reeves, J N; Uttley, P

    2006-01-01

    We present results from a 112 ks long look by XMM-Newton at the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1, long thought to be the one of best candidates for the missing class of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Our data comprises the first high quality XMM-Newton/RGS spectrum of an ULX, and an XMM-Newton/EPIC spectrum with unprecedented signal-to-noise. A detailed timing analysis shows that any variability on time-scales of minutes to hours is very weak (< few per cent fractional rms), though larger amplitude variations on much shorter time-scales could be hidden by photon counting statistics. This result suggests that if Ho II X-1 harbours an IMBH, then we are observing this source in a highly unusual and atypical state when compared with the known variability behaviour of other accreting systems of large mass. Moreover unlike Galactic X-ray binaries, our spectral analysis indicates the possible presence of an optically-thick low temperature corona. Taken together our timing and spectral anal...

  17. A LIKELY MICRO-QUASAR IN THE SHADOW OF M82 X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao-jie [Department of Astronomy and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Liu, Jifeng; Liu, Jiren, E-mail: xuxj@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jfliu@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories of China, 20 Datun Rd, Chaoyang, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2015-02-01

    The ultra-luminous X-ray source M82 X-1 is one of the most promising intermediate mass black hole candidates in the local universe based on its high X-ray luminosities (10{sup 40}–10{sup 41} erg s{sup −1}) and quasi-periodic oscillations, and is possibly associated with a radio flare source. In this work, applying the sub-pixel technique to the 120 ks Chandra observation (ID: 10543) of M82 X-1, we split M82 X-1 into two sources separated by 1.″1. The secondary source is not detected in other M82 observations. The radio flare source is not found to associate with M82 X-1, but is instead associated with the nearby transient source S1 with an outburst luminosity of ∼10{sup 39} erg s{sup −1}. With X-ray outburst and radio flare activities analogous to the recently discovered micro-quasar in M31, S1 is likely to be a micro-quasar hidden in the shadow of M82 X-1.

  18. Deep-going reconstruction of Ir(100)-5x1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new investigation of the metastable 1x1 and reconstructed 5x1 phases of Ir(100) using quantitative low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy. It is shown that the 5x1 reconstruction of Ir(100) extends up to the fourth layer into the surface. This structural information is retrieved by the use of electron energies up to 600 eV which simultaneously provides an unusually broad database of more than 10.000 eV. Together with an excellent quality of the theory-experiment fit equivalent to an R-factor of RP=0.144 this allows for rather small error limits of the as many as 17 structural parameters describing the four-layer reconstructed surface. Similar features hold for the 1x1 phase which is analysed in parallel. In addition, we present a systematic investigation of the influence of the electron energy range applied and of the allowed depth of reconstruction on the accuracy of the analysis. It appears that for the case of Ir(100)-5x1 the structural parameters describing the top two layers are largely independent from the consideration of the reconstruction of deeper layers

  19. Chandra X-ray Spectroscopy of the Focused Wind In the Cygnus X-1 System I. The Non-Dip Spectrum in the Low/Hard State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Jorn; Nowak, Michael A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schultz, Norbert S.; Lee, Julia C.

    2008-01-01

    We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system CygnusX-1/HDE226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). CygX-1 was in its spectrally hard state and the observation was performed during superior conjunction of the black hole, allowing for the spectroscopic analysis of the accreted stellar wind along the line of sight. A significant part of the observation covers X-ray dips as commonly observed for CygX-1 at this orbital phase, however, here we only analyze the high count rate non-dip spectrum. The full 0.5-10 keV continuum can be described by a single model consisting of a disk, a narrow and a relativistically broadened Fe K line, and a power law component, which is consistent with simultaneous RXTE broad band data. We detect absorption edges from overabundant neutral O, Ne and Fe, and absorption line series from highly ionized ions and infer column densities and Doppler shifts. With emission lines of He-like Mg XI, we detect two plasma components with velocities and densities consistent with the base of the spherical wind and a focused wind. A simple simulation of the photoionization zone suggests that large parts of the spherical wind outside of the focused stream are completely ionized, which is consistent with the low velocities (<200 km/s) observed in the absorption lines, as the position of absorbers in a spherical wind at low projected velocity is well constrained. Our observations provide input for models that couple the wind activity of HDE 226868 to the properties of the accretion flow onto the black hole.

  20. Binary Encodings of Non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problems: Algorithms and Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Samaras, N; 10.1613/jair.1776

    2011-01-01

    A non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) can be solved directly using extended versions of binary techniques. Alternatively, the non-binary problem can be translated into an equivalent binary one. In this case, it is generally accepted that the translated problem can be solved by applying well-established techniques for binary CSPs. In this paper we evaluate the applicability of the latter approach. We demonstrate that the use of standard techniques for binary CSPs in the encodings of non-binary problems is problematic and results in models that are very rarely competitive with the non-binary representation. To overcome this, we propose specialized arc consistency and search algorithms for binary encodings, and we evaluate them theoretically and empirically. We consider three binary representations; the hidden variable encoding, the dual encoding, and the double encoding. Theoretical and empirical results show that, for certain classes of non-binary constraints, binary encodings are a competitive op...

  1. Kepler K2 Observations of Sco X-1: Orbital Modulations and Correlations with Fermi GBM and MAXI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Baum, Zachary A.; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; Cherry, Michael L.; Scaringi, Simone

    2016-04-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1 using Kepler K2 optical data and Fermi GBM and MAXI X-ray data. We recover a clear sinusoidal orbital modulation from the Kepler data. Optical fluxes are distributed bimodally around the mean orbital light curve, with both high and low states showing the same modulation. The high state is broadly consistent with the flaring branch of the Z diagram and the low state with the normal branch. We see both rapid optical flares and slower dips in the high state, and slow brightenings in the low state. High state flares exhibit a narrow range of amplitudes with a striking cut-off at a maximum amplitude. Optical fluxes correlate with X-ray fluxes in the high state, but in the low state they are anti-correlated. These patterns can be seen clearly in both flux-flux diagrams and cross-correlation functions and are consistent between MAXI and GBM. The high state correlation arises promptly with at most a few minutes lag. We attribute this to thermal reprocessing of X-ray flares. The low state anti-correlation is broader, consistent with optical lags of between zero and 30 min, and strongest with respect to high energy X-rays. We suggest that the decreases in optical flux in the low state may reflect decreasing efficiency of disc irradiation, caused by changes in the illumination geometry. These changes could reflect the vertical extent or covering factor of obscuration or the optical depth of scattering material.

  2. Scaling of the F2 Structure Function in Nuclei and Quark Distributions at x>1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new data on electron scattering from a range of nuclei taken in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. For heavy nuclei, we observe a rapid falloff in the cross section for x>1, which is sensitive to short-range contributions to the nuclear wave function, and in deep inelastic scattering corresponds to probing extremely high momentum quarks. This result agrees with higher energy muon scattering measurements, but is in sharp contrast to neutrino scattering measurements which suggested a dramatic enhancement in the distribution of the ''superfast'' quarks probed at x>1. The falloff at x>1 is noticeably stronger in 2H and 3He, but nearly identical for all heavier nuclei.

  3. Systems analysis and engineering of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source, which will produce ∼ 16 MJ in x-rays, represents the next step in providing US Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray sources needed for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation (RES), Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and Weapon Physics (WP) Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories' Z Accelerator in 1997 provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. This paper will introduce the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source Facility Project, describe the systems analysis and engineering approach being used, and identify critical technology areas being researched

  4. Spectacular Trailing Streamers near LMC X-1: The First Evidence of a Jet?

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Ryan; Sharp, Rob; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2007-01-01

    We report VIMOS integral field spectroscopy of the N159F nebula surrounding LMC X-1. Our observations reveal a rich, extended system of emission line filaments lining the boundary of a large conical cavity identified in Spitzer mid-IR imaging. We find that X-ray photoionization cannot be solely responsible for the observed ionization structure of N159F. We propose that the extended filamentary emission is produced primarily by ionization from a shock driven by a presently unobserved jet from LMC X-1. We infer a shock velocity of v_s ~ 90 km/s and conclude that the jet responsible for the bow shock is presently undetected because it has switched off, rather than because it has a low surface brightness. This interpretation is consistent with the present soft X-ray spectral state of LMC X-1 and suggests the jet is intermittent.

  5. Optical detection of a new accretion outburst in Aql X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheryakov, A.; Khamitov, I.; Bikmaev, I.; Irtuganov, E.; Sakhibullin, N.; Burenin, R.; Eselevich, M.; Vlasyuk, V.

    2014-06-01

    During optical monitoring campaign of Soft X-ray Transient (SXT) Aql X-1 performed at 1.5-m Russian-Turkish telescope (TUBITAK National Observatory, Antalya, Turkey) 28-29 June 2014 (56836.96 - 56838.05 MJD) we detected a continuous brightening of the Aql X-1 optical counterpart in g, r, i, z and Rc bands at a rate ~0.2mag/day, reaching 29 June 2014 flux ~0.6 magnitude brighter than the source quiescence level. ...

  6. Companion-star beam steering of high-energy particles from Hercules X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray emission from the X-ray pulsar Hercules X-1 is shown to be due to companion-star beam steering of high-energy particles from Hercules X-1. The authors demonstrate that the presence of even a weak dipole magnetic field around the companion star is sufficient to steer such a beam to a suitable target region for producing the observed γ-rays. The effects of such beam steering on γ-ray and neutrino observations is also discussed. (UK)

  7. Congestive heart failure induces downregulation of P2X1-receptors in resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmsjö, M; Bergdahl, A; Möller, S;

    1999-01-01

    strong contractions in both the mesenteric artery and in the aorta, while ATP and ADP were much less effective. These contractions were not altered by CHF, indicating that vascular contraction mediated by P2Y-receptors are unaffected by CHF. CONCLUSION: CHF induces downregulation of P2X1-receptor...... stimulated contraction in the mesenteric artery depending on decreased mRNA synthesis for the receptor, while the P2Y-receptor activity remains unchanged. Downregulation of P2X1-receptors appears to be specific for peripheral resistance arteries. This may represent a compensatory response to enhanced...

  8. Binaries and Globular Cluster Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rasio, F A; Joshi, K J; Rasio, Frederic A.; Fregeau, John M.; Joshi, Kriten J.

    2001-01-01

    We summarize the results of recent theoretical work on the dynamical evolution of globular clusters containing primordial binaries. Even a very small initial binary fraction (e.g., 10%) can play a key role in supporting a cluster against gravothermal collapse for many relaxation times. Inelastic encounters between binaries and single stars or other binaries provide a very significant energy source for the cluster. These dynamical interactions also lead to the production of large numbers of exotic systems such as ultracompact X-ray binaries, recycled radio pulsars, double degenerate systems, and blue stragglers. Our work is based on a new parallel supercomputer code implementing Henon's Monte Carlo method for simulating the dynamical evolution of dense stellar systems in the Fokker-Planck approximation. This new code allows us to calculate very accurately the evolution of a cluster containing a realistic number of stars (N ~ 10^5 - 10^6) in typically a few hours to a few days of computing time. The discrete, s...

  9. Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...

  10. Using Binary Code Instrumentation in Computer Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the low-level details of the code generated by compilers whose format permits outside actions. Binary code modifications are manually done when the internal format is known and understood, or automatically by certain tools developed to process the binary code. The binary code instrumentation goals may be various from security increasing and bug fixing to development of malicious software. The paper highlights the binary code instrumentation techniques by code injection to increase the security and reliability of a software application. Also, the paper offers examples for binary code formats understanding and how the binary code injection may be applied.

  11. The structure of contact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kaehler, H

    2003-01-01

    In radiative layers of rotating stars the luminosity carried by circulation currents through a surface of constant entropy (circulation luminosity) is shown to be positive. The corresponding decrease in the temperature gradient is important in the secondary of contact binaries. This result removes the deadlock in the theory of contact binaries. The resulting treatment of contact binaries is investigated, assuming thermal equilibrium. If the circulation luminosity is adjusted to give a prescribed temperature difference between the components, details turn out to be unimportant. The temperature difference is bound to be positive. The fractional extent of radiative regions is larger in the secondary than in the primary. In the course of evolution the period increases and the mass ratio decreases. A survey of unevolved and evolved contact configurations is presented. Observational tests are passed. In stable systems the degree of contact is small. Stable systems in the period-colour diagram, unevolved and evolved...

  12. Sco X-1 revisited with Kepler, MAXI and HERMES: outflows, time-lags and echoes unveiled

    CERN Document Server

    Scaringi, S; Hynes, R I; Koerding, E; Ponti, G; Knigge, C; Britt, C T; van Winckel, H

    2015-01-01

    Sco X-1 has been the subject of many multi-wavelength studies in the past, being the brightest persistent extra-solar X-ray source ever observed. Here we revisit Sco X-1 with simultaneous short cadence Kepler optical photometry and MAXI X-ray photometry over a 78 day period, as well as optical spectroscopy obtained with HERMES. We find Sco X-1 to be highly variable in all our datasets. The optical fluxes are clearly bimodal, implying the system can be found in two distinct optical states. These states are generally associated with the known flaring/normal branch X-ray states, although the flux distributions associated with these states overlap. Furthermore, we find that the optical power spectrum of Sco X-1 differs substantially between optical luminosity states. Additionally we find rms-flux relations in both optical states, but only find a linear relation during periods of low optical luminosity. The full optical/X-ray discrete correlation function displays a broad ~12.5 hour optical lag. However during the...

  13. Sasakian quiver gauge theory on the Aloff-Wallach space $X_{1,1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Geipel, Jakob C

    2016-01-01

    We consider the SU(3)-equivariant dimensional reduction of gauge theories on spaces of the form $M^d \\times X_{1,1}$ with d-dimensional Riemannian manifold $M^d$ and the Aloff-Wallach space $X_{1,1}$= SU(3)/U(1) endowed with its Sasaki-Einstein structure. The condition of SU(3)-equivariance of vector bundles, which has already occurred in the studies of Spin(7)-instantons on cones over Aloff-Wallach spaces, is interpreted in terms of quiver diagrams, and we construct the corresponding quiver bundles, using (parts of) the weight diagram of SU(3). We consider three examples thereof explicitly and then compare the results with the quiver gauge theory on $Q_3$ =SU(3)/(U(1) x U(1)), the leaf space underlying the Sasaki-Einstein manifold $X_{1,1}$. Moreover, we study instanton solutions on the metric cone $C(X_{1,1})$ by evaluating the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation. We briefly discuss some features of the moduli space thereof, following the main ideas of a treatment of Hermitian Yang-Mills instantons on cones over ...

  14. All-fiber 7x1 signal combiner for incoherent laser beam combining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Maack, Martin D.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an all-fiber 7x1 signal combiner for incoherent laser beam combining. This is a potential key component for reaching several kW of stabile laser output power. The combiner couples the output from 7 single-mode (SM) fiber lasers into a single multi-mode (MM) fiber. The input signal...

  15. Complete genome sequence of a novel chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium, Cupriavidus nantongensis X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Fei; Zhou, Yan-Long; Wang, Dao-Sheng; Sun, Le-Ni; Tang, Xin-Yun; Hua, Ri-Mao

    2016-06-10

    Cupriavidus nantongensis X1 is a chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium, which was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. It is the first time to report the complete genome sequence of C. nantongensis species, which has been reported as a novel species of Cupriavidus genus. It could provide further pathway information in chlorpyrifos degradation. PMID:27063140

  16. Six years of XMM-Newton observations of NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2

    CERN Document Server

    Pintore, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the X-ray spectra of NGC 1313 X-1 and NGC 1313 X-2, using six years of XMM-Newton observations (17 observations). We fitted the continuum with a Comptonization model plus a multicolor blackbody disc, that describes the effects of an accretion disc plus an optically thick corona. We checked the consistency of this spectral model on the basis of the variability patterns of its spectral parameters. We found that the two sources show different spectral states. We tentatively interpret the observed behaviour of NGC 1313 X-1 within the framework of super-Eddington accretion and that of NGC 1313 X-2 within the framework of near Eddington accretion. We also attempted to determine the chemical abundances in the local environment of NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2, analyzing the RGS spectra of the longest observation available (122 ksec). The results appear to indicate solar metallicity for the local environment of NGC 1313 X-1 and sub-solar metallicity for NGC 1313 X-2.

  17. SWIFT/BAT possible detection of a new outburst from Aql X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, A.; Riggio, A.; Pintore, F.; Altamirano, D.; Burderi, L.; Di Salvo, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Swift/BAT X-ray monitor observed significant X-ray activity from the direction of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar Aql X-1 starting on 2016 July 29 (MJD 57598), with a count rate of 0.0011 +/- 0.003 counts/s/cm^2.

  18. Development of a 1K x 1K GaAs QWIP Far IR Imaging Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhabvala, M.; Choi, K.; Goldberg, A.; La, A.; Gunapala, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the on-going evolution of GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) we have developed a 1,024 x 1,024 (1K x1K), 8.4-9 microns infrared focal plane array (FPA). This 1 megapixel detector array is a hybrid using the Rockwell TCM 8050 silicon readout integrated circuit (ROIC) bump bonded to a GaAs QWIP array fabricated jointly by engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). The finished hybrid is thinned at the Jet Propulsion Lab. Prior to this development the largest format array was a 512 x 640 FPA. We have integrated the 1K x 1K array into an imaging camera system and performed tests over the 40K-90K temperature range achieving BLIP performance at an operating temperature of 76K (f/2 camera system). The GaAs array is relatively easy to fabricate once the superlattice structure of the quantum wells has been defined and grown. The overall arrays costs are currently dominated by the costs associated with the silicon readout since the GaAs array fabrication is based on high yield, well-established GaAs processing capabilities. In this paper we will present the first results of our 1K x 1K QWIP array development including fabrication methodology, test data and our imaging results.

  19. Correlations between X-ray Spectral Characteristics and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Sco X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Bradshaw, C F; Kuznetsov, S; Bradshaw, Charles F.; Titarchuk, Lev; Kuznetsov, Sergey

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between 1-10 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and spectral power law index have been reported for black hole (BH) candidate sources and one neutron star source, 4U 1728-34. An examination of QPO frequency and index relationships in Sco X-1 is reported herein. We discovered that Sco X-1, representing Z-source groups, can be adequately modeled by a simple two-component model of Compton up-scattering with a soft photon electron temperature of about 0.4 keV, plus an Iron K-line. The results show a strong correlation between spectral power law index and kHz QPOs. Because Sco X-1 radiates near the Eddington limit, one can infer that the geometrical configuration of the Compton cloud (CC) is quasi-spherical because of high radiation pressure in the CC. Thus, we conclude that the high Thomson optical depth of the Compton cloud, in the range of ~5-6 from the best-fit model parameters, is consistent with the neutron star's surface being obscured by material. Moreover, a spin frequency of Sco X-1 is li...

  20. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  1. Coalescing binaries and Doppler experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Vecchio, A.; Bertotti, B.; Iess, L.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the sensitivity of the CASSINI experiments to gravitational waves emitted by the in-spiral of compact binaries. We show that the maximum distance reachable by the instrument is $\\sim 100$ Mpc. In particular, CASSINI can detect massive black hole binaries with chirp mass $\\simgt 10^6 \\Ms$ in the Virgo Cluster with signal-to-noise ratio between 5 and 30 and possible compact objects of mass $\\simgt 30 \\Ms$ orbiting the massive black hole that our Galactic Centre is likely to harbour.

  2. Rectangular Decomposition of Binary Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, Tomáš; Höschl, Cyril; Flusser, Jan

    Berlin : Springer, 2012 - (Blanc-Talon, J.; Popescu, D.; Philips, W.; Scheunders, P.), s. 213-224 ISBN 978-3-642-33139-8. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7517). [Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (Acivs 2012). Brno (CZ), 04.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : binary image decomposition * generalized delta-method * distance transformation * quadtree * bipartite graph * image compression * fast convolution Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/suk-rectangular decomposition of binary images.pdf

  3. Kepler Eclipsing Binaries with Stellar Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, D R; Guo, Z; Lester, K V; Orosz, J A; Peters, G J

    2015-01-01

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  4. Frame theory for binary vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Le, My; Reza, Letty; Tobin, Matthew; Tomforde, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We develop the theory of frames and Parseval frames for finite-dimensional vector spaces over the binary numbers. This includes characterizations which are similar to frames and Parseval frames for real or complex Hilbert spaces, and the discussion of conceptual differences caused by the lack of a proper inner product on binary vector spaces. We also define switching equivalence for binary frames, and list all equivalence classes of binary Parseval frames in lowest dimensions, excluding cases...

  5. Using Binary Code Instrumentation in Computer Security

    OpenAIRE

    Marius POPA; Sergiu Marin CAPISIZU

    2013-01-01

    The paper approaches the low-level details of the code generated by compilers whose format permits outside actions. Binary code modifications are manually done when the internal format is known and understood, or automatically by certain tools developed to process the binary code. The binary code instrumentation goals may be various from security increasing and bug fixing to development of malicious software. The paper highlights the binary code instrumentation techniques by code injection to...

  6. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Hubber, David A.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2016-08-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-alignment processes, which tend to misalign the components. The alignment process dominates in systems with misalignment angle near 90°, while the anti-alignment process dominates in systems with the misalignment angle near 0° or 180°. This means that highly misaligned systems will become more aligned but slightly misaligned systems will become more misaligned.

  7. A Galactic Binary Detection Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, Tyson B.

    2011-01-01

    The Galaxy is suspected to contain hundreds of millions of binary white dwarf systems, a large fraction of which will have sufficiently small orbital period to emit gravitational radiation in band for space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA's main science goal is the detection of cosmological events (supermassive black hole mergers, etc.) however the gravitational signal from the galaxy will be the dominant contribution to the data - including instrumental noise over approximately two decades in frequency. The catalogue of detectable binary systems will serve as an unparalleled means of studying the Galaxy. Furthermore, to maximize the scientific return from the mission, the data must be "cleansed" of the galactic foreground. We will present an algorithm that can accurately resolve and subtract 2:: 10000 of these sources from simulated data supplied by the Mock LISA Data Challenge Task Force. Using the time evolution of the gravitational wave frequency, we will reconstruct the position of the recovered binaries and show how LISA will sample the entire compact binary population in the Galaxy.

  8. CFD Simulations of Binary Nucleation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herrmann, E.; Brus, David; Hyvärinen, A-P.; Kulmala, M.

    Helsinki : -, 2010, P3U16. ISBN N. [International Aerosol Conference IAC 2010. Helsinki (FI), 29.08.2010-03.09.2010] Grant ostatní: FCR(FI) 1118615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nucleation * binary * parameterization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry www.iac2010.fi

  9. Eccentricity distribution of wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 477 solar-type binaries within 67pc with projected separations larger than 50AU is studied by a new statistical method. Speed and direction of the relative motion are determined from the short observed arcs or known orbits, and their joint distribution is compared to the numerical simulations. By inverting the observed distribution with the help of simulations, we find that average eccentricity of wide binaries is 0.59+-0.02 and the eccentricity distribution can be modeled as f(e) ~= 1.2 e + 0.4. However, wide binaries containing inner subsystems, i.e. triple or higher-order multiples, have significantly smaller eccentricities with the average e = 0.52+-0.05 and the peak at e ~ 0.5. We find that the catalog of visual orbits is strongly biased against large eccentricities. A marginal evidence of eccentricity increasing with separation (or period) is found for this sample. Comparison with spectroscopic binaries proves the reality of the controversial period-eccentricity relation. The average eccentr...

  10. A Redundant Binary Algorithm for RSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施荣华

    1996-01-01

    The normal form and modified normal form for binary redundant representation are defined.A redundant binary algorithm to compute modular exponentiation for very large integers is proposed.It is shown that the proposed algorithm requires the minimum number of basic operations(modular multiplications)among all possible binary redundant representations.

  11. Competitive learning for binary valued data

    OpenAIRE

    Leisch, Friedrich; Weingessel, Andreas; Dimitriadou, Evgenia

    1998-01-01

    We propose a new approach for using online competitive learning on binary data. The usual Euclidean distance is replaced by binary distance measures, which take possible asymmetries of binary data into account and therefore provide a "different point of view" for looking at the data. The method is demonstrated on two artificial examples and applied on tourist marketing research data. (author's abstract)

  12. WISE Detection of the Galactic Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xuebing

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results from our search for the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer detection of the Galactic low-mass X-ray binaries. Among 187 binaries catalogued in Liu et al. (2007), we find 13 counterparts and two candidate counterparts. For the 13 counterparts, two (4U~0614+091 and GX~339$-$4) have already been confirmed by previous studies to have a jet and one (GRS~1915+105) to have a candidate circumbinary disk, from which the detected infrared emission arose. Having collected the broad-band optical and near-infrared data in literature and constructed flux density spectra for the other 10 binaries, we identify that three (A0620$-$00, XTE J1118+480, and GX 1+4) are candidate circumbinary disk systems, four (Cen X-4, 4U 1700+24, 3A 1954+319, and Cyg X-2) had thermal emission from their companion stars, and three (Sco X-1, Her X-1, and Swift J1753.5$-$0127) are peculiar systems with the origin of their infrared emission rather uncertain. We discuss the results and WISE counterparts' brightness distribu...

  13. Jet spectral breaks in black hole X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, D M; Casella, P; Cantrell, A G; Chatterjee, R; Fender, R P; Gallo, E; Gandhi, P; Homan, J; Maitra, D; Miller-Jones, J C A; O'Brien, K; Shahbaz, T

    2012-01-01

    In X-ray binaries, compact jets are known to commonly radiate at radio to infrared frequencies, whereas at optical to gamma-ray energies, the contribution of the jet is debated. The total luminosity, and hence power of the jet is critically dependent on the position of the break in its spectrum, between optically thick (self-absorbed) and optically thin synchrotron emission. This break, or turnover, has been reported in just one black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) thus far, GX 339-4, and inferred via spectral fitting in two others, A0620-00 and Cyg X-1. Here, we collect a wealth of multiwavelength data from the outbursts of BHXBs during hard X-ray states, in order to search for jet breaks as yet unidentified in their spectral energy distributions. In particular, we report the direct detection of the jet break in the spectrum of V404 Cyg during its 1989 outburst, at nu_b = (1.8 +- 0.3) x 10^14 Hz (1.7 +- 0.2 microns). We increase the number of BHXBs with measured jet breaks from three to eight. Jet breaks are found...

  14. Bimodal quasi-oscillatory and spectral behavior in Scorpius X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Hasinger, G.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Middleditch, J.; Parmar, A.

    1986-01-01

    Exosat observations of Sco X-1 obtained using the Xe and/or Ar detectors for a total of about 80,000 s during four runs on August 24-27, 1985 are reported and analyzed. Two modes of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) corresponding to the quiescent and active states of Sco X-1 and to two modes of spectral behavior are identified and characterized, confirming the findings of Priedhorsky (1985) and Middleditch and Priedhorsky (1986). In the quiescent state, the QPO frequency is about 6 Hz and is anticorrelated with intensity, and the spectral hardness ratio (14-21 vs 2-7 keV) varies steeply with intensity; in the active state, QPO frequency is correlated with intensity and varies from 10 to 20 Hz, and the spectral-hardness-ratio/intensity curve is flatter. Previous observations of bimodal behavior in other bands are summarized, and theoretical models proposed to explain them are discussed.

  15. An Iron K Component to the Ultrafast Outflow in NGC 1313 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Pinto, C; Fabian, A C; Bachetti, M; Barret, D; Brightman, M; Fuerst, F; Harrison, F A; Miller, J M; Stern, D

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of an absorpton feature at $E=8.77^{+0.05}_{-0.06}$ keV in the combined X-ray spectrum of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 1313 X-1 observed with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, significant at the 3$\\sigma$ level. If associated with blueshifted ionized iron, the implied outflow velocity is ~0.2$c$ for Fe XXVI, or ~0.25$c$ for Fe XXV. These velocities are similar to the ultrafast outflow seen in absorption recently discovered in this source at lower energies by XMM-Newton, and we therefore conclude that this is an iron component to the same outflow. Photoionization modeling marginally prefers the Fe XXV solution, but in either case the outflow properties appear to be extreme, potentially supporting a super-Eddington hypothesis for NGC 1313 X-1.

  16. A Performance Evaluation of the Cray X1 for Scientific Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Borrill, Julian; Canning, Andrew; Carter, Jonathan; Djomehri, M. Jahed; Shan, Hongzhang; Skinner, David

    2004-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a rapid proliferation of superscalar cache-based microprocessors to build high-end capability and cost effectiveness. However, the recent development of massively parallel vector systems is having a significant effect on the supercomputing landscape. In this paper, we compare the performance of the recently released Cray X1 vector system with that of the cacheless NEC SX-6 vector machine, and the superscalar cache-based IBM Power3 and Power4 architectures for scientific applications. Overall results demonstrate that the X1 is quite promising, but performance improvements are expected as the hardware, systems software, and numerical libraries mature. Code reengineering to effectively utilize the complex architecture may also lead to significant efficiency enhancements.

  17. Chemisorption of aromatic molecules on Si(100)-2x1. An HREELS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkunshalie, T

    1998-07-01

    HREELS has been used to investigate the growth of ultra-thin organic film on Si(100)-2x1 by reactive coupling of polyimide precursors. 1,4- phenylenediamine and pyromelltic dianhydride were sequentially dosed on clean Si(100)-2x1 under ultra high vacuum conditions. The interfacial imidisation was initiated by thermal curing at 200 deg C. To simplify the analysis of the vibrational data, model compounds benzoic acid, aniline and phthalic anhydride were characterised first. HREEL spectra show that the model compounds absorb through dissociation of the functional group. The spectra also show that an oligimide chain has been formed which stands upright on the surface. The oligomer chain bonds to the silicon surface via a Si-(NH)-C linkage. (author)

  18. X-ray timing observations of the brightest neutron star LMXB Sco X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.

    The observations of the brightest neutron star LMXB Sco X-1 with the Rossi X-ray timing explorer RXTE show that the components of its variability in the frequency range between 0 01 Hz to 1000 Hz are related This is unique and has been benefited from the high X-ray count rate which would only be obtained for other neutron star LMXBs with a ten times RXTE In previous studies we have found that 1 the upper kHz QPO frequency varies more than 22 Hz within the 6 Hz normal branch oscillation NBO cycle 2 the 45 Hz HBO amplitude is correlated with the phase of the 6 Hz NBO We will summarize our results obtained from further studies of Sco X-1 and other sources in these directions and discuss the underlying physics

  19. Study on structures and electronic properties of NaxV (x = 1-12) atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superatoms, novel entities being studied extensively in recent years, can be stabilized by mixing with transition metal atoms. The aim of this paper is to present some recent theoretical results on the application of quantum calculations for examining the atomic clusters NaxV (x = 1-12) made from the mixing of Nax superatoms with vanadium transition metal atom. Optimized structures of NaxV, NaxV+ and NaxV- are determined by using the TPSSTPSS/DZVP DFT calculations. Characteristics of optimized structures, as point group symmetry, chemical hardness (η), absolute electronegativity (χ), electrophilicity index (ω), fragmentation energy (Ef), secondary energy (∆2E), are calculated. The obtained results point out that among different structures of an atomic cluster, the more negative total energy the more stable structure and the Na8V cluster is the most stable in NaxV (x = 1-12) clusters. (author)

  20. THE FREEDIVER 索尼LF-X1无线电视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    可曾憧憬过在阳台晒太阳时,或者在卧室里无拘无束地欣赏自己最喜爱的节目.电影,或者登陆互联网浏览或者收发电子邮件?索尼搭载有Wi-Fi无线功能的mini液晶电视LF—X1提供的选择.甚至比这还多.用户甚至可以带着它在有Wi—Fi接入的飞机场和咖啡馆极尽无线娱乐之能事。LF—X1能通过互联网与家里主机连接.并收看节目或录像.以及浏览PDF或照片.

  1. A performance evaluation of the Cray X1 for scientific applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Borrill, Julian; Canning, Andrew; Carter, Jonathan; Djomehri, Jahed; Shan, Hongzhang; Skinner, David

    2004-05-02

    The last decade has witnessed a rapid proliferation of superscalar cache-based microprocessors to build high-end capability and capacity computers primarily because of their generality, scalability, and cost effectiveness. However, the recent development of massively parallel vector systems is having a significant effect on the supercomputing landscape. In this paper, we compare the performance of the recently-released Cray X1 vector system with that of the cacheless NEC SX-6 vector machine, and the superscalar cache-based IBM Power3 and Power4 architectures for scientific applications. Overall results demonstrate that the X1 is quite promising, but performance improvements are expected as the hardware, systems software, and numerical libraries mature. Code reengineering to effectively utilize the complex architecture may also lead to significant efficiency enhancements.

  2. Bounds on the degree of APN polynomials The Case of x^(-1)+g(x)

    OpenAIRE

    Leander, Gregor; Rodier, François

    2009-01-01

    We prove that functions $f:\\f{2^m} \\to \\f{2^m}$ of the form $f(x)=x^{-1}+g(x)$ where $g$ is any non-affine polynomial are APN on at most a finite number of fields $\\f{2^m}$. Furthermore we prove that when the degree of $g$ is less then 7 such functions are APN only if $m \\le 3$ where these functions are equivalent to $x^3$.

  3. Light Curve Periodic Variability of Cyg X-1 using Jurkevich Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai-Jun Dong; Yan-Ke Tang; Ning Gai

    2014-09-01

    The Jurkevich method is a useful method to explore periodicity in the unevenly sampled observational data. In this work, we adopted the method to the light curve of Cyg X-1 from 1996 to 2012, and found that there is an interesting period of 370 days, which appears in both low/hard and high/soft states. That period may be correlated with black hole physics and accretion disk geometry.

  4. The dynamics and magnetism of the X1 flare on 2014-03-29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleint, Lucia; Heinzel, Petr; Philip, Judge; Krucker, Sam

    2016-05-01

    The X1 flare on 2014-03-29 was observed with an unprecedented number of instruments including chromospheric polarimetry and spectroscopy from the UV to the IR. By combining data from these instruments, we can answer several open questions: Where is the observed continuum emission during flares formed and through which physical processes? How does the magnetic field structure in the photosphere and in the chromosphere change during a flare? We discuss the implications of our findings on standard flare models.

  5. X-Ray Emission from the Soft X-Ray Transient Aquila X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    Aquila X-1 is the most prolific of soft X-ray transients. It is believed to contain a rapidly spinning neutron star sporadically accreting near the Eddington limit from a low-mass companion star. The interest in studying the repeated X-ray outbursts from Aquila X-1 is twofold: (1) studying the relation between optical, soft and hard X-ray emission during the outburst onset, development and decay; (2) relating the spectral component to thermal and non-thermal processes occurring near the magnetosphere and in the boundary layer of a time-variable accretion disk. Our investigation is based on the BATSE monitoring of Aquila X-1 performed by our group. We observed Aquila X-1 in 1997 and re-analyzed archival information obtained in April 1994 during a period of extraordinary outbursting activity of the source in the hard X-ray range. Our results allow, for the first time for this important source, to obtain simultaneous spectral information from 2 keV to 200 keV. A black body (T = 0.8 keV) plus a broken power-law spectrum describe accurately the 1994 spectrum. Substantial hard X-ray emission is evident in the data, confirming that the accretion phase during sub-Eddington limit episodes is capable of producing energetic hard emission near 5 x 10(exp 35) ergs(exp -1). A preliminary paper summarizes our results, and a more comprehensive account is being written. We performed a theoretical analysis of possible emission mechanisms, and confirmed that a non-thermal emission mechanism triggered in a highly sheared magnetosphere at the accretion disk inner boundary can explain the hard X-ray emission. An anticorrelation between soft and hard X-ray emission is indeed prominently observed as predicted by this model.

  6. SAS-3 observations of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canizares, C. R.; Bradt, H.; Buff, J.; Laufer, B.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the SAS-3 observation of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1. The 1.5 to 6 keV intensity rose by a factor of four and exhibited variability on several time scales from seconds to hours. The 6 to 15 keV intensity showed less activity. The event is similar to that observed by ANS and Ariel 5, but lasted less than two weeks.

  7. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  8. ATK Launch Vehicle (ALV-X1) Liftoff Acoustic Environments: Prediction vs. Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J.; Counter, Douglas; Kenny, Jeremy; Murphy, John

    2010-01-01

    Launched from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) Pad 01B on August 22, 2008, the ATK Launch Vehicle (ALV-X1) provided an opportunity to measure liftoff acoustic noise data. Predicted lift-off acoustic environments were developed by both NASA MSFC and ATK engineers. ATK engineers developed predictions for use in determining vibro-acoustic loads using the method described in the monograph NASA SP-8072. The MSFC ALV-X1 lift-off acoustic prediction was made with the Vehicle Acoustic Environment Prediction Program (VAEPP). The VAEPP and SP-8072 methods predict acoustic pressures of rocket systems generally scaled to existing rocket motor data based upon designed motor or engine characteristics. The predicted acoustic pressures are sound-pressure spectra at specific positions on the vehicle. This paper presents the measured liftoff acoustics on the vehicle and tower. This data is useful for the ALV-X1 in validating the pre-launch environments and loads predictions.

  9. A Search for Dying Pulse Trains in Cyg X-1 using RXTE

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Joseph F

    2011-01-01

    Dying pulse trains (DPTs) pulses of radiation with decreasing intensity and decreasing intervals between them are predicted by General Relativity to occur from material spiraling into an event horizon after detaching from the last stable orbit in an accretion disk around a black hole. Two events resembling DPTs were detected in 3 hours observation of Cyg X-1 in the far UV using the High Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope (Dolan 2001). We observed Cyg X-1, a leading candidate for a black hole, with the proportional counter array on RXTE to seek such events in the low-energy X-ray region. No dying pulse trains with a characteristic timescale between pulses of 1 - 40 ms were detected in 10 hours of observation during Cyg X-1s high luminosity state, low luminosity state, and transitions between states, although individual pulses are clearly detectable in data with 1 ms temporal resolution. The 2 sigma upper limit on the rate of DPTs in the X-ray region is less than half the rate reported by Dolan (200...

  10. Was Comet C/1945 X1 (du Toit) a Tiny, SOHO-Like Kreutz Sungrazer?

    CERN Document Server

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to reinterpret and upgrade the astrometric and other data on comet C/1945 X1, the least prominent among the Kreutz system sungrazers discovered from the ground in the 20th century. The central issue is to appraise the pros and cons of a possibility that this object is --- despite its brightness reported at discovery --- a dwarf Kreutz sungrazer. We confirm Marsden's (1989) conclusion that C/1945 X1 has a common parent with C/1882 R1 and C/1965 S1, in line with the Sekanina-Chodas (2004) scenario of their origin in the framework of the Kreutz system's evolution. We integrate the orbit of C/1882 R1 back to the early 12th century and then forward to around 1945 to determine the nominal direction of the line of apsides and perform a Fourier analysis to get insight into effects of the indirect planetary perturbations. To better understand the nature of C/1945 X1, its orbital motion, fate, and role in the hierarchy of the Kreutz system as well as to attempt detecting the comet's po...

  11. Timing and spectral properties of Vela X-1 with ASTROSAT-LAXPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Pragati; Paul, Biswajit; Manchanda, R. K.; Jain, Chetana; Islam, Nazma; Maitra, Chandreyee; Pahari, Mayukh; Singh Yadav, Jagdish; Katoch, Tilak; Antia, H. M.; Beri, Aru; Madhwani, Pankaj; Raman, Gayathri; Bahal, Varun; Mate, Sujay; Agrawal, P. C.; Dedhia, Dhiraj K.; Chauhan, Jai V.; Shah, Parag

    2016-07-01

    Vela X-1 is an eclipsing and persistent yet highly variable HMXB. It's variability, which is often attributed to the presence of clumpy winds around it, places it as a link between classical HMXBs and supergiant fast X-ray transients. We present a detailed timing and spectral analysis of the persistent yet highly variable HMXB 'Vela X-1' from LAXPC observations onboard ASTROSAT over wide energy band of 3-80 keV. The X-ray spectrum of Vela X-1 hosts several interesting features like the evidence of a cyclotron line at 25 keV. It is for the first time that this object has been studied with a single instrument in such a wide energy range. We report significant variations in the spectral parameters with different pulse phases and discuss them in terms of the accretion mechanism and stellar wind properties of this accreting pulsar. In addition, for the first time, we also detect pulsations upto 80 keV for this source.

  12. Polarized Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, P.; Rodriquez, J.; Wilms, J.; Bel, M. Cadolle; Pottschmidt, K.; Grinberg, V.

    2011-01-01

    Because of their inherently high flux allowing the detection of clear signals, black hole X-ray binaries are interesting candidates for polarization studies, even if no polarization signals have been observed from them before. Such measurements would provide further detailed insight into these sources' emission mechanisms. We measured the polarization of the gamma-ray emission from the black hole binary system Cygnus X-I with the INTEGRAL/IBIS telescope. Spectral modeling ofthe data reveals two emission mechanisms: The 250-400 keY data are consistent with emission dominated by Compton scattering on thermal electrons and are weakly polarized. The second spectral component seen in the 400keV-2MeV band is by contrast strongly polarized, revealing that the MeV emission is probably related to the jet first detected in the radio band.

  13. Evidence for an Intermediate Mass Black Hole in NGC 5408 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of correlated spectral and timing behavior in the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. An approx. 100 ksec pointing with XMM/Newton obtained in January, 2008 reveals a strong 10 mHz QPO in the > 1 keV flux, as well as flat-topped, band limited noise breaking to a power law. The energy spectrum is again dominated by two components, a 0.16 keV thermal disk and a power-law with an index of approx. 2.5. These new measurements, combined with results from our previous January 2006 pointing in which we first detected QPOs, show for the first time in a ULX a pattern of spectral and temporal correlations strongly analogous to that seen in Galactic black hole sources, but at much higher X-ray luminosity and longer characteristic time-scales. We find that the QPO frequency is proportional to the inferred disk flux, while the QPO and broad-band noise amplitude (root mean squared, rms) are inversely proportional to the disk flux. Assuming that QPO frequency scales inversely with black hole mass at a given power-law spectral index we derive mass estimates using the observed QPO frequency - spectral index relations from five stellar-mass black hole systems with dynamical mass constraints. The results from all sources are consistent with a mass range for NGC 5408 X-1 from 1000 - 9000 Stellar mass. We argue that these are conservative limits, and a more likely range is from 2000 - 5000 Stellar mass. Moreover, the recent relation from Gierlinski et al. that relates black hole mass to the strength of variability at high frequencies (above the break in the power spectrum), and the variability plane results of McHardy et al. and Koerding et al., are also suggestive of such a. high mass for NGC 5408 X-1. Importantly, none of the above estimates appears consistent with a black hole mass less than approx. 1000 Stellar mass for NGC 5408 X-1. We argue that these new findings strongly support the conclusion that NGC 5408 X-1 harbors an

  14. Origins of Linear Partitioning in Binary Solutions: the Exchange Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. A.

    2006-05-01

    Linear partitioning occurs when, as often in petrologic systems and perhaps always in azeotropes, a straight- line relationship occurs when the partition coefficient D = X1S/X1L is plotted against the solid composition X2S and runs from an intercept value KD at pure (2) to 1.0 at pure (1). The equation is then D = KD*X2S + X1S (Morse 1997, JGeol 105:471; 2000 GCA, 64:2309). The notation KD was taken from its long-standing familiarity in binary solutions (Roeder & Emslie 1970, CMP 29:275) and described as the exchange coefficient (Beattie et al. 1993 GCA 57:1605). But the binary loop is not in itself an exchange equilibrium; it is a transfer equilibrium marching to a different drummer, and that causes a problem (Kretz 2005, CanMin 43:1349). In at least three ways, the binary loop qualifies as an exchange reaction and justifies calling the intercept KD. To the experimentalist this issue never arises. In a perfect liquidus experiment, an infinitesimal mass of liquid is indeed transferred to the crystal. A second bulk composition is then made, and at the new liquidus a second mass transfer occurs. The ensemble of all such perfect partitioning experiments in sufficient number then completely delineates the binary loop without any continuous transfer at changing T having taken place. The partitionings are therefore truly independent of the path. Moreover, each equilibrium pair defines a common tangent in G-X space whose intercept at pure (2) unarguably gives the value of the common chemical potential, a partial Gibbs energy. But where is the exchange reaction? The real experimentalist makes no perfect experiments, and neither does nature. In reality, the barrier to nucleation (particularly formidable in the case of plagioclase) dictates that the crystals nucleate only at some supercooling. They therefore have some composition between the initial solidus and the liquid lying at the bulk composition (BC). Over time the two phases may drift apart by diffusion, the crystal

  15. On the Nature of the mHz X-ray Quasi-Periodic Oscillations from Ultraluminous X-ray source M82 X-1: Search for Timing-Spectral Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its hardness ratio (5-10 keV/3-5 keV), an indicator of the energy spectral power-law index. When stellar-mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibit type-C low-frequency QPOs (0.2-15 Hz), the centroid frequency of the QPO is known to correlate with the energy spectral index. The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of M82 X-1's mHz QPOs as type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass.We resolved the count rates and the hardness ratios of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling.We detected QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which M82 X-1's hardness ratio varied from 0.42 to 0.47. Our primary results are (1) that we do not detect any correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the hardness ratio (a substitute for the energy spectral power-law index) and (2) similar to some accreting X-ray binaries, we find that M82 X-1's mHz QPO frequency increases with its X-ray count rate (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.97). The apparent lack of a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the hardness ratio poses a challenge to the earlier claims that the mHz QPOs of M82 X-1 are the analogs of the type-C low-frequency QPOs of StMBHs. On the other hand, it is possible that the observed relation between the hardness ratio and the QPO frequency represents the saturated portion of the correlation seen in type-C QPOs of StMBHs-in which case M82 X-1's mHz QPOs can still be analogous to type-C QPOs.

  16. Discovery of a 7 mHz X-Ray Quasi-Periodic Oscillation from the Most Massive Stellar-Mass Black Hole IC 10 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of an approx.. = 7 mHz X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) from the eclipsing, high-inclination black hole binary IC 10 X-1. The QPO is significant at >4.33 sigma confidence level and has a fractional amplitude (% rms) and a quality factor, Q is identical with nu/delta nu, of approx. = 11 and 4, respectively. The overall X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) power spectrum in the frequency range 0.0001-0.1 Hz can be described by a power-law with an index of approx. = -2, and a QPO at 7 mHz. At frequencies approx. > 0.02 Hz there is no evidence for significant variability. The fractional amplitude (rms) of the QPO is roughly energy-independent in the energy range of 0.3-1.5 keV. Above 1.5 keV the low signal-to-noise ratio of the data does not allow us to detect the QPO. By directly comparing these properties with the wide range of QPOs currently known from accreting black hole and neutron stars, we suggest that the 7 mHz QPO of IC 10 X-1 may be linked to one of the following three categories of QPOs: (1) the "heartbeat" mHz QPOs of the black hole sources GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, or (2) the 0.6-2.4 Hz "dipper QPOs" of high-inclination neutron star systems, or (3) the mHz QPOs of Cygnus X-3.

  17. Can the 62 Day X-ray Period of ULX M82 X-1 Be Due to a Precessing Accretion Disk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed all the archival RXTE/PCA monitoring observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 in order to study the properties of its previously discovered 62 day X-ray period (Kaaret & Feng 2007). Based on the high coherence of the modulation it has been argued that the observed period is the orbital period of the binary. Utilizing a much longer data set than in previous studies we find: (1) The phase-resolved X-ray (3-15 keV) energy spectra - modeled with a thermal accretion disk and a power-law corona - suggest that the accretion disk's contribution to the total flux is responsible for the overall periodic modulation while the power-law flux remains approximately constant with phase. (2) Suggestive evidence for a sudden phase shift-of approximately 0.3 in phase (20 days)-between the first and the second halves of the light curve separated by roughly 1000 days. If confirmed, the implied timescale to change the period is approx. = 10 yrs, which is exceptionally fast for an orbital phenomenon. These independent pieces of evidence are consistent with the 62 day period being due to a precessing accretion disk, similar to the so-called super-orbital periods observed in systems like Her X-1, LMC X-4, and SS433. However, the timing evidence for a change in the period needs to be confirmed with additional observations. This should be possible with further monitoring of M82 with instruments such as the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board Swift.

  18. Remnants of compact binary mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Domainko, W

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution and observability of remnants originating from the merger of compact binary systems and discuss the differences to supernova remnants. Compact binary mergers expel much smaller amounts of mass at much higher velocities, as compared to supernovae, which will affect the dynamical evolution of their remnants. The ejecta of mergers consist of very neutron rich nuclei. Some of these neutron rich nuclei will produce observational signatures in form of gamma ray lines during their decay. The composition of the ejecta might even give interesting constraints about the internal structure of the neutron star. We further discuss the possibility that merger remnants appear as recently discovered 'dark accelerators' which are extended TeV sources which lack emission in other bands.

  19. Event Rates for Binary Inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogera, V

    2001-01-01

    Double compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) found in binaries with small orbital separations are known to spiral in and are expected to coalesce eventually because of the emission of gravitational waves. Such inspiral and merger events are thought to be primary sources for ground based gravitational-wave interferometric detectors (such as LIGO). Here, we present a brief review of estimates of coalescence rates and we examine the origin and relative importance of uncertainties associated with the rate estimates. For the case of double neutron star systems, we compare the most recent rate estimates to upper limits derived in a number of different ways. We also discuss the implications of the formation of close binaries with two non-recycled pulsars.

  20. X-Ray Line Spectroscopy of Massive X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedahl, D. A.; Sako, M.; Wojdowski, P. S.; Paerels, F.; Kahn, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Spectra from ASCA have provided the most, detailed view to date of the X-ray spectral properties of stellar winds in massive X-ray binaries. Using detailed atomic models that account for recombination cascade kinetics, we have reexamined archival data from Vela X-1 and Cen X-3 in the context of simple models of their wind geometries and velocity distributions. Our approach emphasizes apparent differential emission measure (DEM) distributions, and their dependence on orbital phase and wind parameters. A grid of theoretical DEM distributions is used to generate model spectra, which are compared to the data. We obtain good fits, and derive constraints oil the stellar wind parameters. We provide a summary of the method, and show that, even though the companion stars in Vela X-1 and Cen X-3 have comparable mass-loss rates, the winds in these two systems are dramatically different, in character.

  1. Modified binary particle swam optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangwook Lee; Sangmoon Soak; Sanghoun Oh; Witold Pedrycz; Moongu Jeon

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a modified binary particle swarm optimization(BPSO)which adopts concepts of the genotype-phenotype rep-resentation and the mutation operator of genetic algorithms.Its main feature is that the BPSO can be treated as a continuous PSO.The proposed BPSO algorithm is tested on various benchmark functions,and its performance is compared with that of the original BPSO.Experimental results show that the modified BPSO outperforms the original BPSO algorithm.

  2. Tides in asynchronous binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Toledano, Oswaldo; Moreno, Edmundo; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Detmers, R.; Langer, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Stellar oscillations are excited in non-synchronously rotating stars in binary systems due to the tidal forces. Tangential components of the tides can drive a shear flow which behaves as a differentially forced rotating structure in a stratified outer medium. In this paper we show that our single-layer approximation for the calculation of the forced oscillations yields results that are consistent with the predictions for the synchronization timescales in circular orbits. In addition, calibrat...

  3. Language Learning Actions in Two 1x1 Secondary Schools in Catalonia: The Case of Online Language Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Boris Vázquez; Cassany, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes current attitudes towards classroom digitization and digital language learning practices under the umbrella of EduCAT 1x1, the One-Laptop-Per-Child (OLPC or 1x1) initiative in place in Catalonia. We thoroughly analyze practices worked out by six language teachers and twelve Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE)…

  4. Galaxy Rotation and Rapid Supermassive Binary Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2015-09-01

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.

  5. Visual Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Reipurth, Bo; Connelley, Michael S; Bally, John

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a major survey for visual binaries towards the Orion Nebula Cluster using HST images obtained with an H-alpha filter. Among 781 likely ONC members more than 60" from theta-1 Ori C, we find 78 multiple systems (75 binaries and 3 triples), of which 55 are new discoveries, in the range from 0.1" to 1.5". About 9 binaries are likely line-of-sight associations. We find a binary fraction of 8.8%+-1.1% within the limited separation range from 67.5 to 675 AU. The field binary fraction in the same range is a factor 1.5 higher. Within the range 150 AU to 675 AU we find that T Tauri associations have a factor 2.2 more binaries than the ONC. The binary separation distribution function of the ONC shows unusual structure, with a sudden steep decrease in the number of binaries as the separation increases beyond 0.5", corresponding to 225 AU. We have measured the ratio of binaries wider than 0.5" to binaries closer than 0.5" as a function of distance from the Trapezium, and find that this ratio is signifi...

  6. (1 x 1) rippled relaxation of (100) transition-metal carbide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of (100) surfaces of TaC and HfC was performed using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. Detailed LEED I--V analyses show that, on both surfaces, carbon atoms displace outward and metal atoms inward, giving rise to (1 x 1) rippled relaxations, with the magnitude of the ripple being larger on TaC(100). Photoemission spectra of metal 4f levels from these surfaces show no obvious surface core-level shifts. Using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), changes in (bulk) core-level binding energies, valence-band structures, and local carbon environments were determined for TaC/sub x/ (0.5< x<1.0) and HfC/sub x/ (0.6< x<1.0). From these bulk studies, it was inferred that, as x decreases, added negative charge accumulates in the vicinity of metal atoms while some charge transfers away from remaining carbon atoms. Insight obtained from the XPS and AES investigations is used in this paper to discuss the charge distribution at the (100) surfaces of TaC and HfC. It is concluded that carbon atoms in the outermost layer move outward to allow their compressed s,p electrons to expand to a state of lower kinetic energy, and metal atoms move inward because of added charge accumulating in their vicinity. We propose that the larger ripple on TaC(100) results form a larger accumulation of charge near the metal atoms on that surface

  7. Low frequency QPOs and possible change in the accretion geometry during Aquila X$-$1 outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wenda

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of the Low Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (LFQPOs) during the rise phase of seven outbursts of the neutron star soft X-ray Transient (SXT) Aquila X$-$1 observed with the {\\it Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)}. The frequency correlation between the low frequency break and the LFQPO sampled on the time scale of $\\sim$2 days is seen. Except for the peculiar 2001 outburst, the frequency of the LFQPOs increased with time before the hard-to-soft state transition up to a maximum $\

  8. X-ray scattering study of the Ge(001):Te(1x1) surface structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1x1 surface structure of Te adsorbed on Ge(001) was studied by analyzing the x-ray scattered intensity along several surface crystal truncation rods (CTR). The results were compared to simulations corresponding to the bridge, top, antibridge, and hollow site models. Te at the bridge site was in best agreement. More complex surface models based on modifications of Te at the bridge site were then compared to the data with the missing-row model being in better agreement than the zigzag model. Finally, the CTR data were used to refine the structural parameters of the missing row model. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  9. Valence band structure of the Si(331)-(12 x 1) surface reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Corsin [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Rue A-L Breguet 2, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Fabian Schwier, Eike; Monney, Claude; Didiot, Clement; Mariotti, Nicolas; Gunnar Garnier, Michael; Aebi, Philipp [Department of Physics and Fribourg Center for Nanomaterials, Universite de Fribourg, Chemin du Musee 3, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Gaal-Nagy, Katalin; Onida, Giovanni, E-mail: corsin.battaglia@epfl.ch [Dipartimento di Fisica and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-04-06

    Using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy we investigate the electronic valence band structure of the Si(331)-(12 x 1) surface reconstruction for which we recently proposed a structural model containing silicon pentamers as elementary structural building blocks. We find that this surface, reported to be metallic in a previous study, shows a clear band gap at the Fermi energy, indicating semiconducting behavior. An occupied surface state, presumably containing several spectral components, is found centered at - 0.6 eV exhibiting a flat energy dispersion. These results are confirmed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and are consistent with recent first-principles calculations for our structural model.

  10. Valence band structure of the Si(331)-(12 x 1) surface reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy we investigate the electronic valence band structure of the Si(331)-(12 x 1) surface reconstruction for which we recently proposed a structural model containing silicon pentamers as elementary structural building blocks. We find that this surface, reported to be metallic in a previous study, shows a clear band gap at the Fermi energy, indicating semiconducting behavior. An occupied surface state, presumably containing several spectral components, is found centered at - 0.6 eV exhibiting a flat energy dispersion. These results are confirmed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and are consistent with recent first-principles calculations for our structural model.

  11. 5x1 Linear Antenna Array for 60 GHz Beam Steering Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrö, Mikko; Titz, Diane; Kolmonen, Veli-Matti; Ranvier, Sylvain; Pons, Patrick; Luxey, Cyril; Vainikainen, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design process and simulation results of a 5 x 1 linear antenna array with phase shifters for 60 GHz beam steering applications. The antenna array has been designed using a membrane process in order to achieve high radiation efficiency and good radiation characteristics. The same process can be used to manufacture Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) switches and phase shifters. The maximum gain of the developed antenna array is 9.0 dBi and the radiation efficiency is...

  12. On IC 10 X-1, the Most Massive Known Stellar-Mass Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2008-01-01

    IC 10 X-1 is a variable X-ray source in the Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10 whose optical counterpart is a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. Prestwich et al. (2007) recently proposed that it contains the most massive known stellar-mass black hole (23-34 M_sun), but their conclusion was based on radial velocities derived from only a few optical spectra, the most important of which was seriously affected by a CCD defect. Here we present new spectra of the WR star, spanning one month, obtained with the K...

  13. X-Ray Timing Properties of Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Warren Bosworth

    Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-2 are X-ray sources which are believed to be a black hole and a neutron star, respectively. We investigate the variability of Cygnus X-1 in the context of shot noise models, and employ a peak detection algorithm to select individual shots. The detected shots are fit to several model templates. The fit shot parameters are found to be distributed. The cross spectrum of light curves from Cygnus X-1 in different energy bands is studied. Large, frequency dependent time lags are observed, along with high coherence. The high coherence implies that the transfer function between low and high energy variability is uniform. This implies that, if the lags are due to Compton scattering, variations in the seed intensity must originate in a region much smaller than the Comptonizing medium. The frequency dependence of the lags implies that, if they are due to Comptonization, the Comptonizing medium is nonuniform. The uniformity of the transfer function implies that the observed distribution of shot widths cannot have been acquired through Compton scattering. The energy spectrum of the radiation reaching us from Cygnus X-1 is found to fluctuate at the shortest timescales observable. This implies rapid changes in the geometry or temperature of some portions of the system, possibly due to dynamical instabilities of the system. The high counting rates and temporal resolution of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer allow more detailed investigation of the Horizontal Branch Oscillations (HBO) in Cygnus X-2 than has been possible previously, including observation of a second harmonic. The relations of the frequencies and widths of these peaks are investigated in order to shed light on their origin and thus the conditions in the region of their formation. The observations support the Magnetospheric Beat Frequency Modulated Accretion model for the origin of the HBO. The data indicate that neither rapid variation in the frequency of, nor short lifetime of, a locally

  14. Observation of Hercules X-1 at energies above 50 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for emission from Hercules X-1 at energies above 50 TeV during the calendar period April 1986 to July 1987 yielded two significant bursts, on UT 24 July 1986. The events during these bursts were pulsed with a period of 1.2357 s, significantly different from estimates of the contemporaneous x-ray period. The probability that this represents random statistical fluctuations of the background is estimated to be 1/70000. The muon content of the burst events is anomalous when compared with expectations from gamma-ray showers. 11 refs., 1 fig

  15. Surface core-level shifts for Ge(100)-(2 x 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T.; Rosenwinkel, E.; Chiang, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Using surface-sensitive photoemission techniques, Ge 3d core-level binding energies for surface atoms of Ge(100)-(2 x 1) are found to be smaller than the bulk values by 0.41 eV. The surface atoms with shifted core-level binding energies correspond to one full (100) atomic layer. A surface core-exciton resonance is observed in the partial-yield measurements. The empty surface state involved in this excitonic transition, without binding-energy correction, is located at the valence-band maximum. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  16. Surface core-level shifts for Ge(100)-(2 x 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T.; Rosenwinkel, E.; Chiang, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Using surface-sensitive photoemission techniques, Ge 3d core-level binding energies for surface atoms of Ge(100)-(2 x 1) are found to be smaller than the bulk values by 0.41 eV. The surface atoms with shifted core-level binding energies correspond to one full (100) atomic layer. A surface core-exciton resonance is observed in the partial-yield measurements. The empty surface state involved in this excitonic transition, without binding-energy correction, is located at the valence-band maximum.

  17. Lymphoid Regeneration from Gene Corrected SCID-X1 Patient Derived iPSC

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, T; Firth, AL; Scripture-Adams, D.D.; Galic, Z; Qualls, SJ; Gilmore, WB; Ke, E; Singer, O; Anderson, LS; Bornzin, AR; Alexander, IE; Zack, JA; Verma, IM

    2015-01-01

    X-Linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is a genetic disease that leaves newborns at high risk of serious infection and a predicted lifespan of less than one year in the absence of a matched bone marrow donor. The disease pathogenesis is due to mutations in the gene encoding the Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain (IL-2Rγ) leading to a lack of functional lymphocytes. With the leukemogenic concerns of viral gene therapy there is a need to explore alternative therapeutic options. We ...

  18. Evolution of binary stars in multiple-population globular clusters - II. Compact binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongsuk; Vesperini, Enrico; Sollima, Antonio; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at exploring the evolution of compact binaries in multiple-population globular clusters. We show that as a consequence of the initial differences in the structural properties of the first-generation (FG) and the second-generation (SG) populations and the effects of dynamical processes on binary stars, the SG binary fraction decreases more rapidly than that of the FG population. The difference between the FG and SG binary fraction is qualitatively similar to but quantitatively smaller than that found for wider binaries in our previous investigations. The evolution of the radial variation of the binary fraction is driven by the interplay between binary segregation, ionization and ejection. Ionization and ejection counteract in part the effects of mass segregation but for compact binaries the effects of segregation dominate and the inner binary fraction increases during the cluster evolution. We explore the variation of the difference between the FG and the SG binary fraction with the distance from the cluster centre and its dependence on the binary binding energy and cluster structural parameters. The difference between the binary fraction in the FG and the SG populations found in our simulations is consistent with the results of observational studies finding a smaller binary fraction in the SG population.

  19. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black holes binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cholis, Ilias; Kovetz, Ely D.; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B.; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-01-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of $\\sim30\\,M_\\odot$ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly ecce...

  20. Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Taylor, Patrick; Carry, Benoît; Jacobson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.

  1. Relativistic Gravity and Binary Radio Pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspi, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    Following a summary of the basic principles of pulsar timing, we present a review of recent results from timing observations of relativistic binary pulsars. In particular, we summarize the status of timing observations of the much celebrated original binary pulsar PSR B1913+16, draw attention to the recent confirmation of strong evidence for geodetic precession in this system, review the recent measurement of multiple post-Keplerian binary parameters for PSR B1534+12, and describe the Parkes ...

  2. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  3. Detection of unresolved binaries with multicolor photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chulkov, D; Malkov, O; Sichevskij, S; Krussanova, N; Mironov, A; Zakharov, A; Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    The principal goal of this paper is to specify conditions of detection of unresolved binaries by multicolor photometry. We have developed a method for estimating the critical distance at which an unresolved binary of given mass and age can be detected. The method is applied to the photometric system of the planned Lyra-B spaceborne experiment. We have shown that some types of unresolved binary stars can be discovered and distinguished from single stars solely by means of photometric observations.

  4. MAXI observations of long-term variations of Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard and the high/soft states

    CERN Document Server

    Sugimoto, Juri; Kitamoto, Shunji; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term X-ray variability of the black hole binary, Cygnus X-1, was studied with five years of MAXI data from 2009 to 2014, which include substantial periods of the high/soft state, as well as the low/hard state. In each state, Normalized Power Spectrum densities (NPSDs) were calculated in three energy bands of 2-4 keV, 4-10 keV and 10-20 keV. The NPSDs in a frequency from 1e-7 Hz to 1e-4 Hz are all approximated by a power-law function with an index -1.35 ~ -1.29. The fractional RMS variation ($\\eta$), calculated in the above frequency range, was found to show the following three properties; (1) $\\eta$ slightly decreases with energy in the low/hard state; (2) $\\eta$ increases towards higher energies in the high/soft state; and (3) in the 10-20 keV band, $\\eta$ is 3 times higher in the high/soft state than in the low/hard state. These properties were confirmed through studies of intensity-correlated changes of the MAXI spectra. Of these three findings, the first one is consistent with that seen in the short-...

  5. Aquila X-1 from outburst to quiescence: the onset of the propeller effect and signs of an awaken rotation powered pulsar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana, S.; Stella, L.; Mereghetti, S.; Colpi, M.; Tavani, M.; Ricci, D.; Dal Fiume, D.; Belloni, T

    1999-01-01

    According to current evolutionary scenarios, neutron stars in Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXRBs) are spun-up by accretion torques to limiting periods in the millisecond range and give rise to 'recycled' millisecond radio pulsars once accretion stops{sup 1-3}. In addition to persistent sources, the X-ray sky is populated by a number of transient sources. Among them, Soft X-Ray Transients (SXRTs), when in outburst, show properties similar to those of LMXRBs{sup 4-6}. SXRTs are characterised by luminosities, and therefore mass accretion rates, that vary over many decades: while it is clear that when in outburst their emission is powered by accretion onto the neutron star surface, the origin of the low-level emission detected during quiescence remained uncertain{sup 7,8}. Here we report on BeppoSAX pointed observations of Aql X-1, the first to follow the decay of a SXRT outburst down to quiescence. The fast X-ray flux decay that leads to quiescence is most readily interpreted in terms of the propeller effect arising from the very fast rotation of the neutron star magnetosphere. The hard X-ray spectrum that characterises the quiescent emission is probably due to shock emission powered by a turned-on radio pulsar.

  6. X1: A Robotic Exoskeleton for In-Space Countermeasures and Dynamometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Rochelle; Beck, Christopher; Rovekamp, Roger; Diftler, Myron; Neuhaus, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Bone density loss and muscle atrophy are among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) highest concerns for crew health in space. Countless hours are spent maintaining an exercise regimen aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to counteract the effect of zero-gravity. Looking toward the future, NASA researchers are developing new compact and innovative exercise technologies to maintain crew health as missions increase in length and take humans further out into the solar system. The X1 Exoskeleton, initially designed for assisted mobility on Earth, was quickly theorized to have far-reaching potential as both an in-space countermeasures device and a dynamometry device to measure muscle strength. This lower-extremity device has the ability to assist or resist human movement through the use of actuators positioned at the hips and knees. Multiple points of adjustment allow for a wide range of users, all the while maintaining correct joint alignment. This paper discusses how the X1 Exoskeleton may fit NASA's onorbit countermeasures needs.

  7. A fit to the simultaneous broadband spectrum of Cygnus X-1 using the transition disk model

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, R; Melia, F

    1997-01-01

    We have used the transition disk model to fit the simultaneous broad band ($2-500$ keV) spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from OSSE and Ginga observations. In this model, the spectrum is produced by saturated Comptonization within the inner region of the accretion disk, where the temperature varies rapidly with radius. In an earlier attempt, we demonstrated the viability of this model by fitting the data from EXOSAT, XMPC balloon and OSSE observations, though these were not made simultaneously. Since the source is known to be variable, however, the results of this fit were not conclusive. In addition, since only once set of observations was used, the good agreement with the data could have been a chance occurrence. Here, we improve considerably upon our earlier analysis by considering four sets of simultaneous observations of Cygnus X-1, using an empirical model to obtain the disk temperature profile. The vertical structure is then obtained using this profile and we show that the analysis is self- consistent. We demonst...

  8. A rapid change of the Hercules X-1 pulse profile and high-state duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Yang; Gruber, Duane E.; Rothschild, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Her X-1 has been observed in the 13-180 keV energy range by the HEAO 1 A-4 Low-Energy Detectors during selected phases of the 35 d on-off cycle. During a pointing observation in September 1978, the pulse profile was observed to change continuously from its normal shape to an anomalous double-pulsed form. Moreover, at this time the main-on state, normally of the duration 10 d, was seen to terminate after only 7 d. Since such an anomalous pulse profile has also been reported by Truemper et al. in 1986 during a short-on state, three short-on states in the HEAO 1 data were also investigated. One short-on observation had the sensitivity to detect pulsing, and the observed profile also had an anomalous double-pulsed form. Current models for the 35 d cycle of Her X-1 have been examined, and a model with a neutron star undergoing free precession could not explain the sudden change of pulse profile within 20 hr at the end of a main-on state.

  9. Two Power-Law States of the Ultraluminous X-ray Source IC342 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Tessei; Mineshige, Shin; Kubota, Aya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Saitou, Kei

    2012-01-01

    In order to elucidate the emission properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) during their power-law (PL) state, we examined long-term X-ray spectral data of IC342 X-1 during its PL state by using our own Suzaku data and the archival data by XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift observations. The PL state of this source seems to be classified into two sub-states in terms of the X-ray luminosities in 0.5-10 keV: the low luminosity PL state with 4-6*10^{39} erg/s and the high luminosity one with 1.1-1.4*10^{40} erg/s. During the Suzaku observations which were made in 2010 August and 2011 March, X-1 stayed in the low luminosity PL state. The observed X-ray luminosity (4.9-5.6*10^{39} erg/s) and the spectral shape (photon index = 1.67-1.83) slightly changed between the two observations. Using the Suzaku PIN detector, we for the first time confirmed a PL tail extending up to at least 20 keV with no signatures of a high-energy turnover in both of the Suzaku observations. In contrast, a turnover at about 6 keV was ob...

  10. Temporal evolution of long-timescale periodicities in ULX NGC 5408 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    An, Tao; Wang, Jun-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Context. NGC 5408 X-1 is one of the few ultraluminous X-ray sources with an extensive monitoring program in X-rays (a temporal baseline of 4.2 yr), making it one of the most suitable candidates to study the long-timescale quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). Aims. Previous timing analysis of the Swift data of NGC 5408 X-1 led to detection of multiple periodicities ranging from 2.6 d to 230 d. In this paper, we focus on the statistical significance and the temporal evolution of these periodicities. Methods. A time-series analysis technique in the time-frequency domain, the weighted wavelet Z-transform (WWZ), was employed to identify the periodicities and trace their variations with time. Results. Three periodic components were detected from the WWZ periodogram, corresponding to periods of 2.65$\\pm$0.01 d, 115.4$\\pm$14.4 d and 189.1$\\pm$15.2 d. All three have statistical significance higher than 99.74%. The 2.65-d periodicity is quite stable in the majority of the light curve. The 115-d periodicity is the most p...

  11. RXTE All-Sky Monitor Detection of the Orbital Period of Scorpius X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderlinde, K W; Rappaport, S A; Vanderlinde, Keith W.; Levine, Alan M.; Rappaport, Saul A.

    2002-01-01

    The orbital period of Scorpius X-1 has been accepted as 0.787313 d since its discovery in archival optical photometric data by Gottlieb, Wright, & Liller (1975). This period has been confirmed in both photometric and spectroscopic optical observations, though to date only marginal evidence has been reported for modulation of the X-ray intensity at that period. We have used data taken with the RXTE All Sky Monitor to search for such a modulation. A major difficulty in detecting the orbit in X-ray data is presented by the flaring behavior of Sco X-1, which contributes white noise to Fourier transforms of the intensity time series, and tends to obscure weak modulations. We present a new technique for substantially reducing the effects of the flaring behavior while retaining much of any periodic orbital modulation, provided only that the two temporal behaviors exhibit different spectral signatures. Through such a search, we have found evidence for orbital modulation at about the 1% level with a period of 0.78...

  12. Millisecond dips in the RXTE/PCA light curve of Sco X-1 and TNO occultation

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, H K; Liu, C Y; King, S K; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Liang, Jau-Shian; Liu, Chih-Yuan; King, Sun-Kun

    2007-01-01

    Millisecond dips in the RXTE/PCA light curve of Sco X-1 were reported recently (Chang et al. 2006), which were interpreted as the occultation of X-rays from Sco X-1 caused by Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNO) of hundred-meter size. Inconclusive signatures of possible instrumental effects in many of these dip events related to high-energy cosmic rays were later found (Jones et al. 2006) and the TNO interpretation became shaky. Here we report more detailed analysis aiming at distinguishing true occultation events from those related to cosmic rays. Based on some indicative criteria derived from housekeeping data and two-channel spectral information, we suggest that about 10% of the dips are probable events of occultation. The total number of TNOs of size from 60 m to 100 m is estiamted to be about 10^{15} accordingly. Limited by the coarser time resolution of standard data modes of RXTE/PCA, however, definite results cannot be obtained. Adequately configured observations with RXTE or other new instruments in the fut...

  13. A Model-Based Cross-Correlation Search for Gravitational Waves from Scorpius X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, John T; Zhang, Yuanhao; Peiris, Prabath

    2015-01-01

    We consider the cross-correlation search for periodic GWs and its potential application to the LMXB Sco X-1. This method coherently combines data from different detectors at the same time, as well as different times from the same or different detectors. By adjusting the maximum time offset between a pair of data segments to be coherently combined, one can tune the method to trade off sensitivity and computing costs. In particular, the detectable signal amplitude scales as the inverse fourth root of this coherence time. The improvement in amplitude sensitivity for a search with a coherence time of 1hr, compared with a directed stochastic background search with 0.25Hz wide bins is about a factor of 5.4. We show that a search of 1yr of data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with a coherence time of 1hr would be able to detect GWs from Sco X-1 at the level predicted by torque balance over a range of signal frequencies from 30-300Hz; if the coherence time could be increased to 10hr, the range would be 20-500Hz...

  14. Electron impact ionization of the SiDx (x=1 endash 3) free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of absolute cross sections for the electron-impact ionization and dissociative ionization of the SiDx (x=1 endash 3) free radicals from threshold to 200 eV using the fast-neutral-beam technique. The deuterated rather than the protonated target species were used in order to allow a better separation of the various product ions from a given parent in our apparatus. A common feature of all three radicals studied in this work is a dominant parent ionization cross section with essentially the same absolute value of roughly 3.7x10-16 cm2 at 70 eV. Dissociative ionization processes for all three targets are less significant with a single dissociative process dominating in each case, viz. the removal of a single D atom (SiDx+e-→SiD+x-1+D+2e-). The cross section for this dominant dissociative ionization channel also had the same maximum value of about 1.2x10-16 cm2 for all three targets. A comparison of the experimentally determined total single ionization cross sections with calculated cross sections using a modified additivity rule showed good to satisfactory agreement for all three targets in terms of the absolute values, but reveals some discrepancies in the cross section shapes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Relativistic Gravity and Binary Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspi, V M

    1999-01-01

    Following a summary of the basic principles of pulsar timing, we present a review of recent results from timing observations of relativistic binary pulsars. In particular, we summarize the status of timing observations of the much celebrated original binary pulsar PSR B1913+16, draw attention to the recent confirmation of strong evidence for geodetic precession in this system, review the recent measurement of multiple post-Keplerian binary parameters for PSR B1534+12, and describe the Parkes Multibeam survey, a major survey of the Galactic Plane which promises to discover new relativistic binary pulsar systems.

  16. Speech perception of noise with binary gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, DeLiang; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind;

    2008-01-01

    For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed by the i...... by the ideal binary mask. Only 16 filter channels and a frame rate of 100 Hz are sufficient for high intelligibility. The results show that, despite a dramatic reduction of speech information, a pattern of binary gains provides an adequate basis for speech perception....

  17. The equations for binary density and the binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In work on the basis of a method of the kinetic equations it is output the differential equations for binary density and a binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids. These equations are the nonuniform equations of parabolic type. The solution of these equations completely feature existential behaviour of binary density and a binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids, i.e. process of a structural relaxation. (author)

  18. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  19. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a

  20. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  1. Experimental and theoretical excess molar enthalpies of ternary and binary mixtures containing 2-Methoxy-2-Methylpropane, 1-propanol, heptane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experimental enthalpies for the ternary system MTBE + propanol + heptane were measured. • No experimental ternary values were found in the currently available literature. • Experimental enthalpies for the binary system propanol + heptane were measured. • Excess molar enthalpies are positive over the whole range of composition. • The ternary contribution is also positive, and the representation is asymmetric. -- Abstract: Excess molar enthalpies, at the temperature of 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, have been measured for the ternary system {x1 2-Methoxy-2-Methylpropane (MTBE) + x2 1-propanol + (1 − x1 − x2) heptane}, over the whole composition range. Also, experimental data of excess molar enthalpy for the involved binary mixture {x 1-propanol + (1 − x) heptane} at the 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, are reported. We are not aware of any previous experimental measurement of excess enthalpy in the literature for the ternary system presented in this study. Values of the excess molar enthalpies were measured using a Calvet microcalorimeter. The ternary contribution to the excess enthalpy was correlated with the equation due to Morris et al. (1975) [15], and the equation proposed by Myers–Scott (1963) [14] was used to fitted the experimental binary mixture measured in this work. Additionally, the experimental results are compared with the estimations obtained by applying the group contribution model of UNIFAC, in the versions of Larsen et al. (1987) [16] and Gmehling et al. (1993) [17]. Several empirical expressions for estimating ternary properties from binary results were also tested

  2. R144 : a very massive binary likely ejected from R136 through a binary-binary encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seungkyung; Banerjee, Sambaran

    2013-01-01

    R144 is a recently confirmed very massive, spectroscopic binary which appears isolated from the core of the massive young star cluster R136. The dynamical ejection hypothesis as an origin for its location is claimed improbable by Sana et al. due to its binary nature and high mass. We demonstrate here by means of direct N-body calculations that a very massive binary system can be readily dynamically ejected from a R136-like cluster, through a close encounter with a very massive system. One out of four N-body cluster models produces a dynamically ejected very massive binary system with a mass comparable to R144. The system has a system mass of $\\approx$ 355 Msun and is located at 36.8 pc from the centre of its parent cluster, moving away from the cluster with a velocity of 57 km/s at 2 Myr as a result of a binary-binary interaction. This implies that R144 could have been ejected from R136 through a strong encounter with an other massive binary or single star. In addition, we discuss all massive binaries and sin...

  3. Temporal evolution of long-timescale periodicities in ULX NGC 5408 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Tao; Lu, Xiang-Long; Wang, Jun-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Context. NGC 5408 X-1 is one of the few ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with an extensive monitoring program in X-rays (a temporal baseline of 4.2 yr), making it one of the most suitable candidates to study the long-timescale quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). Aims: Previous timing analysis of the Swift data of NGC 5408 X-1 led to detection of multiple periodicities ranging from 2.6 d to 230 d. In this paper, we focus on the statistical significance and the temporal evolution of these periodicities. Methods: A time-series analysis technique in the time-frequency domain, the weighted wavelet Z-transform (WWZ), was employed to identify the periodicities and trace their variations with time. Results: Three periodic components were detected from the WWZ periodogram, corresponding to periods of 2.65 ± 0.01 d, 115.4 ± 14.4 d and 189.1 ± 15.2 d. All three have statistical significance higher than 99.74% (≳3σ). The 2.65-d periodicity is quite stable in the majority of the light curve, whereas it changes to a shorter 2.50 d period in the last third of the time interval covered by the light curve. The 115-d periodicity is the most prominent but appears variable. It starts at an initial value of ~117.8 d and reaches 115.4 d around MJD 54 800; then it shifts into a lower-frequency branch (136 d period) between MJD 55 200-55 750; after that, this periodicity returns to 115 d until the end of the monitoring period. The 189-d periodicity is persistent across the whole time coverage. It shows a steadily decreasing trend from the beginning (193 d period) to the end (181 d period). Conclusions: The long-timescale periodicities in NGC 5408 X-1 are most likely of super-orbital origin, and are probably associated with the precession of a warped accretion disc. The disc may have been broken into two distinct planes with different precessing periods, i.e. the 189-d and 115-d periodicities corresponding to the outer and inner disc, respectively.

  4. Comparison of Knee and Ankle Dynamometry between NASA's X1 Exoskeleton and Biodex System 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Newby, N. J.; Hackney, K. J.; DeWitt, J. K.; Beck, C. E.; Rovekamp, R. N.; Rea, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Pre- and post-flight dynamometry is performed on International Space Station crewmembers to characterize microgravity-induced strength changes. Strength is not assessed in flight due to hardware limitations and there is poor understanding of the time course of in-flight changes. PURPOSE: To assess the reliability of a prototype dynamometer, the X1 Exoskeleton (EXO) and its agreement with a Biodex System 4 (BIO). METHODS: Eight subjects (4 M/4 F) completed 2 counterbalanced testing sessions of knee extension/flexion (KE/KF), 1 with BIO and 1 with EXO, with repeated measures within each session in normal gravity. Test-retest reliability (test 1 and 2) and device agreement (BIO vs. EXO) were evaluated. Later, to assess device agreement for ankle plantarflexion (PF), 10 subjects (4 M/6 F) completed 3 test conditions (BIO, EXO, and BIOEXO); BIOEXO was a hybrid condition comprised of the Biodex dynamometer motor and the X1 footplate and ankle frame. Ankle comparisons were: BIO vs. BIOEXO (footplate differences), BIOEXO vs. EXO (motor differences), and BIO vs. EXO (all differences). Reliability for KE/KF was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC). Device agreement was assessed with: 1) repeated measures ANOVA, 2) a measure of concordance (rho), and 3) average difference. RESULTS: ICCs for KE/KF were 0.99 for BIO and 0.96 to 0.99 for EXO. Agreement was high for KE (concordance: 0.86 to 0.95; average differences: -7 to +9 Nm) and low to moderate for KF (concordance: 0.64 to 0.78; average differences: -4 to -29 Nm, P<0.05). BIO vs. BIOEXO PF concordance ranged from 0.89 to 0.92 and mean differences ranged from -9 to +3 Nm (BIO < BIOEXO). BIOEXO vs. EXO PF concordance ranged from 0.73 to 0.80 while mean differences were -18 to -36 Nm (BIOEXO < EXO, P<0.05). PF concordance for BIO vs. EXO was slightly lower (0.61 to 0.84) and mean differences were greater (-27 to -33 Nm; BIO < EXO, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: BIO and EXO were similarly reliable for KE and KF. KE measures produced

  5. Millisecond Pulsars in Close Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    In this Habilitationsschrift (Habilitation thesis) I present my research carried out over the last four years at the Argelander Institute for Astronomy (AIfA) and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR). The thesis summarizes my main findings and has been written to fulfill the requirements for the Habilitation qualification at the University of Bonn. Although my work is mainly focused on the topic of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), there is a fairly broad spread of research areas ranging from the formation of neutron stars (NSs) in various supernova (SN) events, to their evolution, for example, via accretion processes in binary and triple systems, and finally to their possible destruction in merger events. The thesis is organized in the following manner: A general introduction to neutron stars and millisecond pulsars is given in Chapter 1. A selection of key papers published in 2011-2014 are presented in Chapters 2-10, ordered within five main research areas (ultra-stripped SNe in close binaries, ma...

  6. Polarization in binary microlensing events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light received by source stars in microlensing events may be significantly polarized if both an efficient photon-scattering mechanism is active in the source stellar atmosphere and a differential magnification is therein induced by the lensing system. The best candidate events for observing polarization are highly magnified events with source stars belonging to the class of cool, giant stars in which the stellar light is polarized by photon scattering on dust grains contained in their envelopes. The presence in the stellar atmosphere of an internal cavity devoid of dust produces polarization profiles with a two peaks structure. Hence, the time interval between them gives an important observable quantity directly related to the size of the internal cavity and to the model parameters of the lens system. We show that, during a microlensing event, the expected polarization variability can solve an ambiguity that arises in some cases, related to the binary or planetary lensing interpretation of the perturbations observed near the maximum of the event light-curve. We consider a specific event case for which the parameter values corresponding to the two solutions are given. Then, assuming a polarization model for the source star, we compute the two expected polarization profiles. The position of the two peaks appearing in the polarization curves and the characteristic time interval between them allow us to distinguish between the binary and planetary lens solutions. (paper)

  7. Expression of PinX1 and hTERT in basal cell carcinoma and their implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Qin; Jing Ge

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the expression and significance of PIN2/TERF1 interacting, telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in basal cel carcino-ma (BCC). Methods Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed to quantify the mRNA expressions and integrated optical density (IOD), respectively, of PinX1 and hTERT in BCC specimens (n = 30), as wel as in normal skin specimens (n = 15). Results The mRNA expression level and IOD of PinX1 in the BCC samples were both significantly lower than those in the control specimens (P 0.05). Conclusion Downregulation of PinX1 and upregulation of hTERT expression may be associated with the activation and maintenance of telomerases in the induction of BCC.

  8. Investigation of X-1P coating on magnetic head to enhance the stubility of head/disk interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Stable lubrication is essential to slider/disk interface of computer hard disk drive. Inertlubricant perfluoropolyether (PFPE) on magnetic hard disk in computer is still prone to catalyticdecomposition by Al2O3, which is one of the materials in slider. A partial fluorinated hexaphenoxycyclotriphosphazene chemical, X-1 P, was analyzed to research on its function to reduce the cata-lytic decomposition of lubricant. The surface free energy of X-1 P coated on head surface was alsoinvestigated. Contact start-stop (CSS) tester was employed to investigate the reflow effective ofX-1 P on lubricant PFPE. Results indicate that thermal stability and reflow of lubricant will be im-proved in the presence of X-1 P on the slider.

  9. Massachusetts Bay - Internal Wave Packets Extracted from SAR Imagery Binned in 1x1 minute grid cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets extracted from SAR imagery that were binned in 1x1 minute latitude/longitude polygon grid cells. Statistics were...

  10. Structure and stability of a high-coverage (1x1) oxygen phase on Ru(0001)

    CERN Document Server

    Stampfl, C; Over, H; Scheffler, M; Ertl, G

    1996-01-01

    The formation of chemisorbed O-phases on Ru(0001) by exposure to O_2 at low pressures is apparently limited to coverages Theta <= 0.5. Using low-energy electron diffraction and density functional theory we show that this restriction is caused by kinetic hindering and that a dense O overlayer (Theta = 1) can be formed with a (1x1) periodicity. The structural and energetic properties of this new adsorbate phase are analyzed and discussed in view of attempts to bridge the so-called "pressure gap" in heterogeneous catalysis. It is argued that the identified system actuates the unusually high rate of oxidizing reactions at Ru surfaces under high oxygen pressure conditions.

  11. Structural properties of VPsub(1-x)Assub(x); 0.00 <= x <= 1.00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VP-VAs system has been studied by powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Three regions of solid solubility, separated by two phase regions, are found for VPsub(1-x)Assub(x) as function of composition (x). An NiAs type phase prevails for 0.00 <= x <= 0.07+-0.02, a hexagonal phase of unknown crystal structure for 0.17+-0.02 <= x <= 0.63+-0.02 and an MnP type phase for 0.83+-0.02 <= x <= 1.00. No phase transition is observed between 10 and 1300 K. The various VPsub(1-x)Assub(x) phases exhibit Pauli paramagnetism. (Author)

  12. Ab initio spectroscopic characterization of borane, BH, in its X1Σ+ electronic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koput, Jacek

    2015-11-15

    The accurate potential energy and electric dipole moment functions of borane, BH, in its X1Σ+ electronic state have been determined from ab initio calculations using the multireference averaged coupled-pair functional method in conjunction with the correlation-consistent core-valence basis sets up to septuple-zeta quality. The higher-order electron correlation, scalar relativistic, adiabatic, and nonadiabatic effects were discussed. Vibration-rotation energy levels of the (11)BH, (11)BD, (10)BH, and (10)BD isotopologues were predicted to near "spectroscopic" accuracy. For the main isotopologue (11)BH, the adiabatic dissociation energy D0 and the effective equilibrium internuclear distance r(e) were predicted to be 28,469 ± 10 cm(-1) and 1.23214 ± 0.0001 Å, respectively. PMID:26444679

  13. Coordinate-dependent 3 X 1 formulation of the general relativity equations for a perfect fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper defines mass, momentum, and energy densities for a perfect fluid, and derives a coordinate-dependent 3 X 1 decomposition of the equation of motion in terms of a scalar potential psi is identical with c2 [(-g44)sup(1/2) -1] and a vector potential Asub(i) is identical with cgsub(4i)/(-g44)sup(1/2). The momentum equation has the form of the Euler equation except there is an additional force-proportional to the vector potential and the rate of change of kinetic energy per unit volume. The momentum and energy equations are integrated to obtain the equations previously derived for a particle. The momentum equation is solved for the total acceleration of a fluid element. The equations are exact and do not depend on the choice of coordinate system. (author)

  14. The structure of the Pd(110)(2x1)-CO surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, M; Polcik, M; Bradshaw, A M; Toomes, R L; Woodruff, D P; Rotenberg, E

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the Pd(110)(2x1)-CO ordered adsorption phase has been determined by scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction. The CO molecules are adsorbed close to short-bridge sites with alternating tilts along the close-packed surface rows. This local geometry is consistent with that found in previous theoretical total energy calculations and an earlier X-ray photoelectron diffraction study, but is in direct contradiction to the results of an earlier quantitative low energy electron diffraction investigation. While the best-fit model structure involves some twist of the CO molecules out of the mirror planes of the surface creating a surface phase of p1g1 symmetry, the more symmetric p2mg falls within the estimated limits of precision of the analysis.

  15. Modelling a Simultaneous Radio/X-Ray Flare from Cyg X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Konstantinos; Markoff, Sera; Wilsm, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Maitra, Dipankar; Pottschmidt, Katja; Pooley, Guy G.; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Rotschild, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    The long-term monitoring campaign of Cyg X-1 has provided the detection of the first simultaneous radio/X-ray flare seen from that source. We investigate the physical characteristics of the event in terms of emission from a homogeneous, expanding blob of pair-plasma, superimposed on a baseline flux in both bands. We find that while the radio flare can be reconstructed under various configurations of a cooling blob, continuous (re)acceleration of particles inside the jet is necessary to sustain X-ray emission at the levels implied by the data, for the observed duration. We present major results of the modelling and discuss implications for the role of microquasar jets.

  16. Fine-Tuning the Accretion Disk Clock in Hercules X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, M.; Boyd, P.

    2004-01-01

    RXTE ASM count rates from the X-ray pulsar Her X-1 began falling consistently during the late months of 2003. The source is undergoing another state transition similar to the anomalous low state of 1999. This new event has triggered observations from both space and ground-based observatories. In order to aid data interpretation and telescope scheduling, and to facilitate the phase-connection of cycles before and after the state transition, we have re-calculated the precession ephemeris using cycles over the last 3.5 years. We report that the source has displayed a different precession period since the last anomalous event. Additional archival data from CGRO suggests that each low state is accompanied by a change in precession period and that the subsequent period is correlated with accretion flux. Consequently our analysis reveals long-term accretion disk behaviour which is predicted by theoretical models of radiation-driven warping.

  17. Pulsating Components in Binary and Multiple Stellar Systems --- A Catalog of Oscillating Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, A. -Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present an up-to-date catalog of pulsating binaries, i.e. the binary and multiple stellar systems containing pulsating components, along with a statistics on them. Compared to the earlier compilation by Soydugan et al.(2006a) of 25 delta Scuti-type `oscillating Algol-type eclipsing binaries' (oEA), the recent collection of 74 oEA by Liakos et al.(2012), and the collection of Cepheids in binaries by Szabados (2003a), the numbers and types of pulsating variables in binaries are now extended....

  18. Observational test for the existence of a rotating black hole in Cyg X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that the degree and plane of linear polarisation of the radiation from Cyg X-1 are being investigated by X-ray satellite experiments. This radiation can be explained as coming from an accretion disk around a black hole, the polarisation of the X-rays being due to electron scattering in the hotter inner regions of the disk. Existing predictions of the polarisation properties, as a function of energy, have been based on a Newtonian approximation, thus neglecting gravitational effects on the rays as they propagate from the surface of the disk to an observer at infinity. Preliminary results are here given of a full general relativistic calculation that shows that gravitational effects completely alter the polarisation properties, and provide a sensitive test of the existence of a black hole. It is found that for a rapidly rotating black hole the general relativistic effects on the polarisation properties are an order of magnitude greater than for a slowly rotating black hole, or for a neutron star. The degree of linear polarisation of the rays as they leave the disk will also differ from the Newtonian value, and gravitational bending of the light will alter the angle at which a ray leaves the surface of the disk. The large general relativistic variation of the polarisation plane with energy is illustrated graphically. The very large general relativistic rotations in the plane of polarisation provide an opportunity for testing the black hole hypothesis for Cyg X-1. In order to observe these effects X-ray satellite experiments will be required with more sensitive polarimetry across a wider energy range than is available at present. (U.K.)

  19. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  20. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  1. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over o...

  2. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, Diego J

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ~5 times the binary period P_b,accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ~1P_b. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This "symmetry breaking" between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200 P_b, and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the ...

  3. ECCENTRIC EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent numerical simulations, it has been found that the eccentricity of supermassive black hole (SMBH)-intermediate black hole (IMBH) binaries grows toward unity through interactions with the stellar background. This increase of eccentricity reduces the merging timescale of the binary through the gravitational radiation to a value well below the Hubble time. It also gives a theoretical explanation of the existence of eccentric binaries such as that in OJ287. In self-consistent N-body simulations, this increase of eccentricity is always observed. On the other hand, the result of the scattering experiment between SMBH binaries and field stars indicated that the eccentricity dose not change significantly. This discrepancy leaves the high eccentricity of the SMBH binaries in N-body simulations unexplained. Here, we present a stellar-dynamical mechanism that drives the increase of the eccentricity of an SMBH binary with a large mass ratio. There are two key processes involved. The first one is the Kozai mechanism under a non-axisymmetric potential, which effectively randomizes the angular momenta of surrounding stars. The other is the selective ejection of stars with prograde orbits. Through these two mechanisms, field stars extract the orbital angular momentum of the SMBH binary. Our proposed mechanism causes the increase in the eccentricity of most of SMBH binaries, resulting in the rapid merger through gravitational wave radiation. Our result has given a definite solution to the 'last-parsec problem'.

  4. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  5. Gravitational radiation, inspiraling binaries, and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, David F.; Finn, Lee S.

    1993-01-01

    We show how to measure cosmological parameters using observations of inspiraling binary neutron star or black hole systems in one or more gravitational wave detectors. To illustrate, we focus on the case of fixed mass binary systems observed in a single Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)-like detector. Using realistic detector noise estimates, we characterize the rate of detections as a function of a threshold SNR Rho(0), H0, and the binary 'chirp' mass. For Rho(0) = 8, H0 = 100 km/s/Mpc, and 1.4 solar mass neutron star binaries, the sample has a median redshift of 0.22. Under the same assumptions but independent of H0, a conservative rate density of coalescing binaries implies LIGO will observe about 50/yr binary inspiral events. The precision with which H0 and the deceleration parameter q0 may be determined depends on the number of observed inspirals. For fixed mass binary systems, about 100 observations with Rho(0) = 10 in the LIGO will give H0 to 10 percent in an Einstein-DeSitter cosmology, and 3000 will give q0 to 20 percent. For the conservative rate density of coalescing binaries, 100 detections with Rho(0) = 10 will require about 4 yrs.

  6. Gravitational waves from inspiralling binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binary black holes are the most promising candidate sources for the first generation of earth-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We summarize and discuss the state-of-the-art analytical techniques developed during the last few years to better describe the late dynamical evolution of binary black holes of comparable masses

  7. Bayesian analysis of exoplanet and binary orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Hartung, Tim; Henning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We introduce BASE (Bayesian astrometric and spectroscopic exoplanet detection and characterisation tool), a novel program for the combined or separate Bayesian analysis of astrometric and radial-velocity measurements of potential exoplanet hosts and binary stars. The capabilities of BASE are demonstrated using all publicly available data of the binary Mizar A.

  8. Average spectral properties of galactic X-ray binaries with 3 years of MAXI data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Nazma; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Paul, Biswajit; Nath, Biman B

    2013-01-01

    The energy spectra of X-ray binaries (XRBs) have been investigated during the last few decades with many observatories in different energy bands and with different energy resolutions. However, these studies are carried out in selected states of XRBs like during outbursts, transitions, quiescent states, and are always done in limited time windows of pointed observations. It is now possible to investigate the long term averaged spectra of a large number of X-ray binaries with the all sky monitor MAXI, which also has a broad energy band. Here we present the average spectral behaviour of a few representative XRBs. The long term averaged spectrum of Cyg X-1 is described by a sum of two power-laws having $\\Gamma_{1}$ ~ 2.8 and $\\Gamma_{2}$ ~ 1.2, along with a multi color disk blackbody having an inner disk temperature of 0.5 keV, GX 301-2 is described by a power-law with a high energy cut-off at $E_{c}$ ~ 15 keV and a blackbody component at 0.2 keV and that of Aql X-1 is described by a multi color disk blackbody at...

  9. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Smullen, Rachel A; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Asid...

  10. Orbital dynamics of binary boson star systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend our previous studies of head-on collisions of boson stars by considering orbiting binary boson stars. We concentrate on equal-mass binaries and study the dynamical behavior of boson/boson and boson/antiboson pairs. We examine the gravitational wave output of these binaries and compare with other compact binaries. Such a comparison lets us probe the apparent simplicity observed in gravitational waves produced by black hole binary systems. In our system of interest however, there is an additional internal freedom which plays a significant role in the system's dynamics, namely, the phase of each star. Our evolutions show rather simple behavior at early times, but large differences occur at late times for the various initial configurations

  11. Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.

  12. Absorption Oscillator Strengths for the c4‧1Σu+(3, 4, 6)-X1Σg+(v‧‧), b‧1Σu+(10, 13, 20)-X1Σg+(v‧‧), and c5‧1Σu+(1)-X1Σg+(v‧‧) Progressions in N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavín, C.; Velasco, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Absorption oscillator strengths, calculated with the molecular quantum defect orbital method, for the c4'1 Σu+(3)-X1Σg+ (v\\prime\\prime = 0-12), c4'1Σu+(4) -X1Σg+(v\\prime\\prime = 0-12), c4'1Σu+(6)- X1Σg+(v\\prime\\prime = 0-12), b\\prime 1Σu+(10)- X1Σg+(v\\prime\\prime = 0-12), b\\prime 1Σu+(13)- X1Σg+(v\\prime\\prime = 0-12), b\\prime 1Σu+(20)- X1Σg+(v\\prime\\prime = 0-12), and c5'1Σu+(1)- X1Σg+(v\\prime\\prime = 0-12) bands of molecular nitrogen are reported. The Rydberg-valence interaction between states of 1Σu+ symmetry has been treated through an interaction matrix that includes vibrational coupling. Due to the homogeneous interaction, the intensity distribution of the bands within each progression deviates from the Franck-Condon predictions. The present results for vibronic transitions from the X1Σg+(0) ground state agree rather well with reported high-resolution measurements. As far as we know, f-values for bands originating from v″ > 0 vibrational levels of the electronic ground state are reported here for the first time. These data may be useful in the interpretation of the extreme ultraviolet spectra from Earth’s and Titan’s atmospheres, in which several bands of the c4\\prime (3), c4\\prime (4), and c4\\prime (6) progressions have been identified.

  13. Polarization in binary microlensing events

    CERN Document Server

    Ingrosso, G; Nucita, A A; Strafella, F; Novati, S Calchi; Jetzer, Ph; Liuzzi, G; Zakharov, A

    2013-01-01

    The light received by source stars in microlensing events may be significantly polarized if both an efficient photon scattering mechanism is active in the source stellar atmosphere and a differential magnification is therein induced by the lensing system. The best candidate events for observing polarization are highly magnified events with source stars belonging to the class of cool, giant stars {in which the stellar light is polarized by photon scattering on dust grains contained in their envelopes. The presence in the stellar atmosphere of an internal cavity devoid of dust produces polarization profiles with a two peaks structure. Hence, the time interval between them gives an important observable quantity directly related to the size of the internal cavity and to the model parameters of the lens system.} We show that {during a microlensing event} the expected polarization variability can solve an ambiguity, that arises in some cases, related to the binary or planetary lensing interpretation of the perturba...

  14. Binary Cepheids from optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Mérand, A; Monnier, J D; Pietrzyński, J Breitfelder G; Gieren, W

    2013-01-01

    Classical Cepheid stars have been considered since more than a century as reliable tools to estimate distances in the universe thanks to their Period-Luminosity (P-L) relationship. Moreover, they are also powerful astrophysical laboratories, providing fundamental clues for studying the pulsation and evolution of intermediate-mass stars. When in binary systems, we can investigate the age and evolution of the Cepheid, estimate the mass and distance, and constrain theoretical models. However, most of the companions are located too close to the Cepheid (1-40 mas) to be spatially resolved with a 10-meter class telescope. The only way to spatially resolve such systems is to use long-baseline interferometry. Recently, we have started a unique and long-term interferometric program that aims at detecting and characterizing physical parameters of the Cepheid companions, with as main objectives the determination of accurate masses and geometric distances.

  15. Binary theory of electronic stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Sigmund, P

    2002-01-01

    Binary stopping theory has been developed to characterize the electronic stopping of swift heavy ions in matter. It is an extension of Bohr's classical theory of 1913 incorporating screening, higher-order-Z sub 1 and shell corrections, high-speed quantum and relativity corrections as well as projectile excitation and ionization. The main numerical input comes from optical properties. The computation of shell corrections involves orbital velocity distributions of target and projectile electrons. Calculated stopping parameters depend on ion charge. Equilibrium stopping forces may be computed by adoption of a suitable model for the equilibrium charge state. This paper summarizes the current status of the theory, in particular the sensitivity of its predictions to pertinent input. Charge-dependent stopping forces have been calculated for selected systems and compared to experimental results. Equilibrium stopping forces calculated for a wide variety of ion-target combinations are compared with experimental data fr...

  16. Binary mixtures of chiral gases

    CERN Document Server

    Presilla, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A possible solution of the well known paradox of chiral molecules is based on the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At low pressure the molecules are delocalized between the two minima of a given molecular potential while at higher pressure they become localized in one minimum due to the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Evidence for such a phase transition is provided by measurements of the inversion spectrum of ammonia and deuterated ammonia at different pressures. In particular, at pressure greater than a critical value no inversion line is observed. These data are well accounted for by a model previously developed and recently extended to mixtures. In the present paper, we discuss the variation of the critical pressure in binary mixtures as a function of the fractions of the constituents.

  17. ANOMALOUS LOW STATES AND LONG-TERM VARIABILITY IN THE BLACK HOLE BINARY LMC X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the black hole binary LMC X-3 reveal an extended very low X-ray state lasting from 2003 December 13 until 2004 March 18, unprecedented both in terms of its low luminosity (>15 times fainter than ever before seen in this source) and long duration (∼3 times longer than a typical low/hard state excursion). During this event little to no source variability is observed on timescales of ∼hours-weeks, and the X-ray spectrum implies an upper limit of 1.2 × 1035 erg s–1. Five years later another extended low state occurs, lasting from 2008 December 11 until 2009 June 17. This event lasts nearly twice as long as the first, and while significant variability is observed, the source remains reliably in the low/hard spectral state for the ∼188 day duration. These episodes share some characteristics with the 'anomalous low states' in the neutron star binary Her X-1. The average period and amplitude of the variability of LMC X-3 have different values between these episodes. We characterize the long-term variability of LMC X-3 before and after the two events using conventional and nonlinear time series analysis methods, and show that, as is the case in Her X-1, the characteristic amplitude of the variability is related to its characteristic timescale. Furthermore, the relation is in the same direction in both systems. This suggests that a similar mechanism gives rise to the long-term variability, which in the case of Her X-1 is reliably modeled with a tilted, warped precessing accretion disk.

  18. Anomalous Low States and Long-term Variability in the Black Hole Binary LMC X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Alan P.; Boyd, Patricia T.

    2012-09-01

    Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the black hole binary LMC X-3 reveal an extended very low X-ray state lasting from 2003 December 13 until 2004 March 18, unprecedented both in terms of its low luminosity (>15 times fainter than ever before seen in this source) and long duration (~3 times longer than a typical low/hard state excursion). During this event little to no source variability is observed on timescales of ~hours-weeks, and the X-ray spectrum implies an upper limit of 1.2 × 1035 erg s-1. Five years later another extended low state occurs, lasting from 2008 December 11 until 2009 June 17. This event lasts nearly twice as long as the first, and while significant variability is observed, the source remains reliably in the low/hard spectral state for the ~188 day duration. These episodes share some characteristics with the "anomalous low states" in the neutron star binary Her X-1. The average period and amplitude of the variability of LMC X-3 have different values between these episodes. We characterize the long-term variability of LMC X-3 before and after the two events using conventional and nonlinear time series analysis methods, and show that, as is the case in Her X-1, the characteristic amplitude of the variability is related to its characteristic timescale. Furthermore, the relation is in the same direction in both systems. This suggests that a similar mechanism gives rise to the long-term variability, which in the case of Her X-1 is reliably modeled with a tilted, warped precessing accretion disk.

  19. The bacterial effector HopX1 targets JAZ transcriptional repressors to activate jasmonate signaling and promote infection in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Gimenez-Ibanez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae is dependent on a type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of virulence effector proteins into the host cytoplasm, and the production of a number of toxins such as coronatine (COR, which is a mimic of the plant hormone jasmonate-isoleuce (JA-Ile. Inside the plant cell, effectors target host molecules to subvert the host cell physiology and disrupt defenses. However, despite the fact that elucidating effector action is essential to understanding bacterial pathogenesis, the molecular function and host targets of the vast majority of effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we found that effector HopX1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta 11528, a strain that does not produce COR, interacts with and promotes the degradation of JAZ proteins, a key family of JA-repressors. We show that hopX1 encodes a cysteine protease, activity that is required for degradation of JAZs by HopX1. HopX1 associates with JAZ proteins through its central ZIM domain and degradation occurs in a COI1-independent manner. Moreover, ectopic expression of HopX1 in Arabidopsis induces the expression of JA-dependent genes, represses salicylic acid (SA-induced markers, and complements the growth of a COR-deficient P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto DC3000 strain during natural bacterial infections. Furthermore, HopX1 promoted susceptibility when delivered by the natural type III secretion system, to a similar extent as the addition of COR, and this effect was dependent on its catalytic activity. Altogether, our results indicate that JAZ proteins are direct targets of bacterial effectors to promote activation of JA-induced defenses and susceptibility in Arabidopsis. HopX1 illustrates a paradigm of an alternative evolutionary solution to COR with similar physiological outcome.

  20. Intermittent dipping in a low-mass X-ray Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Duncan K; Upjohn, James; Stuart, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Periodic dips observed in approx. 20% of low-mass X-ray binaries are thought to arise from obscuration of the neutron star by the outer edge of the accretion disk. We report the detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of two dipping episodes in Aql X-1, not previously a known dipper. The X-ray spectrum during the dips exhibited an elevated neutral column density, by a factor between 1 and almost two orders of magnitude. Dips were not observed in every cycle of the 18.95-hr orbit, so that the estimated frequency for these events is 0.10 (+0.07,-0.05)/cycle. This is the first confirmed example of intermittent dipping in such a system. Assuming that the dips in Aql X-1 occur because the system inclination is intermediate between the non-dipping and dipping sources, implies a range of 72-79 deg. for the source. This result lends support for the presence of a massive (> 2 M_sun) neutron star in Aql X-1, and further implies that approx. 30 additional LMXBs may have inclinations within this range, raising the...

  1. Refined Neutron-Star Mass Determinations for Six Eclipsing X-Ray Pulsar Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Rawls, Meredith L; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Torres, Manuel A P; Bailyn, Charles D; Buxton, Michelle M

    2011-01-01

    We present an improved method for determining the mass of neutron stars in eclipsing X-ray pulsar binaries and apply the method to six systems, namely Vela X-1, 4U 1538-52, SMC X-1, LMC X-4, Cen X-3, and Her X-1. In previous studies to determine neutron star mass, the X-ray eclipse duration has been approximated analytically by assuming the companion star is spherical with an effective Roche lobe radius. We use a numerical code based on Roche geometry with various optimizers to analyze the published data for these systems, which we supplement with new spectroscopic and photometric data for 4U 1538-52. This allows us to model the eclipse duration more accurately and thus calculate an improved value for the neutron star mass. The derived neutron star mass also depends on the assumed Roche lobe filling factor beta of the companion star, where beta = 1 indicates a completely filled Roche lobe. In previous work a range of beta between 0.9 and 1.0 was usually adopted. We use optical ellipsoidal lightcurve data to c...

  2. Gamma-ray binaries and related systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dubus, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    After initial claims and a long hiatus, it is now established that several binary stars emit high (0.1-100 GeV) and very high energy (>100 GeV) gamma rays. A new class has emerged called 'gamma-ray binaries', since most of their radiated power is emitted beyond 1 MeV. Accreting X-ray binaries, novae and a colliding wind binary (eta Car) have also been detected - 'related systems' that confirm the ubiquity of particle acceleration in astrophysical sources. Do these systems have anything in common ? What drives their high-energy emission ? How do the processes involved compare to those in other sources of gamma rays: pulsars, active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants ? I review the wealth of observational and theoretical work that have followed these detections, with an emphasis on gamma-ray binaries. I present the current evidence that gamma-ray binaries are driven by rotation-powered pulsars. Binaries are laboratories giving access to different vantage points or physical conditions on a regular timescale as ...

  3. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Binary mass transfer is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this time-scale to the mean time for stable mass transfer to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing mass transfer that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster pro...

  4. Accretion in supergiant High Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Manousakis, A; Blondin, J

    2013-01-01

    Supergiant High Mass X-ray Binary systems (sgHMXBs) consist of a massive, late type, star and a neutron star. The massive stars exhibits strong, radiatively driven, stellar winds. Wind accretion onto compact object triggers X-ray emission, which alters the stellar wind significantly. Hydrodynamic simulation has been used to study the neutron star - stellar wind interaction it two sgHMXBs: i) A heavily obscured sgHMXB (IGR J17252-3616) discovered by INTEGRAL. To account for observable quantities (i.e., absorbing column density) we have to assume a very slow wind terminal velocity of about 500 km/s and a rather massive neutron star. If confirmed in other obscured systems, this could provide a completely new stellar wind diagnostics. ii) A classical sgHMXB (Vela X-1) has been studied in depth to understand the origin of the off-states observed in this system. Among many models used to account for this observed behavior (clumpy wind, gating mechanism) we propose that self-organized criticality of the accretion st...

  5. Accretion in supergiant High Mass X-ray Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manousakis Antonios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supergiant High Mass X-ray Binary systems (sgHMXBs consist of a massive, late type, star and a neutron star. The massive stars exhibits strong, radiatively driven, stellar winds. Wind accretion onto compact object triggers X-ray emission, which alters the stellar wind significantly. Hydrodynamic simulation has been used to study the neutron star - stellar wind interaction it two sgHMXBs: i A heavily obscured sgHMXB (IGR J17252–3616 discovered by INTEGRAL. To account for observable quantities (i.e., absorbing column density we have to assume a very slow wind terminal velocity of about 500 km/s and a rather massive neutron star. If confirmed in other obscured systems, this could provide a completely new stellar wind diagnostics. ii A classical sgHMXB (Vela X-1 has been studied in depth to understand the origin of the off-states observed in this system. Among many models used to account for this observed behavior (clumpy wind, gating mechanism we propose that self-organized criticality of the accretion stream is the likely reason for the observed behavior. In conclusion, the neutron star, in these two examples, acts very effciently as a probe to study stellar winds.

  6. Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO KeFu; CHEN Na

    2008-01-01

    Pd80+xSi20-x (x=0, 1, and 2) binary metallic glasses with the diameter ranging from 7 to 8 mm were prepared by a combination of fluxing and water quenching or air cooling. Thermal analysis results show that with increasing Si content, the glass transition temperature Tg, the initial crystallization temperature Tx and the onset crystalliza-tion temperature Tp of Pd-Si binary glassy alloys increase. Moreover, the super-cooled liquid region reaches 61 K. It indicates that Pd-Si binary alloys possess large glass forming ability, which can be greatly improved by fluxing treatment.

  7. Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Pd80+xSi20-x (x=0,1,and 2) binary metallic glasses with the diameter ranging from 7 to 8 mm were prepared by a combination of fluxing and water quenching or air cooling. Thermal analysis results show that with increasing Si content,the glass transition temperature Tg,the initial crystallization temperature Tx and the onset crystalliza-tion temperature Tp of Pd-Si binary glassy alloys increase. Moreover,the super-cooled liquid region reaches 61 K. It indicates that Pd-Si binary alloys possess large glass forming ability,which can be greatly improved by fluxing treatment.

  8. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the...... same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects with...

  9. Cassini states for black hole binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Alexandre C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cassini states correspond to the equilibria of the spin axis of a body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black hole binary systems base...

  10. Fast algorithms for generating binary holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Dustin; Kuhn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We describe three algorithms for generating binary-valued holograms. Our methods are optimised for producing large arrays of tightly focussed optical tweezers for trapping particles. Binary-valued holograms allow us to use a digital mirror device (DMD) as the display element, which is much faster than other alternatives. We describe how our binary amplitude holograms can be used to correct for phase errors caused by optical aberrations. Furthermore, we compare the speed and accuracy of the algorithms for both periodic and arbitrary arrangements of traps, which allows one to choose the ideal scheme depending on the circumstances.

  11. A PROPELLER-EFFECT INTERPRETATION OF MAXI/GSC LIGHT CURVES OF 4U 1608–52 AND Aql X-1 AND APPLICATION TO XTE J1701–462

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the luminosity dwell-time distributions during the hard states of two low-mass X-ray binaries containing a neutron star (NS), 4U 1608–52 and Aql X-1, observed with MAXI/GSC. The luminosity distributions show a steep cutoff on the low-luminosity side at ∼1.0 × 1036 erg s–1 in both sources. The cutoff implies a rapid luminosity decrease in their outburst decay phases and this decrease can be interpreted as being due to the propeller effect. We estimate the surface magnetic field of 4U 1608–52 to be (0.5-1.6) × 108 G and Aql X-1 to be (0.6-1.9) × 108 G from the cutoff luminosity and apply the same propeller mechanism to the similar rapid luminosity decrease observed in the transient Z source, XTE J1701–462, with RXTE/ASM. Assuming that the spin period of the NS is on the order of milliseconds, the observed cutoff luminosity implies a surface magnetic field on the order of 109 G

  12. Propeller-Effect Interpretation of MAXI/GSC Light Curves of 4U 1608-52 and AqlX-1 and application to XTE J1701-462

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, K; Mihara, T; Sugizaki, M; Serino, M; Nakahira, S; Negoro, H; Ueda, Y; Yamaoka, K

    2013-01-01

    We present the luminosity dwell-time distributions during the hard states of low-mass X-ray binaries containing a neutron star, 4U 1608-52 and AqlX-1, observed with MAXI/GSC. The luminosity distributions show a steep cut-off in the low-luminosity side at $\\sim1.0 \\times 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in both the two sources. The cut-off implies a rapid luminosity decrease in their outburst decay phases, and the feature can be interpreted as due the propeller effect. We estimated the surface magnetic field of the neutron star to be (0.5--1.6) $\\times 10^8$ G in 4U 1608-52 and (0.6--1.9) $\\times 10^8$ G in AqlX-1 from the cut-off luminosity. We applied the same propeller mechanism to the similar rapid luminosity decrease observed in the transient Z-source, XTE J1701-462, with RXTE/ASM. Assuming that spin period of the neutron star is in the order of milliseconds, the observed cut-off luminosity deduces surface magnetic field in the order of $10^9$ G.

  13. A PROPELLER-EFFECT INTERPRETATION OF MAXI/GSC LIGHT CURVES OF 4U 1608-52 AND Aql X-1 AND APPLICATION TO XTE J1701-462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M. [MAXI Team, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nakahira, S. [ISS Science Project Office, ISAS, JAXA, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Negoro, H. [Department of Physics, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Ueda, Y. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamaoka, K., E-mail: kazumi@crab.riken.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2013-08-20

    We present the luminosity dwell-time distributions during the hard states of two low-mass X-ray binaries containing a neutron star (NS), 4U 1608-52 and Aql X-1, observed with MAXI/GSC. The luminosity distributions show a steep cutoff on the low-luminosity side at {approx}1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} in both sources. The cutoff implies a rapid luminosity decrease in their outburst decay phases and this decrease can be interpreted as being due to the propeller effect. We estimate the surface magnetic field of 4U 1608-52 to be (0.5-1.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} G and Aql X-1 to be (0.6-1.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} G from the cutoff luminosity and apply the same propeller mechanism to the similar rapid luminosity decrease observed in the transient Z source, XTE J1701-462, with RXTE/ASM. Assuming that the spin period of the NS is on the order of milliseconds, the observed cutoff luminosity implies a surface magnetic field on the order of 10{sup 9} G.

  14. The Vela X-1 pulse-averaged spectrum as observed by BeppoSAX

    CERN Document Server

    Orlandini, M; Frontera, F; Cusumano, G; Del Sordo, S; Giarrusso, S; Piraino, S; Segreto, A; Guainazzi, M; Piro, L

    1997-01-01

    We report on the 20 ksec observation of Vela X-1 performed by BeppoSAX on 1996 July 14 during its Science Verification Phase. We observed the source in two intensity states, characterized by a change in luminosity of a factor ~ 2, and a change in absorption of a factor ~ 10. The single Narrow Field Instrument pulse-averaged spectra are well fit by a power law with significantly different indices. This is in agreement with the observed changes of slope in the wide-band spectrum: a first change of slope at ~ 10 keV, and a second one at ~ 35 keV. To mimic this behaviour we used a double power law modified by an exponential cutoff --- the so-called NPEX model --- to fit the whole 2-100 keV continuum. This functional is able to adequately describe the data, expecially the low intensity state. We found an absorption-like feature at ~ 57 keV, very well visible in the ratio performed with the Crab spectrum. We interpreted this feature as a cyclotron resonance, corresponding to a neutron star surface magnetic strength...

  15. Bimodal quasi-oscillatory and spectral behavior in Sco X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Hasinger, G.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Middleditch, J.; Parmar, A.; Stella, L.; White, N.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray observations were made to follow up the discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in Sco X-1. The QPO is observed in the quiescent state, and between flares in the active state. When the source is quiescent, the QPO frequency is 6 Hz and anticorrelated with intensity; in the active state, the frequency ranges from 10 to 20 Hz and is strongly correlated with intensity. At high intensities the QPO dissolves into continuum noise. The QPO rms amplitude decreases with count rate, and increases with photon energy. There are two modes of spectral behavior, with a one-to-one correspondence to the two modes of QPO: the spectral hardness ratio varies more steeply with intensity when the source shows 6 Hz QPO, than for 10 to 20 Hz QPO. Transitions between QPO modes, which occur when the flux is at its lowest levels, correspond to transitions between hardness ratio modes. The QPO frequency changes continuously through the transitions, which last a few hundred seconds.

  16. A ten-day observation of Hercules X-1 from the OSO-7 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclintock, J. E.; Clark, G. W.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Schnopper, H. W.; Canizares, C. R.; Sprott, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The MIT X-ray detectors aboard the OSO-7 spacecraft viewed Hercules X-1 from November 14 to 24, 1972. X-ray turn-on in the 35-day cycle was observed to occur between phases 0.67 and 0.70 (November 18.64-18.70). A significant decrease in the X-ray intensity occurred near mid-orbital phase, approximately 1.5 days after X-ray turn-on. Using the 1-6 keV data obtained during the 35-day off state, we conclude that if the optical light curve is due to heating of the large star by a blackbody source of soft X-rays, then the source must be large (radius greater than 5,000 km) and cool (temperature (kT) less than 90 eV). During one eclipse period (November 20.8-21.0) we find evidence for 1-6 keV X-ray emission.

  17. HEXTE Detections of Hard X-Ray Tails in Sco X-1

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, F; Rothschild, R E; Gruber, D

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of a non-thermal hard X-ray component from Sco X-1 based upon the analysis of 20-220 keV spectra obtained with the HEXTE experiment onboard the RXTE satellite. We find that the addition of a power-law component to a thermal bremsstrahlung model is required to achieve a good fit in 5 of 16 observations analyzed. Using PCA data we were able to track the movement of the source along the Z diagram, and we found that the presence of the hard X-ray tail is not confined to a specific Z position. However, we do observe an indication that the power law index hardens with increasing mass accretion rate, as indicated from the position on the Z diagram. We find that the derived non-thermal luminosities are about 10% of that derived for the brightest of the atoll sources. These observations provide firm evidence for non-thermal X-ray activity in a Z source.

  18. On helium line polarization during the impulsive phase of an X1 flare

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G; Sainz-Dalda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We analyze spectropolarimetric data of the He I 1083~nm multiplet ($1s2s~^3\\!S_1 - 1s2p~^3\\!P^o_{2,1,0}$) during the X1 flare SOL2014-03-29T17:48, obtained with the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. While scanning active region NOAA 12017, the FIRS slit crossed a flare ribbon during the impulsive phase, when the helium line intensities turned into emission at $<$ twice the continuum intensity. Their linear polarization profiles are of the same sign across the multiplet including 1082.9 nm, intensity-like, at $<5$\\% of the continuum intensity. Weaker Zeeman-induced linear polarization is also observed. Only the strongest linear polarization coincides with hard X-ray (HXR) emission at 30-70 keV observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager. The polarization is generally more extended and lasts longer than the HXR emission. The upper $J=0$ level of the 1082.9~nm component is unpolarizable, thus lower level polarization is the culprit. We make non-LTE r...

  19. On the Origin of a Sunquake during the 29 March 2014 X1 Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G; Donea, Alina; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2014-01-01

    Helioseismic data from the HMI instrument have revealed a sunquake associated with the X1 flare SOL2014-03-29T17:48 in active region NOAA 12017. We try to discover if acoustic-like impulses or actions of the Lorentz force caused the sunquake. We analyze spectro-polarimetric data obtained with the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Fortuitously the FIRS slit crossed the flare kernel close to the acoustic source, during the impulsive phase. The infrared FIRS data remain unsaturated throughout the flare. Stokes profiles of lines of Si I 1082.7 nm and He I 1083.0 nm are analyzed. At the flare footpoint, the Si I 1082.7 nm core intensity increases by a factor of several, the IR continuum increases by 4 +/- 1%. Remarkably, the Si I core resembles the classical Ca II K line's self-reversed profile. With nLTE radiative models of H, C, Si and Fe these properties set the penetration depth of flare heating to 100 +/- 100 km, i.e. photospheric layers. Estimates of the non-magnetic en...

  20. Structural and magnetic phase transition in samarium hydrogen system SmHx (x=1, 2, 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report ab-initio calculations for the structural and magnetic phase transition of SmHx (x= 1, 2, 3) using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP). The non-spin polarized (NSP) and spin polarized (SP) calculations are performed for these hydrides at normal and high pressure. It is found that these compounds are stable in ferromagnetic state at normal pressure. The calculated lattice parameters and bulk modulus of these hydrides are in good agreement with the available experimental results. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from cubic to hexagonal phase in SmH and SmH2 and hexagonal to cubic phase in SmH3 is predicted. A pressure-induced ferromagnetic to nonmagnetic phase transition is observed in SmH, SmH2 and SmH3 at the pressures of 104 GPa, 76 GPa and 81 GPa respectively. Ferromagnetism is quenched in mono, di and tri hydrides at high pressures

  1. The Results of CYG X-1 High-Resolution Optical Spectral Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karitskaya, Eugenia A.

    2007-08-01

    Selected results of optical high-resolution spectral observations 2002-2004 are briefly reviewed. Optical line profile variations were detected during X-ray flare. The comparison of observed and non-LTE model profiles for HI, HeI and MgII is given taking into account tidal distortion of Cyg X-1 optical component and its illumination by X-ray emission of secondary one. We set limits on the optical component main characteristics Teff = 30400±500K, log g = 3.31±0.07 and overabundance of He and C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, S, Fe and Zn by using spectra of 2003-2004. The Doppler images were reconstructed by an improved Doppler tomography method on the base of HeII4686A profiles of 2003 (“soft” X-ray state) and 2004 (“hard” X-ray state). It allowed putting a limitation on the black hole to supergiant mass ratio 1/4 < M/MO < 1/3. The photometric and spectral variations point to the supergiant parameters changes on the time scale of tens of years. Line profile non-LTE simulations lead to the conclusion that the star radius has grown about 1-4% from 1997 to 2003-2004 and the temperature decreased by 1300-2400K.

  2. Globally stable structures of LixZn (x = 1-4) compounds at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Haixin; Zhang, Shoutao; Wei, Shubo; Wang, Jianyun; Zhou, Dan; Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming

    2016-02-01

    Pressure can change the properties of atoms and bonding patterns, leading to the synthesis of novel compounds with interesting properties. The intermetallic lithium-zinc (Li-Zn) compounds have attracted increasing attention because of their fascinating mechanical properties and widespread applications in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Using the effective CALYPSO searching method in combination with first-principles calculations, we theoretically investigated the LixZn (x = 1-4) compounds at pressures of 0 to 100 GPa. We found several stable structures with a variety of stoichiometries and the phase diagram on the Li-rich side under high pressure. The electronic structures of these compounds reveal transferred charges from lithium to zinc mainly fill Zn 4p states and compounds with negatively charged Zn atoms are dramatic. We also calculated the elastic constants to discuss their mechanical properties. Our results enrich the crystal structures of the Li-Zn system and provide a further understanding of structural features and their properties. PMID:26791574

  3. Study on bubble drag coefficient for bubble flows in 2x1 rods channel simplifying BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to get an accurate constitutive equation of the interfacial friction force in two-phase bubble flows, experimental data on drag coefficient and interfacial area concentration have been obtained for air-water flows in 2x1 rods channel simplifying a BWR fuel rod bundle. To know the effects of liquid properties on the data, temperature of the test water was changed from 18 to 50degC. The data are compared with the existing correlations reported in literatures. As a result for an interfacial area concentration, Hibiki and Ishii (2001) semi-theoretical correlation is found to give the best prediction against the present data. As for the drag coefficient, no correlations exist which can predict well the present data. Therefore, we developed a new correlation including three dimensionless numbers, i.e., bubble Capillary number, Morton number and Eoetvoes number. The correlation could predict well Liu et al.'s data (2008) as well as the present data. (author)

  4. Disappearance of Comet C/2010 X1 (Elenin): Gone with a Whimper, not a Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We examine the rise and sudden demise of comet C/2010 X1 (Elenin) on its approach to perihelion. Discovered inbound at 4.2 AU, this long-period comet was predicted to become very bright when near perihelion, at 0.48 AU on 2011 September 10. Observations starting 2011 February (heliocentric distance $\\sim$3.5 AU) indeed show the comet to brighten by about 11 magnitudes, with most of the increase occurring inside 1 AU from the Sun. The peak brightness reached $m_R$ = 6 on UT 2011 August 12.95$\\pm$0.50, when at $\\sim$0.83 AU from the Sun. We find that most of the surge in brightness in mid-August resulted from dust particle forward-scattering, not from a sudden increase in the activity. A much smaller ($\\sim$3 magnitudes) brightening reached a maximum on UT 2011 August 30$\\pm$1 (at 0.56 AU), and reflects the true break-up of the nucleus. This second peak was matched by a change in the morphology from centrally condensed to diffuse. The estimated cross-section of the nucleus when at 1 AU inbound was $\\sim$1 km$^2...

  5. First Detection of Chromospheric Magnetic Field Changes During an X1-Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kleint, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Stepwise changes of the photospheric magnetic field, which often becomes more horizontal, have been observed during many flares. Previous interpretations include coronal loops that contract and it has been speculated that such jerks could be responsible for sunquakes. Here we report the detection of stepwise chromospheric line-of-sight magnetic field (B$_{\\rm LOS}$) changes obtained through spectropolarimetry of Ca II 8542 \\AA\\ with DST/IBIS during the X1-flare SOL20140329T17:48. They are stronger ($<$640 Mx cm$^{-2}$) and appear in larger areas than their photospheric counterparts ($<$320 Mx cm$^{-2}$). The absolute value of B$_{\\rm LOS}$ more often decreases than increases. Photospheric changes are predominantly located near a polarity inversion line, chromospheric changes near footpoints of loops. The locations of changes are near, but not exactly co-spatial to hard X-ray (HXR) emission and neither to enhanced continuum emission, nor a small sunquake. Enhanced chromospheric and coronal emission is ob...

  6. Effects of temperature variation on LixFePO4/C (0<x<1) electrode process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖政伟; 张英杰; 胡国荣

    2015-01-01

    LiFePO4/C was prepared via solid state reaction and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction and charge–discharge test. As-prepared LiFePO4/C has a triphylite structure and exhibits an excellent rate capability and capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to investigate LixFePO4/C (0<x<1) electrode on temperature variation. The valid equivalent circuit for EIS fitting was determined which contains an intercalation capacitance for Li+ ion accumulation and consumption in the electrode reaction. The surface layer impedance needs to be included in the equivalent circuit when LiFePO4/C is deeply delithiated at a relatively high temperature. EIS examination indicates that a temperature rise leads to a better reversibility, lower charge transfer resistance, higher exchange current densityJ0 and greater Li+ ion diffusion coefficient for the LixFePO4/C electrode process. The Li+ ion concentration in LixFePO4/C is potential to impact the Li+ ion diffusion coefficient, and a decrease in the former results in an increase in the latter.

  7. Crystal structure of LuCu4-xSb2 (x = 1.053)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structure of new ternary antimonide LuCu4-xSb2 (x = 1.053(8)) was refined by means of powder diffraction method (diffractometer DRON-3M, Cu Kα-radiation, RB = 4.09, χ2 = 1.92). It crystallizes in orthorhombic type of structure ErFe4Ge2 (low-temperature modification): space group Pnnm, Pearson code oP14-2.11, a = 7.01189(14), b = 7.75061(15), c = 4.24323(8) A; Z = 2. Analysing the coordination environments of atoms it was shown, that investigated structure is an inclusion derivative of TiO2 structure type. TiO2, NiAs, MnBi, Ag2HgS2, Ni2In and RCu4-xSb2 (R Tm, Lu) structures belongs to the family of structures built up from the columns of filled octahedra and differ by the filling of space between them by different atoms or groups of atoms

  8. Can Any "Invariants" Be Revealed in Quasi-periodic Phenomena Observed From Sco X-1?

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, S; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Using large number of Rossi X-ray Time Explorer observations of Sco X-1 we present a detailed investigation of the transition layer (TL) and the relativistic precession (RP) models. These models predict the existence of the invariant quantities: an inclination angle delta of the magnetospheric axis with the normal to the disk for the TLM and a neutron star (NS) mass M_{NS} for the RPM. Theoretical predictions of both models are tested and their self-consistency is checked. We establish that: (1) The inferred delta angle is 5.56+/-0.09 degrees. Correlation of the delta-values with the horizontal branch oscillation (HBO) frequency is rather weak. (2) There is a strong correlation between an inferred M_{NS} and the HBO frequency in the RPM frameworks. (3) We infer M_{NS} for different assumptions regarding the relations between the HBO frequency and the nodal frequency. We find that the inferred M_{NS}=2.7+/-0.1 M_sun cannot be consistent with any EOS of NS matter. We conclude that RPM fails to describe the data...

  9. Can Any Invariants Be Revealed in Quasi-periodic Phenomena Observed From Sco X-1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S.; Titarchuk, L.

    Using large number of Rossi X-ray Time Explorer observations of Sco X-1 we present a detailed investigation of the transition layer and the relativistic precession models (TLM and RPM, respectively). These models predict the existence of the invariant quantities: an inclination angle delta of the magnetospheric axis with the normal to the disk for the TLM and a neutron star (NS) mass MN S for the RPM. Theoretical predictions of both models are tested and their self-consistency is checked. We establish that: (1) The inferred delta angle is 5.56 +/- 0.09 degrees. Correlation of the delta-values with the horizontal branch oscillation (HBO) frequency is rather weak. (2) There is a strong correlation between an inferred MN S and the HBO frequency in the RPM frameworks. (3) We infer MN S for different assumptions regarding the relations between the HBO frequency and the nodal frequency. We find that the inferred MN S = 2.7 +/- 0.1M cannot be consistent with any EOS of NS matter. We conclude that RPM fails to describe the data while TLM seems to be compatible.

  10. HERCULES X-1: USING ECLIPSE TO MEASURE THE X-RAY CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahy, D. A. [Department of Physics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2015-02-10

    Observations of HZ Her/Her X-1 by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during High State X-ray eclipses are analyzed. After a sharp ingress caused by the neutron star receding behind the companion star HZ Her, X-ray flux smoothly declines to a minimum at mid-eclipse. It then increases smoothly until egress. The mid-eclipse flux implies an extended emission region around the neutron star that is larger than that of HZ Her. The constancy of the X-ray softness ratio is consistent with electron scattering by an ionized corona. The corona is modeled as spherically symmetric with a power-law density profile. We find a best fit of ∝r {sup –1.25} with a normalization of ≅ 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3} at r = 2 × 10{sup 10} cm. The corona could either be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with heating by Compton scattering, a fast outflow, with a high mass-loss rate of ∼10{sup 18} gm s{sup –1}, or a hybrid, with an inner hydrostatic region and outer slow flow with a low mass-loss rate. A brightening at orbital phase 0.94 is suggested to be caused by the impact of the accretion stream with the accretion disk.

  11. High-energy gamma-rays in the hard spectral state of Cyg X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Chernyakova, Maria; Pooley, Guy G

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained a firm detection of Cyg X-1 during its hard and intermediate spectral states in the energy range of 40 MeV--60 GeV based on observations by Fermi Large Area Telescope, confirming the independent results at $\\geq$60 MeV of Zanin et al. The detection significance is $\\simeq\\! 8\\sigma$ in the 0.1--10 GeV range. In the soft state, we have found upper limits on the emission at energies $\\geq$0.2 MeV, also in agreement with Zanin et al. However, we have found emission with a very soft spectrum in the 40--80 MeV range, not detected previously. This is likely to represent the high-energy cutoff of the high-energy power-law tail observed in the soft state. Similarly, we have detected a $\\gamma$-ray soft excess in the hard state, which appears to be of similar origin. We have also confirmed the presence of an orbital modulation of the detected emission in the hard state, expected if the $\\gamma$-rays are from Compton upscattering of stellar blackbody photons. However, the observed modulation is signifi...

  12. The accretion environment in Vela X-1 during a flaring period using XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Núñez, Silvia; Kühnel, Matthias; Kretschmar, Peter; Stuhlinger, Martin; Rodes-Roca, José Joaquín; Fürst, Feliz; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Martin-Carrillo, Antonio; Pollock, Andy M T; Wilms, Joern

    2014-01-01

    We present analysis of 100 ks contiguous XMM-Newton data of the prototypical wind accretor Vela X-1. The observation covered eclipse egress between orbital phases 0.134 and 0.265, during which a giant flare took place, enabling us to study the spectral properties both outside and during the flare. This giant flare with a peak luminosity of $3.92^{+0.42}_{-0.09} \\times 10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ allows estimates of the physical parameters of the accreted structure with a mass of $\\sim$ $10^{21}$ g. We have been able to model several contributions to the observed spectrum with a phenomenological model formed by three absorbed power laws plus three emission lines. After analysing the variations with orbital phase of the column density of each component, as well as those in the Fe and Ni fluorescence lines, we provide a physical interpretation for each spectral component. Meanwhile, the first two components are two aspects of the principal accretion component from the surface of the neutron star, and the thi...

  13. Viscosity measurements and correlations of binary mixtures: 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a)+tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TEGDME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Baylaucq, A.; Reghem, P.;

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports viscosity data for the binary system 1, 1, 1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), x(1), +tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (TEGDME), 1 - x(1). The measurements (200 data points) were obtained at various pressures (between 10 and 100 MPa) in the homogeneous liquid state from T= 293.......15-373.15 K. The measurements have been carried out with a failing body viscometer for four molar fractions x(1) =(0.28, 0.44, 0.63 and 0.88). The density values of this system were interpolated from previous results obtained at the laboratory. All of the available viscosity data, including pure HFC-134a and...... pure TEGDME (both previously studied at the laboratory), have been correlated using several viscosity models (mixing rules, self-refrencing model, hard-sphere theory, friction theory and free volume model). The resulting models are presented and discussed in this work. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights...

  14. Vibrational analysis of Fourier transform spectrum of the $A^{3} _{0} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$ and $B^{3} ^{1} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$ transitions of indium monobromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Singh; K N Uttam; M D Saksena; M N Deo

    2009-11-01

    The emission spectrum of InBr molecule has been recorded in the region 350–400 nm on BOMEM DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer at an apodized resolution of 0.06 cm-1 using microwave excitation technique. About 61 violet degraded and single headed bands have been recorded and are classified into two band systems, viz. $A^{3} _{0} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$ and $B^{3} _{1} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$. A few new bands have been observed and are fitted in the vibrational schemes of the two systems. Revised vibrational constants have been determined. The vibrational assignments have been confirmed by observing isotope effect due to InBr81 in the 30 bands of the $A^{3} _{0} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$ system and 19 bands of the $B^{3} _{1} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$ system. The analysis is further supported by calculating the Franck–Condon factor for InBr79 and InBr81 molecules. The following vibrational constants (in cm-1) have been determined from the analysis: $$ \\begin{array}{llll} \\text{A}^{3}_{0}-\\text{X}^{1}^{+} & \\text{system} & v_{00}=26599.1 & '_{\\text{e}} = 226.42, \\ '_{\\text{e}}x'_{\\text{e}}=1.24\\text{~cm}^{-1},\\\\ & & & ''_{\\text{e}} = 221.19, \\ ''_{\\text{e}}x''_{\\text{e}}=0.528\\text{~cm}^{-1}.\\\\ \\text{B}^{3}_{1}-\\text{X}^{1}^{+} & \\text{system} & v_{00}=27380.52 & '_{\\text{e}}=223.086, \\ '_{\\text{e}}x'_{\\text{e}}=1.446\\text{~cm}^{-1},\\\\ & & & ''_{\\text{e}}=221.19, \\ ''_{\\text{e}}x''_{\\text{e}}=0.528\\text{~cm}^{-1}. \\end{array} $$

  15. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results

  16. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  17. X-RAY SPECTRAL CUTOFF AND THE LACK OF HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES M81 X-6 AND HOLMBERG IX X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present broadband X-ray spectral study of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. We perform joint broadband spectral analysis of the brightest sources in the field, i.e., the two ULXs and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in M81, and demonstrate that the X-ray spectra of the ULXs cut off at energies ∼> 3 keV with negligible contribution at high energies in the Suzaku HXD/PIN band. The 90% upper limit on the 10-30 keV band luminosity of an underlying broadband power-law component is 3.5 × 1038 erg s–1 for M81 X-6 and 1.2 × 1039 erg s–1 for Holmberg IX X-1. These limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than the bolometric (0.1-30 keV) luminosity of 6.8 × 1039 erg s–1 for M81 X-6 and 1.9 × 1040 erg s–1 for Holmberg IX X-1. Our results confirm earlier indications of spectral cutoffs inferred from the XMM-Newton observations of bright ULXs and show that there is not an additional high-energy power-law component contributing significantly to the X-ray emission. The spectral form of the two ULXs are very different from those of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) or AGNs. This implies that the ULXs are neither simply scaled-up versions of stellar-mass BHBs nor scaled-down versions of AGNs.

  18. Compact Binaries in Star Clusters I - Black Hole Binaries Inside Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, J. M. B.; Benacquista, M. J.; Giersz, M.; Spurzem, R.

    2009-01-01

    We study the compact binary population in star clusters, focusing on binaries containing black holes, using a self-consistent Monte Carlo treatment of dynamics and full stellar evolution. We find that the black holes experience strong mass segregation and become centrally concentrated. In the core the black holes interact strongly with each other and black hole-black hole binaries are formed very efficiently. The strong interactions, however, also destroy or eject the black hole-black hole bi...

  19. Properties of planets in binary systems. The role of binary separation

    OpenAIRE

    Desidera, S.; Barbieri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The statistical properties of planets in binaries were investigated. Any difference to planets orbiting single stars can shed light on the formation and evolution of planetary systems. As planets were found around components of binaries with very different separation and mass ratio, it is particularly important to study the characteristics of planets as a function of the effective gravitational influence of the companion. A compilation of planets in binary systems was made; a search for compa...

  20. MAXI observations of long-term variations of Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard and the high/soft states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Juri; Mihara, Tatehiro; Kitamoto, Shunji; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The long-term X-ray variability of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was studied with five years of MAXI data from 2009 to 2014, which include substantial periods of the high/soft state, as well as the low/hard state. In each state, normalized power spectrum densities (NPSDs) were calculated in three energy bands of 2-4 keV, 4-10 keV, and 10-20 keV. The NPSDs for frequencies from 10-7 Hz to 10-4 Hz are all approximated by a power-law function with an index -1.35-1.29. The fractional RMS variation η, calculated in the above frequency range, was found to show the following three properties: (1) η slightly decreases with energy in the low/hard state; (2) η increases towards higher energies in the high/soft state; and (3) in the 10-20 keV band, η is three times higher in the high/soft state than in the low/hard state. These properties were confirmed through studies of intensity-correlated changes of the MAXI spectra. Of these three findings, the first one is consistent with that seen in the short-term variability during the low/hard state. The latter two can be understood as a result of high variability of the hard-tail component seen in the high/soft state with the above very low frequency range, although the origin of the variability remains inconclusive.

  1. Binaries in the Hipparcos data: Keep digging

    CERN Document Server

    Pourbaix, D; Jorissen, A

    2004-01-01

    Among the 120 000 objects in the Hipparcos catalogue, only 235 were fitted with an orbital model. Besides these 235 original astrometric binaries, most Hipparcos entries with a known spectroscopic orbit (extrasolar planet or stellar companion) have now been re-processed, as part of the on-going construction of the 9th Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits (SB9, available at http://sb9.astro.ulb.ac.be). The pitfalls and successes of this re-processing are discussed in various contexts, like (i) orbital inclinations: the holy grail for extrasolar planets (ii) searching for binaries without a priori knowledge of their spectroscopic orbital elements, and application to barium stars (iii) why not all SB9 entries yield acceptable astrometric solutions? The lessons learned from this study are useful to devise the best possible binary-detection and orbit-determination algorithms for future astrometric missions like GAIA.

  2. A mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Echeverria, C; Alvarez-Llamoza, O; Orozco-Guillén, E E; Morales, M; Cosenza, M G

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model to study symmetric binary fluids, based in the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where space and state variables are continuous while time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require the calculation of the interaction forces between particles, thus allowing the description of binary fluids at a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, maintains Galilean invariance, and conserves the mass and the energy in the system at micro and macro scales; while momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as density profile, width of the interface, phase separation and phase growth. We also apply the model to study binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  3. Red-giant stars in eccentric binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.

  4. Evolution of Binary Stars in Multiple-Population Globular Clusters - II. Compact Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jongsuk; Sollima, Antonio; McMillan, Stephen L W; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at exploring the evolution of compact binaries in multiple-population globular clusters.We show that as a consequence of the initial differences in the structural properties of the first-generation (FG) and the second-generation (SG) populations and the effects of dynamical processes on binary stars, the SG binary fraction decreases more rapidly than that of the FG population. The difference between the FG and SG binary fraction is qualitatively similar to but quantitatively smaller than that found for wider binaries in our previous investigations.The evolution of the radial variation of the binary fraction is driven by the interplay between binary segregation, ionization and ejection. Ionization and ejection counteract in part the effects of mass segregation but for compact binaries the effects of segregation dominate and the inner binary fraction increases during the cluster evolution. We explore the variation of the difference between the FG an...

  5. Tidal capture formation of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries from wide binaries in the field

    CERN Document Server

    Michaely, Erez

    2015-01-01

    We present a potentially efficient dynamical formation scenario for Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the field, focusing on black-hole (BH) LMXBs. In this formation channel LMXBs are formed from wide binaries $(>1000$ AU) with a BH component and a stellar companion. The wide binary is perturbed by fly-by's of field stars and its orbit random-walks and changes over time. This diffusion process can drive the binary into a sufficiently eccentric orbit such that the binary components tidally interact at peri-center and the binary evolves to become a short period binary, which eventually evolves into an LMXB. The formation rate of LMXBs through this channel mostly depends on the number of such BH wide binaries progenitors, which in turn depends on the velocity kicks imparted to BHs (or NSs) at birth. We consider several models for the formation and survival of such wide binaries, and calculate the LMXB formation rates for each model. We find that models where BHs form through direct collapse with no/little natal...

  6. Binary is Good: A Binary Inference Framework for Primary User Separation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Huy; Han, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Primary users (PU) separation concerns with the issues of distinguishing and characterizing primary users in cognitive radio (CR) networks. We argue the need for PU separation in the context of collaborative spectrum sensing and monitor selection. In this paper, we model the observations of monitors as boolean OR mixtures of underlying binary latency sources for PUs, and devise a novel binary inference algorithm for PU separation. Simulation results show that without prior knowledge regarding PUs' activities, the algorithm achieves high inference accuracy. An interesting implication of the proposed algorithm is the ability to effectively represent n independent binary sources via (correlated) binary vectors of logarithmic length.

  7. Insights into the preference of CHx(x = 1–3) formation from CO hydrogenation on Cu(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► CO dissociation is less energetically favored than CO hydrogenation on Cu(111). ► CHO formation is more favorable both kinetically and thermodynamically than COH. ► The optimal paths of CHx(x = 1-3) formation have been illustrated. ► CH2 and CH3 are the most favored monomer for CO hydrogenation on Cu(111). ► CH2, CH3 and CH3OH formation by CO hydrogenation compete with each other. - Abstract: The mechanisms of CHx(x = 1-3) formation from CO hydrogenation on Cu(111) surface have been systematically investigated using periodic density functional calculations. The activation barriers and reaction energies for all the elementary steps involved in CHx(x = 1-3) formation is presented here. CO hydrogenation and its dissociation have been discussed. Our results show that the CO dissociation route is less energetically favored on Cu(111) surface than CO hydrogenation to form CHO and COH, in which CO mainly goes through hydrogenation to form CHO, meanwhile, the formation of CHO is more favorable both kinetically and thermodynamically than that of COH. Starting from CHO, we further investigate the formation of CHx(x = 1-3), two conditions, without H-assisted and with H-assisted, are considered. As a result, we seek out the optimal paths of CHx(x = 1-3) formation and the corresponding activation barrier of rate-controlled step on Cu(111) surface, moreover, among all CHx(x = 1-3) species, CH2 and CH3 are the most favored monomer for CO hydrogenation on Cu(111). In addition, our results show that CH3OH is also easily formed by CO hydrogenation, and the formations of CH2, CH3 and CH3OH by CO hydrogenation compete with each other on Cu(111) surface.

  8. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  9. Structure of simple (binary) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structures of different simple and binary oxides of M3O, M2O, MO, MO2, MO4, MO3, M2O3, M3O4, M2O5, M2O7 composition as well as lowest cesium oxides (Cs7O, Cs4O, Cs11O3) are considered. Cs3O crystals are constructed out of the colomns of the Cs3O composition consisting of octahedrals OCs6 jointed through the opposite faces. This is the ZrI3 ''antistructure''. Cs2O has the CdCl2 antistructure. ZrO2, HfO2, CeO2, ThO2, UO2, NpO2, PuO2, AmO2, CmO2, PoO2 oxides have the structural type of fluorite of rutile - VO2, NbO2, TaO2, MoO2, ReO2 oxides, of wurtzite - BeO. The NbO oxide is unique, in its structure the oxygen and niobium atoms form four complanar bonds. A three-dimensional skeleton constructed out of the octahedral structural units Nb6 (Nb-Nb 2.98 A) is separated. ZrO2 is a polymorphous, at 1100 grad. the monoclinic modification transfers to tetragonal. M2O7 oxides are Re2O7, Tc2O7

  10. Detecting Eccentric Globular Cluster Binaries with LISA

    OpenAIRE

    Benacquista, M.

    2001-01-01

    The energy carried in the gravitational wave signal from an eccentric binary is spread across several harmonics of the orbital frequency. The inclusion of the harmonics in the analysis of the gravitational wave signal increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected signal for binaries whose fundamental frequency is below the galactic confusion-limited noise cut-off. This can allow for an improved angular resolution for sources whose orbital period is greater than 2000 s. Globular cluster ...

  11. Copula-based bivariate binary response models

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The bivariate probit model is frequently used for estimating the effect of an endogenous binary regressor on a binary outcome variable. This paper discusses simple modifications that maintain the probit assumption for the marginal distributions while introducing non-normal dependence among the two variables using copulas. Simulation results and evidence from two applications, one on the effect of insurance status on ambulatory expenditure and one on the effect of completing high school on sub...

  12. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    2004-10-01

    We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6-7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years. We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within 20-30% of the maximum possible values.

  13. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in...

  14. GAIA survey of galactic eclipsing binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Zwitter, Tomaz

    2002-01-01

    General importance and capabilities of observations of eclipsing binaries by the forthcoming ESA mission GAIA are discussed. Availability of spectroscopic observations and a large number of photometric bands on board will make it possible to reliably determine physical parameters for $\\sim 10^5$ binary stars. It is stressed that current methods of object by object analysis will have to be modified and included in an automatic analysis pipeline.

  15. Formation of Compact Binaries in Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Rappaport, Saul; Pfahl, Eric; Rasio, Fred; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2001-01-01

    We report here on two complementary population synthesis studies which relate directly to the formation and evolution of neutron star binaries in globular clusters. In the first, we compute the probability of retaining neutron stars in globular clusters, and quantitatively confirm the idea that the retention fraction for neutron stars born in binary systems is greatly enhanced over those born in isolated stars. However, the retention fraction may well be insufficient to explain the current po...

  16. Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)

  17. Binary nature of the Barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present radial-velocity spectrometer observations that indicate that Ba II stars are binary systems. The secondary stars of these systems have low masses, consistent with their being degenerate objects which have lost mass onto their primaries in a previous stage of evolution. It is suggested that the Population II equivalents, the CH stars, may also be binary systems. This may be related to the fact that they are found only in globular clusters of the lowest central concentration

  18. On homogeneous nontransitive binary perfect code

    OpenAIRE

    Mogilnykh, I. Yu.; Solov'eva, F. I.

    2014-01-01

    Studying binary perfect codes we show the existence of homogeneous nontransitive codes. Thus, as far as perfect codes are concerned, the propelinear codes are strictly contained in transitive codes, wheresas homogeneous codes form a strict subclass of transitive codes. In the work we deduce a necessary and sufficient condition for transitivity of perfect binary codes of rank one more than that of Hamming code. The paper is in Russian.

  19. Dynamic and kinetic aspects of the adsorption of acrylonitrile on Si(001)-2x1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), photoelectron and photoabsorption spectroscopies, we have examined how acrylonitrile (H2C=CH-C≡N) reacts with the Si(001)-2x1 surface for coverages ranging from ∼1012 molecules/cm2 to ∼1014 molecules/cm2. At 300 K, in the very low coverage regime (below 1013 molecules/cm2), filled- and empty-state STM images show that the molecule bridges, via its β carbon and nitrogen ends, two silicon dangling bonds, across the trench separating two dimer rows. A cumulative-double-bond unit (C=C=N) is formed. The 300 K STM image results from the dynamic flipping of the molecule between two equivalent equilibrium positions, which can be seen when the molecular motion is slowed down at 80 K. For coverages larger than 1013 molecules/cm2, for which STM does not show ordered adsorption any more, the adsorption kinetics were observed in real-time using valence band photoemission and resonant Auger yield, associated with N 1s x-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS). At 300 K, these techniques point to a situation more complex than the one explored by STM at very low coverage. Three species (cyano-bonded, vinyl-bonded, and cumulative-double-bond species) are detected. Their distribution does not vary with increasing coverage. All dimerization-related surface states are quenched at saturation. The uptake rates versus coverage relationship points to the presence of a mobile precursor. Finally, the paper discusses a possible mechanism leading to the formation of cross-trench C=C=N unit at low coverage, and the reasons why the product branching ratio changes with increasing coverage

  20. Semi-Empirical Dipole Moment Function of X^{1}Σ^{+} CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Gordon, Iouli E.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    2013-06-01

    A new dipole moment function (DMF) for the ground X^{1}Σ^{+} electronic states of carbon monoxide (CO) has been obtained using a direct fit approach that fits the best available and appropriately weighted experimental line intensity data for individual ro-vibrational transitions. This method was recently successfully applied to HF, HCl, HBr and HI molecules. The new dipole moment function benefits from the use of new accurate and extensive experimental data. Also our method allows proper weighting of the data as well as not being dependent on the amount of measured transitions within a band. Combining the newly developed (taking into account the most recent experiments) empirical potential energy functions and the DMF, line positions and line intensities of CO and their isotopologues have been calculated numerically using program LEVEL. In addition, new semi-empirical algorithms for assigning line-shape parameters and line shifts for these species have been developed. Using these improvements, new line lists for CO were created to update the HITRAN spectroscopic database. G. Li, I.E. Gordon, R.J. Le Roy, P.G. Hajigeorgiou, J.A. Coxon, P.F. Bernath, and L.S. Rothman, ``Reference spectroscopic data for Hydrogen Halides. Part I: Construction and Validation of the Ro-vibrational Dipole Moment Functions,'' JQSRT 2013 (In Press). R. Le Roy, ``LEVEL. 8.0 ed2007'' University of Waterloo Chemical Physics Research Report CP-663 (2007). L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D.Chris Benner, P.F. Bernath, et al, ``The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,'' JQSRT 110, 532-572 (2009). L.S. Rothman, I.E. Gordon, R.J. Barber, H. Dothe, R.R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. Perevalov, S.A. Tashkun, and J. Tennyson, ``HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,'' JQSRT 111, 2139-2150 (2010).

  1. On the origin of a sunquake during the 2014 March 29 X1 flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Philip G. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kleint, Lucia [Institute of 4D Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Donea, Alina [Center for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Dalda, Alberto Sainz [Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, HEPL, 466 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Fletcher, Lyndsay, E-mail: judge@ucar.edu, E-mail: lucia.kleint@fhnw.ch, E-mail: alina.donea@monash.edu, E-mail: asdalda@stanford.edu, E-mail: lyndsay.fletcher@glasgow.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    Helioseismic data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instrument have revealed a sunquake associated with the X1 flare SOL2014-03-29T17:48 in active region NOAA 12017. We try to discover if acoustic-like impulses or actions of the Lorentz force caused the sunquake. We analyze spectropolarimetric data obtained with the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Fortunately, the FIRS slit crossed the flare kernel close to the acoustic source during the impulsive phase. The infrared FIRS data remain unsaturated throughout the flare. Stokes profiles of lines of Si I 1082.7 nm and He I 1083.0 nm are analyzed. At the flare footpoint, the Si I 1082.7 nm core intensity increases by a factor of several, and the IR continuum increases by 4% ± 1%. Remarkably, the Si I core resembles the classical Ca II K line's self-reversed profile. With nLTE radiative models of H, C, Si, and Fe, these properties set the penetration depth of flare heating to 100 ± 100 km (i.e., photospheric layers). Estimates of the non-magnetic energy flux are at least a factor of two less than the sunquake energy flux. Milne-Eddington inversions of the Si I line show that the local magnetic energy changes are also too small to drive the acoustic pulse. Our work raises several questions. Have we missed the signature of downward energy propagation? Is it intermittent in time and/or non-local? Does the 1-2 s photospheric radiative damping time discount compressive modes?.

  2. A photoelectron spectroscopic study of monovanadium oxide anions (VOx-, x=1-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongbin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    1998-04-01

    We report on a photoelectron spectroscopic study of monovanadium oxides, VOx- (x=1-4), at four photon energies: 532, 355, 266, and 193 nm. Vibrationally resolved spectra are obtained for VO- at 532 and 355 nm detachment photon energies. Two new low-lying excited states are observed for VO at 5630 and 14 920 cm-1 above the ground state. These states are assigned to two doublet states, 2Σ- and 2Φ, respectively. The 532 and 355 nm spectra of VO2- reveal a single vibrational progression for the ground state with a frequency of 970 cm-1 (ν1). Three electronic excited states are observed for VO2 in the 193 nm spectrum. For VO3-, three surprisingly sharp detachment transitions are observed at 193 nm. The two excited states of VO3 are measured to be 0.59 and 0.79 eV above the ground state. The spectra of VO2- and VO3- are interpreted using the molecular-orbital schemes obtained in a recent ab initio theoretical study [Knight, Jr. et al., J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10237 (1996)], which predicts that both VO2 and VO3 neutrals are of C2v symmetry with a doublet ground state. The spectrum of VO4- is obtained at 193 nm, showing features similar to that of VO3-, but much more broadened. The adiabatic electron affinities of VO, VO2, VO3, and VO4 are measured to be 1.229 (8), 2.03 (1), 4.36 (5), and 4.0 (1) eV, respectively, with a significant increase from VO2 to VO3. The electronic and geometrical structures of the series of monovanadium oxide species are discussed based on the current observation and previous spectroscopic and theoretical results.

  3. Adsorption and reaction of acetylene and ethylene on the Si(001)2x1 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structures and the thermal reaction of chemisorbed C2H2 and C2H4 on the Si(001)2x1 surface have been investigated by carbon K-edge near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) using synchrotron radiation. The bonding and antibonding states due to the interaction of the molecules and the Si surface atoms are identified by detailed polarization-dependent UPS and NEXAFS measurements, respectively. These bonding and antibonding states are shown to originate from the hybridization between the occupied Si dangling bonds and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (πC-C*) of C2H2 and C2H4 double-σ-bonded on the top of the Si dimer. The thermal evolution of mainly C2H2 is investigated in detail for a wide temperature range of 60-1500 K from the condensation to the surface alloy formation. The coexistence of the physisorbatelike and the chemisorbed molecular species is observed at 70-90 K for C2H2 and C2H4, for the coverages greater than ∼0.25 monolayer (ML). The πC-C* resonance of those physisorbatelike C2H4 species in NEXAFS exhibits an unusual polarization dependence indicating adsorption with their molecular planes aligned perpendicular to the surface. The dissociation of C2H2 chemisorbates is shown to occur at 600-700 K as observed by UPS. After the dissociation of molecules, the atomic hydrogen adsorbates are identified by the monohydridelike surface resonance states in the UP spectra at 800-950 K. Most of the Si dangling bonds are passivated by, at least partly, the hydrogen adsorbates at this stage. At ∼1000 K, the desorption of hydrogen occurs, which accompanies the appearance of a broad SiC-like feature in the UP spectra at ∼3 eV below Fermi level

  4. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhongcheng; Li, Xiu; Li, Qin; You, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8), image patch (Statistical_Joint) and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal) are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor. PMID:24520346

  5. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  6. Direct Exoplanet Detection with Binary Differential Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rodigas, Timothy J; Mamajek, Eric E; Males, Jared R; Close, Laird M; Morzinski, Katie; Hinz, Philip M; Kaib, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Binaries are typically excluded from direct imaging exoplanet surveys. However, the recent findings of Kepler and radial velocity programs show that planets can and do form in binary systems. Here, we suggest that visual binaries offer unique advantages for direct imaging. We show that Binary Differential Imaging (BDI), whereby two stars are imaged simultaneously at the same wavelength within the isoplanatic patch at high Strehl ratio, offers improved point spread function (PSF) subtraction that can result in increased sensitivity to planets close to each star. We demonstrate this by observing a young visual binary separated by 4\\asec ~with MagAO/Clio-2 at 3.9 \\microns, where the Strehl ratio is high, the isoplanatic patch is large, and giant planets are bright. Comparing BDI to angular differential imaging (ADI), we find that BDI's 5$\\sigma$ contrast is \\about 0.5 mags better than ADI's within \\about 1\\asec ~for the particular binary we observed. Because planets typically reside close to their host stars, BD...

  7. Spectroscopic Orbits for Kepler FOV Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Williams, Stephen J.; Guo, Zhao

    2013-02-01

    We are currently involved in a four year program of precise eclipsing binary photometry with the NASA Kepler Observatory. Our goal is to search for variations in minimum light timing for intermediate mass eclipsing binaries. Such periodic variations will reveal the reflex motion caused by any distant, low mass object that orbits the close binary. it Kepler's unprecedented accuracy and continuous observations provide a unique opportunity to detect the low mass companions that are predicted to result from the angular momentum of the natal cloud. The goal of this proposal is to obtain blue spectra of short period (0.9-6d) eclipsing binaries, derive radial velocities, and produce a double-lined spectroscopic orbit (as well as estimates of the stellar effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities). Combined with the it Kepler light curve, we will determine very accurate masses and radii for the members of the close binary, which will yield the mass-inclination product M_3 sin i for any companions detected by light travel time or other effects. An extended sample of eclipsing binaries with longer periods (up to 50d) is now being investigated to test whether the presence of a tertiary companion declines with increasing period. We propose to obtain a single spectrum at quadrature for the brightest 48 stars in this expanded sample to characterize the effective temperatures and total mass contained in these systems.

  8. Stability and Coalescence of Massive Twin Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jason A; Rasio, Frederic A; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars are usually found in binaries, and binaries with periods less than 10 days may have a preference for near equal component masses. In this paper we investigate the evolution of these binaries all the way to contact and the possibility that these systems can be progenitors of double neutron star binaries. The small orbital separations of observed double neutron star binaries suggest that the progenitor systems underwent a common envelope phase at least once during their evolution. Bethe & Brown (1998) proposed that massive binary twins will undergo a common envelope evolution while both components are ascending the red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch simultaneously, also known as double-core evolution. Using models generated from the stellar evolution code Evolve Zero Age Main Sequence, we determine the range of mass ratios resulting in both components simultaneously ascending the RGB or AGB as a function of the difference in birth times, t. We find that, even for a generous t=5 Myr, t...

  9. Spectroscopic subsystems in nearby wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Radial velocity (RV) monitoring of solar-type visual binaries has been conducted at the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5-m telescope to study short-period systems. Data reduction is described, mean and individual RVs of 163 observed objects are given. New spectroscopic binaries are discovered or suspected in 17 objects, for some of them orbital periods could be determined. Subsystems are efficiently detected even in a single observation by double lines and/or by the RV difference between the components of visual binaries. The potential of this detection technique is quantified by simulation and used for statistical assessment of 96 wide binaries within 67pc. It is found that 43 binaries contain at least one subsystem and the occurrence of subsystems is equally probable in either primary or secondary components. The frequency of subsystems and their periods match the simple prescription proposed by the author (2014, AJ, 147, 87). The remaining 53 simple wide binaries with a median projected separation of 1300AU have the distri...

  10. Nucleolar protein PinX1p regulates telomerase by sequestering its protein catalytic subunit in an inactive complex lacking telomerase RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jue; Elizabeth H. Blackburn

    2004-01-01

    Human TRF1-binding protein PinX1 inhibits telomerase activity. Here we report that overexpression of yeast PinX1p (yPinX1p) results in shortened telomeres and decreased in vitro telomerase activity. yPinX1p coimmunoprecipitated withyeast telomerase protein Est2p even in cells lacking the telomerase RNA TLC1, or the telomerase-associated proteins Est1p and Est3p. Est2p regions required for binding to yPinX1p or TLC1 were similar. Furthermore, we found two distinct Est2p complexes exist, contai...

  11. Design and Implementation of BDB, the Binary Star Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygorodov, P.; Kovaleva, D.; Malkov, O.

    2013-02-01

    The Binary star DataBase (BDB, http://bdb.inasan.ru) is created to provide liasons between binary star catalogue data of various origin. Information on different observational types of binaries is obtained from heterogeneous sources of data - astronomical catalogues and surveys. The database allows a variety of query options useful for selected stars investigation purposes, for binary observations planning, and for construction and examination of binary datasets with certain characteristics.

  12. Powerful jets from black hole X-ray binaries in Low/Hard X-ray states

    OpenAIRE

    Fender, R. P.

    2000-01-01

    Four persistent (Cygnus X-1, GX 339-4, GRS 1758-258 and 1E 1740.7-2942) and three transient (GS 2023+38, GRO J0422+32 and GS 1354-64) black hole X-ray binary systems have been extensively observed at radio wavelengths during extended periods in the Low/Hard X-ray state, which is characterised in X-rays by a hard power-law spectrum and strong variability. All seven systems show a persistent flat or inverted (in the sense that spectral index alpha >= 0) radio spectrum in this state, markedly di...

  13. Exploring the Birth of Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    More than half of all stars are thought to be in binary or multiple star systems. But how do these systems form? The misaligned spins of some binary protostars might provide a clue.Two Formation ModelsIts hard to tell how multiple-star systems form, since these systems are difficult to observe in their early stages. But based on numerical simulations, there are two proposed models for the formation of stellar binaries:Turbulent fragmentationTurbulence within a single core leads to multiple dense clumps. These clumps independently collapse to form stars that orbit each other.Disk fragmentationGravitational instabilities in a massive accretion disk cause the formation of a smaller, secondary disk within the first, resulting in two stars that orbit each other.Log column density for one of the authors simulated binary systems, just after the formation of two protostars. Diamonds indicate the protostar positions. [Adapted from Offner et al. 2016]Outflows as CluesHow can we differentiate between these formation mechanisms? Led by Stella Offner (University of Massachusetts), a team of scientists has suggested that the key isto examine the alignment of the stars protostellar outflows jets that are often emitted from the poles of young, newly forming stars.Naively, wed expect that disk fragmentation would produce binary stars with common angular momentum. As the stars spins would be aligned, they would therefore also launch protostellar jets that were aligned with each other. Turbulent fragmentation, on the other hand, would cause the stars to have independent angular momentum. This would lead to randomly oriented spins, so the protostellar jets would be misaligned.Snapshots from the authors simulations. Left panel of each pair: column density; green arrows giveprotostellar spin directions. Right panel: synthetic observations produced from the simulations; cyan arrows giveprotostellar outflow directions. [Offner et al. 2016]Simulations of FragmentationIn order to better

  14. Fine mapping of the 1q21 breakpoint of the papillary venal cell carcinoma-associated (X;1) translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weterman, MAJ; Dijkhuizen, T; vandenBerg, E; vanKessel, AG

    1996-01-01

    A combination of Southern blot analysis on a panel of tumor-derived somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques was used to map a series of DNA markers relative to the 1q21 breakpoint of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated (X;1)-(p11;q21) translocation. This b

  15. Behaviour and prefrontal protein differences in C57BL/6N and 129 X1/SvJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Qi; Wong, Naikei; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei; Bu, Bitao; McAlonan, Grainne Mary

    2015-07-01

    Experimental animals provide valuable opportunities to establish aetiological mechanisms and test new treatments for neurodevelopmental psychiatric conditions. However, it is increasingly appreciated that inter-strain differences cannot be neglected in the experimental design. In addition, the importance of including females in preclinical - but also clinical - research is now recognised. Here, we compared behaviour and prefrontal protein differences in male and female C57BL/6N and 129X1/SvJ mice as both are commonly used experimental rodents. Relative to 129X1/SvJ mice, both sexes of C57BL/6N mice had weaker sensorimotor gating, measured in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle paradigm, and were more sensitive to amphetamine challenge in the open field. The pattern of protein expression in the prefrontal cortex of C57BL6N mice was also clearly distinct from 129X1/SvJ mice. Proteins differentially expressed were those associated with oxidative metabolism, receptor protein signalling, cell communication and signal transduction and energy pathways. We suggest that the C57BL/6N mouse may usefully proxy features of the neurodevelopmental disorders and could have application in pre-translational screening of new therapeutic approaches. The 129X1/SvJ strain in contrast, might be better suited to experimental studies of causal risk factors expected to lower PPI and increase amphetamine sensitivity. PMID:26003851

  16. Theoretical study on photon-phonon coupling at (001)-(2 x 1) surfaces of Ge and {alpha}-Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, F.L. [Escuela de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma ' ' Benito Juarez' ' de Oaxaca, Av. Universidad S/N, Ex-Hacienda de Cinco Senores, Ciudad Universitaria, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., 68120 (Mexico); Perez-Rodriguez, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. J-48, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    We present a study of the far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra for (001) surfaces of Ge and {alpha}-Sn in the (2 x 1) asymmetric dimer geometry, which exhibit a resonance structure associated with the excitation of surface phonon modes. We have employed a theoretical formalism, based on the adiabatic bond-charge model (ABCM), for computing the far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra. In comparison with previous theoretical results for silicon and diamond surfaces, the resonance structure in the reflectance anisotropy spectrum for Ge(001)-(2 x 1) turns out to be similar to that observed in the spectrum for the Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface, whereas the spectrum for {alpha}-Sn(001)-(2 x 1) surface is noticeably different from the others. We have established a trend of far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra for IV(001) surfaces: the weaker dimer strength, the stronger resonances of low-frequency surface phonons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Corona, jet, and relativistic line models for Suzaku/RXTE/Chandra-HETG observations of the Cygnus X-1 hard state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Nowak; M. Hanke; S.N. Trowbridge; S.B. Markoff; J. Wilms; K. Pottschmidt; P. Coppi; D. Maitra; J.E. Davis; F. Tramper

    2011-01-01

    Using Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have conducted a series of four simultaneous observations of the galactic black hole candidate Cyg X-1 in what were historically faint and spectrally hard "low states." Additionally, all of these observations occurred near superior conjunct

  18. Existence of multiple isoforms of HS1-associated protein X-1 in murine and human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Delphine M; Hart, Ian R; Marshall, John F

    2008-06-13

    To date, the literature concerning the HS1 (haematopoietic cell-specific protein 1)-associated protein X-1 (HAX1) protein has reported considerable variation regarding its function in mammalian cells, subcellular localisation and binding partners. We show here that HAX1 comprises a family of proteins. Murine tissues express three mRNA variants, encoded by two genes on chromosomes 2 and 3. The chromosome 2 gene is intronless and would encode a protein 100% identical with that encoded by chromosome 3. In humans, alternative splice variants, encoded by the chromosome 1 gene, produce a family of transcripts composed of up to eight members. Based on the sequences published in GenBank and Ensembl, we designed specific primers and detected by PCR three mRNA species in murine tissues and eight variants in human cells. We screened a panel of 19 human cell lines as well as primary fibroblasts, oral keratinocytes and freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All human cells studied expressed at least six of the possible HAX1 mRNA variants. In silico analysis of the variants revealed an open reading frame in all of them, suggesting that murine and human tissues can express two and eight HAX1 proteins, respectively. Analysis of human protein lysates by Western blotting with the use of a monoclonal anti-HAX1 antibody revealed multiple bands. These bands were decreased after treatment of cells with a single small interfering RNA duplex targeting a region common to six of the variants, confirming their identity as HAX1 proteins. Comparison of the human variants with the six HAX1 homologues described to date in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the four homologues described in macaque (Macaca mulatta) revealed very high conservation with only one amino acid substitution between human and chimpanzee homologues. Moreover, a number of additional products were amplified and sequenced, which indicated that further human isoforms are likely to exist. These findings are

  19. New spectroscopic binary companions of giant stars and updated metallicity distribution for binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, P; Vanzi, L; Soto, M G; Vos, J; Wittenmyer, R A; Olivares, F; Drass, H; Mennickent, R E; Vuckovic, M; Rojo, P; Melo, C H F

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 24 spectroscopic binary companions to giant stars. We fully constrain the orbital solution for 6 of these systems. We cannot unambiguously derive the orbital elements for the remaining stars because the phase coverage is incomplete. Of these stars, 6 present radial velocity trends that are compatible with long-period brown dwarf companions.The orbital solutions of the 24 binary systems indicate that these giant binary systems have a wide range in orbital periods, eccentricities, and companion masses. For the binaries with restricted orbital solutions, we find a range of orbital periods of between $\\sim$ 97-1600 days and eccentricities of between $\\sim$ 0.1-0.4. In addition, we studied the metallicity distribution of single and binary giant stars. We computed the metallicity of a total of 395 evolved stars, 59 of wich are in binary systems. We find a flat distribution for these binary stars and therefore conclude that stellar binary systems, and potentially brown dwarfs, have a diffe...

  20. Towards the field binary population: Influence of orbital decay on close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Korntreff, Christina; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of the binary populations in the solar neighbourhood have shown that the periods of G- and M-type stars are log-normally distributed. However, observations of young binary populations suggest a log-uniform distribution. Clearly some process(es) change the period distribution over time. Most stars form in star clusters, in which two important dynamical processes occur: i) gas-induced orbital decay of embedded binary systems and ii) destruction of soft binaries in three-body interactions. The emphasis here is on orbital decay which has been largely neglected so far. Using a combination of Monte-Carlo and dynamical nbody modelling it is demonstrated here that the cluster dynamics destroys the number of wide binaries, but leaves short-period binaries basically undisturbed even for a initially log-uniform distribution. By contrast orbital decay significantly reduces the number and changes the properties of short-period binaries, but leaves wide binaries largely uneffected. Until now it was unclear whether ...

  1. Gravitational wave background from binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter Ω(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, Ω(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for Ω(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

  2. Birth of Massive Black Hole Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colpi, M.; /Milan Bicocca U.; Dotti, M.; /Insubria U., Como; Mayer, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-19

    If massive black holes (BHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies and galaxies experience multiple mergers during their cosmic assembly, then BH binaries should be common albeit temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observationally, the paucity of active BH pairs points toward binary lifetimes far shorter than the Hubble time, indicating rapid inspiral of the BHs down to the domain where gravitational waves lead to their coalescence. Here, we review a series of studies on the dynamics of massive BHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers that underscore the vital role played by a cool, gaseous component in promoting the rapid formation of the BH binary. The BH binary is found to reside at the center of a massive self-gravitating nuclear disc resulting from the collision of the two gaseous discs present in the mother galaxies. Hardening by gravitational torques against gas in this grand disc is found to continue down to sub-parsec scales. The eccentricity decreases with time to zero and when the binary is circular, accretion sets in around the two BHs. When this occurs, each BH is endowed with it own small-size ({approx}< 0.01 pc) accretion disc comprising a few percent of the BH mass. Double AGN activity is expected to occur on an estimated timescale of {approx}< 1 Myr. The double nuclear point-like sources that may appear have typical separation of {approx}< 10 pc, and are likely to be embedded in the still ongoing starburst. We note that a potential threat of binary stalling, in a gaseous environment, may come from radiation and/or mechanical energy injections by the BHs. Only short-lived or sub-Eddington accretion episodes can guarantee the persistence of a dense cool gas structure around the binary necessary for continuing BH inspiral.

  3. Massive gaseous discs around SMBH binaries: Binary decay and tidal disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brem P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the evolution of black hole binaries embedded within geometrically thin gas discs. Our results imply that such discs can produce black hole mergers for relatively low-mass binaries, and that a significant population of eccentric binaries might exist at separations of a few 0.01 pc. These binaries may be detectable due to the time-variable accretion on to the black holes. If the disc fragments, then the newly-born stars will continue driving the binary to its coalescence, although at a slower rate. Interestingly, our preliminary analysis shows that these stars will be disrupted at a rate of ∼10−4–2 · 10−5 events per year per system.

  4. A Stellar-mass Black Hole in the Ultra-luminous X-ray Source M82 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Takashi; Ebisawa, Ken; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the archival XMM-Newton data of the archetypal Ultra-Luminous X-ray Source (ULX) M82 X-1 with an LO5 ksec exposure when the source was in the steady state. Thanks to the high photon statistics from the large effective area and long exposure, we were able to discriminate different X-ray continuum spectral models. Neither the standard accretion disk model (where the radial dependency of the disk effective temperature is T(r) proportional to r(sup -3/4)) nor a power-law model gives a satisfactory fit. In fact, observed curvature of the M82 X-1 spectrum was just between those of the two models. When the exponent of the radial dependence (p in T(r) proportional to r(sup -P)) of the disk temperature is allowed to be free, we obtained p = 0.61 (sup +0.03)(sub -0.02). Such a reduction of p from the standard value 3/4 under extremely high mass accretion rates is predicted from the accretion disk theory as a consequence of the radial energy advection. Thus, the accretion disk in M82 X-1 is considered to be in the Slim disk state, where an optically thick Advection Dominant Accretion Flow (ADAF) is taking place. We have applied a theoretical slim disk spectral model to M82 X-1, and estimated the black hole mass approximately equal to 19 - 32 solar mass. We conclude that M82 X-1 is a stellar black hole which has been produced through evolution of an extremely massive star, shining at a several times the super-Eddington luminosity.

  5. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  6. Urey Prize Lecture: Binary Minor Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, J. L.

    2004-11-01

    The discovery of binary systems in the near-Earth, main belt, and Kuiper belt populations provides an abundance of new data that expand our knowledge of the physics and chemistry of the solar system. Binary minor planets form as a result of collisional, tidal, and capture processes that are important to study as they play major roles in the formation and evolution of planetary systems. The frequency of occurrence of such processes directly reflects the dynamical environment in the various populations. Observations of binaries provide a powerful way to measure the bulk properties of small bodies, which in turn lead to inferences about their composition and internal structure. These data may offer a rare glimpse of what physical and chemical conditions prevailed when protoplanets formed, and what subsequent evolution took place. In the case of the Kuiper Belt, the study of a handful of binaries forces us to rethink how dense and how bright these bodies are, and to significantly revise our current mass estimates for the entire population. The number of known binary minor planets has increased dramatically over the past few years, with roughly ten new discoveries each year. I will attempt to summarize recent developments, with examples drawn from my observations with the Hubble, Palomar, Keck, Arecibo and Goldstone telescopes.

  7. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black holes binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Cholis, Ilias; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-01-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of $\\sim30\\,M_\\odot$ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly eccentric orbits and can then merge on timescales that in some cases are years or less, retaining some eccentricity in the last seconds before the merger. This is to be contrasted with massive-stellar-binary, globular-cluster, or other astrophysical origins for binary black holes (BBHs) in which the orbits have very effectively circularized by the time the BBH enters the observable LIGO window. Here we discuss the features of the gravitational-wave signals that indicate this eccentricity and forecast the sensitivity of LIGO a...

  8. Spherical hashing: binary code embedding with hyperspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Pil; Lee, Youngwoon; He, Junfeng; Chang, Shih-Fu; Yoon, Sung-Eui

    2015-11-01

    Many binary code embedding schemes have been actively studied recently, since they can provide efficient similarity search, and compact data representations suitable for handling large scale image databases. Existing binary code embedding techniques encode high-dimensional data by using hyperplane-based hashing functions. In this paper we propose a novel hypersphere-based hashing function, spherical hashing, to map more spatially coherent data points into a binary code compared to hyperplane-based hashing functions. We also propose a new binary code distance function, spherical Hamming distance, tailored for our hypersphere-based binary coding scheme, and design an efficient iterative optimization process to achieve both balanced partitioning for each hash function and independence between hashing functions. Furthermore, we generalize spherical hashing to support various similarity measures defined by kernel functions. Our extensive experiments show that our spherical hashing technique significantly outperforms state-of-the-art techniques based on hyperplanes across various benchmarks with sizes ranging from one to 75 million of GIST, BoW and VLAD descriptors. The performance gains are consistent and large, up to 100 percent improvements over the second best method among tested methods. These results confirm the unique merits of using hyperspheres to encode proximity regions in high-dimensional spaces. Finally, our method is intuitive and easy to implement. PMID:26440269

  9. An interferometric view of binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, Henri M J

    2016-01-01

    The study of binary stars is critical to apprehend many of the most interesting classes of stars. Moreover, quite often, the study of stars in binary systems is our only mean to constrain stellar properties, such as masses and radii. Unfortunately, a great fraction of the most interesting binaries are so compact that they can only be apprehended by high-resolution techniques, mostly by interferometry. I present some results highlighting the use of interferometry in the study of binary stars, from finding companions and deriving orbits, determining the mass and radius of stars, to studying mass transfer in symbiotic stars, and tackling luminous blue variables. In particular, I show how interferometric studies using the PIONIER instrument have allowed us to confirm a dichotomy within symbiotic stars, obtain masses of stars with a precision better than 1%, and help us find a new Eta Carinae-like system. I will also illustrate the benefits for the study of binary stars one would get from upgrading the VLT Interfe...

  10. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary star and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Systems similar to the only observed multi-planet circumbinary system, Kepler-47, can arise from much more tightly packed, unstable systems. Only extreme initial conditions introduce differences in the final planet populations. Thus, we suggest that any intrinsic differences in the populations are imprinted by formation.

  11. Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accrete dark energy. The accretion induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state w[z] of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. This talk describes how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy.

  12. INTEGRAL & RXTE View of Gamma-ray Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Jian LI; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu; WANG, JIANMIN

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray binaries are X-ray binaries with gamma-ray emissions. Their multi-wavelength emissions range from radio, optical, X-ray and to very high energy (TeV). X-ray emissions are crucial to understand the nature of gamma-ray binaries. INTEGRAL and RXTE have covered and monitored most of the gamma-ray binaries in hard and soft X-rays. Here we report the results of several gamma-ray binaries and possible gamma-ray binaries from INTEGRAL and RXTE.

  13. Coriolis coupling effects in the H +Li2 (X1 Σg+) →LiH (X1Σ+) +Li reaction: A time-dependent wave packet investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shoubao; Zhang, Lulu; Song, Yuzhi; Meng, Qingtian

    2016-05-01

    The time-dependent dynamics studies on the H +Li2 (X1Σg+) reaction has been carried out by using the novel HLi2 (X2A‧) potential energy surface [7]. The reaction probabilities from both Coriolis coupling and centrifugal sudden approximation calculation exhibit oscillations, being attributed to the existence of deep potential well in the reaction. The integral cross sections of the Coriolis coupling calculation are slightly larger than those of the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation over the collision energy range of 0-0.4 eV, which demonstrates that the Coriolis coupling effect plays an important role in the H +Li2 (X1Σg+) reaction.

  14. Overlapping $B^{3}_{0u}← X^{1}^{+}_{g}$ and $^{1}_{1u} ← X^{1}^{+}_{g}$ non-radiative characteristic of Br2 vapour in the wavelength region 505–541 nm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh C Sharma; S N Thakur

    2001-01-01

    The vibronic vapour phase photoacoustic spectrum of Br2 in the wavelength region 505–541 nm (19796–18480 cm-1) has been recorded using microphone as well as pump-probe method. Discrete vibronic bands superimposed on a monotonically increasing continuum background towards the dissociation limit results from the overlapping $B^{3}^{+}_{0u}← X^{1}^{+}_{g}$ and $^{1}_{1u}← X^{1}^{+}_{g}$ electronic transitions. Vibronic bands originating from '' = 0 have been used to estimate the relative rate of non-radiative relaxation as a function of the excited state $^{3}_{0u}$ vibrational quantum number '. A comparison with the optical absorption spectroscopy of Br2 leads to the identification of three broad spectral regions between 505 and 541 nm (19796 and 18480 cm-1) on the basis of different non-radiative relaxation processes.

  15. The Circulation Pattern in Simulated Contact Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Frank, J.; Tohline, J. E.

    2006-06-01

    We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of an initially symmetric (equal mass) binary where both components are marginally in contact. The simulation evolves the binary through approximately 150 orbital periods and within the first 20 orbits, a global velocity field is established that carries material between both components. In the equatorial plane, the flow is along a figure eight pattern with streams of material sliding past one another in the neighborhood of the inner Lagrange point. For our chosen equation of state, mass transfer is ultimately unstable in this binary though the growth time is long compared to the orbital period. We are therefore able to observe that the circulation pattern, once established, is quite close to steady state. We explore the role that similar steady state flows may play in real contact systems.

  16. TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 105-106 years.

  17. Gravitational waves from spinning eccentric binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Péter; Rácz, István; Vasúth, Mátyás

    2012-01-01

    This paper is to introduce a new software called CBwaves which provides a fast and accurate computational tool to determine the gravitational waveforms yielded by generic spinning binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes on eccentric orbits. This is done within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework by integrating the equations of motion and the spin precession equations while the radiation field is determined by a simultaneous evaluation of the analytic waveforms. In applying CBwaves various physically interesting scenarios have been investigated. In particular, we have studied the appropriateness of the adiabatic approximation, and justified that the energy balance relation is indeed insensitive to the specific form of the applied radiation reaction term. By studying eccentric binary systems it is demonstrated that circular template banks are very ineffective in identifying binaries even if they possess tiny residual orbital eccentricity. In addition, by investigating the validity of the energy balance relat...

  18. Binary Particle Model of Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ndili, F N

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the new concept of binary particle as the basic matter unit that participates in weak interactions and not any one fermion singly. We state the quantum numbers of this binary particle, and show the concept leads us to a natural explanation of the standard model puzzle of the origin of flavor mixing and the CKM matrix. Certain other puzzles of the standard model such as the absence of flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC), are also explained naturally by the binary particle model. These puzzles are currently thought to be esoteric properties of electro weak interactions that have origins in physics beyond the standard model at some ultra high energy scales. We show that this is not necessarily the case.

  19. A binary spelling interface with random errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelmouter, J; Birbaumer, N

    2000-06-01

    An algorithm for design of a spelling interface based on a modified Huffman's algorithm is presented. This algorithm builds a full binary tree that allows to maximize an average probability to reach a leaf where a required character is located when a choice at each node is made with possible errors. A means to correct errors (a delete-function) and an optimization method to build this delete-function into the binary tree are also discussed. Such a spelling interface could be successfully applied to any menu-orientated alternative communication system when a user (typically, a patient with devastating neuromuscular handicap) is not able to express an intended single binary response, either through motor responses or by using of brain-computer interfaces, with an absolute reliability. PMID:10896195

  20. Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    "Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."