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Sample records for binary circinus x-1

  1. A parsec scale X-ray extended structure from the X-ray binary Circinus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Soleri, P; Fender, R; Wijnands, R; Tudose, V; Altamirano, D; Jonker, P G; Van der Klis, M; Kuiper, L; Kaiser, C; Casella, P

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of two Chandra observations of Circinus X-1 performed in 2007, for a total exposure time of ~50 ks. The source was observed with the High Resolution Camera during a long X-ray low-flux state of the source. Cir X-1 is an accreting neutron-star binary system that exhibits ultra-relativistic arcsec-scale radio jets and an extended arcmin-scale radio nebula. Furthermore, a recent paper has shown an X-ray excess on arcmin-scale prominent on the side of the receding radio jet. In our images we clearly detect X-ray structures both on the side of the receding and the approaching radio jet. The X-ray emission is consistent with being from synchrotron origin. Our detection is consistent with neutron-star binaries being as efficient as black-hole binaries in producing X-ray outflows, despite their shallower gravitational potential.

  2. A parsec scale X-ray extended structure from the X-ray binary Circinus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleri, P.; Heinz, S.; Fender, R.; Wijnands, R.; Tudose, V.; Altamirano, D.; Jonker, P. G.; van der Klis, M.; Kuiper, L.; Kaiser, C.; Casella, P.

    2009-07-01

    We present the results of the analysis of two Chandra observations of Circinus X-1 performed in 2007, for a total exposure time of ~50 ks. The source was observed with the High Resolution Camera during a long X-ray low-flux state of the source. Cir X-1 is an accreting neutron star binary system that exhibits ultra-relativistic arcsec-scale radio jets and an extended arcmin-scale radio nebula. Furthermore, a recent paper has shown an X-ray excess on arcmin-scale prominent on the side of the receding radio jet. In our images, we clearly detect X-ray structures on both the side of the receding and the approaching radio jet. The X-ray emission is consistent with a synchrotron origin. Our detection is consistent with neutron star binaries being as efficient as black hole binaries in producing X-ray outflows, despite their shallower gravitational potential.

  3. The Return of the Bursts: Thermonuclear Flashes from Circinus X-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linares, M.; Watts, A.; Altamirano, D.; Soleri, P.; Degenaar, N.; Yang, Y.; Wijnands, R.; Casella, P.; Homan, J.; Chakrabarty, D.; Rea, N.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Patruno, A.; van der Klis, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of 15 X-ray bursts with RXTE and Swift observations of the peculiar X-ray binary Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) during its 2010 May X-ray re-brightening. These are the first X-ray bursts observed from the source after the initial discovery by Tennant and collaborators, 25 years ago.

  4. The Return of the Bursts : Thermonuclear Flashes from Circinus X-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linares, M.; Watts, A.; Altamirano, D.; Soleri, P.; Degenaar, N.; Yang, Y.; Wijnands, R.; Casella, P.; Homan, J.; Chakrabarty, D.; Rea, N.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Patruno, A.; van der Klis, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of 15 X-ray bursts with RXTE and Swift observations of the peculiar X-ray binary Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) during its 2010 May X-ray re-brightening. These are the first X-ray bursts observed from the source after the initial discovery by Tennant and collaborators, 25 years ago.

  5. The nature of the companion star in Circinus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Helen M; Gibson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We present optical spectra and images of the X-ray binary Circinus X-1. The optical light curve of Cir X-1 is strongly variable, changing in brightness by 1.2 magnitudes in the space of four days. The shape of the light curve is consistent with that seen in the 1980s, when the X-ray and radio counterparts of the source were at least ten times as bright as they are currently. We detect strong, variable H-alpha emission lines, consisting of multiple components which vary with orbital phase. We estimate the extinction to the source from the strength of the diffuse interstellar bands and the Balmer decrement; the two methods give A_V = 7.6 +/- 0.6 mag and A_V > 9.1 mag respectively. The optical light curve can be modelled as arising from irradiation of the companion star by the central X-ray source, where a low-temperature star fills its Roche lobe in an orbit of moderate eccentricity (e ~ 0.4). We suggest that the companion star is over-luminous and under-dense, due to the impact of the supernova which occurred ...

  6. The first resolved imaging of milliarcsecond-scale jets in Circinus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Miller-Jones, J C A; Tingay, S J; Reynolds, C; Phillips, C J; Tzioumis, A K; Fender, R P; McCallum, J N; Nicolson, G D; Tudose, V

    2011-01-01

    We present the first resolved imaging of the milliarcsecond-scale jets in the neutron star X-ray binary Circinus X-1, made using the Australian Long Baseline Array. The angular extent of the resolved jets is ~20 milliarcseconds, corresponding to a physical scale of ~150 au at the assumed distance of 7.8 kpc. The jet position angle is relatively consistent with previous arcsecond-scale imaging with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The radio emission is symmetric about the peak, and is unresolved along the minor axis, constraining the opening angle to be less than 20 degrees. We observe evidence for outward motion of the components between the two halves of the observation. Constraints on the proper motion of the radio-emitting components suggest that they are only mildly relativistic, although we cannot definitively rule out the presence of the unseen, ultra-relativistic (Lorentz factor >15) flow previously inferred to exist in this system.

  7. RXTE detects X-ray bursts from Circinus X-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linares, M.; Soleri, P.; Watts, A.; Altamirano, D.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; van der Klis, M.; Patruno, A.; Wijnands, R.; Yang, Y.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.

    2010-01-01

    After the recent report of X-ray re-brightening (ATel #2608), RXTE has observed the peculiar neutron star X-ray binary Cir X-1 eleven times during the last two weeks (May 11-25, 2010). We report the detection of nine X-ray bursts in RXTE-PCA data, 25 years after the first -and the only previous- det

  8. The return of the bursts: Thermonuclear flashes from Circinus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Linares, M; Altamirano, D; Soleri, P; Degenaar, N; Yang, Y; Wijnands, R; Casella, P; Homan, J; Chakrabarty, D; Rea, N; Armas-Padilla, M; Cavecchi, Y; Kalamkar, M; Kaur, R; Patruno, A; van der Klis, M

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of 15 X-ray bursts with RXTE and Swift observations of the peculiar X-ray binary Circinus X-1 during its May 2010 X-ray re-brightening. These are the first X-ray bursts observed from the source after the initial discovery by Tennant and collaborators, twenty-five years ago. By studying their spectral evolution, we firmly identify nine of the bursts as type I (thermonuclear) X-ray bursts. We obtain an arcsecond location of the bursts that confirms once and for all the identification of Cir X-1 as a type I X-ray burst source, and therefore as a low magnetic field accreting neutron star. The first five bursts observed by RXTE are weak and show approximately symmetric light curves, without detectable signs of cooling along the burst decay. We discuss their possible nature. Finally, we explore a scenario to explain why Cir X-1 shows thermonuclear bursts now but not in the past, when it was extensively observed and accreting at a similar rate.

  9. Circinus X-1 survivor of a highly asymmetric supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, T M; Van den Heuvel, E P J; Johnston, H M; Wu, K

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the kinematical parameters of Cir X-1 to constrain the nature of its companion star, the eccentricity of the binary and the pre-supernova parameter space. We argue that the companion is most likely to be a low-mass (< 2.0 M_sun) unevolved star and that the eccentricity of the orbit is 0.94 +/- 0.04. We have evaluated the dynamical effects of the supernova explosion and we find it must have been asymmetric. On average, we find that a kick of 740 km/s is needed to account for the recently measured radial velocity of +430 km/s (Johnston, Fender & Wu) for this extreme system. The corresponding minimum kick velocity is 500 km/s. This is the largest kick needed to explain the motion of any observed binary system. If Cir X-1 is associated with the supernova remnant G321.9-0.3 then we find a limiting minimum age of this remnant of 60000 yr. Furthermore, we predict that the companion star has lost 10% of its mass as a result of stripping and ablation from the impact of the supernova shell short...

  10. Circinus X-1 - X-ray observations with SAS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dower, R. G.; Bradt, H. V.; Morgan, E. H.

    1982-01-01

    Eight observations of Cir X-1 with SAS 3, each lasting 1-6 days, have yielded a variety of new phenomena, viz., a luminous state of steady emission, rapid large-intensity dips, an extremely rapid X-ray transition, and bright flares. Through searches for periodic X-ray pulsations were carried out on data trains of duration up to 6 days; upper limits for pulsations with periods greater than 250 microsec range down to 0.3%. Aperiodic variability with characteristic times of 0.4-1.0 sec was observed but is not well characterized by a simple shot noise model. No millisecond bursts were observed during 40,000 sec in three separate observations. Spectral parameters derived before and after several X-ray transitions indicate that the transitions are not due to absorption of X-rays by intervening gas. Models previously proposed for the Cir X-1 system do not easily provide explanations for all the complex phenomena reported herein.

  11. A return to strong radio flaring by Circinus X-1 observed with the Karoo Array Telescope test array KAT-7

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, R P; Nicolson, G D; Ratcliffe, S; Linares, M; Horrell, J; Richter, L; Schurch, M P E; Coriat, M; Woudt, P; Jonas, J; Booth, R; Fanaroff, B

    2013-01-01

    Circinus X-1 is a bright and highly variable X-ray binary which displays strong and rapid evolution in all wavebands. Radio flaring, associated with the production of a relativistic jet, occurs periodically on a ~17-day timescale. A longer-term envelope modulates the peak radio fluxes in flares, ranging from peaks in excess of a Jansky in the 1970s to an historic low of milliJanskys during the years 1994 to 2007. Here we report first observations of this source with the MeerKAT test array, KAT-7, part of the pathfinder development for the African dish component of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), demonstrating successful scientific operation for variable and transient sources with the test array. The KAT-7 observations at 1.9 GHz during the period 13 December 2011 to 16 January 2012 reveal in temporal detail the return to the Jansky-level events observed in the 1970s. We compare these data to contemporaneous single-dish measurements at 4.8 and 8.5 GHz with the HartRAO 26-m telescope and X-ray monitoring from...

  12. Lord of the Rings: A Kinematic Distance to Circinus X-1 from a Giant X-Ray Light Echo

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Sebastian; Braiding, Catherine; Brandt, William N; Jonker, Peter G; Sell, Paul; Fender, Robert P; Nowak, Michael A; Schulz, Norbert S

    2015-01-01

    Circinus X-1 exhibited a bright X-ray flare in late 2013. Follow-up observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton from 40 to 80 days after the flare reveal a bright X-ray light echo in the form of four well-defined rings with radii from 5 to 13 arcminutes, growing in radius with time. The large fluence of the flare and the large column density of interstellar dust towards Circinus X-1 make this the largest and brightest set of rings from an X-ray light echo observed to date. By deconvolving the radial intensity profile of the echo with the MAXI X-ray lightcurve of the flare we reconstruct the dust distribution towards Circinus X-1 into four distinct dust concentrations. By comparing the peak in scattering intensity with the peak intensity in CO maps of molecular clouds from the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey we identify the two innermost rings with clouds at radial velocity ~ -74 km/s and ~ -81 km/s, respectively. We identify a prominent band of foreground photoelectric absorption with a lane of CO gas at...

  13. Sudden End of X-Ray Outbursts around Periastron of Circinus X-1 Observed with MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, Kazumi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Okazaki, Atsuo T

    2014-01-01

    MAXI/GSC observed 21 outbursts from Circinus X-1 between 2009 August and 2013 December. Although 14 outbursts showed ordinary gradual decays, in 7 outbursts we found sudden luminosity decrease in a time scale of a few hours around the periastron, and then the outbursts terminated. These sudden decreases started at the estimated luminosity of a few times $10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$ and reached to $\\lesssim3\\times10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$. We propose three interpretations for the sudden luminosity decrease: (1) the end of the outburst during the dip, (2) the propeller effect, and (3) the stripping effect by the stellar wind of the companion star. It is difficult to explain the phenomenon with any of these interpretations alone. The interpretation of (1) is possible for only two outbursts assuming rapid decay. The propeller effect (2) is expected to occur at a constant luminosity, which is incompatible with the observed facts. In wind stripping effect (3), the ram pressure of a typical stellar wind is not sufficient to b...

  14. Swift-XRT detects X-ray burst from Circinus X-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linares, M.; Soleri, P.; Altamirano, D.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; van der Klis, M.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Wijnands, R.; Yang, Y.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.; Chakrabarty, D.; Homan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the recent re-brightening (ATel #2608) and RXTE-PCA detection of X-ray bursts from the peculiar X-ray binary Cir X-1 between May 15 and 25 (ATel #2643), we obtained a series of Swift-XRT observations of the field (see also ATel #2650). Swift-XRT detected an X-ray burst on 2010-05-28 at 12:

  15. A parsec scale X-ray extended structure from the X-ray binary Circinus X−1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleri, P.; Heinz, S.; Fender, R.; Wijnands, R.; Tudose, V.; Altamirano, D.; Jonker, P.G.; van der Klis, M.; Kuiper, L.; Kaiser, C.; Casella, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of two Chandra observations of Circinus X−1 performed in 2007, for a total exposure time of ∼50 ks. The source was observed with the High Resolution Camera during a long X-ray low-flux state of the source. Cir X−1 is an accreting neutron star binary system that

  16. X-ray behaviour of Circinus X-1 - I: X-ray Dips as a diagnostic of periodic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, W I

    2004-01-01

    We examine the periodic nature of detailed structure (particularly dips) in the RXTE/ASM lightcurve of Circinus X-1. The significant phase wandering of the X-ray maxima suggests their identification with the response on a viscous timescale of the accretion disk to perturbation. We find that the X-ray dips provide a more accurate system clock than the maxima, and thus use these as indicators of the times of periastron passage. We fit a quadratic ephemeris to these dips, and find its predictive power for the X-ray lightcurve to be superior to ephemerides based on the radio flares and the full archival X-ray lightcurve. Under the hypothesis that the dips are tracers of the mass transfer rate from the donor, we use their occurrence rate as a function of orbital phase to explore the (as yet unconstrained) nature of the donor. The high $\\dot{P}$ term in the ephemeris provides another piece of evidence that Cir X-1 is in a state of dynamical evolution, and thus is a very young post-supernova system. We further sugge...

  17. Periodic signals from the Circinus region: two new cataclysmic variables and the ultraluminous X-ray source candidate GC X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, P; Milisavljevic, D; Mapelli, M; Zampieri, L; Sidoli, L; Fabbiano, G; Castillo, G A Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    The examination of two 2010 Chandra ACIS exposures of the Circinus galaxy resulted in the discovery of two pulsators: CXO J141430.1-651621 and CXOU J141332.9-651756. We also detected 26-ks pulsations in CG X-1, consistently with previous measures. For ~40 other sources, we obtained limits on periodic modulations. In CXO J141430.1-651621, which is ~2 arcmin outside the Circinus galaxy, we detected signals at 6120(1) s and 64.2(5) ks. In the longest observation, the source showed a flux of ~1.1e-13 erg/cm^2/s (absorbed, 0.5-10 keV) and the spectrum could be described by a power-law with photon index ~1.4. From archival observations, we found that the luminosity is variable by ~50 per cent on time-scales of weeks-years. The two periodicities pin down CXO J141430.1-651621 as a cataclysmic variable of the intermediate polar subtype. The period of CXOU J141332.9-651756 is 6378(3) s. It is located inside the Circinus galaxy, but the low absorption indicates a Galactic foreground object. The flux was ~5e-14 erg/cm^2/...

  18. A search for very high-energy flares from the microquasars GRS 1915+105, Circinus X-1, and V4641 Sgr using contemporaneous H.E.S.S. and \\textit{RXTE} observations

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, H; Aharonian, F; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E O; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chadwick, P M; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J -P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; -P., J; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Leser, E; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Liu, R; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Öttl, S; Ohm, S; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Shilon, I; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-01-01

    Microquasars are potential $\\gamma$-ray emitters. Indications of transient episodes of $\\gamma$-ray emission were recently reported in at least two systems: Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3. The identification of additional $\\gamma$-ray-emitting microquasars is required to better understand how $\\gamma$-ray emission can be produced in these systems. Theoretical models have predicted very high-energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray emission from microquasars during periods of transient outburst. Observations reported herein were undertaken with the objective of observing a broadband flaring event in the $\\gamma$-ray and X-ray bands. Contemporaneous observations of three microquasars, GRS 1915+105, Circinus X-1, and V4641 Sgr, were obtained using the High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) telescope array and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite. X-ray analyses for each microquasar were performed and VHE $\\gamma$-ray upper limits from contemporaneous H.E.S.S. observations were derived. No significant $\\gamma$-ray signal ...

  19. Chandra and XMM Monitoring of the Black Hole X-ray Binary IC 10 X-1

    OpenAIRE

    Laycock, Silas G. T.; Cappallo, Rigel C.; Moro, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The massive black hole + Wolf-Rayet binary IC10 X-1 was observed in a series of 10 Chandra and 2 XMM-Newton observations spanning 2003-2012, showing consistent variability around 7 x10^37 erg/s, with a spectral hardening event in 2009. We phase-connected the entire light-curve by folding the photon arrival times on a series of trial periods spanning the known orbital period and its uncertainty, refining the X-ray period to P = 1.45175(1)d. The duration of minimum-flux in the X-ray eclipse is ...

  20. BeppoSAX observation of the X-ray binary pulsar Vela X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, M.; Dal Fiume, D.; Nicastro, L.; Giarrusso, S.; Segreto, A.; Piraino, S.; Cusumano, G.; Del Sordo, S.; Guainazzi, M.; Piro, L.

    1997-05-01

    We report on the spectral (pulse averaged) and timing analysis of the ~20 ksec observation of the X-ray binary pulsar Vela X-1 performed during the BeppoSAX Science Verification Phase. The source was observed in two different intensity states: the low state is probably due to an erratic intensity dip and shows a decrease of a factor ~2 in intensity, and a factor 10 in NH. We have not been able to fit the 2-100 keV continuum spectrum with the standard (for an X-ray pulsar) power law modified by a high energy cutoff because of the flattening of the spectrum in ~10-30 keV. The timing analysis confirms previous results: the pulse profile changes from a five-peak structure for energies less than 15 keV, to a simpler two-peak shape at higher energies. The Fourier analysis shows a very complex harmonic component: up to 23 harmonics are clearly visible in the power spectrum, with a dominant first harmonic for low energy data, and a second one as the more prominent for energies greater than 15 keV. The aperiodic component in the Vela X-1 power spectrum presents a knee at about 1 Hz. The pulse period, corrected for binary motion, is 283.206+/-0.001 sec.

  1. Chandra and XMM monitoring of the black hole X-ray binary IC 10 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas G. T.; Cappallo, Rigel C.; Moro, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The massive black hole (BH)+Wolf-Rayet (WR) binary IC 10 X-1 was observed in a series of 10 Chandra and two XMM-Newton observations spanning 2003-2012, showing consistent variability around 7 × 1037 erg s-1, with a spectral hardening event in 2009. We phase connected the entire light curve by folding the photon arrival times on a series of trial periods spanning the known orbital period and its uncertainty, refining the X-ray period to P = 1.45175(1) d. The duration of minimum flux in the X-ray eclipse is ˜5 h which together with the optical radial velocity (RV) curve for the companion yields a radius for the eclipsing body of 8-10 R⊙ for the allowed range of masses. The orbital separation (a1 + a2) = 18.5-22 R⊙ then provides a limiting inclination i > 63° for total eclipses to occur. The eclipses are asymmetric (egress duration ˜0.9 h) and show energy dependence, suggestive of an accretion disc hotspot and corona. The eclipse is much (˜5×) wider than the 1.5-2 R⊙ WR star, pointing to absorption/scattering in the dense wind of the WR star. The same is true of the close analog NGC 300 X-1. RV measurements of the He II [λλ4686] line from the literature show a phase shift with respect to the X-ray ephemeris such that the velocity does not pass through zero at mid-eclipse. The X-ray eclipse leads inferior conjunction of the RV curve by ˜90°, so either the BH is being eclipsed by a trailing shock/plume, or the He II line does not directly trace the motion of the WR star and instead originates in a shadowed partially ionized region of the stellar wind.

  2. A New Dynamical Model for the Black Hole Binary LMC X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Orosz, Jerome A; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Torres, Manuel A P; Bochkov, Ivan; Gou, Lijun; Narayan, Ramesh; Blaschak, Michael; Levine, Alan M; Remillard, Ronald A; Bailyn, Charles D; Dwyer, Morgan M; Buxton, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    We present a dynamical model of the high mass X-ray binary LMC X-1 based on high-resolution optical spectroscopy and extensive optical and near-infrared photometry. From our new optical data we find an orbital period of P=3.90917 +/- 0.00005 days. We present a refined analysis of the All Sky Monitor data from RXTE and find a period of P=3.9093 +/- 0.0008 days, which is consistent with the optical period. A simple model of Thomson scattering in the stellar wind accounts for the modulation seen in the X-ray light curves. The V-K color of the star (1.17 +/- 0.05) implies A_V=2.28 +/- 0.06, which is much larger than previously assumed. For the secondary star we measure a radius of R_2=17.0 +/- 0.8 solar radii and a projected rotational velocity of V_{rot}*sin(i)= 129.9 +/- 2.22 km/sec. Using these measured properties to constrain the dynamical model, we find an orbital eccentricity of e=0.0256 +/- 0.0066, an inclination of i=37.00 +/- 1.87 deg, a secondary star mass of M_2=30.62 +/- 3.22 solar masses, and a black...

  3. Chandra and XMM Monitoring of the Black Hole X-ray Binary IC 10 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Silas G T; Moro, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The massive black hole + Wolf-Rayet binary IC10 X-1 was observed in a series of 10 Chandra and 2 XMM-Newton observations spanning 2003-2012, showing consistent variability around 7 x10^37 erg/s, with a spectral hardening event in 2009. We phase-connected the entire light-curve by folding the photon arrival times on a series of trial periods spanning the known orbital period and its uncertainty, refining the X-ray period to P = 1.45175(1)d. The duration of minimum-flux in the X-ray eclipse is 5 hr which together with the optical radial velocity curve for the companion yields a radius for the eclipsing body of 8-10 Rsun for the allowed range of masses. The orbital separation of 18.5-22 Rsun then provides a limiting inclination i>63 degrees for total eclipses to occur. The eclipses are asymmetric (egress duration 0.9 hr) and show energy dependence, suggestive of an accretion-disk hotspot and corona. The eclipse is much (5X) wider than the 1.5-2 Rsun WR star, pointing to absorption/scattering in the dense wind of...

  4. BeppoSAX observation of the X-ray binary pulsar Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Orlandini, M; Nicastro, L; Giarrusso, S; Segreto, A; Piraino, S; Cusumano, G; Del Sordo, S; Guainazzi, M; Piro, L

    1997-01-01

    We report on the spectral (pulse averaged) and timing analysis of the ~ 20 ksec observation of the X-ray binary pulsar Vela X-1 performed during the BeppoSAX Science Verification Phase. The source was observed in two different intensity states: the low state is probably due to an erratic intensity dip and shows a decrease of a factor ~ 2 in intensity, and a factor 10 in Nh. We have not been able to fit the 2-100 keV continuum spectrum with the standard (for an X--ray pulsar) power law modified by a high energy cutoff because of the flattening of the spectrum in ~ 10-30 keV. The timing analysis confirms previous results: the pulse profile changes from a five-peak structure for energies less than 15 keV, to a simpler two-peak shape at higher energies. The Fourier analysis shows a very complex harmonic component: up to 23 harmonics are clearly visible in the power spectrum, with a dominant first harmonic for low energy data, and a second one as the more prominent for energies greater than 15 keV. The aperiodic c...

  5. A Study of the Evolution of the Close Binaries Cyg X-3, IC 10 X-1, NGC 300 X-1, SS 433, and M33 X-7 Using the "Scenario Machine"

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomazov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary tracks for the X-ray binaries Cyg X-3, IC 10 X-1, NGC 300 X-1, SS 433, and M33 X-7 are computed using the Scenario Machine code. The compact objects in IC 10 X-1, NGC 300 X-1, and M33 X-7 are the most massive stellar mass black hole candidates. Cyg X-3, IC 10 X-1, and NGC 300 X-1 are the only currently known Wolf-Rayet stars with degenerate companions. SS 433 is the only known superaccretor in the Milky Way. Therefore, the stars studied provide excellent laboratories for testing scenarios for the evolution of binaries under extreme conditions. The classical evolutionary scenario is consistent with modern observational data. During the evolution of these binaries, hypernova explosions accompanied by the collapse of stellar cores with large angular momenta can occur, leading to long gamma-ray bursts. At the end of their evolution, Cyg X-3, IC 10 X-1, NGC 300 X-1, and SS 433 may form binary relativistic objects, which will subsequently merge due to the radiation of gravitational waves. The gravitati...

  6. How Massive are the Heaviest Black Holes in X-ray Binaries? Exploring IC 10 X-1 and its Kind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas; Maccarone, Tom; Steiner, James F.; Christodoulou, Dimitris; Yang, Jun; Binder, Breanna A.; Cappallo, Rigel

    2016-01-01

    Black hole X-ray binaries represent a unique probe of stellar evolution and the most extreme physical conditions found in nature. The X-ray binary IC 10 X-1 occupies an important niche as a link between BH-XRBs and Ultra Luminous X-ray Sources (ULX) due to its intermediate luminosity (10^38 erg/s), and role as a central exemplar of the association of between low metallicity galaxies and maximum BH mass.The most secure and direct dynamical evidence for any BH mass comes from the radial velocity (RV) curve coupled with eclipse timing measurements. We phase-connected X-ray timing data accumulated over a decade with Chandra/XMM, with the optical RV curve, revealing a surprizing simultenaity of mid X-ray eclipse and the maximum blueshift velocity of He II emission lines. Our interpretation is that the optical emission lines originate in a shadowed sector of the WR star's stellar wind which escapes X-ray ionization by the compact object. The RV shifts are therefore a projection effect of the stellar wind, and unrelated to the system's mass function which becomes completely unknown. Chandra, XMM and NuStar datasets present a complex picture of radiative transfer through a photo-ionized wind. A search for the orbital period derivative (P-dot) by X-ray timing offers additonal insights, and we present a simulation for the feasibility of constraining P-dot via optical means.This is a substantial change to our understanding of IC 10 X-1, and with similar results reported for its "near twin" NGC 300 X-1, adds new a dimension to the facinating question of the maximum mass for stellar BHs.

  7. On the Inner Radius Evolution with Fluxes of the Neutron Star Binary Serpens X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Chia-Ying; Cackett, Edward M; Miller, Jon M; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the latest Suzaku observation of the bright neutron star system Serpens X-1 taken in 2013 October and 2014 April. The observation was taken using the burst mode and only suffered mild pile-up effects. A broad iron line is detected in the X-ray spectrum. We test different models and find that the iron line is asymmetric and best interpreted by relativistic reflection. The relativistically broadened iron line is generally believed to originate from the innermost regions of the accretion disk, where strong gravity causes a series of special and general relativistic effects. The iron line profile indicates an inner radius of ~8 $R_{\\rm G}$. The asymmetric iron line has been observed in a number of previous observations, which gives several inner radius measurements at different flux states. We find the inner radius to be consistent over a wide range of luminosity, implying that the inner radius of Serpens X-1 does not evolve significantly over the range of $L/L_{\\rm Edd}$ ~ 0.2-0.6.

  8. Constraining the properties of neutron star crusts with the transient low-mass X-ray binary Aql X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Waterhouse, A C; Wijnands, R; Brown, E F; Miller, J M; Altamirano, D; Linares, M

    2015-01-01

    Aql X-1 is a prolific transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that exhibits an accretion outburst approximately once every year. Whether the thermal X-rays detected in intervening quiescent episodes are the result of cooling of the neutron star or due to continued low-level accretion remains unclear. In this work we use Swift data obtained after the long and bright 2011 and 2013 outbursts, as well as the short and faint 2015 outburst, to investigate the hypothesis that cooling of the accretion-heated neutron star crust dominates the quiescent thermal emission in Aql X-1. We demonstrate that the X-ray light curves and measured neutron star surface temperatures are consistent with the expectations of the crust cooling paradigm. By using a thermal evolution code, we find that ~1.2-3.2 MeV/nucleon of shallow heat release describes the observational data well, depending on the assumed mass-accretion rate and temperature of the stellar core. We find no evidence for varying strengths of this shallow heating aft...

  9. Doppler Tomography in 2D and 3D of the X-ray Binary Cyg X-1 for June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharova, O. I.; Agafonov, M. I.; Karitskaya, E. A.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Zharikov, S. V.; Butenko, G. Z.; Bondar, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    The 2D and 3D Doppler tomograms of X-ray binary system Cyg X-1 (V1357 Cyg) were reconstructed from spectral data for the line HeII 4686Å obtained with 2-m telescope of the Peak Terskol Observatory (Russia) and 2.1-m telescope of the Mexican National Observatory in June, 2007. Information about gas motions outside the orbital plane, using all of the three velocity components Vx, Vy, Vz, was obtained for the first time. The tomographic reconstruction was carried out for the system inclination angle of 45°. The equal resolution (50 × 50 × 50 km/s) is realized in this case, in the orbital plane (Vx, Vy) and also in the perpendicular direction Vz. The checkout tomograms were realized also for the inclination angle of 40° because of the angle uncertainty. Two versions of the result showed no qualitative discrepancy. Details of the structures revealed by the 3D Doppler tomogram were analyzed.

  10. Scintillation in the Circinus Galaxy water megamasers

    CERN Document Server

    McCallum, J N

    2004-01-01

    We present observations of the 22 GHz water vapor megamasers in the Circinus galaxy made with the Tidbinbilla 70m telescope. These observations confirm the rapid variability seen earlier by Greenhill et al (1997). We show that this rapid variability can be explained by interstellar scintillation, based on what is now known of the interstellar scintillation seen in a significant number of flat spectrum AGN. The observed variability cannot be fully described by a simple model of either weak or diffractive scintillation.

  11. Flux and spectral variations in the Circinus Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, S; Fiore, F; Fabian, A C; Iwasawa, K; Nicastro, F

    2002-01-01

    We report on a dramatic flux (50 % increase in the LECS and MECS band) and spectral variation between two BeppoSAX observations of the Circinus Galaxy performed almost three years apart. Through the analysis of all Chandra observations available in the archive, including a new DDT observation on May 2001, we show that a high flux state of an extremely variable Ultra Luminous X-ray source (CG X-1: Bauer et al. 2001}, which is within the adopted BeppoSAX source extraction region of 2", is the most likely explanation for most of the observed variation. However, the presence of a high flux 6.7 keV line and the spectral variation of the PDS in the new BeppoSAX data could be partly due to intrinsic variation of the nucleus. Comparing the longest Chandra observation and the BeppoSAX one, we find that the long-term flux variability of CG X-1 is not accompanied by a significant spectral variability. We also re-analysed the Chandra HEG nuclear spectra and report on the presence of a Compton shoulder with a flux of abou...

  12. Spectral-Timing Analysis of the Lower kHz QPO in the Low-Mass X-ray Binary Aquila X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, Jon S

    2016-01-01

    Spectral-timing products of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems, including energy- and frequency-dependent lags, have been analyzed previously in 4U 1608-52, 4U 1636-53, and 4U 1728-34. Here, we study the spectral-timing properties of the lower kHz QPO of the neutron star LMXB Aquila X-1 for the first time. We compute broadband energy lags, as well as energy-dependent lags and the covariance spectrum using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We find very similar characteristics to other previously studied systems, including soft lags of $\\sim$30 $\\mu$s between the 3.0 - 8.0 keV and 8.0 - 20.0 keV energy bands at the average QPO frequency. We also find lags that show a nearly monotonic trend with energy, with the highest energy photons arriving first. The covariance spectrum of the lower kHz QPO is well fit by a thermal Comptonization model, though we find a higher seed photon temperature compared to the mean spectrum, which was also seen in Pe...

  13. A new evolutionary scenario for the formation of massive black-hole binaries such as M33 X-7 and IC 10 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Pols, O R; Yoon, S -Ch

    2009-01-01

    The formation of close massive black-hole binaries is a challenge for binary evolutionary models, especially the intriguing system M33 X-7 which harbours one of the most massive stellar-mass black holes (16 solar masses) orbiting a 70 solar mass O-star every 3.5 days. In standard binary evolution theory an episode of mass transfer or common envelope is inevitable in a binary with such a small orbital period, which complicates the formation of a black hole with such a high mass. To explain this system, we discuss a new binary evolution channel (De Mink et al. 2009), in which rotational mixing plays an important role. In very massive close binaries, tides force the rotation rate of the stars to be so high that rotationally induced mixing becomes very efficient. Helium produced in the center is mixed throughout the envelope. Instead of expanding during their mainsequence evolution (with the inevitable consequence of mass transfer), these stars stay compact, and avoid filling their Roche lobe. They gradually evol...

  14. Long-Term Properties of Accretion Discs in X-ray Binaries. 1; The Variable Third Period in SMC X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, P. A.; Clarkson, W. I.; Coe, M. J.; Laycock, S.; Tout, M.; Wilson, C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Long term X-ray monitoring data from the RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM) reveal that the third (superorbital) period in SMC X-1 is not constant but varies between 40-60 days. A dynamic power spectrum analysis indicates that the third period has been present continuously throughout the five years of ASM observations. This period changed smoothly from 60 days to 45 days and then returned to its former value, on a timescale of approximately 1600 days. During the nearly 4 years of overlap between the CGRO & RXTE missions, the simultaneous BATSE hard X-ray data confirm this variation in SMC X-1. Sources of systematic error and possible artefacts are investigated and found to be incapable of reproducing the results reported here. Our disco cry of such an instability in the superorbital period of SMC X-1 is interpreted in the context of recent theoretical studies of warped, precessing accretion discs. We find that the behaviour of SMC X-1 is consistent with a radiation - driven warping model.

  15. An extremely luminous and variable ultraluminous x-ray source in the outskirts of circinus observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.;

    2013-01-01

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multi-epoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-N...

  16. On the nature of the variability power decay towards soft spectral states in X-ray binaries. Case study in Cyg X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Titarchuk, Lev

    2008-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the Fourier Power Density Spectrum (PDS) observed from black hole X-ray binaries in low/hard and intermediate spectral states is a broad band-limited noise, characterized by a constant below some frequency (a ``break'' frequency) and a power law above this frequency. It has been shown that the variability of this type can be produced by the inward diffusion of the local driving perturbations in a bounded configuration (accretion disk or corona). In the framework of this model, the perturbation diffusion time t_0 is related to the phenomenological break frequency, while the PDS power-law slope above the ``break'' is determined by the viscosity distribution over the configuration. he perturbation diffusion scenario explains the decay of the power of X-ray variability observed in a number of compact sources (containing black hole and neutron star) during an evolution of theses sources from low/hard to high/soft states. We compare the model predictions with the subset of data from Cyg ...

  17. The Molecular Wind in the Nearest Seyfert Galaxy Circinus Revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Zschaechner, Laura K; Bolatto, Alberto; Farina, Emanuele P; Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Leroy, Adam; Meier, David S; Ott, Jürgen; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the inner 1' (1.2 kpc) of the Circinus galaxy, the nearest Seyfert. We target CO (1-0) in the region associated with a well-known multiphase outflow driven by the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). While the geometry of Circinus and its outflow make disentangling the latter difficult, we see indications of outflowing molecular gas at velocities consistent with the ionized outflow. We constrain the mass of the outflowing molecular gas to be 1.5e5 -5.1e6 solar masses, yielding a molecular outflow rate of 0.35-12.3 solar masses per year. The values within this range are comparable to the star formation rate in Circinus, indicating that the outflow indeed regulates star formation to some degree. The molecular outflow in Circinus is considerably lower in mass and energetics than previously-studied AGN-driven outflows, especially given its high ratio of AGN luminosity to bolometric luminosity. The molecular outflow in Circinus is, however, consistent with some trends put forth in...

  18. Measuring the stellar wind parameters in IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 constrains the accretion physics in Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient and classical Supergiant X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez-Garcia, A; Torrejon, J M; Oskinova, L; Martinez-Nunez, S; Hamann, W -R; Rodes-Roca, J J; Gonzalez-Galan, A; Alonso-Santiago, J; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C; Bernabeu, G; Sander, A

    2016-01-01

    Classical Supergiant X-ray Binaries (SGXBs) and Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are two types of High-mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) that present similar donors but, at the same time, show very different behavior in the X-rays. The reason for this dichotomy of wind-fed HMXBs is still a matter of debate. Among the several explanations that have been proposed, some of them invoke specific stellar wind properties of the donor stars. Only dedicated empiric analysis of the donors' stellar wind can provide the required information to accomplish an adequate test of these theories. However, such analyses are scarce. To close this gap, we perform a comparative analysis of the optical companion in two important systems: IGR J17544-2619 (SFXT) and Vela X-1 (SGXB). We analyse the spectra of each star in detail and derive their stellar and wind properties. We compare the wind parameters, giving us an excellent chance of recognizing key differences between donor winds in SFXTs and SGXBs. We find that the stellar para...

  19. Multiple CO Outflows in Circinus The Churning of a Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Bally, J; Lada, C J; Billawala, Y N; Bally, John; Reipurth, Bo; Lada, Charles J.; Billawala, Youssef

    1999-01-01

    We present a millimeter wave study of a cluster of bipolar CO outflows embedded in the western end of the Circinus molecular cloud complex, G317-4, that is traced by very high optical extinction. For an assumed distance of 700 pc, the entire Circinus cloud is estimated to have a mass of about 5E4 solar masses. The opaque western portion that was mapped in this study has a mass of about 10E3 solar masses, contains a number of embedded infrared sources and various compact 1.3 mm continuum sources, and has a remarkable filamentary structure with numerous cavities which appears to be the fossil remnants of past star formation activity. The profusion of outflows in this region are disentangled and linked to driving IRAS sources. Thus, the mapped portion of Circinus contains at least 10 CO emitting molecular outflows. Assuming that star formation has continued at a steady rate for the last several hundred thousand years, the Circinus cloud is expected to have produced dozens of young stars. Their outflows have seve...

  20. Studies on Structural, Magnetic and Thermal Properties of xFe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}-(1-x)Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (0{<=}x{<=}1) Pseudo-binary System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorescu, Monica, E-mail: sorescu@duq.edu [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Fisher Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Xu Tianhong [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Fisher Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Wise, Adam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Roberts Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Diaz-Michelena, Marina [Space Programs and Space Sciences Department, Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Madrid 28850 (Spain); McHenry, Michael E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Roberts Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    The xFe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}-(1-x)Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} pseudo-binary systems (0{<=}x{<=}1) of ulvoespinel component were synthesized by solid-state reaction between ulvoespinel Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} precursors and commercial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powders in stochiometric proportions. Crystalline structures were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and it was found that the as-obtained titanomagnetites maintain an inverse spinel structure. The lattice parameter a of synthesized titanomagnetite increases linearly with the increase in the ulvoespinel component. {sup 57}Fe room temperature Moessbauer spectra were employed to evaluate the magnetic properties and cation distribution. The hyperfine magnetic field is observed to decrease with increasing Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} component. The fraction of Fe{sup 2+} in both tetrahedral and octahedral sites increases with the increase in Ti{sup 4+} content, due to the substitution and reduction of Fe{sup 3+} by Ti{sup 4+} that maintains the charge balance in the spinel structure. For x in the range of 0 {<=}x{<=}0.4, the solid solution is ferrimagnetic at room temperature. However, it shows weak ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic behavior for x in the range of 0.40.70, it only shows paramagnetic behavior, with the appearance of quadrupole doublets in the Moessbauer spectra. Simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA) studies showed that magnetite is not stable, and thermal decomposition of magnetite occurs with weight losses accompanying with exothermic processes under heat treatment in inert atmosphere. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray powder diffraction, simultaneous DSC/TGA and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, thermal and magnetic properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cation distributions derived from isomer shifts.

  1. X-1 in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  2. X-1 on display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  3. THE ROTATION PERIOD OF HD-77581 (VELA X-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZUIDERWIJK, EJ

    1995-01-01

    The rotation period of HD 77581, supergiant primary in the X-ray binary Vela X-1, is determined from an analysis of selected absorption line profiles. The rotation rate determined from He I line profiles is 0.67 +/- 0.04 times that of the binary angular velocity, corresponding to a rotation velocity

  4. Extremely Rapid Variations of Water Maser Emission from the Circinus Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhill, L J; Norris, R P; Gough, R G; Sinclair, M W; Moran, J M; Mushotzky, R F

    1996-01-01

    The water maser lines in the nucleus of the Circinus galaxy vary on time scales as short as a few minutes, at least two orders of magnitude less than for other Galactic or extragalactic water masers. The amplitude of one line more than doubled in about 10 minutes. The intensity changes cannot be attributed easily to a mechanism of intrinsic fluctuations. The variability may be the result of strong interstellar diffractive scintillation along the line of sight within our Galaxy, which would be the first example of diffractive scintillation for any source at 22 GHz and for any source other than a pulsar. However, only the very shortest timescales for interstellar scintillation, obtained from pulsar observations and scaled to 22 GHz, correspond to the observed maser variability. Alternatively, the intensity changes may be a reaction to fluctuations in compact background or radiative pump sources and thereby may be related to variability of the central engine. The maser spectral features symmetrically bracket the...

  5. 12CO 4-3 and [CI] 1-0 at the centers of NGC 4945 and Circinus

    CERN Document Server

    Hitschfeld, M; Kramer, C; Bertoldi, F; Stutzki, J; Bensch, F; Bronfman, L; Cubick, M; Fujishita, M; Fukui, Y; Graf, U U; Honingh, N; Ito, S; Jakob, H; Jacobs, K; Klein, U; Koo, B -C; May, J; Miller, M; Miyamoto, Y; Mizuno, N; Onishi, T; Park, Y -S; Pineda, J L; Rabanus, D; Roellig, M; Sasago, H; Schieder, R; Simon, R; Sun, K; Volgenau, N; Yamamoto, H; Yonekura, Y

    2007-01-01

    Studying molecular gas in the central regions of the star burst galaxies NGC4945 and Circinus enables us to characterize the physical conditions and compare them to previous local and high-z studies. We estimate temperature, molecular density and column densities of CO and atomic carbon. Using model predictions we give a range of estimated CO/C abundance ratios. Using the new NANTEN2 4m sub-millimeter telescope in Pampa La Bola, Chile, we observed for the first time CO 4-3 and [CI] 3P1-3 P0 at the centers of both galaxies at linear scale of 682 pc and 732 pc respectively. We compute the cooling curves of 12CO and 13CO using radiative transfer models and estimate the physical conditions of CO and [CI]. The centers of NGC4945 and Circinus are very [CI] bright objects, exhibiting [CI] 3P1 - 3 P0 luminosities of 91 and 67Kkms-1kpc2, respectively. The [CI] 3P1-3 P0/CO 4-3 ratio of integrated intensities are large at 1.2 in NGC4945 and 2.8 in Circinus. Combining previous CO J= 1-0, 2-1 and 3-2 and 13CO J= 1-0, 2-1 ...

  6. An extremely luminous and variable ultraluminous x-ray source in the outskirts of circinus observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.;

    2013-01-01

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multi-epoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-Newton+NuSTAR...... follow-up observations. The NuSTAR data presented here represent one of the first instances of a ULX reliably detected at hard (E > 10 keV) X-rays. Circinus ULX5 is variable on long time scales by at least a factor of similar to 5 in flux, and was caught in a historically bright state during our 2013...... observations (0.3-30.0 keV luminosity of 1.6 x 10(40) erg s(-1)). During this epoch, the source displayed a curved 3-10 keV spectrum, broadly similar to other bright ULXs. Although pure thermal models result in a high energy excess in the NuSTAR data, this excess is too weak to be modeled with the disk...

  7. Broadband Spectral Analysis of Aql X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Raichur, H; Dewangan, G

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a broadband spectral study of the transient Low Mass X-ray Binary Aql X-1 observed by Suzaku and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellites. The source was observed during its 2007 outburst in the High/Soft (Banana) state and in the Low/Hard (Extreme Island) state. Both the Banana state and the Extreme Island state spectra are best described by a two component model consisting of a soft multi-colour blackbody emission likely originating from the accretion disk and a harder Comptonized emission from the boundary layer. Evidence for a hard tail (extending to ~50 keV) is found during the Banana state; this further (transient) component, accounting for atleast ~1.5% of the source luminosity, is modeled by a power-law. Aql X-1 is the second Atoll source after GX 13+1 to show a high energy tail. The presence of a weak but broad Fe line provides further support for a standard accretion disk extending nearly to the neutron star surface. The input photons for the Comptonizing boundary layer could...

  8. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. I - Hercules X-1, Vela X-1, and Centaurus X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1, and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the 35 day variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus 0.030 days. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200 days is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6 days low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 is not observed, but a 43.0 day candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  9. NuSTAR and SUZAKU observations of the hard state in Cygnus X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Miller, J. M.;

    2015-01-01

    We present simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR ) and Suzaku observations of the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 in the hard state. This is the first time this state has been observed in Cyg X-1 with NuSTAR, which enables us to study the reflection and broadband spectra in unprecede...

  10. EVN detection of Aql X-1 in outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Miller-Jones, J.; Garrett, M.; Fender, R.; Rushton, A.; Spencer, R.

    2009-11-01

    The X-ray binary Aql X-1 has been in outburst in the last few weeks (ATEL #2288, #2296, #2299, #2302, #2303). We observed the system on 2009 November 19 between 14:30-19:00 UT at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e-VLBI technique. The participating radio telescopes were Effelsberg (1 Gbps), Medicina (896 Mbps), Onsala 25m (1 Gbps), Torun (1 Gbps), Westerbork (1 Gbps), Yebes (896 Mbps), and Cambridge (128 Mbps).

  11. XMM-Newton EPIC observations of Her X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, G; Jiménez-Garate, M A; Den Herder, J W A; Hailey, C J

    2002-01-01

    We present spin-resolved X-ray data of the neutron star binary Her X-1. We find evidence that the Iron line at 6.4 keV originates from the same location as the blackbody X-ray component. The line width and energy varies over both the spin period and the 35 day precession period. We also find that the correlation between the soft and hard X-ray light curves varies over the 35 day period.

  12. The roAp star α Circinus as seen by BRITE-Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. W.; Fröhlich, H.-E.; Pigulski, A.; Popowicz, A.; Huber, D.; Kuschnig, R.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Matthews, J. M.; Saio, H.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Grant, C. C.; Koudelka, O.; Lüftinger, T.; Rucinski, S. M.; Wade, G. A.; Alves, J.; Guedel, M.; Handler, G.; Mochnacki, St.; Orleanski, P.; Pablo, B.; Pamyatnykh, A.; Ramiaramanantsoa, T.; Rowe, J.; Whittaker, G.; Zawistowski, T.; Zocłońska, E.; Zwintz, K.

    2016-04-01

    & Technology (FNiTP MNiSW), and National Centre for Science (NCN).The light curves and the reduced data for α Circinus are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A54 Member of the BRITE Executive Science Team (BEST).Member of the Photometry Tiger Team (PHOTT).

  13. Searching for Gravitational Waves from Scorpius X-1 in Advanced LIGO Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanhao; LSC; Virgo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) is considered to be one of the most promising continuous gravitational-wave(GW) sources for ground-based detectors. The improved sensitivity of advanced detectors and multiple improved search methods bring us closer to detecting an astrophysically feasible GW signal from Sco X-1. I will present an update on the search for GWs from Sco X-1 in data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run (O1). on behalf of The LSC and the Virgo Collaboration.

  14. Radio non-detection of Aql X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Altamirano, D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Garrett, M.; Fender, R.; Rushton, A.; Spencer, R.; Maitra, D.

    2010-10-01

    The neutron star X-ray binary Aql X-1 is on the decaying phase of a major outburst that peaked at optical and X-ray bands in mid-September (ATEL #2850, #2871, #2891, #2902). We observed the object at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in the e-VLBI mode on 2010 October 4th between 18:20-22:09 UT. The participating stations were Cambridge, Effelsberg, Jodrell Bank (MkII), Hartebeesthoek, Medicina, Onsala, Torun, Westerbork and Yebes.

  15. Stellar wind variations during the X-ray high and low states of Cygnus X-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gies, D.R.; Bolton, C.T.; Blake, R.M.; Caballero-Nieves, S.M.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Hadrava, P.; Herrero, A.; Hillwig, T.C.; Howell, S.B.; Huang, W.; Kaper, L.; Koubský, P.; McSwain, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectroscopy of the massive X-ray and black hole binary system, HD 226868 = Cyg X-1. The spectra were obtained at both orbital conjunction phases in 2002 and 2003, when the system was in the X-ray high/soft state. The UV stellar wind lines s

  16. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Puccetti, S.;

    2014-01-01

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical...

  17. Spectroastrometry of rotating gas disks for the detection of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. III. CRIRES observations of the Circinus galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Gnerucci, A; Capetti, A; Axon, D J; Robinson, A

    2012-01-01

    We present new CRIRES spectroscopic observations of BrGamma in the nuclear region of the Circinus galaxy, obtained with the aim of measuring the black hole (BH) mass with the spectroastrometric technique. The Circinus galaxy is an ideal benchmark for the spectroastrometric technique given its proximity and secure BH measurement obtained with the observation of its nuclear H2O maser disk. The kinematical data have been analyzed both with the classical method based on the analysis of the rotation curves and with the new method developed by us and based on spectroastrometry. The classical method indicates that the gas disk rotates in the gravitational potential of an extended stellar mass distribution and a spatially unresolved mass of (1.7 +- 0.2) 10^7 Msun, concentrated within r < 7 pc. The new method is capable of probing gas rotation at scales which are a factor ~3.5 smaller than those probed by the rotation curve analysis. The dynamical mass spatially unresolved with the spectroastrometric method is a fa...

  18. Shell-Shocked: The Interstellar Medium Near Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Sell, P H; Richards, E; Maccarone, T J; Russell, D M; Gallo, E; Fender, R; Markoff, S; Nowak, M

    2014-01-01

    We conduct a detailed case-study of the interstellar shell near the high-mass X-ray binary, Cygnus X-1. We present new WIYN optical spectroscopic and Chandra X-ray observations of this region, which we compare with detailed MAPPINGS III shock models, to investigate the outflow powering the shell. Our analysis places improved, physically motivated constraints on the nature of the shockwave and the interstellar medium (ISM) it is plowing through. We find that the shock is traveling at less than a few hundred km/s through a low-density ISM (< 5 cm^-3). We calculate a robust, 3 sigma upper limit to the total, time-averaged power needed to drive the shockwave and inflate the bubble, < 2 x 10^38 erg/s. We then review possible origins of the shockwave. We find that a supernova origin to the shockwave is unlikely and that the black hole jet and/or O-star wind can both be central drivers of the shockwave. We conclude that the source of the Cygnus X-1 shockwave is far from solved.

  19. The multi-wavelength polarization of Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David M

    2013-01-01

    Polarization measurements of the microquasar Cygnus X-1 exist at gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical and radio frequencies. The gamma-ray emission has been shown to be highly linearly polarized. Here, we present new infrared polarimetric data of Cygnus X-1 taken with the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We show that the broadband, radio to gamma-ray flux spectrum and polarization spectrum in the hard state are largely consistent with a simple phenomenological model of a strongly polarized synchrotron jet, an unpolarized Comptonized corona and a moderately polarized interstellar dust component. In this model, the origin of the gamma-ray, X-ray and some of the infrared polarization is the optically thin synchrotron power law from the inner regions of the jet. The model requires the magnetic field in this region to be highly ordered and perpendicular to the axis of the resolved radio jet. This differs to studies of some other X-ray binaries, in which the magnetic field is turbu...

  20. FUSE Observations of a Full Orbit of Scorpius X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Boroson, Bram; Raymond, John

    2014-01-01

    We obtained UV spectra of X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 in the 900-1200 A range with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer over the full 0.79 day binary orbit. The strongest emission lines are the doublet of O VI at 1032,1038 A and the C III complex at 1175 A. The spectrum is affected by a multitude of narrow interstellar absorption lines, both atomic and molecular. Examination of line variability and Doppler tomograms suggests emission from both the neighborhood of the donor star and the accretion disk. Models of turbulence and Doppler broadened Keplerian disk lines Doppler shifted with the orbit of the neutron star added to narrow Gaussian emission lines with undetermined Doppler shift fit the data with consistent values of disk radius, inclination, and radial line brightness profile. The Doppler shift of the narrow component with the orbit suggests an association with the donor star. We test our line models with previously analyzed near UV spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Goddard High Reso...

  1. Cray X1 Evaluation Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, J.S.

    2004-02-09

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science The Cray X1 is an attempt to incorporate the best aspects of previous Cray vector systems and massively-parallel-processing (MPP) systems into one design. Like the Cray T90, the X1 has high memory bandwidth, which is key to realizing a high percentage of theoretical peak performance. Like the Cray T3E, the X1 has a high-bandwidth, low-latency, scalable interconnect, and scalable system software. And, like the Cray SV1, the X1 leverages commodity off-the-shelf (CMOS) technology and incorporates non-traditional vector concepts, like vector caches and multi-streaming processors. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel benchmarks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation.

  2. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.;

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  3. Broad-band X-ray observations of CIR X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisack, M.; Staubert, R.; Balucinska-Church, M.; Skinner, G.; Doebereiner, S.; Englhauser, J.; Aref'ev, V. A.; Efremov, V. V.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    1995-08-01

    We present broad-band (2-88 keV) X-ray observations of the X-ray binary Cir X-1 with the TTM and HEXE instruments on board of the Mir space station. The observations were made in January/February 1989. The spectrum is best described by a model with 3 components: a blackbody at low energies, an iron line and a Comptonized hard continuum. The spectrum is variable during our observations; when the Comptonized component becomes harder, the spectrum becomes softer below 15 keV. The high-energy spectrum resembles that of X-ray binary pulsars.

  4. K2 and MAXI observations of Sco X-1 - Evidence for disc precession?

    CERN Document Server

    Hakala, Pasi; Barclay, Thomas; Charles, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Sco X-1 is the archetypal low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) and the brightest persistent extra-solar X-ray source in the sky. It was included in the K2 Campaign 2 field and was observed continuously for 71 days with 1 minute time resolution. In this paper we report these results and underline the potential of K2 for similar observations of other accreting compact binaries. We reconfirm that Sco X-1 shows a bimodal distribution of optical "high" and "low" states and rapid transitions between them on timescales less than 3 hours (or 0.15 orbits). We also find evidence that this behaviour has a typical systemic timescale of 4.8 days, which we interpret as a possible disc precession period in the system. Finally, we confirm the complex optical vs. X-ray correlation/anticorrelation behaviour for "high" and "low" optical states respectively.

  5. The smooth cyclotron line in Her X-1 as seen with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Staubert, Ruediger;

    2013-01-01

    Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resoluti...... in the hot corona of the accretion disk. The average, luminosity-corrected CRSF energy is lower than in past observations and follows a secular decline. The excellent data quality of NuSTAR provides the best constraint on the CRSF energy to date.......Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resolution...

  6. The smooth cyclotron line in her x-1 as seen with nuclear spectroscopic telescope array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Staubert, Ruediger;

    2013-01-01

    Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resoluti...... in the hot corona of the accretion disk. The average, luminosity-corrected CRSF energy is lower than in past observations and follows a secular decline. The excellent data quality of NuSTAR provides the best constraint on the CRSF energy to date.......Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resolution...

  7. Spectroastrometry of rotating gas disks for the detection of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. III. CRIRES observations of the Circinus galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnerucci, A.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present new CRIRES spectroscopic observations of the Brγ emission line in the nuclear region of the Circinus galaxy, obtained with the aim of measuring the black hole (BH) mass with the spectroastrometric technique. The Circinus galaxy is an ideal benchmark for the spectroastrometric technique given its proximity and secure BH measurement obtained with the observation of its nuclear H2O maser disk. The kinematical data have been analyzed both with the classical method based on the analysis of the rotation curves and with the new method developed by us that is based on spectroastrometry. The classical method indicates that the gas disk rotates in a gravitational potential resulting from an extended stellar mass distribution and a spatially unresolved dynamical mass of (1.7 ± 0.2) × 107 M⊙, concentrated within r curve analysis, highlighting the potential of spectroastrometry. The dynamical mass, which is spatially unresolved with the spectroastrometric method, is a factor ~2 smaller, 7.9+1.4-1.1 × 106M⊙, indicating that spectroastrometry has been able to spatially resolve the nuclear mass distribution down to 2 pc scales. This unresolved mass is still a factor ~4.5 larger than the BH mass measurement obtained with the H2O maser emission, indicating that even with spectroastrometry, it has not been possible to resolve the sphere of influence of the BH. Based on literature data, this spatially unresolved dynamical mass distribution is likely dominated by warm molecular gas and has been tentatively identified with the circum-nuclear torus that prevents a direct view of the central BH in Circinus. This mass distribution, with a size of ~2 pc, is similar in shape to that of the star cluster of the Milky Way, suggesting that a molecular torus, forming stars at a high rate, might be the earlier evolutionary stage of the nuclear star clusters that are common in late-type spirals. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under

  8. Serpens X-1 observed by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Masetti, N; Palazzi, E; Beckmann, V; Lund, N; Brandt, S; Westergaard, N J; Amati, L; Caroli, E; Del Sordo, S; Cocco, G D; Durouchoux, P; Farinelli, R; Frontera, F; Orlandini, M; Zdziarski, Andrzej A

    2004-01-01

    Here we report results of an INTEGRAL-AO1 observation of the X-ray burst and atoll source Ser X-1 performed in May 2003. The object was observed for a total on-source time of 400 ks but nearly 8 degrees off-axis due to its amalgamation with an observation of SS 433, the pointing target source. Ser X-1 has been clearly detected up to 30 keV with unprecedented positional accuracy for high-energy emission. The 20-30 keV light curve showed substantial variability during the observation. Comparison with previous observations indicates that the source was in its high (`banana') state and displayed a soft spectrum during the INTEGRAL pointing. A (non simultaneous) radio-to-gamma-rays broad-band spectral energy distribution is also presented for the first time and discussed.

  9. The donor of Aquila X-1 revealed by high angular resolution near-infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, D Mata; Casares, J; Jiménez-Ibarra, F

    2016-01-01

    The low mass X-ray binary Aquila X-1 is one of the most active neutron star X-ray transients. Despite it has a relatively bright quiescent optical counterpart, the detection of its companion has been hampered by the presence of a nearby interloper star. Using the infrared integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the VLT-8.2m telescope, we unambiguously single out Aquila X-1 from the interloper. Phase-resolved near infrared spectroscopy reveals absorption features from a K4 +- 2 companion star moving at a projected velocity of K_2= 139 +- 4 km/s. We here present the first dynamical solution and associated fundamental parameters of Aquila X-1, imposing new constraints to the orbital inclination (36 deg < i < 49 deg) and the distance (d = 6 +- 2 kpc) to this prototypical neutron star transient.

  10. The Ring of Fire: Constraining the jet power of Cygnus X-1 from its shocked shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Sebastian

    2006-09-01

    We propose a 50ksec ACIS-I oservation of the shocked radio shell recently found around the black hole X-ray binary Cyg X-1. This shell has been interpreted as the swept up ISM that is pushed aside by a bubble of relativistic gas inflated by the jet of Cyg X-1. Detecting the shock in soft X-ray and measuring its temperature and emission measure will allow us to confirm the jet-origin of the shell and, for the first time, to unambiguously measure the average jet power of Cyg X-1. In order to properly model and subtract the diffuse emission from the dust scattering halo and the wings of the PSF we also propose a simultaneous 5ksec RXTE observation of the point source.

  11. The donor of Aquila X-1 revealed by high-angular resolution near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata Sánchez, D.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Casares, J.; Jiménez-Ibarra, F.

    2017-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Aquila X-1 is one of the most active neutron star X-ray transients. Despite its relatively bright quiescent optical counterpart, the detection of its companion has been hampered by the presence of a nearby interloper star. Using the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) on the Very Large Telescope-8.2m telescope, we unambiguously single out Aquila X-1 from the interloper. Phase-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy reveals absorption features from a K4 ± 2 companion star moving at a projected velocity of K2 = 136 ± 4 km s- 1. We here present the first dynamical solution and associated fundamental parameters of Aquila X-1, imposing new constraints on the orbital inclination (36° star transient.

  12. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  13. Cine Club HDP-X1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    HDP-X1是Cine Club所推出的一款高端高清播放机,除了拥有高清视频的播放能力之外,较为特别的地方在于采用了优质的电源电路,以提高传输信号的纯净度,并且整体采用无风扇的散热结构,能实现无噪音的运作。

  14. ORNL Cray X1 evaluation status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, P.K.; Alexander, R.A.; Apra, E.; Balay, S.; Bland, A.S; Colgan, J.; D' Azevedo, E.F.; Dongarra, J.J.; Dunigan Jr., T.H.; Fahey, M.R.; Fahey, R.A.; Geist, A.; Gordon, M.; Harrison, R.J.; Kaushik, D.; Krishnakumar, M.; Luszczek, P.; Mezzacappa, A.; Nichols, J.A.; Nieplocha, J.; Oliker, L.; Packwood, T.; Pindzola, M.S.; Schulthess, T.C.; Vetter, J.S.; White III, J.B.; Windus, T.L.; Worley, P.H.; Zacharia, T.

    2004-05-01

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel bench marks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation. Application performance is found to be markedly improved by this architecture: - Large-scale simulations of high-temperature superconductors run 25 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Best performance of the parallel ocean program (POP v1.4.3) is 50 percent higher than on Japan s Earth Simulator and 5 times higher than on an IBM Power4 cluster. - A fusion application, global GYRO transport, was found to be 16 times faster on the X1 than on an IBM Power3. The increased performance allowed simulations to fully resolve questions raised by a prior study. - The transport kernel in the AGILE-BOLTZTRAN astrophysics code runs 15 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Molecular dynamics simulations

  15. The Reflection Component from Cygnus X-1 in the Soft State Measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomsick, John A.; Nowak, Michael A.; Parker, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late-2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ~1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power-law, and reflection components along...

  16. Long-term studies with the Ariel-5 asm. 1: Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3. [periodic variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel-5 all-sky monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the approximately 35-d variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus .030-d. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200-d is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6-d low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 previously suggested is not observed, but a 43.0-d candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  17. Gravitational waves from Sco X-1: A comparison of search methods and prospects for detection with advanced detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, C; Crowder, S G; Dergachev, V; Galloway, D K; Goetz, E; Jonker, R J G; Lasky, P D; Meadors, G D; Melatos, A; Premachandra, S; Riles, K; Sammut, L; Thrane, E H; Whelan, J T; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) is potentially the most luminous source of continuous gravitational-wave radiation for interferometers such as LIGO and Virgo. For low-mass X-ray binaries this radiation would be sustained by active accretion of matter from its binary companion. With the Advanced Detector Era fast approaching, work is underway to develop an array of robust tools for maximizing the science and detection potential of Sco X-1. We describe the plans and progress of a project designed to compare the numerous independent search algorithms currently available. We employ a mock-data challenge in which the search pipelines are tested for their relative proficiencies in parameter estimation, computational efficiency, robust- ness, and most importantly, search sensitivity. The mock-data challenge data contains an ensemble of 50 Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) type signals, simulated within a frequency band of 50-1500 Hz. Simulated detector noise was generated assuming the expected best strain sens...

  18. X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome systems in the Neotropical Gymnotiformes electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Lima Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes.

  19. XMM-Newton EPIC observations of Her X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, G; Jiménez-Garate, M A; Den Herder, J W A; Hailey, C J; Ramsay, Gavin; Zane, Silvia; Jimenez-Garate, Mario; Herder, Jan-Willem den

    2002-01-01

    We present spin-resolved X-ray data of the neutron star binary Her X-1 taken using the EPIC detectors on XMM-Newton. The data were taken at three distinct epochs through the 35 day precession period. The energy dependent light curves of this source vary significantly from epoch to epoch. It is known that the relative phasing of the soft (2 keV) X-rays varies. Here, we find that the phase shift between the soft and hard bands during the main-on state is considerably different from that observed in the past. Further, it continues to change significantly during the other two observations. This suggests that we are observing, for the first time, a it substantial and continuous variation in the tilt of the disk, as it is expected if the accretion disk is precessing in the system. Analysis of the spin resolved data confirms that the equivalent width variation of the fluorescence Fe K line at \\~6.4 keV follows that of the soft X-ray emission in the main-on state, thus suggesting a common origin for Fe K line and the...

  20. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL;

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increas...

  1. Long-term change in the cyclotron line energy in Her X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubert, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution in the centroid energy of the Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) in the spectrum of the binary X-ray pulsar Her X-1. After the discovery in 1976 by the MPE/AIT balloon telescope HEXE, the line feature was confirmed by several other instruments, establishing the centroid energy at around 35 keV, thereby providing the first direct measure of the B-filed strength of a neutron star at a few 10^12 Gauss. Between 1991 and 1993 an upward jump by ~7 keV occurred, first noted by BATSE and soon confirmed by RXTE and Beppo/SAX. Since then a systematic effort to monitor the cyclotron line energy E_cyc with all available instruments has led to two further discoveries: 1) E_cyc correlates positively with the X-ray luminosity (this feature is now found in four more binary X-ray pulsars). 2) Over the last 20 years the (flux normalized) E_cyc in Her X-1 has decayed by ~5 keV, down to 36.5 keV in August 2015. Her X-1 is the first and so far the only source showing such a variation. We will discuss possible physical scenarios relevant for accretion mounds/columns on highly magnetized neutron stars.

  2. Understanding Compact Object Formation and Natal Kicks. IV. The case of IC 10 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Ansari, Asna; Fragos, Tassos; Glebbeek, Evert; Kalogera, Vassiliki; McClintock, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The extragalactic X-ray binary IC 10 X-1 has attracted attention as it is possibly the host of the most massive stellar-mass black-hole (BH) known to date. Here we consider all available observational constraints and construct its evolutionary history up to the instant just before the formation of the BH. Our analysis accounts for the simplest possible history that includes three evolutionary phases: binary orbital dynamics at core collapse, common envelope (CE) evolution, and evolution of the BH--helium star binary progenitor of the observed system. We derive the complete set of constraints on the progenitor system at various evolutionary stages. Specifically: right before the core collapse event, we find the mass of the BH immediate progenitor to be $\\gtrsim 31 M_\\sun$ (at 95% of confidence, same hereafter). The magnitude of the natal kick imparted to the BH is constrained to be $\\lesssim 130$ km/s. More significantly we obtain robust constraints on the physics of the CE event. IC 10 X-1 provides leverage i...

  3. [Gene therapy of SCID-X1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, C; Schambach, A; Modlich, U; Thrasher, A

    2007-12-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is an inherited disease caused by inactivating mutations in the gene encoding the interleukin 2 receptor common gamma chain (IL2RG), which is located on the X-chromosome. Affected boys fail to develop two major effector cell types of the immune system (T cells and NK cells) and suffer from a functional B cell defect. Although drugs such as antibiotics can offer partial protection, the boys normally die in the first year of life in the absence of a curative therapy. For a third of the children, bone marrow transplantation from a fully matched donor is available and can cure the disease without major side effects. Mismatched bone marrow transplantation, however, is complicated by severe and potentially lethal side effects. Over the past decade, scientists worldwide have developed new treatments by introducing a correct copy of the IL2RG-cDNA. Gene therapy was highly effective when applied in young children. However, in a few patients the IL2RG-gene vector has unfortunately caused leukaemia. Activation of cellular proto-oncogenes by accidental integration of the gene vector has been identified as the underlying mechanism. In future clinical trials, improved vector technology in combination with other protocol modifications may reduce the risk of this side effect.

  4. X-ray Spectroscopy of Dips of Cir X-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analyses of the low-mass X-ray binary Cir X-1 during X-ray dips, using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data. Each dip was divided into several segments, and the spectrum of each segment was fitted with a three-component blackbody model, in which the first two components are affected by partial covering and the third one is unaffected. A Gaussian emission line is also included in the spectral model to represent the Fe Kα line at ~ 6.4 keV. The fitted temperatures of the two partially covered components are about 2keV and 1 keV, while the uncovered component has a temperature of ~0.5-0.6keV. The equivalent blackbody emission radius of the hottest component is the smallest and that of the coolest component is the largest. During the dips the fluxes of the two hot components are linearly correlated, while that of the third component does not show any significant variation. The Fe line flux remains constant, within the errors, during the short dips. However, during the long dips the line flux varies significantly and is positively correlated with the fluxes of the two hot components. These results suggest: (1) that the temperature of the X-ray emitting region decreases with radius, (2) that the Fe Kα line emitting region is close to the hot continuum emitting region, and (3) that the size of the Fe line emitting region is larger than that of the obscuring matter causing the short dips but smaller than the region of that causing the long dips.

  5. High Variability in Vela X-1: Giant Flares and Off States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Joern; Kretschmar, Peter; Torrejon, Jose Miguel; Pottschmidt, Katja; Hanke, Manfred; Santangelo, Andrea; Ferrigno, Carlo; Staubert, Ruediger

    2008-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the spectral and temporal behavior of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 during a phase of high activity, with special focus on the observed giant flares and off states. Methods. INTEGRAL observed Vela X-1 in a long almost uninterrupted observation for two weeks in 2003 Nov/Dec. The data were analyzed with OSA 7.0 and FTOOLS 6.2. We derive the pulse period, light curves, spectra, hardness ratios, hardness intensity diagrams, and study the eclipse. Results. In addition to an already high activity level, Vela X-1 exhibited several very intense flares, the brightest ones reaching a maximum intensity of more than 5 Crab in the 20-40 keV band and several off states where the source is no longer detected by INTEGRAL. We determine the pulse period to be 283.5320 +/- 0.0002 s which is stable throughout the whole observation. Analyzing the eclipses resulted in an improvement of the ephemeris. Spectral analysis of the flares shows that there seem to be two types of flares: relatively brief flares which can be extremely intense, and show spectral softening, contrary to high intensity states which are longer and show no softening. Conclusions. Both flares and off states are interpreted as being due to a strongly structured wind of the optical companion. When Vela X-1 encounters a cavity with strongly reduced density, the flux will drop triggering the onset of the propeller effect which inhibits further accretion, thus giving rise to off states. The required drop of the density of the material to trigger the propeller effect in Vela X-1 is of the same order as predicted by theoretical papers on the densities in the OB star winds. The same structured wind can give rise to the giant flares when Vela X-1 encounters a dense blob in the wind.

  6. y=f(x+1)与y=f-1(x+1)互为反函数吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓先会; 鲁荣光

    2002-01-01

    @@ 从图象上看y=f(x+1)与y=f-1(x+1)的图象是分别将y=f(x)与y=f-1(x)的图象向左平移一个单位所得,因y=f(x)与y=f-1(x)图象关于y=x对称,将y=x向左平移一个单位得y=x+1,所以函数y=f(x+1)与y=f-1(x+1)的图象关于y=x+1对称,因而y=f(x+1)与y=f-1(x+1)不一定互为反函数.

  7. Evolution of Hard X-Ray Spectra Along the Branches in Cir X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, G Q; Li, T P

    2003-01-01

    Using the data from the PCA and HEXTE on board the RXTE satellite, we investigate the evolution of the 3-200 keV spectra of the peculiar low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cir X-1 along the branches on its hardness-intensity diagram (HID) from the vertical horizontal branch (VHB), through the horizontal horizontal branch (HHB) and normal branch (NB), to the flaring branch (FB). We detect a power-law hard component in the spectra. It is found that the derived photon indices ($\\Gamma$) of the power-law hard component are correlated with the position on the HID. The power-law component dominates the X-ray emission of Cir X-1 in the energy band higher than $\\sim 20$ keV. The fluxes of the power-law component are compared with those of the bremsstrahlung component in the spectra. A possible origin of the power-law hard component is discussed.

  8. Modeling of a High/Soft State Flare in Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Justin; Boettcher, Markus

    2004-04-01

    We present first modeling results of the rapid spectral variability of flares in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 in the high/soft state. The coupled radiation transfer and electron heating/cooling problem was solved with a fully time-dependent 2-D Monte-Carlo/Fokker-Planck code. Starting with an initial soft state model consisting of an optically thick accretion disk sandwiched by a hot corona, we modeled a high energy flare through an impulsive energy release in that corona. This flare could be representative of a reconection event of magnetic field lines anchored in the disk. We found that such a scenerio provides a good fit to the rapid (millisecond timescales) spectral evolution recently observed in Cyg X-1.

  9. e-EVN radio detection of Aql X-1 in outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Yang, J.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M.; Rushton, A.; Spencer, R.

    2013-06-01

    The neutron star X-ray binary Aql X-1 is currently in outburst (ATel #5114, #5117, #5129, #5136, #5148). Using the European VLBI Network (e-EVN) we observed Aql X-1 at 5 GHz in two time-slots: 2013 June 18 between 19:48 - 20:36 UT (MJD 56461.825 - 56461.858), and 2013 June 19 between 02:53 - 05:54 UT (MJD 56462.120 - 56462.246). The two datasets were combined together and then calibrated. The participating radio telescopes were: Effelsberg (Germany), Jodrell Bank Mk2 (UK), Medicina (Italy), Noto (Italy), Onsala 25m (Sweden), Torun (Poland), Yebes (Spain), Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (Netherlands), Shanghai (China), Hartebeesthoek (South Africa).

  10. GBM Monitoring of Cyg X-1 During the Recent State Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Case, G L; Cherry, M L; Camero-Arranz, A; Finger, M; Jenke, P; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Chaplin, V

    2011-01-01

    Cygnus X-1 is a high-mass x-ray binary with a black hole compact object. It is normally extremely bright in hard x-rays and low energy gamma rays and resides in the canonical hard spectral state. Recently, however, Cyg X-1 made a transition to the canonical soft state, with a rise in the soft x-ray flux and a decrease in the flux in the hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray energy bands. We have been using the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor on Fermi to monitor the fluxes of a number of sources in the 8--1000 keV energy range, including Cyg X-1. We present light curves of Cyg X-1 showing the flux decrease in hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray energy bands during the state transition as well as the several long flares observed in these higher energies during the soft state. We also present preliminary spectra from GBM for the pre-transition state, showing the spectral evolution to the soft state, and the post-transition state.

  11. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the Circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully Compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Puccetti, S. [ASDC-ASI, Via del Politecnico, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Koss, M. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brightman, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Christensen, F. E. [Danish Technical University, Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Madejski, G. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Marinucci, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-08-20

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical parameters for the obscuring material. Chandra's high angular resolution allows a separation of nuclear and off-nuclear galactic emission. In the off-nuclear diffuse emission, we find signatures of strong cold reflection, including high equivalent-width neutral Fe lines. This Compton-scattered off-nuclear emission amounts to 18% of the nuclear flux in the Fe line region, but becomes comparable to the nuclear emission above 30 keV. The new analysis no longer supports a prominent transmitted AGN component in the observed band. We find that the nuclear spectrum is consistent with Compton scattering by an optically thick torus, where the intrinsic spectrum is a power law of photon index Γ = 2.2-2.4, the torus has an equatorial column density of N {sub H} = (6-10) × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}, and the intrinsic AGN 2-10 keV luminosity is (2.3-5.1) × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}. These values place Circinus along the same relations as unobscured AGNs in accretion rate versus Γ and L{sub X} versus L {sub IR} phase space. NuSTAR's high sensitivity and low background allow us to study the short timescale variability of Circinus at X-ray energies above 10 keV for the first time. The lack of detected variability favors a Compton-thick absorber, in line with the spectral fitting results.

  12. The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole in Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    The compact primary in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 was the first black hole to be established via dynamical observations. We have recently determined accurate values for its mass and distance, and for the orbital inclination angle of the binary. Building on these results, which are based on our favored (asynchronous) dynamical model, we have measured the radius of the inner edge of the black hole s accretion disk by fitting its thermal continuum spectrum to a fully relativistic model of a thin accretion disk. Assuming that the spin axis of the black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum vector, we have determined that Cygnus X-1 contains a near-extreme Kerr black hole with a spin parameter a* > 0.95 (3(sigma)). For a less probable (synchronous) dynamical model, we find a. > 0.92 (3 ). In our analysis, we include the uncertainties in black hole mass, orbital inclination angle, and distance, and we also include the uncertainty in the calibration of the absolute flux via the Crab. These four sources of uncertainty totally dominate the error budget. The uncertainties introduced by the thin-disk model we employ are particularly small in this case given the extreme spin of the black hole and the disk s low luminosity.

  13. Footprints in the wind of Vela X-1 traced with MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshenko, V; Nakahira, S; Mihara, T; Sugizaki, M; Matsuoka, M; Nakajima, M; Makishima, K

    2013-01-01

    The stellar wind around the compact object in luminous wind-accreting high mass X-ray binaries is expected to be strongly ionized with the X-rays coming from the compact object. The stellar wind of hot stars is mostly driven by light absorption in lines of heavier elements, and X-ray photo-ionization significantly reduces the radiative force within the so-called Stroemgren region leading to wind stagnation around the compact object. In close binaries like Vela X-1 this effect might alter the wind structure throughout the system. Using the spectral data from Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), we study the observed dependence of the photoelectric absorption as function of orbital phase in Vela X-1, and find that it is inconsistent with expectations for a spherically-symmetric smooth wind. Taking into account previous investigations we develop a simple model for wind structure with a stream-like photoionization wake region of slower and denser wind trailing the neutron star responsible for the observed absor...

  14. TwoSpect: tuning up to search for gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Meadors, Grant David; Riles, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the tuning of the TwoSpect data analysis method to search for continuous gravitational waves from sources such as the Low Mass X-ray Binary, Scorpius X-1. TwoSpect sensitivity is enhanced when the source sky location and period are known. Simulations of the orbital and gravitational-wave parameters of Scorpius X-1 have already been made in the context of a comparison of search algorithms. These simulations are here used to quantify the sensitivity enhancement and parameter estimation abilities of this tuned, directed TwoSpect method. The gravitational wave strain, gravitational wave frequency, and projected semi-major axis of the binary system are recovered and uncertainty estimated, for simulated signals that are detected. Upper limits on gravitational wave strain are set for undetected signals. Applications to future searches in gravitational-wave interferometer data are discussed. Directed TwoSpect searches analyze gravitational-wave data for signals from LMXBs; robust against spin-wandering an...

  15. Searches for continuous gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO's sixth science run

    CERN Document Server

    Meadors, Grant David; Riles, Keith; Creighton, Teviet; Robinet, Florent

    2016-01-01

    Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) and X-ray transient (XTE) J1751-305 are Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) that may emit continuous gravitational waves detectable in the band of ground-based interferometric observatories. Neutron stars in LMXBs could reach a torque-balance steady-state equilibrium in which angular momentum addition from infalling matter from the binary companion is balanced by angular momentum loss, conceivably due to gravitational-wave emission. Torque-balance predicts a scale for detectable gravitational-wave strain based on observed X-ray flux. This paper describes a search for Sco X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO Science Run 6 data using the TwoSpect algorithm, based on searching for orbital modulations in the frequency domain. While no detections are claimed, the most stringent upper limits to date on continuous gravitational-wave emission from Sco X-1 are obtained, spanning gravitational wave frequencies from 40 to 2040 Hz and projected semi-major axes from 0.90 to 1.98 light-seconds. At optimal strai...

  16. Probing the stellar wind environment of Vela X-1 with MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Malacaria, C; Santangelo, A; Makishima, K; Matsuoka, M; Morii, M; Sugizaki, M

    2016-01-01

    Vela X-1 is among the best studied and most luminous accreting X-ray pulsars. The supergiant optical companion produces a strong radiatively-driven stellar wind, which is accreted onto the neutron star producing highly variable X-ray emission. A complex phenomenology, due to both gravitational and radiative effects, needs to be taken into account in order to reproduce orbital spectral variations. We have investigated the spectral and light curve properties of the X-ray emission from Vela X-1 along the binary orbit. These studies allow to constrain the stellar wind properties and its perturbations induced by the compact object. We took advantage of the All Sky Monitor MAXI/GSC data to analyze Vela X-1 spectra and light curves. By studying the orbital profiles in the $4-10$ and $10-20$ keV energy bands, we extracted a sample of orbital light curves (${\\sim}15$% of the total) showing a dip around the inferior conjunction, i.e., a double-peaked shape. We analyzed orbital phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra ...

  17. On the Spin of the Black Hole in IC 10 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, James F; Garcia, Javier A; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Laycock, Silas G T; Middleton, Matthew J; Barnard, Robin; Madsen, Kristin K

    2015-01-01

    The compact X-ray source in the eclipsing X-ray binary IC 10 X-1 has reigned for years as ostensibly the most massive stellar-mass black hole, with a mass estimated to be about twice that of its closest rival. However, striking results presented recently by Laycock et al. reveal that the mass estimate, based on emission-line velocities, is unreliable and that the mass of the X-ray source is essentially unconstrained. Using Chandra and NuSTAR data, we rule against a neutron-star model and conclude that IC 10 X-1 contains a black hole. The eclipse duration of IC 10 X-1 is shorter and its depth shallower at higher energies, an effect consistent with the X-ray emission being obscured during eclipse by a Compton-thick core of a dense wind. The spectrum is strongly disk-dominated, which allows us to constrain the spin of the black hole via X-ray continuum fitting. Three other wind-fed black-hole systems are known; the masses and spins of their black holes are high: M ~ 10-15 Msun and a*>0.8. If the mass of IC 10 X-...

  18. Detection of gamma rays of likely jet origin in Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Roberta; de Oña-Wilhelmi, Emma; Aharonian, Felix; Blanch, Oscar; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Galindo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Probe the high-energy ($>$60 MeV) emission from the black hole X-ray binary system, Cygnus X-1, and investigate its origin. Methods: We analysed 7.5 yr of data by Fermi/LAT with the latest PASS8 software version. Results: We report the detection of a signal at $\\sim$8 $\\sigma$ statistical significance spatially coincident with Cygnus X-1 and a luminosity above 60 MeV of 5.5$\\times$10$^{33}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The signal is correlated with the hard X-ray flux: the source is observed at high energies only during the hard X-ray spectral state, when the source is known to display persistent, relativistic radio emitting jets. The energy spectrum, extending up to $\\sim$20 GeV without any sign of spectral break, is well fitted by a power-law function with a photon index of 2.3$\\pm$0.2. There is a hint of orbital flux variability, with high-energy emission mostly coming around the superior conjunction. Conclusions: We detected GeV emission from Cygnus X-1 and probed that the emission is most likely associated with t...

  19. Gamma rays detected from Cygnus X-1 with likely jet origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, R.; Fernández-Barral, A.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Aharonian, F.; Blanch, O.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Galindo, D.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: We probe the high-energy (>60 MeV) emission from the black hole X-ray binary system, Cygnus X-1, and investigate its origin. Methods: We analyzed 7.5 yr of data by Fermi-LAT with the latest Pass 8 software version. Results: We report the detection of a signal at 8σ statistical significance that is spatially coincident with Cygnus X-1 and has a luminosity of 5.5 × 1033 erg s-1, above 60 MeV. The signal is correlated with the hard X-ray flux: the source is observed at high energies only during the hard X-ray spectral state, when the source is known to display persistent, relativistic radio-emitting jets. The energy spectrum, extending up to 20 GeV without any sign of spectral break, is well fit by a power-law function with a photon index of 2.3 ± 0.2. There is a hint of orbital flux variability, with high-energy emission mostly coming around the superior conjunction. Conclusions: We detected GeV emission from Cygnus X-1 and probed that the emission is most likely associated with the relativistic jets. The evidence of flux orbital variability indicates the anisotropic inverse-Compton on stellar photons as the mechanism at work, thus constraining the emission region to a distance 1011-1013 cm from the black hole.

  20. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1: VII. Orbital variability of the focussed wind in Cyg X-1 / HDE 226868 system

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, V; Hell, N; Pottschmidt, K; Böck, M; García, J A; Hanke, M; Nowak, M A; Sundqvist, J O; Townsend, R H D; Wilms, J

    2015-01-01

    Binary systems with an accreting compact object are a unique chance to investigate the strong, clumpy, line-driven winds of early type supergiants by using the compact object's X-rays to probe the wind structure. We analyze the two-component wind of HDE 226868, the O9.7Iab giant companion of the black hole Cyg X-1 using 4.77 Ms of RXTE observations of the system taken over the course of 16 years. Absorption changes strongly over the 5.6 d binary orbit, but also shows a large scatter at a given orbital phase, especially at superior conjunction. The orbital variability is most prominent when the black hole is in the hard X-ray state. Our data are poorer for the intermediate and soft state, but show signs for orbital variability of the absorption column in the intermediate state. We quantitatively compare the data in the hard state to a toy model of a focussed Castor-Abbott-Klein-wind: as it does not incorporate clumping, the model does not describe the observations well. A qualitative comparison to a simplified...

  1. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  2. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CYGNUS X-1 ABOVE 100 MeV IN THE HARD AND SOFT STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatini, S.; Tavani, M.; Del Santo, M.; Campana, R.; Evangelista, Y.; Piano, G.; Del Monte, E.; Giusti, M.; Striani, E. [INAF/IAPS-Roma, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Coppi, P. [Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Pooley, G. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Chen, A.; Giuliani, A. [INAF/IASF-Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bulgarelli, A. [INAF/IASF-Bologna, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Cattaneo, P. W. [INFN-Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Colafrancesco, S. [INAF-OAR, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Longo, F. [Dip. Fisica and INFN Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Morselli, A. [INFN Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Pellizzoni, A. [INAF-OAC, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Pilia, M. [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); and others

    2013-04-01

    We present the results of multi-year gamma-ray observations by the AGILE satellite of the black hole binary system Cygnus X-1. In a previous investigation we focused on gamma-ray observations of Cygnus X-1 in the hard state during the period mid-2007/2009. Here we present the results of the gamma-ray monitoring of Cygnus X-1 during the period 2010/mid-2012 which includes a remarkably prolonged 'soft state' phase (2010 June-2011 May). Previous 1-10 MeV observations of Cyg X-1 in this state hinted at a possible existence of a non-thermal particle component with substantial modifications of the Comptonized emission from the inner accretion disk. Our AGILE data, averaged over the mid-2010/mid-2011 soft state of Cygnus X-1, provide a significant upper limit for gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV of F{sub soft} < 20 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} , excluding the existence of prominent non-thermal emission above 100 MeV during the soft state of Cygnus X-1. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings in the context of high-energy emission models of black hole accretion. We also discuss possible gamma-ray flares detected by AGILE. In addition to a previously reported episode observed by AGILE in 2009 October during the hard state, we report a weak but important candidate for enhanced emission which occurred at the end of 2010 June (2010 June 30 10:00-2010 July 2 10:00 UT) exactly coinciding with a hard-to-soft state transition and before an anomalous radio flare. An appendix summarizes all previous high-energy observations and possible detections of Cygnus X-1 above 1 MeV.

  3. XMM-Newton EPIC observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, T P; Ward, M J; Goad, M R; Jenkins, L P

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of two XMM-Newton observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5204 X-1. The EPIC spectra are well-fit by the standard spectral model of a black-hole X-ray binary, comprising a soft multi-colour disc blackbody component plus a harder power-law continuum. The cool (kT_in ~ 0.2 keV) inner-disc temperature required by this model favours the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) in this system, though we highlight a possible anomaly in the slope of the power-law continuum in such fits. We discuss the interpretation of this and other, non-standard spectral modelling of the data.

  4. Joint XMM-Newton, Chandra, and RXTE Observations of Cyg X-1 at Phase Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, Katja

    2008-01-01

    We present first results of simultaneous observations of the high mass X-ray binary Cyg X-1 for 50 ks with XMM-Newton, Chandra-HETGS and RXTE in 2008 April. The observations are centered on phase 0 of the 5.6 d orbit when pronounced dips in the X-ray emission from the black hole are known to occur. The dips are due to highly variable absorption in the accretion stream from the O-star companion to the black hole. Compared to previous high resolution spectroscopy studies of the dip and non-dip emission with Chandra, the addition of XMM-Newton data allows for a better determination of the continuum, especially through the broad iron line region (with RXTE constraining the greater than 10 keV continuum).

  5. Evolution of the radio - X-ray coupling throughout an entire outburst of Aquila X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Miller-Jones, J C A; Altamirano, D; Tudose, V; Migliari, S; Dhawan, V; Fender, R P; Garrett, M A; Heinz, S; Körding, E G; Krimm, H A; Linares, M; Maitra, D; Markoff, S; Paragi, Z; Remillard, R A; Rupen, M P; Rushton, A; Russell, D M; Sarazin, C L; Spencer, R E

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 November outburst of the neutron star X-ray binary Aquila X-1 was observed with unprecedented radio coverage and simultaneous pointed X-ray observations, tracing the radio emission around the full X-ray hysteresis loop of the outburst for the first time. We use these data to discuss the disc-jet coupling, finding the radio emission to be consistent with being triggered at state transitions, both from the hard to the soft spectral state and vice versa. Our data appear to confirm previous suggestions of radio quenching in the soft state above a threshold X-ray luminosity of about 10% of the Eddington luminosity. We also present the first detections of Aql X-1 with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), showing that any extended emission is relatively diffuse, and consistent with steady jets rather than arising from discrete, compact knots. In all cases where multi-frequency data were available, the source radio spectrum is consistent with being flat or slightly inverted, suggesting that the internal...

  6. A directed search for gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 with initial LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J S; Ashton, G; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barclay, S; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauer, Th S; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Benacquista, M; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, C D; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchman, S; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio,, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, C; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dartez, L; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Dominguez, E; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fuentes-Tapia, S; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C J; Guo, X; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Hee, S; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Islas, G; Isler, J C; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N G; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Le, J; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Magee, R; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; McWilliams, S; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moore, B; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Nardecchia, I; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A H; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; Oram, R; O'Reilly, B; Ortega, W; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Pai, S; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patrick, Z; Pedraza, M; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Post, A; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Reula, O; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sawadsky, A; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Serafinelli, R; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szczepanczyk, M; Szeifert, G; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Tellez, G; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Tshilumba, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C van den; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Xie, S; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, Q; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J

    2014-01-01

    We present results of a search for continuously-emitted gravitational radiation, directed at the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1. Our semi-coherent analysis covers 10 days of LIGO S5 data ranging from 50-550 Hz, and performs an incoherent sum of coherent $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic power distributed amongst frequency-modulated orbital sidebands. All candidates not removed at the veto stage were found to be consistent with noise at a 1% false alarm rate. We present Bayesian 95% confidence upper limits on gravitational-wave strain amplitude using two different prior distributions: a standard one, with no a priori assumptions about the orientation of Scorpius X-1; and an angle-restricted one, using a prior derived from electromagnetic observations. Median strain upper limits of 1.3e-24 and 8e-25 are reported at 150 Hz for the standard and angle-restricted searches respectively. This proof of principle analysis was limited to a short observation time by unknown effects of accretion on the intrinsic spin...

  7. X-RAY PHOTOIONIZED BUBBLE IN THE WIND OF VELA X-1 PULSAR SUPERGIANT COMPANION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krticka, Jiri; Skalicky, Jan [Ustav teoreticke fyziky a astrofyziky, Masarykova univerzita, Kotlarska 2, CZ-611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kubat, Jiri [Astromomicky ustav Akademie ved Ceske republiky, Fricova 298, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-01

    Vela X-1 is the archetype of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), composed of a neutron star and a massive B supergiant. The supergiant is a source of a strong radiatively driven stellar wind. The neutron star sweeps up this wind and creates a huge amount of X-rays as a result of energy release during the process of wind accretion. Here, we provide detailed NLTE models of the Vela X-1 envelope. We study how the X-rays photoionize the wind and destroy the ions responsible for the wind acceleration. The resulting decrease of the radiative force explains the observed reduction of the wind terminal velocity in a direction to the neutron star. The X-rays create a distinct photoionized region around the neutron star filled with a stagnating flow. The existence of such photoionized bubbles is a general property of HMXBs. We unveil a new principle governing these complex objects, according to which there is an upper limit to the X-ray luminosity the compact star can have without suspending the wind due to inefficient line driving.

  8. The Nature and Cause of Spectral Variability in LMC X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlen, L.; Smith, D. M.; Scank, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a long-term observation campaign of the extragalactic wind-accreting black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-1, using the Proportional Counter Array on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observations show that LMC X-1's accretion disk exhibits an anomalous temperature-luminosity relation. We use deep archival RXTE observations to show that large movements across the temperature-luminosity space occupied by the system can take place on time scales as short as half an hour. These changes cannot be adequately explained by perturbations that propagate from the outer disk on a viscous timescale. We propose instead that the apparent disk variations reflect rapid fluctuations within the Compton up-scattering coronal material, which occults the inner parts of the disk. The expected relationship between the observed disk luminosity and apparent disk temperature derived from the variable occultation model is quantitatively shown to be in good agreement with the observations. Two other observations support this picture: an inverse correlation between the flux in the power-law spectral component and the fitted inner disk temperature, and a near-constant total photon flux, suggesting that the inner disk is not ejected when a lower temperature is observed.

  9. X-ray variation statistics and wind clumping in Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Fürst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jörn; Hanke, Manfred; Rothschild, Richard E; Kretschmar, Peter; Schulz, Norbert S; Huenemoerder, David P; Klochkov, Dmitry; Staubert, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the wind in the neutron star X-ray binary system Vela X-1 by analyzing its flaring behavior. Vela X-1 shows constant flaring, with some flares reaching fluxes of more than 3.0 Crab between 20-60 keV for several 100 seconds, while the average flux is around 250 mCrab. We analyzed all archival INTEGRAL data, calculating the brightness distribution in the 20-60 keV band, which, as we show, closely follows a log-normal distribution. Orbital resolved analysis shows that the structure is strongly variable, explainable by shocks and a fluctuating accretion wake. Analysis of RXTE ASM data suggests a strong orbital change of N_H. Accreted clump masses derived from the INTEGRAL data are on the order of 5 x 10^19 -10^21 g. We show that the lightcurve can be described with a model of multiplicative random numbers. In the course of the simulation we calculate the power spectral density of the system in the 20-100 keV energy band and show that it follows a red-noise power law. We suggest tha...

  10. The broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 measured by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, M C; Goldwurm, A; Rodríguez, J; Laurent, P; Zdziarski, A A; Foschini, L; Goldoni, P; Gouiffes, C; Malzac, J; Jourdain, E; Roques, J P

    2005-01-01

    The INTEGRAL satellite extensively observed the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 from 2002 November to 2004 November during calibration, open time and core program (Galactic Plane Scan) observations. These data provide evidence for significant spectral variations over the period. In the framework of the accreting black hole phenomenology, the source was most of the time in the Hard State and occasionally switched to the so-called "Intermediate State". Using the results of the analysis performed on these data, we present and compare the spectral properties of the source over the whole energy range (5 keV - 1 MeV) covered by the high-energy instruments on board INTEGRAL, in both observed spectral states. Fe line and reflection component evolution occurs with spectral changes in the hard and soft components. The observed behaviour of Cygnus X-1 is consistent with the general picture of galactic black holes. Our results give clues to the physical changes that took place in the system (disc and corona) at almost const...

  11. The smooth cyclotron line in Her X-1 as seen with NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Fuerst, Felix; Staubert, Ruediger; Tomsick, John A; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Bellm, Eric C; Boggs, Steven E; Chenevez, Jerome; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona; Klochkov, Dmitry; Madsen, Kristin K; Pottschmidt, Katja; Stern, Daniel; Walton, Dominic J; Wilms, Joern; Zhang, William

    2013-01-01

    Her X-1, one of the brightest and best studied X-ray binaries, shows a cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) near 37 keV. This makes it an ideal target for detailed study with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), taking advantage of its excellent hard X-ray spectral resolution. We observed Her X-1 three times, coordinated with Suzaku, during one of the high flux intervals of its 35d super-orbital period. This paper focuses on the shape and evolution of the hard X-ray spectrum. The broad-band spectra can be fitted with a powerlaw with a high-energy cutoff, an iron line, and a CRSF. We find that the CRSF has a very smooth and symmetric shape, in all observations and at all pulse-phases. We compare the residuals of a line with a Gaussian optical depth profile to a Lorentzian optical depth profile and find no significant differences, strongly constraining the very smooth shape of the line. Even though the line energy changes dramatically with pulse phase, we find that its smooth shape does n...

  12. Detection of Strong Short-Term Variability in NGC 6946 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Fengyun; Kaaret, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Using two archival XMM-Newton observations, we identify strong X-ray flux variations in NGC 6946 X-1 indicating it is the most variable ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) on mHz time scales known so far. The 1-10 keV lightcurve exhibits variability with a fractional rms amplitude of 60% integrated in the frequency range of 1-100 mHz. The power spectral density of the source shows a flat-topped spectrum that breaks at about 3 mHz with possible quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) near 8.5 mHz. Black hole binaries usually produce strong fast variability in the hard or intermediate state. The energy spectrum of NGC 6946 X-1 is dominated by two components, a 0.18~keV thermal disk and a power law with a photon index of ~2.2, which is consistent with the intermediate state. The characteristic time scales of the X-ray emission suggests that the ULX may contain a black hole with a mass on the order of 10^3.

  13. Revealing the Focused Companion Wind in Cygnus X-1 with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Schulz, N S; Marshall, H L; Fabian, A C; Remillard, R A; Wijnands, R; Lewin, W H G

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed a Chandra HETGS spectrum of the Galactic black hole Cygnus X-1, obtained at a source flux which is approximately twice that commonly observed in its persistent low-intensity, spectrally-hard state. We find a myriad of absorption lines in the spectrum, including Ly-alpha lines and helium-like resonance lines from Ne, Na, Mg, and Si. We calculate a flux-weighted mean red-shift of ~100 km/s and a flux-weighted mean velocity width of 800 km/s (FWHM) for lines from these elements. We also detect a number of transitions from Fe XVIII-XXIV and Ni XIX-XX in absorption; however, the identification of these lines is less certain and a greater range of shifts and breadth is measured. Our observation occurred at a binary phase of phi = 0.76; the lines observed are consistent with absorption in an ionized region of the supergiant O9.7 Iab companion wind. The spectrum is extremely complicated in that a range of temperatures and densities are implied. Prior Chandra HETGS spectra of Cygnus X-1 were obtained ...

  14. Directed search for gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 with initial LIGO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauer, Th. S.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Canton, T. Dal; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.

    2015-03-01

    We present results of a search for continuously emitted gravitational radiation, directed at the brightest low-mass x-ray binary, Scorpius X-1. Our semicoherent analysis covers 10 days of LIGO S5 data ranging from 50-550 Hz, and performs an incoherent sum of coherent F -statistic power distributed amongst frequency-modulated orbital sidebands. All candidates not removed at the veto stage were found to be consistent with noise at a 1% false alarm rate. We present Bayesian 95% confidence upper limits on gravitational-wave strain amplitude using two different prior distributions: a standard one, with no a priori assumptions about the orientation of Scorpius X-1; and an angle-restricted one, using a prior derived from electromagnetic observations. Median strain upper limits of 1.3 ×10-24 and 8 ×10-25 are reported at 150 Hz for the standard and angle-restricted searches respectively. This proof-of-principle analysis was limited to a short observation time by unknown effects of accretion on the intrinsic spin frequency of the neutron star, but improves upon previous upper limits by factors of ˜1.4 for the standard, and 2.3 for the angle-restricted search at the sensitive region of the detector.

  15. XMM-Newton observations of CYGNUS X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Miller, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Observations of Cygnus X-1 were first attempted under this program in the spring of 2004, but were complicated by instrumental flaring problems. Successful observations were completed in the fall of 2004, and processed data were delivered to the PI in the winter and spring of 2005. Thus, focused work on this data was only possible starting in 2005. A preliminary reduction and analysis of data from the EPIC CCD cameras and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer has been made. The EPIC spectra reveal the best example of a broadened, relativistic iron emission line yet found in Cygnus X-1. The Oxygen K-shell region has been shown to be a very complex wavelength range in numerous spectra of accreting sources, but the RGS spectra reveal this region in great detail and will be important in understanding the wind from the 0-type donor star that is focused onto the black hole in Cygnus X-1.

  16. A Study on the Correlations between the Twin kHz QPO Frequencies in Sco X-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xing Yin; Cheng-Min Zhang; Yong-Heng Zhao; Li-Ming Song; Fan Zhang

    2005-01-01

    For the bright neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1, we analyzed all updated frequencies of the twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs), their correlations and distributions. We found that the frequency separation of the kHz QPO peaks appears not to be a constant, rather, it decreases with increasing inferred mass accretion rate. We show that the currently available data of Sco X-1 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer are inconsistent with the proposals of the beat model that the frequency separation is a constant. Our conclusions are consistent with those of some previous researchers and we discuss further implications for the kilohertz QPO models.

  17. HST observations rule out the association between Cir X-1 and SNR G321.9-0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Caraveo, P A; Mirabel, I F

    2002-01-01

    Cir X-1 is one of the most intriguing galactic X-ray sources. It is a ~16.6 days variable X/radio source, a type-I X-ray burster and a QPO emitter. In spite of an uncertain optical counterpart classification, all these properties identify the source as an LMXB. The morphology of the surrounding radio nebula has suggested an association with the nearby (~25 arcmin) SNR G321.9-0.3, implying that Cir X-1 is a runaway binary originated from the supernova explosion 10^5 years ago. To investigate this hypothesis, we carried out a proper motion measurement of the Cir X-1 m ~19 optical counterpart using a set of HST/WFC and WFPC2 observations taken ~8.6 years apart. We obtained a 3 sigma upper limit of ~5 mas/yr on the source proper motion. Since the runaway hypothesis would have implied a proper motion due North ranging between 15 and 75 mas/yr, depending on the actual age of the SNR, our result definitively rules out the association between Cir X-1 and SNR G321.9-0.3.

  18. Searches for continuous gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO's sixth science run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadors, G. D.; Goetz, E.; Riles, K.; Creighton, T.; Robinet, F.

    2017-02-01

    Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) and x-ray transient XTE J1751-305 are low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) that may emit continuous gravitational waves detectable in the band of ground-based interferometric observatories. Neutron stars in LMXBs could reach a torque-balance steady-state equilibrium in which angular momentum addition from infalling matter from the binary companion is balanced by angular momentum loss, conceivably due to gravitational-wave emission. Torque balance predicts a scale for detectable gravitational-wave strain based on observed x-ray flux. This paper describes a search for Sco X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO science run 6 data using the TwoSpect algorithm, based on searching for orbital modulations in the frequency domain. While no detections are claimed, upper limits on continuous gravitational-wave emission from Sco X-1 are obtained, spanning gravitational-wave frequencies from 40 to 2040 Hz and projected semimajor axes from 0.90 to 1.98 light-seconds. These upper limits are injection validated, equal any previous set in initial LIGO data, and extend over a broader parameter range. At optimal strain sensitivity, achieved at 165 Hz, the 95% confidence level random-polarization upper limit on dimensionless strain h0 is approximately 1.8 ×10-24. The closest approach to the torque-balance limit, within a factor of 27, is also at 165 Hz. Upper limits are set in particular narrow frequency bands of interest for J1751-305. These are the first upper limits known to date on r -mode emission from this XTE source. The TwoSpect method will be used in upcoming searches of Advanced LIGO and Virgo data.

  19. Optical confirmation of the outburst of Aql X-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, M.A.P.; Jonker, P.G.; Bassa, C.; Nelemans, G.

    2007-01-01

    We observed the optical counterpart to the recurrent X-ray transient Aql X-1 on 2007 Sep 11 to Sep 14 UT using the IMACS camera mounted on the 6.5m Magellan Baade telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Single 5-10s R-band images were acquired each night with a seeing of 0.8-1.4 arcsec.

  20. P2X1 receptors and the endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Harrington

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP is now established as a principle vaso-active mediator in the vasculature. Its actions on arteries are complex, and are mediated by the P2X and P2Y receptor families. It is generally accepted that ATP induces a bi-phasic response in arteries, inducing contraction via the P2X and P2Y receptors on the smooth muscle cells, and vasodilation via the actions of P2Y receptors located on the endothelium. However, a number of recent studies have placed P2X1 receptors on the endothelium of some arteries. The use of a specific P2X1 receptor ligand, a, b methylene ATP has demonstrated that P2X1 receptors also have a bi-functional role. The actions of ATP on P2X1 receptors is therefore dependant on its location, inducing contraction when located on the smooth muscle cells, and dilation when expressed on the endothelium, comparable to that of P2Y receptors.

  1. INTEGRAL-RXTE observations of Cygnus X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.; Chernyakova, M.;

    2003-01-01

    We present first results from contemporaneous observations of Cygnus X-1 with INTEGRAL and RXTE, made during INTEGRAL's performance verification phase in 2002 November and December. Consistent with earlier results, the 3-250 keV data are well described by Comptonization spectra from a Compton...

  2. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  3. Scorpius X-1: The Evolution and Nature of the Twin Compact Radio Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomalont, E. B.; Geldzahler, B. J.; Bradshaw, C. F.

    2001-09-01

    The motion and variability of the radio components in the low-mass X-ray binary system Sco X-1 have been monitored with extensive VLBI imaging at 1.7 and 5.0 GHz over 4 yr, including a 56 hr continuous VLBI observation in 1999 June. We detect one strong and one weak compact radio component, moving in opposite directions from the radio core. Their relative motion and flux densities are consistent with relativistic effects, from which we derive an average component speed of v/c=0.45+/-0.03 at an angle of 44deg+/-6deg to the line of sight. This inclination of the binary orbit suggests a mass of the secondary star that is less than 0.9 Msolar, assuming a neutron star mass of 1.4 Msolar. We suggest that the two moving radio components consist of ultrarelativistic plasma that is produced at a working surface where the energy in dual-opposing beams disrupt. The radio lobe advance velocity is constant over many hours, but differs among lobe-pairs: 0.32c, 0.46c, 0.48c, and 0.57c. A lobe-pair lifetime is less than 2 days, with a new pair formed near the core within a day. The lobe flux has flux density that is variable over a timescale of 1 hr, has a measured minimum size of 1 mas (4×108 km), and is extended perpendicular to its motion. This timescale and size are consistent with an electron radiative lifetime of less than 1 hr. Such a short lifetime can be caused by synchrotron losses if the lobe magnetic field is 300 G or by adiabatic expansion of the electrons as soon as they are produced at the working surface. The lobes also show periods of slow expansion and a steepening radio spectrum. Two of the core flares are correlated with the lobe flares under the assumption that the flares are produced by an energy burst traveling down the beams with a speed greater than 0.95. The radio morphology for Sco X-1 differs from most other Galactic jet sources. Possible reasons for the morphology difference are that Sco X-1 is associated with a neutron star, it is a persistent X

  4. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  5. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of SILICON(100) 2 X 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, Jerome S.

    1992-01-01

    The Si(100) 2 x 1 surface, a technologically important surface in microelectronics and silicon molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), has been studied with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to attempt to clear up the controversy that surrounds previous studies of this surface. To this end, an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) STM/surface science system has been designed and constructed to study semiconductor surfaces. Clean Si(100) 2 x 1 surfaces have been prepared and imaged with the STM. Atomic resolution images probing both the filled states and empty states indicate that the surface consists of statically buckled dimer rows. With electronic device dimensions shrinking to smaller and smaller sizes, the Si-SiO_2 interface is becoming increasingly important and, although it is the most popular interface used in the microelectronics industry, little is known about the initial stages of oxidation of the Si(100) surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy has been employed to examine Si(100) 2 x 1 surfaces exposed to molecular oxygen in UHV. Ordered rows of bright and dark spots, rotated 45^circ from the silicon dimer rows, appear in the STM images, suggesting that the Si(100)-SiO_2 interface may be explained with a beta -cristobalite(100) structure rotated by 45^ circ on the Si(100) surface.

  6. The reflection component from Cygnus X-1 in the soft state measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Nowak, Michael A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Parker, Michael; Fabian, Andy C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Miller, Jon M.; King, Ashley L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A.; Forster, Karl; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ross, Randy R., E-mail: jtomsick@ssl.berkeley.edu [Physics Department, College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA 01610 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late 2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ∼1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power law, and reflection components along with absorption from highly ionized material in the system. The high throughput of NuSTAR allows for a very high quality measurement of the complex iron line region as well as the rest of the reflection component. The iron line is clearly broadened and is well described by a relativistic blurring model, providing an opportunity to constrain the black hole spin. Although the spin constraint depends somewhat on which continuum model is used, we obtain a {sub *} > 0.83 for all models that provide a good description of the spectrum. However, none of our spectral fits give a disk inclination that is consistent with the most recently reported binary values for Cyg X-1. This may indicate that there is a >13° misalignment between the orbital plane and the inner accretion disk (i.e., a warped accretion disk) or that there is missing physics in the spectral models.

  7. Energy-dependent evolution in IC10 X-1: hard evidence for an extended corona, and implications

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Prestwich, A F; Stevens, I R; Clark, J S; Kolb, U C

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed a ~130 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dynamically confirmed black hole + Wolf-Rayet (BH+WR) X-ray binary (XB) IC10 X-1, covering ~1 orbital cycle. This system experiences periodic intensity dips every ~35 hours. We find that energy-independent evolution is rejected at a >5 sigma level. The spectral and timing evolution of IC10 X-1 are best explained by a compact disk blackbody and an extended Comptonized component, where the thermal component is completely absorbed and the Comptonized component is partially covered during the dip. We consider three possibilities for the absorber: cold material in the outer accretion disk, as is well documented for Galactic neutron star (NS) XBs at high inclination; a stream of stellar wind that is enhanced by traveling through the L1 point; and a spherical wind. We estimated the corona radius (r_ADC) for IC10 X-1 from the dip ingress to be ~1 E+6 km, assuming absorption from the outer disk, and found it to be consistent with the relation between r_m ADC and...

  8. Comprehensive spectral analysis of Cyg X-1 using RXTE data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rizwan Shahid; Ranjeev Misra; S.N.A.Jaaffrey

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a large number (> 500) of pointed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of Cyg X- 1 and model the spectrum of each one.A subset of the observations for which there is a simultaneous reliable measure of the hardness ratio by the All Sky Monitor shows that the sample covers nearly all the spectral shapes of Cyg X-1.Each observation is fitted with a generic empirical model consisting of a disk black body spectrum,a Comptonized component whose input photon shape is the same as the disk emission,a Gaussian to represent the iron line and a reflection feature.The relative strength,width of the iron line and the reflection parameter are in general correlated with the high energy photon spectral index Γ.This is broadly consistent with a geometry where for the hard state (low Γ ~ 1.7) there is a hot inner Comptonizing region surrounded by a truncated cold disk.The inner edge of the disk moves inwards as the source becomes softer till finally in the soft state (high Γ > 2.2) the disk fills the inner region and active regions above the disk produce the Comptonized component.However,the reflection parameter shows non-monotonic behavior near the transition region (Γ ~ 2),which suggests a more complex geometry or physical state of the reflector.In addition,the inner disk temperature,during the hard state,is on average higher than in the soft one,albeit with large scatter.These inconsistencies could be due to limitations in the data and the empirical model used to fit them.The flux of each spectral component is well correlated with Γ,which shows that unlike some other black hole systems,Cyg X- 1 does not show any hysteresis behavior.In the soft state,the flux of the Comptonized component is always similar to the disk one,which confirms that the ultra-soft state (seen in other brighter black hole systems) is not exhibited by Cyg X- 1.The rapid variation of the Compton amplification factor with Γ naturally explains the absence of spectra with Γ

  9. Gene therapy outpaces haplo for SCID-X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Donald B

    2015-06-04

    In this issue of Blood, Touzot et al report that autologous gene therapy/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for infants with X-linked severe combined immune deficiency (SCID-X1) lacking a matched sibling donor may have better outcomes than haploidentical (haplo) HSCT. Because gene therapy represents an autologous transplant, it obviates immune suppression before and after transplant, eliminates risks of graft versus host disease (GVHD), and, as the authors report, led to faster immunological reconstitution after transplant than did haplo transplant.

  10. X-1E Loaded in B-29 Mothership on Ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E airplane being loaded under the mothership, Boeing B-29. The X-planes had originally been lowered into a loading pit and the launch aircraft towed over the pit, where the rocket plane was hoisted by belly straps into the bomb bay. By the early 1950s a hydraulic lift had been installed on the ramp at the NACA High-Speed Flight Station to elevate the launch aircraft and then lower it over the rocket plane for mating.

  11. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  12. Classification and Spectral Evolution of Outbursts of Aql X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, Can; Ekşi, K Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    We present a broad classification of all outbursts detected with the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Monitor of All Sky X-Ray Image (MAXI) of Aql X-1. We identify three types of outbursts; long-high, medium-low, and short-low, based on the duration and maximum flux. We analyse the trends in the "phase-space" of flux-derivative versus flux to demonstrate the differences in the three identified outburst types. We present a spectral analysis of the observations of Aql X-1 performed by the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard RXTE during the 2000 and 2011 outbursts of the long-high class and the 2010 outburst of the medium-low class. We model the source spectrum with a hybrid thermal/non-thermal hot plasma emission model (EQPAIR in XSPEC, Coppi 2000) together with a Gaussian component to model the Fe K_alpha emission line. We construct time histories of the source flux, the optical depth of the corona (tau), the seed photon temperature (kT_bb) and the hard state compact...

  13. Hard X-ray emission of Sco X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Revnivtsev, Mikhail G; Churazov, Eugene M; Krivonos, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    We study hard X-ray emission of the brightest accreting neutron star Sco X-1 with INTEGRAL observatory. Up to now INTEGRAL have collected ~4 Msec of deadtime corrected exposure on this source. We show that hard X-ray tail in time average spectrum of Sco X-1 has a power law shape without cutoff up to energies ~200-300 keV. An absence of the high energy cutoff does not agree with the predictions of a model, in which the tail is formed as a result of Comptonization of soft seed photons on bulk motion of matter near the compact object. The amplitude of the tail varies with time with factor more than ten with the faintest tail at the top of the so-called flaring branch of its color-color diagram. We show that the minimal amplitude of the power law tail is recorded when the component, corresponding to the innermost part of optically thick accretion disk, disappears from the emission spectrum. Therefore we show that the presence of the hard X-ray tail may be related with the existence of the inner part of the optica...

  14. The Broadband Spectral Variability of Holmberg IX X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Harrison, F A; Middleton, M J; Fabian, A C; Bachetti, M; Barret, D; Miller, J M; Ptak, A; Rana, V; Stern, D; Tao, L

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from four new broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 ($L_{\\rm{X}} > 10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$), performed by the $Suzaku$ and $NuSTAR$ observatories in coordination. Combined with the two prior observations coordinating $XMM$-$Newton$, $Suzaku$ and $NuSTAR$, we now have broadband observations of this remarkable source from six separate epochs. Two of these new observations probe lower fluxes than seen previously, allowing us to extend our knowledge of the broadband spectral variability exhibited by Holmberg IX X-1. The broadband spectra are well fit by two thermal blackbody components, which dominate the emission below 10 keV, as well as a steep ($\\Gamma \\sim 3.5$) powerlaw tail which dominates above $\\sim$15 keV. Remarkably, while the 0.3-10.0 keV flux varies by a factor of $\\sim$3 between all these epochs, the 15-40 keV flux varies by only $\\sim$20%. Although the spectral variability is strongest in the $\\sim$1-10 keV band, the broadband var...

  15. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  16. Associated Spectral and Temporal State Transition of the bright ULX NGC1313 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Dewangan, G C; Rao, A R; Griffiths, R E

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) Stellar mass black hole X-ray binaries exhibit X-ray spectral states which also have distinct and characteristic temporal properties. These states are believed to correspond to different accretion disk geometries. We present analysis of two long XMM-Newton observations of the Ultra-Luminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 1313 X-1, which reveal that the system was in two different spectral/temporal states. With a count rate of 1.5 counts/s and a fractional variability amplitude of ~15%, the ULX was in a high flux and strongly variable state in March 2006. In October 2006, the count rate of the ULX had reduced by a factor of ~2 and the spectral shape was distinctly different with the presence of a soft component. No strong variability was detected during this low flux state with an upper limit on the amplitude < 3%. Moreover, the spectral properties of the two states implies that the accretion disk geometry was different for them. The low flux state is consistent with a model where a standard accretion di...

  17. Sco X-1 The Evolution and Nature of the Twin Compact Radio Lobes

    CERN Document Server

    Fomalont, E B; Bradshaw, C F

    2001-01-01

    The radio components associated with the LMXB Sco X-1 have been monitored with extensive VLBI imaging at 1.7 and 5.0 GHz over four years, including a 56-hour continuous VLBI observation in 1999 June. We often detected one strong and one weak compact radio component, moving in opposite directions from the radio core. We suggest that the moving components are radio lobes generated by the disruption of energy flow in a twin-beam from the binary system. The average lifetime of a lobe-pair, the space motion of the lobes and the measured energy flow in the beam are discussed in Astro-ph/0104325. The lobe has a flux density that is variable over a time-scale of one hour, a measured minimum size of 1 mas (2.8 au), and is extended perpendicular to its motion. This short electron radiative lifetime may be caused by synchrotron losses if the lobe magnetic field is 300 G, or by adiabatic expansion of the electrons as soon as they are produced at the working surface. The lobes also show periods of slow expansion and a ste...

  18. Photoionized Lines in the X-ray Spectra of SMC X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Vrtilek, S D; Boroson, B S; McCray, R

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of Chandra/ACIS-S CC mode observations of the massive X-ray binary system SMC X-1. The system was observed during both the high and low X-ray states of the roughly 60-day superorbital period. The continuum spectra during both states are well represented by a power law with photon index $\\alpha$=0.9 and a blackbody of kT = 0.15keV. The high state spectra are dominated by the continuum and independent of orbital phase whereas the low state spectra show a strong orbital dependence as well as line emission from O, Ne, Mg, Fe, and Si. This is consistent with the states attributed to disk precession: during the high state X-ray emission is dominated by the compact source which is abrubtly eclipsed and during the low state the compact object is hidden by the disk and a larger, less luminous scattering region is responsible for the X-ray emission. A prominent Ne IX feature places a stringent limit (Log $\\xi$ = 2.0-2.5) on the ionization parameter which constrains the wind dynam...

  19. Spectroscopy of the Stellar Wind in the Cygnus X-1 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Miškovičová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray luminosity of black holes is produced through the accretion of material from their companion stars. Depending on the mass of the donor star, accretion of the material falling onto the black hole through the inner Lagrange point of the system or accretion by the strong stellar wind can occur. Cygnus X-1 is a high mass X-ray binary system, where the black hole is powered by accretion of the stellar wind of its supergiant companion star HDE226868. As the companion is close to filling its Roche lobe, the wind is not symmetric, but strongly focused towards the black hole. Chandra-HETGS observations allow for an investigation of this focused stellar wind, which is essential to understand the physics of the accretion flow. We compare observations at the distinct orbital phases of 0.0, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.75. These correspond to different lines of sight towards the source, allowing us to probe the structure and the dynamics of the wind.

  20. Anisotropy of partially self-absorbed jets and the jet of Cyg X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Rao, A R

    2016-01-01

    We study the angular dependence of the flux from partially synchrotron self-absorbed conical jets (proposed by Blandford & Koenigl. We consider the jet viewed (in the comoving frame) from either a side or close to on axis, and in the latter case, either from the jet top or bottom. We derive analytical formulae for the flux in each of these cases. We find that the maximum of the emission occurs when the jet is viewed from top on-axis, which is contrast to a previous result, which found the maximum at some intermediate angle and null emission on-axis. We then calculate the ratio of the jet-to-counterjet emission for this model, which depends on the viewing angle and the index of power-law electrons. We apply our results to the black-hole binary Cyg X-1. Given the jet-to-counterjet flux ratio of >50 found observationally and the current estimates of the inclination, we find the jet Lorentz factor of Gamma>1.6. We also point out that when the projection effect is taken into account, the radio observations imp...

  1. An unusually bright and long outburst of Cygnus X-1 observed with INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Malzac, J; Zdziarski, A A; Bel, M Cadolle; Türler, M; Laurent, P

    2008-01-01

    We present INTEGRAL light curves and spectra of the black-hole binary Cyg X-1 during a bright event that occured in 2006 September, and which was simultaneous with a detection at 0.1-1 TeV energies by the MAGIC telescope. We analyse the hard X-ray emission from 18 to 700 keV with the INTEGRAL data taken on 2006 September 24-26 by the IBIS and SPI instruments. These data are complemented with RXTE All Sky Monitor data at lower energy. We present the light curves and fit the high energy spectrum with various spectral models. Despite variations in the flux by a factor of 2 in the the 20-700 keV energy band, the shape of the energy spectrum remained remarkably stable. It is very well represented by an e-folded power law with the photon index 1.4 and a high energy cut-off at 130-140 keV. The spectrum is also well described by thermal Comptonisation including a moderate reflection component, with a reflection amplitude R around 0.4. The temperature of the hot Comptonising electrons is about 70 keV and their Thomson...

  2. The WA105-3x1x1 m3 dual phase LAr-TPC demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    The dual phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) is the state-of-art technology for neutrino detection thanks to its superb 3D tracking and calorimetry performance. Its main feature is the charge amplification in gas argon which provides excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Electrons produced in the liquid argon are extracted in the gas phase. Here, a readout plane based on Large Electron Multiplier detectors provides amplification of the charges before its collection onto an anode with strip readout. The charge amplification enables constructing fully homoge- nous giant LAr-TPCs with tuneable gain, excellent charge imaging performance and increased sensitivity to low energy events. Following a staged approach the WA105 collaboration is con- structing a dual phase LAr-TPC with an active volume of 3x1x1m3 that will soon be tested with cosmic rays. Its construction and operation aims to test scalable solutions for the crucial aspects of this technology: ultra high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, la...

  3. The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    Remarkably, an astronomical black hole is completely described by the two numbers that specify its mass and its spin. Knowledge of spin is crucial for understanding how, for example, black holes produce relativistic jets. Recently, it has become possible to measure the spins of black holes by focusing on the very inner region of an accreting disk of hot gas orbiting the black hole. According to General Relativity (GR), this disk is truncated at an inner radius 1 that depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. We measure the radius of the inner edge of this disk by fitting its continuum X-ray spectrum to a fully relativistic model. Using our measurement of this radius, we deduce that the spin of Cygnus X-1 exceeds 97% of the maximum value allowed by GR.

  4. INTEGRAL-RXTE observations of Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Pottschmidt, K; Chernyakova, M A; Nowak, M A; Rodríguez, J; Zdziarski, A A; Beckmann, V; Kretschmar, P; Gleissner, T; Pooley, G G; Martínez-Núñez, S; Courvoisier, Thierry J L; Schönfelder, V; Staubert, R

    2003-01-01

    We present first results from contemporaneous observations of Cygnus X-1 with INTEGRAL and RXTE, made during INTEGRAL's performance verification phase in 2002 November and December. Consistent with earlier results, the 3-250 keV data are well described by Comptonization spectra from a Compton corona with a temperature of kT~50-90 keV and an optical depth of tau~1.0-1.3 plus reflection from a cold or mildly ionized slab with a covering factor of Omega/2pi~0.2-0.3. A soft excess below 10 keV, interpreted as emission from the accretion disk, is seen to decrease during the 1.5 months spanned by our observations. Our results indicate a remarkable consistency among the independently calibrated detectors, with the remaining issues being mainly related to the flux calibration of INTEGRAL.

  5. The Wind and Warp of SMC X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canizares, Claude

    2011-09-01

    We propose multiple HETG observations of the X-ray pulsar, SMC X-1. We will search for spectral signatures associated with radiatively driven winds, which may be responsible for driving a precessing warp, and hence the long term variability. We will study the X-ray heating of the accretion disk atmosphere. We expect the observations to be carried out over several different orbital and super-orbital phases, allowing us to search for spectral differences among these phases. These observations will be enhanced by our contemporaneous Suzaku observation, which will have one CCD run in timing mode to study the pulsar pulse profile. This will be the first, high resolution spectroscopic observations of this important system that will extend beyond 2 keV.

  6. Variation of the pulse profile of Hercules X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, T.; Inoue, H.; Kawai, N.; Koyama, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Mitani, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Nagase, F.; Nakagawa, M.; Kondo, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The X-ray pulsar Her X-1 was observed in an on-state during its 35th cycle of activity in May, 1983 using the gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC) array of the Tenma X-ray astronomy satellite. The outstanding features observed during the declining phase of the on-state included: a sharp decrease in the main X-ray pulse amplitude; and a steady increase in the column density of cool matter. On the basis of the spectral shape of the pulses, it is suggested that the main phase was attenuated due to electron scattering of the X-ray beam in a highly ionized medium located 3 x 10 to the 8th cm from the neutron star. Near the end of the on-state, the main pulse totally disappeared and a plain sinusoidal profile was observed. The observed pulse profiles are reproduced in graphic form.

  7. Timing in the Time Domain: Cygnus X-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Quantities characterizing temporal property, e.g., power density, co-herence, and time lag, can be defined and calculated directly in the time domain without using the Fourier transformation. Spectral hardness, variability duration,and correlation between different characteristic quantities on different time scale can be studied in the time domain as well. The temporal analysis technique in the time domain is a powerful tool, particularly in studying rapid variability on short time scales (or in high frequencies). Results of studying variabilities of X-rays from Cyg X-1 with the analysis technique in the time domain and RXTE data reveal valu-able clues to understanding production and propagation processes of X-rays and structure of accretion disk in the black hole system.

  8. Measuring A Truncated Disk in Aquila X-1

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ashley L; Miller, Jon M; Chenevez, Jerome; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Furst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Parker, Michael L; Stern, Daniel; Romano, Patrizia; Walton, Dominic J; Zhang, William W

    2016-01-01

    We present NuSTAR and Swift observations of the neutron star Aquila X-1 during the peak of its July 2014 outburst. The spectrum is soft with strong evidence for a broad Fe K\\alpha line. Modeled with a relativistically broadened reflection model, we find that the inner disk is truncated with an inner radius of 15+/-3 R_G. The disk is likely truncated by either the boundary layer and/or a magnetic field. Associating the truncated inner disk with pressure from a magnetic field gives an upper limit of B<5+/-2x10^8G. Although the radius is truncated far from the stellar surface, material is still reaching the neutron star surface as evidenced by the X-ray burst present in the t NuSTAR observation.

  9. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1 Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, J. B.; Wilms, Joern; Nowak, M. A.; Vaughan, B. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200 keV, using data from a 10 ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Although the spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law (photon index Gamma = 1.45+0.01 -0.02 , e-folding energy e(sub f) = 162+9 -8 keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody, with temperature kT(sub BB) = 1.2 +0.0 -0.1 keV), the inclusion of a reflection component does not improve the fit. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona (ADC) models. A slab-geometry ADC model is unable to describe the data. However, a spherical corona, with a total optical depth tau- = 1.6 + or - 0.1 and an average temperature kTc = 87 + or - 5 keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (X red (exp 2) = 1.55). These models deviate from the data bv up to 7% in the 5-10 keV range. However, considering how successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10-200 keV data, such "photon-starved" coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  10. The 2-79 keV X-ray Spectrum of the Circinus Galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Chandra: a Fully Compton-Thick AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Arévalo, P; Puccetti, S; Walton, D J; Koss, M; Boggs, S E; Brandt, W N; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Fuerst, F; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Luo, B; Madejski, G; Madsen, K K; Marinucci, A; Matt, G; Saez, C; Stern, D; Stuhlinger, M; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the nearest obscured AGN, making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical parameters for the obscuring material. Chandra's high angular resolution allows a separation of nuclear and off-nuclear galactic emission. In the off-nuclear diffuse emission we find signatures of strong cold reflection, including high equivalent-width neutral Fe lines. This Compton-scattered off-nuclear emission amounts to 18% of the nuclear flux in the Fe line region, but becomes comparable to the nuclear emission above 30 keV. The new analysis no longer supports a prominent transmitted AGN component in the observed band. We find that the nuclear spectrum is consistent with Compton-scattering by an optically-thick torus, where the intrinsic spectrum is a powerlaw of photon index $\\Gamma = 2.2-2.4$, the torus has an equatorial column density...

  11. The quasi-periodic oscillations and very low frequency noise of Scorpius X-1 as transient chaos - A dripping handrail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas; Young, Karl; Donoho, David L.; Crutchfield, James P.; Imamura, James

    1993-01-01

    We present evidence that the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and very low frequency noise (VLFN) characteristic of many accretion sources are different aspects of the same physical process. We analyzed a long, high time resolution EXOSAT observation of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Sco X-1. The X-ray luminosity varies stochastically on time scales from milliseconds to hours. The nature of this variability - as quantified with both power spectrum analysis and a new wavelet technique, the scalegram - agrees well with the dripping handrail accretion model, a simple dynamical system which exhibits transient chaos. In this model both the QPO and VLFN are produced by radiation from blobs with a wide size distribution, resulting from accretion and subsequent diffusion of hot gas, the density of which is limited by an unspecified instability to lie below a threshold.

  12. Multicolor electrophotometry of the peculiar object V1357 Cyg=Cyg X-1 in the period 1986 -- 1992

    CERN Document Server

    Sazonov, A N

    2013-01-01

    \\rm Observations of close binary system (CBS) V1357 Cyg=Cyg X-1 in the $WBVR$ bands are reported. Photometry was carried out at the telescopes located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Crimea equipped with single-channel $WBVR$-photometer with photon counting. 1358 individual observations in $WBVR$ bands on 202 nights were obtained. The analysis of the photometric data allows to conclude that different photometric effects are superimposed on the orbital light curve of the system. Among them are brightness declines, outbursts with different duration and amplitude, chaotic variability, which sometimes exceeded the ellipsoidal variability. Strong brightness decreases with magnitude $0^m.035 - 0^m.045$ are observed, they are equal to the contribution of accretion disc to the total luminosity of the system. 10 years of photometric monitoring allowed to detect continous brightening of the system, followed by luminosity decline (slow outburst). After the maximum in 1994-96 the decline was equal to 7% in the $W$ band, 4%...

  13. Searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources and Scorpius X-1: Results from the second LIGO science run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, B.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, . P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Csatorday, P.; Cumming, A.; Cutler, C.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Delker, T.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Ding, H.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W. R.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissell, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logan, J.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Numata, K.; Nutzman, P.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswariah, C.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robison, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Sazonov, A.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strand, N. E.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takahashi, H.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tinto, M.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; van Putten, M.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D.. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiley, S.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zaleski, K. D.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.

    2007-10-01

    We carry out two searches for periodic gravitational waves using the most sensitive few hours of data from the second LIGO science run. Both searches exploit fully coherent matched filtering and cover wide areas of parameter space, an innovation over previous analyses which requires considerable algorithm development and computational power. The first search is targeted at isolated, previously unknown neutron stars, covers the entire sky in the frequency band 160 728.8 Hz, and assumes a frequency derivative of less than 4×10-10Hz/s. The second search targets the accreting neutron star in the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 and covers the frequency bands 464 484 Hz and 604 624 Hz as well as the two relevant binary orbit parameters. Because of the high computational cost of these searches we limit the analyses to the most sensitive 10 hours and 6 hours of data, respectively. Given the limited sensitivity and duration of the analyzed data set, we do not attempt deep follow-up studies. Rather we concentrate on demonstrating the data analysis method on a real data set and present our results as upper limits over large volumes of the parameter space. In order to achieve this, we look for coincidences in parameter space between the Livingston and Hanford 4-km interferometers. For isolated neutron stars our 95% confidence level upper limits on the gravitational wave strain amplitude range from 6.6×10-23 to 1×10-21 across the frequency band; for Scorpius X-1 they range from 1.7×10-22 to 1.3×10-21 across the two 20-Hz frequency bands. The upper limits presented in this paper are the first broadband wide parameter space upper limits on periodic gravitational waves from coherent search techniques. The methods developed here lay the foundations for upcoming hierarchical searches of more sensitive data which may detect astrophysical signals.

  14. X-ray line emission in Hercules X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Garate, M A; Den Herder, J W A; Zane, S; Ramsay, G

    2002-01-01

    We find line emission from the hydrogen- and/or helium-like ions of Ne, O, N and C in the low and short-on states of Her X-1, using the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. The emission line velocity broadening is 200 < sigma < 500 km/s. Plasma diagnostics with the Ne IX, O VII and N VI He-alpha lines and the radiative recombination continua of O VII and N VII, indicate the gas is heated by photoionization. We use spectral models to measure the element abundance ratios N/O, C/O, and Ne/O, which quantify CNO processing in HZ Her. Photoexcitation and high-density effects are not differentiated by the measured He-alpha lines. We set limits on the location, temperature and density of the line emission region. The narrow emission lines can be attributed to reprocessing in either an accretion disk atmosphere and corona or on the X-ray illuminated face of HZ Her. In the main-on state, the bright continuum only allows the detection of interstellar absorption, plus O VII He-alpha emission lines with sigma...

  15. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  16. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nazzario, R. C.; Orr, K.; Covington, C.; Kagan, D.; Hyde, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction betw...

  17. SAS 3 observations of Cygnus X-1 - The intensity dips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, R. A.; Canizares, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    In general, the dips are observed to occur near superior conjunctions of the X-ray source, but one pair of 2-minute dips occurs when the X-ray source is closer to the observer than is the supergiant companion. The dips are analyzed spectrally with the aid of seven energy channels in the range 1.2-50 keV. Essentially, there is no change in the spectral index during the dips. Reductions in the count rates are observed at energies exceeding 6 keV for some of the dips, but the dip amplitude is always significantly greater in the 1.2-3 keV band. It is believed that absorption by partially ionized gas may best explain these results, since the observations of Pravdo et al. (1980) rule out absorption by unionized material. Estimates for the intervening gas density, extent, and distance from the X-ray source are presented. Attention is also given to the problems confronting the models for the injection of gas through the line of sight, believed to be inclined by approximately 30 deg from the binary pole.

  18. Eclipsing Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2004-01-01

    The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.

  19. Confirming the 115.5-day periodicity in the X-ray light curve of ULX NGC 5408 X-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Han; Tao An; Jun-Yi Wang; Ji-Ming Lin; Ming-Jie Xie; Hai-Guang Xu; Xiao-Yu Hong; Sandor Frey

    2012-01-01

    The Swift/XRT light curve of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1 was re-analyzed with two new numerical approaches,the Weighted Wavelet Ztransform and CLEANest,and the results are different from previous studies.Both techniques detected a prominent periodicity with a time scale of 115.5 ± 1.5 days,in excellent agreement with the detection of the same periodicity first reported by Strohmayer.Monte Carlo simulations were employed to test the statisitical confidence of the 115.5-day periodicity,yielding a statistical significance of > 99.98% (or >3.8σ).The robust detection of the 115.5-day quasi-periodic oscillations,if they are due to the orbital motion of the binary,would infer a mass of a few thousand M⊙ for the central black hole,implying there is an intermediate-mass black hole in NGC 5408 X-1.

  20. NuSTAR AND SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE HARD STATE IN CYGNUS X-1: LOCATING THE INNER ACCRETION DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M. L.; Lohfink, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Alston, W. N.; Kara, E. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, West Hall 311, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Yamaoka, K. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Department of Particles and Astronomy, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Nowak, M.; Grinberg, V. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [Danish Technical University, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fürst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gandhi, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); King, A. L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

    2015-07-20

    We present simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR ) and Suzaku observations of the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 in the hard state. This is the first time this state has been observed in Cyg X-1 with NuSTAR, which enables us to study the reflection and broadband spectra in unprecedented detail. We confirm that the iron line cannot be fit with a combination of narrow lines and absorption features, instead requiring a relativistically blurred profile in combination with a narrow line and absorption from the companion wind. We use the reflection models of García et al. to simultaneously measure the black hole spin, disk inner radius, and coronal height in a self-consistent manner. Detailed fits to the iron line profile indicate a high level of relativistic blurring, indicative of reflection from the inner accretion disk. We find a high spin, a small inner disk radius, and a low source height and rule out truncation to greater than three gravitational radii at the 3σ confidence level. In addition, we find that the line profile has not changed greatly in the switch from soft to hard states, and that the differences are consistent with changes in the underlying reflection spectrum rather than the relativistic blurring. We find that the blurring parameters are consistent when fitting either just the iron line or the entire broadband spectrum, which is well modeled with a Comptonized continuum plus reflection model.

  1. NuSTAR and Suzaku observations of the hard state in Cygnus X-1: locating the inner accretion disk

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, M L; Miller, J M; Yamaoka, K; Lohfink, A; Nowak, M; Fabian, A C; Alston, W N; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fuerst, F; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, B W; Grinberg, V; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Kara, E; King, A L; Stern, D; Walton, D J; Wilms, J; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    We present simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR ) and Suzaku observations of the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 in the hard state. This is the first time this state has been observed in Cyg X-1 with NuSTAR, which enables us to study the reflection and broad-band spectra in unprecedented detail. We confirm that the iron line cannot be fit with a combination of narrow lines and absorption features, and instead requires a relativistically blurred profile in combination with a narrow line and absorption from the companion wind. We use the reflection models of Garcia et al. (2014) to simultaneously measure the black hole spin, disk inner radius, and coronal height in a self-consistent manner. Detailed fits to the iron line profile indicate a high level of relativistic blurring, indicative of reflection from the inner accretion disk. We find a high spin, a small inner disk radius, and a low source height, and rule out truncation to greater than three gravitational radii at the 3{\\sigma} confidence le...

  2. Broad-band spectral changes of the microquasars Cygnus X-1 and SWIFT J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, M C; Rodríguez, J; Chaty, S; Corbel, S; Goldwurm, A; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Ribo, Marc; Rodriguez, Jerome; Chaty, Sylvain; Corbel, Stephane; Goldwurm, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    We report high-energy results obtained with INTEGRAL and Rossi-XTE on two microquasars: the persistent high-mass system Cygnus X-1 and the transient low-mass binary SWIFT J1753.5-0127. INTEGRAL observed Cygnus X-1 from 2002 to 2004: the spectral (5-1000 keV) properties of the source, seen at least in three distinct spectral states, show disc and corona changes. In 2003 June, a high-energy tail at several hundred keV in excess of the thermal Comptonization model was observed, suggesting the presence of an additional non-thermal component. At that time, we detected an unusual correlation between radio data and high-energy hardness. We also report and compare the results obtained with simultaneous observations of the transient source SWIFT J1753.5-0127 performed with Rossi-XTE, INTEGRAL, VLA, REM and NTT on 2005 August 10-12 near its hard X-ray outburst. Broad-band spectra and fast time-variability properties are derived on this source (probably located in the galactic halo) together with radio, IR and optical d...

  3. When is $f(x_1, x_2, \\ldots , x_n) = u_1 (x_1) + u_2(x_2) + \\cdots + u_n (x_n)$?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Kłopotowski; M G Nadkarni; K P S Bhaskara Rao

    2003-02-01

    We discuss subsets of $\\mathbb{R}^n$ such that every real valued function on is of the form $$f(x_1, x_2, \\ldots , x_n) = u_1(x_1) + u_2(x_2) + \\cdots + u_n (x_n),$$ and the related concepts and situations in analysis.

  4. Energy-dependent evolution in IC10 X-1: hard evidence for an extended corona and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.; Steiner, J. F.; Prestwich, A. F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CFA), Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stevens, I. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Clark, J. S.; Kolb, U. C. [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-10

    We have analyzed a ∼130 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dynamically confirmed black hole + Wolf-Rayet (BH+WR) X-ray binary (XB) IC10 X-1, covering ∼1 orbital cycle. This system experiences periodic intensity dips every ∼35 hr. We find that energy-independent evolution is rejected at a >5σ level. The spectral and timing evolution of IC10 X-1 are best explained by a compact disk blackbody and an extended Comptonized component, where the thermal component is completely absorbed and the Comptonized component is partially covered during the dip. We consider three possibilities for the absorber: cold material in the outer accretion disk, as is well documented for Galactic neutron star (NS) XBs at high inclination; a stream of stellar wind that is enhanced by traveling through the L1 point; and a spherical wind. We estimated the corona radius (r {sub ADC}) for IC10 X-1 from the dip ingress to be ∼10{sup 6} km, assuming absorption from the outer disk, and found it to be consistent with the relation between r {sub ADC} and 1-30 keV luminosity observed in Galactic NS XBs that spans two orders of magnitude. For the other two scenarios, the corona would be larger. Prior BH mass (M {sub BH}) estimates range over 23-38 M {sub ☉}, depending on the inclination and WR mass. For disk absorption, the inclination, i, is likely to be ∼60-80°, with M {sub BH} ∼ 24-41 M {sub ☉}. Alternatively, the L1-enhanced wind requires i ∼ 80°, suggesting ∼24-33 M {sub ☉}. For a spherical absorber, i ∼ 40°, and M {sub BH} ∼ 50-65 M {sub ☉}.

  5. Constraints on the Neutron Star and Inner Accretion Flow in Serpens X-1 Using NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Fuerst, F; Bachetti, M; Barret, D; Grefenstette, B W; Tendulkar, S; Harrison, F A; Boggs, S E; Chakrabarty, D; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Hailey, C J; Natalucci, L; Paerels, F; Rana, V; Stern, D K; Tomsick, J A; Zhang, W W

    2013-01-01

    We report on an observation of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Serpens X-1, made with NuSTAR. The extraordinary sensitivity afforded by NuSTAR facilitated the detection of a clear, robust, relativistic Fe K emission line from the inner disk. A relativistic profile is required over a single Gaussian line from any charge state of Fe at the 5-sigma level of confidence, and any two Gaussians of equal width at the same confidence. The Compton back-scattering "hump" peaking in the 10-20 keV band is detected for the first time in a neutron star X-ray binary. Fits with relativistically-blurred disk reflection models suggest that the disk likely extends close to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) or stellar surface. The best-fit blurred reflection models constrain the gravitational redshift from the stellar surface to be z > 0.16. The data are broadly compatible with the disk extending to the ISCO; in that case, z > 0.22 and R < 12.6 km (assuming M = 1.4 Msun and a=0, where a = cJ/GM^2). If the star ...

  6. Anisotropy of partially self-absorbed jets and the jet of Cyg X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Paul, Debdutta; Osborne, Ruaraidh; Rao, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    We study the angular dependence of the flux from partially synchrotron self-absorbed conical jets (proposed by Blandford & Königl). We consider the jet viewed from either a side or close to on axis, and in the latter case, either from the jet top or bottom. We derive analytical formulae for the flux in each of these cases, and find the exact solution for an arbitrary angle numerically. We find that the maximum of the emission occurs when the jet is viewed from top on-axis, which is contrast to a previous result, which found the maximum at some intermediate angle and null emission on-axis. We then calculate the ratio of the jet-to-counterjet emission for this model, which depends on the viewing angle and the index of power-law electrons. We apply our results to the black hole binary Cyg X-1. Given the jet-to-counterjet flux ratio of ≳ 50 found observationally and the current estimates of the inclination, we find the jet velocity to be ≳0.8c. We also point out that when the projection effect is taken into account, the radio observations imply the jet half-opening angle of ≲ 1°, a half of the value given before. When combined with the existing estimates of Γj, the jet half-opening angle is low, ≪1/Γj, and much lower than values observed in blazars, unless Γj is much higher than currently estimated.

  7. Calculations of α/γ phase boundaries in Fe-C-X1X2 systems from the central atoms model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T.; Aaronson, H. I.; Enomoto, M.

    1995-03-01

    The α/γ phase boundaries in Fe-C-X1-X2 quaternary alloys (where X1 = Mn and X2 = Si, Ni, and Co, successively) are calculated from the Central Atoms model, as generalized to multi-component systems by Foo and Lupis. The interaction parameters are evaluated from the Wagner interaction parameters in ternary iron alloys reported in the literature or estimated from the interaction parameters in binary alloys. Two equilibrium conditions, para- and ortho-equilibrium, are utilized. In the Fe-C-Mn-Si system, a mixed state of equilibrium, in which orthoequilibrium is achieved with respect to C and Si while the other two substitutional elements (Fe and Mn) are assumed to be immobile (paraequilibrium), is also considered. The calculated phase boundaries are employed to evaluate the free energy change for the nucleation and the growth kinetics of proeutectoid ferrite in these alloys in companion articles.

  8. Broadband X-ray Spectra of the Ultraluminoux X-ray Source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Grefenstette, B W; Miller, J M; Bachetti, M; Barret, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Fuerst, F; Hailey, C J; Madsen, K K; Parker, M L; Ptak, A; Rana, V; Stern, D; Webb, N A; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X-ray coverage of this remarkable source up to ~30 keV. Broadband observations were undertaken at two epochs, between which Holmberg IX X-1 exhibited both flux and strong spectral variability, increasing in luminosity from Lx = (1.94+/-0.03)e40 erg/s to Lx = (3.38+/-0.03)e40 erg/s. Neither epoch exhibits a spectrum consistent with emission from the standard low/hard accretion state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, that would have been expected if Holmberg IX X-1 harbors a truly massive black hole accreting at substantially sub-Eddington accretion rates. The NuSTAR data confirm that the curvature observed previously in the 3-10 keV bandpass does represent a true spectral cutoff. During each epoch, the spectrum app...

  9. Warped accretion discs and the long periods in X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Pringle, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Precessing accretion discs have long been suggested as explanations for the long periods observed in a variety of X-ray binaries, most notably Her X-1/HZ Her. We show that an instability of the response of the disc to the radiation reaction force from the illumination by the central source can cause

  10. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime...... mask using a directional system and a method for correcting errors in the target binary mask. The last part of the thesis, proposes a new method for objective evaluation of speech intelligibility.......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...

  11. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  12. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  13. Atmospheric chemistry of perfluorinated aldehyde hydrates (n-C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)2, x = 1, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Toft, A.; Nielsen, O.J.

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used to measure k(Cl+C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)(2)) (x = 1, 3, 4) = (5.84 +/- 0.92) x 10(-13) and k(OH+C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)(2)) = (1.22 +/- 0.26) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) in 700 Torr of N(2) or air at 296 +/- 2 K. The Cl initiated...

  14. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  15. Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    Binary population synthesis (BPS), an approach to evolving millions of stars (including binaries) simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis (EPS) model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.

  16. MAXI monitoring of blazars and blackhole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Negoro, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Isobe, Naoki; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Matsuoka, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Since August 2009, MAXI experiment on the ISS has been performing all-sky X-ray monitoring. With MAXI, we detected flaring activities of some blazers, including Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 3C 273. Recently, new X-ray flaring activities were detected from two blazers, MAXI J1930+093 = 2FGL J1931.1+0938 (Atel#5943) and 2MAXI J0243-582 = BZB J0244-5819 (Atel#6012). The MAXI monitoring also covers black hole binaries, including Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3 which emit GeV gamma-rays. Their gamma-ray emission was found to coincide with their X-ray state transitions. We present light curves and outstanding events of these sources.

  17. Eclipsing Binary Update, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    Contents: 1. Wrong again! The elusive period of DHK 41. 2. Stars observed and not observed. 3. Eclipsing binary chart information. 4. Eclipsing binary news and notes. 5. A note on SS Arietis. 6. Featured star: TX Ursae Majoris.

  18. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  19. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  20. Orbits for sixteen binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361−2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB,WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB,WDS 08017−0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277−0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 = STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  1. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de

    2000-01-01

    We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin

  2. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  3. Clinical translation of TALENS: Treating SCID-X1 by gene editing in iPSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Alessandra

    2015-04-02

    Mutations causing X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) reduce immune cell populations and function and may be amenable to targeted gene correction strategies. Now in Cell Stem Cell, Menon et al. (2015) correct SCID-X1-related blood differentiation defects by TALEN-mediated genome editing in patient-derived iPSCs, suggesting a possible strategy for autologous cell therapy of SCID-X1.

  4. Representations by $x_1^2+2x_2^2+x_3^2+x_4^2+x_1x_3+x_1x_4+x_2x_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Eum, Ick Sun; Shin, Dong Hwa; Yoon, Dong Sung

    2011-01-01

    Let $r_Q(n)$ be the representation number of a nonnegative integer $n$ by the quaternary quadratic form $Q=x_1^2+2x_2^2+x_3^2+x_4^2+x_1x_3+x_1x_4+x_2x_4$. We prove the identity $r_Q(p^2n)=r_Q(p^2)r_Q(n)/r_Q(1)$ for any prime $p$ different from 13 and any positive integer $n$ prime to $p$, which was conjectured in [Eum et al, A modularity criterion for Klein forms, with an application to modular forms of level 13, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 375 (2011), 28--41]. We explicitly determine $r_Q(n^2)$ for any positive integer $n$, too.

  5. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. Coherent searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources and Scorpius X-1: results from the second LIGO science run

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Ageev, A; Agresti, J; Allen, B; Allen, J; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Luna, M; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswaran, A J; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sanchodela, L; Jordana; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Spjeld, O; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, 2K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ward, R; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M

    2006-01-01

    We carry out two searches for periodic gravitational waves using the most sensitive few hours of data from the second LIGO science run. The first search is targeted at isolated, previously unknown neutron stars and covers the entire sky in the frequency band 160-728.8 Hz. The second search targets the accreting neutron star in the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1, covers the frequency bands 464-484 Hz and 604-624 Hz, and two binary orbit parameters. Both searches look for coincidences between the Livingston and Hanford 4-km interferometers. For isolated neutron stars our 95% confidence upper limits on the gravitational wave strain amplitude range from 6.6E-23 to 1E-21 across the frequency band; For Scorpius X-1 they range from 1.7E-22 to 1.3E-21 across the two 20-Hz frequency bands. The upper limits presented in this paper are the first broad-band wide parameter space upper limits on periodic gravitational waves using coherent search techniques. The methods developed here lay the foundations for upcoming hi...

  7. High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with the XMM-Newton RGS CNO Element Abundance Measurements and Density Diagnostics of a Photoionized Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Garate, M A; Den Herder, J W A; Zane, S; Ramsay, G

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1, an intermediate-mass X-ray binary, which was observed with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. We measure the elemental abundance ratios by use of spectral models, and we detect material processed through the CNO-cycle. The CNO abundances, and in particular the ratio N/O > 4.0 times solar, provide stringent constraints on the evolution of the binary system. The low and short-on flux states of Her X-1 exhibit narrow line emission from C VI, N VI, N VII, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, and Ne X ions. The spectra show signatures of photoionization. We measure the electron temperature, quantify photoexcitation in the He alpha lines, and set limits on the location and density of the gas. The recombination lines may originate in the accretion disk atmosphere and corona, or on the X-ray illuminated face of the mass donor (HZ Her). The spectral variation over the course of the 35 d period provides additional evidence for the precession of the disk. Duri...

  8. Mixed-Up Sex Chromosomes: Identification of Sex Chromosomes in the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y System of the Legless Lizards of the Genus Lialis (Squamata: Gekkota: Pygopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Geckos in general show extensive variability in sex determining systems, but only male heterogamety has been demonstrated in the members of their legless family Pygopodidae. In the pioneering study published more than 45 years ago, multiple sex chromosomes of the type X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y were described in Burton's legless lizard (Lialisburtonis) based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. We conducted cytogenetic analyses including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected cytogenetic markers in this species and the previously cytogenetically unstudied Papua snake lizard (Lialis jicari) to better understand the nature of these sex chromosomes and their differentiation. Both species possess male heterogamety with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system; however, the Y and one of the X chromosomes are not small chromosomes as previously reported in L. burtonis, but the largest macrochromosomal pair in the karyotype. The Y chromosomes in both species have large heterochromatic blocks with extensive accumulations of GATA and AC microsatellite motifs. FISH with telomeric probe revealed an exclusively terminal position of telomeric sequences in L. jicari (2n = 42 chromosomes in females), but extensive interstitial signals, potentially remnants of chromosomal fusions, in L.burtonis (2n = 34 in females). Our study shows that even largely differentiated and heteromorphic sex chromosomes might be misidentified by conventional cytogenetic analyses and that the application of more sensitive cytogenetic techniques for the identification of sex chromosomes is beneficial even in the classical examples of multiple sex chromosomes.

  9. The Binary Garrote

    CERN Document Server

    Kappen, H J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I present a new model and solution method for sparse regression. The model introduces binary selector variables $s_i$ for the features $i$ in a way that is similar to Breiman's Garrote model. I refer to this method as the binary Garrote (BG). The posterior probability for $s_i$ is computed in the variational approximation. The BG is compared numerically with the Lasso method and with ridge regression. Numerical results on synthetic data show that the BG yields more accurate predictions and more accurately reconstructs the true model than the other methods. The naive implementation of the BG requires the inversion of a modified covariance matrix which scales cubic in the number of features. We indicate how for sparse problem the solution can be computed linear in the number of features.

  10. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  11. Binary Love Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars imprint onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the gravitational wave model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately universal relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the gravitational wave model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between equation-of-state models, and improve tests of General Relativity and cosmology.

  12. Binary Love relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-07-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars get imprinted onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave (GW) observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the GW model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately equation-of-state (EoS)-insensitive relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the GW model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between EoS models, and improve tests of general relativity and cosmology.

  13. Chandra X-ray spectroscopy of the focused wind in the Cygnus X-1 system I. The non-dip spectrum in the low/hard state

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, Manfred; Nowak, Michael A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert S; Lee, Julia C

    2008-01-01

    We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system Cygnus X-1/HDE 226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). Cyg X-1 was in its spectrally hard state and the observation was performed during superior conjunction of the black hole, allowing for the spectroscopic analysis of the accreted stellar wind along the line of sight. A significant part of the observation covers X-ray dips as commonly observed for Cyg X-1 at this orbital phase, however, here we only analyze the high count rate non-dip spectrum. The full 0.5-10 keV continuum can be described by a single model consisting of a disk, a narrow and a relativistically broadened Fe Kalpha line, and a power law component, which is consistent with simultaneous RXTE broad band data. We detect absorption edges from overabundant neutral O, Ne and Fe, and absorption line series from highly ionized ions and infer column densities and Doppler shifts. With emission lines of He-like Mg XI, we detect t...

  14. Ranked solutions of the matric equation A1X1=A2X2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Duane Porter

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Let GF(pz denote the finite field of pz elements. Let A1 be s×m of rank r1 and A2 be s×n of rank r2 with elements from GF(pz. In this paper, formulas are given for finding the number of X1,X2 over GF(pz which satisfy the matric equation A1X1=A2X2, where X1 is m×t of rank k1, and X2 is n×t of rank k2. These results are then used to find the number of solutions X1,…,Xn, Y1,…,Ym, m,n>1, of the matric equation A1X1…Xn=A2Y1…Ym.

  15. Mass transfer in binary X-ray systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.

  16. VHE Gamma-rays from Galactic X-ray Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Paredes, J M

    2008-01-01

    The detection of TeV gamma-rays from LS 5039 and the binary pulsar PSR B1259-63 by HESS, and from LS I +61 303 and the stellar-mass black hole Cygnus X-1 by MAGIC, provides a clear evidence of very efficient acceleration of particles to multi-TeV energies in X-ray binaries. These observations demonstrate the richness of non-thermal phenomena in compact galactic objects containing relativistic outflows or winds produced near black holes and neutron stars. I review here some of the main observational results on very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, as well as some of the proposed scenarios to explain the production of VHE gamma-rays. I put special emphasis on the flare TeV emission, suggesting that the flaring activity might be a common phenomena in X-ray binaries.

  17. Binary-Signal Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  18. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  19. Visual binary stars: data to investigate formation of binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva,, D.; Malkov,, O.; Yungelson, L.; Chulkov, D.

    Statistics of orbital parameters of binary stars as well as statistics of their physical characteristics bear traces of star formation history. However, statistical investigations of binaries are complicated by incomplete or missing observational data and by a number of observational selection effects. Visual binaries are the most common type of observed binary stars, with the number of pairs exceeding 130 000. The most complete list of presently known visual binary stars was compiled by cross-matching objects and combining data of the three largest catalogues of visual binaries. This list was supplemented by the data on parallaxes, multicolor photometry, and spectral characteristics taken from other catalogues. This allowed us to compensate partly for the lack of observational data for these objects. The combined data allowed us to check the validity of observational values and to investigate statistics of the orbital and physical parameters of visual binaries. Corrections for incompleteness of observational data are discussed. The datasets obtained, together with modern distributions of binary parameters, will be used to reconstruct the initial distributions and parameters of the function of star formation for binary systems.

  20. Kepler K2 Observations of Sco X-1: Orbital Modulations and Correlations with Fermi GBM and MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Hynes, R I; Baum, Z A; Hsu, C -C; Cherry, M L; Scaringi, S

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1 using Kepler K2 optical data and Fermi GBM and MAXI X-ray data. We recover a clear sinusoidal orbital modulation from the Kepler data. Optical fluxes are distributed bimodally around the mean orbital light curve, with both high and low states showing the same modulation. The high state is broadly consistent with the flaring branch of the Z diagram and the low state with the normal branch. We see both rapid optical flares and slower dips in the high state, and slow brightenings in the low state. High state flares exhibit a narrow range of amplitudes with a striking cut-off at a maximum amplitude. Optical fluxes correlate with X-ray fluxes in the high state, but in the low state they are anti-correlated. These patterns can be seen clearly in both flux-flux diagrams and cross-correlation functions and are consistent between MAXI and GBM. The high state correlation arises promptly with at most a few minutes lag. We attribute this to thermal ...

  1. HEXTE Studies of Sco X-1 Spectra Detections of Hard X-Ray Tails Beyond 200 keV

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, F; Rothschild, R E; Peterson, L E; Gruber, D E; Pelling, M R; Tomsick, J A

    2001-01-01

    Using the HEXTE experiment on-board the RXTE satellite, we performed a search for hard X-ray tails in Sco X-1 spectra. We found strong evidence for the presence of such a non-thermal component on several occasions. Using the PCA/RXTE we were able to track the position of the source along the Z diagram, and we observed that the presence of the hard X-ray tail is not confined to a particular region. However, we found a correlation between the power law index of the non-thermal component and the position of the source in the Z diagram, suggesting that the hard X-ray spectrum (i.e., E > 50 keV) becomes flatter as the mass accretion rate increases. We were also able to study the temporal variation of the appearance/absence of the hard X-ray component. With our derived luminosities, we were also able to test the idea that X-ray luminosities can be used to distinguish between X-ray binary systems containing neutron stars and black holes.

  2. The Nature of ULX Source M101 X-1: Optically Thick Outflow from A Stellar Mass Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Rong-Feng; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2014-01-01

    The nature of ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) has long been plagued by an ambiguity about whether the central compact objects are intermediate-mass (IMBH, >~ 10^3 M_sun) or stellar-mass (a few tens M_sun) black holes (BHs). The high luminosity (~ 10^39 erg/s) and super-soft spectrum (T ~ 0.1 keV) during the high state of the ULX source X-1 in the galaxy M101 suggest a large emission radius (>~ 10^9 cm), consistent with being an IMBH accreting at a sub-Eddington rate. However, recent kinematic measurement of the binary orbit of this source and identification of the secondary as a Wolf-Rayet star suggest a stellar-mass BH primary with a super-Eddington accretion. If that is the case, a hot, optically thick outflow from the BH can account for the large emission radius and the soft spectrum. By considering the interplay of photons' absorption and scattering opacities, we determine the radius and mass density of the emission region of the outflow and constrain the outflow mass loss rate. The analysis presented...

  3. Ultraviolet spectra of HZ Herculis/Hercules X-1 from HST: Hot gas during total eclipse of the neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scott F.; Wachter, Stefanie; Margon, Bruce; Downes, Ronald A.; Blair, William P.; Halpern, Jules P.

    1994-01-01

    The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) aboard Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has been used in the UV to observe the prototypical X-ray pulsar Her X-1 and its companion HZ Her. Optical spectra were also obtained contemporaneously at the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 2.1 m. The FOS spectra encompass the 1150-3300 A range near binary orbital phases 0.5 (X-ray maximum) and at 0.0 (mid-X-ray eclipse). The maximum light spectra show strong, narrow C III, N V, O V, Si IV + O IV), N IV), C IV, He II, and N IV emission lines, extending previous IUE results; the O III lambda 3133 Bowen resonance line is also prominent, confirming that the Bowen mechanism is the source of the strong lambda lambda 4640, 4650 emission complex, also seen at maximum light. Most remarkable, however, are the minimum light spectra, where the object is too faint for reasonable observations from IUE. Despite the total eclipse of the X-ray-emitting neutron star, our spectra show strong emission at N V lambda 1240, S IV + O IV) whose emission dominates the UV light at phase 0.0 might be associated with the 'accretion disk corona,' it is more likely the source is somewhat less hot (but extended) gas above and around the disk, or perhaps circumstellar material such as a stellar wind.

  4. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1: VI. Energy-resolved X-ray variability 1999-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, V; Böck, M; Schmid, C; Nowak, M A; Uttley, P; Tomsick, J A; Rodriguez, J; Hell, N; Markowitz, A; Bodaghee, A; Bel, M Cadolle; Rothschild, R E; Wilms, J

    2014-01-01

    We present the most extensive analysis of Fourier-based X-ray timing properties of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 to date, based on 12 years of bi-weekly monitoring with RXTE from 1999 to 2011. Our aim is a comprehensive study of timing behavior across all spectral states, including the elusive transitions and extreme hard and soft states. We discuss the dependence of the timing properties on spectral shape and photon energy, and study correlations between Fourier-frequency dependent coherence and time lags with features in the power spectra. Our main results are: (a) The fractional rms in the 0.125-256 Hz range in different spectral states shows complex behavior that depends on the energy range considered. It reaches its maximum not in the hard state, but in the soft state in the Comptonized tail above 10 keV. (b) The shape of power spectra in hard and intermediate states and the normalization in the soft state are strongly energy dependent in the 2.1-15 keV range. This emphasizes the need for an energy-de...

  5. Very High Energy Gamma-ray Radiation from the Stellar-mass Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Anderhub, H; Antoranz, P; Armada, A; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Böck, R K; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Coarasa, J A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Curtef, V; Danielyan, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; Delgado, C; De Los Reyes, R; Delotto, B; Domingo-Santamaria, E; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Flix, J; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fuchs, M; Galante, N; Garcia-Lopez, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giller, M; Göbel, F; Hakobyan, D; Hayashida, M; Hengstebeck, T; Herrero, A; Hohn, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Jacon, P; Jogler, T; Kosyra, R; Kranich, D; Kritzer, R; Laille, A; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, J; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Mansutti, O; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Merck, C; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Ona-Wilhelmi, E; otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Panniello, M; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rugamer, S; Saggion, A; Saitô, T; Sánchez, A; Sartori, P; Scalzotto, V; SCAPIN, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; teshima, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wibig, T; Wittek, W; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2007-01-01

    We report on the results from the observations in very high energy band (VHE, E>100 GeV) of the black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) Cygnus X-1. The observations were performed with the MAGIC telescope, for a total of 40 hours during 26 nights, spanning the period between June and November 2006. Searches for steady gamma-ray signals yielded no positive result and upper limits to the integral flux ranging between 1 and 2% of the Crab nebula flux, depending on the energy, have been established. We also analyzed each observation night independently, obtaining evidence of gamma-ray signals at the 4.0 standard deviations (sigma) significance level (3.2 sigma after trial correction) for 154 minutes effective on-time (EOT) between MJD 54002.875 and 54002.987, coinciding with an X-ray flare seen by RXTE, Swift and INTEGRAL. A search for faster-varying signals within a night resulted in an excess with a significance of 4.9 sigma (4.1 sigma after trial correction) for 79 minutes EOT between MJD 54002.928 and 54002.987. The m...

  6. The Swift-BAT monitoring reveals a long term decay of the cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    La Parola, V; Segreto, A; D'Aì, A

    2016-01-01

    We study the behaviour of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 using the long-term hard X-ray monitoring performed by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift. High statistics, intensity selected spectra were built along 11 years of BAT survey. While the fundamental line is not revealed, the second harmonic of the CRSF can be clearly detected in all the spectra, at an energy varying between $\\sim 53$ keV and $\\sim 58$ keV, directly correlated with the luminosity. We have further investigated the evolution of the CRSF in time, by studying the intensity selected spectra built along four 33-month time intervals along the survey. For the first time we find in this source a secular variation in the CRSF energy: independent of the source luminosity, the CRSF second harmonic energy decreases by $\\sim 0.36$ keV/year between the first and the third time interval, corresponding to an apparent decay of the magnetic field of $\\sim 3\\times 10^{10}$ G/year. The inten...

  7. Highly Ionized Fe-K Absorption Line from Cygnus X-1 in the High/Soft State Observed with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S; Mineshige, S; Ueda, Y; Kubota, A; Gandhi, P; Done, C; Noda, H; Yoshikawa, A; Makishima, K

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of a transient He-like Fe K alpha absorption line in Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 on 2011 October 5 near superior conjunction during the high/soft state, which enable us to map the full evolution from the start and the end of the episodic accretion phenomena or dips for the first time. We model the X-ray spectra during the event and trace their evolution. The absorption line is rather weak in the first half of the observation, but instantly deepens for ~10 ks, and weakens thereafter. The overall change in equivalent width is a factor of ~3, peaking at an orbital phase of ~0.08. This is evidence that the companion stellar wind feeding the black hole is clumpy. By analyzing the line with a Voigt profile, it is found to be consistent with a slightly redshifted Fe XXV transition, or possibly a mixture of several species less ionized than Fe XXV. The data may be explained by a clump located at a distance of ~10^(10-12) cm with a density of ~10^((-13)-(-11)) g cm^-...

  8. Effect of pulse profile variations on measurement of eccentricity in orbits of Cen X-3 and SMC X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Raichur, Harsha

    2009-01-01

    It has long been argued that better timing precision allowed by satelites like Rossi X-ray Timing Experiments (RXTE) will allow us to measure the orbital eccentricity and the angle of periastron of some of the bright persistent high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and hence a possible measurement of apsidal motion in these system. Measuring the rate of apsidal motion allows one to estimate the apsidal motion constant of the mass losing companion star and hence allows for the direct testing of the stellar structure models for these giant stars present in the HMXBs. In the present paper we use the archival RXTE data of two bright persistent sources, namely Cen X-3 and SMC X-1, to measure the very small orbital eccentricity and the angle of periastron. We find that the small variations in the pulse profiles of these sources rather than the intrinsic timing accuracy provided by RXTE, limit the accuracy with which we can measure arrival time of the pulses from these sources. This influences the accuracy with which one...

  9. Confirmation Via the Continuum-Fitting Method that the Spin of the Black Hole in Cygnus X-1 is Extreme

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, Lijun; Remillard, Ronald A; Steiner, James F; Reid, Mark J; Orosz, Jerome A; Narayan, Ramesh; Hanke, Manfred; García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    In Gou et al. (2011), we reported that the black hole primary in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 is a near-extreme Kerr black hole with a spin parameter a*>0.95(3{\\sigma}). We confirm this result while setting a new and more stringent limit: a*>0.983 at the 3{\\sigma}(99.7%) level of confidence. The earlier work, which was based on an analysis of all three useful spectra that were then available, was possibly biased by the presence in these spectra of a relatively strong Compton power-law component: The fraction of the thermal seed photons scattered into the power law was f_s=23-31%, while the upper limit for reliable application of the continuum-fitting method is f_s0.95 to a*>0.98, allowing us to conservatively conclude that the spin of the black hole is a*>0.983 (3{\\sigma}).

  10. Modeling the Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium: An XMM-Newton View of Sco X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J.; Ramirez, J. M.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Bautista, M. A.; Mendoza, C.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the absorption structure of the oxygen in the interstellar medium by analyzing XMM-Newton observations of the low mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. We use simple models based on the O I atomic cross section from different sources to fit the data and evaluate the impact of the atomic data in the interpretation of astrophysical observations. We show that relatively small differences in the atomic calculations can yield spurious results. We also show that the most complete and accurate set of atomic cross sections successfully reproduce the observed data in the 21 - 24.5 Angstrom wavelength region of the spectrum. Our fits indicate that the absorption is mainly due to neutral gas with an ionization parameter of Epsilon = 10(exp -4) erg/sq cm, and an oxygen column density of N(sub O) approx. = 8-10 x 10(exp 17)/sq cm. Our models are able to reproduce both the K edge and the K(alpha) absorption line from O I, which are the two main features in this region. We find no conclusive evidence for absorption by other than atomic oxygen.

  11. Rotational mixing in close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Yoon, S -Ch; Brott, I; Glebbeek, E; Verkoulen, M; Pols, O R

    2008-01-01

    Rotational mixing is a very important but uncertain process in the evolution of massive stars. We propose to use close binaries to test its efficiency. Based on rotating single stellar models we predict nitrogen surface enhancements for tidally locked binaries. Furthermore we demonstrate the possibility of a new evolutionary scenario for very massive (M > 40 solar mass) close (P < 3 days) binaries: Case M, in which mixing is so efficient that the stars evolve quasi-chemically homogeneously, stay compact and avoid any Roche-lobe overflow, leading to very close (double) WR binaries.

  12. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  13. Chaos in Binary Category Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Category computation theory deals with a web-based systemic processing that underlies the morphic webs, which constitute the basis of categorial logical calculus. It is proven that, for these structures, algorithmically incompressible binary patterns can be morphically compressed, with respect to the local connectivities, in a binary morphic program. From the local connectivites, there emerges a global morphic connection that can be characterized by a low length binary string, leading to the identification of chaotic categorial dynamics, underlying the algorithmically random pattern. The work focuses on infinite binary chains of C2, which is a category that implements an X-OR-based categorial logical calculus.

  14. A new multiple sex chromosome system X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 in Siluriformes: cytogenetic characterization of Bunocephalus coracoideus (Aspredinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Milena; Garcia, Caroline; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; de Jesus, Isac Silva; Feldberg, Eliana

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed one Bunocephalus coracoideus population from the Negro River basin using cytogenetic techniques. The results showed a diploid number of 42 chromosomes in both sexes, with the karyotypic formula 4m + 14sm + 24a and fundamental number (FN) = 60 for females and the formula 5m + 14sm + 23a and FN = 61 for males, constituting an X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 multiple sex chromosome system. The constitutive heterochromatin is distributed in the pericentromeric regions of most of the chromosomes, except for the sex chromosomes, of which the X1, X2, and Y1 chromosomes were euchromatic and the Y2 chromosome was partially heterochromatic. 18S rDNA mapping confirmed the presence of nucleolar organizer regions on the short arms of the fifth chromosomal pair for both sexes. The 5S rDNA is present in the terminal regions of the short arms on the 2nd, 10th, and 12th pairs and on the X2 chromosome of both sexes; however, we observed variations in the presence of these ribosomal cistrons on the Y1 chromosome, on which the cistrons are pericentromeric, and on the Y2 chromosome, on which these cistrons are present in the terminal portions of the short and long arms. Telomeric sequences are located in the terminal regions of all of the chromosomes, particularly conspicuous blocks on the 10th and 12th pairs and internal telomeric sequences in the centromeric regions of the 1st, 6th, and 9th pairs for both sexes. This work describes an new sex chromosomes system for the Siluriformes and increases our genetic knowledge of the Aspredinidae family.

  15. Crossed beam reaction of the cyano radical, CN(X 2Σ+), with methylacetylene, CH3CCH (X 1A1): Observation of cyanopropyne, CH3CCCN (X 1A1), and cyanoallene, H2CCCHCN (X 1A')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L. C. L.; Balucani, N.; Lee, Y. T.; Kaiser, R. I.; Osamura, Y.

    1999-08-01

    The chemical dynamics to form cyanopropyne, CH3CCCN (X 1A1), and cyanoallene, H2CCCHCN (X 1A'), via the neutral-neutral reaction of the cyano radical, CN (X 2Σ+), with methylacetylene, CH3CCH (X 1A1), is investigated under single collision conditions in a crossed molecular beam experiment at a collision energy of 24.7 kJ mol-1. The laboratory angular distribution and time-of-flight spectra of the C4H3N products are recorded at m/e=65, 64, 63, and 62. The reaction of d3-methylacetylene, CD3CCH (X 1A1), with CN radicals yields reactive scattering signal at m/e=68 and m/e=67 demonstrating that two distinct H(D) atom loss channels are open. Forward-convolution fitting of the laboratory data reveal that the reaction dynamics are indirect and governed by an initial attack of the CN radical to the π electron density of the β carbon atom of the methylacetylene molecule to form a long lived CH3CCHCN collision complex. The latter decomposes via two channels, i.e., H atom loss from the CH3 group to yield cyanoallene, and H atom loss from the acetylenic carbon atom to form cyanopropyne. The explicit identification of the CN vs H exchange channel and two distinct product isomers cyanoallene and cyanopropyne strongly suggests the title reaction as a potential route to form these isomers in dark molecular clouds, the outflow of dying carbon stars, hot molecular cores, as well as the atmosphere of hydrocarbon rich planets and satellites such as the Saturnian moon Titan.

  16. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  17. Microlensing modulation by binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dubath, F; Durrer, R; Dubath, Florian; Gasparini, Maria Alice; Durrer, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We compute the effect of the lens quadrupole on microlensing. The time dependence of the quadrupole can lead to specific modulations of the amplification signal. We study especially binary system lenses in our galaxy. The modulation is observable if the rotation period of the system is smaller than the time over which the amplification is significant and if the impact parameter of the passing light ray is sufficiently close to the Einstein radius so that the amplification is very large. Observations of this modulation can reveal important information on the quadrupole and thus on the gravitational radiation emitted by the lens.

  18. Chromosomal distribution of two multigene families and the unusual occurrence of an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in the dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae): an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, R X; Bertollo, L A C; Cioffi, M B; Costa, G W W F; F Molina, W

    2014-04-03

    Dolphinfishes (Coryphaenidae) are pelagic predators distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical oceans and are very important for commercial, traditional, and sport fishing. This small family contains the Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis species whose chromosomal aspects remain unknown, despite recent advances in cytogenetic data assimilation for Perciformes. In this study, both species were cytogenetically analyzed using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA3 banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, to detect 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA. C. hippurus females exhibit 2n = 48 chromosomes, with 2m+4sm+42a (NF = 54). In C. equiselis, where both sexes could be analyzed, females displayed 2n = 48 chromosomes (2m+6sm+40a) and males exhibited 2n = 47 chromosomes (3m+6sm+38a) (NF = 56), indicating the presence of X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosomes. Sex-chromosome systems are rare in Perciformes, with this study demonstrating the first occurrence in a marine pelagic species. It remains unknown as to whether this system extends to other populations; however, these data are important with respect to evolutionary, phylogenetic, and speciation issues, as well as for elucidating the genesis of this unique sex system.

  19. The quest for collapsed/frozen stars in single-line spectroscopic binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2016-10-01

    Black holes are now commonplace, among the stars, in Galactic centers, and perhaps other places. But within living memory, their very existence was doubted by many, and few chose to look for them. Zeldovich and Guseinov were first, followed by Trimble and Thorne, using a method that would have identified HDE 226868 as a plausible candidate, if it had been in the 1968 catalogue of spectroscopic binaries. That it was not arose from an unhappy accident in the observing program of Daniel M. Popper long before the discovery of X-ray binaries and the identification of Cygnus X-1 with that hot, massive star and its collapsed companion.

  20. The quest for collapsed/frozen stars in single-line spectroscopic binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Trimble, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Black holes are now commonplace, among the stars, in Galactic centers, and perhaps other places. But within living memory, their very existence was doubted by many, and few chose to look for them. Zeldovich and Guseinov were first, followed by Trimble and Thorne, using a method that would have identified HDE 226868 as a plausible candidate, if it had been in the 1968 catalogue of spectroscopic binaries. That it was not arose from an unhappy accident in the observing program of Daniel M. Popper long before the discovery of X-ray binaries and the identification of Cygnus X-1 with that hot, massive star and its collapsed companion.

  1. 1-deg x 1-deg Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1x1 degree Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Gravity Anomaly and Geoid Undulations Data Base was compiled and developed by the Ohio State University. This data base was...

  2. Evolution of Binaries in Dense Stellar Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the field, the binaries in dense stellar systems are frequently not primordial, and could be either dynamically formed or significantly altered from their primordial states. Destruction and formation of binaries occur in parallel all the time. The destruction, which constantly removes soft binaries from a binary pool, works as an energy sink and could be a reason for cluster entering the binary-burning phase. The true binary fraction is greater than observed, as a result, the observable binary fraction evolves differently from the predictions. Combined measurements of binary fractions in globular clusters suggest that most of the clusters are still core-contracting. The formation, on other hand, affects most the more evolutionary advanced stars, which significantly enhances the population of X-ray sources in globular clusters. The formation of binaries with a compact objects proceeds mainly through physical collisions, binary-binary and single-binary encounters; however, it is the dynamical for...

  3. Spin Correlation in Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farbiash, N; Farbiash, Netzach; Steinitz, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    We examine the correlation of projected rotational velocities in binary systems. It is an extension of previous work (Steinitz and Pyper, 1970; Levato, 1974). An enlarged data basis and new tests enable us to conclude that there is indeed correlation between the projected rotational velocities of components of binaries. In fact we suggest that spins are already correlated.

  4. Evolutionary Memory in Binary Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Steinitz, N F R

    2004-01-01

    Correlation between the spins (rotational velocities) in binaries has previously been established. We now continue and show that the degree of spin correlation is independent of the components' separation. Such a result might be related for example to Zhang's non-linear model for the formation of binary stars from a nebula.

  5. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  6. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  7. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  8. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  9. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  10. Signature Visualization of Software Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panas, T

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.

  11. Observing binary inspiral with LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, L S

    1994-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a binary neutron star or black hole system leads to orbital decay and the eventual coalescence of the binary's components. During the last several minutes before the binary components coalesce, the radiation will enter the bandwidth of the United States Laser Inteferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and the French/Italian VIRGO gravitational radiation detector. The combination of detector sensitivity, signal strength, and source density and distribution all point to binary inspiral as the most likely candidate for observation among all the anticipated sources of gravitational radiation for LIGO/VIRGO. Here I review briefly some of the questions that are posed to theorists by the impending observation of binary inspiral.

  12. 算子方程x+a*x-1a=e的正定解%Positive Definite Solutions of Operator Equation x + a*x-1a = e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁刚

    2000-01-01

    本文在Von Neumann代数中引入了正定元的概念,给出了其判定定理和性质;研究了Von Neumann代数中方程x+a*x-1a=e有正定解的必要条件和充分条件,构造了方程正定解的递归序列,并研究了其性质.

  13. Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A' 1Pi-X1Sigma+ and A1Pi-X1Sigma+ Systems of IrN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram; Bernath

    1999-02-01

    The emission spectrum of IrN has been investigated in the 10 000-20 000 cm-1 region at 0.02 cm-1 resolution using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The bands were excited in an Ir hollow cathode lamp operated with a mixture of 2 Torr of Ne and a trace of N2. Numerous bands have been classified into two transitions labeled as A1Pi-X1Sigma+ and A' 1Pi-X1Sigma+ by analogy with the isoelectronic PtC molecule. Ten bands involving vibrational levels up to Kv = 4 in the ground and excited states have been identified in the A1Pi-X1Sigma+ transition. This electronic transition has been previously observed by [A. J. Marr, M. E. Flores, and T. C. Steimle, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 8183-8196 (1996)]. To lower wavenumbers, five additional bands with R heads near 12 021, 12 816, 13 135, 14 136, and 15 125 cm-1 have been assigned as the 0-1, 3-3, 0-0, 1-0, and 2-0 bands, respectively, of the new A' 1Pi-X1Sigma+ transition. A rotational analysis of these bands has been carried out and equilibrium constants for the ground and excited states have been extracted. The Kv = 2 and 3 vibrational levels of the A' 1Pi state interact with the Kv = 0 and 1 levels of the A1Pi state and cause global perturbations in the bands. The ground state equilibrium constants for 193IrN are: omegae = 1126.176360(61) cm-1, omegaexe = 6.289697(32) cm-1, Be = 0.5001033(20) cm-1, alphae = 0.0032006(20) cm-1, and re = 1.6068276(32) Å. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. SISTEMA DE CROMOSSOMOS SEXUAIS MÚLTIPLOS X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y NA MOSCA-DAS-FRUTAS Anastrepha sororcula (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Regina de Araújo Moura Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas de cromossomos sexuais simples estão difundidos entre os Tephritidae do gênero Anastrepha. Espécies deste gênero apresentam enorme importância pelo impacto que causam em frutíferas cultivadas, sobretudo no nordeste do Brasil. Análises citogenéticas desenvolvidas em Anastrepha sororcula, através da análise da estrutura cariotípica e bandamento C revelaram a presença de um sistema de cromossomos sexuais múltiplos do tipo X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y nesta espécie. Enquanto as fêmeas apresentam um cariótipo homomórfico com 2n=12, os machos possuem 2n=11, onde se destaca um grande cromossomo Y despareado. O nível de divergência cariotípica da espécie A. sororcula do nordeste, com a presença de um sistema de cromossomos sexuais múltiplos, em relação às regiões central e sudeste do Brasil, podem indicar a ocorrência de impedimentos reprodutivos entre os exemplares das duas áreas e que possivelmente, como outros exemplos que existem neste gênero, A. sororcula constitua um complexo de espécies ainda não inteiramente definido. Palavras-chave: Alossomos, peste agrícola, citogenética de insetos, heterocromatina. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p1-4

  15. Towards Physarum Binary Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.04.005

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show --- in computer models --- that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate $ \\to $ and three-input two-output $ \\to $. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  16. Towards Physarum binary adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al. (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show - in computer models - that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate x, y-->xy, x+y and three-input two-output x,y,z-->x yz,x+y+z. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  17. Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the recent discovery of several millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in eccentric binary systems. Timing these MSPs we were able to estimate (and in one case precisely measure) their masses. These results suggest that, as a class, MSPs have a much wider range of masses (1.3 to > 2 solar masses) than the normal and mildly recycled pulsars found in double neutron star (DNS) systems (1.25 < Mp < 1.44 solar masses). This is very likely to be due to the prolonged accretion episode that is thought to be required to form a MSP. The likely existence of massive MSPs makes them a powerful probe for understanding the behavior of matter at densities larger than that of the atomic nucleus; in particular, the precise measurement of the mass of PSR J1903+0327 ($1.67 +/- 0.01 solar masses) excludes several "soft" equations of state for dense matter.

  18. No time for dead time: timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time ...... techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105....

  19. Re-scrutiny of a best intermediate mass black hole candidate M82 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Xu, Xiaojie; Qiu, Yanli; Wang, Song

    2015-08-01

    While several recent works on ultraluminous X-ray sources show some of them to be stellar mass black holes or even neutron stars with special radiation mechanisms, M82 X-1 remains one of the best intermediate mass black hole candidates in the local universe. It exhibits amazing properties including quasi-periodic oscillations and extremely high X-ray luminosities suggesting an intermediate mass black hole, a 62-day orbital period from RXTE observations suggestive of a supergiant secondary, and possible radio flare emission that could result from relativistic beaming. Recently we have re-scrutinized this source with a wealth of data from Chandra, Swift/XRT and Hubble, and found three surprises about M82 X-1. Firstly, there is an X-ray transient that is only 1" away from M82 X-1, which has a peak luminosity only 1% of M82 X-1 and is usually hidden in the shadow of M82 X-1. This X-ray transient is associated with the previously reported radio flare. Secondly, two years' Swift/XRT observations, with much much better spatial resolution than RXTE observations, have shown that the 62-day period comes from another nearby less brighter ultra-luminous X-ray source, but definitely not from M82 X-1. Thirdly, we find an optical counterpart for M82 X-1 within the newly obtained 0.4" error circle on Hubble images, and its spectral energy distribution from Hubble photometry shows that it has excessive Halpha emission but no excessive SII emission. This lack of excessive SII emission suggests that the Halpha emission is not from the surrounding nebula but from an accretion disk. The monitoring of this Halpha emission line will allow us to determine the mass of the black hole via dynamical means.

  20. Dynamical Evolution of Wide Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda H. Mallada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulate numerically encounters of wide binaries with field stars and Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs by means of the impulse approximation. We analyze the time evolution of the distributions of eccentricities and semimajor axes of wide binaries with given initial conditions, at intervals of 109 yr, up to 1010 yr (assumed age of the Galaxy. We compute the fraction of surviving binaries for stellar encounters, for GMC encounters and for a combination of both, and hence, the dynamical lifetime for different semimajor axes and different masses of binaries (0.5, 1, 1.2, 1.5, 2.5, and 3 Msolar. We find that the dynamical lifetime of wide binaries considering only GMCs is half than that considering only stars. For encounters with GMCs we analyze the influence of the initial inclination of the orbital plane of the binary with respect to the plane perpendicular to the relative velocity vector of the binary and the GMC. We find that the perturbation is maximum when the angle is minimum.

  1. Two P2X1 receptor transcripts able to form functional channels are present in most human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Cintya; Jaramillo-Polanco, Josue; Portales-Pérez, Diana P; Gómez-Coronado, Karen S; Rodríguez-Meléndez, Jessica G; Cortés-García, Juan D; Espinosa-Luna, Rosa; Montaño, Luis M; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2016-12-15

    To characterize the presence and general properties of P2X1 receptors in single human monocytes we used RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and the patch-clamp and the two-electrode voltage-clamp techniques. Most human monocytes expressed the canonical P2X1 (90%) and its splicing variant P2X1del (88%) mRNAs. P2X1 receptor immunoreactivity was also observed in 70% of these cells. Currents mediated by P2X1 (EC50=1.9±0.8µm) and P2X1del (EC50 >1000µm) channels, expressed in Xenopus leavis oocytes, have different ATP sensitivity and kinetics. Both currents mediated by P2X1 and P2X1del channels kept increasing during the continuous presence of high ATP concentrations. Currents mediated by the native P2X1 receptors in human monocytes showed an EC50=6.3±0.2µm. Currents have kinetics that resemble those observed for P2X1 and P2X1del receptors in oocytes. Our study is the first to demonstrate the expression of P2X1 transcript and its splicing variant P2X1del in most human monocytes. We also, for the first time, described functional homomeric P2X1del channels and demonstrated that currents mediated by P2X1 or P2X1del receptors, during heterologous expression, increased in amplitude when activated with high ATP concentrations in a similar fashion to those channels that increase their conductance under similar conditions, such as P2X7, P2X2, and P2X4 channels.

  2. Chaotic zones around gravitating binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound bodies (a double star, a double black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, in function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the binary periods. The binary's mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present, is also estimated.

  3. Bifurcation timescales in power spectra of black hole binaries and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For black hole binaries(BHBs) and active galactic nuclei(AGNs),bifurcation timescales(BTs) Δtb exist,below which time-domain power is significantly higher than the corresponding Fourier power.Quasi-periodic oscillations(QPOs) are removed from the Fourier spectra of BHBs.A relationship between BT,black hole mass and bolometric luminosity is derived.Strong anti-correlation between BT and luminosity of Cyg X-1 is found.After removing the QPOs,BTs are also obtained for two ultraluminous X-ray sources(ULXs),M82 X-1 and NGC5408 X-1.The results support that they harbor intermediate mass black holes(IMBHs).

  4. Modified evolution of stellar binaries from supermassive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries resided in the galactic centre is influenced a lot by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to this perturbation, the stars in a dense environment are likely to experience mergers or collisions through secular or non-secular interactions. In this work, we study the dynamics of the stellar binaries at galactic centre, perturbed by another distant SMBH. Geometrically, such a four-body system is supposed to be decomposed into the inner triple (SMBH-star-star) and the outer triple (SMBH-stellar binary-SMBH). We survey the parameter space and determine the criteria analytically for the stellar mergers and the tidal disruption events (TDEs). For a relative distant and equal masses SMBH binary, the stars have more opportunities to merge as a result from the Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the inner triple. With a sample of tight stellar binaries, our numerical experiments reveal that a significant fraction of the binaries, ∼70 per cent, experience merger eventually. Whereas the majority of the stellar TDEs are likely to occur at a close periapses to the SMBH, induced by the outer Kozai effect. The tidal disruptions are found numerically as many as ∼10 per cent for a close SMBH binary that is enhanced significantly than the one without the external SMBH. These effects require the outer perturber to have an inclined orbit (≥40°) relatively to the inner orbital plane and may lead to a burst of the extremely astronomical events associated with the detection of the SMBH binary.

  5. A Hard X-Ray Study of Ultraluminous X-ray Source NGC 5204 X-1 with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, E S; Bachetti, M; Harrison, F A; Barret, D; Bellm, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Fuerst, F; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Madsen, K K; Middleton, M J; Miller, J M; Rana, V; Stern, D; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from coordinated X-ray observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 performed by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton in early 2013. These observations provide the first detection of NGC 5204 X-1 above 10 keV, extending the broadband coverage to 0.3-20 keV. The observations were carried out in two epochs separated by approximately 10 days, and showed little spectral variation, with an observed luminosity of Lx = (4.95+/-0.11)e39 erg/s. The broadband spectrum confirms the presence of a clear spectral downturn above 10 keV, only hinted at by previous observations. This cutoff is inconsistent with the standard low/hard state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, as would be expected from an intermediate mass black hole accreting at significantly sub-Eddington rates given the observed luminosity. The continuum is apparently dominated by two optically thick thermal-like components, potentially accompanied by a faint non-thermal tail at high energies. The broadband spectrum is likely associat...

  6. Application of a relativistic accretion disc model to X-ray spectra of LMC X-1 and GRO J1655-40

    CERN Document Server

    Gierlinski, M; Ebisawa, K; Gierlinski, Marek; Maciolek-Niedzwiecki, Andrzej; Ebisawa, Ken

    2001-01-01

    We present a general relativistic accretion disc model and its application to the soft-state X-ray spectra of black hole binaries. The model assumes a flat, optically thick disc around a rotating Kerr black hole. The disc locally radiates away the dissipated energy as a blackbody. Special and general relativistic effects influencing photons emitted by the disc are taken into account. The emerging spectrum, as seen by a distant observer, is parametrized by the black hole mass and spin, the accretion rate, the disc inclination angle and the inner disc radius. We fit the ASCA soft state X-ray spectra of LMC X-1 and GRO J1655-40 by this model. We find that having additional limits on the black hole mass and inclination angle from optical/UV observations, we can constrain the black hole spin from X-ray data. In LMC X-1 the constrain is weak, we can only rule out the maximally rotating black hole. In GRO J1655-40 we can limit the spin much better, and we find 0.68 < a < 0.88. Accretion discs in both sources a...

  7. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that

  8. Stability of binaries. Part II: Rubble-pile binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2016-10-01

    We consider the stability of the binary asteroids whose members are granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever both its members are orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability analysis of Sharma (Sharma [2015] Icarus, 258, 438-453), that is applicable to binaries with rigid members, to the case of binary systems with rubble members. We employ volume averaging (Sharma et al. [2009] Icarus, 200, 304-322), which was inspired by past work on elastic/fluid, rotating and gravitating ellipsoids. This technique has shown promise when applied to rubble-pile ellipsoids, but requires further work to settle some of its underlying assumptions. The stability test is finally applied to some suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope. We also see that equilibrated binaries that are close to mobilizing their maximum friction can sustain only a narrow range of shapes and, generally, congruent shapes are preferred.

  9. Scaling of the F_2 structure function in nuclei and quark distributions at x>1

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, N; Day, D B; Gaskell, D; Daniel, A; Seely, J; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Boillat, B; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Bukhari, M H S; Christy, M E; Chudakov, E; Clasie, B; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Fassi, L El; Fenker, H; Filippone, B W; Garrow, K; Hill, C; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Jones, M K; Jourdan, J; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kiselev, D; Kotulla, M; Lindgren, R; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Miyoshi, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Okayasu, Y; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Potterveld, D H; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Reimer, P E; Roche, J; Rodriguez, V M; Rondon, O; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Slifer, K; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Trojer, R; Tvaskis, V; Vulcan, W F; Wasko, C; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Wright, J; Zheng, X

    2010-01-01

    We present new data on electron scattering from a range of nuclei taken in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. For heavy nuclei, we observe a rapid falloff in the cross section for $x>1$, which is sensitive to short range contributions to the nuclear wave-function, and in deep inelastic scattering corresponds to probing extremely high momentum quarks. This result agrees with higher energy muon scattering measurements, but is in sharp contrast to neutrino scattering measurements which suggested a dramatic enhancement in the distribution of the `super-fast' quarks probed at x>1. The falloff at x>1 is noticeably stronger in ^2H and ^3He, but nearly identical for all heavier nuclei.

  10. Kinect解绑X1的自我救赎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    清国清城

    2014-01-01

    微软曾打算将Kinect内置于主机最终玩家的呼声决定了一切在X1连连败退的巨大压力下,微软终于放弃了Kinect与主机的捆绑销售,虽然其官方姿态依然是“Kinect是X1优质体验的核心”,但事实是Kinect已不再是主机不可分割的一部分。这解决了许多问题,首先是消除了X1与PS4相比的价格劣势,

  11. HIGHLY IONIZED Fe-K ABSORPTION LINE FROM CYGNUS X-1 IN THE HIGH/SOFT STATE OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S.; Yoshikawa, A.; Makishima, K. [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Torii, S.; Noda, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mineshige, S. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ueda, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kubota, A. [Department of Electronic Information Systems, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 307 Fukasaku, Minuma-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama 337-8570 (Japan); Gandhi, P. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamiharas, 229-8510 Kanagawa (Japan); Done, C. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-20

    We present observations of a transient He-like Fe K{alpha} absorption line in Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 on 2011 October 5 near superior conjunction during the high/soft state, which enable us to map the full evolution from the start to the end of the episodic accretion phenomena or dips for the first time. We model the X-ray spectra during the event and trace their evolution. The absorption line is rather weak in the first half of the observation, but instantly deepens for {approx}10 ks, and weakens thereafter. The overall change in equivalent width is a factor of {approx}3, peaking at an orbital phase of {approx}0.08. This is evidence that the companion stellar wind feeding the black hole is clumpy. By analyzing the line with a Voigt profile, it is found to be consistent with a slightly redshifted Fe XXV transition, or possibly a mixture of several species less ionized than Fe XXV. The data may be explained by a clump located at a distance of {approx}10{sup 10-12} cm with a density of {approx}10{sup (-13)-(-11)} g cm{sup -3}, which accretes onto and/or transits the line of sight to the black hole, causing an instant decrease in the observed degree of ionization and/or an increase in density of the accreting matter. Continued monitoring for individual events with future X-ray calorimeter missions such as ASTRO-H and AXSIO will allow us to map out the accretion environment in detail and how it changes between the various accretion states.

  12. ELEFUNT test results under X1. 4 on the Encore Multimax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, W.J.

    1986-04-01

    Two libraries of Fortran test programs for elementary functions, MACHAR and ELEFUNT, were run on an Encore Multimax computer with 20 CPUs and 20 Megabytes of memory. The test program libraries were run under the X1.4 operating system (a version of 4.2 BSD UNIX). PARANOIA, an arithmetic test program, was run under the X1.2 operating system. Accuracy of the elementary functions, error detection, and error responses for the functions are discussed. 5 refs., 3 tabs. (DWL)

  13. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption

  14. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  15. Simulating relativistic binaries with Whisky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiotti, L.

    We report about our first tests and results in simulating the last phase of the coalescence and the merger of binary relativistic stars. The simulations were performed using our code Whisky and mesh refinement through the Carpet driver.

  16. An adaptable binary entropy coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel entropy coding technique which is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to-variable length binary source codes. We discuss code design and performance estimation methods, as well as practical encoding and decoding algorithms.

  17. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  18. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'.

  19. AN IMPROVED DESIGN OF REVERSIBLE BINARY TO BINARY CODED DECIMAL CONVERTER FOR BINARY CODED DECIMAL MULTIPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic gates under ideal conditions produce zero power dissipation. This factor highlights the usage of these gates in optical computing, low power CMOS design, quantum optics and quantum computing. The growth of decimal arithmetic in various applications as stressed the need to propose the study on reversible binary to BCD converter which plays a greater role in decimal multiplication for providing faster results. The different parameters such as gate count,garbage output and constant input are more optimized in the proposed fixed bit binary to binary coded decimal converter than the existing design.

  20. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  1. Residue arithmetic in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barsi, Ferruccio

    1988-01-01

    A natural approach to the problem of performing mod m computations in a binary system is presented and a solution is suggested which is based upon a straightforward relation between the residues of a same integer X with respect to different moduli. The proposed solution proves fruitful in various applications, such as converting binary integers to residue notation and mod m addition or multiplication. Even if the most usual implementation approach for mod m processors is based on look-up tabl...

  2. Coevolution of Binaries and Gaseous Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, David P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by $\\it Kepler$ raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc, and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for $10^4$ binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentri...

  3. Sco X-1 revisited with Kepler, MAXI and HERMES: outflows, time-lags and echoes unveiled

    CERN Document Server

    Scaringi, S; Hynes, R I; Koerding, E; Ponti, G; Knigge, C; Britt, C T; van Winckel, H

    2015-01-01

    Sco X-1 has been the subject of many multi-wavelength studies in the past, being the brightest persistent extra-solar X-ray source ever observed. Here we revisit Sco X-1 with simultaneous short cadence Kepler optical photometry and MAXI X-ray photometry over a 78 day period, as well as optical spectroscopy obtained with HERMES. We find Sco X-1 to be highly variable in all our datasets. The optical fluxes are clearly bimodal, implying the system can be found in two distinct optical states. These states are generally associated with the known flaring/normal branch X-ray states, although the flux distributions associated with these states overlap. Furthermore, we find that the optical power spectrum of Sco X-1 differs substantially between optical luminosity states. Additionally we find rms-flux relations in both optical states, but only find a linear relation during periods of low optical luminosity. The full optical/X-ray discrete correlation function displays a broad ~12.5 hour optical lag. However during the...

  4. Sasakian quiver gauge theory on the Aloff-Wallach space $X_{1,1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Geipel, Jakob C

    2016-01-01

    We consider the SU(3)-equivariant dimensional reduction of gauge theories on spaces of the form $M^d \\times X_{1,1}$ with d-dimensional Riemannian manifold $M^d$ and the Aloff-Wallach space $X_{1,1}$= SU(3)/U(1) endowed with its Sasaki-Einstein structure. The condition of SU(3)-equivariance of vector bundles, which has already occurred in the studies of Spin(7)-instantons on cones over Aloff-Wallach spaces, is interpreted in terms of quiver diagrams, and we construct the corresponding quiver bundles, using (parts of) the weight diagram of SU(3). We consider three examples thereof explicitly and then compare the results with the quiver gauge theory on $Q_3$ =SU(3)/(U(1) x U(1)), the leaf space underlying the Sasaki-Einstein manifold $X_{1,1}$. Moreover, we study instanton solutions on the metric cone $C(X_{1,1})$ by evaluating the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation. We briefly discuss some features of the moduli space thereof, following the main ideas of a treatment of Hermitian Yang-Mills instantons on cones over ...

  5. The Hard X-ray Emission from Scorpius X-1 as Seen by INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, S. J.; Shrader, C. R.; Weidenspointner, G.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of our hard X-ray and gamma-ray study of the LMXB Sco X-1 utilizing INTEGRAL data as well as contemporaneous RXTE PCA data. We have concentrated on investigating the hard X-ray spectral properties of Sco X-1 including the nature of the high-energy, nonthermal component of the spectrum and its possible correlations with the location of the source on the X-ray color-color diagram. We find that Sco X-1 has two distinct spectral when the 20-40 keV count rate is greater than 140 counts/second. One state is a hard state which exhibits a significant high-energy, powerlaw tail to the lower energy thermal spectrum. The other state shows no evidence for a powerlaw tail whatsoever. We found suggestive evidence for a correlation of these hard and soft high-energy states with the position of Sco X-1 on the low-energy X-ray color-color diagram.

  6. The Hard X-Ray Emission from Scorpius X-1 Seen by INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Steve; Shrader, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of our hard X-ray and gamma-ray study of the LMXB Sco X-1 utilizing INTEGRAL data as well as contemporaneous RXTE PCA data. We have investigated the hard X-ray spectral properties of Sco X-1 including the nature of the high-energy, nonthermal component and its possible correlations with the location of the source on the soft X-ray color-color diagram. We find that Sco X-1 follows two distinct spectral tracks when the 20-40 keV count rate is greater than 130 counts/second. One state is a hard state which exhibits a significant high-energy, powerlaw tail to the lower energy thermal spectrum. The other state shows a much less significant high-energy component. We found suggestive evidence for a correlation of these hard and soft high-energy states with the position of Sco X-1 on the low-energy X-ray color-color diagram. We have searched for similar behavior in 2 other Z sources: GX 17+2 and GX 5-1 with negative results.

  7. Sasakian quiver gauge theory on the Aloff-Wallach space X1,1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipel, Jakob C.

    2017-03-01

    We consider the SU (3)-equivariant dimensional reduction of gauge theories on spaces of the form Md ×X1,1 with d-dimensional Riemannian manifold Md and the Aloff-Wallach space X1,1 = SU (3) / U (1) endowed with its Sasaki-Einstein structure. The condition of SU (3)-equivariance of vector bundles, which has already occurred in the studies of Spin (7)-instantons on cones over Aloff-Wallach spaces, is interpreted in terms of quiver diagrams, and we construct the corresponding quiver bundles, using (parts of) the weight diagram of SU (3). We consider three examples thereof explicitly and then compare the results with the quiver gauge theory on Q3 = SU (3) / (U (1) × U (1)), the leaf space underlying the Sasaki-Einstein manifold X1,1. Moreover, we study instanton solutions on the metric cone C (X1,1) by evaluating the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation. We briefly discuss some features of the moduli space thereof, following the main ideas of a treatment of Hermitian Yang-Mills instantons on cones over generic Sasaki-Einstein manifolds in the literature.

  8. Training Extract. AFSC 4D0X1 Diet Therapy (Active Duty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    212* 23* 52* 49* 109* 51* V0165 Diet (s) exp- Vegan Diet ...2* 2* V0165 Diet (s) exp- Vegan Diet TOT ALL AETC ACC AMC PAC AFE...UNITED STATES AIR FORCE TRAINING EXTRACT AFSC 4D0X1 DIET THERAPY (ACTIVE DUTY) OSSN: 2472 JULY 2002 OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS PROGRAM AIR FORCE

  9. Development and Safety Assessment of Lentiviral Vector Gene Therapy for SCID-X1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Huston (Marshall W.)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis work focuses on exploring ways to improve hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID-X1) using lentiviral vectors and a mouse model of the disease. This involved 3-part approach: modifying some components

  10. Unsupervised learning of binary vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelli Lopes da Silva, Mauro

    In this thesis, unsupervised learning of binary vectors from data is studied using methods from Statistical Mechanics of disordered systems. In the model, data vectors are distributed according to a single symmetry-breaking direction. The aim of unsupervised learning is to provide a good approximation to this direction. The difference with respect to previous studies is the knowledge that this preferential direction has binary components. It is shown that sampling from the posterior distribution (Gibbs learning) leads, for general smooth distributions, to an exponentially fast approach to perfect learning in the asymptotic limit of large number of examples. If the distribution is non-smooth, then first order phase transitions to perfect learning are expected. In the limit of poor performance, a second order phase transition ("retarded learning") is predicted to occur if the data distribution is not biased. Using concepts from Bayesian inference, the center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble is shown to have maximal average (Bayes-optimal) performance. This upper bound for continuous vectors is extended to a discrete space, resulting in the clipped center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble having maximal average performance among the binary vectors. To calculate the performance of this best binary vector, the geometric properties of the center of mass of binary vectors are studied. The surprising result is found that the center of mass of infinite binary vectors which obey some simple constraints, is again a binary vector. When disorder is taken into account in the calculation, however, a vector with continuous components is obtained. The performance of the best binary vector is calculated and shown to always lie above that of Gibbs learning and below the Bayes-optimal performance. Making use of a variational approach under the replica symmetric ansatz, an optimal potential is constructed in the limits of zero temperature and mutual overlap 1. Minimization of this potential

  11. Implementation of the frequency-modulated sideband search method for gravitational waves from low mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Sammut, Letizia; Melatos, Andrew; Owen, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    We describe the practical implementation of the sideband search, a search for periodic gravitational waves from neutron stars in binary systems. The orbital motion of the source in its binary system causes frequency-modulation in the combination of matched filters known as the $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic. The sideband search is based on the incoherent summation of these frequency-modulated $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic sidebands. It provides a new detection statistic for sources in binary systems, called the $\\mathcal{C}$-statistic. The search is well suited to low-mass X-ray binaries, the brightest of which, called Sco X-1, is an ideal target candidate. For sources like Sco X-1, with well constrained orbital parameters, a slight variation on the search is possible. The extra orbital information can be used to approximately demodulate the data from the binary orbital motion in the coherent stage, before incoherently summing the now reduced number of sidebands. We investigate this approach and show that it improves the ...

  12. Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...

  13. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em

    2002-01-01

    It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...

  14. Evaporative Instability in Binary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ranga; Uguz, Erdem

    2012-11-01

    In this talk we depict the physics of evaporative convection for binary systems in the presence of surface tension gradient effects. Two results are of importance. The first is that a binary system, in the absence of gravity, can generate an instability only when heated from the vapor side. This is to be contrasted with the case of a single component where instability can occur only when heated from the liquid side. The second result is that a binary system, in the presence of gravity, will generate an instability when heated from either the vapor or the liquid side provided the heating is strong enough. In addition to these results we show the conditions at which interfacial patterns can occur. Support from NSF OISE 0968313, Partner Univ. Fund and a Chateaubriand Fellowship is acknowledged.

  15. Marangoni Convection in Binary Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Oron, A; Behringer, Robert P.; Oron, Alexander; Zhang, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Marangoni instabilities in binary mixtures are different from those in pure liquids. In contrast to a large amount of experimental work on Marangoni convection in pure liquids, such experiments in binary mixtures are not available in the literature, to our knowledge. Using binary mixtures of sodium chloride/water, we have systematically investigated the pattern formation for a set of substrate temperatures and solute concentrations in an open system. The flow patterns evolve with time, driven by surface-tension fluctuations due to evaporation and the Soret effect, while the air-liquid interface does not deform. A shadowgraph method is used to follow the pattern formation in time. The patterns are mainly composed of polygons and rolls. The mean pattern size first decreases slightly, and then gradually increases during the evolution. Evaporation affects the pattern formation mainly at the early stage and the local evaporation rate tends to become spatially uniform at the film surface. The Soret effect becomes i...

  16. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  17. Black Hole Binaries in Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    I discuss some of what is known and unknown about the behavior of black hole binary systems in the quiescent accretion state. Quiescence is important for several reasons: 1) the dominance of the companion star in the optical and IR wavelengths allows the binary parameters to be robustly determined - as an example, we argue that the longer proposed distance to the X-ray source GRO J1655-40 is correct; 2) quiescence represents the limiting case of an extremely low accretion rate, in which both accretion and jets can be observed; 3) understanding the evolution and duration of the quiescent state is a key factor in determining the overall demographics of X-rary binaries, which has taken on a new importance in the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

  18. Bimodal quasi-oscillatory and spectral behavior in Scorpius X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Hasinger, G.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Middleditch, J.; Parmar, A.

    1986-01-01

    Exosat observations of Sco X-1 obtained using the Xe and/or Ar detectors for a total of about 80,000 s during four runs on August 24-27, 1985 are reported and analyzed. Two modes of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) corresponding to the quiescent and active states of Sco X-1 and to two modes of spectral behavior are identified and characterized, confirming the findings of Priedhorsky (1985) and Middleditch and Priedhorsky (1986). In the quiescent state, the QPO frequency is about 6 Hz and is anticorrelated with intensity, and the spectral hardness ratio (14-21 vs 2-7 keV) varies steeply with intensity; in the active state, QPO frequency is correlated with intensity and varies from 10 to 20 Hz, and the spectral-hardness-ratio/intensity curve is flatter. Previous observations of bimodal behavior in other bands are summarized, and theoretical models proposed to explain them are discussed.

  19. Co-metabolic degradation of dimethoate by Raoultella sp. X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yili; Zeng, Fuhua; Qiu, Guanzhou; Lu, Xiangyang; Liu, Xueduan; Gao, Haichun

    2009-06-01

    A bacterium Raoultella sp. X1, based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, was isolated. Characteristics regarding the bacterial morphology, physiology, and genetics were investigated with an electron microscopy and conventional microbiological techniques. Although the isolate grew and degraded dimethoate poorly when the chemical was used as a sole carbon and energy source, it was able to remove up to 75% of dimethoate via co-metabolism. With a response surface methodology, we optimized carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of the media for dimethoate degradation. Raoultella sp. X1 has a potential to be a useful organism for dimethoate degradation and a model strain for studying this biological process at the molecular level.

  20. The X1Σ +g ground state of Mg2 studied by Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöckel, H.; Rühmann, S.; Tiemann, E.

    2013-03-01

    The A^1Σ u^+ - X^1Σ g^+ UV spectrum of Mg2 has been investigated with high resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Mg2 vapor was created in a heat pipe. Various spectroscopic methods have been employed, such as conventional absorption spectroscopy with light from a broad band lamp and laser-induced fluorescence. The high resolution of the Fourier-transform spectrometer, together with computer aided evaluation methods of the spectra, yields precise transition frequencies. The new data and data available from earlier investigations are applied in direct potential fits of lower and upper electronic states. Various representations of potential energy curves for the ground state X^1Σ g^+ have been employed and their benefits in terms of smallest number of parameters are discussed. Scattering lengths are derived for the homonuclear isotopologues and compared with previous results.

  1. Chemisorption of aromatic molecules on Si(100)-2x1. An HREELS study

    CERN Document Server

    Alkunshalie, T

    1998-01-01

    HREELS has been used to investigate the growth of ultra-thin organic film on Si(100)-2x1 by reactive coupling of polyimide precursors. 1,4- phenylenediamine and pyromelltic dianhydride were sequentially dosed on clean Si(100)-2x1 under ultra high vacuum conditions. The interfacial imidisation was initiated by thermal curing at 200 deg C. To simplify the analysis of the vibrational data, model compounds benzoic acid, aniline and phthalic anhydride were characterised first. HREEL spectra show that the model compounds absorb through dissociation of the functional group. The spectra also show that an oligimide chain has been formed which stands upright on the surface. The oligomer chain bonds to the silicon surface via a Si-(NH)-C linkage.

  2. An Analysis of Coupling between the x1 and x12 Interferometers for LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brittany

    2017-01-01

    Due to tolerances in the manufacturing process, noise from the jittering of the spacecraft housing LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is appearing in the differential measurement between its two test masses (TM's). This phenomenon manifests as a small but measurable coupling between the readouts of LPF's two heterodyne interferometers, x1 and x12. In this study, two LISA Pathfinder experiments are analyzed using three methods in an effort to characterize and quantify the coupling as well as to potentially identify its source. The main question considered is this: does the coupling change with the absolute displacement between the TM's? As a result of this work, reliable values for coupling between LPF's x1 and x12 interferometers are found, and they are seen to depend on the absolute displacement between the test masses to some degree. Completed at the Albert Einstein Institute for Gravitational Physics under the International REU program from the University of Florida.

  3. X-ray spectra of Hercules X-1. I - Iron line fluorescence from a subrelativistic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of Her X-1 was observed in the energy range from 2 to 24 keV from August 29 to September 3, 1975. Emission features are observed near the K-alpha iron-line energy which exhibit both broadening and a double line structure. The total luminosity in these features is about 4 by 10 to the 35th power ergs/s. Iron line fluorescence from an opaque cool (not exceeding 1 million K) shell of material at the Alfven surface provides the necessary luminosity in this feature. The double line structure and the line energy width can be due to Doppler shifts if the shell is forced to corotate with the pulsar at a radius of at least 800 million cm. Implications of this model regarding physical conditions near Her X-1 are discussed.

  4. An Iron K Component to the Ultrafast Outflow in NGC 1313 X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Pinto, C; Fabian, A C; Bachetti, M; Barret, D; Brightman, M; Fuerst, F; Harrison, F A; Miller, J M; Stern, D

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of an absorpton feature at $E=8.77^{+0.05}_{-0.06}$ keV in the combined X-ray spectrum of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 1313 X-1 observed with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, significant at the 3$\\sigma$ level. If associated with blueshifted ionized iron, the implied outflow velocity is ~0.2$c$ for Fe XXVI, or ~0.25$c$ for Fe XXV. These velocities are similar to the ultrafast outflow seen in absorption recently discovered in this source at lower energies by XMM-Newton, and we therefore conclude that this is an iron component to the same outflow. Photoionization modeling marginally prefers the Fe XXV solution, but in either case the outflow properties appear to be extreme, potentially supporting a super-Eddington hypothesis for NGC 1313 X-1.

  5. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  6. Statistical Study of Visual Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Rahman, H I; Elsanhoury, W H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, some statistical distributions of wide pairs included in Double Star Catalogue are investigated. Frequency distributions and testing hypothesis are derived for some basic parameters of visual binaries. The results reached indicate that, it was found that the magnitude difference is distributed exponentially, which means that the majority of the component of the selected systems is of the same spectral type. The distribution of the mass ratios is concentrated about 0.7 which agree with Salpeter mass function. The distribution of the linear separation appears to be exponentially, which contradict with previous studies for close binaries.

  7. Light Curve Periodic Variability of Cyg X-1 using Jurkevich Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai-Jun Dong; Yan-Ke Tang; Ning Gai

    2014-09-01

    The Jurkevich method is a useful method to explore periodicity in the unevenly sampled observational data. In this work, we adopted the method to the light curve of Cyg X-1 from 1996 to 2012, and found that there is an interesting period of 370 days, which appears in both low/hard and high/soft states. That period may be correlated with black hole physics and accretion disk geometry.

  8. SAS-3 observations of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canizares, C. R.; Bradt, H.; Buff, J.; Laufer, B.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the SAS-3 observation of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1. The 1.5 to 6 keV intensity rose by a factor of four and exhibited variability on several time scales from seconds to hours. The 6 to 15 keV intensity showed less activity. The event is similar to that observed by ANS and Ariel 5, but lasted less than two weeks.

  9. Intravenous injection of a foamy virus vector to correct canine SCID-X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtner, Christopher R; Beard, Brian C; Kennedy, Douglas R; Wohlfahrt, Martin E; Adair, Jennifer E; Trobridge, Grant D; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Torgerson, Troy R; Rawlings, David J; Felsburg, Peter J; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-05

    Current approaches to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy involve the collection and ex vivo manipulation of HSCs, a process associated with loss of stem cell multipotency and engraftment potential. An alternative approach for correcting blood-related diseases is the direct intravenous administration of viral vectors, so-called in vivo gene therapy. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of in vivo gene therapy using a foamy virus vector for the correction of canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1). In newborn SCID-X1 dogs, injection of a foamy virus vector expressing the human IL2RG gene resulted in an expansion of lymphocytes expressing the common γ chain and the development of CD3(+) T lymphocytes. CD3(+) cells expressed CD4 and CD8 coreceptors, underwent antigen receptor gene rearrangement, and demonstrated functional maturity in response to T-cell mitogens. Retroviral integration site analysis in 4 animals revealed a polyclonal pattern of integration in all dogs with evidence for dominant clones. These results demonstrate that a foamy virus vector can be administered with therapeutic benefit in the SCID-X1 dog, a clinically relevant preclinical model for in vivo gene therapy.

  10. Was Comet C/1945 X1 (du Toit) a Tiny, SOHO-Like Kreutz Sungrazer?

    CERN Document Server

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to reinterpret and upgrade the astrometric and other data on comet C/1945 X1, the least prominent among the Kreutz system sungrazers discovered from the ground in the 20th century. The central issue is to appraise the pros and cons of a possibility that this object is --- despite its brightness reported at discovery --- a dwarf Kreutz sungrazer. We confirm Marsden's (1989) conclusion that C/1945 X1 has a common parent with C/1882 R1 and C/1965 S1, in line with the Sekanina-Chodas (2004) scenario of their origin in the framework of the Kreutz system's evolution. We integrate the orbit of C/1882 R1 back to the early 12th century and then forward to around 1945 to determine the nominal direction of the line of apsides and perform a Fourier analysis to get insight into effects of the indirect planetary perturbations. To better understand the nature of C/1945 X1, its orbital motion, fate, and role in the hierarchy of the Kreutz system as well as to attempt detecting the comet's po...

  11. Optimizing performance of superscalar codes for a single Cray X1MSP processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich; Oliker, Leonid

    2004-06-08

    The growing gap between sustained and peak performance for full-scale complex scientific applications on conventional supercomputers is a major concern in high performance computing. The recently-released vector-based Cray X1 offers to bridge this gap for many demanding scientific applications. However, this unique architecture contains both data caches and multi-streaming processing units, and the optimal programming methodology is still under investigation. In this paper we investigate Cray X1 code optimization for a suite of computational kernels originally designed for superscalar processors. For our study, we select four applications from the SPLASH2 application suite (1-D FFT,Radix, Ocean, and Nbody), two kernels from the NAS benchmark suite (3-DFFT and CG), and a matrix-matrix multiplication kernel. Results show that for many cases, the addition of vectorization compiler directives results faster runtimes. However, to achieve a significant performance improvement via increased vector length, it is often necessary to restructure the program at the source level sometimes leading to algorithmic level transformations. Additionally, memory bank conflicts may result in substantial performance losses. These conflicts can often be exacerbated when optimizing code for increased vector lengths, and must be explicitly minimized. Finally, we investigate the relationship of the X1 data caches on overall performance.

  12. The Shifting Technique for Computing the Extreme Solutions of $X + A^\\top X^{-1} A = Q$

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Chun-Yueh; Lin, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new way for speeding up the search of the maximal solution $X_+$ of $X + A^\\top X^{-1} A = Q$. It is known that the speed of convergence of traditional approaches for solving this problem depends highly on the spectral radius $\\rho(X_+^{-1}A)$. If $\\rho(X_+^{-1}A)$ is close to one or equal to one, the iterations of traditional approaches converges very slowly or does not converge. Our goal is to come up with a shifting tactic to remove the singularities embedded in $\\rho(X_+^{-1}...

  13. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Orosz, J. A. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1221 (United States); Peters, G. J., E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: rmatson@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: gjpeters@mucen.usc.edu [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  14. Binary/BCD-to-ASCII data converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Converter inputs multiple precision binary words, converts data to multiple precision binary-coded decimal, and routes data back to computer. Converter base can be readily changed without need for new gate structure for each base changeover.

  15. Binary stars in the RAVE survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwitter T.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We searched the sample of RAVE survey spectra for both types of spectroscopic binary stars in order to estimate their number in the sample and perform a study on newly discovered binaries.

  16. Polarized Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, P.; Rodriquez, J.; Wilms, J.; Bel, M. Cadolle; Pottschmidt, K.; Grinberg, V.

    2011-01-01

    Because of their inherently high flux allowing the detection of clear signals, black hole X-ray binaries are interesting candidates for polarization studies, even if no polarization signals have been observed from them before. Such measurements would provide further detailed insight into these sources' emission mechanisms. We measured the polarization of the gamma-ray emission from the black hole binary system Cygnus X-I with the INTEGRAL/IBIS telescope. Spectral modeling ofthe data reveals two emission mechanisms: The 250-400 keY data are consistent with emission dominated by Compton scattering on thermal electrons and are weakly polarized. The second spectral component seen in the 400keV-2MeV band is by contrast strongly polarized, revealing that the MeV emission is probably related to the jet first detected in the radio band.

  17. Evidence for an Intermediate Mass Black Hole in NGC 5408 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of correlated spectral and timing behavior in the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. An approx. 100 ksec pointing with XMM/Newton obtained in January, 2008 reveals a strong 10 mHz QPO in the > 1 keV flux, as well as flat-topped, band limited noise breaking to a power law. The energy spectrum is again dominated by two components, a 0.16 keV thermal disk and a power-law with an index of approx. 2.5. These new measurements, combined with results from our previous January 2006 pointing in which we first detected QPOs, show for the first time in a ULX a pattern of spectral and temporal correlations strongly analogous to that seen in Galactic black hole sources, but at much higher X-ray luminosity and longer characteristic time-scales. We find that the QPO frequency is proportional to the inferred disk flux, while the QPO and broad-band noise amplitude (root mean squared, rms) are inversely proportional to the disk flux. Assuming that QPO frequency scales inversely with black hole mass at a given power-law spectral index we derive mass estimates using the observed QPO frequency - spectral index relations from five stellar-mass black hole systems with dynamical mass constraints. The results from all sources are consistent with a mass range for NGC 5408 X-1 from 1000 - 9000 Stellar mass. We argue that these are conservative limits, and a more likely range is from 2000 - 5000 Stellar mass. Moreover, the recent relation from Gierlinski et al. that relates black hole mass to the strength of variability at high frequencies (above the break in the power spectrum), and the variability plane results of McHardy et al. and Koerding et al., are also suggestive of such a. high mass for NGC 5408 X-1. Importantly, none of the above estimates appears consistent with a black hole mass less than approx. 1000 Stellar mass for NGC 5408 X-1. We argue that these new findings strongly support the conclusion that NGC 5408 X-1 harbors an

  18. Impaired P2X1 Receptor-Mediated Adhesion in Eosinophils from Asthmatic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn; Symon, Fiona; Sylvius, Nicolas; Ran, Shaun; Bafadhel, Mona; Muessel, Michelle; Bradding, Peter; Wardlaw, Andrew; Vial, Catherine

    2016-06-15

    Eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and can be activated by extracellular nucleotides released following cell damage or inflammation. For example, increased ATP concentrations were reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of asthmatic patients. Although eosinophils are known to express several subtypes of P2 receptors for extracellular nucleotides, their function and contribution to asthma remain unclear. In this article, we show that transcripts for P2X1, P2X4, and P2X5 receptors were expressed in healthy and asthmatic eosinophils. The P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP; 10 μM) evoked rapidly activating and desensitizing inward currents (peak 18 ± 3 pA/pF at -60 mV) in healthy eosinophils, typical of P2X1 homomeric receptors, which were abolished by the selective P2X1 antagonist NF449 (1 μM) (3 ± 2 pA/pF). α,β-meATP-evoked currents were smaller in eosinophils from asthmatic patients (8 ± 2 versus 27 ± 5 pA/pF for healthy) but were enhanced following treatment with a high concentration of the nucleotidase apyrase (17 ± 5 pA/pF for 10 IU/ml and 11 ± 3 pA/pF for 0.32 IU/ml), indicating that the channels are partially desensitized by extracellular nucleotides. α,β-meATP (10 μM) increased the expression of CD11b activated form in eosinophils from healthy, but not asthmatic, donors (143 ± 21% and 108 ± 11% of control response, respectively). Furthermore, α,β-meATP increased healthy (18 ± 2% compared with control 10 ± 1%) but not asthmatic (13 ± 1% versus 10 ± 0% for control) eosinophil adhesion. Healthy human eosinophils express functional P2X1 receptors whose activation leads to eosinophil αMβ2 integrin-dependent adhesion. P2X1 responses are constitutively reduced in asthmatic compared with healthy eosinophils, probably as the result of an increase in extracellular nucleotide concentration.

  19. Bayesian analysis of binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, David C.

    2005-03-01

    This manuscript details Bayesian methodology for "learning by example", with binary n-sequences encoding the objects under consideration. Priors prove influential; conformable priors are described. Laplace approximation of Bayes integrals yields posterior likelihoods for all n-sequences. This involves the optimization of a definite function over a convex domain--efficiently effectuated by the sequential application of the quadratic program.

  20. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I., E-mail: iis@gao.spb.ru [Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoje ave. 65, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  1. A Galactic Binary Detection Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, Tyson B.

    2011-01-01

    The Galaxy is suspected to contain hundreds of millions of binary white dwarf systems, a large fraction of which will have sufficiently small orbital period to emit gravitational radiation in band for space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA's main science goal is the detection of cosmological events (supermassive black hole mergers, etc.) however the gravitational signal from the galaxy will be the dominant contribution to the data - including instrumental noise over approximately two decades in frequency. The catalogue of detectable binary systems will serve as an unparalleled means of studying the Galaxy. Furthermore, to maximize the scientific return from the mission, the data must be "cleansed" of the galactic foreground. We will present an algorithm that can accurately resolve and subtract 2:: 10000 of these sources from simulated data supplied by the Mock LISA Data Challenge Task Force. Using the time evolution of the gravitational wave frequency, we will reconstruct the position of the recovered binaries and show how LISA will sample the entire compact binary population in the Galaxy.

  2. The Meritfactor of Binary Seqences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Binary sequences with small aperiodic correlations play an important role in many applications ranging from radar to modulation and testing of systems. Golay(1977) introduced the merit factor as a measure of the goodness of the sequence and conjectured an upper bound for this. His conjecture is s...

  3. Eccentricity distribution of wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 477 solar-type binaries within 67pc with projected separations larger than 50AU is studied by a new statistical method. Speed and direction of the relative motion are determined from the short observed arcs or known orbits, and their joint distribution is compared to the numerical simulations. By inverting the observed distribution with the help of simulations, we find that average eccentricity of wide binaries is 0.59+-0.02 and the eccentricity distribution can be modeled as f(e) ~= 1.2 e + 0.4. However, wide binaries containing inner subsystems, i.e. triple or higher-order multiples, have significantly smaller eccentricities with the average e = 0.52+-0.05 and the peak at e ~ 0.5. We find that the catalog of visual orbits is strongly biased against large eccentricities. A marginal evidence of eccentricity increasing with separation (or period) is found for this sample. Comparison with spectroscopic binaries proves the reality of the controversial period-eccentricity relation. The average eccentr...

  4. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  5. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  6. Implementing the TMS320C6X1X HPI Boot Process%实现TMS320C6X1X HPI启动模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪义; 王金奎; 刘永辉

    2005-01-01

    TMS320C6X1X系列的DSPs提供了几种不同的启动模式,对于上位机+DSP方式的系统,上位机可以通过HPI接口加载并启动DSP.给出了一种通过HPI接口直接加载DSP可执行文件方法,此方法不需要利用转换工具和自编程序工具对COFF格式的可执行文件进行转换、不需要根据不同的DSP应用程序编写不同的命令文件以及加载程序,直接加载COFF格式的文件.经过实际测试,此种方法简单有效、通用性强、可以节省大量开发时间,具有很好的实用价值.

  7. Discovery of a 7 mHz X-Ray Quasi-Periodic Oscillation from the Most Massive Stellar-Mass Black Hole IC 10 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of an approx.. = 7 mHz X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) from the eclipsing, high-inclination black hole binary IC 10 X-1. The QPO is significant at >4.33 sigma confidence level and has a fractional amplitude (% rms) and a quality factor, Q is identical with nu/delta nu, of approx. = 11 and 4, respectively. The overall X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) power spectrum in the frequency range 0.0001-0.1 Hz can be described by a power-law with an index of approx. = -2, and a QPO at 7 mHz. At frequencies approx. > 0.02 Hz there is no evidence for significant variability. The fractional amplitude (rms) of the QPO is roughly energy-independent in the energy range of 0.3-1.5 keV. Above 1.5 keV the low signal-to-noise ratio of the data does not allow us to detect the QPO. By directly comparing these properties with the wide range of QPOs currently known from accreting black hole and neutron stars, we suggest that the 7 mHz QPO of IC 10 X-1 may be linked to one of the following three categories of QPOs: (1) the "heartbeat" mHz QPOs of the black hole sources GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, or (2) the 0.6-2.4 Hz "dipper QPOs" of high-inclination neutron star systems, or (3) the mHz QPOs of Cygnus X-3.

  8. On the Nature of the mHz X-ray Quasi-Periodic Oscillations from Ultraluminous X-ray source M82 X-1: Search for Timing-Spectral Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its hardness ratio (5-10 keV/3-5 keV), an indicator of the energy spectral power-law index. When stellar-mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibit type-C low-frequency QPOs (0.2-15 Hz), the centroid frequency of the QPO is known to correlate with the energy spectral index. The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of M82 X-1's mHz QPOs as type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass.We resolved the count rates and the hardness ratios of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling.We detected QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which M82 X-1's hardness ratio varied from 0.42 to 0.47. Our primary results are (1) that we do not detect any correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the hardness ratio (a substitute for the energy spectral power-law index) and (2) similar to some accreting X-ray binaries, we find that M82 X-1's mHz QPO frequency increases with its X-ray count rate (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.97). The apparent lack of a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the hardness ratio poses a challenge to the earlier claims that the mHz QPOs of M82 X-1 are the analogs of the type-C low-frequency QPOs of StMBHs. On the other hand, it is possible that the observed relation between the hardness ratio and the QPO frequency represents the saturated portion of the correlation seen in type-C QPOs of StMBHs-in which case M82 X-1's mHz QPOs can still be analogous to type-C QPOs.

  9. Language Learning Actions in Two 1x1 Secondary Schools in Catalonia: The Case of Online Language Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Boris Vázquez; Cassany, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes current attitudes towards classroom digitization and digital language learning practices under the umbrella of EduCAT 1x1, the One-Laptop-Per-Child (OLPC or 1x1) initiative in place in Catalonia. We thoroughly analyze practices worked out by six language teachers and twelve Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE)…

  10. Gravitational Microlensing of Binary and Binary and Multiple Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    1995-08-01

    Recent observations of the effect of microlensing of stars of large Magellanic Clouds by dark bodies of Galactic Halo have led to the discovery of new population in our galaxy - dark bodies with amsses ~ 0.1 M(sun). As a consequence, astronomers have gained a unique possibility of using gravitational microlensing as an effective extraterestrial telescope with extremely high angular resolution. Application of this to binary stars is discussed. of particular interest is to apply microlensing to search for planetary stars . Planets and stars move about the center of gravity of the system , so the appaarent motion of a star in nonuniform and the light curve is asymetrical and colour dependent. This allows to determin basic parameters of binary system

  11. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  12. WAS COMET C/1945 X1 (DU TOIT) A DWARF, SOHO-LIKE KREUTZ SUNGRAZER?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekanina, Zdenek [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kracht, Rainer, E-mail: Zdenek.Sekanina@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: R.Kracht@t-online.de [Ostlandring 53, D-25335 Elmshorn, Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    The goal of this investigation is to reinterpret and upgrade the astrometric and other data on comet C/1945 X1, the least prominent among the Kreutz system sungrazers discovered from the ground in the twentieth century. The central issue is to appraise the pros and cons of a possibility that this object is—despite its brightness reported at discovery—a dwarf Kreutz sungrazer. We confirm Marsden’s conclusion that C/1945 X1 has a common parent with C/1882 R1 and C/1965 S1, in line with the Sekanina and Chodas scenario of their origin in the framework of the Kreutz system’s evolution. We integrate the orbit of C/1882 R1 back to the early twelfth century and then forward to around 1945 to determine the nominal direction of the line of apsides and perform a Fourier analysis to get insight into effects of the indirect planetary perturbations. To better understand the nature of C/1945 X1, its orbital motion, fate, and role in the hierarchy of the Kreutz system, as well as to attempt detecting the comet’s possible terminal outburst shortly after perihelion and answer the question in the title of this investigation, we closely examined the relevant Boyden Observatory logbooks and identified both the photographs with the comet’s known images and nearly 20 additional patrol plates, taken both before and after perihelion, on which the comet or traces of its debris will be searched for, once the process of their digitization, currently conducted as part of the Harvard College Observatory’s DASCH Project, has been completed and the scanned copies made available to the scientific community.

  13. NuSTAR discovery of a luminosity dependent cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern;

    2014-01-01

    observation, covering almost one order of magnitude in flux. These observations allow, for the first time ever, investigations on kilo-second time-scales of how the centroid energies of cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) depend on flux for a persistent HMXB. We find that the line energy...... of the line energies is variable with time and deviates significantly from 2.0, also a possible consequence of photon spawning, which changes the shape of the line. During the second observation, Vela X-1 showed a short off-state in which the power-law softened and a cut-off was no longer measurable...

  14. The time lag spectrum of Cir X-1 on its normal branch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the radiation-hydrodynamics model,the time lag and fractional root-mean-squared(rms) amplitude as a function of emitted photon energy should show a minimum on the normal branch oscillations.This has been seen in the Z-sources Cyg X-2 and GX 5-1.Here,using the observations from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer(RXTE),we study the energy dependence of normal branch QPOs in the peculiar Z-source Cir X-1.We discuss the results in the context of radiation-hydrodynamics and the Comptonization model.

  15. Experimental surface charge density of the Si (100)-2x1H surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciston, J.; Marks, L.D.; Feidenhans'l, R.;

    2006-01-01

    We report a three-dimensional charge density refinement from x-ray diffraction intensities of the Si (100) 2x1H surface. By paying careful attention to parameterizing the bulk Si bonding, we are able to locate the hydrogen atoms at the surface, which could not be done previously. In addition, we...... are able to partially refine the local charge density at the surface. We find experimentally an increased, slightly localized bond density of approximately 0.31 electrons between each Si atom pair at the surface. Both the atomic positions and the charge density are in remarkably good agreement with density...

  16. Echo Tomography of Hercules X-1: Mapping the Accretion Disc with RXTE and HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtilek, S.

    2000-01-01

    A paper based on the RXTE results contents the following and are ready for submission to ApJ: "Possible Detection of Companion Star Reflection from Hercules X-1 with RXTE". A paper combining July 1998 and July 1999 observations (including the RXTE results for both years) is nearly ready for submission to ApJ: The July 1998 and July 1999 Multiwavelength Campaigns on Hercules X-I/HZ Herculis. The July 1999 observations took place during an anomalous X-ray low state and the RXTE and EUVE data are consistent with X_ray reflected from the surface of the companion star.

  17. (1) (1)A' ← X (1)A' Electronic Transition of Protonated Coronene at 15 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C A; Hardy, F-X; Gause, O; Maier, J P

    2014-03-20

    The electronic spectrum of protonated coronene in the gas phase was measured at vibrational and rotational temperatures of ∼15 K in a 22-pole ion trap. The (1) (1)A' ← X (1)A' electronic transition of this larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cation has an origin band maximum at 14 383.8 ± 0.2 cm(-1) and shows distinct vibrational structure in the (1) (1)A' state. Neither the origin nor the strongest absorptions to the blue coincide with known diffuse interstellar bands, implying that protonated coronene is not a carrier.

  18. SMM/HXRBS observations of Cygnus X-1 from 1986 December to 1988 April

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R. A.; Orwig, L. E.; Dennis, B. R.; Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission's Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer made 30 measurements of Cygnus X-1 from December, 1986 to April, 1988, yielding a data set of broad synoptic coverage but limited duration for each data point. The hard X-ray intensity was found to be between the gamma(2) and gamma(3) levels, with a range of fluctuations about the average intensity level. The shape of the photon spectrum was found to be closest to that reported by Ling et al. (1983, 1987) during the time of the gamma(3) level emission, although the spectral shapes reported for the gamma(2) and gamma(1) levels were not precluded.

  19. Populating the Galaxy with close Be binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kiel, P D; Murray, J R; Hayasaki, K

    2007-01-01

    Be/X-ray binaries comprise roughly two-thirds of the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which is a class of X-ray binaries that results from the high mass of the companion or donor star (> 10 solar masses). Currently the formation and evolution of X-ray producing Be binaries is a matter of great debate. Modelling of these systems requires knowledge of Be star evolution and also consideration of how the evolution changes when the star is in close proximity to a companion. Within this work we complete a full population synthesis study of Be binaries for the Galaxy. The results for the first time match aspects of the observational data, most notably the observed upper limit to the period distribution. We conclude that greater detailed studies on the evolution of Be stars within X-ray binaries needs to be completed, so that rapid binary evolution population synthesis packages may best evolve these systems.

  20. Long-term Properties of Accretion Disks in X-ray Binaries II. Stability of Radiation-Driven Warping

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, W I; Coe, M J; Laycock, S

    2003-01-01

    A significant number of X-ray binaries are now known to exhibit long-term ``superorbital'' periodicities on timescales of $\\sim$ 10 - 100 days. Several physical mechanisms have been proposed that give rise to such periodicities, in particular warping and/or precession of the accretion disk. Recent theoretical work predicts the stability to disk warping of X-ray binaries as a function of the mass ratio, binary radius, viscosity and accretion efficiency, and here we examine the constraints that can be placed on such models by current observations. In paper I we used a dynamic power spectrum (DPS) analysis of long-term X-ray datasets (CGRO, RXTE), focusing on the remarkable, smooth variations in the superorbital period exhibited by SMC X-1. Here we use a similar DPS analysis to investigate the stability of the superorbital periodicities in the neutron star X-ray binaries Cyg X-2, LMC X-4 and Her X-1, and thereby confront stability predictions with observation. We find that the period and nature of superorbital v...

  1. Close supermassive binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive blackhole binary (SMB). The AGN J1536+0441 (=SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that 1536+044 is an example of line emission from a disc. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBs is significant and argues either that the merging of close SMBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.

  2. Desktop setup for binary holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Olaf; Rothe, Hendrik

    1996-08-01

    Binary gratings as holograms itself or as photographic masking tools for further fabrication steps can fulfill a lot of applications. The commonly used semiconductor technologies for direct writing of high resolution structures are often too expensive. On the other hand computer plots at a reasonable price with photographic reduction do not meet the needs of precision e.g. for interferometric inspection. The lack of cheap and reliable instruments for direct writing in an appropriate resolution is still a problem in fabricating synthetic holograms. Using off-the-shelf components a direct writing plotter for binary patterns can be built at moderate costs. Typical design rules as well as experimental results are given and the final setup is introduced.

  3. Slim Sets of Binary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Grünewald, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A classical problem in phylogenetic tree analysis is to decide whether there is a phylogenetic tree $T$ that contains all information of a given collection $\\cP$ of phylogenetic trees. If the answer is "yes" we say that $\\cP$ is compatible and $T$ displays $\\cP$. This decision problem is NP-complete even if all input trees are quartets, that is binary trees with exactly four leaves. In this paper, we prove a sufficient condition for a set of binary phylogenetic trees to be compatible. That result is used to give a short and self-contained proof of the known characterization of quartet sets of minimal cardinality which are displayed by a unique phylogenetic tree.

  4. Mass transfer between binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modisette, J. L.; Kondo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of mass from one component of a binary system to another by mass ejection is analyzed through a stellar wind mechanism, using a model which integrates the equations of motion, including the energy equation, with an initial static atmosphere and various temperature fluctuations imposed at the base of the star's corona. The model is applied to several situations and the energy flow is calculated along the line of centers between the two binary components, in the rotating frame of the system, thereby incorporating the centrifugal force. It is shown that relatively small disturbances in the lower chromosphere or photosphere can produce mass loss through a stellar wind mechanism, due to the amplification of the disturbance propagating into the thinner atmosphere. Since there are many possible sources of the disturbance, the model can be used to explain many mass ejection phenomena.

  5. Quasi Periodic Oscillations and Strongly Comptonized X-ray emission from Holmberg IX X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Dewangan, G C; Rao, A R

    2006-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 200mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the X-ray emission from a bright ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 using a long XMM-Newton observation. The QPO has a centroid at 202.5_{-3.8}^{+4.9}mHz, a coherence Q ~9.3 and an amplitude (rms) of 6% in the 0.2-10keV band. This is only the second detection of a QPO from an ULX, after M82 X-1, and provides strong evidence against beaming. The power spectrum is well fitted by a power law with an index of ~0.7. The total integrated power (rms) is ~9.4% in the 0.001-1Hz range. The X-ray spectrum shows clear evidence for a soft X-ray excess component that is well described by a multicolor disk blackbody (kT_in ~ 0.3keV) and a high energy curvature that can be modeled either by a cut-off power law (Gamma ~ 1; E_cutoff ~9keV) or as a strongly Comptonized continuum in an optically thick (tau ~7.3) and cool (kT_e ~3keV) plasma. Both the presence of the QPO and the shape of the X-ray spectrum strongly suggest that the ULX is not i...

  6. BeppoSAX observations of the accretion-powered X-ray pulsar SMC X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, S

    2004-01-01

    We present here results obtained from three BeppoSAX observations of the accretion-powered X-ray pulsar SMC X-1 carried out during the declining phases of its 40--60 days long super-orbital period. Timing analysis of the data clearly shows a continuing spin-up of the neutron star. Energy-resolved timing analysis shows that the pulse-profile of SMC X-1 is single peaked at energies less than 1.0 keV whereas an additional peak, the amplitude of which increases with energy within the MECS range, is present at higher energies. Broad-band pulse-phase-averaged spectroscopy of the BeppoSAX data, which is done for the first time since its discovery, shows that the energy spectrum in the 0.1--80 keV energy band has three components, a soft excess that can be modeled as a thermal black-body, a hard power-law component with a high-energy exponential cutoff and a narrow and weak iron emission line at 6.4 keV. Pulse-phase resolved spectroscopy indicates a pulsating nature of the soft spectral component, as seen in a few ot...

  7. RXTE/ASM Observations of the 35-day Cycle of Her X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Leahy, A

    1998-01-01

    Her X-1 has been monitored nearly continuously in soft X-rays (2-12 keV) since February 1996 by the ASM on board RXTE. We present analysis of these observations which include 23 contiguous 35-day cycles. We present the best yet average 35-day cycle lightcurve for Her X-1. 35-day lightcurve features such as eclipses and absorption dips, and the alternating occurrence of the Main High and Short High states, are well measured. The occurrence of X-ray eclipse during the Low state is confirmed as is the presence of Main High states that ``turn-on'' sharply at orbital phases 0.23 and 0.68. The Main High state covers 35-day phase 0-0.31 and the Short High state covers phase 0.57-0.79, with phase 0 defined by Main High state turn-on. We find extended ingresses and egresses for the Short High state. Marching pre-eclipse absorption dips progressively become shallower during the Main High state. The marching pre-eclipse dip period is best determined from reanalysis of archival data as 1.651 +/- .002 days if the dip marc...

  8. Correction of SCID-X1 using an enhancerless Vav promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarza, E; Zhang, F; Santilli, G; Blundell, M P; Howe, S J; Thornhill, S I; Bueren, J A; Thrasher, A J

    2011-03-01

    The efficacy of gene therapy for the treatment of inherited immunodeficiency has been highlighted in recent clinical trials, although in some cases complicated by insertional mutagenesis and silencing of vector genomes through methylation. To minimize these effects, we have evaluated the use of regulatory elements that confer reliability of gene expression, but also lack potent indiscriminate enhancer activity. The Vav1 proximal promoter is particularly attractive in this regard and may be useful in situations where high-level or complex regulation of gene expression is not necessary. X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is a good candidate for such an approach, particularly as there may be additional disease-related intrinsic risks of leukemogenesis, and where safety is therefore a paramount concern. We have tested whether lentiviral vectors expressing the common cytokine receptor gamma chain under the control of the proximal Vav1 gene promoter are effective for correction of signaling defects and the disease phenotype. Despite low-level gene expression, we observed near-complete restoration of cytokine-mediated STAT5 phosphorylation in a model cell line. Furthermore, at low vector copy number, highly effective T- and B-lymphocyte reconstitution was achieved in vivo in a murine model of SCID-X1, in both primary and secondary graft recipients. This vector configuration deserves further evaluation and consideration for future clinical trials.

  9. Lymphoid regeneration from gene-corrected SCID-X1 subject-derived iPSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Tushar; Firth, Amy L; Scripture-Adams, Deirdre D; Galic, Zoran; Qualls, Susan J; Gilmore, William B; Ke, Eugene; Singer, Oded; Anderson, Leif S; Bornzin, Alexander R; Alexander, Ian E; Zack, Jerome A; Verma, Inder M

    2015-04-02

    X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is a genetic disease that leaves newborns at high risk of serious infection and a predicted life span of less than 1 year in the absence of a matched bone marrow donor. The disease pathogenesis is due to mutations in the gene encoding the Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain (IL-2Rγ), leading to a lack of functional lymphocytes. With the leukemogenic concerns of viral gene therapy there is a need to explore alternative therapeutic options. We have utilized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology and genome editing mediated by TALENs to generate isogenic subject-specific mutant and gene-corrected iPSC lines. While the subject-derived mutant iPSCs have the capacity to generate hematopoietic precursors and myeloid cells, only wild-type and gene-corrected iPSCs can additionally generate mature NK cells and T cell precursors expressing the correctly spliced IL-2Rγ. This study highlights the potential for the development of autologous cell therapy for SCID-X1 subjects.

  10. X1: A Robotic Exoskeleton for In-Space Countermeasures and Dynamometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Rochelle; Beck, Christopher; Rovekamp, Roger; Diftler, Myron; Neuhaus, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Bone density loss and muscle atrophy are among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) highest concerns for crew health in space. Countless hours are spent maintaining an exercise regimen aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to counteract the effect of zero-gravity. Looking toward the future, NASA researchers are developing new compact and innovative exercise technologies to maintain crew health as missions increase in length and take humans further out into the solar system. The X1 Exoskeleton, initially designed for assisted mobility on Earth, was quickly theorized to have far-reaching potential as both an in-space countermeasures device and a dynamometry device to measure muscle strength. This lower-extremity device has the ability to assist or resist human movement through the use of actuators positioned at the hips and knees. Multiple points of adjustment allow for a wide range of users, all the while maintaining correct joint alignment. This paper discusses how the X1 Exoskeleton may fit NASA's onorbit countermeasures needs.

  11. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1 V. State definitions with all sky monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, V; Pottschmidt, K; Böck, M; Nowak, M A; Rodriguez, J; Bodaghee, A; Bel, M Cadolle; Case, G L; Hanke, M; Kühnel, M; Markoff, S B; Pooley, G G; Rothschild, R E; Tomsick, J A; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Wilms, J

    2013-01-01

    We present a scheme to determine the spectral state of the canonical black hole Cyg X-1 using data from previous and current X-ray all sky monitors (RXTE-ASM, Swift-BAT, MAXI, and Fermi-GBM). State determinations of the hard/intermediate and soft state agree to better than 10% between different monitors, facilitating the determination of the state and its context for any observation of the source, potentially over the lifetimes of different individual monitors. A separation of the hard and the intermediate state, which strongly differ in their spectral shape and short-term timing behavior, is only possible when monitor data in the soft X-rays (<5 keV) are available. A statistical analysis of the states confirms the different activity patterns of the source (e.g., months to years long hard state periods or phases during which numerous transitions occurs). It also shows the hard and soft states to be stable, with the probability of Cyg X-1 remaining in a given state for at least one week to be larger than 85...

  12. Water Induced Surface Reconstruction of the Oxygen (2x1) covered Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Sabine; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Stass, Ingeborg; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-08-06

    Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) were used to study the adsorption of water on a Ru(0001) surface covered with half monolayer of oxygen. The oxygen atoms occupy hcp sites in an ordered structure with (2x1) periodicity. DFT predicts that water is weakly bound to the unmodified surface, 86 meV compared to the ~;;200 meV water-water H-bond. Instead, we found that water adsorption causes a shift of half of the oxygen atoms from hcp sites to fcc sites, creating a honeycomb structure where water molecules bind strongly to the exposed Ru atoms. The energy cost of reconstructing the oxygen overlayer, around 230 meV per displaced oxygen atom, is more than compensated by the larger adsorption energy of water on the newly exposed Ru atoms. Water forms hydrogen bonds with the fcc O atoms in a (4x2) superstructure due to alternating orientations of the molecules. Heating to 185 K results in the complete desorption of the water layer, leaving behind the oxygen honeycomb structure, which is metastable relative to the original (2x1). This stable structure is not recovered until after heating to temperatures close to 260K.

  13. Einstein SSS and MPC observations of Aql X-1 and 4U1820-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R. L.; Christian, D. J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    The results of timing and spectral analyses of the X-ray sources Aql X-1 (X1908+005) and 4U1820-30 (NGC6624) are reported using data obtained with the Einstein SSS (Solid State Spectrometer) and MPC (Monitor Proportional Counter) instruments. A classic type I burst was observed from Aql X-1 in both detectors and a coherent modulation with a period of 131.66 + or - 0.02 ms and a pulsed fraction of 10 percent was detected in the SSS data. There is no evidence for a loss of coherance during the approximately 80 sec when the burst is observable. The 2 sigma upper limit on the rate of change of the pulse period is 0.00005s/s. It is argued that an asymmetrical burst occurring on a neutron star rotating at 7.6 Hz offers a plausible explanation for the oscillation. The data from 4U1820-30 show that the amplitude of the 685 sec modulation, identified as the orbital period, is independent of energy down to 0.6 keV. The SSS data show that the light curve in the 0.6 to 4.5 keV band is smoother than at higher energies.

  14. Potential for a Tensor Asymmetry Azz Measurement in the x > 1 Region at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Elena [UNH

    2014-10-01

    The tensor asymmetry A(zz) in the quasi-elastic region through the tensor polarized D(e, e')X channel is sensitive to the nucleon-nucleon potential. Previous measurements of A(zz) have been used to extract b(1) in the DIS region and T(20) in the elastic region. In the quasielastic region, A(zz) can be used to compare light cone calculations with variation nucleon- nucleon calculations, and is an important quantity to determine for understanding tensor effects, such as the dominance of pn correlations in nuclei. In the quasi-elastic region, A(zz) was first calculated in 1988 by Frankfurt and Strikman using the Hamada-Johnstone and Reid soft-core wave functions [1]. Recent calculations by M. Sargsian revisit A(zz) in the x > 1 range using virtual-nucleon and light-cone methods, which differ by up to a factor of two [2]. Discussed in these proceedings, a study has been completed that determines the feasibility of measuring A(zz) in the quasi-elastic x > 1 region at Jefferson Lab's Hall C.

  15. A model for the high-energy emission of Cyg X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Moskalenko, I V; Schönfelder, V

    1997-01-01

    We construct a model of Cyg X-1 which describes self-consistently its emission from soft X-rays to MeV gamma rays. Instead of a compact pair-dominated gamma-ray emitting region, we consider a hot optically thin and spatially extended proton-dominated cloud surrounding the whole accretion disc. The gamma-ray emission is due to the bremsstrahlung, Comptonization, and positron annihilation, while the corona-disc model is retained for the X-ray emission. We show that the Cyg X-1 spectrum accumulated by OSSE, BATSE, and COMPTEL in 1991--95, as well as the HEAO-3 gamma1 and gamma2 spectra can be well fitted by our model. The derived parameters are in qualitative agreement with the picture in which the spectral changes are governed by the mass flow rate in the accretion disc. In this context, the hot outer corona could be treated as the advection-dominated flow co-existing with a standard thin accretion disc.

  16. Twisted accretion discs. Pt. 2. Variation in density distribution and application to interacting binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjiv

    1986-11-15

    Accretion discs formed out of the symmetry plane of a compact object are likely to be twisted due to the effects of precession. The radius at which they align with the compact object spin axis depends on viscosity and surface-density distribution along with the dominant external forcing on the disc. Only isothermal discs are treated because of their tractability. The results are applied to X-ray binaries with resonably well-determined parameters which exhibit long-term periodic behaviour, particularly Her X-1. It is found that the case for alignment in Her X-1 and 2S0614 + 091 is inconclusive, but alignment is ruled out in SMCX-1 and LMC X-4, in this model.

  17. Classification with binary gene expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Tuna, Salih; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2009-01-01

    Microarray gene expression measurements are reported, used and archived usually to high numerical precision. However, properties of mRNA molecules, such as their low stability and availability in small copy numbers, and the fact that measurements correspond to a population of cells, rather than a single cell, makes high precision meaningless. Recent work shows that reducing measurement precision leads to very little loss of information, right down to binary levels. In this paper we show how p...

  18. Binary neuron with optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Degeratu, Ştefania; Şchiopu, Paul; Şchiopu, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of binary neuron, a model of McCulloch-Pitts neuron with optical devices. This model of neuron can be implemented not only in the optic integrated circuits but also in the classic optical circuits it being cheap and immune not only into electromagnetic fields but also into any kind of radiation. The transfer speed of information through the neuron is very higher, it being limited only by the light speed from the received medium.

  19. Be/X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called "Be phenomenon", such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass transfer. Until recently, it was thought that the Be stars' disc was not significantly affected by the neutron star. In this review, I present the observational evidence accumulated in recent years on the interaction between the circumstellar disc and the compact companion. The most obvious effect is the tidal truncation of the disc. As a result, the equatorial discs in Be/X-ray binaries are smaller and denser than those around isolat...

  20. [Isolation and characterization of new species hydrogen producing bacterium Ethanologenbacterium sp. strain X-1 and its capability of hydrogen production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, De-Feng; Ren, Nan-Qi; Li, Qiu-Bo

    2004-12-01

    To obtain hydrogen-producing bacterium of high efficiency, a strain X-1 of hydrogen-producing bacteria was isolated from the continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) by anaerobic Hungate technique. The Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA showed that homology of strain X-1 with Clostridium cellulose and Acetanaerobacterium elongatum is less than 94%. All sequence alignment of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer regions (ISR) indicated displayed that consensus region is tRNA(Ala), and tRNA(Ile), variable region is not homologous. Morphological, physic-biochemical character, and comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA ISR indicated that strain X-1 belong to new genus named Ethanologenbacterium gen. nov.. Strain X-1 is facultative anaerobe bacillus; its main fermentative products are acetic acid, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The metabolic character of strain X-1 is typical ethanol type fermentation. Its capability of hydrogen production was measured in the batch culture experiment. X-1's maximum specific hydrogen producing rate is 28.3 mmol H2/( g dry cell x h) at pH 4.0 and 36 degrees C. Result of identify and analysis of hydrogen production ability demonstrated strain X-1 belong to new genus of high hydrogen-producing bacteria.

  1. MAXI observations of long-term variations of Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard and the high/soft states

    CERN Document Server

    Sugimoto, Juri; Kitamoto, Shunji; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term X-ray variability of the black hole binary, Cygnus X-1, was studied with five years of MAXI data from 2009 to 2014, which include substantial periods of the high/soft state, as well as the low/hard state. In each state, Normalized Power Spectrum densities (NPSDs) were calculated in three energy bands of 2-4 keV, 4-10 keV and 10-20 keV. The NPSDs in a frequency from 1e-7 Hz to 1e-4 Hz are all approximated by a power-law function with an index -1.35 ~ -1.29. The fractional RMS variation ($\\eta$), calculated in the above frequency range, was found to show the following three properties; (1) $\\eta$ slightly decreases with energy in the low/hard state; (2) $\\eta$ increases towards higher energies in the high/soft state; and (3) in the 10-20 keV band, $\\eta$ is 3 times higher in the high/soft state than in the low/hard state. These properties were confirmed through studies of intensity-correlated changes of the MAXI spectra. Of these three findings, the first one is consistent with that seen in the short-...

  2. New Results for Two Optically Faint Low Mass X-Ray Binary Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, Stefanie

    1997-01-01

    We present optical photometry of the low mass X-ray binary systems GX 349+2 and Ser X-1. Extensive VRI photometry of the faint optical counterpart (V=18.4) to GX 349+2 reveals a period of 22.5 +/- 0.1 h and half-amplitude 0.2 mag. This result confirms and extends our previously reported 22 h period. No color change is detected over the orbit, although the limits are modest. We also report the discovery of two new variable stars in the field of GX 349+2, including a probable W UMa system. Ser ...

  3. Visual Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Reipurth, Bo; Connelley, Michael S; Bally, John

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a major survey for visual binaries towards the Orion Nebula Cluster using HST images obtained with an H-alpha filter. Among 781 likely ONC members more than 60" from theta-1 Ori C, we find 78 multiple systems (75 binaries and 3 triples), of which 55 are new discoveries, in the range from 0.1" to 1.5". About 9 binaries are likely line-of-sight associations. We find a binary fraction of 8.8%+-1.1% within the limited separation range from 67.5 to 675 AU. The field binary fraction in the same range is a factor 1.5 higher. Within the range 150 AU to 675 AU we find that T Tauri associations have a factor 2.2 more binaries than the ONC. The binary separation distribution function of the ONC shows unusual structure, with a sudden steep decrease in the number of binaries as the separation increases beyond 0.5", corresponding to 225 AU. We have measured the ratio of binaries wider than 0.5" to binaries closer than 0.5" as a function of distance from the Trapezium, and find that this ratio is signifi...

  4. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corpuz, A.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Donath, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dossa, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hooper, S.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO science run and the second and third Virgo science runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ˜2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent range of frequency modulation depths from 0.277 to 100 mHz. This corresponds to a range of projected semimajor axes of the orbit from ˜0.6×10-3 ls to ˜6,500 ls assuming the orbit of the binary is circular. While no plausible candidate gravitational wave events survive the pipeline, upper limits are set on the analyzed data. The most sensitive 95% confidence upper limit obtained on gravitational wave strain is 2.3×10-24 at 217 Hz, assuming the source waves are circularly polarized. Although this search has been optimized for circular binary orbits, the upper limits obtained remain valid for orbital eccentricities as large as 0.9. In addition, upper limits are placed on continuous gravitational wave emission from the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 between 20 Hz and 57.25 Hz.

  5. Comparison of Knee and Ankle Dynamometry between NASA's X1 Exoskeleton and Biodex System 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Newby, N. J.; Hackney, K. J.; DeWitt, J. K.; Beck, C. E.; Rovekamp, R. N.; Rea, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Pre- and post-flight dynamometry is performed on International Space Station crewmembers to characterize microgravity-induced strength changes. Strength is not assessed in flight due to hardware limitations and there is poor understanding of the time course of in-flight changes. PURPOSE: To assess the reliability of a prototype dynamometer, the X1 Exoskeleton (EXO) and its agreement with a Biodex System 4 (BIO). METHODS: Eight subjects (4 M/4 F) completed 2 counterbalanced testing sessions of knee extension/flexion (KE/KF), 1 with BIO and 1 with EXO, with repeated measures within each session in normal gravity. Test-retest reliability (test 1 and 2) and device agreement (BIO vs. EXO) were evaluated. Later, to assess device agreement for ankle plantarflexion (PF), 10 subjects (4 M/6 F) completed 3 test conditions (BIO, EXO, and BIOEXO); BIOEXO was a hybrid condition comprised of the Biodex dynamometer motor and the X1 footplate and ankle frame. Ankle comparisons were: BIO vs. BIOEXO (footplate differences), BIOEXO vs. EXO (motor differences), and BIO vs. EXO (all differences). Reliability for KE/KF was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC). Device agreement was assessed with: 1) repeated measures ANOVA, 2) a measure of concordance (rho), and 3) average difference. RESULTS: ICCs for KE/KF were 0.99 for BIO and 0.96 to 0.99 for EXO. Agreement was high for KE (concordance: 0.86 to 0.95; average differences: -7 to +9 Nm) and low to moderate for KF (concordance: 0.64 to 0.78; average differences: -4 to -29 Nm, P<0.05). BIO vs. BIOEXO PF concordance ranged from 0.89 to 0.92 and mean differences ranged from -9 to +3 Nm (BIO < BIOEXO). BIOEXO vs. EXO PF concordance ranged from 0.73 to 0.80 while mean differences were -18 to -36 Nm (BIOEXO < EXO, P<0.05). PF concordance for BIO vs. EXO was slightly lower (0.61 to 0.84) and mean differences were greater (-27 to -33 Nm; BIO < EXO, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: BIO and EXO were similarly reliable for KE and KF. KE measures produced

  6. The structure of the Pd(110)(2x1)-CO surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, M.; Terborg, R.; Polcik, M.; Bradshaw, A.M.; Toomes, R.L.; Woodruff, D.P.; Rotenberg, E.

    2002-02-23

    The structure of the Pd(110)(2x1)-CO ordered adsorption phase has been determined by scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction. The CO molecules are adsorbed close to short-bridge sites with alternating tilts along the close-packed <110> surface rows. This local geometry is consistent with that found in previous theoretical total energy calculations and an earlier X-ray photoelectron diffraction study, but is in direct contradiction to the results of an earlier quantitative low energy electron diffraction investigation. While the best-fit model structure involves some twist of the CO molecules out of the <100> mirror planes of the surface creating a surface phase of p1g1 symmetry, the more symmetric p2mg falls within the estimated limits of precision of the analysis.

  7. Structure and stability of a high-coverage (1x1) oxygen phase on Ru(0001)

    CERN Document Server

    Stampfl, C; Over, H; Scheffler, M; Ertl, G

    1996-01-01

    The formation of chemisorbed O-phases on Ru(0001) by exposure to O_2 at low pressures is apparently limited to coverages Theta <= 0.5. Using low-energy electron diffraction and density functional theory we show that this restriction is caused by kinetic hindering and that a dense O overlayer (Theta = 1) can be formed with a (1x1) periodicity. The structural and energetic properties of this new adsorbate phase are analyzed and discussed in view of attempts to bridge the so-called "pressure gap" in heterogeneous catalysis. It is argued that the identified system actuates the unusually high rate of oxidizing reactions at Ru surfaces under high oxygen pressure conditions.

  8. The structure of the Pd(110)(2x1)-CO surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, M; Polcik, M; Bradshaw, A M; Toomes, R L; Woodruff, D P; Rotenberg, E

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the Pd(110)(2x1)-CO ordered adsorption phase has been determined by scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction. The CO molecules are adsorbed close to short-bridge sites with alternating tilts along the close-packed surface rows. This local geometry is consistent with that found in previous theoretical total energy calculations and an earlier X-ray photoelectron diffraction study, but is in direct contradiction to the results of an earlier quantitative low energy electron diffraction investigation. While the best-fit model structure involves some twist of the CO molecules out of the mirror planes of the surface creating a surface phase of p1g1 symmetry, the more symmetric p2mg falls within the estimated limits of precision of the analysis.

  9. RAPID PENUMBRA AND LORENTZ FORCE CHANGES IN AN X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayang; Yang, Bo; Bi, Yi, E-mail: xuzhe6249@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the violent changes in photospheric magnetic structures associated with an X1.1 flare, which occurred in a compact δ-configuration region in the following part of AR 11890 on 2013 November 8. In both central and peripheral penumbra regions of the small δ sunspot, these changes took place abruptly and permanently in the reverse direction during the flare: the inner/outer penumbra darkened/disappeared, where the magnetic fields became more horizontal/vertical. Particularly, the Lorentz force (LF) changes in the central/peripheral region had a downward/upward and inward direction, meaning that the local pressure from the upper atmosphere was enhanced/released. It indicates that the LF changes might be responsible for the penumbra changes. These observations can be well explained as the photospheric response to the coronal field reconstruction within the framework of the magnetic implosion theory and the back reaction model of flares.

  10. Cygnus X-1: shedding light on the spectral variability of a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, V; Wilms, J; Rodriguez, J; Pottschmidt, K; Nowak, M A; Böck, M; Bodaghee, A; Bel, M Cadolle; Fürst, F; Hanke, M; Kühnel, M; Laurent, P; Markoff, S B; Markowitz, A; Marcu, D M; Pooley, G G; Popp, A; Rothschild, R E; Tomsick, J A

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the spectral state of a black hole is essential for the interpretation of data from black holes in terms of their emission models. Based on pointed observations of Cyg X-1 with the Rossi X-ray timing Explorer (RXTE) that are used to classify simultaneous RXTE-ASM observations, we develop a scheme based on RXTE -ASM colors and count rates that can be used to classify all observations of this canonical black hole that were performed between 1996 and 2011. We show that a simple count rate criterion, as used previously, leads to a significantly higher fraction of misclassified observations. This scheme enables us to classify single INTEGRAL-IBIS science windows and to obtain summed spectra for the soft, intermediate and hard state with low contamination by other states.

  11. Accidental $\\xi$-scaling as a signature of nuclear effects at x $>$ 1

    CERN Document Server

    Benhar, O

    1995-01-01

    We propose an interpretation of the \\xi-scaling behavior of nuclear structure functions observed at Bjorken x>1 and Q^2 \\lesssim 4 \\, {\\rm (GeV/c)^2}. We show that at \\xi \\gtrsim 1, \\xi-scaling might arise accidentally because of the approximate cancellation of two different Q^2-dependent effects, namely Final State Interactions and the effects implicit in the choice of the scaling variable \\xi. We provide a new convolution formula for the nuclear structure function in terms of \\xi and make predictions for the kinematical regions where Final State Interactions are expected to be small and the suggested balancing of scaling violations is expected to break down. Our analysis is aimed at the final goal of clarifying the range of applicability of local duality ideas in nuclei.

  12. Spectroscopic Constants of the X1Σ+ and 13Π states of AlO+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Linguerri, Roberto; Mogren, Muneerah Mogren Al; Francisco, Joseph S.; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-08-01

    Using both standard and explicitly correlated ab initio methods in conjunction with several atomic basis sets, the ground state of AlO(X2Σ+) and the two lowest electronic states of AlO+ (1Σ+ and 3Π) are investigated. Potential energy curves for these species are mapped, which are incorporated later to solve the nuclear motion problem. Benchmark computations on AlO(X2Σ+) are used to determine the reliability of the theoretical methods and basis sets used for an accurate description of aluminum oxide compounds. The electronic ground state of AlO+ is X1Σ+, followed by the low-lying 13Π state. For both cationic electronic states, a set of spectroscopic parameters are recommended that may help in the identification of this ion in laboratory and astrophysical media. An accurate estimation of the adiabatic ionization energy of AlO, AIE = 9.70 eV, is also reported.

  13. Highly Ionized Absorption in the X-ray Spectrum of Cyg X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, H L; Fang, T; Cui, W; Canizares, C R; Miller, J M; Lewin, W H G

    2001-01-01

    Using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS), we have found significant absorption features in the X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 taken in the continuous clocking mode. These features include resonance lines of He-like ions of S, Si, and Mg; the Ly alpha lines of H-like S, Si, Mg, and Ne; and several lower ionization lines of Fe XX, XXII, and XXIV. Preliminary analysis shows that the lines are resolved in many cases, giving line widths of order 300 km/s and are redshifted by 460 +/- 10 km/s. These features are interpreted in the context of an accreting stellar wind model that is ionized by the X-ray source. In addition, there are clear absorption features due to neutral Mg, Fe, and O in the interstellar medium.

  14. Massachusetts Bay - Internal Wave Packets Extracted from SAR Imagery Binned in 1x1 minute grid cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets extracted from SAR imagery that were binned in 1x1 minute latitude/longitude polygon grid cells. Statistics were...

  15. Expression of PinX1 and hTERT in basal cell carcinoma and their implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Qin; Jing Ge

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the expression and significance of PIN2/TERF1 interacting, telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in basal cel carcino-ma (BCC). Methods Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed to quantify the mRNA expressions and integrated optical density (IOD), respectively, of PinX1 and hTERT in BCC specimens (n = 30), as wel as in normal skin specimens (n = 15). Results The mRNA expression level and IOD of PinX1 in the BCC samples were both significantly lower than those in the control specimens (P 0.05). Conclusion Downregulation of PinX1 and upregulation of hTERT expression may be associated with the activation and maintenance of telomerases in the induction of BCC.

  16. Investigation of X-1P coating on magnetic head to enhance the stubility of head/disk interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Stable lubrication is essential to slider/disk interface of computer hard disk drive. Inertlubricant perfluoropolyether (PFPE) on magnetic hard disk in computer is still prone to catalyticdecomposition by Al2O3, which is one of the materials in slider. A partial fluorinated hexaphenoxycyclotriphosphazene chemical, X-1 P, was analyzed to research on its function to reduce the cata-lytic decomposition of lubricant. The surface free energy of X-1 P coated on head surface was alsoinvestigated. Contact start-stop (CSS) tester was employed to investigate the reflow effective ofX-1 P on lubricant PFPE. Results indicate that thermal stability and reflow of lubricant will be im-proved in the presence of X-1 P on the slider.

  17. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  18. Detection of unresolved binaries with multicolor photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chulkov, D; Malkov, O; Sichevskij, S; Krussanova, N; Mironov, A; Zakharov, A; Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    The principal goal of this paper is to specify conditions of detection of unresolved binaries by multicolor photometry. We have developed a method for estimating the critical distance at which an unresolved binary of given mass and age can be detected. The method is applied to the photometric system of the planned Lyra-B spaceborne experiment. We have shown that some types of unresolved binary stars can be discovered and distinguished from single stars solely by means of photometric observations.

  19. ULX Ngc 5408 X-1: : Coupled Spectral-timing Behavior Similar To Accreting Galactic Bhs And Agn ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    pasham, dheeraj r.; Strohmayer, T. E.

    2011-09-01

    The ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1 is unique. It is one of the only few ULXs known to show quasi-periodic X-ray variability. The qualitative nature of its X-ray variability is consistent with stellar mass black holes in the Steep Power-law (SPL) state; where the power spectral density rises below a certain frequency, then flattens and often shows a quasi periodic oscillation (QPO) on the rising portion. However, the characteristic frequencies seen in X-1 are scaled down by a factor of ˜ 100. Further, the soft X-ray excess (0.2 - 2.0 keV) present in the X-ray spectrum can be modeled with a disk black body, perhaps suggesting the presence of a cool disk (˜ 0.15 keV). Simple scaling of the characteristic frequencies noted in the power spectra, and scaling of the disk temperature imply a mass of ˜ > few 100 M ⊙ for the black hole. Hence, X-1 is a strong candidate for an intermediate mass black hole (100 - a few 1000 M⊙). However, this mass estimate is sensitive to the assumption that X-1 is in the SPL state, and is further complicated by the fact that the disk temperature scaling is applicable for systems whose total flux is dominated by emission from the disk. We present results from 700 ksecs of XMM Newton observations of X-1, including 420 ksecs of new exposure, which further explore the timing and spectral properties of X-1 and allow additional tests of the assumption that X-1 accretes like an SPL state black hole. We also present our results in the context of previously established "variability plane" correlations for both Galactic black holes and AGN. We discuss the implications of our results on mass estimates for X-1.

  20. NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku Observations of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Holmberg II X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Middleton, M. J.; Rana, V.;

    2015-01-01

    We present the first broadband 0.3-25.0 keV X-ray observations of the bright ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1, performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in 2013 September. The NuSTAR data provide the first observations of Holmberg II X-1 above 10 keV and reveal a very steep high...

  1. Speech perception of noise with binary gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, DeLiang; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind;

    2008-01-01

    For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed...... by the ideal binary mask. Only 16 filter channels and a frame rate of 100 Hz are sufficient for high intelligibility. The results show that, despite a dramatic reduction of speech information, a pattern of binary gains provides an adequate basis for speech perception....

  2. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  3. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  4. Viscosity in accretion discs. [for binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J. I.

    1980-01-01

    Both HerX-1 and SS433 may contain accretion disks slaved to a precessing companion star. If so, it is possible to bound the effective viscosity in these disks. The results, in terms of the disk parameter alpha, are lower bounds of 0.01 for HerX-1 and of 0.1 for SS433.

  5. Highlighting XMM-Newton's Role in Time Domain Studies of Neutron Star and Black Hole X-ray binaries in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, S.; Yang, J.; Cappallo, R.; Christodoulou, D.; Steiner, J.

    2016-09-01

    XMM-Newton's combination of large effective area, superior event timing, and wide field imaging have provided a powerful capability for time-domain studies of nearby X-ray binary populations. In its first 15 years XMM has accomplished groundbreaking monitoring surveys for X-ray binaries; complemented by RXTE, Chandra, and Nustar. Over the next decade XMM's capabilities will complement a new generation of missions including Astrosat, Hitomi, and NICER. This paper highlights the role of XMM-Newton in combination with other missions, in exploring the HMXB populations of the Small Magellanic Cloud and IC 10. Both are nearby dwarf starburst galaxies, yet their ages and evolutionary scenarios are very different, the consequences of which have led to contrasting X-ray binary populations. In the SMC the definitive sample of X-ray binary pulsars assembled by RXTE is revealing fundamental accretion physics when probed by XMM. Finding and characterizing IC 10's youthful X-ray binaries required the combination of XMM together with Chandra and Nustar. Key results include the revelatory finding of an X-ray irradiated wind masking the mass-function in the WR+BH binary X-1 and the measurement of the BH's spin. Such studies have wide relevance to stellar/galactic evolution, implications for black hole masses and formation channels for BH+BH binaries.

  6. R144 : a very massive binary likely ejected from R136 through a binary-binary encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seungkyung; Banerjee, Sambaran

    2013-01-01

    R144 is a recently confirmed very massive, spectroscopic binary which appears isolated from the core of the massive young star cluster R136. The dynamical ejection hypothesis as an origin for its location is claimed improbable by Sana et al. due to its binary nature and high mass. We demonstrate here by means of direct N-body calculations that a very massive binary system can be readily dynamically ejected from a R136-like cluster, through a close encounter with a very massive system. One out of four N-body cluster models produces a dynamically ejected very massive binary system with a mass comparable to R144. The system has a system mass of $\\approx$ 355 Msun and is located at 36.8 pc from the centre of its parent cluster, moving away from the cluster with a velocity of 57 km/s at 2 Myr as a result of a binary-binary interaction. This implies that R144 could have been ejected from R136 through a strong encounter with an other massive binary or single star. In addition, we discuss all massive binaries and sin...

  7. Interacting Jets from Binary Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, G C; O'Sullivan, S; Spicer, D; Bacciotti, F; Rosén, A

    2007-01-01

    We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly pa...

  8. The Young Visual Binary Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa A.; Avilez, Ian; Allen, Thomas; Zoonematkermani, Saeid; Biddle, Lauren; Muzzio, Ryan; Wittal, Matthew; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution H-band and in some cases K-band spectra of each component in close to 100 young multiple systems in the nearby star forming regions of Taurus, Ophiuchus, TW Hya, and Orion. The binary separations for the pairs in our sample range from 30 mas to 3 arcseconds. The imaging and most of our spectra were obtained with instruments behind adaptive optics systems in order to resolve even the closest companions. We are in the process of determining fundamental stellar and circumstellar properties, such as effective temperature, Vsin(i), veiling, and radial velocity, for each component in the entire sample. The beta version of our database includes systems in the Taurus region and provides plots, downloadable ascii spectra, and values of the stellar and circumstellar properties for both stars in each system. This resource is openly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. In this poster we describe initial results from our analysis of the survey data. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  9. Millisecond Pulsars in Close Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    In this Habilitationsschrift (Habilitation thesis) I present my research carried out over the last four years at the Argelander Institute for Astronomy (AIfA) and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR). The thesis summarizes my main findings and has been written to fulfill the requirements for the Habilitation qualification at the University of Bonn. Although my work is mainly focused on the topic of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), there is a fairly broad spread of research areas ranging from the formation of neutron stars (NSs) in various supernova (SN) events, to their evolution, for example, via accretion processes in binary and triple systems, and finally to their possible destruction in merger events. The thesis is organized in the following manner: A general introduction to neutron stars and millisecond pulsars is given in Chapter 1. A selection of key papers published in 2011-2014 are presented in Chapters 2-10, ordered within five main research areas (ultra-stripped SNe in close binaries, ma...

  10. The bacterial effector HopX1 targets JAZ transcriptional repressors to activate jasmonate signaling and promote infection in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Gimenez-Ibanez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae is dependent on a type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of virulence effector proteins into the host cytoplasm, and the production of a number of toxins such as coronatine (COR, which is a mimic of the plant hormone jasmonate-isoleuce (JA-Ile. Inside the plant cell, effectors target host molecules to subvert the host cell physiology and disrupt defenses. However, despite the fact that elucidating effector action is essential to understanding bacterial pathogenesis, the molecular function and host targets of the vast majority of effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we found that effector HopX1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta 11528, a strain that does not produce COR, interacts with and promotes the degradation of JAZ proteins, a key family of JA-repressors. We show that hopX1 encodes a cysteine protease, activity that is required for degradation of JAZs by HopX1. HopX1 associates with JAZ proteins through its central ZIM domain and degradation occurs in a COI1-independent manner. Moreover, ectopic expression of HopX1 in Arabidopsis induces the expression of JA-dependent genes, represses salicylic acid (SA-induced markers, and complements the growth of a COR-deficient P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto DC3000 strain during natural bacterial infections. Furthermore, HopX1 promoted susceptibility when delivered by the natural type III secretion system, to a similar extent as the addition of COR, and this effect was dependent on its catalytic activity. Altogether, our results indicate that JAZ proteins are direct targets of bacterial effectors to promote activation of JA-induced defenses and susceptibility in Arabidopsis. HopX1 illustrates a paradigm of an alternative evolutionary solution to COR with similar physiological outcome.

  11. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, J.; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a mo

  12. Binary Structure in David Lodge's Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萍

    2008-01-01

    David Lodge is one of the most renowned modern English writers.He is known for the binary structure in his novels.In this paper,the writer will try to the binary structure in some of his novels to show his reflections on Catholicism and culture conflicts.

  13. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  14. Helium in atmospheres of binary stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leushin, V.V. (Rostovskij-na-Donu Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Fiziki)

    The helium abundances were obtained for 25 bright components of binary stars by model atmosphere analysis. The helium abundance for binary stars that lie on the main sequence are larger in the average than in single normal stars. The stars on the Hertzsppung - russel diagram lie at a larger distance from the zero age line than those with normal helium abundance.

  15. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  16. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  17. Bayesian analysis of exoplanet and binary orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze-Hartung, Tim; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We introduce BASE (Bayesian astrometric and spectroscopic exoplanet detection and characterisation tool), a novel program for the combined or separate Bayesian analysis of astrometric and radial-velocity measurements of potential exoplanet hosts and binary stars. The capabilities of BASE are demonstrated using all publicly available data of the binary Mizar A.

  18. Binary Representations of Fingerprint Spectral Minutiae Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Haiyun; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    A fixed-length binary representation of a fingerprint has the advantages of a fast operation and a small template storage. For many biometric template protection schemes, a binary string is also required as input. The spectral minutiae representation is a method to represent a minutiae set as a fixe

  19. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R

    2014-01-01

    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  20. Disc-jet coupling in atoll-type neutron star X-ray binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliari, S.; Fender, R.P.; Rupen, M.; Jonker, P.G.; Klein-Wolt, M.; Hjellming, R.M.; Wachter, S.; Homan, J.; Klis, M. van der

    2004-06-01

    Atoll-type neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries share lots of properties with low/hard state black hole candidates (BHC) and are therefore the key sources for our understanding of the differences and similarities in the disc-jet connection of BHC and NS systems and the physical processes involved. We present the analysis of simultaneous radio (VLA) and X-ray (RXTE) observations of three atoll sources: 4U 1728-34, 4U 1820-30 and Ser X-1 (first radio detection). In 4U 1728-34 we find a significant correlation between radio and X-ray flux and, for the first time in an X-ray binary, a significant quantitative correlation between radio flux and X-ray timing features. As in BHCs it seems that also in atolls (i.e. in 4U 1820-30, Ser X-1 and in one observation of 4U 1728-34) the radio emission is 'quenched' above a certain luminosity, when the sources are in a softer state.

  1. On the Origin of a Sunquake during the 29 March 2014 X1 Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G; Donea, Alina; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2014-01-01

    Helioseismic data from the HMI instrument have revealed a sunquake associated with the X1 flare SOL2014-03-29T17:48 in active region NOAA 12017. We try to discover if acoustic-like impulses or actions of the Lorentz force caused the sunquake. We analyze spectro-polarimetric data obtained with the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Fortuitously the FIRS slit crossed the flare kernel close to the acoustic source, during the impulsive phase. The infrared FIRS data remain unsaturated throughout the flare. Stokes profiles of lines of Si I 1082.7 nm and He I 1083.0 nm are analyzed. At the flare footpoint, the Si I 1082.7 nm core intensity increases by a factor of several, the IR continuum increases by 4 +/- 1%. Remarkably, the Si I core resembles the classical Ca II K line's self-reversed profile. With nLTE radiative models of H, C, Si and Fe these properties set the penetration depth of flare heating to 100 +/- 100 km, i.e. photospheric layers. Estimates of the non-magnetic en...

  2. Molecular modeling of alkyl monolayers on the Si(100)-2 x 1 surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael V; Guo, Dawei; Linford, Matthew R; Zuilhof, Han

    2004-10-12

    Molecular modeling was used to simulate various surfaces derived from the addition of 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes to Si=Si dimers on the Si(100)-2 x 1 surface. The primary aim was to better understand the interactions between adsorbates on the surface and distortions of the underlying silicon crystal due to functionalization. Random addition of ethylene and acetylene was used to determine how the addition of an adduct molecule affects subsequent additions for coverages up to one molecule per silicon dimer, that is, 100% coverage. Randomization subdues the effect that the relative positions of the adsorbates have on the enthalpy of the system. For ethylene and acetylene, the enthalpy of reaction changes less than 3 and 5 kcal/mol, respectively, from the first reacted species up to 100% coverage. As a result, a (near-)complete coverage is predicted, which is in line with experimental data. When 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes add by [2 + 2] addition, the hydrocarbon chains interact differently depending on the direction they project from the surface. These effects were investigated for four-carbon chains: 1-butene and 1-butyne. As expected, the chains that would otherwise intersect bend to avoid each other, raising the enthalpy of the system. For alkyl chains longer than four carbons, the chains are able to reorient themselves in a favorable manner, thus, resulting in a steady reduction in reaction enthalpy of about 2 kcal/mol for each additional methylene unit.

  3. HEXTE Detections of Hard X-Ray Tails in Sco X-1

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, F; Rothschild, R E; Gruber, D

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of a non-thermal hard X-ray component from Sco X-1 based upon the analysis of 20-220 keV spectra obtained with the HEXTE experiment onboard the RXTE satellite. We find that the addition of a power-law component to a thermal bremsstrahlung model is required to achieve a good fit in 5 of 16 observations analyzed. Using PCA data we were able to track the movement of the source along the Z diagram, and we found that the presence of the hard X-ray tail is not confined to a specific Z position. However, we do observe an indication that the power law index hardens with increasing mass accretion rate, as indicated from the position on the Z diagram. We find that the derived non-thermal luminosities are about 10% of that derived for the brightest of the atoll sources. These observations provide firm evidence for non-thermal X-ray activity in a Z source.

  4. Broad band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 in two spectral states with BeppoSAX

    CERN Document Server

    Frontera, F; Zdziarski, A A; Haardt, F; Perola, G C; Chiappetti, L; Cusumano, G; Dal Fiume, D; Del Sordo, S; Orlandini, M; Parmar, A N; Piro, L; Santangelo, A; Segreto, A; Treves, A; Trifoglio, M

    2000-01-01

    We report on the 0.5--200 keV spectral properties of Cyg X-1 observed at different epochs with the Narrow Field Instruments of the BeppoSAX satellite. The source was in its soft state during the first observation of 1996 June. In the second observation of 1996 September, the source had parameters characteristic to its hard state. A soft X-ray excess, a broad Fe K$\\alpha$ line and Compton reflection are clearly detected in both states. The soft-state broad-band continuum is well modeled by a disk blackbody (accounting for the soft excess) and Compton upscattering of the disk photons by a hybrid, thermal/non-thermal, plasma, probably forming a corona above the disk (also giving rise to the Compton-reflection component). In the hard state, the primary hard X-ray spectrum can be well modeled by Compton upscattering of a weak blackbody emission by a thermal plasma at a temperature of $\\sim 60$ keV. The soft excess is then explained by thermal Comptonization of the same blackbody emission by another hot plasma clou...

  5. Can Any "Invariants" Be Revealed in Quasi-periodic Phenomena Observed From Sco X-1?

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, S; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Using large number of Rossi X-ray Time Explorer observations of Sco X-1 we present a detailed investigation of the transition layer (TL) and the relativistic precession (RP) models. These models predict the existence of the invariant quantities: an inclination angle delta of the magnetospheric axis with the normal to the disk for the TLM and a neutron star (NS) mass M_{NS} for the RPM. Theoretical predictions of both models are tested and their self-consistency is checked. We establish that: (1) The inferred delta angle is 5.56+/-0.09 degrees. Correlation of the delta-values with the horizontal branch oscillation (HBO) frequency is rather weak. (2) There is a strong correlation between an inferred M_{NS} and the HBO frequency in the RPM frameworks. (3) We infer M_{NS} for different assumptions regarding the relations between the HBO frequency and the nodal frequency. We find that the inferred M_{NS}=2.7+/-0.1 M_sun cannot be consistent with any EOS of NS matter. We conclude that RPM fails to describe the data...

  6. Insertional oncogenesis in 4 patients after retrovirus-mediated gene therapy of SCID-X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Garrigue, Alexandrine; Wang, Gary P; Soulier, Jean; Lim, Annick; Morillon, Estelle; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Caccavelli, Laure; Delabesse, Eric; Beldjord, Kheira; Asnafi, Vahid; MacIntyre, Elizabeth; Dal Cortivo, Liliane; Radford, Isabelle; Brousse, Nicole; Sigaux, François; Moshous, Despina; Hauer, Julia; Borkhardt, Arndt; Belohradsky, Bernd H; Wintergerst, Uwe; Velez, Maria C; Leiva, Lily; Sorensen, Ricardo; Wulffraat, Nicolas; Blanche, Stéphane; Bushman, Frederic D; Fischer, Alain; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina

    2008-09-01

    Previously, several individuals with X-linked SCID (SCID-X1) were treated by gene therapy to restore the missing IL-2 receptor gamma (IL2RG) gene to CD34+ BM precursor cells using gammaretroviral vectors. While 9 of 10 patients were successfully treated, 4 of the 9 developed T cell leukemia 31-68 months after gene therapy. In 2 of these cases, blast cells contained activating vector insertions near the LIM domain-only 2 (LMO2) proto-oncogene. Here, we report data on the 2 most recent adverse events, which occurred in patients 7 and 10. In patient 10, blast cells contained an integrated vector near LMO2 and a second integrated vector near the proto-oncogene BMI1. In patient 7, blast cells contained an integrated vector near a third proto-oncogene,CCND2. Additional genetic abnormalities in the patients' blast cells included chromosomal translocations, gain-of-function mutations activating NOTCH1, and copy number changes, including deletion of tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A, 6q interstitial losses, and SIL-TAL1 rearrangement. These findings functionally specify a genetic network that controls growth in T cell progenitors. Chemotherapy led to sustained remission in 3 of the 4 cases of T cell leukemia, but failed in the fourth. Successful chemotherapy was associated with restoration of polyclonal transduced T cell populations. As a result, the treated patients continued to benefit from therapeutic gene transfer.

  7. High-energy gamma-rays in the hard spectral state of Cyg X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Chernyakova, Maria; Pooley, Guy G

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained a firm detection of Cyg X-1 during its hard and intermediate spectral states in the energy range of 40 MeV--60 GeV based on observations by Fermi Large Area Telescope, confirming the independent results at $\\geq$60 MeV of Zanin et al. The detection significance is $\\simeq\\! 8\\sigma$ in the 0.1--10 GeV range. In the soft state, we have found upper limits on the emission at energies $\\geq$0.2 MeV, also in agreement with Zanin et al. However, we have found emission with a very soft spectrum in the 40--80 MeV range, not detected previously. This is likely to represent the high-energy cutoff of the high-energy power-law tail observed in the soft state. Similarly, we have detected a $\\gamma$-ray soft excess in the hard state, which appears to be of similar origin. We have also confirmed the presence of an orbital modulation of the detected emission in the hard state, expected if the $\\gamma$-rays are from Compton upscattering of stellar blackbody photons. However, the observed modulation is signifi...

  8. Spectral and Timing Studies of Cyg X-1 in the Low/Hard State with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Torii, Shunsuke; Makishima, Kazuo; Sakurai, Soki; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Noda, Hirofumi; Done, Chris; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Gandhi, Poshak

    2011-01-01

    From 2005 to 2009, 25 observations of Cyg X-1 were performed with Suzaku, achieving a total exposure of 446 ks. In all observations, the source was found in the low/hard state, while the 1.5--12.0 keV count rate of the All-Sky Monitor onboard RXTE varied by a factor of ~ 3. In each observation, the 10--60 keV HXD-PIN spectrum and the 60--400 keV HXD-GSO spectrum were fitted successfully by a thermal Comptonization model plus reflection by a thick neutral material. As the soft X-ray intensity increased, the Compton y-parameter was found to decrease from 1.0 to 0.6, while the solid angle of reflection to increase by ~ 30%. Also conducted was timing analysis over a frequency range of 0.001--10 Hz. As the source became brighter in soft X-rays, the characteristic frequency of hard X-ray variation increased from 0.03 to 0.3 Hz, while the fractional hard X-ray variation integrated over 0.001--0.01 Hz decreased by a factor of ~ 5. The signals in the 60--200 keV band were generally found to vary on shorter time scales...

  9. Origin of the X-ray off-states in Vela X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Manousakis, A

    2014-01-01

    $Context$: Vela X-1 is the prototype of the classical sgHMXB systems. Recent continuous and long monitoring campaigns revealed a large hard X-rays variability amplitude with strong flares and off-states. This activity has been interpreted invoking clumpy stellar winds and/or magnetic gating mechanisms. $Aims$: We are probing if the observed behaviour could be explained by unstable hydrodynamic flows close to the neutron star rather than the more exotic phenomena. $Methods$: We have used the hydrodynamic code VH-1 to simulate the flow of the stellar wind with high temporal resolution and to compare the predicted accretion rate with the observed light-curves. $Results$: The simulation results are similar to the observed variability. Off-states are predicted with a duration of 5 to 120 minutes corresponding to transient low density bubbles forming around the neutron star. Oscillations of the accretion rate with a typical period of $\\sim$ 6800 sec are generated in our simulations and observed. They correspond to ...

  10. Analytical Potential Energy Function for the Ground State X1∑+ of Lanthanum Monofluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin-Hong; SHANG Ren-Cheng

    2003-01-01

    The equilibrium geometry, harmonic frequency and bond dissociation energy of lanthanum monofluoride have been calculated using Density-Functional Theory (DFT), post-HF methods MP2 and CCSD(T) with the energyconsistent relativistic effective core potentials. The possible electronic state and reasonable dissociation limit of the ground state of LaF are determined based on atomic and molecular reaction statics. Potential energy curve scans for the ground state X 1∑+ have been performed at B3LYP and CCSD(T) levels, due to their better results of harmonic frequency and bond dissociation energy. We find that the potential energy calculated with CCSD(T) is about 0.6 eV larger than the bond dissociation energy, when the internuclear distance is as large as 0.8 nm. The problem that single-reference ab initio methods do not meet dissociation limit during calculations of lanthanide heavy-metal elements is analyzed. We propose the calculation scheme to derive the analytical Murrell-Sorbie potential energy function. Vibrotational spectroscopic constants Be, ωe, ωeχe, αe, βe, De and He obtained by the standard Dunham treatment coincide well with the results of rotational analyses on spectroscopic experiments.

  11. Spermatogenesis associated 4 promotes Sertoli cell proliferation modulated negatively by regulatory factor X1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Jiang

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis associated 4 (Spata4, a testis-specific and CpG island associated gene, is involved in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. To obtain insight into the role of Spata4 in cell cycling control, we characterized the promoter region of Spata4 and investigated its transcriptional regulation mechanism. The Spata4 promoter is unidirectional transcribed and possesses multiple transcription start sites. Moreover, we present evidence that regulatory factor X1 (RFX1 could bind the typical 14-bp cis-elements of Spata4 promoter, modulate transcriptional activity and endogenous expression of Spata4, and further regulate the proliferation of Sertoli cells. Overexpression of RFX1 was shown to down-regulate both the promoter activity and mRNA expression of Spata4, whereas knockdown of RFX1 demonstrated the opposite effects. Our studies provide insight into Spata4 gene regulation and imply the potential role of RFX1 in growth of Sertoli cells. RFX1 may have negative effect on cell proliferation of Sertoli cells via modulating Spata4 expression levels by binding the conserved 14-bp cis-elements of Spata4 promoter.

  12. Initiation Processes for the 2013 May 13 X1.7 Limb Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinhua; Wang, Ya; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng

    2017-01-01

    For the X1.7 class flare on 2013 May 13 (SOL2013-05-13T01:53), its initiation process was well observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory and the Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI) on board STEREO-B. The initiation process incorporates the following phenomena: an X-ray precursor that started ∼9 minutes before flare onset, two hot magnetic loops (as seen with AIA hot channels) forming a sigmoidal core magnetic structure (as seen with the EUVI), a rapidly formed magnetic flux rope (MFR) that expands outward, and a flare loop that contracts inward. The two hot magnetic loops were activated after the occurrence of the X-ray precursor. After activation, magnetic reconnection occurred between the two hot magnetic loops (inside the sigmoid structure), which produced the expanding MFR and the contracting flare loop (CFL). The MFR and CFL can only be seen with AIA hot and cool channels, respectively. For this flare, the real initiation time can be regarded as being from the starting time of the precursor, and its impulsive phase started when the MFR began its fast expansion. In addition, the CFL and the growing postflare magnetic loops are different loop systems, and the CFL was the product of magnetic reconnection between sheared magnetic fields that also produced the MFR.

  13. Time Domain Studies of X-ray Shot Noise in Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Focke, W B; Wai, L; Focke, Warren; Swank, Jean; Wai, Larry

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the variability of Cygnus X-1 in the context of shot moise models, and employ a peak detection algorithm to select individual shots. For a long observation of the low, hard state, the distribution of time intervals between shots is found to be consistent with a purely random process, contrary to previous claims in the literature. The detected shots are fit to several model templates and found to have a broad range of shapes. The fitted shots have a distribution of timescales from below 10 milliseconds to above 1 second. The coherence of the cross spectrum of light curves of these data in different energy bands is also studied. The observed high coherence implies that the transfer function between low and high energy variability is uniform. The uniformity of the tranfer function implies that the observed distribution of shot widths cannot have been acquired through Compton scattering. Our results in combination with other results in the literature suggest that shot luminosities are correlated wi...

  14. Integral field spectroscopy of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, I; Fabrika, S; Roth, M; Miyaji, T; Afanasiev, V; Sholukhova, O; Sánchez, S F; Greiner, J; Hasinger, G; Costantini, E; Surkov, A; Burenkov, A

    2004-01-01

    We present optical integral field observations of the H II region containing the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1. We confirm the existence of an X-ray ionized nebula as the counterpart of the source due to the detection of an extended He II (4686A) region (21 x 47 pc) at the Chandra ACIS-S position. An extended blue objects with a size of 11 x 14 pc is coincident with the X-ray/He II region, which could indicate either a young stellar complex or a cluster. We have derived an X-ray to optical luminosity ratio of Lx/Lb>170, and presumable it is Lx/Lb~300-400 using the recent HST ACS data. We find a complex velocity dispersion at the position of the ULX. In addition, there is a radial velocity variation in the X-ray ionized region found in the He II emission of +-50 km/s on spatial scales of 2-3 arcsec. We believe that the putative black hole not only ionizes the surrounding HII gas, but also perturbs it dynamically (via jets or the accretion disk wind). The spatial analysis of the public Chandra ACIS...

  15. X-ray intensity-hardness correlation in Cyg X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, L; Bradt, H V; Wen, Linqing; Cui, Wei; Bradt, Hale V.

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the All-Sky Monitor aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we found that the 1.5-12 keV X-ray count rate of Cyg X-1 is, on time scales from 90 seconds to at least 10 days, strongly correlated with the spectral hardness of the source in the soft state, but is weakly anti-correlated with the latter in the hard state. The correlation shows an interesting evolution during the 1996 spectral state transition. The entire episode can be roughly divided into three distinct phases: (1) a 20-d transition phase from the hard state to the soft state, during which the correlation changes from being negative to positive, (2) a 50-d soft state with a steady positive correlation, and (3) a 20-d transition back to the hard state. The pointed RXTE observations confirmed the ASM results but revealed new behaviors of the source at energies beyond the ASM pass band. We discuss the implications of our findings.

  16. On helium line polarization during the impulsive phase of an X1 flare

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G; Sainz-Dalda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We analyze spectropolarimetric data of the He I 1083~nm multiplet ($1s2s~^3\\!S_1 - 1s2p~^3\\!P^o_{2,1,0}$) during the X1 flare SOL2014-03-29T17:48, obtained with the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. While scanning active region NOAA 12017, the FIRS slit crossed a flare ribbon during the impulsive phase, when the helium line intensities turned into emission at $<$ twice the continuum intensity. Their linear polarization profiles are of the same sign across the multiplet including 1082.9 nm, intensity-like, at $<5$\\% of the continuum intensity. Weaker Zeeman-induced linear polarization is also observed. Only the strongest linear polarization coincides with hard X-ray (HXR) emission at 30-70 keV observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager. The polarization is generally more extended and lasts longer than the HXR emission. The upper $J=0$ level of the 1082.9~nm component is unpolarizable, thus lower level polarization is the culprit. We make non-LTE r...

  17. Does the neutron star in Her X-1 really show free precession?

    CERN Document Server

    Staubert, R; Vasco, D; Postnov, K; Shakura, N; Rothschild, R; Wilms, J

    2011-01-01

    The accreting X-ray pulsar Her X-1 shows two types of long-term variations, both with a period of 35 days: 1) A modulation of the flux with a ten day long Main-On and a 5 d long Short-On, separated by two Off-states, and 2) A systematic variation of the shape of the 1.24 s pulse profile. While there is general consensus that the flux modulation is due to variable shading of the X-ray emitting regions on the surface of the neutron star by the precessing accretion disk, the physical reason for the variation of the pulse profiles had remained controversial. Following the suggestion by Truemper et al. (1986) that free precession of the neutron star may be responsible for the variation of the pulse profiles, we had developed physical models of strong feedback interaction between the neutron star and the accretion disk in order to explain the seemingly identical values for the periods of the two types of variations. In a deep analysis of pulse profiles observed by several different satellites over the last three de...

  18. Evolution of AQL X-1 During the Rising Phase of its 1998 Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, W; Zhang, S N; Chen, W; Boirin, L; Swank, J H; Cui, Wei; Barret, Didier; Chen, Wan; Boirin, Laurence; Swank, Jean

    1998-01-01

    We present results from 16 snapshots of Aql X-1 with RXTE during the rising phase of its recent outburst. The observations were carried out at a typical rate of once or twice per day. The source shows interesting spectral evolution during this period. Phenomenologically, it bears remarkable similarities to ``atoll'' sources. Shortly after the onset of the outburst, the source is seen to be in an ``island'' state, but with little X-ray variability. It then appears to have made a rapid spectral transition (on a time scale less than half a day) to another ``island'' state, where it evolves slightly and stays for 4 days. In this state, the observed X-ray flux becomes increasingly variable as the source brightens. Quasi-period oscillation (QPO) in the X-ray intensity is detected in the frequency range 670--870 Hz. The QPO frequency increases with the X-ray flux while its fractional rms decreases. The QPO becomes undetectable following a transition to a ``banana'' state, where the source continues its evolution by ...

  19. XMM-Newton EPIC & OM observations of Her X-1 over the 35 day beat period

    CERN Document Server

    Zane, S; Jiménez-Garate, M A; Den Herder, J W A; Hailey, C J; Zane, Silvia; Ramsay, Gavin; Jimenez-Garate, Mario A.; Herder, Jan Willem den; Hailey, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a series of XMM-Newton EPIC and OM observations of Her X-1, spread over a wide range of the 35 day precession period. We confirm that the spin modulation of the neutron star is weak or absent in the low state - in marked contrast to the main or short-on states. During the states of higher intensity, we observe a substructure in the broad soft X-ray modulation below ~1keV, revealing the presence of separate peaks which reflect the structure seen at higher energies. The strong fluorescence emission line at ~6.4keV is detected in all observations (apart from one taken in the middle of eclipse), with higher line energy, width and normalisation during the main-on state. In addition, we report the detection of a second line near 7keV in 10 of the 15 observations taken during the low-intensity states of the system. This feature is rather weak and not significantly detected during the main-on state, when the strong continuum emission dominates the X-ray spectrum. Spin resolved spectroscopy j...

  20. First Detection of Chromospheric Magnetic Field Changes During an X1-Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kleint, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Stepwise changes of the photospheric magnetic field, which often becomes more horizontal, have been observed during many flares. Previous interpretations include coronal loops that contract and it has been speculated that such jerks could be responsible for sunquakes. Here we report the detection of stepwise chromospheric line-of-sight magnetic field (B$_{\\rm LOS}$) changes obtained through spectropolarimetry of Ca II 8542 \\AA\\ with DST/IBIS during the X1-flare SOL20140329T17:48. They are stronger ($<$640 Mx cm$^{-2}$) and appear in larger areas than their photospheric counterparts ($<$320 Mx cm$^{-2}$). The absolute value of B$_{\\rm LOS}$ more often decreases than increases. Photospheric changes are predominantly located near a polarity inversion line, chromospheric changes near footpoints of loops. The locations of changes are near, but not exactly co-spatial to hard X-ray (HXR) emission and neither to enhanced continuum emission, nor a small sunquake. Enhanced chromospheric and coronal emission is ob...

  1. Binary Planetary Nebulae Nuclei towards the Galactic Bulge. I. Sample Discovery, Period Distribution and Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A; Udalski, A

    2009-01-01

    Binarity has been hypothesised to play an important, if not ubiquitous, role in the formation of planetary nebulae (PNe). Yet there remains a severe paucity of known binary central stars required to test the binary hypothesis and to place strong constraints on the physics of the common-envelope (CE) phase of binary stellar evolution. Large photometric surveys offer an unrivalled opportunity to efficiently discover many binary central stars. We have combined photometry from the OGLE microlensing survey with the largest sample of PNe towards the Galactic Bulge to systematically search for new binaries. A total of 21 periodic binaries were found thereby more than doubling the known sample. The orbital period distribution was found to be best described by CE population synthesis models when no correlation between primary and secondary masses is assumed for the initial mass ratio distribution. A comparison with post-CE white dwarf binaries indicates both distributions are representative of the true post-CE period ...

  2. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Smullen, Rachel A; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Asid...

  3. Evolution of non-synchronized binary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for binary evolution is introduced which can determine whether the rotation of components is synchronized with the orbital motion, and can calculate the evolution of both the synchronized and non-synchronized binary systems. With this model, the evolution of a binary system consisting of a 9 M⊙ star and a 6 M⊙ star is studied with mass transfer Case B. The result shows that the synchronization of the rotational and orbital periods can be reached when the binary system is a detached system and before the occurrence of the first mass transfer. After the onset of the first mass transfer, the binary system becomes non-synchronized. The mass accepted component (the secondary) rotates faster with a period much smaller than that of the orbital motion.

  4. Evolution of non-synchronized binary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄润乾; 曾艺蓉

    2000-01-01

    A model for binary evolution is introduced which can determine whether the rotation of components is synchronized with the orbital motion, and can calculate the evolution of both the synchronized and non-synchronized binary systems. With this model, the evolution of a binary system consisting of a 9 M star and a 6 M star is studied with mass transfer Case B. The result shows that the synchronization of the rotational and orbital periods can be reached when the binary system is a detached system and before the occurrence of the first mass transfer. After the onset of the first mass transfer, the binary system becomes non-synchronized. The mass accepted component (the secondary) rotates faster with a period much smaller than that of the orbital motion.

  5. Vibrational analysis of Fourier transform spectrum of the $A^{3} _{0} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$ and $B^{3} ^{1} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$ transitions of indium monobromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Singh; K N Uttam; M D Saksena; M N Deo

    2009-11-01

    The emission spectrum of InBr molecule has been recorded in the region 350–400 nm on BOMEM DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer at an apodized resolution of 0.06 cm-1 using microwave excitation technique. About 61 violet degraded and single headed bands have been recorded and are classified into two band systems, viz. $A^{3} _{0} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$ and $B^{3} _{1} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$. A few new bands have been observed and are fitted in the vibrational schemes of the two systems. Revised vibrational constants have been determined. The vibrational assignments have been confirmed by observing isotope effect due to InBr81 in the 30 bands of the $A^{3} _{0} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$ system and 19 bands of the $B^{3} _{1} –X^{1} \\sum^{+}$ system. The analysis is further supported by calculating the Franck–Condon factor for InBr79 and InBr81 molecules. The following vibrational constants (in cm-1) have been determined from the analysis: $$ \\begin{array}{llll} \\text{A}^{3}_{0}-\\text{X}^{1}^{+} & \\text{system} & v_{00}=26599.1 & '_{\\text{e}} = 226.42, \\ '_{\\text{e}}x'_{\\text{e}}=1.24\\text{~cm}^{-1},\\\\ & & & ''_{\\text{e}} = 221.19, \\ ''_{\\text{e}}x''_{\\text{e}}=0.528\\text{~cm}^{-1}.\\\\ \\text{B}^{3}_{1}-\\text{X}^{1}^{+} & \\text{system} & v_{00}=27380.52 & '_{\\text{e}}=223.086, \\ '_{\\text{e}}x'_{\\text{e}}=1.446\\text{~cm}^{-1},\\\\ & & & ''_{\\text{e}}=221.19, \\ ''_{\\text{e}}x''_{\\text{e}}=0.528\\text{~cm}^{-1}. \\end{array} $$

  6. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Adams, F. C.; Chambers, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around one or both components of various young close binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. We have simulated the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets in both circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations ($a_B$) in the range 0.05 AU $\\le a_B \\le$ 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities in the range $0 \\le e \\le 0.8$ and circumstellar disks around individual stars with binary separations of tens of AU. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and around individual stars in the Alpha Centauri system (Quintana et al. 2002, A.J., 576, 982); giant planets analogous to Jupiter and Saturn are included if their orbits are stable. The planetary systems formed around close binaries with stellar apastron distances less than or equal to 0.2 AU with small stellar eccentricities are very similar to those formed in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn, whereas planetary systems formed around binaries with larger maximum separations tend to be sparser, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. Likewise, when the binary periastron exceeds 10 AU, terrestrial planets can form over essentially the entire range of orbits allowed for single stars with Jupiter-like planets, although fewer terrestrial planets tend to form within high eccentricity binary systems. As the binary periastron decreases, the radial extent of the terrestrial planet systems is reduced accordingly. When the periastron is 5 AU, the formation of Earth-like planets near 1 AU is compromised.

  7. A new species of Endecous Saussure, 1878 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) from northeast Brazil with the first X1X20 chromosomal sex system in Gryllidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefa, Edison; Redü, Darlan Rutz; Da Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti; Fontanetti, Carmem S; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; Padilha, Giovanna Boff; Fernandes e Silva, Anelise; Martins, Luciano De P

    2014-08-06

    In this paper we describe a new species of Luzarinae cricket collected from the cave "Gruta de Ubajara, municipality of Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil, highlighting phallic sclerites morphology and chromosome complement as diagnostic characters. We presented meiotic and mitotic characterization in order to define the karyotype with 2n = 12 + X1X2♂/12 + X1X1X2X2♀. This represents the first record of X1X20 chromosomal sex system in Gryllidae.

  8. Binary mixtures of chiral gases

    CERN Document Server

    Presilla, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A possible solution of the well known paradox of chiral molecules is based on the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At low pressure the molecules are delocalized between the two minima of a given molecular potential while at higher pressure they become localized in one minimum due to the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Evidence for such a phase transition is provided by measurements of the inversion spectrum of ammonia and deuterated ammonia at different pressures. In particular, at pressure greater than a critical value no inversion line is observed. These data are well accounted for by a model previously developed and recently extended to mixtures. In the present paper, we discuss the variation of the critical pressure in binary mixtures as a function of the fractions of the constituents.

  9. Binary Cepheids from optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Mérand, A; Monnier, J D; Pietrzyński, J Breitfelder G; Gieren, W

    2013-01-01

    Classical Cepheid stars have been considered since more than a century as reliable tools to estimate distances in the universe thanks to their Period-Luminosity (P-L) relationship. Moreover, they are also powerful astrophysical laboratories, providing fundamental clues for studying the pulsation and evolution of intermediate-mass stars. When in binary systems, we can investigate the age and evolution of the Cepheid, estimate the mass and distance, and constrain theoretical models. However, most of the companions are located too close to the Cepheid (1-40 mas) to be spatially resolved with a 10-meter class telescope. The only way to spatially resolve such systems is to use long-baseline interferometry. Recently, we have started a unique and long-term interferometric program that aims at detecting and characterizing physical parameters of the Cepheid companions, with as main objectives the determination of accurate masses and geometric distances.

  10. Record-Breaking Eclipsing Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    A new record holder exists for the longest-period eclipsing binary star system: TYC-2505-672-1. This intriguing system contains a primary star that is eclipsed by its companion once every 69 years with each eclipse lasting several years!120 Years of ObservationsIn a recent study, a team of scientists led by Joseph Rodriguez (Vanderbilt University) characterizes the components of TYC-2505-672-1. This binary star system consists of an M-type red giant star that undergoes a ~3.45-year-long, near-total eclipse with a period of ~69.1 years. This period is more than double that of the previous longest-period eclipsing binary!Rodriguez and collaborators combined photometric observations of TYC-2505-672-1 by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) with a variety of archival data, including observations by the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) network and historical data from the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) program.In the 120 years spanned by these observations, two eclipses are detected: one in 1942-1945 and one in 2011-2015. The authors use the observations to analyze the components of the system and attempt to better understand what causes its unusual light curve.Characterizing an Unusual SystemObservations of TYC-2505-672-1 plotted from 1890 to 2015 reveal two eclipses. (The blue KELT observations during the eclipse show upper limits only.) [Rodriguez et al. 2016]By modeling the systems emission, Rodriguez and collaborators establish that TYC-2505-672-1 consists of a 3600-K primary star thats the M giant orbited by a small, hot, dim companion thats a toasty 8000 K. But if the companion is small, why does the eclipse last several years?The authors argue that the best model of TYC-2505-672-1 is one in which the small companion star is surrounded by a large, opaque circumstellar disk. Rodriguez and collaborators suggest that the companion could be a former red giant whose atmosphere was stripped from it, leaving behind

  11. Propeller-Effect Interpretation of MAXI/GSC Light Curves of 4U 1608-52 and AqlX-1 and application to XTE J1701-462

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, K; Mihara, T; Sugizaki, M; Serino, M; Nakahira, S; Negoro, H; Ueda, Y; Yamaoka, K

    2013-01-01

    We present the luminosity dwell-time distributions during the hard states of low-mass X-ray binaries containing a neutron star, 4U 1608-52 and AqlX-1, observed with MAXI/GSC. The luminosity distributions show a steep cut-off in the low-luminosity side at $\\sim1.0 \\times 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in both the two sources. The cut-off implies a rapid luminosity decrease in their outburst decay phases, and the feature can be interpreted as due the propeller effect. We estimated the surface magnetic field of the neutron star to be (0.5--1.6) $\\times 10^8$ G in 4U 1608-52 and (0.6--1.9) $\\times 10^8$ G in AqlX-1 from the cut-off luminosity. We applied the same propeller mechanism to the similar rapid luminosity decrease observed in the transient Z-source, XTE J1701-462, with RXTE/ASM. Assuming that spin period of the neutron star is in the order of milliseconds, the observed cut-off luminosity deduces surface magnetic field in the order of $10^9$ G.

  12. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, F.; Gallina, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman & Wiegert (1999, AJ, 117, 621) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Δ determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Both these parameters are derived in different contexts, i.e. Δ is usually adopted for computing the stability limit of two planets around a single star while ac is computed for a single planet in a binary system. Aims: Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. Methods: We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. Results: First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability and it does not account for planets trapped in resonance with the companion star well beyond ac. For two-planet systems, the value of Δ is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoticity close to it substantially increases for smaller semimajor axes and higher eccentricities of the binary orbit. In these configurations ac also begins to be unreliable and non-linear secular resonances with the stellar companion lead to chaotic behaviour well within ac, even for single planet systems. For two planet systems, the superposition of mean motion resonances, either mutual or with the binary companion, and non-linear secular resonances may lead to chaotic behaviour in all cases. We have developed a parametric semi-empirical formula determining the minimum value of the binary semimajor axis, for a given

  13. Detailed 1 x 1 deg gravimetric Indian Ocean geoid and comparison with GEOS-3 radar altimeter geoid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, H.-G.; Chapman, M.; Talwani, M.

    1978-01-01

    A new set of 1 x 1 deg mean free-air anomalies in the Indian Ocean is determined on the basis of previously published free-air anomaly maps (Talwani and Kahle, 1975) and the most recent Lamont surface ship gravity measurements. The data are then used to compute a (total) 1 x 1 deg gravimetric Indian Ocean geoid. The computation is carried out by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GEM-6 geoid and a difference geoid that corresponds to the differences between the set of 1 x 1 deg surface gravity values and the GEM-6 gravity anomalies. The difference geoid is highest over the Madagascar Ridge (+20 m) and lowest over the Timor Trough (-30 m). The total geoid is compared with GEOS-3 radar altimeter-derived geoid profiles, and geophysical implications are discussed.

  14. AstroSat/LAXPC Observation of Cygnus X-1 in the Hard State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjeev; Yadav, J. S.; Verdhan Chauhan, Jai; Agrawal, P. C.; Antia, H. M.; Pahari, Mayukh; Chitnis, V. R.; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Katoch, Tilak; Madhwani, P.; Manchanda, R. K.; Paul, B.; Shah, Parag

    2017-02-01

    We report the first analysis of data from AstroSat/LAXPC observations of Cygnus X-1 in 2016 January. LAXPC spectra reveals that the source was in the canonical hard state, represented by a prominent thermal Comptonization component having a photon index of ∼1.8 and high temperature of kTe > 60 keV along with weak reflection and possible disk emission. The power spectrum can be characterized by two broad lorentzian functions centered at ∼0.4 and ∼3 Hz. The rms of the low-frequency component decreases from ∼15% at around 4 keV to ∼10% at around 50 keV, while that of the high-frequency one varies less rapidly from ∼13.5% to ∼11.5% in the same energy range. The time lag between the hard (20–40 keV) and soft (5–10 keV) bands varies in a step-like manner being nearly constant at ∼50 milliseconds from 0.3 to 0.9 Hz, decreasing to ∼8 milliseconds from 2 to 5 Hz and finally dropping to ∼2 milliseconds for higher frequencies. The time lags increase with energy for both the low and high-frequency components. The event mode LAXPC data allows for flux resolved spectral analysis on a timescale of 1 s, which clearly shows that the photon index increased from ∼1.72 to ∼1.80 as the flux increased by nearly a factor of two. We discuss the results in the framework of the fluctuation propagation model.

  15. Moreton and EUV Waves Associated with an X1.0 Flare and CME Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francile, Carlos; López, Fernando M.; Cremades, Hebe; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Luoni, María Luisa; Long, David M.

    2016-11-01

    A Moreton wave was detected in active region (AR) 12017 on 29 March 2014 with very high cadence with the H-Alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) in association with an X1.0 flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:48). Several other phenomena took place in connection with this event, such as low-coronal waves and a coronal mass ejection (CME). We analyze the association between the Moreton wave and the EUV signatures observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These include their low-coronal surface-imprint, and the signatures of the full wave and shock dome propagating outward in the corona. We also study their relation to the white-light CME. We perform a kinematic analysis by tracking the wavefronts in several directions. This analysis reveals a high-directional dependence of accelerations and speeds determined from data at various wavelengths. We speculate that a region of open magnetic field lines northward of our defined radiant point sets favorable conditions for the propagation of a coronal magnetohydrodynamic shock in this direction. The hypothesis that the Moreton wavefront is produced by a coronal shock-wave that pushes the chromosphere downward is supported by the high compression ratio in that region. Furthermore, we propose a 3D geometrical model to explain the observed wavefronts as the chromospheric and low-coronal traces of an expanding and outward-traveling bubble intersecting the Sun. The results of the model are in agreement with the coronal shock-wave being generated by a 3D piston that expands at the speed of the associated rising filament. The piston is attributed to the fast ejection of the filament-CME ensemble, which is also consistent with the good match between the speed profiles of the low-coronal and white-light shock waves.

  16. Moreton and EUV Waves Associated with an X1.0 Flare and CME Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francile, Carlos; López, Fernando M.; Cremades, Hebe; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Luoni, María Luisa; Long, David M.

    2016-09-01

    A Moreton wave was detected in active region (AR) 12017 on 29 March 2014 with very high cadence with the H-Alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) in association with an X1.0 flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:48). Several other phenomena took place in connection with this event, such as low-coronal waves and a coronal mass ejection (CME). We analyze the association between the Moreton wave and the EUV signatures observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These include their low-coronal surface-imprint, and the signatures of the full wave and shock dome propagating outward in the corona. We also study their relation to the white-light CME. We perform a kinematic analysis by tracking the wavefronts in several directions. This analysis reveals a high-directional dependence of accelerations and speeds determined from data at various wavelengths. We speculate that a region of open magnetic field lines northward of our defined radiant point sets favorable conditions for the propagation of a coronal magnetohydrodynamic shock in this direction. The hypothesis that the Moreton wavefront is produced by a coronal shock-wave that pushes the chromosphere downward is supported by the high compression ratio in that region. Furthermore, we propose a 3D geometrical model to explain the observed wavefronts as the chromospheric and low-coronal traces of an expanding and outward-traveling bubble intersecting the Sun. The results of the model are in agreement with the coronal shock-wave being generated by a 3D piston that expands at the speed of the associated rising filament. The piston is attributed to the fast ejection of the filament-CME ensemble, which is also consistent with the good match between the speed profiles of the low-coronal and white-light shock waves.

  17. Terahertz Spectroscopy of CrH (X 6Σ+) and AlH (X 1Σ+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    New laboratory measurements of hydrides have been carried out using terahertz direct absorption spectroscopy. Spin components of the N=2≤ftarrow 1 transition of the free radical CrH (X 6Σ+) have been recorded in the range 730-734 GHz, as well as a new measurement of the J=2≤ftarrow 1 line of AlH (X 1Σ+) near 755 GHz. Both species were created in an AC discharge of H2, argon, and metal vapor. For CrH, the chromium source was Cr(CO)6, while AlH was produced from Al(CH3)3. The J=4.5≤ftarrow 3.5 and 3.5≤ftarrow 2.5 fine-structure components were recorded for CrH, each which consists of resolved proton hyperfine doublets. For AlH, the two main quadrupole components, F=4.5≤ftarrow 3.5 and 3.5≤ftarrow 2.5, of the J=2≤ftarrow 1 transition were observed as blended features. These data were analyzed with previous 1≤ftarrow 0 millimeter/submillimeter measurements with 6Σ and 1Σ Hamiltonians for chromium and aluminum hydrides, respectively, and rotational, fine-structure (CrH only), and hyperfine constants were derived. The new measurements have resulted in refined spectroscopic parameters for both species, as well as direct measurement of the respective 2≤ftarrow 1 rotational transitions. This work also resolves a 10 MHz discrepancy in the frequency of the AlH line. CrH and AlH have already been observed in the photospheres of stars via their electronic transitions. These data will facilitate their discovery at submillimeter/terahertz wavelengths in circumstellar envelopes and perhaps in diffuse clouds.

  18. First Detection of Chromospheric Magnetic Field Changes during an X1-Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleint, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Stepwise changes of the photospheric magnetic field, which often becomes more horizontal, have been observed during many flares. Previous interpretations include coronal loops that contract, and it has been speculated that such jerks could be responsible for sunquakes. Here we report the detection of stepwise chromospheric line-of-sight magnetic field (B{}{LOS}) changes obtained through spectropolarimetry of Ca ii 8542 Å with DST/IBIS during the X1-flare SOL20140329T17:48. These changes are stronger (<640 Mx cm‑2) and appear in larger areas than their photospheric counterparts (<320 Mx cm‑2). The absolute value of {B}{LOS} more often decreases than increases. Photospheric changes are predominantly located near a polarity inversion line, and chromospheric changes near the footpoints of loops. The locations of changes are near, but not exactly co-spatial to hard X-ray emission and neither to enhanced continuum emission nor to a small sunquake. Enhanced chromospheric and coronal emission is observed in nearly all locations that exhibit changes of {B}{LOS}, but the emission also occurs in many locations without any {B}{LOS} changes. Photospheric and chromospheric changes of {B}{LOS} show differences in timing, sign, and size and seem independent of each other. A simple model of contracting loops yields changes of the opposite sign to those observed. An explanation for this discrepancy could be increasing loop sizes or loops that untwist in a certain direction during the flare. It is yet unclear which processes are responsible for the observed changes and their timing, size, and location, especially considering the incoherence between the photosphere and the chromosphere.

  19. Intermittent dipping in a low-mass X-ray Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Duncan K; Upjohn, James; Stuart, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Periodic dips observed in approx. 20% of low-mass X-ray binaries are thought to arise from obscuration of the neutron star by the outer edge of the accretion disk. We report the detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of two dipping episodes in Aql X-1, not previously a known dipper. The X-ray spectrum during the dips exhibited an elevated neutral column density, by a factor between 1 and almost two orders of magnitude. Dips were not observed in every cycle of the 18.95-hr orbit, so that the estimated frequency for these events is 0.10 (+0.07,-0.05)/cycle. This is the first confirmed example of intermittent dipping in such a system. Assuming that the dips in Aql X-1 occur because the system inclination is intermediate between the non-dipping and dipping sources, implies a range of 72-79 deg. for the source. This result lends support for the presence of a massive (> 2 M_sun) neutron star in Aql X-1, and further implies that approx. 30 additional LMXBs may have inclinations within this range, raising the...

  20. Laser spectroscopy of the X 1{\\Sigma}+ and B 1{\\Pi} states of the LiRb molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sourav; Elliott, D S; Chen, Yong P

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the X 1{\\Sigma}+ and B 1{\\Pi} states of 7Li85Rb using Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy and Fluorescence Excitation Spectroscopy (FES). We extract molecular constants for levels v" = 0-2 of the X 1{\\Sigma}+ state and levels v' = 0-20 of the B 1{\\Pi} state. For the B 1{\\Pi} state, we have observed rotational perturbations in the e-parity component of the v' = 2 level, and determined the dissociation energy. We discuss implications of our measurements in finding efficient photoassociation pathways for production of ultra-cold ground state LiRb molecules, and their detection via state selective ionization.

  1. Binary dynamics near a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Hopman, Clovis

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical evolution of binary stars that interact with a static background of single stars in the environment of a massive black hole (MBH). All stars are considered to be single mass, Newtonian point particles. We follow the evolution of the energy E and angular momentum J of the center of mass of the binaries with respect to the MBH, as well as their internal semi-major axis a, using a Monte Carlo method. For a system like the Galactic center, the main conclusions are the following: (1) The binary fraction can be of the order of a few percent outside 0.1 pc, but decreases quickly closer to the MBH. (2) Within ~0.1 pc, binaries can only exist on eccentric orbits with apocenters much further away from the MBH. (3) Far away from the MBH, loss-cone effects are the dominant mechanism that disrupts binaries with internal velocities close to the velocity dispersion. Closer to the MBH, three-body encounters are more effective in disrupting binaries. (4) The rate at which hard binaries become tighter ...

  2. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Binary mass transfer is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this time-scale to the mean time for stable mass transfer to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing mass transfer that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster pro...

  3. The origin of very wide binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Davies, Melvyn B; Parker, Richard J; Kroupa, P; Malmberg, D

    2011-01-01

    A large population of fragile, wide (> 1000 AU) binary systems exists in the Galactic field and halo. These wide binary stars cannot be primordial because of the high stellar density in star forming regions, while formation by capture in the Galactic field is highly improbable. We propose that these binary systems were formed during the dissolution phase of star clusters (see Kouwenhoven et al. 2010, for details). Stars escaping from a dissolving star cluster can have very similar velocities, which can lead to the formation of a wide binary systems. We carry out N-body simulations to test this hypothesis. The results indicate that this mechanism explains the origin of wide binary systems in the Galaxy. The resulting wide binary fraction and semi-major axis distribution depend on the initial conditions of the dissolving star cluster, while the distributions in eccentricity and mass ratio are universal. Finally, since most stars are formed in (relatively tight) primordial binaries, we predict that a large fract...

  4. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Geller, Aaron M.; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Binary mass transfer (MT) is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including SNe Ia, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this timescale to the mean time for stable MT to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing MT that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster properties. We find that for lower-mass clusters (≲ {10}4 {M}⊙ ), on the order of a few to a few tens of percent of binaries undergoing MT are expected to be interrupted by an interloping single, or more often binary, star, over the course of the cluster lifetime, whereas in more massive globular clusters we expect \\ll 1% to be interrupted. Furthermore, using numerical scattering experiments performed with the FEWBODY code, we show that the probability of interruption increases if perturbative fly-bys are considered as well, by a factor ˜2.

  5. Nonadiabatic dynamics of O(1D) + N2(X1Σg+) → O(3P) + N2(X1Σg+) on three coupled potential surfaces: symmetry, Coriolis, spin-orbit, and Renner-Teller effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defazio, Paolo; Gamallo, Pablo; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2012-02-01

    We present the spin-orbit (SO) and Renner-Teller (RT) quantum dynamics of the spin-forbidden quenching O((1)D) + N(2)(X(1)Σ(g)(+)) → O((3)P) + N(2)(X(1)Σ(g)(+)) on the N(2)O X(1)A', ã(3)A", and b(3)A' coupled PESs. We use the permutation-inversion symmetry, propagate coupled-channel (CC) real wavepackets, and compute initial-state-resolved probabilities and cross sections σ(j(0)) for the ground vibrational and the first two rotational states of N(2), j(0) = 0 and 1. Labeling symmetry angular states by j and K, we report selection rules for j and for the minimum K value associated with any electronic state, showing that ã(3)A" is uncoupled in the centrifugal-sudden (CS) approximation at j(0) = 0. The dynamics is resonance-dominated, the probabilities are larger at low K, σ(j(0)) decrease with the collision energy and increase with j(0), and the CS σ(0) is lower than the CC one. The nonadiabatic interactions play different roles on the quenching dynamics, because the X(1)A'-b(3)A' SO effects are those most important while the ã(3)A"-b(3)A' RT ones are negligible.

  6. Stochastic Stability of Equilibrium Points x* =1/blnr(t)/c of Nicholson's Blowflies Model with Markovian Switching%马尔可夫调制飞蝇模型平衡点x*=1/blnr(t)/c稳性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王众

    2015-01-01

    将Nicholson飞蝇模型推广到带Markov调制的情形,并研究了该模型的平衡点问题,得到了平衡点x*=1/blnr(t)/c随机稳定性的一个充分条件.最后通过实例验证了结果.

  7. Accretion in supergiant High Mass X-ray Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manousakis Antonios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supergiant High Mass X-ray Binary systems (sgHMXBs consist of a massive, late type, star and a neutron star. The massive stars exhibits strong, radiatively driven, stellar winds. Wind accretion onto compact object triggers X-ray emission, which alters the stellar wind significantly. Hydrodynamic simulation has been used to study the neutron star - stellar wind interaction it two sgHMXBs: i A heavily obscured sgHMXB (IGR J17252–3616 discovered by INTEGRAL. To account for observable quantities (i.e., absorbing column density we have to assume a very slow wind terminal velocity of about 500 km/s and a rather massive neutron star. If confirmed in other obscured systems, this could provide a completely new stellar wind diagnostics. ii A classical sgHMXB (Vela X-1 has been studied in depth to understand the origin of the off-states observed in this system. Among many models used to account for this observed behavior (clumpy wind, gating mechanism we propose that self-organized criticality of the accretion stream is the likely reason for the observed behavior. In conclusion, the neutron star, in these two examples, acts very effciently as a probe to study stellar winds.

  8. Fast algorithms for generating binary holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Dustin; Kuhn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We describe three algorithms for generating binary-valued holograms. Our methods are optimised for producing large arrays of tightly focussed optical tweezers for trapping particles. Binary-valued holograms allow us to use a digital mirror device (DMD) as the display element, which is much faster than other alternatives. We describe how our binary amplitude holograms can be used to correct for phase errors caused by optical aberrations. Furthermore, we compare the speed and accuracy of the algorithms for both periodic and arbitrary arrangements of traps, which allows one to choose the ideal scheme depending on the circumstances.

  9. Discovery of a 2 Kpc Binary Quasar

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, G. A.; Junkkarinen, V.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, R. D.; Hamann, F.; Lyons, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    LBQS 0103$-$2753 is a binary quasar with a separation of only 0.3 arcsec. The projected spacing of 2.3 kpc at the distance of the source (z = 0.848) is much smaller than that of any other known binary QSO. The binary nature is demonstrated by the very different spectra of the two components and the low probability of a chance pairing. LBQS 0103$-$2753 presumably is a galaxy merger with a small physical separation between the two supermassive black holes. Such objects may provide important con...

  10. Binary Cu-Zr Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Mei-Bo; ZHAO De-Qian; PAN Ming-Xiang; WANG Wei-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report that bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) can be produced up to 2 mm by a copper mould casting in Cux Zr1-x binary alloy with a wide glass forming composition range (45 < x < 60 at.%). We find that the formation mechanism for the binary Cu-Zr binary BMG-forming alloy is obviously different from that of the intensively studied multicomponent BMGs. Our results demonstrate that the criteria for the multicomponent alloys with composition near deep eutectic and strong liquid behaviour are no longer the major concern for designing BMGs.

  11. Dynamical mass transfer in cataclysmic binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Fulvio; Lamb, D. Q.

    1987-01-01

    When a binary comes into contact and mass transfer begins, orbital angular momentum is stored in the accretion disk until the disk couples tidally to the binary system. Taam and McDermott (1987) have suggested that this leads to unstable dynamical mass transfer in many cataclysmic variables in which mass transfer would otherwise be stable, and that it explains the gap between 2 and 3 h in the orbital period distribution of these systems. Here the consequences of this hypothesis for the evolution of cataclysmic binaries are explored. It is found that systems coming into contact longward of the period gap undergo one or more episodes of dynamical mass transfer.

  12. Blind iterative deconvolution of binary star images

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K

    1997-01-01

    The technique of Blind Iterative De-convolution (BID) was used to remove the atmospherically induced point spread function (PSF) from short exposure images of two binary stars, HR 5138 and HR 5747 obtained at the cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope(VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur. The position angles and separations of the binary components were seen to be consistent with results of the auto-correlation technique, while the Fourier phases of the reconstructed images were consistent with published observations of the binary orbits.

  13. Division Unit for Binary Integer Decimals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    -recurrence algorithm to BID representation and implement the division unit in standard cell technology. The implementation of the proposed BID division unit is compared to that of a BCD based unit implementing the same algorithm. The comparison shows that for normalized operands the BID unit has the same latency......In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm and implements binary encodings (binary integer decimal or BID) for significands. Recent decimal division designs are all based on the binary coded decimal (BCD) encoding. We adapt the radix-10 digit...

  14. Busting Up Binaries: Encounters Between Compact Binaries and a Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, Eric; Larson, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Given the stellar density near the galactic center, close encounters between compact object binaries and the supermassive black hole are a plausible occurrence. We present results from a numerical study of close to 13 million such encounters. Consistent with previous studies, we corroborate that, for binary systems tidally disrupted by the black hole, the component of the binary remaining bound to the hole has eccentricity ~ 0.97 and circularizes dramatically by the time it enters the classical LISA band. Our results also show that the population of surviving binaries merits attention. These binary systems experience perturbations to their internal orbital parameters with potentially interesting observational consequences. We investigated the regions of parameter space for survival and estimated the distribution of orbital parameters post-encounter. We found that surviving binaries harden and their eccentricity increases, thus accelerating their merger due gravitational radiation emission and increasing the p...

  15. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  16. Understanding the Long-Term Spectral Variability of Cygnus X-1 from BATSE and ASM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Poutanen, Juri; Paciesas, William S.; Wen, Linqing; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of observations of Cygnus X-1 by the RXTE/ASM (1.5-12 keV) and CGRO/BATSE (20-300 keV), including about 1200 days of simultaneous data. We find a number of correlations between intensities and hardnesses in different energy bands from 1.5 keV to 300 keV. In the hard (low) spectral state, there is a negative correlation between the ASM 1.5-12 keV flux and the hardness at any energy. In the soft (high) spectral state, the ASM flux is positively correlated with the ASM hardness (as previously reported) but uncorrelated with the BATSE hardness. In both spectral states, the BATSE hardness correlates with the flux above 100 keV, while it shows no correlation with the flux in the 20-100 keV range. At the same time, there is clear correlation between the BATSE fluxes below and above 100 keV. In the hard state, most of the variability can be explained by softening the overall spectrum with a pivot at approximately 50 keV. The observations show that there has to be another, independent variability pattern of lower amplitude where the spectral shape does not change when the luminosity changes. In the soft state, the variability is mostly caused by a variable hard (Comptonized) spectral component of a constant shape superimposed on a constant soft blackbody component. These variability patterns are in agreement with the dependence of the rms variability on the photon energy in the two states. We interpret the observed correlations in terms of theoretical Comptonization models. In the hard state, the variability appears to be driven mostly by changing flux in seed photons Comptonized in a hot thermal plasma cloud with an approximately constant power supply. In the soft state, the variability is consistent with flares of hybrid, thermal/nonthermal, plasma with variable power above a stable cold disk. Also, based on broadband pointed observations simultaneous with those of the ASM and BATSE, we find the intrinsic bolometric luminosity increases by a

  17. DISAPPEARANCE OF COMET C/2010 X1 (ELENIN): GONE WITH A WHIMPER, NOT A BANG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Jewitt, David, E-mail: jli@igpp.ucla.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We examine the rise and sudden demise of comet C/2010 X1 (Elenin) on its approach to perihelion. Discovered inbound at 4.2 AU, this long-period comet was predicted to become very bright when near perihelion, at 0.48 AU on 2011 September 10. Observations starting 2011 February (heliocentric distance ∼3.5 AU) indeed show the comet to brighten by about 11 mag, with most of the increase occurring inside 1 AU from the Sun. The peak brightness reached m{sub R} = 6 on UT 2011 August 12.95 ± 0.50, when at ∼0.83 AU from the Sun. Thereafter, the comet faded even as the heliocentric distance continued to decrease. We find that most of the surge in brightness in mid-August resulted from dust-particle forward scattering, not from a sudden increase in the activity. A much smaller (∼3 mag) brightening began on UT 2011 August 18 ± 1 (heliocentric distance 0.74 AU), reached a maximum on UT 2011 August 30 ± 1 (at 0.56 AU), and reflects the true breakup of the nucleus. This second peak was matched by a change in the morphology from centrally condensed to diffuse. The estimated cross section of the nucleus when at 1 AU inbound was ∼1 km{sup 2}, corresponding to an equal-area circle of radius 0.6 km. Observations were taken after the second peak using the Canada–France–Hawaii 3.6 m telescope to search for surviving fragments of the nucleus. None were found to a limiting red magnitude r′ = 24.4, corresponding to radii ≲40 m (red geometric albedo = 0.04 assumed). The brightening, the progressive elongation of the debris cloud, and the absence of a central condensation in data taken after UT 2011 August 30 are consistent with disintegration of the nucleus into a power law size distribution of fragments with index q = 3.3 ± 0.2 combined with the action of radiation pressure. In such a distribution, the largest particles contain most of the mass while the smallest particles dominate the scattering cross section and apparent brightness. We speculate about physical

  18. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  19. Spectroscopy of the X^1Σ^+, A^1Π and B^1Σ^+ Electronic States of MgS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Nicholas; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Adam, Allan G.; Linton, Colan

    2016-06-01

    The spectra of some astrophysical sources contain signatures from molecules containing magnesium or sulphur atoms. Therefore, we have extended previous studies of the diatomic molecule MgS, which is a possible candidate for astrophysical detection. Microwave spectra of X^1Σ^+ , the ground electronic state, were reported in 1989 and 1997, and the B^1Σ^+-X^1Σ^+ electronic absorption spectrum in the blue was last studied in 1970. We have investigated the B^1Σ^+-X^1Σ^+ 0-0 spectrum of MgS at high resolution under jet-cooled conditions in a laser-ablation molecular source, and have obtained laser-induced fluorescence spectra from four isotopologues. Dispersed fluorescence from this source identified the low-lying A^1Π state near 4520 wn. We also created MgS in a Broida oven, with the help of a stream of activated nitrogen, and took rotationally resolved dispersed fluorescence spectra of the B^1Σ^+-A^1Π transition with a grating spectrometer by laser excitation of individual rotational levels of the B^1Σ^+ state via the B^1Σ^+-X^1Σ^+ transition. These spectra provide a first observation and analysis of the A^1Π state. S. Takano, S. Yamamoto and S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 159, 563-566 (1989) K. A. Walker and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Mol. Spectrosc 182, 178-183 (1997) M. Marcano and R. F. Barrow, Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 2936-2938 (1970)

  20. Faster T-cell development following gene therapy compared with haploidentical HSCT in the treatment of SCID-X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzot, Fabien; Moshous, Despina; Creidy, Rita; Neven, Bénédicte; Frange, Pierre; Cros, Guilhem; Caccavelli, Laure; Blondeau, Johanna; Magnani, Alessandra; Luby, Jean-Marc; Ternaux, Brigitte; Picard, Capucine; Blanche, Stéphane; Fischer, Alain; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Cavazzana, Marina

    2015-06-04

    During the last decade, gene therapy via ex vivo gene transfer into autologous hematopoietic stem cells has emerged as a convincing therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency caused by ILR2G mutation (SCID-X1) despite the occurrence of genotoxicity caused by the integration of first-generation retroviral vectors. However, the place of gene therapy among the therapeutic armamentarium remains to be defined. We retrospectively analyze and compare clinical outcomes and immune reconstitution in 13 consecutive SCID-X1 patients having undergone haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and 14 SCID-X1 patients treated with gene therapy over the same period at a single center level: the Necker Children's Hospital (Paris, France). Our results show a clear advantage in terms of T-cell development of gene therapy over HSCT with a mismatched donor. Patients treated with gene therapy display a faster T-cell reconstitution and a better long-term thymic output. Interestingly, this advantage of gene therapy vs haploidentical HSCT seems to be independent of the existence of clinical graft-versus-host disease in the latter condition. If data of safety are confirmed over the long term, gene therapy for SCID-X1 appears to be an equal, if not superior, alternative to haploidentical HSCT.

  1. Metal-insulator transition in Si(111)-(4 x 1)/(8 x 2)-In studied by optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speiser, E.; Hinrichs, K.; Cobet, C.; Esser, N. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Chandola, S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin 2 (Ireland); Gensch, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Wippermann, S.; Schmidt, W.G. [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Paderborn (Germany); Bechstedt, F. [Institut fuer Festkoerpertheorie und -Optik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (Germany); Richter, W. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Fleischer, K.; McGilp, J.F. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-08-15

    Measurements of the surface vibrational modes and optical response of Si(111)-(4 x 1)/(8 x 2)-In are compiled and a comparison to ab initio calculations performed within DFT-LDA formalism is given. Surface resonant Raman spectroscopy allows identifying a number of surface phonons with high spectral precision. The phase transition of the (4 x 1)-(8 x 2) surface structure is found to be accompanied by characteristic changes of the surface phonons, which are discussed with respect to various structural models suggested. The optical anisotropy of the (8 x 2) phase shows that the anisotropic Drude tail of the (4 x 1) phase is replaced by two peaks at 0.50 and 0.72 eV. The spectroscopic signatures of the (4 x 1) and (8 x 2) phases agree with a metal-insulator transition. The mid-IR-anisotropic optical response of the insulating (8 x 2) phase is interpreted in terms of electronic single particle excitations between surface electronic bands related to the In-nanowire surface. Comparison of the measured optical transitions with DFT ab initio calculations for the hexagon model and the trimer model of the (8 x 2) structure shows evidence for the existence of the hexagon structure. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of the A1Π- X1Σ + System of MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagi, E.; Hirano, T.; Takano, S.; Kawaguchi, K.

    1994-11-01

    The gas-phase infrared absorption spectrum of the A1Π- X1Σ + system of MgO was observed in the 2700-5400 cm -1 region with a high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The MgO molecule was produced in a reaction of Mg vapor with N 2O. The observed 501 spectral lines were assigned to five vibrational bands, vA- vX = 1-0 2-0, 3-0, 2-1, and 0-1 of 24MgO. These lines were analyzed to determine the band origins, the rotational, centrifugal distortion, and Λ-type doubling constants in the A1Π state. The term value Te of the A1Π state was derived to be 3563.8377 (74) cm -1, with one standard deviation in parentheses. The rotational levels in the A1Π state were found to be perturbed by those of the vibrational levels of the X1Σ + state through rotational-electronic interaction, and the analysis of the perturbation was carried out to determine the interaction constants. The spectra of the vA- vX = 1-0 bands of the isotopic species, 25MgO and 26MgO, wer also observed and analyzed.

  3. Occupational Survey Report, AFSC 2A3X1, A-10/F-15/U-2 Avonics Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    specific data – Did not evaluate electronics principles section of STS • STS is generally supported by survey data – Seven STS items were unsupported... electronics principles section of STS for possible references 27 2A3X1 Percent Members Performing Unit Learning Objective Prof Code

  4. Theoretical study on photon-phonon coupling at (001)-(2 x 1) surfaces of Ge and {alpha}-Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, F.L. [Escuela de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma ' ' Benito Juarez' ' de Oaxaca, Av. Universidad S/N, Ex-Hacienda de Cinco Senores, Ciudad Universitaria, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., 68120 (Mexico); Perez-Rodriguez, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. J-48, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    We present a study of the far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra for (001) surfaces of Ge and {alpha}-Sn in the (2 x 1) asymmetric dimer geometry, which exhibit a resonance structure associated with the excitation of surface phonon modes. We have employed a theoretical formalism, based on the adiabatic bond-charge model (ABCM), for computing the far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra. In comparison with previous theoretical results for silicon and diamond surfaces, the resonance structure in the reflectance anisotropy spectrum for Ge(001)-(2 x 1) turns out to be similar to that observed in the spectrum for the Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface, whereas the spectrum for {alpha}-Sn(001)-(2 x 1) surface is noticeably different from the others. We have established a trend of far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra for IV(001) surfaces: the weaker dimer strength, the stronger resonances of low-frequency surface phonons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Structure determination of the indium-induced Ge(103)-(1x1) reconstruction by surface X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, O.; Falkenberg, G.; Zeysing, J.H.;

    1999-01-01

    A detailed structural model of the indium-induced Ge(103)-(1 X 1) surface reconstruction has been established by analyzing an extensive set of X-ray data recorded with synchrotron radiation. Our results show that models with one indium and one germanium adatom per unit cell are incompatible with ...

  6. New Insights into X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    X-ray binaries are excellent laboratories to study collapsed objects. On the one hand, transient X-ray binaries contain the best examples of stellar-mass black holes while persistent X-ray binaries mostly harbour accreting neutron stars. The determination of stellar masses in persistent X-ray binaries is usually hampered by the overwhelming luminosity of the X-ray heated accretion disc. However, the discovery of high-excitation emission lines from the irradiated companion star has opened new routes in the study of compact objects. This paper presents novel techniques which exploits these irradiated lines and summarises the dynamical masses obtained for the two populations of collapsed stars: neutron stars and black holes.

  7. A mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Echeverria, C; Alvarez-Llamoza, O; Orozco-Guillén, E E; Morales, M; Cosenza, M G

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model to study symmetric binary fluids, based in the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where space and state variables are continuous while time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require the calculation of the interaction forces between particles, thus allowing the description of binary fluids at a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, maintains Galilean invariance, and conserves the mass and the energy in the system at micro and macro scales; while momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as density profile, width of the interface, phase separation and phase growth. We also apply the model to study binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  8. Red-giant stars in eccentric binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.

  9. Binary Biometric Representation through Pairwise Polar Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chun; Veldhuis, Raymond; Tistarelli, M.; Nixon, M.

    2009-01-01

    Binary biometric representations have great significance for data compression and template protection. In this paper, we introduce pairwise polar quantization. Furthermore, aiming to optimize the discrimination between the genuine Hamming distance (GHD) and the imposter Hamming distance (IHD), we pr

  10. Searching for Pulsars in Close Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jouteux, S; Stappers, B W; Jonker, P; Van der Klis, M

    2001-01-01

    We present a detailed mathematical analysis of the Fourier response of binary pulsar signals whose frequencies are modulated by circular orbital motion. The fluctuation power spectrum of such signals is found to be \

  11. Tidal capture formation of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries from wide binaries in the field

    CERN Document Server

    Michaely, Erez

    2015-01-01

    We present a potentially efficient dynamical formation scenario for Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the field, focusing on black-hole (BH) LMXBs. In this formation channel LMXBs are formed from wide binaries $(>1000$ AU) with a BH component and a stellar companion. The wide binary is perturbed by fly-by's of field stars and its orbit random-walks and changes over time. This diffusion process can drive the binary into a sufficiently eccentric orbit such that the binary components tidally interact at peri-center and the binary evolves to become a short period binary, which eventually evolves into an LMXB. The formation rate of LMXBs through this channel mostly depends on the number of such BH wide binaries progenitors, which in turn depends on the velocity kicks imparted to BHs (or NSs) at birth. We consider several models for the formation and survival of such wide binaries, and calculate the LMXB formation rates for each model. We find that models where BHs form through direct collapse with no/little natal...

  12. Evolution of Binary Stars in Multiple-Population Globular Clusters - II. Compact Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jongsuk; Sollima, Antonio; McMillan, Stephen L W; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at exploring the evolution of compact binaries in multiple-population globular clusters.We show that as a consequence of the initial differences in the structural properties of the first-generation (FG) and the second-generation (SG) populations and the effects of dynamical processes on binary stars, the SG binary fraction decreases more rapidly than that of the FG population. The difference between the FG and SG binary fraction is qualitatively similar to but quantitatively smaller than that found for wider binaries in our previous investigations.The evolution of the radial variation of the binary fraction is driven by the interplay between binary segregation, ionization and ejection. Ionization and ejection counteract in part the effects of mass segregation but for compact binaries the effects of segregation dominate and the inner binary fraction increases during the cluster evolution. We explore the variation of the difference between the FG an...

  13. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  14. Binary module test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, J.R.; Colley, T.C.; Pundyk, J.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test a binary loop module representative of and scaleable to commercial size units. The design was based on state-of-the-art heat exchanger technology, and the purpose of the tests was to confirm performance of a supercritical boiling cycle using isobutane and a mixture of isobutane and isopentane as the secondary working fluid. The module was designed as one percent of a 50 MW unit. It was installed at Magma Power's East Mesa geothermal field and tested over a period of approximately 4 months. Most of the test runs were with isobutane but some data were collected for hydrocarbon mixtures. The results of the field tests are reported. In general these results indicate reasonably good heat balances and agreement with overall heat transfer coefficients calculated by current stream analysis methods and available fluid property data; however, measured pressure drops across the heat exchangers were 20 percent higher than estimated. System operation was stable under all conditions tested.

  15. Near-Optimal Compressive Binary Search

    OpenAIRE

    Malloy, Matthew L.; Nowak, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a simple modification to the recently proposed compressive binary search. The modification removes an unnecessary and suboptimal factor of log log n from the SNR requirement, making the procedure optimal (up to a small constant). Simulations show that the new procedure performs significantly better in practice as well. We also contrast this problem with the more well known problem of noisy binary search.

  16. Statistical pattern classification with binary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T Y; Liu, P S; Rondon, R J

    1981-02-01

    Binary random variables are regarded as random vectors in a binary-field (modulo-2) linear vector space. A characteristic function is defined and related results derived using this formulation. Minimax estimation of probability distributions using an entropy criterion is investigated, which leads to an A-distribution and bilinear discriminant functions. Nonparametric classification approaches using Hamming distances and their asymptotic properties are discussed. Experimental results are presented.

  17. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    2004-10-01

    We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6-7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years. We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within 20-30% of the maximum possible values.

  18. The DEBCat detached eclipsing binary catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Detached eclipsing binary star systems are our primary source of measured physical properties of normal stars. I introduce DEBCat: a catalogue of detached eclipsing binaries with mass and radius measurements to the 2% precision necessary to put useful constraints on theoretical models of stellar evolution. The catalogue was begun in 2006, as an update of the compilation by Andersen (1991). It now contains over 170 systems, and new results are added on appearance in the refereed literature. DE...

  19. An improved catalog of halo wide binary candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Christine

    2014-01-01

    We present an improved catalog of halo wide binaries, compiled from an extensive literature search. Most of our binaries stem from the common proper motion binary catalogs by Allen et al. (2004), and Chanam\\'e \\& Gould. (2004) but we have also included binaries from the lists of Ryan (1992) and Zapatero-Osorio \\& Martin (2004). All binaries were carefully checked and their distances and systemic radial velocities are included, when available. Probable membership to the halo population was tested by means of reduced proper motion diagrams for 251 candidate halo binaries. After eliminating obvious disk binaries we ended up with 211 probable halo binaries, for 150 of which radial velocities are available. We compute galactic orbits for these 150 binaries and calculate the time they spend within the galactic disk. Considering the full sample of 251 candidate halo binaries as well as several subsamples, we find that the distribution of angular separations (or expected major semiaxes) follows a power law $f...

  20. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  1. Spectroscopic subsystems in nearby wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Radial velocity (RV) monitoring of solar-type visual binaries has been conducted at the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5-m telescope to study short-period systems. Data reduction is described, mean and individual RVs of 163 observed objects are given. New spectroscopic binaries are discovered or suspected in 17 objects, for some of them orbital periods could be determined. Subsystems are efficiently detected even in a single observation by double lines and/or by the RV difference between the components of visual binaries. The potential of this detection technique is quantified by simulation and used for statistical assessment of 96 wide binaries within 67pc. It is found that 43 binaries contain at least one subsystem and the occurrence of subsystems is equally probable in either primary or secondary components. The frequency of subsystems and their periods match the simple prescription proposed by the author (2014, AJ, 147, 87). The remaining 53 simple wide binaries with a median projected separation of 1300AU have the distri...

  2. Coronal activity from the ASAS eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Szczygiel, D M; Paczynski, B; Pojmanski, G; Pilecki, B

    2008-01-01

    We combine the catalogue of eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) with the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS). The combination results in 836 eclipsing binaries that display coronal activity and is the largest sample of active binary stars assembled to date. By using the (V-I) colors of the ASAS eclipsing binary catalogue, we are able to determine the distances and thus bolometric luminosities for the majority of eclipsing binaries that display significant stellar activity. A typical value for the ratio of soft X-ray to bolometric luminosity is L_X/L_bol ~ a few x 10^-4, similar to the ratio of soft X-ray to bolometric flux F_X/F_bol in the most active regions of the Sun. Unlike rapidly rotating isolated late-type dwarfs -- stars with significant outer convection zones -- a tight correlation between Rossby number and activity of eclipsing binaries is absent. We find evidence for the saturation effect and marginal evidence for the so-called "super-saturation" phenomena. Our work shows that wide-...

  3. The SED in the hot continuum of the symbiotic binary AR Pavonis. I. Tests with the current models

    CERN Document Server

    Skopal, A

    2003-01-01

    We present the spectral energy distribution (SED) in the continuum of the eclipsing symbiotic binary AR Pav between 0.12 and 3.4 microns. This revealed a high luminosity of the hot object in the binary, L(hot) = 2200(d/4.9 kpc)**2 L(Sun). We introduce a method of disentangling the total continuum spectrum into its individual components of radiation for current models of symbiotic binaries. Applying a standard ionization model we show that the configuration of AR Pav differs significantly from that typical for symbiotic binaries during their quiescent phases. The best fit of the observed SED is provided by radiation of a simple blackbody accretion disk with L(AD)=1700(d/4.9 kpc)**2 L(Sun), which is embedded in an extended hot corona with Te=40000+/-5000K and L(neb)=500 (d/4.9 kpc)**2 L(Sun). This basic configuration of the hot object explains also the observed wavelength-dependent depth and width of the eclipse profile. The standard thin disk model requires a high accretion rate dot M(acc) > 2x1E-4M(Sun)/yr on...

  4. Coriolis coupling effects in the H +Li2 (X1 Σg+) →LiH (X1Σ+) +Li reaction: A time-dependent wave packet investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shoubao; Zhang, Lulu; Song, Yuzhi; Meng, Qingtian

    2016-05-01

    The time-dependent dynamics studies on the H +Li2 (X1Σg+) reaction has been carried out by using the novel HLi2 (X2A‧) potential energy surface [7]. The reaction probabilities from both Coriolis coupling and centrifugal sudden approximation calculation exhibit oscillations, being attributed to the existence of deep potential well in the reaction. The integral cross sections of the Coriolis coupling calculation are slightly larger than those of the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation over the collision energy range of 0-0.4 eV, which demonstrates that the Coriolis coupling effect plays an important role in the H +Li2 (X1Σg+) reaction.

  5. Overlapping $B^{3}_{0u}← X^{1}^{+}_{g}$ and $^{1}_{1u} ← X^{1}^{+}_{g}$ non-radiative characteristic of Br2 vapour in the wavelength region 505–541 nm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh C Sharma; S N Thakur

    2001-01-01

    The vibronic vapour phase photoacoustic spectrum of Br2 in the wavelength region 505–541 nm (19796–18480 cm-1) has been recorded using microphone as well as pump-probe method. Discrete vibronic bands superimposed on a monotonically increasing continuum background towards the dissociation limit results from the overlapping $B^{3}^{+}_{0u}← X^{1}^{+}_{g}$ and $^{1}_{1u}← X^{1}^{+}_{g}$ electronic transitions. Vibronic bands originating from '' = 0 have been used to estimate the relative rate of non-radiative relaxation as a function of the excited state $^{3}_{0u}$ vibrational quantum number '. A comparison with the optical absorption spectroscopy of Br2 leads to the identification of three broad spectral regions between 505 and 541 nm (19796 and 18480 cm-1) on the basis of different non-radiative relaxation processes.

  6. The Study on Antifungal Activity and Screening of Actinomycete X1 Strain from Soil%土壤放线菌X1的筛选及其抑菌活性初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐路明; 郝明亮; 王金果; 王桂芳; 罗兰

    2011-01-01

    Screening antifungal actinomycetes are foundation of agricultural antibiotics exploitation. The antifungal activity of 6 strains actinomycetes from soil were studied by mycelium growth rate, spore germination test. The antifungal activities of different extracts of actinomycete X1 strain were studied. The results of mycelium growth rate showed that the Xl strain displayed a broad spectrum inhibitory activity to all the tested 12 plant pathogenic fungi, of which the inhibition rate against 3 pathogens were 100%, such as Valsa mali, Physalospora piricola and Coniella diplodiella. The results of spore germination test demonstrated that the X1 strain also had an inhibition rate of 100% against germination of spores of Fusarium oxysporum. The inhibition rate to 3 plant pathogens was over 90% with ethyl acetate of Xl strain at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. The X1 strain displayed a broad spectrum inhibitory activity, which had great potential for controlling plant pathogens.%筛选具有抑菌活性的放线茵是开发农用活性抗生素的基础.笔者采用生长速率法和孢子萌发法,测定了从土壤中分离出的6株拮抗放线茵的抑菌活性,并对抑茵活性较好的放线茵X1菌株进行初步研究.生长速率法试验表明,放线茵X1菌株发酵液对供试12种植物病原茵茵丝生长均有不同程度的抑制作用,发酵液对苹果腐烂病菌、苹果轮纹病菌和葡萄白腐病茵茵丝的抑制率均为100%.孢子萌发试验表明,放线茵X1菌株发酵液对黄瓜枯萎病菌孢子萌发的抑制率为100%.在浓度为1 mg/mL时,放线茵X1菌株发酵液乙酸乙酯萃取物对苹果腐烂病菌、苹果轮纹病菌和葡萄白腐病菌茵丝的抑菌率均大于90%.放线茵X1菌株抑茵谱较广,对植物病茵的防治有很大的研究开发潜力.

  7. Selective dissolution in binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Carol Rene

    Corrosion is an important issue in the design of engineering alloys. De-alloying is an aspect of alloy corrosion related to the selective dissolution of one or more of the components in an alloy. The work reported herein focuses on the topic of de-alloying specific to single-phase binary noble metal alloy systems. The alloy systems investigated were gold-silver and gold-copper. The onset of a bulk selective dissolution process is typically marked by a critical potential whereby the more reactive component in the alloy begins dissolving from the bulk, leading to the formation of a bi-continuous solid-void morphology. The critical potential was investigated for the entire composition range of gold-silver alloys. The results presented herein include the formulation of an expression for critical potential as a function of both alloy and electrolyte composition. Results of the first investigation of underpotential deposition (UPD) on alloys are also presented herein. These results were implemented as an analytical tool to provide quantitative measurements of the surface evolution of gold during de-alloying. The region below the critical potential was investigated in terms of the compositional evolution of the alloy surface. Below the critical potential, there is a competition between the dissolution of the more reactive alloying constituent (either silver or copper) and surface diffusion of gold that serves to cover dissolution sites and prevent bulk dissolution. By holding the potential at a prescribed value below the critical potential, a time-dependent gold enrichment occurs on the alloy surface leading to passivation. A theoretical model was developed to predict the surface enrichment of gold based on the assumption of layer-by-layer dissolution of the more reactive alloy constituent. The UPD measurements were used to measure the time-dependent surface gold concentration and the results agreed with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  8. Identification of atropine- and P2X1 receptor antagonist-resistant, neurogenic contractions of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Charles; Tasker, Paul N; Gallacher, Gemma; Westfall, Timothy D

    2007-01-24

    Acetylcholine and ATP are excitatory cotransmitters in parasympathetic nerves. We used P2X1 receptor antagonists to further characterize the purinergic component of neurotransmission in isolated detrusor muscle of guinea pig urinary bladder. In the presence of atropine (1 microM) and prazosin (100 nM), pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS) (0.1-100 microM) and suramin (1-300 microM) inhibited contractions evoked by 4 Hz nerve stimulation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 6.9 and 13.4 microM, respectively). Maximum inhibition was 50-60%, which was unaffected by coadministration of the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL67156 (6-N,N-diethyl-D-beta,gamma-dibromomethyleneATP) (100 microM). The remaining responses were abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). PPADS and suramin also reduced contractions to exogenous ATP (300 microM) by 40-50%, but abolished those to the P2X1 agonist alpha,beta-methyleneATP (alpha,beta-meATP) (1 microM). The P2X1 antagonists reactive blue 2, NF279 (8,8'-[carbonylbis(imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid), MRS2159 (pyridoxal-alpha5-phosphate-6-phenylazo-4'-carboxylic acid) (100 microM), and NF449 [4,4',4,4-(carbonylbis(imino-5,1,3-benzenetriylbis(carbonylimino)))tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid] (3 microM) abolished contractions to alpha,beta-meATP (1 microM; n = 4-5), but only reduced contractions evoked by 4 Hz nerve stimulation by approximately 40-60% (n = 4-6) and ATP by 30-60% (n = 4-7). However, prolonged exposure to alpha,beta-meATP (50 microM) abolished contractions evoked by all three stimuli (n = 5-12). PPADS (100 microM) and suramin (300 microM) reduced the peak neurogenic contraction of the mouse urinary bladder to 30-40% of control. At the same concentrations, the P2X1 antagonists abolished the nonadrenergic, purinergic component of neurogenic contractions in the guinea pig vas deferens (n = 4-5). Thus, P2X1 receptor antagonists inhibit

  9. Exploring the Birth of Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    More than half of all stars are thought to be in binary or multiple star systems. But how do these systems form? The misaligned spins of some binary protostars might provide a clue.Two Formation ModelsIts hard to tell how multiple-star systems form, since these systems are difficult to observe in their early stages. But based on numerical simulations, there are two proposed models for the formation of stellar binaries:Turbulent fragmentationTurbulence within a single core leads to multiple dense clumps. These clumps independently collapse to form stars that orbit each other.Disk fragmentationGravitational instabilities in a massive accretion disk cause the formation of a smaller, secondary disk within the first, resulting in two stars that orbit each other.Log column density for one of the authors simulated binary systems, just after the formation of two protostars. Diamonds indicate the protostar positions. [Adapted from Offner et al. 2016]Outflows as CluesHow can we differentiate between these formation mechanisms? Led by Stella Offner (University of Massachusetts), a team of scientists has suggested that the key isto examine the alignment of the stars protostellar outflows jets that are often emitted from the poles of young, newly forming stars.Naively, wed expect that disk fragmentation would produce binary stars with common angular momentum. As the stars spins would be aligned, they would therefore also launch protostellar jets that were aligned with each other. Turbulent fragmentation, on the other hand, would cause the stars to have independent angular momentum. This would lead to randomly oriented spins, so the protostellar jets would be misaligned.Snapshots from the authors simulations. Left panel of each pair: column density; green arrows giveprotostellar spin directions. Right panel: synthetic observations produced from the simulations; cyan arrows giveprotostellar outflow directions. [Offner et al. 2016]Simulations of FragmentationIn order to better

  10. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries XXVIII. BK pegasi and other F-type binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens Viggo; Frandsen, S.; Bruntt, H.

    2010-01-01

     stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / binaries: eclipsing / stars: individual: BK¿Peg / stars: individual: BW¿Aqr / techniques: spectroscopic Udgivelsesdato: June 24...... stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / binaries: eclipsing / stars: individual: BK¿Peg / stars: individual: BW¿Aqr / techniques: spectroscopic Udgivelsesdato: June 24...

  11. New spectroscopic binary companions of giant stars and updated metallicity distribution for binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, P; Vanzi, L; Soto, M G; Vos, J; Wittenmyer, R A; Olivares, F; Drass, H; Mennickent, R E; Vuckovic, M; Rojo, P; Melo, C H F

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 24 spectroscopic binary companions to giant stars. We fully constrain the orbital solution for 6 of these systems. We cannot unambiguously derive the orbital elements for the remaining stars because the phase coverage is incomplete. Of these stars, 6 present radial velocity trends that are compatible with long-period brown dwarf companions.The orbital solutions of the 24 binary systems indicate that these giant binary systems have a wide range in orbital periods, eccentricities, and companion masses. For the binaries with restricted orbital solutions, we find a range of orbital periods of between $\\sim$ 97-1600 days and eccentricities of between $\\sim$ 0.1-0.4. In addition, we studied the metallicity distribution of single and binary giant stars. We computed the metallicity of a total of 395 evolved stars, 59 of wich are in binary systems. We find a flat distribution for these binary stars and therefore conclude that stellar binary systems, and potentially brown dwarfs, have a diffe...

  12. On the reconstruction of binary and permutation matrices under (binary) tomographic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunetti, S.; Del Lungo, A.; Gritzmann, P.; de Vries, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of reconstructing binary matrices constrained by binary tomographic information. We prove new NP-hardness results that sharpen previous complexity results in the realm of discrete tomography but also allow applications to related problems for permutation matrices. Hence

  13. Towards the field binary population: Influence of orbital decay on close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Korntreff, Christina; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of the binary populations in the solar neighbourhood have shown that the periods of G- and M-type stars are log-normally distributed. However, observations of young binary populations suggest a log-uniform distribution. Clearly some process(es) change the period distribution over time. Most stars form in star clusters, in which two important dynamical processes occur: i) gas-induced orbital decay of embedded binary systems and ii) destruction of soft binaries in three-body interactions. The emphasis here is on orbital decay which has been largely neglected so far. Using a combination of Monte-Carlo and dynamical nbody modelling it is demonstrated here that the cluster dynamics destroys the number of wide binaries, but leaves short-period binaries basically undisturbed even for a initially log-uniform distribution. By contrast orbital decay significantly reduces the number and changes the properties of short-period binaries, but leaves wide binaries largely uneffected. Until now it was unclear whether ...

  14. Birth of Massive Black Hole Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colpi, M.; /Milan Bicocca U.; Dotti, M.; /Insubria U., Como; Mayer, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-19

    If massive black holes (BHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies and galaxies experience multiple mergers during their cosmic assembly, then BH binaries should be common albeit temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observationally, the paucity of active BH pairs points toward binary lifetimes far shorter than the Hubble time, indicating rapid inspiral of the BHs down to the domain where gravitational waves lead to their coalescence. Here, we review a series of studies on the dynamics of massive BHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers that underscore the vital role played by a cool, gaseous component in promoting the rapid formation of the BH binary. The BH binary is found to reside at the center of a massive self-gravitating nuclear disc resulting from the collision of the two gaseous discs present in the mother galaxies. Hardening by gravitational torques against gas in this grand disc is found to continue down to sub-parsec scales. The eccentricity decreases with time to zero and when the binary is circular, accretion sets in around the two BHs. When this occurs, each BH is endowed with it own small-size ({approx}< 0.01 pc) accretion disc comprising a few percent of the BH mass. Double AGN activity is expected to occur on an estimated timescale of {approx}< 1 Myr. The double nuclear point-like sources that may appear have typical separation of {approx}< 10 pc, and are likely to be embedded in the still ongoing starburst. We note that a potential threat of binary stalling, in a gaseous environment, may come from radiation and/or mechanical energy injections by the BHs. Only short-lived or sub-Eddington accretion episodes can guarantee the persistence of a dense cool gas structure around the binary necessary for continuing BH inspiral.

  15. Massive gaseous discs around SMBH binaries: Binary decay and tidal disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brem P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the evolution of black hole binaries embedded within geometrically thin gas discs. Our results imply that such discs can produce black hole mergers for relatively low-mass binaries, and that a significant population of eccentric binaries might exist at separations of a few 0.01 pc. These binaries may be detectable due to the time-variable accretion on to the black holes. If the disc fragments, then the newly-born stars will continue driving the binary to its coalescence, although at a slower rate. Interestingly, our preliminary analysis shows that these stars will be disrupted at a rate of ∼10−4–2 · 10−5 events per year per system.

  16. Nonconservative Mass Transfer in Massive Binaries and the Formation of Wolf-Rayet+O Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The mass transfer efficiency during the evolution of massive binaries is still uncertain. We model the mass transfer processes in a grid of binaries to investigate the formation of Wolf-Rayet+O (WR+O) binaries, taking into account two kinds of non-conservative mass transfer models: Model I with rotation-dependent mass accretion and Model II of half mass accretion. Generally the mass transfer in Model I is more inefficient, with the average efficiency in a range of $\\sim0.2-0.7$ and $ \\lesssim0.2 $ for Case A and Case B mass transfer, respectively. We present the parameter distributions for the descendant WR+O binaries. By comparing the modeled stellar mass distribution with the observed Galactic WR+O binaries, we find that highly non-conservative mass transfer is required.

  17. Na adsorption on In/Si(111)-(4x1) nanowires: electron transport and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babilon, Martin; Thierfelder, Christian; Wippermann, Stefan; Schmidt, Wolf Gero [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Quasi one-dimensional structures, such as artificial atomic-scale wires, have attracted considerable attention recently. They do not only show fascinating physical properties, but also have a large technological potential, e.g., as atomic-scale interconnects. Highly anisotropic surface superstructures are suitable model systems to explore atomic- scale wires both experimentally and computationally. The In/Si(111)-(4 x 1) surface is probably the most intensively investigated system in this context. Here we present first-principles calculations on the adsorption geometries and the influence of Na adatoms on the Landauer conductance of these In nanowires. Our findings with regard to structural properties confirm the results by Kleinman et al. Additionally, we discuss the implications of the Na adatoms on the temperature induced (4 x 1){yields}(8 x 2) phase transition.

  18. Constraints on the large-x d/u ratio from electron-nucleus scattering at x>1

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Melnitchouk, W; Piasetzky, E

    2011-01-01

    Recently the ratio of neutron to proton structure functions F_2n/F_2p was extracted from a phenomenological correlation between the strength of the nuclear EMC effect and inclusive electron-nucleus cross section ratios at x>1. Within conventional models of nuclear smearing, this "in-medium correction" (IMC) extraction constrains the size of nuclear effects in the deuteron structure functions, from which the neutron structure function F_2n is usually extracted. The IMC data determine the resulting proton d/u quark distribution ratio, extrapolated to x=1, to be 0.23 +- 0.09 with a 90% confidence level. This is well below the SU(6) symmetry limit of 1/2 and significantly above the scalar diquark dominance limit of 0.

  19. ARTICLES: Theoretical Study of Interaction Between S2 and SiHx (x = 1, 2, 3) in Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuo; Cheng, Xin-lu; Wang, Jiang; Chen, Hai-hua

    2010-06-01

    The interaction between S2 molecule and SiHx (x = 1, 2, 3) in porous silicon is investigated using the B3LYP method of density functional theory with the Ianl2dz basis set. The model of porous silicon doped with CH3, Si-O-Si and OH species is built. By analyzing the binding energy and electronic transfer, we conclude that the interaction of S2 molecule with SiHx (x = 1, 2, 3) is much stronger than the interaction of S2 molecule with CH3 and OH, as S2 molecule is located in different sites of the model. Using the transition state theory, we study the Si2H6+S2→H3SiH2SiS+HS reaction, and the reaction energy barrier is 50.2 kJ/mol, which indicates that the reaction is easy to occur.

  20. The NuSTAR X-ray Spectrum of Hercules X-1: A Radiation-Dominated Radiative Shock

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Michael T; Gottlieb, Amy M; Fürst, Felix; Hemphill, Paul B; Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wilms, Jörn; Wood, Kent S

    2016-01-01

    We report new spectral modeling of the accreting X-ray pulsar Hercules X- 1. Our radiation-dominated radiative shock model is an implementation of the analytic work of Becker & Wolff on Comptonized accretion flows onto magnetic neutron stars. We obtain a good fit to the spin-phase averaged 4 to 78 keV X-ray spectrum observed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array during a main- on phase of the Her X-1 35-day accretion disk precession period. This model allows us to estimate the accretion rate, the Comptonizing temperature of the radiating plasma, the radius of the magnetic polar cap, and the average scattering opacity parameters in the accretion column. This is in contrast to previous phenomenological models that characterized the shape of the X-ray spectrum but could not determine the physical parameters of the accretion flow. We describe the spectral fitting details and discuss the interpretation of the accretion flow physical parameters.

  1. Kr对HF(X1Σ+)基频和泛频的影响%Influence of Kr Atoms on the Fundamental and Overtone Vibrational Frequency for HF(X1Σ+)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢洪平; 陈泽琴; 蒋刚; 杨迎春; 朱正和

    2000-01-01

    运用Monte-Carlo轨迹法研究了Kr(1Sg)+HF(X1Σ+;ν=1,2,3;J=4)→Kr(1Sg)+HF(X1Σ+,ν',J')的碰撞过程,从而分析Kr原子对HF基频和泛频的影响。研究表明:在初始相对平动能Et≤251.0kJ/mol时,Kr原子能够减少产生基频的粒子数反转,增加产生泛频特别是ν'=2能级的粒子数反转,并且,Kr原子有较强的弛豫高转动态(J'≥4)的能力,因此,Kr原子对HF泛频激光在提高光强和增强大气传输能力方面均有 较大的改善。%The collision reaction that Kr(1Sg)+HF(X1Σ+;ν=1,2,3;J=4)→Kr(1Sg)+HF(X1Σ+;ν',J')has been studied using Monte-Carlo trajectory method,and it has been found that Kr atoms have in fluence on the fundamental and overtone vibrational frequency for HF(X1Σ+).The studying results show that,when the initial relative translational energy Et≤251.0kJ/mol,Kr atoms can reduce the particle number reversion of the fundamental vibrational frequency,and increase it of the overtone vibrational frequency,particularly in the energy level ν'=2,and Kr atoms are more strong on relaxing the higher rotational states(J'≥4).Thus,for hydrogen fluoride(HF)overtone frequency laser Kr atoms can obviously increase the strength of light and improve the transmission property in the air.

  2. A Multiwavelength Study of Cygnus X-1: The First Mid-infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Compact Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jörn; Grinberg, Victoria

    2011-07-01

    We report on a Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (mid-infrared), RXTE/PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multiwavelength study of the microquasar Cygnus X-1, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break—where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place—at about 2.9 × 1013 Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keV, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 μm mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-1 stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Rayleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f ∞ ≈ 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anti-correlation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and Cygnus X-1's environment and/or the companion star's stellar wind.

  3. Immunosuppression preserves renal autoregulatory function and microvascular P2X1 receptor reactivity in ANG II-hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Autoregulation is critical for protecting the kidney against arterial pressure elevation and is compromised in some forms of hypertension. Evidence indicates that activated lymphocytes contribute importantly to cardiovascular injury in hypertension. We hypothesized that activated lymphocytes contribute to renal vascular dysfunction by impairing autoregulation and P2X1 receptor signaling in ANG II-infused hypertensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving ANG II infusion were treated with a...

  4. Radar observations and physical modeling of binary near-Earth asteroid (1862) Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas F.; Benner, Lance A.; Brozovic, Marina; Leford, Bruce; Nolan, Michael C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Ostro, Steve J.; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2014-11-01

    Binary asteroid 1862 Apollo has an extensive observational history allowing many of its characteristics to be investigated. Apollo was one of the first objects to show evidence for the YORP effect (Kaasalainen et al. 2007, Nature 446, 420) and its mass has been estimated by detection of the Yarkovsky effect (Nugent et al. 2012, AJ 144, 60; Farnocchia et al. 2013, Icarus 224, 1). We observed Apollo at Arecibo and Goldstone from Oct. 29-Nov. 13, 2005, obtaining a series of echo power spectra and delay-Doppler images that achieved resolutions as high as 7.5 m/pixel. The Arecibo images show that Apollo is a binary system with a rounded primary that has two large protrusions about 120 deg apart in longitude. We used the Arecibo data and published lightcurves to estimate the primary's 3D shape. Our best fit has major axes of ~1.8x1.5x1.3 km and a volume of ~1.6 km^3. The protrusions have lengths of ~300 and 200 m, are on the primary's equator, and give Apollo a distinctly different appearance from the primaries with equatorial ridges seen with other binary near-Earth asteroids. We estimated the pole by starting with the Kaasalainen et al. spin vector of ecliptic (longitude, latitude)=(50 deg, -71 deg) +- 7 deg and letting it float. Our best fit has a pole within 11 deg of (longitude, latitude)=(71, -72). Convex models produced from inversion of lightcurves by Kaasalainen et al. and thermal infrared data by Rozitis et al. (2013, A&A 555, A20) are more oblate than our model, do not show protrusions, and have somewhat different pole directions. The Arecibo images reveal weak but persistent echoes from a satellite on Nov. 1 and 2 but cover only a fraction of its orbit. The images are insufficient to estimate the satellite's shape and yield a rough estimate for its long axis of 190 m. Preliminary fits give an orbital period of ~27.0-27.5 h and a semimajor axis of ~3.5-4.0 km, implying a mass of 2.8-3.9E12 kg and a bulk density of 1.7-2.4 g/cm^3. The density is consistent with

  5. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  6. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  7. Beyond binaries : a way forward for comparativeeducation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Larsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Binary discourses shape and produce the stories we construct about the field of comparative education. In the first part of this article, I review a set of binary discourses that have characterized social science research since the Enlightenment, including: quantitative-qualitative, nomotheticidiographic, inductive-deductive, and practice-theory. We can think of each of these binaries at opposite ends of a set of spectrums. In the second section of the paper, I show some of the ways in which these binaries have influenced the ways that we write and talk about research within the field of comparative education. I refer to the notion of binary discourses and the productive capacity of these discourses to shape our field. I then outline some critiques of these binaries to demonstrate the inherent limitations of binary discourses, and why we need to move beyond binaries in our research, and in the histories about our field. Finally, I present some tentative conclusions on ways to get ourselves out of the trap of binary thinking.Los discursos binarios moldean y producen los argumentos que construimos sobre la disciplina de la Educación Comparada. En la primera parte de este artículo, analizo un conjunto de discursos binarios que han caracterizado la investigación en Ciencias Sociales desde la Ilustración, incluyendo la cuantitativa-cualitativa, nomotética-idiográfica, inductivadeductiva, y la práctica-teoría. Podemos pensar sobre cada uno de estos discursos binarios como argumentos en los polos de un conjunto de posibilidades. En la segunda sección del artículo, revelo algunos modos en los que estos discursos binarios han influenciado las formas a través de las cuales escribimos y analizamos la investigación en el ámbito de la Educación Comparada. Analizo la noción de discursos binarios y la capacidad productiva de estos discursos de impactar nuestra ciencia. Seguidamente expongo algunas críticas de estos discursos binarios con el

  8. NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku Observations of the Ultraluminous X-ray Source Holmberg II X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Rana, V; Miller, J M; Harrison, F A; Fabian, A C; Bachetti, M; Barret, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fuerst, F; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Madsen, K K; Stern, D; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    We present the first broadband 0.3-25.0 kev X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1, performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku in September 2013. The NuSTAR data provide the first observations of Holmberg II X-1 above 10 keV, and reveal a very steep high-energy spectrum, similar to other ULXs observed by NuSTAR to date. This implies that Holmberg II X-1 accretes at a high fraction of its Eddington accretion rate, and possibly exceeds it. The soft X-ray spectrum (E<10 keV) appears to be dominated by two blackbody-like emission components, the hotter of which may be associated with an accretion disk. However, all such models under-predict the NuSTAR data above ~10 keV, implying the presence of an additional emission component at the highest energies probed. We investigate plausible physical origins for this component, and favor a scenario in which the excess arises from Compton scattering in a hot corona of electrons with some properties similar to the very-high st...

  9. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed with NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Madsen, K K; Grinberg, V; Barret, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Clavel, M; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Fuerst, F; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Miller, J M; Parker, M L; Rahoui, F; Stern, D; Tao, L; Wilms, J; Zhang, W

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with NuSTAR. Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability, we construct a model incorporating both the standard disk-corona continuum and relativistic reflection from the accretion disk, based on prior NuSTAR work on Cygnus X-1, and apply this model to each epoch independently. We find excellent consistency for the black hole spin, and the iron abundance of the accretion disk, which are expected to remain constant on observational timescales. In particular, we confirm that Cygnus X-1 hosts a rapidly rotating black hole, 0.93

  10. A multiwavelength study of Cygnus X-1: the first mid-infrared spectroscopic detection of compact jets

    CERN Document Server

    Rahoui, Farid; Heinz, Sebastian; Hynes, Dean C; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jörn; Grinberg, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    We report on a Spitzer/IRS (mid-infrared), RXTE/PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multiwavelength study of the microquasar Cygnus X-1, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break - where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place - at about 2.9e13 Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for the Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keV, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 micron mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-1 stems from the blue supergiant com...

  11. The NuSTAR X-ray Spectrum of Hercules X-1: A Radiation-Dominated Radiative Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Gottlieb, Amy; Fuerst, Felix; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Marcu-Cheatham, Diana; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wilms, Joern; Wood, Kent

    2016-04-01

    We report on new spectral modeling of an observation of the accreting X-ray pulsar Her X-1 by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). We utilize a radiation-dominated radiative shock model that is an implementation of the analytic work of Becker & Wolff (2007) on Comptonized accretion flows onto magnetic neutron stars within the XSPEC analysis environment. We obtain a good fit to the Her X-1 spin-phase averaged 4 to 78 keV X-ray spectrum observed by NuSTAR during a main-on phase of the Her X-1 35-day accretion disk precession period. This model allows us to estimate the accretion rate, the Comptonizing temperature of the radiating plasma, the radius of the magnetic polar cap, and the average scattering opacity parameters in the accretion column. This is in contrast to previous spectral models that characterized the shape of the X-ray spectrum but could not determine the physical parameters of the accretion flow. We describe the details of our spectral fitting model and we discuss the interpretation of the resulting accretion flow physical parameters.This research is supported by the NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  12. The evolution of a jet ejection of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Cseh, D; Jonker, P G; Grise, F; Paragi, Z; Corbel, S; Falcke, H; Frey, S; Kaaret, P; Koerding, E

    2015-01-01

    We present quasi-simultaneous, multi-epoch radio and X-ray measurements of Holmberg II X-1 using the European VLBI Network (EVN), the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and the Chandra and Swift X-ray telescopes. The X-ray data show apparently hard spectra with steady X-ray luminosities 4 months apart from each other. In the high-resolution EVN radio observations, we have detected an extended milli-arcsecond scale source with unboosted radio emission. The source emits non-thermal, likely optically thin synchrotron emission and its morphology is consistent with a jet ejection. The 9-GHz VLA data show an arcsecond-scale triple structure of Holmberg II X-1 similar to that seen at lower frequencies. However, we find that the central ejection has faded by at least a factor of 7.3 over 1.5 years. We estimate the dynamical age of the ejection to be higher than 2.1 years. We show that such a rapid cooling can be explained with simple adiabatic expansion losses. These properties of Holmberg II X-1 imply that ULX r...

  13. High resolution spectroscopy of the Cs2 D 1Sigma u + -X 1Sigma g + transition and hyperfine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Usui, Takashi; Kumauchi, Takahiro; Baba, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Katô, Hajime

    1993-02-01

    The Doppler-free high resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2 D 1Σu+-X 1Σg+ transition is extended up to v'=65. By comparing the spectral linewidth and the time-resolved fluorescence intensity, the line broadening observed for transitions to the D 1Σu+(v'=63,J'≤70) levels is identified as the lifetime broadening originating from the predissociation. Line splittings are observed for the D 1Σu+(v'=46,J'≥95)-X 1Σg+(v`= 1,J`) transitions and are identified as the hyperfine splitting due to a magnetic dipole interaction between nuclear spin and electron. The hyperfine splitting is attributed to mixing of the (2) 3Πu state, whose wave function changes from Hund's case (a) to case (b) at large J. The dependence of the electric dipole transition moment on the internuclear distance for the D 1Σu+-X 1Σg+ transition is determined by comparing the observed and calculated line intensities of the dispersed fluorescence.

  14. Planet scattering around binaries: ejections, not collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary star and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically affects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Systems similar to the only observed multiplanet circumbinary system, Kepler-47, can arise from much more tightly packed, unstable systems. Only extreme initial conditions introduce differences in the final planet populations. Thus, we suggest that any intrinsic differences in the populations are imprinted by formation.

  15. The binary white dwarf LHS 3236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L. [US Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hartkopf, William I. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ☉}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ☉}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ∼3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ☉}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.

  16. A Model for Contact Binary Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A model for contact binary systems is presented, which incorporates the following special features: a) The energy exchange between the components is based on the understanding that the energy exchange is due to the release of potential, kinetic and thermal energies of the exchanged mass. b) A special form of mass and angular momentum loss occurring in contact binaries is losses via the outer Lagrangian point. c) The effects of spin, orbital rotation and tidal action on the stellar structure as well as the effect of meridian circulation on the mixing of the chemical elements are considered. d) The model is valid not only for low-mass contact binaries but also for high-mass contact binaries. For illustration, we used the model to trace the evolution of a massive binary system consisting of one 12M⊙ and one 5M⊙ star. The result shows that the start and end of the contact stage fall within the semi-detached phase during which the primary continually transfers mass to the secondary. The time span of the contact stage is short and the mass transfer rate is very large. Therefore, the contact stage can be regarded as a special part of the semi-detached phase with a large mass transfer rate. Both mass loss through the outer Lagrangian point and oscillation between contact and semi-contact states can occur during the contact phase, and the effective temperatures of the primary and the secondary are almost equal.

  17. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Marzari, F

    2016-01-01

    When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman and Wiegert (1999) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Delta determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability. For two planet systems, the value of Delta is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoti...

  18. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black holes binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Cholis, Ilias; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-01-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of $\\sim30\\,M_\\odot$ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly eccentric orbits and can then merge on timescales that in some cases are years or less, retaining some eccentricity in the last seconds before the merger. This is to be contrasted with massive-stellar-binary, globular-cluster, or other astrophysical origins for binary black holes (BBHs) in which the orbits have very effectively circularized by the time the BBH enters the observable LIGO window. Here we discuss the features of the gravitational-wave signals that indicate this eccentricity and forecast the sensitivity of LIGO a...

  19. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholis, Ilias; Kovetz, Ely D.; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B.; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-10-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of ˜30 M⊙ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly eccentric orbits and can then merge on time scales that in some cases are years or less, retaining some eccentricity in the last seconds before the merger. This is to be contrasted with massive-stellar-binary, globular-cluster, or other astrophysical origins for binary black holes (BBHs) in which the orbits have very effectively circularized by the time the BBH enters the observable LIGO window. Here we discuss the features of the gravitational-wave signals that indicate this eccentricity and forecast the sensitivity of LIGO and the Einstein Telescope to such effects. We show that if PBHs make up the dark matter, then roughly one event should have a detectable eccentricity given LIGO's expected sensitivity and observing time of six years. The Einstein Telescope should see O (10 ) such events after ten years.

  20. An interferometric view of binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, Henri M J

    2016-01-01

    The study of binary stars is critical to apprehend many of the most interesting classes of stars. Moreover, quite often, the study of stars in binary systems is our only mean to constrain stellar properties, such as masses and radii. Unfortunately, a great fraction of the most interesting binaries are so compact that they can only be apprehended by high-resolution techniques, mostly by interferometry. I present some results highlighting the use of interferometry in the study of binary stars, from finding companions and deriving orbits, determining the mass and radius of stars, to studying mass transfer in symbiotic stars, and tackling luminous blue variables. In particular, I show how interferometric studies using the PIONIER instrument have allowed us to confirm a dichotomy within symbiotic stars, obtain masses of stars with a precision better than 1%, and help us find a new Eta Carinae-like system. I will also illustrate the benefits for the study of binary stars one would get from upgrading the VLT Interfe...