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Sample records for binary black-hole mergers

  1. Decoding the final state in binary black hole mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, James; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that in binary black hole mergers there is a direct correlation between the frequency of the gravitational wave at peak amplitude and the mass and spin of the final black hole. This correlation could potentially assist with the analysis of gravitational wave observations from binary black hole mergers.

  2. Toroidal Horizons in Binary Black Hole Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Bohn, Andy; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    2016-01-01

    We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It had been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology, but such a phase has never been seen prior to this work. In all previous binary black hole simulations, in the coordinate slicing used to evolve the black holes, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. ...

  3. Toroidal Horizons in Binary Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Bohn, Andy; Teukolsky, Saul A

    2016-01-01

    We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It had been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology, but such a phase has never been seen prior to this work. In all previous binary black hole simulations, in the coordinate slicing used to evolve the black holes, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. We present a coordinate transformation to a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces that "cut a hole" through the event horizon surface, resulting in a toroidal event horizon. A torus could potentially provide a mechanism for violating topological censorship. However, these toroidal event horizons satisfy topological censorship by construction, because we can always trivially apply the inverse coordinate transformation to remove the topological feature.

  4. Growth of supermassive black holes, galaxy mergers and supermassive binary black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Komossa, S.; Baker, J G; Liu, F. K.

    2016-01-01

    The study of galaxy mergers and supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) is central to our understanding of the galaxy and black hole assembly and (co-)evolution at the epoch of structure formation and throughout cosmic history. Galaxy mergers are the sites of major accretion episodes, they power quasars, grow supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and drive SMBH-host scaling relations. The coalescing SMBBHs at their centers are the loudest sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the universe, and...

  5. Gravitational recoil from spinning binary black hole mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, F; Laguna, P; Matzner, R A; Shoemaker, D; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A.; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2007-01-01

    The inspiral and merger of binary black holes will likely involve black holes with both unequal masses and arbitrary spins. The gravitational radiation emitted by these binaries will carry angular as well as linear momentum. A net flux of emitted linear momentum implies that the black hole produced by the merger will experience a recoil or kick. Previous studies have focused on the recoil velocity from unequal mass, non-spinning binaries. We present results from simulations of equal mass but spinning black hole binaries and show how a significant gravitational recoil can also be obtained in these situations. We consider the case of black holes with opposite spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. For the initial setups under consideration, we find a recoil velocity of $V = 475 \\KMS |a| $, with $a$ the dimensionless spin parameters of the individual holes. Supermassive black hole mergers producing kicks of this magnitude could result in the ejection from the cores of dwarf galaxies of the final hole p...

  6. Mergers of nonspinning black-hole binaries: Gravitational radiation characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; van Meter, James R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed descriptive analysis of the gravitational radiation from black-hole binary mergers of nonspinning black holes, based on numerical simulations of systems varying from equal-mass to a 6:1 mass ratio. Our primary goal is to present relatively complete information about the waveforms, including all the leading multipolar components, to interested researchers. In our analysis, we pursue the simplest physical description of the dominant features in the radiation, providing an ...

  7. BPASS predictions for Binary Black-Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Eldridge, J J

    2016-01-01

    Using the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis code BPASS, we have calculated the rates, timescales and mass distributions for binary black hole mergers as a function of metallicity. We consider these in the context of the recently reported 1st LIGO event detection. We find that the event has a low probability of arising from a stellar population with initial metallicity mass fraction above $Z=0.010$. Binary black hole merger events with the reported masses are most likely in populations between Z=0.0001 and 0.002 (Z < 0.1Z_sun). The masses inferred for the black holes in the binary progenitor of GW 150914 are close to the predicted peak in the mass distribution for such events. We discuss the implications of our analysis for the electromagnetic follow-up of future LIGO event detections.

  8. Understanding the "antikick" in the merger of binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzolla, Luciano; Macedo, Rodrigo P; Jaramillo, José Luis

    2010-06-01

    The generation of a large recoil velocity from the inspiral and merger of binary black holes represents one of the most exciting results of numerical-relativity calculations. While many aspects of this process have been investigated and explained, the "antikick," namely, the sudden deceleration after the merger, has not yet found a simple explanation. We show that the antikick can be understood in terms of the radiation from a deformed black hole where the anisotropic curvature distribution on the horizon correlates with the direction and intensity of the recoil. Our analysis is focused on Robinson-Trautman spacetimes and allows us to measure both the energies and momenta radiated in a gauge-invariant manner. At the same time, this simpler setup provides the qualitative and quantitative features of merging black holes, opening the way to a deeper understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of black-hole spacetimes. PMID:20867159

  9. Binary Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan; Baker, J.; Boggs, W.; Kelly, B.; McWilliams, S.; van Meter, J.

    2007-12-01

    The final merger of comparable mass binary black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for LISA. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. We will present the results of new simulations of black hole mergers with unequal masses and spins, focusing on the gravitational waves emitted and the accompanying astrophysical "kicks.” The magnitude of these kicks has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive blackholes during the epoch of structure formation, and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters. This work was supported by NASA grant 06-BEFS06-19, and the simulations were carried out using Project Columbia at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division (Ames Research Center) and at the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (Goddard Space Flight Center).

  10. Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; 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Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M B; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Haris, K; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Keppel, D G; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Koranda, S; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; 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    2016-02-12

    On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160)  Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger. PMID:26918975

  11. Growth of supermassive black holes, galaxy mergers and supermassive binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Komossa, S; Liu, F K

    2016-01-01

    The study of galaxy mergers and supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) is central to our understanding of the galaxy and black hole assembly and (co-)evolution at the epoch of structure formation and throughout cosmic history. Galaxy mergers are the sites of major accretion episodes, they power quasars, grow supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and drive SMBH-host scaling relations. The coalescing SMBBHs at their centers are the loudest sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the universe, and the subsequent GW recoil has a variety of potential astrophysical implications which are still under exploration. Future GW astronomy will open a completely new window on structure formation and galaxy mergers, including the direct detection of coalescing SMBBHs, high-precision measurements of their masses and spins, and constraints on BH formation and evolution in the high-redshift universe.

  12. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational radiation waveforms for black hole-neutron star coalescence calculations. The physical input is Newtonian physics, an ideal gas equation of state with...

  13. Binary Black Hole merger in f(R) theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zhoujian; Li, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    In the near future, gravitational wave detection is set to become an important observational tool for astrophysics. It will provide us with an excellent means to distinguish different gravitational theories. In effective form, many gravitational theories can be cast into an f(R) theory. In this article, we study the dynamics and gravitational waveform of an equal-mass binary black hole system in f(R) theory. We reduce the equations of motion in f(R) theory to the Einstein-Klein-Gordon coupled equations. In this form, it is straightforward to modify our existing numerical relativistic codes to simulate binary black hole mergers in f(R) theory. We considered binary black holes surrounded by a shell of scalar field. We solve the initial data numerically using the Olliptic code. The evolution part is calculated using the extended AMSSNCKU code. Both codes were updated and tested to solve the problem of binary black holes in f(R) theory. Our results show that the binary black hole dynamics in f(R) theory is more c...

  14. Observing Mergers of Nonspinning Black Hole Binaries with LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams S.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly Bernard J.; Thorpe, J. Ira; vanMeter, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black hole coalescence. We present the application of nonspinning numerical relativity waveforms to the search for and precision measurement of black hole binary coalescences using LISA. In particular, we focus on the advances made in moving beyond the equal mass, nonspinning case into other regions of parameter space, focusing on the case of nonspinning holes with ever-increasing mass ratios. We analyze the available unequal mass merger waveforms from numerical relativity, and compare them to two models, both of which use an effective one body treatment of the inspiral, but which use fundamentally different approaches to the treatment of the merger-ringdown. We confirm the expected mass ratio scaling of the merger, and investigate the changes in waveform behavior and their observational impact with changing mass ratio. Finally, we investigate the potential contribution from the merger portion of the waveform to measurement uncertainties of the binary's parameters for the unequal mass case.

  15. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  16. Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias

    2016-01-01

    Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origi...

  17. Binary black hole mergers from globular clusters: Masses, merger rates, and the impact of stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of GW150914, the binary black hole merger detected by Advanced LIGO, has the potential to revolutionize observational astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the Universe, we must compare these new observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. Expanding upon our previous work [C. L. Rodriguez, M. Morscher, B. Pattabiraman, S. Chatterjee, C.-J. Haster, and F. A. Rasio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 051101 (2015).], we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N -body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ejected black hole binaries and a cluster's mass and radius. With our improved treatment of stellar evolution, we find that globular clusters can produce a significant population of massive black hole binaries that merge in the local Universe. We explore the masses and mass ratios of these binaries as a function of redshift, and find a merger rate of ˜5 Gpc-3yr-1 in the local Universe, with 80% of sources having total masses from 32 M⊙ to 64 M⊙. Under standard assumptions, approximately one out of every seven binary black hole mergers

  18. Metallicity-constrained merger rates of binary black holes and the stochastic gravitational wave background

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorkin, Irina; Silk, Joseph; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Olive, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of the binary black hole merger GW150914 demonstrates the existence of black holes more massive than previously observed in X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. This article explores different scenarios of black hole formation in the context of self-consistent cosmic chemical evolution models that simultaneously match observations of the cosmic star formation rate, optical depth to reionization and metallicity of the interstellar medium. This framework is used to calculate the mass distribution of merging black hole binaries and its evolution with redshift. We also study the implications of the black hole mass distribution for the stochastic gravitational wave background from mergers and from core collapse events.

  19. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Masses, Merger Rates, and the Impact of Stellar Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    Expanding upon our previous work (Rodriguez et al., 2015), we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N-body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ...

  20. Observing Mergers of Non-Spinning Black-Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black-hole coalescence for generic binaries. The state of the art has advanced well beyond the equal-mass case into the unequal-mass and spinning regions of parameter space. We present a study of the nonspinning portion of parameter space, primarily using an analytic waveform model tuned to available numerical data, with an emphasis on observational implications. We investigate the impact of varied m8BS ratio on merger signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for several detectors, and compare our results with expectations from the test-mass limit. We note a striking similarity of the waveform phasing of the merger waveform across the available mass ratios. Motivated by this, we calculate the match between our equal-mass and 4:1 mass-ratio waveforms during the merger as a function of location on the source sky, using a new formalism for the match that accounts for higher harmonics. This is an indicator of the amount of degeneracy in mass ratio for mergers of moderate mass ratio systems.

  1. Observing mergers of non-spinning black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliams, Sean T; Baker, John G

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black-hole coalescence for generic binaries. The state of the art has advanced well beyond the equal-mass case into the unequal-mass and spinning regions of parameter space. We present a study of the nonspinning portion of parameter space, primarily using an analytic waveform model tuned to available numerical data, with an emphasis on observational implications. We investigate the impact of varied mass ratio on merger signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for several detectors, and compare our results with expectations from the test-mass limit. We note a striking similarity of the waveform phasing of the merger waveform across the available mass ratios. Motivated by this, we calculate the match between our 1:1 (equal mass) and 4:1 mass-ratio waveforms during the merger as a function of location on the source sky, using a new formalism for the match that accounts for higher harmonics. This i...

  2. Massive Black Hole Binary Mergers in Dynamical Galactic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational Waves (GW) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GW from Massive Black Hole (MBH) Binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GW from MBHB, have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW Background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBH and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations ('Illustris') to calculate ...

  3. Metallicity-constrained merger rates of binary black holes and the stochastic gravitational wave background

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorkin, Irina; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Silk, Joseph; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of the binary black hole merger GW150914 demonstrates the existence of black holes more massive than previously observed in X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. This article explores different scenarios of black hole formation in the context of self-consistent cosmic chemical evolution models that simultaneously match observations of the cosmic star formation rate, optical depth to reionization and metallicity of the interstellar medium. This framework is used to calculate the m...

  4. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-07-31

    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments. PMID:26274407

  5. The Role of the Kozai-Lidov Mechanism in Black Hole Binary Mergers in Galactic Centers

    OpenAIRE

    VanLandingham, John H.; Miller, M. Coleman; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Richardson, Derek C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the rate of merger of stellar-mass black hole binaries (BHBs) by gravitational wave (GW) emission it is important to determine the major pathways to merger. We use numerical simulations to explore the evolution of BHBs inside the radius of influence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic centers. In this region the evolution of binaries is dominated by perturbations from the central SMBH. In particular, as first pointed out by Antonini and Perets, the Kozai-Lid...

  6. Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J V; Vañó-Viñuales, A; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Brügmann, B; Campanelli, M; Clark, M; Hamberger, D; Kidder, L E; Kinsey, M; Laguna, P; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M A; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S; Zlochower, Y

    2016-06-17

    On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 36_{-4}^{+5}M_{⊙} and 29_{-4}^{+4}M_{⊙}; for each parameter we report the median value and the range of the 90% credible interval. The dimensionless spin magnitude of the more massive black hole is bound to be <0.7 (at 90% probability). The luminosity distance to the source is 410_{-180}^{+160}  Mpc, corresponding to a redshift 0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03} assuming standard cosmology. The source location is constrained to an annulus section of 610  deg^{2}, primarily in the southern hemisphere. The binary merges into a black hole of mass 62_{-4}^{+4}M_{⊙} and spin 0.67_{-0.07}^{+0.05}. This black hole is significantly more massive than any other inferred from electromagnetic observations in the stellar-mass regime. PMID:27367378

  7. Massive Black Hole Binary Mergers in Dynamical Galactic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational Waves (GW) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GW from Massive Black Hole (MBH) Binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GW from MBHB, have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW Background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBH and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations ('Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar 'loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disk. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most...

  8. Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B.P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Cahillane, C.

    2016-01-01

    On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 36^(+5...

  9. Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of $1.0 \\times 10^{-21}$. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 {\\sigma}. The source lies at a luminosity distance of $410^{+160}_{-180}$ Mpc corresponding to a redshift $z = 0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are $36^{+5}_{-4} M_\\odot$ and $29^{+4}_{-4} M_\\odot$, and the final black hole mass is $62^{+4}_{-4} M_\\odot$, with $3.0^{+0.5}_{-0.5} M_\\odot c^2$ radiated in gravitational waves. ...

  10. Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Mandic, Vuk; Cholis, Ilias

    2016-01-01

    Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational wave detectors, and discuss the possibility of using the stochastic gravitational-wave background measurement to constrain the dark matter component in the form of black holes.

  11. Template Mode Hierarchies for Binary Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, James; Pekowsky, Larne; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    Matched filtering is a popular data analysis framework used to search for gravitational wave signals emitted by compact object binaries. The templates used in matched filtering searches are constructed predominantly from the quadrupolar mode because this mode is the energetically most dominant channel. However, for highly precessing binaries or binaries with moderately large mass ratios, significant power is also carried by higher-order modes. We investigate how the inclusion of higher modes in the templates increases the prospects for detecting gravitational waves. Specifically, we use numerical relativity waveforms from the late inspiral and coalescence of binary black holes to identify mode hierarchies that cover the sky of binary orientations. We show that the ordering in these hierarchies depends on the characteristics of the binary system and the mode strengths. Our study demonstrates that detecting moderately high precessing or unequal mass binaries requires the inclusion of higher modes in the templat...

  12. Search for gravitational waves from binary black hole inspiral, merger and ringdown

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G S; Ceron, E Amador; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Antonucci, F; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aronsson, M; Aso, Y; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballinger, T; Ballmer, S; Barker, D; Barnum, S; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Beker, M G; Belletoile, A; Benacquista, M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birindelli, S; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Boccara, C; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Boyle, M; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Budzyński, R; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet-Castell, J; Burmeister, O; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cain, J; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campagna, E; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglia`, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coulon, J -P; Coward, D M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Culter, R M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Das, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Davier, M; Davies, G; Davis, A; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; del Prete, M; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Devanka, P; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Dorsher, S; Douglas, E S D; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Dueck, J; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Ely, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Flasch, K; Foley, S; Forrest, C; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garofoli, J A; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gholami, I; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hall, P; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hoyland, D; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Jaranowski, P; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kanner, J B; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, H; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Krause, T; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kullman, J; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lang, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Leong, J; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, J; Li, T G F; Liguori, N; Lin, H; Lindquist, P E; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lu, P; Luan, J; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Lundgren, A D; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Mak, C; Maksimovic, I; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIvor, G; McKechan, D J A; Meadors, G; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menéndez, D F; Mercer, R A; Merill, L; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Miao, H; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mino, Y; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreau, J; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Morioka, T; Mors, K; Mosca, S; Moscatelli, V; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P G; Nash, T; Nawrodt, R; Nelson, J; Neri, I; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G H; Oldenburg, R G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Pagliaroli, G; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Pardi, S; Pareja, M; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patel, P; Pathak, D; Pedraza, M; Pekowsky, L; Penn, S; Peralta, C; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Postiglione, F; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radke, T; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Roberts, P; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rolland, L; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Sakosky, M; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; de la Jordana, L Sancho; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaría, L; Santostasi, G; Saraf, S; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Satterthwaite, M; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Singer, A; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stein, A J; Stein, L C; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szokoly, G P; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, J R; Taylor, R; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thüring, A; Titsler, C; Tokmakov, K V; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tseng, K; Turner, L; Ugolini, D; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vaishnav, B; Vajente, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Veltkamp, C; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Wei, P; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Willke, B; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yu, P; Yvert, M; Zanolin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2011-01-01

    We present the first modeled search for gravitational waves using the complete binary black hole gravitational waveform from inspiral through the merger and ringdown for binaries with negligible component spin. We searched approximately 2 years of LIGO data taken between November 2005 and September 2007 for systems with component masses of 1-99 solar masses and total masses of 25-100 solar masses. We did not detect any plausible gravitational-wave signals but we do place upper limits on the merger rate of binary black holes as a function of the component masses in this range. We constrain the rate of mergers for binary black hole systems with component masses between 19 and 28 solar masses and negligible spin to be no more than 2.0 per Mpc^3 per Myr at 90% confidence.

  13. Investigating Binary Black Hole Mergers with Principal Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, James; Healy, James; Heng, Ik Siong; Logue, Josh; Mangini, Nicholas; London, Lionel; Pekowsky, Larne; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent progress in numerical simulations of the coalescence of binary black hole systems, highly asymmetric spinning systems and the construction of accurate physical templates remain challenging and computationally expensive. We explore the feasibility of a prompt and robust test of whether the signals exhibit evidence for generic features that can educate new simulations. We form catalogs of numerical relativity waveforms with distinct physical effects and compute the relative probability that a gravitational wave signal belongs to each catalog. We introduce an algorithm designed to perform this task for coalescence signals using principal component analysis of waveform catalogs and Bayesian model selection and demonstrate its effectiveness.

  14. Perturbed disks get shocked. Binary black hole merger effects on accretion disks

    OpenAIRE

    Megevand, Miguel; Anderson, Matthew; Frank, Juhan; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David

    2009-01-01

    The merger process of a binary black hole system can have a strong impact on a circumbinary disk. In the present work we study the effect of both central mass reduction (due to the energy loss through gravitational waves) and a possible black hole recoil (due to asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation). For the mass reduction case and recoil directed along the disk's angular momentum, oscillations are induced in the disk which then modulate the internal energy and bremsstrahlung lumino...

  15. Dynamical formation signatures of black hole binaries in the first detected mergers by LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Ryan M; Kocsis, Bence

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical formation of stellar-mass black hole-black hole binaries has long been a promising source of gravitational waves for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Mass segregation, gravitational focusing, and multibody dynamical interactions naturally increase the interaction rate between the most massive black holes in dense stellar systems, eventually leading them to merge. We find that dynamical interactions enhance the merger rate of black hole binaries with total mass M_tot roughly as ~M_tot^beta, with beta >~ 4. We find that this relation holds mostly independently of the initial mass function, but the exact value depends on the degree of mass segregation. The detection rate of such massive black hole binaries is only further enhanced by LIGO's greater sensitivity to massive black hole binaries with M_tot <~ 80 solar masses. We find that for power-law BH mass functions dN/dM ~ M^-alpha with alpha <~ 2, LIGO is most likely to detect black hole binaries with a mass tw...

  16. Binary black hole mergers: astrophysics and implications for space-based gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ryan

    2012-03-01

    Massive black holes (MBHs) can be found at the centers of nearly all galaxies. When galaxies merge, the black holes form a binary, which eventually coalesces due to the emission of gravitational waves. The final merger is a complicated process which can only be understood by numerically integrating Einstein's equations of general relativity. For many years, this was an impossible task; however, breakthroughs in 2005 and 2006 led to the first evolutions of binary black hole spacetimes through the merger process. Far from being esoteric results interesting only to hardcore relativists, these simulations have turned out to be very important for astrophysics. For example, if the gravitational waves are emitted asymmetrically, conservation of momentum implies that the resulting black hole will experience a recoil or ``kick.'' Numerical studies have shown that in some configurations, the kick can reach values as large as ˜5000 km/s. The simulations also allow the final spins of the black holes to be calculated. In the future, astrophysical information about coalescing MBH binaries will be obtained by directly measuring the gravitational waves with space-based detectors. In this case, the inclusion of accurate merger and ringdown waveforms into the signal model allows for significant improvement in measuring system parameters like mass, spin, and luminosity distance.

  17. Late Inspiral and Merger of Binary Black Holes in Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, James; Haas, Roland; Pazos, Enrique; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Yunes, Nicolás

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave observations will probe non-linear gravitational interactions and thus enable strong tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity. We present a numerical relativity study of the late inspiral and merger of binary black holes in scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We consider black hole binaries in an inhomogeneous scalar field, specifically binaries inside a scalar field bubble, in some cases with a potential. We calculate the emission of dipole radiation. We also show how these configurations trigger detectable differences between gravitational waves in scalar-tensor gravity and the corresponding waves in general relativity. We conclude that, barring an external mechanism to induce dynamics in the scalar field, scalar-tensor gravity binary black holes alone are not capable of awaking a dormant scalar field, and are thus observationally indistinguishable from their general relativistic counterparts.

  18. Rapid formation of supermassive black hole binaries in galaxy mergers with gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Madau, P; Colpi, M; Quinn, T; Wadsley, J

    2007-06-29

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that after the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink because of stellar or gas dynamical processes, and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas because of the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years after the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent, nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than 1 million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars. PMID:17556550

  19. Rapid Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Galaxy Mergers with Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, L.; /Zurich U. /Zurich, ETH; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Madau, P.; /UC, Santa Cruz /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Colpi, M.; /Milan Bicocca U.; Quinn, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Wadsley, J.; /McMaster U.

    2008-03-24

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that, following the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink due to stellar or gas dynamical processes and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas due to the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years following the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than a million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars.

  20. Supermassive recoil velocities for binary black-hole mergers with antialigned spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José A; Hannam, Mark; Sperhake, Ulrich; Brügmann, Bernd; Husa, Sascha

    2007-06-01

    Recent calculations of the recoil velocity in binary black-hole mergers have found the kick velocity to be of the order of a few hundred km/s in the case of nonspinning binaries and about 500 km/s in the case of spinning configurations, and have lead to predictions of a maximum kick of up to 1300 km/s. We test these predictions and demonstrate that kick velocities of at least 2500 km/s are possible for equal-mass binaries with antialigned spins in the orbital plane. Kicks of that magnitude are likely to have significant repercussions for models of black-hole formation, the population of intergalactic black holes, and the structure of host galaxies. PMID:17677893

  1. Mergers of Black-Hole Binaries with Aligned Spins: Waveform Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Boggs, William D.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Centrella, Joan

    2011-01-01

    "We apply our gravitational-waveform analysis techniques, first presented in the context of nonspinning black holes of varying mass ratio [1], to the complementary case of equal-mass spinning black-hole binary systems. We find that, as with the nonspinning mergers, the dominant waveform modes phases evolve together in lock-step through inspiral and merger, supporting the previous model of the binary system as an adiabatically rigid rotator driving gravitational-wave emission - an implicit rotating source (IRS). We further apply the late-merger model for the rotational frequency introduced in [1], along with a new mode amplitude model appropriate for the dominant (2, plus or minus 2) modes. We demonstrate that this seven-parameter model performs well in matches with the original numerical waveform for system masses above - 150 solar mass, both when the parameters are freely fit, and when they are almost completely constrained by physical considerations."

  2. The Role of the Kozai--Lidov Mechanism in Black Hole Binary Mergers in Galactic Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandingham, John H.; Miller, M. Coleman; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Richardson, Derek C.

    2016-09-01

    In order to understand the rate of merger of stellar mass black hole binaries (BHBs) by gravitational wave (GW) emission it is important to determine the major pathways to merger. We use numerical simulations to explore the evolution of BHBs inside the radius of influence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic centers. In this region, the evolution of binaries is dominated by perturbations from the central SMBH. In particular, as first pointed out by Antonini and Perets, the Kozai–Lidov mechanism trades relative inclination of the BHB to the SMBH for eccentricity of the BHB, and for some orientations can bring the BHB to an eccentricity near unity. At very high eccentricities, GW emission from the BHB can become efficient, causing the members of the BHB to coalesce. We use a novel combination of two N-body codes to follow this evolution. We are required to simulate small systems to follow the behavior accurately. We have completed 400 simulations that range from ∼300 stars around a 103 {M}ȯ black hole to ∼4500 stars around a 104 {M}ȯ black hole. These simulations are the first to follow the internal orbit of a binary near an SMBH while also following the changes to its external orbit self-consistently. We find that this mechanism could produce mergers at a maximum rate per volume of ∼100 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 or considerably less if the inclination oscillations of the binary remain constant as the BHB inclination to the SMBH changes, or if the binary black hole fraction is small.

  3. Astrophysical Implications of the Binary Black-Hole Merger GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the gravitational-wave source GW150914 with the Advanced LIGO detectors provides the first observational evidence for the existence of binary black-hole systems that inspiral and merge within the age of the Universe. Such black-hole mergers have been predicted in two main types of formation models, involving isolated binaries in galactic fields or dynamical interactions in young and old dense stellar environments. The measured masses robustly demonstrate that relatively "heavy" black holes ($\\gtrsim 25\\, M_\\odot$) can form in nature. This discovery implies relatively weak massive-star winds and thus the formation of GW150914 in an environment with metallicity lower than $\\sim 1/2$ of the solar value. The rate of binary black-hole mergers inferred from the observation of GW150914 is consistent with the higher end of rate predictions ($\\gtrsim 1 \\, \\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3} \\, \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$) from both types of formation models. The low measured redshift ($z \\sim 0.1$) of GW150914 and the low inferr...

  4. Double-double radio galaxies: remnants of merger of supermassive binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F K; Cao, S L; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2003-01-01

    The activity of active galaxy may be triggered by the merge of galaxies and present-day galaxies are probably the product of successive minor mergers. The frequent galactic merges at high redshift imply that active galaxy harbors supermassive unequal-mass binary black holes in its center at least once during its life time. In this paper, we showed that the recently discovered double-lobed FR II radio galaxies are the remnants of such supermassive binary black holes. The inspiraling secondary black hole opens a gap in the accretion disk and removes the inner accretion disk when it merges into the primary black hole, leaving a big hole of about several hundreds of Schwarzschild radius in the vicinity of the post-merged supermassive black hole and leading to an interruption of jet formation. When the outer accretion disk slowly refills the big hole on a viscous time scale, the jet formation restarts and the interaction of the recurrent jets and the inter-galactic medium forms a secondary pair of lobes. We applie...

  5. Gravitational-wave memory revisited: memory from the merger and recoil of binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Favata, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational-wave memory refers to the permanent displacement of the test masses in an idealized (freely-falling) gravitational-wave interferometer. Inspiraling binaries produce a particularly interesting form of memory--the Christodoulou memory. Although it originates from nonlinear interactions at 2.5 post-Newtonian order, the Christodoulou memory affects the gravitational-wave amplitude at leading (Newtonian) order. Previous calculations have computed this non-oscillatory amplitude correction during the inspiral phase of binary coalescence. Using an "effective-one-body" description calibrated with the results of numerical relativity simulations, the evolution of the memory during the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases, and the memory's final saturation value, are calculated. Using this model for the memory, the prospects for its detection are examined, particularly for supermassive black hole binary coalescences that LISA will detect with high signal-to-noise ratios. Coalescing binary black holes also ...

  6. The Status of Black-Hole Binary Merger Simulations with Numerical Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, Sean T.

    2010-01-01

    The advent of long-term stability in numerical relativity has yielded a windfall of answers to long-standing questions regarding the dynamics of space-time, matter, and electromagnetic fields in the strong-field regime of black-hole binary mergers. In this review, we will briefly summarize the methodology currently applied to these problems, emphasizing the most recent advancements. We will discuss recent results of astrophysical relevance, and present some novel interpretation. Though we pri...

  7. Gravitational-wave cutoff frequencies of tidally disruptive neutron star-black hole binary mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Tidal disruption has a dramatic impact on the outcome of neutron star-black hole mergers. The phenomenology of these systems can be divided in three classes: nondisruptive, mildly disruptive or disruptive. The cutoff frequency of the gravitational radiation produced during the merger (which is potentially measurable by interferometric detectors) is very different in each regime, and when the merger is disuptive it carries information on the neutron star equation of state. Here we use semianalytical tools to derive a formula for the critical binary mass ratio $Q=M_{\\rm BH}/M_{\\rm NS}$ below which mergers are disruptive as a function of the stellar compactness $\\mathcal{C}=M_{\\rm NS}/R_{\\rm NS}$ and the dimensionless black hole spin $\\chi$. We then employ a new gravitational waveform amplitude model, calibrated to $134$ general relativistic numerical simulations of binaries with black hole spin (anti-)aligned with the orbital angular momentum, to obtain a fit to the gravitational-wave cutoff frequency in the di...

  8. Binary Black Hole Mergers in the first Advanced LIGO Observing Run

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to $100 M_\\odot$ and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than $5\\sigma$ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance, which has a 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We d...

  9. The Status of Black-Hole Binary Merger Simulations with Numerical Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliams, Sean T

    2010-01-01

    The advent of long-term stability in numerical relativity has yielded a windfall of answers to long-standing questions regarding the dynamics of space-time, matter, and electromagnetic fields in the strong-field regime of black-hole binary mergers. In this review, we will briefly summarize the methodology currently applied to these problems, emphasizing the most recent advancements. We will discuss recent results of astrophysical relevance, and present some novel interpretation. Though we primarily present a review, we also present a simple analytical model for the time-dependent Poynting flux from two orbiting black holes immersed in a magnetic field, which compares favorably with recent numerical results. Finally, we will discuss recent advancements in our theoretical understanding of merger dynamics and gravitational waveforms that have resulted from interpreting the ever-growing body of numerical relativity results.

  10. The status of black-hole binary merger simulations with numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, Sean T, E-mail: sean@astro.columbia.edu [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2011-07-07

    The advent of long-term stability in numerical relativity has yielded a windfall of answers to long-standing questions regarding the dynamics of space-time, matter, and electromagnetic fields in the strong-field regime of black-hole binary mergers. In this review, we will briefly summarize the methodology currently applied to these problems, emphasizing the most recent advancements. We will discuss recent results of astrophysical relevance, and present some novel interpretation. Although we primarily present a review, we also present a simple analytical model for the time-dependent Poynting flux from two orbiting black holes immersed in a magnetic field, which compares favorably with recent numerical results. Finally, we will discuss recent advancements in our theoretical understanding of merger dynamics and gravitational waveforms that have resulted from interpreting the ever-growing body of numerical relativity results.

  11. Fast and accurate prediction of numerical relativity waveforms from binary black hole mergers using surrogate models

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad R; Szilagyi, Bela; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. In this paper, we construct an accurate and fast-to-evaluate surrogate model for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from non-spinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios from $1$ to $10$ and durations corresponding to about $15$ orbits before merger. Our surrogate, which is built using reduced order modeling techniques, is distinct from traditional modeling efforts. We find that the full multi-mode surrogate model agrees with waveforms generated by NR to within the numerical error of the NR code. In particular, we show that our modeling strategy produces surrogates which can correctly predict NR waveforms that were {\\em not} used for the surrogate's training. For all practical purposes, then, the surrogate waveform model is equivalent to the high-accuracy, large-scale simulation waveform but can be evaluated in a millisecond to a second dependin...

  12. Computing the merger of black-hole binaries the IBBH problem

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, P R; Thorne, K S; Brady, Patrick R.; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Thorne, Kip S.

    1998-01-01

    Gravitational radiation arising from the inspiral and merger of binary black holes (BBH's) is a promising candidate for detection by kilometer-scale interferometric gravitational wave observatories. This paper discusses a serious obstacle to searches for such radiation and to the interpretation of any observed waves: the inability of current computational techniques to evolve a BBH through its last ~10 orbits of inspiral (~100 radians of gravitational-wave phase). A new set of numerical-relativity techniques is proposed for solving this ``Intermediate Binary Black Hole'' (IBBH) problem: (i) numerical evolutions performed in coordinates co-rotating with the BBH, in which the metric coefficients evolve on the long timescale of inspiral, and (ii) techniques for mathematically freezing out gravitational degrees of freedom that are not excited by the waves.

  13. Numerical simulation of binary black hole and neutron star mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastaun, W.; Rezzolla, L.

    2014-07-01

    Currently, we are expanding our results mainly in three directions. One is the influence of the matter properties at high densities. Another is the influence of resistive effects on the evolution of magnetic fields. Finally, we are including the effects of neutrino cooling into merger simulations. (orig.)

  14. Post-merger evolution of a neutron star-black hole binary with neutrino transport

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois; Roberts, Luke; Duez, Matthew D; Haas, Roland; Kidder, Lawrence E; Ott, Christian D; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela

    2015-01-01

    We present a first simulation of the post-merger evolution of a black hole-neutron star binary in full general relativity using an energy-integrated general relativistic truncated moment formalism for neutrino transport. We describe our implementation of the moment formalism and important tests of our code, before studying the formation phase of a disk after a black hole-neutron star merger. We use as initial data an existing general relativistic simulation of the merger of a neutron star of 1.4 solar mass with a black hole of 7 solar mass and dimensionless spin a/M=0.8. Comparing with a simpler leakage scheme for the treatment of the neutrinos, we find noticeable differences in the neutron to proton ratio in and around the disk, and in the neutrino luminosity. We find that the electron neutrino luminosity is much lower in the transport simulations, and that the remnant is less neutron-rich. The spatial distribution of the neutrinos is significantly affected by relativistic effects. Over the short timescale e...

  15. Galactic mergers, starburst galaxies, quasar activity and massive binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many quasar-like objects show evidence for massive binary black holes. The recent discovery of a massive (5 X 106 Msolar mass) object in the centre of the local group dwarf elliptical M 32 greatly raises the probability of forming such binaries through galactic mergers. The author argues that the enhancement of all kinds of activity (quasar-like activity and star formation) in galaxies with companions is not so much a consequence of tidal interaction between the massive galaxies as the result of collisions with their dwarf satellites. (author)

  16. Perturbed disks get shocked. Binary black hole merger effects on accretion disks

    CERN Document Server

    Megevand, Miguel; Frank, Juhan; Hirschmann, Eric W; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David

    2009-01-01

    The merger process of a binary black hole system can have a strong impact on a circumbinary disk. In the present work we study the effect of both central mass reduction (due to the energy loss through gravitational waves) and a possible black hole recoil (due to asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation). For the mass reduction case and recoil directed along the disk's angular momentum, oscillations are induced in the disk which then modulate the internal energy and bremsstrahlung luminosities. On the other hand, when the recoil direction has a component orthogonal to the disk's angular momentum, the disk's dynamics are strongly impacted, giving rise to relativistic shocks. The shock heating leaves its signature in our proxies for radiation, the total internal energy and bremsstrahlung luminosity. Interestingly, for cases where the kick velocity is below the smallest orbital velocity in the disk (a likely scenario in real AGN), we observe a common, characteristic pattern in the internal energy of the dis...

  17. Mergers of non-spinning black-hole binaries: Gravitational radiation characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, John G; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T; van Meter, James R

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed descriptive analysis of the gravitational radiation from black-hole binary mergers of non-spinning black holes, based on numerical simulations of systems varying from equal-mass to a 6:1 mass ratio. Our primary goal is to present relatively complete information about the waveforms, including all the leading multipolar components, to interested researchers. In our analysis, we pursue the simplest physical description of the dominant features in the radiation, providing an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an {\\em implicit rotating source}. This interpretation applies uniformly to the full wavetrain, from inspiral through ringdown. We emphasize strong relationships among the $\\ell=m$ modes that persist through the full wavetrain. Exploring the structure of the waveforms in more detail, we conduct detailed analytic fitting of the late-time frequency evolution, identifying a key quantitative feature shared by the $\\ell=m$ modes among all mass-ratios. We identify relationships, with...

  18. Compact object mergers: Observations of supermassive binary black holes and stellar tidal disruption events

    CERN Document Server

    Komossa, S

    2015-01-01

    The capture and disruption of stars by supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and the formation and coalescence of binaries, are inevitable consequences of the presence of SMBHs at the cores of galaxies. Pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and binary SMBHs are important stages in the evolution of galaxy mergers, and an intense search for these systems is currently ongoing. In the early and advanced stages of galaxy merging, observations of the triggering of accretion onto one or both BHs inform us about feedback processes and BH growth. Identification of the compact binary SMBHs at parsec and sub-parsec scales provides us with important constraints on the interaction processes that govern the shrinkage of the binary beyond the "final parsec". Coalescing binary SMBHs are among the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the universe. Stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) appear as luminous, transient, accretion flares when part of the stellar material is accreted by the SMBH. About 30 events have b...

  19. Systematic Biases in Parameter Estimation of Binary Black-Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, Tyson B.; Baker, John G.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2012-01-01

    Parameter estimation of binary-black-hole merger events in gravitational-wave data relies on matched filtering techniques, which, in turn, depend on accurate model waveforms. Here we characterize the systematic biases introduced in measuring astrophysical parameters of binary black holes by applying the currently most accurate effective-one-body templates to simulated data containing non-spinning numerical-relativity waveforms. For advanced ground-based detectors, we find that the systematic biases are well within the statistical error for realistic signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). These biases grow to be comparable to the statistical errors at high signal-to-noise ratios for ground-based instruments (SNR approximately 50) but never dominate the error budget. At the much larger signal-to-noise ratios expected for space-based detectors, these biases will become large compared to the statistical errors but are small enough (at most a few percent in the black-hole masses) that we expect they should not affect broad astrophysical conclusions that may be drawn from the data.

  20. Mining information from binary black hole mergers: a comparison of estimation methods for complex exponentials in noise

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, E; González, J A; Sperhake, U; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The ringdown phase following a binary black hole merger is usually assumed to be well described by a linear superposition of complex exponentials (quasinormal modes). In the strong-field conditions typical of a binary black hole merger, non-linear effects may produce mode coupling. Mode coupling can also be induced by the black hole's rotation, or by expanding the radiation field in terms of spin-weighted spherical harmonics (rather than spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics). Observing deviations from the predictions of linear black hole perturbation theory requires optimal fitting techniques to extract ringdown parameters from numerical waveforms, which are inevitably affected by numerical error. So far, non-linear least-squares fitting methods have been used as the standard workhorse to extract frequencies from ringdown waveforms. These methods are known not to be optimal for estimating parameters of complex exponentials. Furthermore, different fitting methods have different performance in the presence of noi...

  1. Black hole - neutron star merger simulations: Precessing binaries with neutrino treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dhruv; Foucart, Francois; Kasen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers are exciting events to model, as they are a source of gravitational waves, like those discovered for the first time by Advanced LIGO earlier this year. These mergers are also the source of gamma-ray bursts and radioactively powered transients. We present here an outline of our entire research process. We first display results of general relativistic-hydrodynamic simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). We ran a set of BH-NS merger simulations varying three of the initial parameters of the black hole: mass, spin magnitude, and spin inclination (relative to the orbital angular momentum of the binary system). The code factors in neutrino cooling and use a temperature dependent, nuclear theory based equation of state, as opposed to simpler equations of state previously used. Though systems which treat precession and neutrino cooling have been simulated individually, the systems we analyzed are the first to take both into account. Once a disk has formed and settled down, we take data from the GR simulations and input it into the particle evolution code, which reads in the positions/velocities and further evolves the system in a Newtonian potential. We then present the fallback rate of bound particles throughout this period of evolution, the approximate density evolution, and the spatial distribution of ejecta.

  2. Gas squeezing during the merger of a supermassive black hole binary

    CERN Document Server

    Cerioli, Alice; Price, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    We study accretion rates during the gravitational wave-driven merger of a binary supermassive black hole embedded in an accretion disc, formed by gas driven to the centre of the galaxy. We use 3D simulations performed with PHANTOM, a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code. Contrary to previous investigations, we show that there is evidence of a "squeezing phenomenon", caused by the compression of the inner disc gas when the secondary black hole spirals towards the primary. This causes an increase in the accretion rates that always exceed the Eddington rate. We have studied the main features of the phenomenon for a mass ratio $q = 10^{-3}$ between the black holes, including the effects of numerical resolution, the secondary accretion radius and the disc thickness. With our disc model with a low aspect ratio, we show that the mass expelled from the orbit of the secondary is negligible ($< 5\\%$ of the initial disc mass), different to the findings of previous 2D simulations with thicker discs. The increase in th...

  3. The Role of the Kozai-Lidov Mechanism in Black Hole Binary Mergers in Galactic Centers

    CERN Document Server

    VanLandingham, John H; Hamilton, Douglas P; Richardson, Derek C

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the rate of merger of stellar-mass black hole binaries (BHBs) by gravitational wave (GW) emission it is important to determine the major pathways to merger. We use numerical simulations to explore the evolution of BHBs inside the radius of influence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic centers. In this region the evolution of binaries is dominated by perturbations from the central SMBH. In particular, as first pointed out by Antonini and Perets, the Kozai-Lidov (KL) mechanism trades relative inclination of the BHB to the SMBH for eccentricity of the BHB, and for some orientations can bring the BHB to an eccentricity near unity. At very high eccentricities, GW emission from the BHB can become efficient, causing the members of the BHB to coalesce. We use a novel combination of two N-body codes to follow this evolution. We are forced to simulate small systems to follow the behavior accurately. We have completed 400 simulations that range from $\\sim$ 300 stars around a $10^{3}$ M...

  4. Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    van Meter, James R.; Wise, John H.; Miller, M. Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Centrella, Joan M.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases where the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the stron...

  5. Gravitational-wave memory revisited: Memory from the merger and recoil of binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravitational-wave memory refers to the permanent displacement of the test masses in an idealized (freely-falling) gravitational-wave interferometer. Inspiraling binaries produce a particularly interesting form of memory-the Christodoulou memory. Although it originates from nonlinear interactions at 2.5 post-Newtonian order, the Christodoulou memory affects the gravitational-wave amplitude at leading (Newtonian) order. Previous calculations have computed this non-oscillatory amplitude correction during the inspiral phase of binary coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' description calibrated with the results of numerical relativity simulations, the evolution of the memory during the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases, as well as the memory's final saturation value, are calculated. Using this model for the memory, the prospects for its detection are examined, particularly for supermassive black hole binary coalescences that LISA will detect with high signal-to-noise ratios. Coalescing binary black holes also experience center-of-mass recoil due to the anisotropic emission of gravitational radiation. These recoils can manifest themselves in the gravitational-wave signal in the form of a 'linear' memory and a Doppler shift of the quasi-normal-mode frequencies. The prospects for observing these effects are also discussed.

  6. Mergers of Black Hole -- Neutron Star binaries. I. Methods and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Rantsiou, E; Laguna, P; Rasio, F; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kobayashi, Shiho; Laguna, Pablo; Rasio, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    We use a 3-D relativistic SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) code to study mergers of black hole -- neutron star (BH--NS) binary systems with low mass ratios, adopting $M_{NS}/M_{BH} \\simeq 0.1$ as a representative case. The outcome of such mergers depends sensitively on both the magnitude of the BH spin and its obliquity (i.e., the inclination of the binary orbit with respect to the equatorial plane of the BH). In particular, only systems with sufficiently high BH spin parameter $a$ and sufficiently low orbital inclinations allow any NS matter to escape or to form a long-lived disk outside the BH horizon after disruption. Mergers of binaries with orbital inclinations above $\\sim60^o$ lead to complete prompt accretion of the entire NS by the BH, even for the case of an extreme Kerr BH. We find that the formation of a significant disk or torus of NS material around the BH always requires a near-maximal BH spin and a low initial inclination of the NS orbit just prior to merger.

  7. Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    van Meter, James R; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S; Centrella, Joan M; Baker, John G; Boggs, William D; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T

    2009-01-01

    Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases where the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a step towards solving this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We find qualitative differences in collision and outflow speeds, including a signature of the merger when the net angular momentum of the matter is low, between the results from single and binary black holes, and between nonrotating and rotating holes in binaries. If future magnetohydrodynamic results confirm ...

  8. Sky Localization of Complete Inspiral-Merger-Ringdown Signals for Nonspinning Black Hole Binaries with LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Lang, Ryan N.; Baker, John G.; Thorpe, James Ira

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the capability of LISA to measure the sky position of equal-mass, nonspinning black hole binaries, including for the first time the entire inspiral-merger-ringdown signal, the effect of the LISA orbits, and the complete three-channel LISA response. For an ensemble of systems near the peak of LISA's sensitivity band, with total rest mass of 2 x l0(exp 6) Stellar Mass at a redshift of z = 1 with random orientations and sky positions, we find median sky localization errors of approximately approx. 3 arcminutes. This is comparable to the field of view of powerful electromagnetic telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, that could be used to search for electromagnetic signals associated with merging black holes. We investigate the way in which parameter errors decrease with measurement time, focusing specifically on the additional information provided during the merger-ringdown segment of the signal. We find that this information improves all parameter estimates directly, rather than through diminishing correlations with any subset of well-determined parameters.

  9. Sky localization of complete inspiral-merger-ringdown signals for nonspinning massive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliams, Sean T; Baker, John G; Thorpe, James Ira

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the capability of LISA to measure the sky position of equal-mass, nonspinning black hole binaries, combining for the first time the entire inspiral-merger-ringdown signal, the effect of the LISA orbits, and the complete three-channel LISA response. We consider an ensemble of systems near the peak of LISA's sensitivity band, with total rest mass of 2\\times10^6 M\\odot, a redshift of z = 1, and randomly chosen orientations and sky positions. We find median sky localization errors of approximately \\sim3 arcminutes. This is comparable to the field of view of powerful electromagnetic telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, that could be used to search for electromagnetic signals associated with merging massive black holes. We investigate the way in which parameter errors decrease with measurement time, focusing specifically on the additional information provided during the merger-ringdown segment of the signal. We find that this information improves all parameter estimates directly, rathe...

  10. Binary black hole merger in the extreme-mass-ratio limit: a multipolar analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano

    2010-01-01

    Building up on previous work, we present a new calculation of the gravitational wave (GW) emission generated during the transition from quasi-circular inspiral to plunge, merger and ringdown by a binary system of nonspinning black holes, of masses $m_1$ and $m_2$, in the extreme mass ratio limit, $m_1 m_2\\ll(m_1+m_2)^2$. The relative dynamics of the system is computed {\\it without making any adiabatic approximation} by using an effective one body (EOB) description, namely by representing the binary by an effective particle of mass $\\mu=m_1 m_2/(m_1+m_2)$ moving in a (quasi-)Schwarzschild background of mass $M=m_1+m_2$ and submitted to an $\\O(\

  11. Impact of Mergers on USA Parameter Estimation for Nonspinning Black Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Thorpe, James Ira; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the precision with which the parameters describing the characteristics and location of nonspinning black hole binaries can be measured with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). By using complete waveforms including the inspiral, merger and ringdown portions of the signals, we find that LISA will have far greater precision than previous estimates for nonspinning mergers that ignored the merger and ringdown. Our analysis covers nonspinning waveforms with moderate mass ratios, q > or = 1/10, and total masses 10(exp 5) time observations, the later parts of the signal lead to significant improvements in sky-position precision in the last hours and even the final minutes of observation. For comparable mass systems with total mass M/M_{Sun} = approx. 10(exp 6), we find that the increased precision resulting from including the merger is comparable to the increase in signal-to-noise ratio. For the most precise systems under investigation, half can be localized to within O(10 arcmin), and 18% can be localized to within O(1 arcmin).

  12. Impact of mergers on LISA parameter estimation for nonspinning black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliams, Sean T; Baker, John G; Kelly, Bernard J

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the precision with which the parameters describing the characteristics and location of nonspinning black hole binaries can be measured with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). By using complete waveforms including the inspiral, merger and ringdown portions of the signals, we find that LISA will have far greater precision than previous estimates for nonspinning mergers that ignored the merger and ringdown. Our analysis covers nonspinning waveforms with moderate mass ratios, q >= 1/10, and total masses 10^5 < M/M_{Sun} < 10^7. We compare the parameter uncertainties using the Fisher matrix formalism, and establish the significance of mass asymmetry and higher-order content to the predicted parameter uncertainties resulting from inclusion of the merger. In real-time observations, the later parts of the signal lead to significant improvements in sky-position precision in the last hours and even the final minutes of observation. For comparable mass systems with total mass M/M_{Sun} =...

  13. Rapid and Bright Stellar-mass Binary Black Hole Mergers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Imre; Haiman, Zoltán; Márka, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, LIGO, found direct evidence of double black hole binaries emitting gravitational waves. Galactic nuclei are expected to harbor the densest population of stellar-mass black holes, accounting for as much as ~2% of the mass of the nuclear stellar cluster. A significant fraction (~30%) of these black holes can reside in binaries. We examine the fate of the black hole binaries in active galactic nuclei, which get trapped in the inner region of the accretion disk around the central supermassive black hole. We show that binary black holes can migrate into and then rapidly merge within the disk well within a Salpeter time. The binaries may also accrete a significant amount of gas from the disk, well above the Eddington rate. This could lead to detectable X-ray or gamma-ray emission, but would require hyper-Eddington accretion with a few % radiative efficiency, comparable to thin disks. We discuss implications for gravitational wave observations and black hole popul...

  14. Mergers of Non-spinning Black-hole Binaries: Gravitational Radiation Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; vanMeter, James R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed descriptive analysis of the gravitational radiation from black-hole binary mergers of non-spinning black holes, based on numerical simulations of systems varying from equal-mass to a 6:1 mass ratio. Our primary goal is to present relatively complete information about the waveforms, including all the leading multipolar components, to interested researchers. In our analysis, we pursue the simplest physical description of the dominant features in the radiation, providing an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an implicit rotating source. This interpretation applies uniformly to the full wavetrain, from inspiral through ringdown. We emphasize strong relationships among the l = m modes that persist through the full wavetrain. Exploring the structure of the waveforms in more detail, we conduct detailed analytic fitting of the late-time frequency evolution, identifying a key quantitative feature shared by the l = m modes among all mass-ratios. We identify relationships, with a simple interpretation in terms of the implicit rotating source, among the evolution of frequency and amplitude, which hold for the late-time radiation. These detailed relationships provide sufficient information about the late-time radiation to yield a predictive model for the late-time waveforms, an alternative to the common practice of modeling by a sum of quasinormal mode overtones. We demonstrate an application of this in a new effective-one-body-based analytic waveform model.

  15. Mergers of black-hole binaries with aligned spins: Waveform characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Centrella, Joan

    2011-01-01

    We conduct a descriptive analysis of the multipolar structure of gravitational-radiation waveforms from equal-mass aligned-spin mergers, following an approach first presented in the complementary context of nonspinning black holes of varying mass ratio [J.G. Baker et al. Phys. Rev. D 78 044046 (2008)]. We find that, as with the nonspinning mergers, the dominant waveform mode phases evolve together in lock-step through inspiral and merger, supporting the previous waveform description in terms ...

  16. Accretion and Orbital Inspiral in Gas-assisted Supermassive Black Hole Binary Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-08-01

    Many galaxies are expected to harbor binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in their centers. Their interaction with the surrounding gas results in the accretion and exchange of angular momentum via tidal torques, facilitating binary inspiral. Here, we explore the non-trivial coupling between these two processes and analyze how the global properties of externally supplied circumbinary disks depend on the binary accretion rate. By formulating our results in terms of the angular momentum flux driven by internal stresses, we come up with a very simple classification of the possible global disk structures, which differ from the standard constant \\dot{M} accretion disk solution. The suppression of accretion by the binary tides, leading to a significant mass accumulation in the inner disk, accelerates binary inspiral. We show that once the disk region strongly perturbed by the viscously transmitted tidal torque exceeds the binary semimajor axis, the binary can merge in less than its mass-doubling time due to accretion. Thus, unlike the inspirals driven by stellar scattering, the gas-assisted merger can occur even if the binary is embedded in a relatively low-mass disk (lower than its own mass). This is important for resolving the “last parsec” problem for SMBH binaries and understanding powerful gravitational wave sources in the universe. We argue that the enhancement of accretion by the binary found in some recent simulations cannot persist for a long time and should not affect the long-term orbital inspiral. We also review existing simulations of SMBH binary–disk coupling and propose a numerical setup which is particularly well suited to verifying our theoretical predictions.

  17. Eccentric binary black-hole mergers: The transition from inspiral to plunge in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the transition from inspiral to plunge in general relativity by computing gravitational waveforms of nonspinning, equal-mass black-hole binaries. We consider three sequences of simulations, starting with a quasicircular inspiral completing 1.5, 2.3 and 9.6 orbits, respectively, prior to coalescence of the holes. For each sequence, the binding energy of the system is kept constant and the orbital angular momentum is progressively reduced, producing orbits of increasing eccentricity and eventually a head-on collision. We analyze in detail the radiation of energy and angular momentum in gravitational waves, the contribution of different multipolar components and the final spin of the remnant, comparing numerical predictions with the post-Newtonian approximation and with extrapolations of point-particle results. We find that the motion transitions from inspiral to plunge when the orbital angular momentum L=Lcrit≅0.8M2. For Lcrit the radiated energy drops very rapidly. Orbits with L≅Lcrit produce our largest dimensionless Kerr parameter for the remnant, j=J/M2≅0.724±0.13 (to be compared with the Kerr parameter j≅0.69 resulting from quasicircular inspirals). This value is in good agreement with the value of 0.72 reported in [I. Hinder, B. Vaishnav, F. Herrmann, D. Shoemaker, and P. Laguna, Phys. Rev. D 77, 081502 (2008).]. These conclusions are quite insensitive to the initial separation of the holes, and they can be understood by extrapolating point-particle results. Generalizing a model recently proposed by Buonanno, Kidder and Lehner [A. Buonanno, L. E. Kidder, and L. Lehner, Phys. Rev. D 77, 026004 (2008).] to eccentric binaries, we conjecture that (1) j≅0.724 is close to the maximal Kerr parameter that can be obtained by any merger of nonspinning holes, and (2) no binary merger (even if the binary members are extremal Kerr black holes with spins aligned to the orbital angular momentum, and the inspiral is highly eccentric) can violate the cosmic

  18. The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914

    CERN Document Server

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Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; 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    2016-01-01

    A transient gravitational-wave signal was identified in the twin Advanced LIGO detectors on September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC (GW150914). To assess the implications of this discovery, the detectors remained in operation with unchanged configurations over a period of 39 d around the time of the signal. A search of 16 days of simultaneous two-detector observational data found GW150914 to have a false alarm probability (FAP) of $2 \\times 10^{-7}$. Parameter estimation followup on this trigger identifies its source as a binary black hole (BBH) merger with component masses $(m_1, m_2) = 36^{+5}_{-4}, 29^{+4}_{-4} \\, M_\\odot$ at redshift $z = 0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. Here we report on the constraints these observations place on the rate of BBH coalescences. Considering only GW150914, assuming that all BBHs in the universe have the same masses and spins as this event, imposing a false alarm threshold of 1 per 100 years, and assuming that the BBH merger rate is constant in the comoving frame, we infer a 90% credible r...

  19. Modeling Kicks from the Merger of Generic Black-hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Miller, M. Coleman; vanMeter, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent numerical relativistic results demonstrate that the merger of comparable-mass spinning black holes has a maximum "recoil kick" of up to approx. 4000 km/s. However the scaling of these recoil velocities with mass ratio is poorly understood. We present new runs showing that the maximum possible kick parallel to the orbital axis does not scale as approx. eta(sup 2) (where eta is the symmetric mass ratio), as previously proposed, but is more consistent with approx. eta(sup 3). We discuss the effect of this dependence on galactic ejection scenarios and retention of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. S

  20. Modeling kicks from the merger of generic black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, John G; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T; Miller, M Coleman; van Meter, James R

    2008-01-01

    Recent numerical relativistic results demonstrate that the merger of comparable-mass spinning black holes has a maximum ``recoil kick'' of up to $\\sim 4000 \\kms$. However the scaling of these recoil velocities with mass ratio is poorly understood. We present new runs showing that the maximum possible kick parallel to the orbital axis does not scale as $\\sim\\eta^2$ (where $\\eta$ is the symmetric mass ratio), as previously proposed, but is more consistent with $\\sim\\eta^3$. We discuss the effect of this dependence on galactic ejection scenarios and retention of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters.

  1. Binary Mergers and Growth of Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, R M; Fregeau, J M; Ivanova, N; O'Shaughnessy, R; Leary, Ryan M. O'; Rasio, Frederic A.; Fregeau, John M.; Ivanova, Natalia; Shaughnessy, Richard O'

    2006-01-01

    We model the dynamical evolution of primordial black holes (BHs) in dense star clusters using a simplified treatment of stellar dynamics in which the BHs are assumed to remain concentrated in an inner core, completely decoupled from the background stars. Dynamical interactions involving BH binaries are computed exactly and are generated according to a Monte Carlo prescription. Recoil and ejections lead to complete evaporation of the BH core on a timescale ~10^9 yr for typical globular cluster parameters. Orbital decay driven by gravitational radiation can make binaries merge and, in some cases, successive mergers can lead to significant BH growth. Our highly simplified treatment of the cluster dynamics allows us to study a large number of models and to compute statistical distributions of outcomes, such as the probability of massive BH growth and retention in a cluster. We find that, in most models, there is a significant probability (~20-80%) of BH growth with final masses > 100 M_{\\sun}. In at least one cas...

  2. Mining information from binary black hole mergers: A comparison of estimation methods for complex exponentials in noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ringdown phase following a binary black hole merger is usually assumed to be well described by a linear superposition of complex exponentials (quasinormal modes). In the strong-field conditions typical of a binary black hole merger, nonlinear effects may produce mode coupling. Artificial mode coupling can also be induced by the black hole's rotation, if the radiation field is expanded in terms of spin-weighted spherical harmonics (rather than spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics). Observing deviations from the predictions of linear black hole perturbation theory requires optimal fitting techniques to extract ringdown parameters from numerical waveforms, which are inevitably affected by numerical error. So far, nonlinear least-squares fitting methods have been used as the standard workhorse to extract frequencies from ringdown waveforms. These methods are known not to be optimal for estimating parameters of complex exponentials. Furthermore, different fitting methods have different performance in the presence of noise. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the gravitational wave community to modern variations of a linear parameter estimation technique first devised in 1795 by Prony: the Kumaresan-Tufts and matrix pencil methods. Using ''test'' damped sinusoidal signals in Gaussian white noise we illustrate the advantages of these methods, showing that they have variance and bias at least comparable to standard nonlinear least-squares techniques. Then we compare the performance of different methods on unequal-mass binary black hole merger waveforms. The methods we discuss should be useful both theoretically (to monitor errors and search for nonlinearities in numerical relativity simulations) and experimentally (for parameter estimation from ringdown signals after a gravitational wave detection)

  3. Binary black hole merger in the extreme-mass-ratio limit: A multipolar analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building up on previous work, we present a new calculation of the gravitational wave emission generated during the transition from quasicircular inspiral to plunge, merger, and ringdown by a binary system of nonspinning black holes, of masses m1 and m2, in the extreme mass ratio limit, m1m21+m2)2. The relative dynamics of the system is computed without making any adiabatic approximation by using an effective one body (EOB) description, namely, by representing the binary by an effective particle of mass μ=m1m2/(m1+m2) moving in a (quasi-)Schwarzschild background of mass M=m1+m2 and submitted to an O(ν) 5PN-resummed analytical radiation reaction force, with ν=μ/M. The gravitational wave emission is calculated via a multipolar Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-type perturbative approach (valid in the limit ν-2,10-3,10-4}, and we compute the multipolar waveform up to l=8. We estimate energy and angular momentum losses during the quasiuniversal and quasigeodesic part of the plunge phase and we analyze the structure of the ringdown. We calculate the gravitational recoil, or 'kick', imparted to the merger remnant by the gravitational wave emission and we emphasize the importance of higher multipoles to get a final value of the recoil v/(cν2)=0.0446. We finally show that there is an excellent fractional agreement (∼10-3) (even during the plunge) between the 5PN EOB analytically resummed radiation reaction flux and the numerically computed gravitational wave angular momentum flux. This is a further confirmation of the aptitude of the EOB formalism to accurately model extreme-mass-ratio inspirals, as needed for the future space-based LISA gravitational wave detector.

  4. Modeling kicks from the merger of non-precessing black-hole binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Miller, M. Coleman; van Meter, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Several groups have recently computed the gravitational radiation recoil produced by the merger of two spinning black holes. The results suggest that spin can be the dominant contributor to the kick, with reported recoil speeds of hundreds to even thousands of kilometers per second. The parameter space of spin kicks is large, however, and it is ultimately desirable to have a simple formula that gives the approximate magnitude of the kick given a mass ratio, spin magnitudes, and spin orientati...

  5. Mergers of black-hole binaries with aligned spins: Waveform characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Bernard J; Boggs, William D; McWilliams, Sean T; Centrella, Joan

    2011-01-01

    We conduct a descriptive analysis of the multipolar structure of gravitational-radiation waveforms from equal-mass aligned-spin mergers, following an approach first presented in the complementary context of nonspinning black holes of varying mass ratio [Baker et al., Phys. Rev. D 78:044046 (2008)]. We find that, as with the nonspinning mergers, the dominant waveform mode phases evolve together in lock-step through inspiral and merger, supporting the previous waveform description in terms of an adiabatically rigid rotator driving gravitational-wave emission -- an implicit rotating source (IRS). We further apply the late-time merger-ringdown model for the rotational frequency introduced in Baker et al. (2008), along with an improved amplitude model appropriate for the dominant (2,+/- 2) modes. This provides a quantitative description of the merger-ringdown waveforms, and suggests that the major features of these waveforms can be described with reference only to the intrinsic parameters associated with the state...

  6. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black holes binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cholis, Ilias; Kovetz, Ely D.; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B.; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-01-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of $\\sim30\\,M_\\odot$ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly ecce...

  7. Rapid merger of binary primordial black holes: An implication for GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new scenario for the evolution of the binaries of primordial black holes (PBH). We consider dynamical friction by ambient dark matter, scattering of dark matter particles with a highly eccentric orbit besides the standard two-body relaxation process to refill the loss cone, and interaction between the binary and a circumbinary disk, assuming that PBHs do not constitute the bulk of dark matter. Binary PBHs lose the energy and angular momentum by these processes, which could be sufficiently efficient for a typical configuration. Such a binary coalesces due to the gravitational wave emission on a time scale much shorter than the age of the universe. We estimate the density parameter of the resultant gravitational wave background. Astrophysical implications concerning the formation of intermediate-mass to supermassive black holes is also discussed.

  8. Rapid merger of binary primordial black holes: An implication for GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new scenario for the evolution of the binaries of primordial black holes (PBH). We consider dynamical friction by ambient dark matter, scattering of dark matter particles with a highly eccentric orbit besides the standard two-body relaxation process to refill the loss cone, and interaction between the binary and a circumbinary disk, assuming that PBHs do not constitute the bulk of dark matter. Binary PBHs lose the energy and angular momentum by these processes, which could be sufficiently efficient for a typical configuration. Such a binary coalesces due to the gravitational wave emission on a time scale much shorter than the age of the universe. We estimate the density parameter of the resultant gravitational wave background. Astrophysical implications concerning the formation of intermediate-mass to supermassive black holes is also discussed.

  9. The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914

    CERN Document Server

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Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y -M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Zertuche, L Magana; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Pratt, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    The first direct gravitational-wave detection was made by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory on September 14, 2015. The GW150914 signal was strong enough to be apparent, without using any waveform model, in the filtered detector strain data. Here those features of the signal visible in these data are used, along with only such concepts from Newtonian and General Relativity as are accessible to anyone with a general physics background. The simple analysis presented here is consistent with the fully general-relativistic analyses published elsewhere, in showing that the signal was produced by the inspiral and subsequent merger of two black holes. The black holes were each of approximately 35 Msun, still orbited each other as close as 350 km apart and subsequently merged to form a single black hole. Similar reasoning, directly from the data, is used to roughly estimate how far these black holes were from the Earth, and the energy that they radiated in gravitational waves.

  10. Detecting quasinormal modes of binary black hole mergers with second-generation gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-02-01

    Recent population synthesis simulations of Pop III stars suggest that the event rate of coalescence of ˜30 M⊙-30 M⊙ binary black holes can be high enough for the detection by the second generation gravitational wave detectors. The frequencies of chirp signal as well as quasinormal modes are near the best sensitivity of these detectors so that it would be possible to confirm Einstein's general relativity. Using the WKB method, we suggest that for the typical value of spin parameter a /M ˜0.7 from numerical relativity results of the coalescence of binary black holes, the strong gravity of the black hole space-time at around the radius 2 M , which is just ˜1.17 times the event horizon radius, would be confirmed as predicted by general relativity. The expected event rate with the signal-to-noise ratio >35 needed for the determination of the quasinormal mode frequency with a meaningful accuracy is 0.17 -7.2 events yr-1 [(SFRp/(1 0-2.5M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3)) .([fb/(1 +fb)]/0.33 ) ], where SFRp and fb are the peak value of the Pop III star formation rate and the fraction of binaries, respectively. As for the possible optical counterpart, if the merged black hole of mass M ˜60 M⊙ is in the interstellar matter with n ˜100 cm-3 and the proper motion of the black hole is ˜1 km s-1 , the luminosity is ˜1040 erg s-1 which can be detected up to ˜300 Mpc , for example, by Subaru-HSC and LSST with the limiting magnitude 26.

  11. Binary pairs of supermassive black holes - Formation in merging galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process in which supermassive binary blackholes are formed in nuclei of supergiant galaxies due to galaxy mergers is examined. There is growing evidence that mergers of galaxies are common and that supermassive black holes in center of galaxies are also common. Consequently, it is expected that binary black holes should arise in connection with galaxy mergers. The merger process in a galaxy modeled after M87 is considered. The capture probability of a companion is derived as a function of its mass. Assuming a correlation between the galaxy mass and the blackholes mass, the expected mass ratio in binary black holes is calculated. The binary black holes formed in this process are long lived, surviving longer than the Hubble time unless they are perturbed by black holes from successive mergers. The properties of these binaries agree with Gaskell's (1988) observational work on quasars and its interpretation in terms of binary black holes. 39 refs

  12. Relativistic mergers of black hole binaries have large, similar masses, low spins and are circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Chen, Xian

    2016-05-01

    Gravitational waves are a prediction of general relativity, and with ground-based detectors now running in their advanced configuration, we will soon be able to measure them directly for the first time. Binaries of stellar-mass black holes are among the most interesting sources for these detectors. Unfortunately, the many different parameters associated with the problem make it difficult to promptly produce a large set of waveforms for the search in the data stream. To reduce the number of templates to develop, one must restrict some of the physical parameters to a certain range of values predicted by either (electromagnetic) observations or theoretical modelling. In this work, we show that `hyperstellar' black holes (HSBs) with masses 30 ≲ MBH/M⊙ ≲ 100, i.e black holes significantly larger than the nominal 10 M⊙, will have an associated low value for the spin, i.e. a similar masses. We also address the distribution of the eccentricities of HSB binaries in dense stellar systems using a large suite of three-body scattering experiments that include binary-single interactions and long-lived hierarchical systems with a highly accurate integrator, including relativistic corrections up to O(1/c^5). We find that most sources in the detector band will have nearly zero eccentricities. This correlation between large, similar masses, low spin and low eccentricity will help to accelerate the searches for gravitational-wave signals.

  13. Accretion and Orbital Inspiral in Gas-Assisted Supermassive Black Hole Binary Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Rafikov, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Many galaxies are expected to harbor binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in their centers. Their interaction with the surrounding gas results in accretion and exchange of angular momentum via tidal torques, facilitating binary inspiral. Here we explore the non-trivial coupling between these two processes and analyze how the global properties of externally supplied circumbinary disks depend on the binary accretion rate. By formulating our results in terms of the angular momentum flux driven by internal stresses, we come up with a very simple classification of the possible global disk structures, which differ from the standard constant $\\dot M$ accretion disk solution. Suppression of accretion by the binary tides, leading to a significant mass accumulation in the inner disk, accelerates binary inspiral. We show that once the disk region strongly perturbed by the viscously transmitted tidal torque exceeds the binary semi-major axis, the binary can merge in less than its mass-doubling time due to accretion. T...

  14. Modeling kicks from the merger of generic black-hole binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Miller, M. Coleman; van Meter, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent numerical relativistic results demonstrate that the merger of comparable-mass spinning black holes has a maximum ``recoil kick'' of up to $\\sim 4000 \\kms$. However the scaling of these recoil velocities with mass ratio is poorly understood. We present new runs showing that the maximum possible kick perpendicular to the orbital plane does not scale as $\\sim\\eta^2$ (where $\\eta$ is the symmetric mass ratio), as previously proposed, but is more consistent with $\\sim\\eta^3$, at least for s...

  15. Merger of binary neutron stars to a black hole: Disk mass, short gamma-ray bursts, and quasinormal mode ringing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional simulations for the merger of binary neutron stars are performed in the framework of full general relativity. We pay particular attention to the black hole formation case and to the resulting mass of the surrounding disk for exploring the possibility for formation of the central engine of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Hybrid equations of state are adopted mimicking realistic, stiff nuclear equations of state (EOSs), for which the maximum allowed gravitational mass of cold and spherical neutron stars, Msph, is larger than 2M·. Such stiff EOSs are adopted motivated by the recent possible discovery of a heavy neutron star of mass ∼2.1±0.2M·. For the simulations, we focus on binary neutron stars of the ADM mass M > or approx. 2.6M·. For an ADM mass larger than the threshold mass Mthr, the merger results in prompt formation of a black hole irrespective of the mass ratio QM with 0.65 M≤1. The value of Mthr depends on the EOSs and is approximately written as 1.3-1.35Msph for the chosen EOSs. For the black hole formation case, we evolve the space-time using a black hole excision technique and determine the mass of a quasistationary disk surrounding the black hole. The disk mass steeply increases with decreasing the value of QM for given ADM mass and EOS. This suggests that a merger with small value of QM is a candidate for producing central engine of SGRBs. For Mthr, the outcome is a hypermassive neutron star of a large ellipticity. Because of the nonaxisymmetry, angular momentum is transported outward. If the hypermassive neutron star collapses to a black hole after the long-term angular momentum transport, the disk mass may be (> or approx. 0.01M· irrespective of QM. Gravitational waves are computed in terms of a gauge-invariant wave extraction technique. In the formation of the hypermassive neutron star, quasiperiodic gravitational waves of frequency between 3 and 3.5 kHz are emitted irrespective of EOSs. The effective amplitude of

  16. Modeling kicks from the merger of non-precessing black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, J G; Centrella, J; Kelly, B J; McWilliams, S T; Miller, M C; Van Meter, J R; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; Williams, Sean T. Mc; Meter, James R. van

    2007-01-01

    Several groups have recently computed the gravitational radiation recoil produced by the merger of two spinning black holes. The results suggest that spin can be the dominant contributor to the kick, with reported recoil speeds of hundreds to even thousands of kilometers per second. The parameter space of spin kicks is large, however, and it is ultimately desirable to have a simple formula that gives the approximate magnitude of the kick given a mass ratio, spin magnitudes, and spin orientations. As a step toward this goal, we perform a systematic study of the recoil speeds from mergers of black holes with mass ratio $q\\equiv m_1/m_2=2/3$ and dimensionless spin parameters of $a_1/m_1$ and $a_2/m_2$ equal to 0 or 0.2, with directions aligned or anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We also run an equal-mass $a_1/m_1=-a_2/m_2=0.2$ case, and find good agreement with previous results. We find that, for currently reported kicks from aligned or anti-aligned spins, a simple kick formula inspired by post-Ne...

  17. Relativistic mergers of black hole binaries have large, similar masses, low spins and are circular

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves are a prediction of general relativity, and with ground-based detectors now running in their advanced configuration, we will soon be able to measure them directly for the first time. Binaries of stellar-mass black holes are among the most interesting sources for these detectors. Unfortunately, the many different parameters associated with the problem make it difficult to promptly produce a large set of waveforms for the search in the data stream. To reduce the number of templates to develop, and hence speed up the search, one must restrict some of the physical parameters to a certain range of values predicted by either (electromagnetic) observations or theoretical modeling. This allows one to avoid the need to blindly cover the whole parameter space. In this work we show that "hyperstellar" black holes (HSBs) with masses $30 \\lesssim M_{\\rm BH}/M_{\\odot} \\lesssim 100$, i.e black holes significantly larger than the nominal $10\\,M_{\\odot}$, will have an associated low value for the spin, i.e...

  18. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan M.; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; van Meter, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Coalescing black-hole binaries are expected to be the strongest sources of gravitational waves for ground-based interferometers as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Recent progress in numerical relativity now makes it possible to calculate the waveforms from the strong-field dynamical merger and is revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We review these dramatic developments, emphasizing applications to issues in gravitational wave observations. These new capabilities a...

  19. LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES. IV. MERGERS OF GALAXIES WITH COLLISIONALLY RELAXED NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We simulate mergers between galaxies containing collisionally relaxed nuclei around massive black holes (MBHs). Our galaxies contain four mass groups, representative of old stellar populations; a primary goal is to understand the distribution of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) after the merger. Mergers are followed using direct-summation N-body simulations, assuming a mass ratio of 1:3 and two different orbits. Evolution of the binary MBH is followed until its separation has shrunk by a factor of 20 below the hard-binary separation. During the galaxy merger, large cores are carved out in the stellar distribution, with radii several times the influence radius of the massive binary. Much of the pre-existing mass segregation is erased during this phase. We follow the evolution of the merged galaxies for approximately three central relaxation times after coalescence of the massive binary; both standard and top-heavy mass functions are considered. The cores that were formed in the stellar distribution persist, and the distribution of the stellar-mass BHs evolves against this essentially fixed background. Even after one central relaxation time, these models look very different from the relaxed, multi-mass models that are often assumed to describe the distribution of stars and stellar remnants near a massive BH. While the stellar BHs do form a cusp on roughly a relaxation timescale, the BH density can be much smaller than in those models. We discuss the implications of our results for the extreme-mass-ratio inspiral problem and for the existence of Bahcall-Wolf cusps.

  20. Binary black holes' effects on electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Neilsen, David

    2009-08-21

    In addition to producing gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We here study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as a possible enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves. PMID:19792706

  1. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  2. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  3. Reaction of Accretion Disks to Abrupt Mass Loss During Binary Black Hole Merger

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Sean M; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Reynolds, Christopher S; Schnittman, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    The association of an electromagnetic signal with the merger of a pair of supermassive black holes would have many important implications. For example, it would provide new information about gas and magnetic field interactions in dynamical spacetimes as well as a combination of redshift and luminosity distance that would enable precise cosmological tests. A proposal first made by Bode & Phinney (2007) is that because radiation of gravitational waves during the final inspiral and merger of the holes is abrupt and decreases the mass of the central object by a few percent, there will be waves in the disk that can steepen into shocks and thus increase the disk luminosity in a characteristic way. We evaluate this process analytically and numerically. We find that shocks only occur when the fractional mass loss exceeds the half-thickness (h/r) of the disk, hence significant energy release only occurs for geometrically thin disks which are thus at low Eddington ratios. This strongly limits the effective energy r...

  4. Theoretical Physics Implications of the Binary Black-Hole Merger GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Yunes, Nicolas; Pretorius, Frans

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational-wave observation GW150914 by Advanced LIGO provides the first opportunity to learn about physics in the extreme gravity of coalescing binary black holes. The LIGO/Virgo collaboration has verified that this observation is consistent with General Relativity, constraining the presence of parametric anomalies in the signal. This paper expands this analysis to a larger class of anomalies, highlighting the inferences that can be drawn on non-standard theoretical physics mechanisms that would affect the signal. We find that GW150914 constrains a plethora of mechanisms associated with the generation and propagation of gravitational waves, including the activation of scalar fields, gravitational leakage into large extra dimensions, the variability of Newton's constant, the speed of gravity, a modified dispersion relation, gravitational Lorentz violation and the strong equivalence principle. Unlike other observations that limit these mechanisms, GW150914 is a direct probe of dynamical strong-field gra...

  5. Supplement: The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Maga~na-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Porter, E; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental information for a Letter reporting the rate of binary black hole (BBH) coalescences inferred from 16 days of coincident Advanced LIGO observations surrounding the transient gravitational wave signal GW150914. In that work we reported various rate estimates whose 90\\% credible intervals fell in the range $2$--$600 \\, \\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3} \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$. Here we give details of our method and computations, including information about our search pipelines, a derivation of our likelihood function for the analysis, a description of the astrophysical search trigger distribution expected from merging BBHs, details on our computational methods, a description of the effects and our model for calibration uncertainty, and an analytic method of estimating our detector sensitivity that is calibrated to our measurements.

  6. Template-space metric for searches for gravitational waves from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kalaghatgi, Chinmay; Arun, K G

    2015-01-01

    Searches for gravitational waves (GWs) from binary black holes using interferometric GW detectors require the construction of template banks for performing matched filtering while analyzing the data. Placement of templates over the parameter space of binaries, as well as coincidence tests of GW triggers from multiple detectors make use of the definition of a metric over the space of gravitational waveforms. Although recent searches have employed waveform templates coherently describing the inspiral, merger and ringdown (IMR) of the coalescence, the metric used in the template banks and coincidence tests was derived from post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms. In this paper, we compute the template-space metric of the IMR waveform family IMRPhenomB over the parameter space of masses and the effective spin parameter. We also propose a coordinate system, which is a modified version of post-Newtonian chirp time coordinates, in which the metric is slowly varying over the parameter space. The match function analytically...

  7. Upper limits on the rates of binary neutron star and neutron-star--black-hole mergers from Advanced LIGO's first observing run

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Costa, C F Da Silva; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J -D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y -M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Zertuche, L Magana; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Pratt, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron star systems and neutron-star--black-hole systems during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. In particular we searched for gravitational wave signals from binary neutron star systems with component masses $\\in [1,3] M_{\\odot}$ and component dimensionless spins $< 0.05$. We also searched for neutron-star--black-hole systems with the same neutron star parameters, black hole mass $\\in [2,99] M_{\\odot}$ and no restriction on the black hole spin magnitude. We assess the sensitivity of the two LIGO detectors to these systems, and find that they could have detected the merger of binary neutron star systems with component mass distributions of $1.35\\pm0.13 M_{\\odot}$ at a volume-weighted average distance of $\\sim$ 70Mpc, and for neutron-star--black-hole systems with neutron star masses of $1.4M_\\odot$ and black hole masses of at least $5M_\\odot$, a volume-weighted average distance of at least $\\sim$ 110Mpc. From this we...

  8. Massive Binary Black Holes in the Cosmic Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Colpi, M.; Dotti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Binary black holes occupy a special place in our quest for understanding the evolution of galaxies along cosmic history. If massive black holes grow at the center of (pre-)galactic structures that experience a sequence of merger episodes, then dual black holes form as inescapable outcome of galaxy assembly. But, if the black holes reach coalescence, then they become the loudest sources of gravitational waves ever in the universe. Nature seems to provide a pathway for the formation of these ex...

  9. Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: The Search Continues

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanovic, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Gravitationally bound supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) are thought to be a natural product of galactic mergers and growth of the large scale structure in the universe. They however remain observationally elusive, thus raising a question about characteristic observational signatures associated with these systems. In this conference proceeding I discuss current theoretical understanding and latest advances and prospects in observational searches for SBHBs.

  10. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this second lecture, we focus on simulations of black hole binary mergers. We hig hlight the instabilities that plagued the codes for many years, the r ecent breakthroughs that led to the first accurate simulations, and the current state of the art.

  11. Massive Black Hole Binaries: Dynamical Evolution and Observational Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamical evolution of massive black hole pairs in mergers is crucial in the context of a hierarchical galaxy formation scenario. The timescales for the formation and the coalescence of black hole binaries are still poorly constrained, resulting in large uncertainties in the expected rate of massive black hole binaries detectable in the electromagnetic and gravitational wave spectra. Here, we review the current theoretical understanding of the black hole pairing in galaxy mergers, with a particular attention to recent developments and open issues. We conclude with a review of the expected observational signatures of massive binaries and of the candidates discussed in literature to date.

  12. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, John G; Centrella, Joan M; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T; van Meter, James R

    2007-01-01

    Coalescing black-hole binaries are expected to be the strongest sources of gravitational waves for ground-based interferometers as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Recent progress in numerical relativity now makes it possible to calculate the waveforms from the strong-field dynamical merger and is revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We review these dramatic developments, emphasizing applications to issues in gravitational wave observations. These new capabilities also make possible accurate calculations of the recoil or kick imparted to the final remnant black hole when the merging components have unequal masses, or unequal or unaligned spins. We highlight recent work in this area, focusing on results of interest to astrophysics.

  13. Calibration of the Advanced LIGO detectors for the discovery of the binary black-hole merger GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P

    2016-01-01

    In Advanced LIGO, detection and astrophysical source parameter estimation of the binary black hole merger GW150914 requires a calibrated estimate of the gravitational-wave strain sensed by the detectors. Producing an estimate from each detector's differential arm length control loop readout signals requires applying time domain filters, which are designed from a frequency domain model of the detector's gravitational-wave response. The gravitational-wave response model is determined by the detector's opto-mechanical response and the properties of its feedback control system. The measurements used to validate the model and characterize its uncertainty are derived primarily from a dedicated photon radiation pressure actuator, with cross-checks provided by optical and radio frequency references. We describe how the gravitational-wave readout signal is calibrated into equivalent gravitational-wave-induced strain and how the statistical uncertainties and systematic errors are assessed. Detector data collected over ...

  14. Electromagnetic Afterglows Associated with Gamma-Ray Emission Coincident with Binary Black Hole Merger Event GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Ryo; Ohira, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor detected gamma-ray emission 0.4 sec after a binary black-hole merger event, GW150914. We show that the gamma-ray emission is caused by a relativistic outflow with Lorentz factor larger than 10. Subsequently debris outflow pushes ambient gas to form a shock, which is responsible for the afterglow synchrotron emission. We find that the fluxes of radio and optical afterglows increase from about $10^7$ sec to at least $\\sim10$ yr after the burst trigger. Further follow-up observations in the radio and optical/infrared bands are encouraged. Detection of afterglows will localize the sky position of the gravitational-wave and the gamma-ray emissions and it will support the physical association between them.

  15. Black-hole Merger Simulations for LISA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan M.; McWilliams, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    The strongest expected sources of gravitational waves in the LISA band are the mergers of massive black holes. LISA may observe these systems to high redshift, z>10, to uncover details of the origin of massive black holes, and of the relationship between black holes and their host structures, and structure formation itself. These signals arise from the final stage in the development of a massive black-hole binary emitting strong gravitational radiation that accelerates the system's inspiral toward merger. The strongest part of the signal, at the point of merger, carries much information about the system and provides a probe of extreme gravitational physics. Theoretical predictions for these merger signals rely on supercomputer simulations to solve Einstein's equations. We discuss recent numerical results and their impact on LISA science expectations.

  16. Binary Black Hole Merger Rates Inferred from Luminosity Function of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources: Implications to the Origin of GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Isobe, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) has detected direct signals of gravitational waves (GWs) from GW150914. The event was a merger of a binary black holes whose masses are $36^{+5}_{-4}M_{\\odot}$ and $29^{+4}_{-4}M_{\\odot}$. Such binary systems are expected to be formed in either isolated binary systems or dense stellar environments. Here we derived the binary black hole merger rate for isolated binary systems based on the nearby ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) luminosity function (LF). We obtained the binary black hole merger rate as $1.9 ({t}_{\\rm ULX}/{1 \\ \\rm Myr})^{-1} \\lambda^{-0.6} \\exp{(-0.30\\lambda)} \\ {\\rm Gpc^{-3}\\ yr^{-1}}$, where $t_{\\rm ULX}$ is the typical duration of the ULX phase and $\\lambda$ is the Eddington ratio. This is comparable to the event rate inferred from the detection of GW150914 as well as the predictions based on binary population synthesis models. Although we are currently unable to constrain $\\lambda$ due to the uncertainties of our mode...

  17. Black Hole Mergers and Gravitational Waves: Opening the New Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational waves, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. Since these mergers take place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists tried to simulate these mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. In the past several years, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will highlight these breakthroughs and the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  18. Observational signatures of binary supermassive black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations indicate that most massive galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, and theoretical studies suggest that when such galaxies have a major merger, the central black holes will form a binary and eventually coalesce. Here we discuss two spectral signatures of such binaries that may help distinguish them from ordinary active galactic nuclei. These signatures are expected when the mass ratio between the holes is not extreme and the system is fed by a circumbinary disk. One such signature is a notch in the thermal continuum that has been predicted by other authors; we point out that it should be accompanied by a spectral revival at shorter wavelengths and also discuss its dependence on binary properties such as mass, mass ratio, and separation. In particular, we note that the wavelength λ n at which the notch occurs depends on these three parameters in such a way as to make the number of systems displaying these notches ∝λn16/3; longer wavelength searches are therefore strongly favored. A second signature, first discussed here, is hard X-ray emission with a Wien-like spectrum at a characteristic temperature ∼100 keV produced by Compton cooling of the shock generated when streams from the circumbinary disk hit the accretion disks around the individual black holes. We investigate the observability of both signatures. The hard X-ray signal may be particularly valuable as it can provide an indicator of black hole merger a few decades in advance of the event.

  19. Measuring gravitational waves from binary black hole coalescences; 1, Signal to noise for inspiral, merger, and ringdown

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, E E; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Hughes, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    We estimate the expected signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) from the three phases (inspiral,merger,ringdown) of coalescing binary black holes (BBHs) for initial and advanced ground-based interferometers (LIGO/VIRGO) and for space-based interferometers (LISA). LIGO/VIRGO can do moderate SNR (a few tens), moderate accuracy studies of BBH coalescences in the mass range of a few to about 2000 solar masses; LISA can do high SNR (of order 10^4) high accuracy studies in the mass range of about 10^5 to 10^8 solar masses. BBHs might well be the first sources detected by LIGO/VIRGO: they are visible to much larger distances(up to 500 Mpc by initial interferometers) than coalescing neutron star binaries (heretofore regarded as the "bread and butter" workhorse source for LIGO/VIRGO, visible to about 30 Mpc by initial interferometers). Low-mass BBHs (up to 50 solar masses for initial LIGO interferometers; 100 for advanced; 10^6 for LISA) are best searched for via their well-understood inspiral waves; higher mass BBHs must be s...

  20. Boosted Tidal Disruption by Massive Black Hole Binaries During Galaxy Mergers - In The View of N-Body Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shuo; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are productions of the hierarchical galaxy formation model. There are many close connections between central SMBH and its host galaxy because the former plays very important roles on the formation and evolution of a galaxy. For this reason, the evolution of SMBHBs in merging galaxies is an essential problem. Since there are many discussions about SMBHB evolution in gas rich environment, we focus on the quiescent galaxy, using tidal disruption as a diagnostic tool. Our study is based on a series of numerical large particle number direct N-body simulations for dry major mergers. According to the simulation results, the evolution can be divided into three phases. In phase I, the tidal disruption rate for two well separated SMBHs in merging system has similar level to single SMBH in isolate galaxy. After two SMBHs getting close enough to form a bound binary in phase II, the disruption rate can be enhanced for ~ 2 order of magnitudes within a short time. This "boosted" dis...

  1. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black holes binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Cholis, Ilias; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-01-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of $\\sim30\\,M_\\odot$ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly eccentric orbits and can then merge on timescales that in some cases are years or less, retaining some eccentricity in the last seconds before the merger. This is to be contrasted with massive-stellar-binary, globular-cluster, or other astrophysical origins for binary black holes (BBHs) in which the orbits have very effectively circularized by the time the BBH enters the observable LIGO window. Here we discuss the features of the gravitational-wave signals that indicate this eccentricity and forecast the sensitivity of LIGO a...

  2. Tests and applications of the SXS binary black hole catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Mark; Simulations of Extreme Spacetimes (SXS) Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Numerical relativity is the only reliable method of computing the full gravitational waveform--including inspiral, merger, and ringdown--for strongly-gravitating systems like coalescing black holes, which are of foremost importance to gravitational-wave interferometers such as LIGO. We have used the Spectral Einstein Code [black-holes.org/SpEC.html] to construct a public catalog of hundreds of binary black hole simulations, for use by gravitational-wave science, and for calibration of fast analytic models of binary black-hole waveforms. We discuss the current status of the catalog, tests of the resulting waveforms, and selected applications.

  3. Numerical Relativity Simulations for Black Hole Merger Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Massive black hole mergers are perhaps the most energetic astronomical events, establishing their importance as gravitational wave sources for LISA, and also possibly leading to observable influences on their local environments. Advances in numerical relativity over the last five years have fueled the development of a rich physical understanding of general relativity's predictions for these events. Z will overview the understanding of these event emerging from numerical simulation studies. These simulations elucidate the pre-merger dynamics of the black hole binaries, the consequent gravitational waveform signatures ' and the resulting state, including its kick velocity, for the final black hole produced by the merger. Scenarios are now being considered for observing each of these aspects of the merger, involving both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy.

  4. Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and Multi-Messenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. Although numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued for many years by a host of instabilities, recent breakthroughs have conquered these problems and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, astrophysics, and testing general relativity.

  5. Massive black hole binaries in gas-rich galaxy mergers; multiple regimes of orbital decay and interplay with gas inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lucio

    2013-12-01

    We revisit the phases of the pairing and sinking of black holes (BHs) in galaxy mergers and circumnuclear discs in light of the results of recent simulations with massive BHs embedded in predominantly gaseous backgrounds. After a general overview we highlight for the first time the existence of a clear transition, for unequal mass BHs, between the regime in which the orbital decay is dominated by the conventional dynamical friction wake and one in which global disc torques associated with density waves launched by the secondary BH as well as co-orbital torques arising from gas gravitationally captured by the BH dominate and lead to faster decay. The new regime intervenes at BH binary separations of a few tens of parsecs and below, following a phase of orbital circularization driven dynamical friction. It bears some resemblance with planet migration in protoplanetary discs. While the orbital timescale is reasonably matched by the migration rate for the Type-I regime, the dominant negative torque arises near the co-rotation resonance, which is qualitatively similar to what is found in the so-called Type-III migration, the fastest migration regime identified so far for planets. This fast decay rate brings the BHs to separations of order 10-1 pc, the resolution limit of our simulations, in less than ˜107 yr in a smooth disc, while the decay timescale can increase to >108 yr in clumpy discs due to gravitational scattering with molecular clouds. Eventual gap opening at sub-pc scale separations will slow down the orbital decay subsequently. How fast the binary BH can reach the separation at which gravitational waves take over will be determined by the nature of the interaction with the circumbinary disc and the complex torques exerted the gas flowing through the edge of such disc, the subject of many recent studies. We also present a new intriguing connection between the conditions required for rapid orbital decay of massive BH binaries and those required for prominent

  6. Flip-flopping binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James

    2015-04-10

    We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes. PMID:25910104

  7. Massive Black Hole binaries in gas-rich galaxy mergers; multiple regimes of orbital decay and interplay with gas inflows

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the phases of the pairing and sinking of BHs in galaxy mergers and circunmunclear disks in light of the results of recent simulations with massive BHs embedded in predominantly gaseous backgrounds. After a general overview we discuss the importance of a fast orbital decay regime dominated by global disk torques rather than by the local dynamical friction wake. This regime can dominate at BH binary separations of a few tens of parsecs and below, following a phase of orbital circularization dominated by local dynamical friction. It is similar to Type-I migration in planetary evolution. It can bring the black holes to separations small enough for gravitational waves to take over on a timescale ranging from less than $\\sim 10^7$ yr to up to $10^8$ yr, depending on whether the interstellar medium is smooth or clumpy. Eventual gap opening at sub-pc scale separations slows down but does not interrupt the orbital decay.Subsequently, we discuss a new intriguing connection between the conditions required for...

  8. GRB 140619B: a short GRB from a binary neutron stars merger leading to the black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Muccino, M; Kovacevic, M; Izzo, L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Bianco, C L; Enderli, M; Penacchioni, A V; Pisani, G B; Wang, Y; Zaninoni, E

    2014-01-01

    Following the recent identification of the prototypical short GRB 090227B originating from a binary neutron star (NS) merger and forming a black hole (BH), we present here a new example of such sources, GRB 140619B. The time-resolved spectral analysis of the early ~0.2s of the Fermi-GBM data, allows for the identification of the characteristic features of the e^+e^- plasma at transparency (P-GRB): i.e., a thermal spectrum with an observed temperature kT=(324+/-33)keV which represents ~40% of the total source fluence. The subsequent emission, with no thermal spectrum, is identified with the prompt emission. We consequently deduce a theoretical redshift of z=2.67+/-0.37, a total burst energy E+/-=(6.03+/-0.79)x10^{52}erg, a baryon load B=(5.52+/-0.73)x10^{-5}, and a Lorentz factor at transparency Gamma=(1.08+/-0.08)x10^4. From the simulation of the prompt emission we determine the average density of the circumburst medium (CBM), n_CBM=(4.7+/-1.2)x10^{-5}cm^{-3}, typical of the galactic halo environment. These l...

  9. Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    During the final moments of a binary black hole (BH) merger, the gravitational wave (GW) luminosity of the system is greater than the combined electromagnetic (EM) output of the entire observable universe. However, the extremely weak coupling between GWs and ordinary matter makes these waves very difficult to detect directly. Fortunately, the inspirating BH system will interact strongly-on a purely Newtonian level-with any surrounding material in the host galaxy, and this matter can in turn produce unique EM signals detectable at Earth. By identifying EM counterparts to GW sources, we will be able to study the host environments of the merging BHs, in turn greatly expanding the scientific yield of a mission like LISA. Here we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the subject of EM counterparts, as well as a discussion of the theoretical and observational advances required to fully realize the scientific potential of the field.

  10. Binary black holes on a budget: Simulations using workstations

    CERN Document Server

    Marronetti, P; Brügmann, B; González, J; Hannam, M; Husa, S; Sperhake, U; Marronetti, Pedro; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bruegmann, Bernd; Gonzalez, Jose; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Binary black hole simulations have traditionally been computationally very expensive: current simulations are performed in supercomputers involving dozens if not hundreds of processors, thus systematic studies of the parameter space of binary black hole encounters still seem prohibitive with current technology. Here we present results obtained using dual processor workstations with comparable quality to those obtained using much larger computer resources. For this, we use the multi-layered refinement level code BAM, based on the moving punctures method. BAM provides grid structures composed of boxes of increasing resolution near the center of the grid. In the case of binaries, the highest resolution boxes are placed around each black hole and they track them in their orbits until the final merger when a single set of levels surrounds the black hole remnant. This is particular useful when simulating spinning black holes since the gravitational fields gradients are larger. We present simulations of binaries wit...

  11. SECULAR EVOLUTION OF BINARIES NEAR MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: FORMATION OF COMPACT BINARIES, MERGER/COLLISION PRODUCTS AND G2-LIKE OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we discuss the evolution of binaries around massive black holes (MBHs) in nuclear stellar clusters. We focus on their secular evolution due to the perturbation by the MBHs, while simplistically accounting for their collisional evolution. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbits around MBHs are strongly affected by secular processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (e.g., Kozai-Lidov cycles). During periapsis approach, dissipative processes such as tidal friction may become highly efficient, and may lead to shrinkage of a binary orbit and even to its merger. Binaries in this environment can therefore significantly change their orbital evolution due to the MBH third-body perturbative effects. Such orbital evolution may impinge on their later stellar evolution. Here we follow the secular dynamics of such binaries and its coupling to tidal evolution, as well as the stellar evolution of such binaries on longer timescales. We find that stellar binaries in the central parts of nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are highly likely to evolve into eccentric and/or short-period binaries, and become strongly interacting binaries either on the main sequence (at which point they may even merge), or through their later binary stellar evolution. The central parts of NSCs therefore catalyze the formation and evolution of strongly interacting binaries, and lead to the enhanced formation of blue stragglers, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and possible supernova progenitors. Induced mergers/collisions may also lead to the formation of G2-like cloud-like objects such as the one recently observed in the Galactic center

  12. SECULAR EVOLUTION OF BINARIES NEAR MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: FORMATION OF COMPACT BINARIES, MERGER/COLLISION PRODUCTS AND G2-LIKE OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodan, Snezana; Antonini, Fabio [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: sprodan@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: antonini@cita.utoronto.ca [Physics Department, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-02-01

    Here we discuss the evolution of binaries around massive black holes (MBHs) in nuclear stellar clusters. We focus on their secular evolution due to the perturbation by the MBHs, while simplistically accounting for their collisional evolution. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbits around MBHs are strongly affected by secular processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (e.g., Kozai-Lidov cycles). During periapsis approach, dissipative processes such as tidal friction may become highly efficient, and may lead to shrinkage of a binary orbit and even to its merger. Binaries in this environment can therefore significantly change their orbital evolution due to the MBH third-body perturbative effects. Such orbital evolution may impinge on their later stellar evolution. Here we follow the secular dynamics of such binaries and its coupling to tidal evolution, as well as the stellar evolution of such binaries on longer timescales. We find that stellar binaries in the central parts of nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are highly likely to evolve into eccentric and/or short-period binaries, and become strongly interacting binaries either on the main sequence (at which point they may even merge), or through their later binary stellar evolution. The central parts of NSCs therefore catalyze the formation and evolution of strongly interacting binaries, and lead to the enhanced formation of blue stragglers, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and possible supernova progenitors. Induced mergers/collisions may also lead to the formation of G2-like cloud-like objects such as the one recently observed in the Galactic center.

  13. Massive Binary Black Holes in the Cosmic Landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Colpi, M

    2009-01-01

    Binary black holes occupy a special place in our quest for understanding the evolution of galaxies along cosmic history. If massive black holes grow at the center of (pre-)galactic structures that experience a sequence of merger episodes, then dual black holes form as inescapable outcome of galaxy assembly. But, if the black holes reach coalescence, then they become the loudest sources of gravitational waves ever in the universe. Nature seems to provide a pathway for the formation of these exotic binaries, and a number of key questions need to be addressed: How do massive black holes pair in a merger? Depending on the properties of the underlying galaxies, do black holes always form a close Keplerian binary? If a binary forms, does hardening proceed down to the domain controlled by gravitational wave back reaction? What is the role played by gas and/or stars in braking the black holes, and on which timescale does coalescence occur? Can the black holes accrete on flight and shine during their pathway to coales...

  14. Observational signatures of binary supermassive black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, Constanze; Krolik, Julian H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Miller, M. Coleman [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Observations indicate that most massive galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, and theoretical studies suggest that when such galaxies have a major merger, the central black holes will form a binary and eventually coalesce. Here we discuss two spectral signatures of such binaries that may help distinguish them from ordinary active galactic nuclei. These signatures are expected when the mass ratio between the holes is not extreme and the system is fed by a circumbinary disk. One such signature is a notch in the thermal continuum that has been predicted by other authors; we point out that it should be accompanied by a spectral revival at shorter wavelengths and also discuss its dependence on binary properties such as mass, mass ratio, and separation. In particular, we note that the wavelength λ {sub n} at which the notch occurs depends on these three parameters in such a way as to make the number of systems displaying these notches ∝λ{sub n}{sup 16/3}; longer wavelength searches are therefore strongly favored. A second signature, first discussed here, is hard X-ray emission with a Wien-like spectrum at a characteristic temperature ∼100 keV produced by Compton cooling of the shock generated when streams from the circumbinary disk hit the accretion disks around the individual black holes. We investigate the observability of both signatures. The hard X-ray signal may be particularly valuable as it can provide an indicator of black hole merger a few decades in advance of the event.

  15. PRECESSION. Dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries with python

    OpenAIRE

    Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present the numerical code PRECESSION: a new open-source python module to study the dynamics of precessing black-hole binaries in the post-Newtonian regime. The code provides a comprehensive toolbox to (i) study the evolution of the black-hole spins along their precession cycles, (ii) perform gravitational-wave driven binary inspirals using both orbit-averaged and precession-averaged integrations, and (iii) predict the properties of the merger remnant through fitting formulae obtained from...

  16. ECCENTRIC EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent numerical simulations, it has been found that the eccentricity of supermassive black hole (SMBH)-intermediate black hole (IMBH) binaries grows toward unity through interactions with the stellar background. This increase of eccentricity reduces the merging timescale of the binary through the gravitational radiation to a value well below the Hubble time. It also gives a theoretical explanation of the existence of eccentric binaries such as that in OJ287. In self-consistent N-body simulations, this increase of eccentricity is always observed. On the other hand, the result of the scattering experiment between SMBH binaries and field stars indicated that the eccentricity dose not change significantly. This discrepancy leaves the high eccentricity of the SMBH binaries in N-body simulations unexplained. Here, we present a stellar-dynamical mechanism that drives the increase of the eccentricity of an SMBH binary with a large mass ratio. There are two key processes involved. The first one is the Kozai mechanism under a non-axisymmetric potential, which effectively randomizes the angular momenta of surrounding stars. The other is the selective ejection of stars with prograde orbits. Through these two mechanisms, field stars extract the orbital angular momentum of the SMBH binary. Our proposed mechanism causes the increase in the eccentricity of most of SMBH binaries, resulting in the rapid merger through gravitational wave radiation. Our result has given a definite solution to the 'last-parsec problem'.

  17. Inspiralling, nonprecessing, spinning black hole binary spacetime via asymptotic matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Brennan; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    We construct a new global, fully analytic, approximate spacetime which accurately describes the dynamics of nonprecessing, spinning black hole binaries during the inspiral phase of the relativistic merger process. This approximate solution of the vacuum Einstein's equations can be obtained by asymptotically matching perturbed Kerr solutions near the two black holes to a post-Newtonian metric valid far from the two black holes. This metric is then matched to a post-Minkowskian metric even farther out in the wave zone. The procedure of asymptotic matching is generalized to be valid on all spatial hypersurfaces, instead of a small group of initial hypersurfaces discussed in previous works. This metric is well suited for long term dynamical simulations of spinning black hole binary spacetimes prior to merger, such as studies of circumbinary gas accretion which requires hundreds of binary orbits.

  18. Binary black hole spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study parameter estimation with post-Newtonian (PN) gravitational waveforms for the quasi-circular, adiabatic inspiral of spinning binary compact objects. In particular, the performance of amplitude-corrected waveforms is compared with that of the more commonly used restricted waveforms, in Advanced LIGO and EGO. With restricted waveforms, the properties of the source can only be extracted from the phasing. In the case of amplitude-corrected waveforms, the spectrum encodes a wealth of additional information, which leads to dramatic improvements in parameter estimation. At distances of ∼100 Mpc, the full PN waveforms allow for high-accuracy parameter extraction for total mass up to several hundred solar masses, while with the restricted ones the errors are steep functions of mass, and accurate parameter estimation is only possible for relatively light stellar mass binaries. At the low-mass end, the inclusion of amplitude corrections reduces the error on the time of coalescence by an order of magnitude in Advanced LIGO and a factor of 5 in EGO compared to the restricted waveforms; at higher masses these differences are much larger. The individual component masses, which are very poorly determined with restricted waveforms, become measurable with high accuracy if amplitude-corrected waveforms are used, with errors as low as a few per cent in Advanced LIGO and a few tenths of a per cent in EGO. The usual spin-orbit parameter β is also poorly determined with restricted waveforms (except for low-mass systems in EGO), but the full waveforms give errors that are small compared to the largest possible value consistent with the Kerr bound. This suggests a way of finding out if one or both of the component objects violate this bound. On the other hand, we find that the spin-spin parameter σ remains poorly determined even when the full waveform is used. Generally, all errors have but a weak dependence on the magnitudes and orientations of the spins. We also briefly

  19. Radio evidence for binary super massive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekers, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    I present examples of radio AGN with binary nuclei which provide the direct radio evidence for binary Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) driving the AGN activity. There is also other evidence for distorted radio morphology and periodic variability which may indicate the presence of a second (inactive) SMBH. Finally I enumerate a number of possible radio tracers for the binary SMBH merger events.

  20. Dynamical Formation of the GW150914 Binary Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Chatterjee, Sourav; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility that GW150914, the binary black hole merger recently detected by Advanced LIGO, was formed by gravitational interactions in the core of a dense star cluster. Using models of globular clusters with detailed $N$-body dynamics and stellar evolution, we show that a typical cluster with a mass of $3\\times10^5M_{\\odot}$ to $6\\times10^5M_{\\odot}$ is optimal for forming GW150914-like binary black holes that will merge in the local universe. We identify the most likely dynamical processes for forming GW150914 in such a cluster, and we show that the detection of GW150914 is consistent with the masses and merger rates expected for binary black hole mergers from globular clusters. Our results show that dynamical processes provide a significant and well-understood pathway for forming binary black hole mergers in the local universe. Understanding the contribution of dynamics to the binary black hole merger problem is a critical step in unlocking the full potential of gravitational-wave astronomy.

  1. Possible role of magnetic reconnection in the electromagnetic counterpart of binary black hole merger

    CERN Document Server

    Fraschetti, F

    2016-01-01

    We propose a qualitative scenario to interpret the argued association between the recent direct measurement of the gravitational wave event GW150914 by LIGO-Virgo collaborations and the hard $X$-ray transient detected by Fermi-GBM $0.4$ sec after. In a binary system of two gravitationally collapsing objects with a non-vanishing electric charge, the compenetration of the two magnetospheres occurring during the coalescence, through turbulent magnetic reconnection, produces a highly collimated relativistic outflow that becomes optically thin and shines in the GBM field of view. We propose that this process should be expected as a commonplace in the future joint gravitational/electromagnetic detections.

  2. Nonspinning black hole-neutron star mergers: a model for the amplitude of gravitational waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star binary mergers display a much richer phenomenology than black hole-black hole mergers, even in the relatively simple case - considered in this paper - in which both the black hole and the neutron star are nonspinning. When the neutron star is tidally disrupted, the gravitational wave emission is radically different from the black hole-black hole case and it can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. We present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain that encompasses the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild", and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to general relativistic numerical simulations using piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. It should prove useful to extract information on the nuclear equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, and also to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron ...

  3. FAST COALESCENCE OF MASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES FROM MERGERS OF GALACTIC NUCLEI: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW-FREQUENCY GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE ASTROPHYSICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a purely stellar dynamical solution to the Final Parsec Problem. Galactic nuclei resulting from major mergers are not spherical, but show some degree of triaxiality. With N-body simulations, we show that equal-mass massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) hosted by them will continuously interact with stars on centrophilic orbits and will thus inspiral-in much less than a Hubble time-down to separations at which gravitational-wave (GW) emission is strong enough to drive them to coalescence. Such coalescences will be important sources of GWs for future space-borne detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Based on our results for equal-mass mergers, and given that the hardening rate of unequal-mass binaries is similar, we expect that LISA will see between ∼10 and ∼ few x 102 such events every year, depending on the particular massive black hole (MBH) seed model as obtained in recent studies of merger trees of galaxy and MBH co-evolution. Orbital eccentricities in the LISA band will be clearly distinguishable from zero with e ∼> 0.001-0.01.

  4. Binary black holes on a budget: simulations using workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binary black hole simulations have traditionally been computationally very expensive: current simulations are performed in supercomputers involving dozens if not hundreds of processors, thus systematic studies of the parameter space of binary black hole encounters still seem prohibitive with current technology. Here we show how the multi-layered refinement level code BAM can be used on dual processor workstations to simulate certain binary black hole systems. BAM, based on the moving punctures method, provides grid structures composed of boxes of increasing resolution near the centre of the grid. In the case of binaries, the highest resolution boxes are placed around each black hole and they track them in their orbits until the final merger when a single set of levels surrounds the black hole remnant. This is particularly useful when simulating spinning black holes since the gravitational fields gradients are larger. We present simulations of binaries with equal mass black holes with spins parallel to the binary axis and intrinsic magnitude of S/m2 = 0.75. Our results compare favourably to those of previous simulations of this particular system. We show that the moving punctures method produces stable simulations at maximum spatial resolutions up to M/160 and for durations of up to the equivalent of 20 orbital periods

  5. LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Big news: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected its first gravitational-wave signal! Not only is the detection of this signal a major technical accomplishment and an exciting confirmation of general relativity, but it also has huge implications for black-hole astrophysics.What did LIGO see?LIGO is designed to detect the ripples in space-time created by two massive objects orbiting each other. These waves can reach observable amplitudes when a binary system consisting of two especially massive objects i.e., black holes or neutron stars reach the end of their inspiral and merge.LIGO has been unsuccessfully searching for gravitational waves since its initial operations in 2002, but a recent upgrade in its design has significantly increased its sensitivity and observational range. The first official observing run of Advanced LIGO began 18 September 2015, but the instruments were up and running in engineering mode several weeks before that. And it was in this time frame before official observing even began! that LIGO spotted its first gravitational wave signal: GW150914.One of LIGOs two detection sites, located near Hanford in eastern Washington. [LIGO]The signal, detected on 14 September, 2015, provides astronomers with a remarkable amount of information about the merger that caused it. From the detection, the LIGO team has extracted the masses of the two black holes that merged, 36+5-4 and 29+4-4 solar masses, as well as the mass of the final black hole formed by the merger, ~62 solar masses. The team also determined that the merger happened roughly a billion light-years away (at a redshift of z~0.1), and the direction of the signal was localized to an area of ~600 square degrees (roughly 1% of the sky).Why is this detection a big deal?This is the firstdirect detection of gravitational waves, providing spectacular further confirmation of Einsteins theory of general relativity. But the implications of GW150914 go far beyond this

  6. Exact event horizon of a black hole merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina

    2016-08-01

    We argue that the event horizon of a binary black hole merger, in the extreme-mass-ratio limit where one of the black holes is much smaller than the other, can be described in an exact analytic way. This is done by tracing in the Schwarzschild geometry a congruence of null geodesics that approaches a null plane at infinity. Its form can be given explicitly in terms of elliptic functions, and we use it to analyze and illustrate the time-evolution of the horizon along the merger. We identify features such as the line of caustics at which light rays enter the horizon, and the critical point at which the horizons touch. We also compute several quantities that characterize these aspects of the merger.

  7. Exact Event Horizon of a Black Hole Merger

    CERN Document Server

    Emparan, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the event horizon of a binary black hole merger, in the extreme-mass-ratio limit where one of the black holes is much smaller than the other, can be described in an exact analytic way. This is done by tracing in the Schwarzschild geometry a congruence of null geodesics that approaches a null plane at infinity. Its form can be given explicitly in terms of elliptic functions, and we use it to analyze and illustrate the time-evolution of the horizon along the merger. We identify features such as the line of caustics at which light rays enter the horizon, and the critical point at which the horizons touch. We also compute several quantities that characterize these aspects of the merger.

  8. Gravitational waves from inspiralling binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binary black holes are the most promising candidate sources for the first generation of earth-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We summarize and discuss the state-of-the-art analytical techniques developed during the last few years to better describe the late dynamical evolution of binary black holes of comparable masses

  9. Decoding Mode-mixing in Black-hole Merger Ringdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal extraction of information from gravitational-wave observations of binary black-hole coalescences requires detailed knowledge of the waveforms. Current approaches for representing waveform information are based on spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition. Higher-order harmonic modes carrying a few percent of the total power output near merger can supply information critical to determining intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the binary. One obstacle to constructing a full multi-mode template of merger waveforms is the apparently complicated behavior of some of these modes; instead of settling down to a simple quasinormal frequency with decaying amplitude, some |m| = modes show periodic bumps characteristic of mode-mixing. We analyze the strongest of these modes the anomalous (3, 2) harmonic mode measured in a set of binary black-hole merger waveform simulations, and show that to leading order, they are due to a mismatch between the spherical harmonic basis used for extraction in 3D numerical relativity simulations, and the spheroidal harmonics adapted to the perturbation theory of Kerr black holes. Other causes of mode-mixing arising from gauge ambiguities and physical properties of the quasinormal ringdown modes are also considered and found to be small for the waveforms studied here.

  10. Search for Gravitational Waves from Binary Black Hole Inspiral, Merger and Ringdown in LIGO-Virgo Data from 2009-2010

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Bao, Y; Barayoga, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhadbade, T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet-Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglia, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Diaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endroczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Farr, B F; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gaspar, M E; Gelencser, G; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil-Casanova, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Gonzalez, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Griffo, C; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufman, K; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B K; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Krolak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kurdyumov, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Langley, A; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Roux, A Le; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Lhuillier, V; Li, J; Li, T G F; Lindquist, P E; Litvine, V; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Logue, J; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M; Lueck, H; Lundgren, A P; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Marka, S; Marka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menendez, D F; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Miao, H; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mori, T; Morriss, S R; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Mueller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Necula, V; Nelson, J; Neri, I; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nishizawa, A; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Oldenberg, R G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pihlaja, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Poeld, J; Postiglione, F; Poux, C; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Racz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Roberts, M; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosinska, D; Roever, C; Rowan, S; Ruediger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sankar, S; Sannibale, V; Santamaria, L; Santiago-Prieto, I; Santostasi, G; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R L; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G R; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stefszky, M; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S E; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szeifert, G; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thuering, A; Titsler, C; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrozny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2012-01-01

    We report a search for gravitational waves from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of binary black holes (BBH) with total mass between 25 and 100 solar masses, in data taken at the LIGO and Virgo observatories between July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010. The maximum sensitive distance of the detectors over this period for a (20,20) Msun coalescence was 300 Mpc. No gravitational wave signals were found. We thus report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of BBH as a function of the component masses for non-spinning components, and also evaluate the dependence of the search sensitivity on component spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We find an upper limit at 90% confidence on the coalescence rate of BBH with non-spinning components of mass between 19 and 28 Msun of 3.3 \\times 10^-7 mergers /Mpc^3 /yr.

  11. Distinguishing Between Formation Channels for Binary Black Holes with LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    The recent detections of GW150914 and GW151226 imply an abundance of stellar-mass binary-black-hole mergers in the local universe. While ground-based gravitational-wave detectors are limited to observing the final moments before a binary merges, space-based detectors, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), can observe binaries at lower orbital frequencies where such systems may still encode information about their formation histories. In particular, the orbital eccentricity of binary black holes in the LISA frequency band can be used discriminate between binaries formed in isolation in galactic fields, and those formed in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters. In this letter, we explore the differences in orbital eccentricities of binary black hole populations as they evolve through the LISA frequency band. Overall we find that there are three distinct populations of orbital eccentricities discernible by LISA. We show that, depending on gravitational-wave frequency, anywhere fro...

  12. Binary Black Hole Encounters, Gravitational Bursts and Maximum Final Spin

    CERN Document Server

    Washik, M C; Herrmann, F; Hinder, I; Shoemaker, D M; Laguna, P; Matzner, R A

    2008-01-01

    The spin of the final black hole in the coalescence of nonspinning black holes is determined by the ``residual'' orbital angular momentum of the binary. This residual momentum consists of the orbital angular momentum that the binary is not able to shed in the process of merging. We study the angular momentum radiated, the spin of the final black hole and the gravitational bursts in a series of orbits ranging from almost direct infall to numerous orbits before infall that exhibit multiple bursts of radiation in the merger process. We show that the final black hole gets a maximum spin parameter $a/M_h \\le 0.78$, and this maximum occurs for initial orbital angular momentum $L \\approx M^2_h$.

  13. Black-Hole Binaries, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the predictions of general relativity for the dynamical interactions of two black holes has been a long-standing unsolved problem in theoretical physics. Black-hole mergers are monumental astrophysical events ' releasing tremendous amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation ' and are key sources for both ground- and spacebased gravitational wave detectors. The black-hole merger dynamics and the resulting gravitational waveforms can only he calculated through numerical simulations of Einstein's equations of general relativity. For many years, numerical relativists attempting to model these mergers encountered a host of problems, causing their codes to crash after just a fraction of a binary orbit cnuld be simulated. Recently ' however, a series of dramatic advances in numerical relativity has ' for the first time, allowed stable / robust black hole merger simulations. We chronicle this remarkable progress in the rapidly maturing field of numerical relativity, and the new understanding of black-hole binary dynamics that is emerging. We also discuss important applications of these fundamental physics results to astrophysics, to gravitationalwave astronomy, and in other areas.

  14. Binary black hole late inspiral: Simulations for gravitational wave observations

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, J G; Choi, D I; Kelly, B J; Koppitz, M; McWilliams, S T; Van Meter, J R; Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Koppitz, Michael; Meter, James R. van; Williams, Sean T. Mc

    2006-01-01

    Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of General Relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for ~1200M through ~7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass ~14 cycles before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when compari...

  15. Cassini states for black hole binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Alexandre C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cassini states correspond to the equilibria of the spin axis of a body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black hole binary systems base...

  16. Precessional Instability in Binary Black Holes with Aligned Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Klein, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Sperhake, Ulrich; Trifirò, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    Binary black holes on quasicircular orbits with spins aligned with their orbital angular momentum have been test beds for analytic and numerical relativity for decades, not least because symmetry ensures that such configurations are equilibrium solutions to the spin-precession equations. In this work, we show that these solutions can be unstable when the spin of the higher-mass black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum and the spin of the lower-mass black hole is antialigned. Spins in these configurations are unstable to precession to large misalignment when the binary separation r is between the values r(ud±)=(√(χ(1))±√(qχ(2)))(4)(1-q)(-2)M, where M is the total mass, q≡m(2)/m(1) is the mass ratio, and χ(1) (χ(2)) is the dimensionless spin of the more (less) massive black hole. This instability exists for a wide range of spin magnitudes and mass ratios and can occur in the strong-field regime near the merger. We describe the origin and nature of the instability using recently developed analytical techniques to characterize fully generic spin precession. This instability provides a channel to circumvent astrophysical spin alignment at large binary separations, allowing significant spin precession prior to merger affecting both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signatures of stellar-mass and supermassive binary black holes. PMID:26551802

  17. precession: Dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries with python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We present the numerical code precession, a new open-source python module to study the dynamics of precessing black-hole binaries in the post-Newtonian regime. The code provides a comprehensive toolbox to (i) study the evolution of the black-hole spins along their precession cycles, (ii) perform gravitational-wave-driven binary inspirals using both orbit-averaged and precession-averaged integrations, and (iii) predict the properties of the merger remnant through fitting formulas obtained from numerical-relativity simulations. precession is a ready-to-use tool to add the black-hole spin dynamics to larger-scale numerical studies such as gravitational-wave parameter estimation codes, population synthesis models to predict gravitational-wave event rates, galaxy merger trees and cosmological simulations of structure formation. precession provides fast and reliable integration methods to propagate statistical samples of black-hole binaries from/to large separations where they form to/from small separations where they become detectable, thus linking gravitational-wave observations of spinning black-hole binaries to their astrophysical formation history. The code is also a useful tool to compute initial parameters for numerical-relativity simulations targeting specific precessing systems. precession can be installed from the python Package Index, and it is freely distributed under version control on github, where further documentation is provided.

  18. Dynamical Formation of the GW150914 Binary Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Haster, Carl-Johan; Chatterjee, Sourav; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility that GW150914, the binary black hole merger recently detected by Advanced LIGO, was formed by gravitational interactions in the core of a dense star cluster. Using models of globular clusters with detailed $N$-body dynamics and stellar evolution, we show that a typical cluster with a mass of $3\\times10^5M_{\\odot}$ to $6\\times10^5M_{\\odot}$ is optimal for forming GW150914-like binary black holes that will merge in the local universe. We identify the most likely dynam...

  19. Birth of Massive Black Hole Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colpi, M.; /Milan Bicocca U.; Dotti, M.; /Insubria U., Como; Mayer, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-19

    If massive black holes (BHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies and galaxies experience multiple mergers during their cosmic assembly, then BH binaries should be common albeit temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observationally, the paucity of active BH pairs points toward binary lifetimes far shorter than the Hubble time, indicating rapid inspiral of the BHs down to the domain where gravitational waves lead to their coalescence. Here, we review a series of studies on the dynamics of massive BHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers that underscore the vital role played by a cool, gaseous component in promoting the rapid formation of the BH binary. The BH binary is found to reside at the center of a massive self-gravitating nuclear disc resulting from the collision of the two gaseous discs present in the mother galaxies. Hardening by gravitational torques against gas in this grand disc is found to continue down to sub-parsec scales. The eccentricity decreases with time to zero and when the binary is circular, accretion sets in around the two BHs. When this occurs, each BH is endowed with it own small-size ({approx}< 0.01 pc) accretion disc comprising a few percent of the BH mass. Double AGN activity is expected to occur on an estimated timescale of {approx}< 1 Myr. The double nuclear point-like sources that may appear have typical separation of {approx}< 10 pc, and are likely to be embedded in the still ongoing starburst. We note that a potential threat of binary stalling, in a gaseous environment, may come from radiation and/or mechanical energy injections by the BHs. Only short-lived or sub-Eddington accretion episodes can guarantee the persistence of a dense cool gas structure around the binary necessary for continuing BH inspiral.

  20. Testing general relativity using golden black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Abhirup; Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan K; Mishra, Chandra Kant; Ajith, Parameswaran; Del Pozzo, Walter; Nichols, David A; Chen, Yanbei; Nielsen, Alex B; Berry, Christopher P L; London, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    The coalescences of stellar-mass black-hole binaries through their inspiral, merger, and ringdown are among the most promising sources for ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. If a GW signal is observed with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, the masses and spins of the black holes can be estimated from just the inspiral part of the signal. Using these estimates of the initial parameters of the binary, the mass and spin of the final black hole can be uniquely predicted making use of general-relativistic numerical simulations. In addition, the mass and spin of the final black hole can be independently estimated from the merger-ringdown part of the signal. If the binary black hole dynamics is correctly described by general relativity, these independent estimates have to be consistent with each other. We present a Bayesian implementation of such a test of general relativity, and outline the expected constraints from upcoming GW observations using the second-generation of ground-based GW detectors.

  1. Supermassive Black Hole Binaries as Galactic Blenders

    CERN Document Server

    Kandrup, H E; Terzic, B; Bohn, C L; Kandrup, Henry E.; Sideris, Ioannis V.; Terzic, Balsa; Bohn, Courtlandt L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamical implications of close supermassive black hole binaries both as an example of resonant phase mixing and as a potential explanation of inversions and other anomalous features observed in the luminosity profiles of some elliptical galaxies. The presence of a binary comprised of black holes executing nearly periodic orbits leads to the possibility of a broad resonant coupling between the black holes and various stars in the galaxy. This can result in efficient chaotic phase mixing and, in many cases, systematic increases in the energies of stars and their consequent transport towards larger radii. Allowing for the presence of a supermassive black hole binary with plausible parameter values near the center of a spherical, or nearly spherical, galaxy characterised initially by a Nuker density profile enables one to reproduce in considerable detail the central surface brightness distributions of such galaxies as NGC 3706.

  2. The effect of lensing magnification on the apparent distribution of black hole mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liang; Sigurdson, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of gravitational waves indicates that stellar-mass black hole binaries are likely to be a key population of sources for forthcoming observations. With future upgrades, ground-based detectors could detect merging black hole binaries out to cosmological distances. Gravitational wave bursts from high redshifts ($z \\gtrsim 1$) can be strongly magnified by gravitational lensing due to intervening galaxies along the line of sight. In the absence of electromagnetic counterparts, the mergers' intrinsic mass scale and redshift are degenerate with the unknown magnification factor $\\mu$. Hence, strongly magnified low-mass mergers from high redshifts appear as higher-mass mergers from lower redshifts. We assess the impact of this degeneracy on the mass-redshift distribution of observable events for generic models of binary black hole formation from normal stellar evolution, Pop III star remnants, or a primordial black hole population. We find that strong magnification ($\\mu \\gtrsim 3$) generally crea...

  3. Mergers and ejections of black holes in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aarseth, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    We report on results of fully consistent N-body simulations of globular cluster models with N = 100 000 members containing neutron stars and black holes. Using the improved `algorithmic regularization' method of Hellstrom and Mikkola for compact subsystems, the new code NBODY7 enables for the first time general relativistic coalescence to be achieved for post-Newtonian terms and realistic parameters. Following an early stage of mass segregation, a few black holes form a small dense core which usually leads to the formation of one dominant binary. The subsequent evolution by dynamical shrinkage involves the competing processes of ejection and mergers by radiation energy loss. Unless the binary is ejected, long-lived triple systems often exhibit Kozai cycles with extremely high inner eccentricity (e > 0.999) which may terminate in coalescence at a few Schwarzschild radii. A characteristic feature is that ordinary stars as well as black holes and even BH binaries are ejected with high velocities. On the basis of...

  4. A Radio Census of Binary Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Burke-Spolaor, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Using archival VLBI data for 3114 radio-luminous active galactic nuclei, we searched for binary supermassive black holes using a radio spectral index mapping technique which targets spatially resolved, double radio-emitting nuclei. Only one source was detected as a double nucleus. This result is compared with a cosmological merger rate model and interpreted in terms of (1) implications for post-merger timescales for centralisation of the two black holes, (2) implications for the possibility of "stalled" systems, and (3) the relationship of radio activity in nuclei to mergers. Our analysis suggests that the binary evolution of paired supermassive black holes (both of masses >= 1e8 Msun) spends less than 500 Myr in progression from the merging of galactic stellar cores to within the purported stalling radius for supermassive black hole pairs. The data show no evidence for an excess of stalled binary systems at small separations. We see circumstantial evidence that the relative state of radio emission between pa...

  5. ALIGNMENT OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARY ORBITS AND SPINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. Coleman [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Krolik, Julian H., E-mail: miller@astro.umd.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies of accretion onto supermassive black hole binaries suggest that much, perhaps most, of the matter eventually accretes onto one hole or the other. If so, then for binaries whose inspiral from {approx}1 pc to {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} pc is driven by interaction with external gas, both the binary orbital axis and the individual black hole spins can be reoriented by angular momentum exchange with this gas. Here we show that, unless the binary mass ratio is far from unity, the spins of the individual holes align with the binary orbital axis in a time {approx}few-100 times shorter than the binary orbital axis aligns with the angular momentum direction of the incoming circumbinary gas; the spin of the secondary aligns more rapidly than that of the primary by a factor {approx}(m{sub 1}/m{sub 2}){sup 1/2} > 1. Thus the binary acts as a stabilizing agent, so that for gas-driven systems, the black hole spins are highly likely to be aligned (or counteraligned if retrograde accretion is common) with each other and with the binary orbital axis. This alignment can significantly reduce the recoil speed resulting from subsequent black hole merger.

  6. Electromagnetic Luminosity of the Coalescence of Charged Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    The observation of a possible electromagnetic counterpart by the Fermi GBM group to the aLIGO detection of the merger of a black hole binary has spawned a number of ideas about its source. Furthermore, observations of fast radio bursts (FRBs) have similarly resulted in a range of new models that might endow black hole binaries with electromagnetic signatures. In this context, even the unlikely idea that astrophysical black holes may have significant charge is worth exploring, and here we present results from the simulation of weakly charged black holes as they orbit and merge. Our simulations suggest that a black hole binary with mass comparable to that observed in GW150914 could produce the level of electromagnetic luminosity observed by Fermi GBM ($10^{49}$ ergs/s) with a non-dimensional charge of $q \\equiv Q/M = 10^{-4}$ assuming good radiative efficiency. However even a charge such as this is difficult to imagine avoiding neutralization long enough for the binary to produce its electromagnetic counterpart...

  7. The Final Merger of Massive Black Holes: Recoils, Gravitational Waves, and Electromagnetic Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.

  8. Aligned spin neutron star-black hole mergers: a gravitational waveform amplitude model

    CERN Document Server

    Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational radiation emitted during the merger of a black hole with a neutron star is rather similar to the radiation from the merger of two black holes when the neutron star is not tidally disrupted. When tidal disruption occurs, gravitational waveforms can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. Extending previous work by some of us, here we present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain encompassing the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild" and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to 134 general-relativistic numerical simulations of binaries where the black hole spin is either aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum. All simulations were produced using the SACRA code and piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. The present model can be used to determine when black-hole binary waveforms are sufficient for gravitational-wave...

  9. Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers Detected by LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by LIGO, are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the Fermi GBM detector identified of a gamma-ray transient 0.4 s after the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 with consistent sky localization. I show that the two signals might be related if the BH binary detected by LIGO originated from two clumps in a dumbbell configuration that formed when the core of a rapidly rotating massive star collapsed. In that case, the BH binary merger was followed by a gamma-ray burst (GRB) from a jet that originated in the accretion flow around the remnant BH. A future detection of a GRB afterglow could be used to determine the redshift and precise localization of the source. A population of standard GW sirens with GRB redshifts would provide a new approach for precise measurements of cosmological distances as a function of redshift.

  10. Binary Black Holes: Spin Dynamics and Gravitational Recoil

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Frank; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of spinning black hole binaries focusing on the spin dynamics of the individual black holes as well as on the gravitational recoil acquired by the black hole produced by the merger. We consider two series of initial spin orientations away from the binary orbital plane. In one of the series, the spins are anti-aligned; for the second series, one of the spins points away from the binary along the line separating the black holes. We find a remarkable agreement between the spin dynamics predicted at 2nd post-Newtonian order and those from numerical relativity. For each configuration, we compute the kick of the final black hole. We use the kick estimates from the series with anti-aligned spins to fit the parameters in the Kidder kick formula, and verify that the recoil along the direction of the orbital angular momentum is proportional to $\\sin\\theta$ and on the orbital plane to $\\cos\\theta$, with $\\theta$ the angle between the spin directions and the orbital angular momentum.

  11. Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accrete dark energy. The accretion induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state w[z] of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. This talk describes how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy.

  12. PRECESSION. Dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries with python

    CERN Document Server

    Gerosa, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present the numerical code PRECESSION: a new open-source python module to study the dynamics of precessing black-hole binaries in the post-Newtonian regime. The code provides a comprehensive toolbox to (i) study the evolution of the black-hole spins along their precession cycles, (ii) perform gravitational-wave driven binary inspirals using both orbit-averaged and precession-averaged integrations, and (iii) predict the properties of the merger remnant through fitting formulae obtained from numerical-relativity simulations. PRECESSION is a ready-to-use tool to add the black-hole spin dynamics to larger-scale numerical studies such as gravitational-wave parameter estimation codes, population synthesis models to predict gravitational-wave event rates, galaxy merger trees and cosmological simulations of structure formation. PRECESSION provides fast and reliable integration methods to propagate statistical samples of black-hole binaries from/to large separations where they form to/from small separations where t...

  13. Hypervelocity binary stars: smoking gun of massive binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Youjun; Lin, D N C

    2007-01-01

    The hypervelocity stars recently found in the Galactic halo are expelled from the Galactic center through interactions between binary stars and the central massive black hole or between single stars and a hypothetical massive binary black hole. In this paper, we demonstrate that binary stars can be ejected out of the Galactic center with velocities up to 10^3 km/s, while preserving their integrity, through interactions with a massive binary black hole. Binary stars are unlikely to attain such high velocities via scattering by a single massive black hole or through any other mechanisms. Based on the above theoretical prediction, we propose a search for binary systems among the hypervelocity stars. Discovery of hypervelocity binary stars, even one, is a definitive evidence of the existence of a massive binary black hole in the Galactic center.

  14. Kick processes in the merger of two colliding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine numerically the process of momentum extraction by gravitational waves in the merger of two colliding black holes, in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. The initial data have already a common horizon so that the evolution covers the post-merger phase up to the final configuration of the remnant black hole. The analysis of the momentum flux carried out by gravitational waves indicates that two distinct regimes are present in the post-merger phase: (i) an initial accelerated regime, followed by (ii) a deceleration regime in which the deceleration increases rapidly towards a maximum and then decreases to zero, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. The analysis is based on the Bondi-Sachs conservation law for the total momentum of the system. We obtain the total kick velocity Vk imparted on the merged black hole during the accelerated regime (i) and the total antikick velocity Vak during the decelerated regime (ii), by evaluating the impulse of the gravitational wave flux during both regimes. The distributions of both Vk and Vak as a function of the symmetric mass ratio η satisfy a simple η-scaling law motivated by post-Newtonian analytical estimates. In the η-scaling formula the Newtonian factor is dominant in the decelerated regime, that generates Vak, contrary to the behavior in the initial accelerated regime. For an initial infalling velocity v/c≅0.462 of each individual black hole we obtain a maximum kick Vk≅6.4 km/s at η≅0.209, and a maximum antikick Vak≅109 km/s at η≅0.205. The net antikick velocity (Vak-Vk) also satisfies a similar η-scaling law with a maximum approximately 102 km/s also at η≅0.205, qualitatively consistent with results from numerical relativity simulations, and post-Newtonian evaluations of binary black hole inspirals. For larger values of the initial data parameter v/c substantial larger values of the net antikick velocity are obtained. Based on the several velocity variables obtained, we discuss a

  15. Intrinsic selection biases of ground-based gravitational wave searches for high-mass black hole-black hole mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next generation of ground-based gravitational wave detectors may detect a few mergers of comparable-mass M≅100-1000M·[''intermediate-mass'' (IMBH)] spinning black holes. Black hole spin is known to have a significant impact on the orbit, merger signal, and post-merger ringdown of any binary with non-negligible spin. In particular, the detection volume for spinning binaries depends significantly on the component black hole spins. We provide a fit to the single-detector and isotropic-network detection volume versus (total) mass and arbitrary spin for equal-mass binaries. Our analysis assumes matched filtering to all significant available waveform power (up to l=6 available for fitting, but only l≤4 significant) estimated by an array of 64 numerical simulations with component spins as large as S1,2/M2≤0.8. We provide a spin-dependent estimate of our uncertainty, up to S1,2/M2≤1. For the initial (advanced) LIGO detector, our fits are reliable for M(set-membership sign)[100,500]M· (M(set-membership sign)[100,1600]M·). In the online version of this article, we also provide fits assuming incomplete information, such as the neglect of higher-order harmonics. We briefly discuss how a strong selection bias towards aligned spins influences the interpretation of future gravitational wave detections of IMBH-IMBH mergers.

  16. Quasi periodic oscillations in black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Motta, S E

    2016-01-01

    Fast time variability is the most prominent characteristic of accreting systems and the presence of quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) is a constant in all accreting systems, from cataclysmic variables to AGNs, passing through black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries and through the enigmatic ultra-luminous X-ray sources. In this paper I will briefly review the current knowledge of QPOs in black hole X-ray binaries, mainly focussing on their observed properties, but also mentioning the most important models that have been proposed to explain the origin of QPOs over the last decades.

  17. Black Holes, Mergers, and the Entropy Budget of the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Kephart, Thomas W.; Ng, Y. Jack

    2002-01-01

    Vast amounts of entropy are produced in black hole formation, and the amount of entropy stored in supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies is now much greater than the entropy free in the rest of the universe. Either mergers involved in forming supermassive black holes are rare,or the holes must be very efficient at capturing nearly all the entropy generated in the process. We argue that this information can be used to constrain supermassive black hole production, and may eventuall...

  18. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays and Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Kotera, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of the gravitational wave source GW150914 by the LIGO collaboration motivates a speculative source for the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as a possible byproduct of the immense energies achieved in black hole mergers, provided that the black holes have spin as seems inevitable and there are relic magnetic fields and disk debris remaining from the formation of the black holes or from their accretion history. We argue that given the modest efficiency $< 0.01$ required per event per unit of gravitational wave energy release, merging black holes potentially provide an environment for accelerating cosmic rays to ultrahigh energies.

  19. Results from Binary Black Hole Simulations in Astrophysics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Present and planned gravitational wave observatories are opening a new astronomical window to the sky. A key source of gravitational waves is the merger of two black holes. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in particular, is expected to observe these events with signal-to-noise ratio's in the thousands. To fully reap the scientific benefits of these observations requires a detailed understanding, based on numerical simulations, of the predictions of General Relativity for the waveform signals. New techniques for simulating binary black hole mergers, introduced two years ago, have led to dramatic advances in applied numerical simulation work. Over the last two years, numerical relativity researchers have made tremendous strides in understanding the late stages of binary black hole mergers. Simulations have been applied to test much of the basic physics of binary black hole interactions, showing robust results for merger waveform predictions, and illuminating such phenomena as spin-precession. Calculations have shown that merging systems can be kicked at up to 2500 km/s by the thrust from asymmetric emission. Recently, long lasting simulations of ten or more orbits allow tests of post-Newtonian (PN) approximation results for radiation from the last orbits of the binary's inspiral. Already, analytic waveform models based PN techniques with incorporated information from numerical simulations may be adequate for observations with current ground based observatories. As new advances in simulations continue to rapidly improve our theoretical understanding of the systems, it seems certain that high-precision predictions will be available in time for LISA and other advanced ground-based instruments. Future gravitational wave observatories are expected to make precision.

  20. Dynamical Interactions and the Black Hole Merger Rate of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, R; Rasio, F; Leary, Ryan O'; Shaughnessy, Richard O'; Rasio, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    Binary black holes can form efficiently in dense young stellar clusters, such as the progenitors of globular clusters, via a combination of gravitational segregation and cluster evaporation. We use simple analytic arguments supported by detailed $N$-body simulations to determine how frequently black holes born in a single stellar cluster should form binaries, be ejected from the cluster, and merge through the emission of gravitational radiation. We then convolve this ``transfer function'' relating cluster formation to black hole mergers with (i) the distribution of observed cluster masses and (ii) the star formation history of the universe, assuming that a significant fraction $\\gcl$ of star formation occurs in clusters and that a significant fraction $\\gcand$ of clusters undergo this segregation and evaporation process. We predict future ground--based gravitational wave (GW) detectors could observe $\\sim 10^4 \\gcl \\gcand$ double black hole mergers per year. Under the most optimistic assumptions $(\\gcl=\\gcand...

  1. A Compact Supermassive Binary Black Hole System

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, C; Zavala, R T; Peck, A B; Pollack, L K; Romani, R W

    2006-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a supermassive binary black hole system in the radio galaxy 0402+379, with a projected separation between the two black holes of just 7.3 pc. This is the closest black hole pair yet found by more than two orders of magnitude. These results are based upon recent multi-frequency observations using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) which reveal two compact, variable, flat-spectrum, active nuclei within the elliptical host galaxy of 0402+379. Multi-epoch observations from the VLBA also provide constraints on the total mass and dynamics of the system. Low spectral resolution spectroscopy using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope indicates two velocity systems with a combined mass of the two black holes of ~1.5 x 10^8 solar masses. The two nuclei appear stationary while the jets emanating from the weaker of the two nuclei appear to move out and terminate in bright hot spots. The discovery of this system has implications for the number of close binary black holes that might be sources of gravi...

  2. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  3. Cassini states for black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Alexandre C. M.

    2016-03-01

    Cassini states correspond to the equilibria of the spin axis of a body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black hole binary systems based on a Hamiltonian formalism. In absence of dissipation, the problem is integrable and it is easy to identify all possible trajectories for the spin for a given value of the total angular momentum. As the system collapses due to radiation reaction, the Cassini states are shifted to different positions, which modifies the dynamics around them. This is why the final spin distribution may differ from the initial one. Our method provides a simple way of predicting the distribution of the spin of black hole binaries at the end of the inspiral phase.

  4. Cassini states for black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Alexandre C M

    2016-01-01

    Cassini states correspond to equilibria of the spin axis of a celestial body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black-hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black-hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black-hole binary systems based on a Hamiltonian formalism. In absence of dissipation the problem is integrable and it is easy to identify all possible trajectories for the spin for a given value of the total angular momentum. As the system collapses due to radiation reaction, the Cassini states are shifted to different positions, which modifies the dynamics around them. This is why the final spin distribution may differ from the initial one. Our method provides a simple way of predicting the distribution of the spin of black-hole binaries at th...

  5. Precession during merger 1: Strong polarization changes are observationally accessible features of strong-field gravity during binary black hole merger

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shaughnessy, R; Healy, J; Shoemaker, D

    2012-01-01

    The short gravitational wave signal from the merger of compact binaries encodes a surprising amount of information about the strong-field dynamics of merger into frequencies accessible to ground-based interferometers. In this paper we describe a previously-unknown "precession" of the peak emission direction with time, both before and after the merger, about the total angular momentum direction. We demonstrate the gravitational wave polarization encodes the orientation of this direction to the line of sight. We argue the effects of polarization can be estimated nonparametrically, directly from the gravitational wave signal as seen along one line of sight, as a slowly-varying feature on top of a rapidly-varying carrier. After merger, our results can be interpreted as a coherent excitation of quasinormal modes of different angular orders, a superposition which naturally "precesses" and modulates the line-of-sight amplitude. Recent analytic calculations have arrived at a similar geometric interpretation. We suspe...

  6. Superkicks in Hyperbolic Encounters of Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, James; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Generic inspirals and mergers of binary black holes produce beamed emission of gravitational radiation that can lead to a gravitational recoil or kick of the final black hole. The kick velocity depends on the mass ratio and spins of the binary as well as on the dynamics of the binary configuration. Studies have focused so far on the most astrophysically relevant configuration of quasi-circular inspirals, for which kicks as large as 3,300 km/s have been found. We present the first study of gravitational recoil in hyperbolic encounters. Contrary to quasi-circular configurations, in which the beamed radiation tends to average during the inspiral, radiation from hyperbolic encounters is plunge dominated, resulting in an enhancement of preferential beaming. As a consequence, it is possible to achieve kick velocities as large as 10,000 km/s.

  7. Superkicks in hyperbolic encounters of binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, James; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A

    2009-01-30

    Generic inspirals and mergers of binary black holes produce beamed emission of gravitational radiation that can lead to a gravitational recoil or kick of the final black hole. The kick velocity depends on the mass ratio and spins of the binary as well as on the dynamics of the binary configuration. Studies have focused so far on the most astrophysically relevant configuration of quasicircular inspirals, for which kicks as large as approximately 3300 km s;(-1) have been found. We present the first study of gravitational recoil in hyperbolic encounters. Contrary to quasicircular configurations, in which the beamed radiation tends to average during the inspiral, radiation from hyperbolic encounters is plunge dominated, resulting in an enhancement of preferential beaming. As a consequence, it is possible in highly relativistic scatterings to achieve kick velocities as large as 10 000 km s;(-1). PMID:19257409

  8. Binary black holes, gravitational waves, and numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centrella, Joan M [Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Baker, John G [Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Boggs, William D [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kelly, Bernard J [Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McWilliams, Sean T [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Meter, James R van [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Physics Department, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The final merger of comparable mass binary black holes produces an intense burst of gravitational radiation and is one of the strongest sources for both ground-based and space-based gravitational wave detectors. Since the merger occurs in the strong-field dynamical regime of general relativity, numerical relativity simulations of the full Einstein equations in 3-D are required to calculate the resulting gravitational dynamics and waveforms. While this problem has been pursued for more than 30 years, the numerical codes have long been plagued by various instabilities and, overall, progress was incremental. Recently, however, dramatic breakthrough have occurred, resulting in robust simulations of merging black holes. In this paper, we examine these developments and the exciting new results that are emerging.

  9. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  10. Long Term Evolution of Massive Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Milosavljevic, M; Milosavljevic, Milos; Merritt, David

    2003-01-01

    The long-term evolution of massive black hole binaries at the centers of galaxies is studied in a variety of physical regimes, with the aim of resolving the ``final parsec problem,'' i.e. how black hole binaries manage to shrink to separations at which emission of gravity waves becomes efficient. A binary ejects stars by the gravitational slingshot and carves out a loss cone in the host galaxy. Continued decay of the binary requires a refilling of the loss cone. We show that the standard treatment of loss cone refilling, derived for collisionally relaxed systems like globular clusters, can substantially underestimate the refilling rates in galactic nuclei. We derive expressions for non-equilibrium loss-cone dynamics and calculate time scales for the decay of massive black hole binaries following galaxy mergers, obtaining significantly higher decay rates than heretofore. Even in the absence of two-body relaxation, decay of binaries can persist due to repeated ejection of stars returning to the nucleus on eccen...

  11. Electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves from black hole mergers and naked singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Malafarina, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We consider the question here whether the proposed electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational wave signals in binary black hole coalescence may be due to the appearance of a `short lived' naked singularity during the merger. We point out that the change in topology that the spacetime undergoes during the merger can cause the appearance of a naked singularity. In case some matter, in the form of a small accretion disk, is present in the surroundings of the black hole system then the emitted luminosity during the merger would allow to distinguish the scenario where the naked singularity forms from the scenario where the horizon exists at all times. In fact the emitted luminosity spectrum would be much higher in the case where a naked singularity forms as opposed to the `pure' black hole case. We suggest that the presence of such a transient naked singularity will explain the high luminosity of an electromagnetic counterpart during the merger much more easily.

  12. Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    "Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."

  13. Precessional instability in binary black holes with aligned spins

    CERN Document Server

    Gerosa, Davide; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Klein, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Sperhake, Ulrich; Trifirò, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Binary black holes on quasicircular orbits with spins aligned with their orbital angular momentum have been testbeds for analytic and numerical relativity for decades, not least because symmetry ensures that such configurations are equilibrium solutions to the spin-precession equations. In this work, we show that these solutions can be unstable when the spin of the higher-mass black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum and the spin of the lower-mass black hole is anti-aligned. Spins in these configurations are unstable to precession to large misalignment when the binary separation $r$ is between the values $r_{\\rm ud\\pm}= (\\sqrt{\\chi_1} \\pm \\sqrt{q \\chi_2})^4 (1-q)^{-2} M$, where $M$ is the total mass, $q \\equiv m_2/m_1$ is the mass ratio, and $\\chi_1$ ($\\chi_2$) is the dimensionless spin of the more (less) massive black hole. This instability exists for a wide range of spin magnitudes and mass ratios and can occur in the strong-field regime near merger. We describe the origin and nature of the i...

  14. Compact Binaries in Star Clusters I - Black Hole Binaries Inside Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, J. M. B.; Benacquista, M. J.; Giersz, M.; Spurzem, R.

    2009-01-01

    We study the compact binary population in star clusters, focusing on binaries containing black holes, using a self-consistent Monte Carlo treatment of dynamics and full stellar evolution. We find that the black holes experience strong mass segregation and become centrally concentrated. In the core the black holes interact strongly with each other and black hole-black hole binaries are formed very efficiently. The strong interactions, however, also destroy or eject the black hole-black hole bi...

  15. Binary Black Holes, Numerical Relativity, and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these wave patterns. However, their computer codes have been plagued by problems that caused them to crash. This situation has changed dramatically in the past 2 years, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for these gravitational wave patterns, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LISA

  16. On the Gravitational Wave Background from Black Hole Binaries after the First LIGO Detections

    CERN Document Server

    Cholis, Ilias

    2016-01-01

    The detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary black holes by the LIGO Collaboration has opened a new window to astrophysics. With the sensitivities of ground based detectors in the coming years we can only detect the local black hole binary mergers. The integrated merger rate can instead be probed by the gravitational-wave background, the incoherent superposition of the released energy in gravitational waves during binary-black-hole coalescence. Through that, the properties of the binary black holes can be studied. In this work we show that by measuring the energy density $\\Omega_{GW}$ (in units of the cosmic critical density) of the gravitational-wave background, we can search for the rare $\\sim 100 M_{\\odot}$ massive black holes formed in the Universe. In addition, we can answer how often the least massive BHs of mass $> 3 M_{\\odot}$ form. Finally, if there are multiple channels for the formation of binary black holes and if any of them predicts a narrow mass range for the black holes, then...

  17. Merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in short-period stellar binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    We explore a newly proposed channel to create binary black holes of stellar origin. This scenario applies to massive, tight binaries where mixing induced by rotation and tides transports the products of hydrogen burning throughout the stellar envelopes. This slowly enriches the entire star with helium, preventing the build-up of an internal chemical gradient. The stars remain compact as they evolve nearly chemically homogeneously, eventually forming two black holes, which, we estimate, typically merge 4 to 11 Gyr after formation. Like other proposed channels, this evolutionary pathway suffers from significant theoretical uncertainties, but could be constrained in the near future by data from advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected merger rate over cosmic time to explore the implications and uncertainties. Our default model for this channel yields a local binary black hole merger rate of about $10$ Gpc$^{-3}$ yr$^{-1}$ at redshift $z=0$, peaking at...

  18. Aligned spin neutron star-black hole mergers: A gravitational waveform amplitude model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannarale, Francesco; Berti, Emanuele; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D.; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-10-01

    The gravitational radiation emitted during the merger of a black hole with a neutron star is rather similar to the radiation from the merger of two black holes when the neutron star is not tidally disrupted. When tidal disruption occurs, gravitational waveforms can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. Extending previous work by some of us, here we present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain encompassing the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, and "mild" and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to 134 general-relativistic numerical simulations of binaries where the black hole spin is either aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum. All simulations were produced using the SACRA code and piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. The present model can be used to determine when black-hole binary waveforms are sufficient for gravitational-wave detection, to extract information on the equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron star merger event rates, and to determine the conditions under which these systems are plausible candidates as central engines of gamma-ray bursts and macronovae/kilonovae.

  19. Gravitational waves from binary black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bala R Iyer

    2011-07-01

    It is almost a century since Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves as one of the consequences of his general theory of relativity. A brief historical overview including Chandrasekhar’s contribution to the subject is first presented. The current status of the experimental search for gravitational waves and the attendant theoretical insights into the two-body problem in general relativity arising from computations of gravitational waves from binary black holes are then broadly reviewed.

  20. Nuclear coups: dynamics of black holes in galaxy mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Van Wassenhove, Sandor; Volonteri, Marta; Dotti, Massimo; Bellovary, Jillian M; Mayer, Lucio; Governato, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    We study the dynamical evolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) in merging galaxies on scales of hundreds of kpc to 10 pc, to highlight and identify the physical processes that aid or hinder the orbital decay of BHs down to pc scale. We present hydrodynamical simulations of unequal-mass galaxy mergers ($G_1$ and $G_2$ are the larger and smaller galaxies, respectively), with a variety of orbital configurations, that bridge the gap between large-scale, low-resolution merger simulations and the small-scale, high-resolution simulations of BH-binary evolution. Our simulations resolve $<20$-pc scales in order to accurately track the motion of the nuclei and provide a realistic environment for the evolution of the BHs. We find that, during the late stages of the merger, tidal shocks inject energy in the nuclei ($N_1$ and $N_2$), causing one or both nuclei to be disrupted and leaving their BH 'naked', without any bound gas or stars. In many cases, the nucleus that is ultimately disrupted is $N_1$ ('nuclear coup...

  1. Massive black hole and gas dynamics in mergers of galaxy nuclei - II. Black hole sinking in star-forming nuclear discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Alessandro; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After $\\sim 10$ Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of $0.39$ pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass $...

  2. Lyapunov timescales and black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black hole binaries support unstable orbits at very close separations. In the simplest case of geodesics around a Schwarzschild black hole the orbits, though unstable, are regular. Under perturbation the unstable orbits can become the locus of chaos. All unstable orbits, whether regular or chaotic, can be quantified by their Lyapunov exponents. The exponents are observationally relevant since the phase of gravitational waves can decohere in a Lyapunov time. If the timescale for dissipation due to gravitational waves is shorter than the Lyapunov time, chaos will be damped and essentially unobservable. We find that the two timescales can be comparable. We emphasize that the Lyapunov exponents must only be used cautiously for several reasons: they are relative and depend on the coordinate system used, they vary from orbit to orbit, and finally they can be deceptively diluted by transient behaviour for orbits which pass in and out of unstable regions

  3. Coalescence of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shibata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of general relativistic studies for the coalescence of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS binaries. First, procedures for a solution of BH-NS binaries in quasi-equilibrium circular orbits and the numerical results, such as quasi-equilibrium sequence and mass-shedding limit, of the high-precision computation, are summarized. Then, the current status of numerical-relativity simulations for the merger of BH-NS binaries is described. We summarize our understanding for the merger and/or tidal disruption processes, the criterion for tidal disruption, the properties of the remnant formed after the tidal disruption, gravitational waveform, and gravitational-wave spectrum.

  4. Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers Detected by LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the Fermi GBM detector identified a γ-ray transient 0.4 s after the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 with consistent sky localization. I show that the two signals might be related if the BH binary detected by LIGO originated from two clumps in a dumbbell configuration that formed when the core of a rapidly rotating massive star collapsed. In that case, the BH binary merger was followed by a γ-ray burst (GRB) from a jet that originated in the accretion flow around the remnant BH. A future detection of a GRB afterglow could be used to determine the redshift and precise localization of the source. A population of standard GW sirens with GRB redshifts would provide a new approach for precise measurements of cosmological distances as a function of redshift.

  5. Inspiralling, Non-Precessing, Spinning Black Hole Binary Spacetime via Asymptotic Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, Brennan; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    We construct a new global, fully analytic, approximate spacetime which accurately describes the dynamics of non-precessing, spinning black hole binaries during the inspiral phase of the relativistic merger process. This approximate solution of the vacuum Einstein's equations can be obtained by asymptotically matching perturbed Kerr solutions near the two black holes to a post-Newtonian metric valid far from the two black holes. This metric is then matched to a post-Minkowskian metric even farther out in the wave zone. The procedure of asymptotic matching is generalized to be valid on all spatial hypersurfaces, instead of a small group of initial hypersurfaces discussed in previous works. This metric is well suited for long term dynamical simulations of spinning black hole binary spacetimes prior to merger, such as studies of circumbinary gas accretion which requires hundreds of binary orbits.

  6. Inspiralling, spinning, non-precessing binary black hole spacetime via asymptotic matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Brennan; Mundim, Bruno; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    We construct and present a new global, fully analytic, approximate spacetime which accurately describes the dynamics of non-precessing, spinning black hole binaries during the inspiral phase of the relativistic merger process. This approximate solution of the vacuum Einstein's equations can be obtained by asymptotically matching perturbed Kerr solutions near the two black holes to a post-Newtonian metric valid far from the two black holes. This metric is then matched to a post-Minkowskian metric even farther out in the wave zone. The procedure of asymptotic matching is generalized to be valid on all spatial hypersurfaces, instead of a small group of initial hypersurfaces discussed in previous works. This metric is well suited for long term dynamical simulations of spinning black hole binary spacetimes prior to merger, such as studies of circumbinary gas accretion which requires hundreds of binary orbits.

  7. Entropic force in black hole binaries and its Newtonian limits

    OpenAIRE

    van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    We give an exact solution for the static force between two black holes at the turning points in their binary motion. The results are derived by Gibbs' principle and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy applied to the apparent horizon surfaces in time-symmetric initial data. New power laws are derived for the entropy jump in mergers, while Newton's law is shown to derive from a new adiabatic variational principle for the Hilbert action in the presence of apparent horizon surfaces. In this approach, ...

  8. Measuring Massive Black Hole Binaries with LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ryan N.; Hughes, Scott A.; Cornish, Neil J.

    2009-01-01

    The coalescence of two massive black holes produces gravitational waves (GWs) which can be detected by the space-based detector LISA. By measuring these waves, LISA can determine the various parameters which characterize the source. Measurements of the black hole masses and spins will provide information about the growth of black holes and their host galaxies over time. Measurements of a source's sky position and distance may help astronomers identify an electromagnetic counterpart to the GW event. The counterpart's redshift, combined with the GW-measured luminosity distance, can then be used to measure the Hubble constant and the dark energy parameter $w$. Because the potential science output is so high, it is useful to know in advance how well LISA can measure source parameters for a wide range of binaries. We calculate expected parameter estimation errors using the well-known Fisher matrix method. Our waveform model includes the physics of spin precession, as well as subleading harmonics. When these higher-order effects are not included, strong degeneracies between some parameters cause them to be poorly determined by a GW measurement. When precession and subleading harmonics are properly included, the degeneracies are broken, reducing parameter errors by one to several orders of magnitude.

  9. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this third and final lecture, we present applications of the results of numerical relativity simulations to gravitational wave detection and astrophysics.

  10. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this first lecture, we introduce the basic ideas of numerical relativity, highlighting the challenges that arise in simulating gravitational wave sources on a computer.

  11. Astrophysics of Super-massive Black Hole Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances,...

  12. From black holes to their progenitors: A full population study in measuring black hole binary parameters from ringdown signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kamaretsos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    A perturbed black hole emits gravitational radiation, usually termed the ringdown signal, whose frequency and damping time depends on the mass and spin of the black hole. I investigate the case of a binary black hole merger resulting from two initially non-spinning black holes of various mass ratios, in quasi-circular orbits. The observed ringdown signal will be determined, among other things, by the black hole's spin-axis orientation with respect to Earth, its sky position and polarization angle - parameters which can take any values in a particular observation. I have carried out a statistical analysis of the effect of these variables, focusing on detection and measurement of the multimode ringdown signals using the reformulated European LISA mission, Next Gravitational-Wave Observatory, NGO, the third generation ground-based observatory, Einstein Telescope and the advanced era detector, aLIGO. To the extent possible I have discussed the effect of these results on plausible event rates, as well as astrophys...

  13. Using Black Hole Mergers to Explore Structure Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Munoz, E.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2009-01-01

    Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers will open a new window into the era of structure formation in the early universe. Past efforts have concentrated on calculating merger rates using different physical assumptions, resulting in merger rate estimates that span a wide range (0.1 - 10(exp 4) mergers/year). We develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model of massive black hole mergers that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters, which we then turn around to determine how well observations with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z approximately equal to 5-30 epoch. Our approach involves generating synthetic LISA observable data (total BH masses, BH mass ratios, redshifts, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, thus finding constraints for the physical parameters of the mergers. We find that our method works well at estimating merger parameters and that the number of merger events is a key discriminant among models, therefore making our method robust against observational uncertainties. Our approach can also be extended to more physically-driven models and more general problems in cosmology. This work is supported in part by the Cooperative Education Program at NASA/GSFC.

  14. Evolution of an Accretion Disk in Binary Black Hole Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Shigeo S; Toma, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We investigate evolution of an accretion disk in binary black hole (BBH) systems, the importance of which is now increasing due to its close relationship to possible electromagnetic counterparts of the gravitational waves (GWs) from mergers of BBHs. Perna et al. (2016) proposed a novel evolutionary scenario of an accretion disk in BBHs in which a disk eventually becomes "dead", i.e., the magnetorotational instability (MRI) becomes inactive. In their scenario, the dead disk survives until {\\it a few seconds before} the merger event. We improve the dead disk model and propose another scenario, taking account of effects of the tidal torque from the companion and the critical ionization degree for MRI activation more carefully. We find that the mass of the dead disk is much lower than that in the Perna's scenario. When the binary separation sufficiently becomes small, the tidal heating reactivates MRI and mass accretion onto the black hole (BH). We also find that this disk "revival" happens {\\it many years before...

  15. Black Hole Mergers as Probes of Structure Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Munoz, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole (MBH) mergers can provide us with important clues about the era of structure formation in the early universe. Previous research in this field has been limited to calculating merger rates of MBHs using different models where many assumptions are made about the specific values of physical parameters of the mergers, resulting in merger rate estimates that span 5 to 6 orders of magnitude. We develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters involved in the mergers. which we then turn around to determine how well LISA observations will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z approximately equal to 5-30 structure formation era. We do this by generating synthetic LISA observable data (masses, redshifts, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This allows us to constrain the physical parameters of the mergers.

  16. Astrophysics of super-massive black hole mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes. (paper)

  17. Astrophysics of Super-massive Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Schnittman, Jeremy D

    2013-01-01

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.

  18. Astrophysics of Super-Massive Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.

  19. Neutrinos in mergers of neutron stars with black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Michael Brett

    Mergers of a neutron star and a black hole are interesting because of the dual complexity of the black hole's strong gravity and the neutron star's nuclear-density fluid. Mergers can yield short-lived nuclear accretion disks, emitting copious neutrinos. This radiation may change the thermodynamic state of the disk itself, may drive an ultrarelativistic jet of electrons and positrons, may oscillate in its flavor content, may irradiate surrounding matter, playing a role in nucleosynthesis, and may be detected directly. In this thesis I present a model of such a merger, its remnant accretion disk, and its neutrino emission. In particular, we evolve a neutron star---black hole merger through ˜100 ms, solving the full general relativistic hydrodynamics equations, from inspiral through merger and accretion epochs. We treat the neutrinos approximately, using a leakage framework, which accounts for local energy losses and composition drift in the fluid due to escaping neutrinos. We use geodesic ray tracing on a late time slice of the model to calculate the full spatial-, angular-, and energy-dependence of the neutrino distribution function around the accretion disk. This distribution then serves in a computation of the energy available to form a jet via neutrino-antineutrino annihilation in the disk funnel. In this scenario, we find that enough energy is deposited to drive a jet of short-gamma-ray-burst-energy by neutrino processes alone.

  20. Modeling AGN outbursts from supermassive black hole binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When galaxies merge to assemble more massive galaxies, their nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs should form bound binaries. As these interact with their stellar and gaseous environments, they will become increasingly compact, culminating in inspiral and coalescence through the emission of gravitational radiation. Because galaxy mergers and interactions are also thought to fuel star formation and nuclear black hole activity, it is plausible that such binaries would lie in gas-rich environments and power active galactic nuclei (AGN. The primary difference is that these binaries have gravitational potentials that vary – through their orbital motion as well as their orbital evolution – on humanly tractable timescales, and are thus excellent candidates to give rise to coherent AGN variability in the form of outbursts and recurrent transients. Although such electromagnetic signatures would be ideally observed concomitantly with the binary’s gravitational-wave signatures, they are also likely to be discovered serendipitously in wide-field, high-cadence surveys; some may even be confused for stellar tidal disruption events. I discuss several types of possible “smoking gun” AGN signatures caused by the peculiar geometry predicted for accretion disks around SMBH binaries.

  1. Possible Short Gamma-Ray Bursts Associated with Black Hole - Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of GW 150914 suggests that double black hole (BH-BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes carries a small amount of charge, the inspiral of the BH-BH system would drive a magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. A magnetosphere would be developed, and the system would behave like a giant pulsar with increasing wind power. If the BH charge can be as large as a factor of $\\hat q \\sim 10^{-15}$ of the critical charge $Q_c$ of the BH, a detectable short-duration GRB would be generated right before the final coalescence. The GRB is supposed to have a short duration, nearly isotropic emission, and a delay with respect to the gravitational wave chirp signal. The putative short GRB coincident with GW 150914 detected with {\\em Fermi} GBM can be interpreted with this model. The detections or non-detections of such GRBs associated with future BH-BH merger gravitational wave sources would lead to constraints on the charges carried by isolate black holes.

  2. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  3. Anatomy of the binary black hole recoil: A multipolar analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schnittman, Jeremy D; van Meter, James R; Baker, John G; Boggs, William D; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T

    2007-01-01

    We present a multipolar analysis of the gravitational recoil computed in recent numerical simulations of binary black hole (BH) coalescence, for both unequal masses and non-zero, non-precessing spins. We show that multipole moments up to and including l=4 are sufficient to accurately reproduce the final recoil velocity (within ~2%) and that only a few dominant modes contribute significantly to it (within ~5%). We describe how the relative amplitudes, and more importantly, the relative phases, of these few modes control the way in which the recoil builds up throughout the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases. We also find that the numerical results can be reproduced by an ``effective Newtonian'' formula for the multipole moments obtained by replacing the radial separation in the Newtonian formulae with an effective radius computed from the numerical data. Beyond the merger, the numerical results are reproduced by a superposition of three Kerr quasi-normal modes (QNMs). Analytic formulae, obtained by expressin...

  4. Observing Massive Black-hole Binaries With A Redesigned Lisa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Sean T.

    2012-01-01

    In response to recent events in NASA and ESA, which necessitate the redesign of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) to lower its cost, we present results of a design study that evaluates the impact of various redesigns on the study of massive black-hole binaries (MBHB). As a result of the shift in sensitivity towards higher frequencies in all of the redesigns, the final merger signal will be even more critical for characterizing the coalescence of MBHBs. We assess the achievable parameter accuracy of MBHB measurements with various redesign options, and how well we expect the final design choices to perform. We include spinning mergers with higher harmonics in our calculation, which was never previously included in LISA calculations, and highlights the need to include all of the available physics in order to recover any performance lost in the redesign.

  5. Supermassive binary black holes - possible observational effects in the x-ray emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we discuss the possible observational effects in the X-ray emission from two relativistic accretion disks in a supermassive binary black hole system. For that purpose we developed a model and performed numerical simulations of the X-ray radiation from a relativistic accretion disk around a supermassive black hole, based on the ray-tracing method in the Kerr metric, and applied it to the case of the close binary supermassive black holes. Our results indicate that the broad Fe Kα line is a powerful tool for detecting such systems and studying their properties. The most favorable candidates for observational studies are the supermassive binary black holes in the galactic mergers during the phase when the orbital velocities of their components are very large and exceed several thousand kms -1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176003: Gravitation and the Large Scale Structure of the Universe i br. 176001: Astrophysical Spectroscopy of Extragalactic Objects

  6. Statistical studies of spinning black-hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the statistical distributions of the spins of generic black-hole binaries during the inspiral and merger, as well as the distributions of the remnant mass, spin, and recoil velocity. For the inspiral regime, we start with a random uniform distribution of spin directions S-vector1 and S-vector2 over the sphere and magnitudes |S-vector1/m12|=|S-vector2/m22|=0.97 for different mass ratios, where S-vectori and mi are the spin-angular momentum and mass of the ith black hole. Starting from a fiducial initial separation of Ri=50M, we perform 3.5-post-Newtonian-order evolutions down to a separation of Rf=5M, where M=m1+m2, the total mass of the system. At this final fiducial separation, we compute the angular distribution of the spins with respect to the final orbital angular momentum, L-vector. We perform 164=65 536 simulations for six mass ratios between q=1 and q=1/16 and compute the distribution of the angles L-vector·Δ-vector and L-vector·S-vector, directly related to recoil velocities and total angular momentum. We find a small but statistically significant bias of the distribution towards counteralignment of both scalar products. A post-Newtonian analysis shows that radiation-reaction-driven dissipative effects on the orbital angular momentum lead to this bias. To study the merger of black-hole binaries, we turn to full numerical techniques. In order to make use of the numerous simulations now available in the literature, we introduce empirical formulas to describe the final remnant black-hole mass, spin, and recoil velocity for merging black-hole binaries with arbitrary mass ratios and spins. Our formulas are based on the post-Newtonian scaling, to model the plunge phase, with amplitude parameters chosen by a least-squares fit of recently available fully nonlinear numerical simulations, supplemented by inspiral losses from infinity to the innermost stable circular orbit. We then evaluate those formulas for randomly chosen directions of the individual

  7. The Chemically Homogeneous Evolutionary Channel for Binary Black Hole Mergers: Rates and Properties of Gravitational-Wave Events Detectable by Advanced Ligo

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E

    2016-01-01

    We explore the predictions for detectable gravitational-wave signals from merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in massive short-period stellar binaries. We find that ~500 events per year could be detected with advanced ground-based detectors operating at full sensitivity. We analyze the distribution of detectable events, and conclude that there is a very strong preference for detecting events with nearly equal components (mass ratio >0.66 at 90% confidence in our default model) and high masses (total source-frame mass between 57 and $103\\, M_\\odot$ at 90% confidence). We consider multiple alternative variations to analyze the sensitivity to uncertainties in the evolutionary physics and cosmological parameters, and conclude that while the rates are sensitive to assumed variations, the mass distributions are robust predictions. Finally, we consider the recently reported results of the analysis of the first 16 double-coincident days of the O1 LIGO observing run, and find tha...

  8. Binary black holes in nuclei of extragalactic radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, J; Caproni, A; Fromm, C; Glück, C; Zensus, A

    2013-01-01

    If we assume that nuclei of extragalactic radio sources contain binary black hole systems, the two black holes can eject VLBI components in which case two families of different VLBI trajectories will be observed. Another important consequence of a binary black hole system is that the VLBI core is associated with one black hole, and if a VLBI component is ejected by the second black hole, one expects to be able to detect the offset of the origin of the VLBI component ejected by the black hole that is not associated with the VLBI core. The ejection of VLBI components is perturbed by the precession of the accretion disk and the motion of the black holes around the center of gravity of the binary black hole system. We modeled the ejection of the component taking into account the two pertubations and present a method to fit the coordinates of a VLBI component and to deduce the characteristics of the binary black hole system. Specifically, this is the ratio Tp/Tb where Tp is the precession period of the accretion d...

  9. Statistical constraints on binary black hole inspiral dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galley, Chad R; Herrmann, Frank; Silberholz, John; Tiglio, Manuel [Department of Physics, Center for Fundamental Physics, Center for Scientific Computation and Mathematical Modeling, Joint Space Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Guerberoff, Gustavo, E-mail: tiglio@umd.ed [Facultad de IngenierIa, Instituto de Matematica y EstadIstica, ' Prof. Ing. Rafael Laguardia' , Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2010-12-21

    We perform a statistical analysis of binary black holes in the post-Newtonian approximation by systematically sampling and evolving the parameter space of initial configurations for quasi-circular inspirals. Through a principal component analysis of spin and orbital angular momentum variables, we systematically look for uncorrelated quantities and find three of them which are highly conserved in a statistical sense, both as functions of time and with respect to variations in initial spin orientations. For example, we find a combination of spin scalar products, 2S-circumflex{sub 1{center_dot}}S-circumflex{sub 2} + (S-circumflex{sub 1{center_dot}}L-circumflex) (S-circumflex{sub 2{center_dot}}L-circumflex), that is exactly conserved in time at the considered post-Newtonian order (including spin-spin and radiative effects) for binaries with equal masses and spin magnitudes evolving in a quasi-circular inspiral. We also look for and find the variables that account for the largest variations in the problem. We present binary black hole simulations of the full Einstein equations analyzing to what extent these results might carry over to the full theory in the inspiral and merger regimes. Among other applications these results should be useful both in semi-analytical and numerical building of templates of gravitational waves for gravitational wave detectors.

  10. Statistical constraints on binary black hole inspiral dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a statistical analysis of binary black holes in the post-Newtonian approximation by systematically sampling and evolving the parameter space of initial configurations for quasi-circular inspirals. Through a principal component analysis of spin and orbital angular momentum variables, we systematically look for uncorrelated quantities and find three of them which are highly conserved in a statistical sense, both as functions of time and with respect to variations in initial spin orientations. For example, we find a combination of spin scalar products, 2S-circumflex1·S-circumflex2 + (S-circumflex1·L-circumflex) (S-circumflex2·L-circumflex), that is exactly conserved in time at the considered post-Newtonian order (including spin-spin and radiative effects) for binaries with equal masses and spin magnitudes evolving in a quasi-circular inspiral. We also look for and find the variables that account for the largest variations in the problem. We present binary black hole simulations of the full Einstein equations analyzing to what extent these results might carry over to the full theory in the inspiral and merger regimes. Among other applications these results should be useful both in semi-analytical and numerical building of templates of gravitational waves for gravitational wave detectors.

  11. Jets from black hole binaries and Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Mirabel, I.F.

    2000-01-01

    Relativistic outflows are a common phenomenon in accreting black holes. Despite the enormous differences in scale, stellar-mass black holes in binaries and supermassive black holes in Galactic Nuclei produce jets with analogous properties. In both are observed two types of relativistic outflows: 1) steady compact jets with flat-spectrum, and 2) sporadic extended jets with steep-spectrum and apparent superluminal motions. Besides, the most common class of gamma-ray bursts are afterglows from u...

  12. A simple method of constructing binary black hole initial data

    OpenAIRE

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    By applying a parabolic-hyperbolic formulation of constraint equations and superposing Kerr-Schild black holes, a simple method is introduced to initialize time evolution of binary black hole systems. In constructing the initial data no use of boundary conditions in the strong field regime is made. The proposed new method offers a direct control on the ADM parameters of the composite system, and it could also be applied to construct initial data for multiple black holes.

  13. Anatomy of the Binary Black Hole Recoil: A Multipolar Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Buonanno, Alessandra; vanMeter, James R.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.

    2007-01-01

    We present a multipolar analysis of the recoil velocity computed in recent numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescence, for both unequal masses and non-zero, non-precessing spins. We show that multipole moments up to and including 1 = 4 are sufficient to accurately reproduce the final recoil velocity (= 98%) and that only a few dominant modes contribute significantly to it (2 95%). We describe how the relative amplitude, and more importantly, the relative phase, of these few modes control the way in which the recoil builds up throughout the inspiral, merger, and ring-down phases. We also find that the numerical results can be reproduced, to a high level of accuracy, by an effective Newtonian formula for the multipole moments obtained by replacing in the Newtonian formula the radial separation with an effective radius computed from the numerical data. Beyond the merger, the numerical results are reproduced by a superposition of three Kerr quasi-normal modes. Analytic formulae, obtained by expressing the multipole moments in terms of the fundamental QNMs of a Kerr BH, are able to explain the onset and amount of '.anti-kick" for each of the simulations. Lastly, we apply this multipolar analysis to understand the remarkable difference between the amplitudes of planar and non-planar kicks for equal-mass spinning black holes.

  14. Periastron advance in black-hole binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tiec, Alexandre; Mroué, Abdul H; Barack, Leor; Buonanno, Alessandra; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Sago, Norichika; Taracchini, Andrea

    2011-09-30

    The general relativistic (Mercury-type) periastron advance is calculated here for the first time with exquisite precision in full general relativity. We use accurate numerical relativity simulations of spinless black-hole binaries with mass ratios 1/8≤m(1)/m(2)≤1 and compare with the predictions of several analytic approximation schemes. We find the effective-one-body model to be remarkably accurate and, surprisingly, so also the predictions of self-force theory [replacing m(1)/m(2)→m(1)m(2)/(m(1)+m(2))(2)]. Our results can inform a universal analytic model of the two-body dynamics, crucial for ongoing and future gravitational-wave searches. PMID:22107182

  15. Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M_BH = (4{-}20) M_\\odot) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M_BH = (10^{6}{-}10^{10}) M_\\odot) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a_* have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a_* = 0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths \\lambda \\lesssim 1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope).

  16. Tidal Disruption Events by a Massive Black Hole Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Ricarte, Angelo; Dai, Lixin; Coppi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) are a natural byproduct of galaxy mergers. Previous studies have shown that flares from stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) are modified by the presence of a secondary perturber, causing interruptions in the light curve. We study the dynamics of TDE debris in the presence of a milliparsec-separated MBHB by integrating ballistic particle orbits in the time-varying potential of the binary. We find that gaps in the light curve appear when material misses the accretion radius on its first return to pericentre. Subsequent recurrences can be decomposed into "continuous" and "delayed" components, which exhibit different behaviour. We find that this potential can substantially alter the locations of stream self-intersections. When debris is confined to the plane, we find that close encounters with the secondary BH leave noticeable signatures on the fallback rate and can result in significant accretion onto the secondary BH. Tight, equal-mass MBHBs accrete equally, periodically t...

  17. Mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Hiromichi; Gouda, Naoteru

    2016-01-01

    We present post-Newtonian $N$-body simulations on mergers of accreting stellar-mass black holes (BHs), where such general relativistic effects as the pericentre shift and gravitational wave emission are taken into consideration. To elucidate the key physics that regulates mergers of BHs, the dynamical friction and the mass accretion by ambient gas are incorporated. We consider a system composed of ten black holes with initial mass of $30~M_\\odot$. As a result, we show that mergers of accreting stellar-mass BHs are classified into four types: a gas drag-driven, an interplay-driven, a three body-driven, or an accretion-driven merger. We find that BH mergers proceed before significant mass accretion, even if the accretion rate is $\\sim10$ Eddington accretion rate, and then all BHs can merge into one heavy BH. More specifically, using the simulation results for a wide range of parameters, we derive a critical accretion rate ($\\dot{m}_{\\rm c}$), below which the BH growth is promoted faster by mergers: $\\dot{m}_{\\r...

  18. Accurate Waveforms for Non-spinning Binary Black Holes using the Effective-one-body Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Alessandra; Pan, Yi; Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; vanMeter, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Using numerical relativity as guidance and the natural flexibility of the effective-one-body (EOB) model, we extend the latter so that it can successfully match the numerical relativity waveforms of non-spinning binary black holes during the last stages of inspiral, merger and ringdown. Here, by successfully, we mean with phase differences black-hole masses. The final black-hole mass and spin predicted by the numerical simulations are used to determine the ringdown frequency and decay time of three quasi-normal-mode damped sinusoids that are attached to the EOB inspiral-(plunge) waveform at the light-ring. The accurate EOB waveforms may be employed for coherent searches of gravitational waves emitted by non-spinning coalescing binary black holes with ground-based laser-interferometer detectors.

  19. Tidal disruption events by a massive black hole binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dai, Lixin; Coppi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) are a natural byproduct of galaxy mergers. Previous studies have shown that flares from stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) are modified by the presence of a secondary perturber, causing interruptions in the light curve. We study the dynamics of TDE debris in the presence of a milliparsec-separated MBHB by integrating ballistic particle orbits in the time-varying potential of the binary. We find that gaps in the light curve appear when material misses the accretion radius on its first return to pericentre. Subsequent recurrences can be decomposed into `continuous' and `delayed' components, which exhibit different behaviour. We find that this potential can substantially alter the locations of stream self-intersections. When debris is confined to the plane, we find that close encounters with the secondary massive black hole (MBH) leave noticeable signatures on the fallback rate and can result in significant accretion on to the secondary MBH. Tight, equal-mass MBHBs accrete equally, periodically trading the infalling stream.

  20. What can we learn about black-hole formation from black-hole X-ray binaries?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.

    2004-01-01

    I discuss the effect of the formation of a black hole on a (close) binary and show some of the current constraints that the observed properties of black hole X-ray binaries put on the formation of black holes. In particular I discuss the evidence for and against asymmetric kicks imparted on the black hole at formation and find contradicting answers, as there seems to be evidence for kick for individual systems and from the Galactic $z$-distribution of black hole X-ray binaries, but not from t...

  1. The formation and gravitational-wave detection of massive stellar black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If binaries consisting of two ∼100 M☉ black holes exist, they would serve as extraordinarily powerful gravitational-wave sources, detectable to redshifts of z ∼ 2 with the advanced LIGO/Virgo ground-based detectors. Large uncertainties about the evolution of massive stars preclude definitive rate predictions for mergers of these massive black holes. We show that rates as high as hundreds of detections per year, or as low as no detections whatsoever, are both possible. It was thought that the only way to produce these massive binaries was via dynamical interactions in dense stellar systems. This view has been challenged by the recent discovery of several ≳ 150 M☉ stars in the R136 region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Current models predict that when stars of this mass leave the main sequence, their expansion is insufficient to allow common envelope evolution to efficiently reduce the orbital separation. The resulting black hole-black hole binary remains too wide to be able to coalesce within a Hubble time. If this assessment is correct, isolated very massive binaries do not evolve to be gravitational-wave sources. However, other formation channels exist. For example, the high multiplicity of massive stars, and their common formation in relatively dense stellar associations, opens up dynamical channels for massive black hole mergers (e.g., via Kozai cycles or repeated binary-single interactions). We identify key physical factors that shape the population of very massive black hole-black hole binaries. Advanced gravitational-wave detectors will provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of very massive stars.

  2. The formation and gravitational-wave detection of massive stellar black hole binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek [Astronomical Observatory, Warsaw University, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Buonanno, Alessandra [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics and Joint Space-Science Institute, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fryer, Chris L. [Computational Computer Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Holz, Daniel E. [Enrico Fermi Institute, Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Mandel, Ilya [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Miller, M. Coleman, E-mail: kbelczyn@astrouw.edu.pl [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    If binaries consisting of two ∼100 M{sub ☉} black holes exist, they would serve as extraordinarily powerful gravitational-wave sources, detectable to redshifts of z ∼ 2 with the advanced LIGO/Virgo ground-based detectors. Large uncertainties about the evolution of massive stars preclude definitive rate predictions for mergers of these massive black holes. We show that rates as high as hundreds of detections per year, or as low as no detections whatsoever, are both possible. It was thought that the only way to produce these massive binaries was via dynamical interactions in dense stellar systems. This view has been challenged by the recent discovery of several ≳ 150 M{sub ☉} stars in the R136 region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Current models predict that when stars of this mass leave the main sequence, their expansion is insufficient to allow common envelope evolution to efficiently reduce the orbital separation. The resulting black hole-black hole binary remains too wide to be able to coalesce within a Hubble time. If this assessment is correct, isolated very massive binaries do not evolve to be gravitational-wave sources. However, other formation channels exist. For example, the high multiplicity of massive stars, and their common formation in relatively dense stellar associations, opens up dynamical channels for massive black hole mergers (e.g., via Kozai cycles or repeated binary-single interactions). We identify key physical factors that shape the population of very massive black hole-black hole binaries. Advanced gravitational-wave detectors will provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of very massive stars.

  3. A simple estimate of gravitational wave memory in binary black hole systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David

    2016-09-01

    A simple estimate is given of gravitational wave memory for the inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. Here the memory is proportional to the total energy radiated and has a simple angular dependence. Estimates of this sort might be helpful as a consistency check for numerical relativity memory waveforms.

  4. A simple estimate of gravitational wave memory in binary black hole systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkle, David

    2016-01-01

    A simple estimate is given of gravitational wave memory for the inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. Here the memory is proportional to the total energy radiated and has a simple angular dependence. This estimate might be helpful in finding better numerical relativity memory waveforms.

  5. Searching for numerically simulated signals from black-hole binaries with a phenomenological template family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in numerical relativity now allows computation of the binary black-hole merger, whereas post-Newtonian and perturbative techniques can be used to model the inspiral and ringdown phases. So far, most gravitational-wave searches have made use of various post-Newtonian-inspired templates to search for signals arising from the coalescence of compact binary objects. Ajith et al have produced hybrid waveforms for non-spinning binary black-hole systems which include the three stages of the coalescence process, and constructed from them phenomenological templates which capture the features of these waveforms in a parametrized form. As a first step towards extending the present inspiral searches to higher-mass binary black-hole systems, we have used these phenomenological waveforms in a search for numerically simulated signals injected into synthetic LIGO data as part of the NINJA project.

  6. Gravitational Radiation Characteristics of Nonspinning Black-Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Barnard

    2008-01-01

    "We present a detailed descriptive analysis of the gravitational radiation from binary mergers of non-spinning black holes, based on numerical relativity simulations of systems varying from equal-mass to a 6:1 mass ratio. Our analysis covers amplitude and phase characteristics of the radiation, suggesting a unified picture of the waveforms' dominant features in terms of an implicit rotating source. applying uniformly to the full wavetrain, from inspiral through ringdown. We construct a model of the late-stage frequency evolution that fits the $\\ell = m$ modes, and identify late-time relationships between waveform frequency and amplitude. These relationships allow us to construct a predictive model for the late-time waveforms, an alternative to the common practice of modelling by a sum of quasinormal mode overtones. We demonstrate an application of this in a new effective-one-body-based analytic waveform model."

  7. Gravitational radiation characteristics of nonspinning black-hole binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, B J; Baker, J G; Boggs, W D; Centrella, J M; Meter, J R van; McWilliams, S T, E-mail: bernard.j.kelly@nasa.go, E-mail: john.g.baker@nasa.go, E-mail: william.d.boggs@nasa.go, E-mail: joan.m.centrella@nasa.go, E-mail: james.r.vanmeter@nasa.go, E-mail: sean.t.mcwilliams@nasa.go [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    We present a detailed descriptive analysis of the gravitational radiation from binary mergers of non-spinning black holes, based on numerical relativity simulations of systems varying from equal-mass to a 6:1 mass ratio. Our analysis covers amplitude and phase characteristics of the radiation, suggesting a unified picture of the waveforms' dominant features in terms of an implicit rotating source, applying uniformly to the full wavetrain, from inspiral through ringdown. We construct a model of the late-stage frequency evolution that fits the l = m modes, and identify late-time relationships between waveform frequency and amplitude. These relationships allow us to construct a predictive model for the late-time waveforms, an alternative to the common practice of modelling by a sum of quasinormal mode overtones. We demonstrate an application of this in a new effective-one-body-based analytic waveform model.

  8. Gravitational radiation characteristics of nonspinning black-hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed descriptive analysis of the gravitational radiation from binary mergers of non-spinning black holes, based on numerical relativity simulations of systems varying from equal-mass to a 6:1 mass ratio. Our analysis covers amplitude and phase characteristics of the radiation, suggesting a unified picture of the waveforms' dominant features in terms of an implicit rotating source, applying uniformly to the full wavetrain, from inspiral through ringdown. We construct a model of the late-stage frequency evolution that fits the l = m modes, and identify late-time relationships between waveform frequency and amplitude. These relationships allow us to construct a predictive model for the late-time waveforms, an alternative to the common practice of modelling by a sum of quasinormal mode overtones. We demonstrate an application of this in a new effective-one-body-based analytic waveform model.

  9. Effects of Magnetic Field Topology in Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers: Long-Term Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Mew-Bing

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term simulations of black hole-neutron star binary mergers where the neutron star possesses an asymmetric magnetic field dipole. Focusing on the scenario where the neutron star is tidally disrupted by the black hole, we track the evolution of the binary up to $\\approx 100$ms after merger. We uncover more than one episode of thermally driven winds being launched along a funnel wall in all these cases beginning from $\\approx 25$ms after merger. The emission rate of the second wind episode is found to increase with the degree of asymmetry. A large-scale poloidal magnetic field configuration is formed along the funnel wall accompanied by the generation of a large Poynting flux. The magnetic field in the accretion disk around the black hole remnant is amplified by the non-axisymmetric magneto-rotational instability. However, the asymmetry in the magnetic field leads to increased turbulence which causes the poloidal magnetic field in the accretion disk to grow largely in a non-linear manner.

  10. Hydro-without-hydro framework for simulations of black hole-neutron star binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a computational framework which avoids solving explicitly hydrodynamic equations and is suitable for studying the pre-merger evolution of black hole-neutron star binary systems. The essence of the method consists of constructing a neutron star model with a black hole companion and freezing the internal degrees of freedom of the neutron star during the course of the evolution of the spacetime geometry. We present the main ingredients of the framework, from the formulation of the problem to the appropriate computational techniques to study these binary systems. In addition, we present numerical results of the construction of initial data sets and evolutions that demonstrate the feasibility of this approach

  11. Improvements to the construction of binary black hole initial data

    CERN Document Server

    Ossokine, Serguei; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Boyle, Michael; Szilágyi, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Construction of binary black hole initial data is a prerequisite for numerical evolutions of binary black holes. This paper reports improvements to the binary black hole initial data solver in the Spectral Einstein Code, to allow robust construction of initial data for mass-ratio above 10:1, and for dimensionless black hole spins above 0.9, while improving efficiency for lower mass-ratios and spins. We implement a more flexible domain decomposition, adaptive mesh refinement and an updated method for choosing free parameters. We also introduce a new method to control and eliminate residual linear momentum in initial data for precessing systems, and demonstrate that it eliminates gravitational mode mixing during the evolution. Finally, the new code is applied to construct initial data for hyperbolic scattering and for binaries with very small separation.

  12. Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Kelleher, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accretion of dark energy induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is too long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state $w[z]$ o...

  13. On the nature of the "radio quiet" black hole binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Soleri, Paolo; Fender, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The coupling between accretion processes and ejection mechanisms in accreting black holes in binary systems can be investigated by empirical relations between the X-ray/radio and X-ray/optical-infrared luminosities. These correlations are valid over several orders of magnitude and were initially thought to be universal. However, recently, many black hole binaries have been found to produce jets that, given certain accretion-powered luminosities, are fainter than expected from the earlier corr...

  14. Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?

    OpenAIRE

    Lodato, Giuseppe; Gerosa, Davide

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters, and noting that the nonlinear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assis...

  15. Ultra-low frequency gravitational radiation from massive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, M; Rajagopal, Mohan; Romani, Roger W

    1994-01-01

    For massive black hole binaries produced in galactic mergers, we examine the possibility of inspiral induced by interaction with field stars. We model the evolution of such binaries for a range of galaxy core and binary parameters, using numerical results from the literature to compute the binary's energy and angular momentum loss rates due to stellar encounters and including the effect of back-action on the field stars. We find that only a small fraction of binary systems can merge within a Hubble time via unassisted stellar dynamics. External perturbations may, however, cause efficient inspiral. Averaging over a population of central black holes and galaxy mergers, we compute the expected background of gravitational radiation with periods Pw ~1-10y. Comparison with sensitivities from millisecond pulsar timing suggests that the strongest sources may be detectable with modest improvements to present experiments.

  16. Determining the progenitors of merging black-hole binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Kovetz, Ely D.; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias; Munoz, Julian B.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a possible method for determining the progenitors of black hole (BH) mergers observed via their gravitational wave (GW) signal. We argue that measurements of the cross-correlation of the GW events with overlapping galaxy catalogs may provide an additional tool in determining if BH mergers trace the stellar mass of the Universe, as would be expected from mergers of the endpoints of stellar evolution. If on the other hand the BHs are of primordial origin, as has been recently sug...

  17. A comparison of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with Gasoline and Ramses

    CERN Document Server

    Gabor, J M; Volonteri, Marta; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive black hole dynamics during galaxy mergers is crucial in determining the rate of black hole mergers and cosmic black hole growth. As simulations achieve higher resolution, it becomes important to assess whether the black hole dynamics is influenced by the treatment of the interstellar medium in different simulation codes. We here compare simulations of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with two codes: the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code Gasoline, and the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code Ramses. We seek to identify predictions of these models that are robust despite differences in hydrodynamic methods and implementations of sub-grid physics. We find that the general behavior is consistent between codes. Black hole accretion is minimal while the galaxies are well-separated (and even as they "fly-by" within 10 kpc at first pericenter). At late stages, when the galaxies pass within a few kpc, tidal torques drive nuclear gas inflow that triggers bursts of black hole accretion accompanied by star fo...

  18. Interim results from the ongoing hunt for supermassive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnoe, Jessie C.; Mathes, Gavin; Pennell, Alison; Brown, Stephanie Meghan; Eracleous, Michael; Boroson, Todd A.; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Halpern, Jules P.; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries seem to be an inevitable product of the prevailing galaxy evolution scenarios in which most massive galaxies play host to a central black hole and undergo a history of mergers and accretion over the course of cosmic time. The early stages of this process have been observed in the form of interacting galaxy pairs as well dual active galactic nuclei with kilo-parsec separations, but detections of the close, bound binaries that are expected to follow have proven elusive. With this motivation, we have been conducting a systematic observational search for sub-parsec separation supermassive black hole binaries. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that the secondary black hole in the system is active and the resulting broad emission lines are doppler shifted due to orbital motion in the binary (analogous to a single-line spectroscopc binary star). Our sample includes 88 binary candidates selected from z1000 km/s) of their broad Hβ emission lines relative to their systemic redshifts. I will present the latest results from the spectroscopic monitoring campaign that we are conducting to constrain the nature of the binary candidates. These include the radial velocity curves, which now use observations made through 2015, and the constraints that can be placed on the physical properties of the binary based on the radial velocity curves and observed flux variability of the binaries.

  19. Merging black hole binaries in galactic nuclei: implications for advanced-LIGO detections

    CERN Document Server

    Antonini, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of gravitational waves from the black hole binary merger GW150914, we study the dynamical evolution of black holes in galactic nuclei where massive star clusters reside. With masses of ~10^7M_Sun and sizes of only a few parsecs, nuclear star clusters are the densest stellar systems observed in the local universe and represent a robust environment where (stellar mass) black hole binaries can dynamically form, harden and merge. We show that due to their large escape speeds, nuclear star clusters can keep a large fraction of their merger remnants while also evolving rapidly enough that the holes can sink back to the central regions where they can swap in new binaries that can subsequently harden and merge. This process can repeat several times and produce black hole mergers of several tens of solar masses similar to GW150914 and up to a few hundreds of solar masses, without the need of invoking extremely low metallicity environments or implausible initial conditions. We use a se...

  20. On the origin of black hole spin in high-mass black hole binaries: Cygnus X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Axelsson, Magnus; Davies, Melvyn B; Levan, Andrew J; Ryde, Felix

    2010-01-01

    To date, there have been several detections of high-mass black hole binaries in both the Milky Way and other galaxies. For some of these, the spin parameter of the black hole has been estimated. As many of these systems are quite tight, a suggested origin of the spin is angular momentum imparted by the synchronous rotation of the black hole progenitor with its binary companion. Using Cygnus X-1, the best studied high-mass black hole binary, we investigate this possibility. We find that such an origin of the spin is not likely, and our results point rather to the spin being the result of processes during the collapse.

  1. Infalling clouds on to supermassive black hole binaries - II. Binary evolution and the final parsec problem

    CERN Document Server

    Goicovic, Felipe G; Cuadra, Jorge; Stasyszyn, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The formation of massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) is an unavoidable outcome of galaxy evolution via successive mergers. However, the mechanism that drives their orbital evolution from parsec separations down to the gravitational wave (GW) dominated regime is poorly understood and their final fate is still unclear. If such binaries are embedded in gas-rich and turbulent environments, as observed in remnants of galaxy mergers, the interaction with gas clumps (such as molecular clouds) may efficiently drive their orbital evolution. Using numerical simulations, we test this hypothesis by studying the dynamical evolution of an equal-mass, circular MBHB accreting infalling molecular clouds. We investigate different orbital configurations, modelling a total of 13 systems to explore different possible pericentre distances and relative inclinations of the cloud-binary encounter. We show that the evolution of the binary orbit is dominated by the exchange of angular momentum through gas accretion during the first sta...

  2. Gravitational wave quasinormal mode from Population III massive black hole binaries in various models of population synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kinugawa, Tomoya; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the remnant black holes after merging binary black holes, we show that ringdown gravitational waves of Population III binary black holes mergers can be detected with the rate of $5.9-500~{\\rm events~yr^{-1}}~({\\rm SFR_p}/ (10^{-2.5}~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr^{-1}~Mpc^{-3}})) \\cdot ({\\rm [f_b/(1+f_b)]/0.33})$ for various parameters and functions. This rate is estimated for the events with SNR$>8$ for the second generation gravitational wave detectors such as KAGRA. Here, ${\\rm SFR_p}$ and ${...

  3. Binary black hole circular orbits computed with COCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Tsokaros, Antonios

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present our first results of binary black hole circular orbits using {\\sc cocal}, the Compact Object CALculator. Using the 3+1 decomposition five equations are being solved under the assumptions of conformal flatness and maximal slicing. Excision is used and the appropriate apparent horizon boundary conditions are applied. The orbital velocity is determined by imposing a Schwarzschild behaviour at infinity. A sequence of equal mass black holes is obtained and its main physical characteristics are calculated.

  4. Merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in short-period stellar binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ilya; de Mink, Selma E.

    2016-05-01

    We explore a newly proposed channel to create binary black holes of stellar origin. This scenario applies to massive, tight binaries where mixing induced by rotation and tides transports the products of hydrogen burning throughout the stellar envelopes. This slowly enriches the entire star with helium, preventing the build-up of an internal chemical gradient. The stars remain compact as they evolve nearly chemically homogeneously, eventually forming two black holes, which we estimate typically merge 4-11 Gyr after formation. Like other proposed channels, this evolutionary pathway suffers from significant theoretical uncertainties, but could be constrained in the near future by data from advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected merger rate over cosmic time to explore the implications and uncertainties. Our default model for this channel yields a local binary black hole merger rate of about 10 Gpc-3 yr-1 at redshift z = 0, peaking at twice this rate at z = 0.5. This means that this channel is competitive, in terms of expected rates, with the conventional formation scenarios that involve a common-envelope phase during isolated binary evolution or dynamical interaction in a dense cluster. The events from this channel may be distinguished by the preference for nearly equal-mass components and high masses, with typical total masses between 50 and 110 M⊙. Unlike the conventional isolated binary evolution scenario that involves shrinkage of the orbit during a common-envelope phase, short time delays are unlikely for this channel, implying that we do not expect mergers at high redshift.

  5. Line Shapes Emitted from Spiral Structures around Symmetric Orbits of Supermassive Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Smailagić, Marijana

    2016-01-01

    Variability of active galactic nuclei is not well understood. One possible explanation is existence of supermassive binary black holes (SMBBH) in their centres. It is expected that major mergers are common in the Universe. It is expected that each supermassive black hole of every galaxy eventually finish as a SMBBH system in the core of newly formed galaxy. Here we model the emission line profiles of active galactic nuclei (AGN) assuming that the flux and emission line shapes variation are induced by supermassive binary black hole systems (SMBBH). We assume that accreting gas inside of circumbinary (CB) disk is photo ionized by mini accretion disk emission around each SMBBH. We calculate variations of emission line flux, shifts and shapes for different parameters of SMBBH orbits. We consider cases with different masses and inclinations for circular orbits and measure the effect to the shape of emission line profiles and flux variability.

  6. Line Shapes Emitted from Spiral Structures around Symmetric Orbits of Supermassive Binary Black Holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Smailagić; E. Bon

    2015-12-01

    Variability of active galactic nuclei is not well understood. One possible explanation is existence of supermassive binary black holes (SMBBH) in their centres. It is expected that major mergers are common in the Universe. It is expected that each supermassive black hole of every galaxy eventually finish as a SMBBH system in the core of newly formed galaxy. Here we model the emission line profiles of active galactic nuclei (AGN) assuming that the flux and emission line shape variations are induced by supermassive binary black hole systems (SMBBH). We assume that the accreting gas inside the circumbinary (CB) disk is photo ionized by mini accretion disk emission around each SMBBH. We calculate variations of emission line flux, shifts and shapes for different parameters of SMBBH orbits. We consider cases with different masses and inclinations for circular orbits and measure the effect to the shape of emission line profiles and flux variability.

  7. Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, Giuseppe; Gerosa, Davide

    2013-02-01

    In this Letter, we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters and noting that the non-linear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assisted spin alignment. We test our predictions with a Monte Carlo realization of random misalignments and accretion rates, and we find that the outcome depends strongly on the spin magnitude. We estimate a generous upper limit to the probability of alignment by making assumptions which favour it throughout. Even with these assumptions, about 40 per cent of black holes with a ≳ 0.5 do not have time to align with the disc. If the residual misalignment is not small and it is maintained down to the final coalescence phase, this can give a powerful recoil velocity to the merged hole. Highly spinning black holes are thus more likely being subject to strong recoils, the occurrence of which is currently debated.

  8. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circumbinary accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Context. We explore the hardening of a massive black hole binary embedded in a circumbinary gas disc under a specific circumstance: when the binary and the gas are coplanar and the gas is counter-rotating. The binary has unequal mass and the interaction of the gas with the lighter secondary black hole is the main cause of the braking torque on the binary that shrinks with time. The secondary black hole, revolving in the direction opposite to the gas, experiences a drag from gas-dynamical friction and from direct accretion of part of it. Aims: In this paper, using two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical grid simulations we investigate the effect of changing the accretion prescriptions on the dynamics of the secondary black hole, which in turn affect the binary hardening and eccentricity evolution. Methods: We find that realistic accretion prescriptions lead to results that differ from those inferred assuming accretion of all the gas within the Roche Lobe of the secondary black hole. Results: When considering gas accretion within the gravitational influence radius of the secondary black hole (which is smaller than the Roche Lobe radius) to better describe gas inflows, the shrinking of the binary is slower. In addition, in this case, a smaller amount of accreted mass is required to reduce the binary separation by the same amount. Different accretion prescriptions result in different discs' surface densities, which alter the black hole's dynamics back. Full 3D Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics realizations of a number of representative cases, run over a shorter interval of time, validate the general trends observed in the less computationally demanding 2D simulations. Conclusions: Initially circular black hole binaries increase their eccentricity only slightly, which then oscillates around small values (<0.1) while they harden. By contrast, initially eccentric binaries become more and more eccentric. A semi-analytical model describing the black hole's dynamics under

  9. Spinning, Precessing, Black Hole Binary Spacetime via Asymptotic Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela; West, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss a method to construct a global, analytic, approximate spacetime for precessing, spinning binary black holes. The spacetime construction is broken into three parts: the inner zones are the spacetimes close to each black hole, and are approximated by perturbed Kerr solutions; the near zone is far from the two black holes, and described by the post-Newtonian metric; and finally the wave (far) zone, where retardation effects need to be taken into account, is well modeled by the post-Minkowskian metric. These individual spacetimes are then stitched together using asymptotic matching techniques to obtain a global solution that approximately satisfies the Einstein field equations. Precession effects are introduced by rotating the black hole spin direction according to the precessing equations of motion, in a way that is consistent with the global spacetime construction.

  10. Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Black Hole MACHO Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Thorne, K S; Nakamura, Takashi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro; Thorne, Kip S.

    1997-01-01

    If MACHOs are black holes of mass about 0.5 solar mass, they must have been formed in the early universe when the temperature was about 1 GeV. We estimate that in this case in our galaxy's halo out to about 50kpc there exist about half billion black hole binaries whose coalescence times are comparable to the age of the universe, so that the coalescence rate will be about five hundredth events/year/galaxy. This suggests that we can expect a few events/year within 15Mpc. The gravitational waves from such coalescing black hole MACHOs can be detected by the first generation of interferometers in the LIGO/VIRGO/TAMA/GEO network. Therefore, the existence of black hole MACHOs can be tested within the next five years by gravitational waves.

  11. Bright Transients from Black Hole - Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazio, Daniel J; Murray, Norman W; Price, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Direct detection of black hole-neutron star (BHNS) pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet BHNS star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the X-ray to gamma-rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from $10^{12}$G to $10^{16}$G respectively and a $10M_{\\odot}$ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the NS magnetic field strength, and may be observa...

  12. Gravitational Wave Driven Mergers and Coalescence Time of Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) initially embedded in the centers of merging galaxies is studied from the onset of galaxy mergers till coalescence. We performed direct N-body simulations using the highly efficient and massively parallel phi-GPU code capable to run on GPU supported high performance computer clusters. Post-Newtonian terms up to order 3.5 are used to drive the SMBH binary evolution in the relativistic regime. We find that SMBH binaries coalesce well within one billion year when our models are scaled to dense cuspy galaxies at low redshift. Here higher central densities provide larger supply of stars to efficiently extract energy from the SMBH binary orbit and shrink it to the phase where gravitational wave (GW) emission becomes dominant leading to the coalescence of the SMBHs. On the other hand, mergers of models that are representative of giant elliptical galaxies having central cores result in less efficient extraction of binary's orbit energy due to the lower stellar densities in the center. However, high value of eccentricities witnessed for SMBH binaries in such galaxy mergers ensure that the GW emission dominated phase sets in at larger values of the semi-major axis. This helps to compensate for the less efficient energy extraction during the phase dominated by stellar encounters resulting in mergers of SMBHs in about one billion years after the formation of binary.

  13. General relativistic simulations of black hole-neutron star mergers: Effects of tilted magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Zachariah B.; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2012-01-01

    Black hole--neutron star (BHNS) binary mergers can form disks in which magnetorotational instability (MRI)-induced turbulence may drive accretion onto the remnant BH, supporting relativistic jets and providing the engine for a short-hard gamma-ray burst (SGRB). Our earlier study of magnetized BHNSs showed that NS tidal disruption winds the magnetic field into a toroidal configuration, with poloidal fields so weak that capturing MRI with full-disk simulations would require $\\sim 10^8$ CPU-hour...

  14. Hydrodynamics of galaxy mergers with supermassive black holes: is there a last parsec problem ?

    OpenAIRE

    Chapon, D.; Mayer, L.; Teyssier, R.

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary and the shrinking of the separation of the two holes to sub-parsec scales starting from a realistic major merger between two gas-rich spiral galaxies with mass comparable to our Milky Way. The simulations, carried out with the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code RAMSES, are capable of resolving separations as small as 0.1 pc. The collision of the two galaxies produces a gravoturbulent rotating nuclear disc with mass (˜109 M⊙) a...

  15. Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays and Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Kumiko; Silk, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The recent detection of the gravitational-wave source GW150914 by the LIGO collaboration motivates a speculative source for the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as a possible byproduct of the immense energies achieved in black hole (BH) mergers, provided that the BHs have spin, as seems inevitable, and there are relic magnetic fields and disk debris remaining from the formation of the BHs or from their accretion history. We argue that given the modest efficiency \\lt 0.01 required per event per unit of gravitational-wave energy release, merging BHs potentially provide an environment for accelerating cosmic rays to ultrahigh energies. The presence of tidally disrupted planetary or asteroidal debris could lead to associated fast radio bursts.

  16. Dynamical excision boundaries in spectral evolutions of binary black hole spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations of binary black hole systems using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) are done on a computational domain that excises the regions inside the black holes. It is imperative that the excision boundaries are outflow boundaries with respect to the hyperbolic evolution equations used in the simulation. We employ a time-dependent mapping between the fixed computational frame and the inertial frame through which the black holes move. The time-dependent parameters of the mapping are adjusted throughout the simulation by a feedback control system in order to follow the motion of the black holes, to adjust the shape and size of the excision surfaces so that they remain outflow boundaries, and to prevent large distortions of the grid. We describe in detail the mappings and control systems that we use. We show how these techniques have been essential in the evolution of binary black hole systems with extreme configurations, such as large spin magnitudes and high mass ratios, especially during the merger, when apparent horizons are highly distorted and the computational domain becomes compressed. The techniques introduced here may be useful in other applications of partial differential equations that involve time-dependent mappings. (paper)

  17. Unstable flip-flopping spinning binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O.; Healy, James

    2016-06-01

    We provide a unified description of the flip-flop and the antialignment instability effects in spinning black hole binaries in terms of real and imaginary flip-flop frequencies. We find that this instability is only effective for mass ratios 0.5 binary black holes and it is relevant for their astrophysical modeling and final recoil computations.

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of stellar mass black-hole mergers in our local universe with ground-based gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwat, Swetha; Ballmer, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent discoveries of binary black-hole mergers by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO), we investigate the prospects of ground-based detectors to perform a spectroscopic analysis of signals emitted during the ringdown of the final Kerr black-hole formed by a stellar mass binary black-hole merger. Although it is unlikely that Advanced LIGO can measure multiple modes of the ringdown, assuming an optimistic rate of 240 Gpc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$, upgrades to the existing LIGO detectors could measure multiple ringdown modes in $\\sim$6 detections per year. New ground-based facilities such as Einstein Telescope or Cosmic Explorer could measure multiple ringdown modes in over 300 events per year. We perform Monte-Carlo injections of $10^{6}$ binary black-hole mergers in a search volume defined by a sphere of radius 1500 Mpc centered at the detector, for various proposed ground-based detector models. We assume a uniform random distribution in component masses of ...

  19. Comparing gravitational waves from nonprecessing and precessing black hole binaries in the corotating frame

    CERN Document Server

    Pekowsky, Larne; Healy, Jim; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    Previous analytic and numerical calculations suggest that, at each instant, the emission from a precessing black hole binary closely resembles the emission from a nonprecessing analog. In this paper we quantitatively explore the validity and limitations of that correspondence, extracting the radiation from a large collection of roughly two hundred generic black hole binary merger simulations both in the simulation frame and in a corotating frame that tracks precession. To a first approximation, the corotating-frame waveforms resemble nonprecessing analogs, based on similarity over a band-limited frequency interval defined using a fiducial detector (here, advanced LIGO) and the source's total mass $M$. By restricting attention to masses $M\\in 200, 2500 M_\\odot$, we insure our comparisons are sensitive only to our simulated late-time inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals. In this mass region, every one of our precessing simulations can be fit by some physically similar member of the \\texttt{IMRPhenomB} phenome...

  20. Black-hole horizons as probes of black-hole dynamics I: post-merger recoil in head-on collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Jaramillo, José Luis; Moesta, Philipp; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of strong-field dynamics near black-hole horizons is a long-standing and challenging problem in general relativity. Recent advances in numerical relativity and in the geometric characterization of black-hole horizons open new avenues into the problem. In this first paper in a series of two, we focus on the analysis of the recoil occurring in the merger of binary black holes, extending the analysis initiated in [1] with Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. More specifically, we probe spacetime dynamics through the correlation of quantities defined at the black-hole horizon and at null infinity. The geometry of these hypersurfaces responds to bulk gravitational fields acting as test screens in a scattering perspective of spacetime dynamics. Within a 3+1 approach we build an effective-curvature vector from the intrinsic geometry of dynamical-horizon sections and correlate its evolution with the flux of Bondi linear momentum at large distances. We employ this setup to study numerically the head-on coll...

  1. Multi-messenger approaches to binary supermassive black holes in the ‘continuous-wave’ regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsar timing arrays are sensitive to gravitational waves from supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries at orbital separations of ≪1 pc. There is currently an observational paucity of such systems, although they are central figures in studies of galaxy evolution, merger dynamics, and active nucleus formation. We review the prospects of detecting SMBH binaries through electromagnetic radiative processes thought to be associated with galaxy mergers and late-stage binary evolution. We then discuss the scientific goals of joint pulsar timing and electromagnetic studies of these systems, including the facilitation of binary parameter estimation, identifying galactic hosts of gravitational wave emitters, and relevant studies of merger dynamics and cosmology. The use of upcoming high-precision timing arrays with the International pulsar timing array and the square kilometre array, combined with ongoing electromagnetic observing campaigns to identify active SMBH binaries, provide generous possibilities for multi-messenger astrophysics in the near future. (paper)

  2. Binary Black Holes, Accretion Disks and Relativistic Jets: Photocenters of Nearby AGN and Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrle, Ann E.; Jones, Dayton L.; Meier, David L.; Piner, B. Glenn; Unwin, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most challenging questions in astronomy today is to understand the origin, structure, and evolution of the central engines in the nuclei of quasars and active galaxies (AGNs). The favoured theory involves the activation of relativistic jets from the fueling of a supermassive black hole through an accretion disk. In some AGN an outer optically thick, dusty torus is seen orbiting the black hole system. This torus is probably related to an inner accretion disk - black hole system that forms the actual powerhouse of the AGN. In radio-loud AGN two oppositely-directed radio jets are ejected perpendicular to the torus/disk system. Although there is a wealth of observational data on AGN, some very basic questions have not been definitively answered. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will address the following three key questions about AGN. 1) Does the most compact optical emission from an AGN come from an accretion disk or from a relativistic jet? 2) Does the separation of the radio core and optical photocenter of the quasars used for the reference frame tie, change on the timescales of their photometric variability, or is the separation stable at the level of a few microarcseconds? 3) Do the cores of galaxies harbor binary supermassive black holes remaining from galaxy mergers? It is not known whether such mergers are common, and whether binaries would persist for a significant time.

  3. Gravitational waves from nonspinning black hole-neutron star binaries: dependence on equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    We report results of a numerical-relativity simulation for the merger of a black hole-neutron star binary with a variety of equations of state (EOSs) modeled by piecewise polytropes. We focus in particular on the dependence of the gravitational waveform at the merger stage on the EOSs. The initial conditions are computed in the moving-puncture framework, assuming that the black hole is nonspinning and the neutron star has an irrotational velocity field. For a small mass ratio of the binaries (e.g., MBH/MNS = 2 where MBH and MNS are the masses of the black hole and neutron star, respectively), the neutron star is tidally disrupted before it is swallowed by the black hole irrespective of the EOS. Especially for less-compact neutron stars, the tidal disruption occurs at a more distant orbit. The tidal disruption is reflected in a cutoff frequency of the gravitational-wave spectrum, above which the spectrum amplitude exponentially decreases. A clear relation is found between the cutoff frequency of the gravitatio...

  4. GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calderón; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R T; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; 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    2016-04-01

    The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses ≳30M_{⊙}, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, could be higher than previously expected. Using the properties of GW150914, we estimate the energy density of such a background from binary black holes. In the most sensitive part of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo band for stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict Ω_{GW}(f=25  Hz)=1.1_{-0.9}^{+2.7}×10^{-9} with 90% confidence. This prediction is robustly demonstrated for a variety of formation scenarios with different parameters. The differences between models are small compared to the statistical uncertainty arising from the currently poorly constrained local coalescence rate. We conclude that this background is potentially measurable by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors operating at their projected final sensitivity. PMID:27081965

  5. GW150914: Implications for the stochastic gravitational wave background from binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses $\\gtrsim 30\\, \\text{M}_\\odot$, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, could be higher than previously expected. Using the properties of GW150914, we estimate the energy density of such a background from binary black holes. In the most sensitive part of the Advanced LIGO/Virgo band for stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict $\\Omega_\\text{GW}(f=25 Hz) = 1.1_{-0.9}^{+2.7} \\times 10^{-9}$ with 90\\% confidence. This prediction is robustly demonstrated for a variety of formation scenarios with different parameters. The differences between models are small compared to the statistical uncertainty arising from the currently poorly constrained local coalescence rate. We co...

  6. GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. 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S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Haris, K.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses ≳30 M⊙, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, could be higher than previously expected. Using the properties of GW150914, we estimate the energy density of such a background from binary black holes. In the most sensitive part of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo band for stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict ΩGW(f =25 Hz )=1. 1-0.9+2.7×10-9 with 90% confidence. This prediction is robustly demonstrated for a variety of formation scenarios with different parameters. The differences between models are small compared to the statistical uncertainty arising from the currently poorly constrained local coalescence rate. We conclude that this background is potentially measurable by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors operating at their projected final sensitivity.

  7. Swift Coalescence of Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Mergers of Massive Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Fiacconi, Davide; Mayer, Lucio; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies with a sizable mass. It is expected that a pair of SMBHs originally in the nuclei of two merging galaxies would form a binary and eventually coalesce via a burst of gravitational waves. So far, theoretical models and simulations, focusing only on limited phases of the orbital decay of SMBHs under idealized conditions of the galaxy hosts, have been unable to directly predict the SMBH merger timescale from ab-initio galaxy formation theory. The predicted SMBH merger timescales are long, of order Gyrs, which could be problematic for future gravitational wave (GW) searches. Here, we present the first multi-scale ΛCDM cosmological simulation that follows the orbital decay of a pair of SMBHs in a merger of two typical massive galaxies at z∼ 3, all the way to the final coalescence driven by GW emission. The two SMBHs, with masses ∼ {10}8 {M}ȯ , settle quickly in the nucleus of the merger remnant. The remnant is triaxial and extremely dense due to the dissipative nature of the merger and the intrinsic compactness of galaxies at high redshift. Such properties naturally allow a very efficient hardening of the SMBH binary. The SMBH merger occurs in only ∼10 Myr after the galactic cores have merged, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the Hubble time.

  8. Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?

    CERN Document Server

    Lodato, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters, and noting that the nonlinear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assisted spin alignment. We test our predictions with a Monte Carlo realization of random misalignments and accretion rates and we find that the outcome depends strongly on the spin magnitude. We estimate a generous upper limit to the probability of alignment by making assumptions which favour it throughout. Even with these assumptions, about 40% of black holes with $a \\gtrsim 0.5$ do not have time to align with the disc. If the residual misalignment is not small and it is maintained down to the final coalescence phase this ca...

  9. Music from the heavens - Gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilising the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a ΛCDM cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger timescale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.

  10. Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can We "See" what LISA will "Hear"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of massive black holes produces strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. If the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We will review current efforts to simulate these systems, and discuss possibilities for observing the electromagnetic signals they produce.

  11. The Role of Primordial Kicks on Black Hole Merger Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Micic, Miroslav; Abel, Tom; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2006-01-01

    Primordial stars are likely to be very massive >30 Msun, form in isolation, and will likely leave black holes as remnants in the centers of their host dark matter halos. We expect primordial stars to form in halos in the mass range 10^6-10^10 Msun. Some of these early black holes, formed at redshifts z>10, could be the seed black hole for a significant fraction of the supermassive black holes found in galaxies in the local universe. If the black hole descendants of the primordial stars exist,...

  12. Dynamic fisheye grids for binary black hole simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new warped gridding scheme adapted to simulating gas dynamics in binary black hole spacetimes. The grid concentrates grid points in the vicinity of each black hole to resolve the smaller scale structures there, and rarefies grid points away from each black hole to keep the overall problem size at a practical level. In this respect, our system can be thought of as a ‘double’ version of the fisheye coordinate system, used before in numerical relativity codes for evolving binary black holes. The gridding scheme is constructed as a mapping between a uniform coordinate system—in which the equations of motion are solved—to the distorted system representing the spatial locations of our grid points. Since we are motivated to eventually use this system for circumbinary disc calculations, we demonstrate how the distorted system can be constructed to asymptote to the typical spherical polar coordinate system, amenable to efficiently simulating orbiting gas flows about central objects with little numerical diffusion. We discuss its implementation in the Harm3d code, tailored to evolve the magnetohydrodynamics equations in curved spacetimes. We evaluate the performance of the system’s implementation in Harm3d with a series of tests, such as the advected magnetic field loop test, magnetized Bondi accretion, and evolutions of hydrodynamic discs about a single black hole and about a binary black hole. Like we have done with Harm3d, this gridding scheme can be implemented in other unigrid codes as a (possibly) simpler alternative to adaptive mesh refinement. (paper)

  13. The Effect of Pair-Instability Mass Loss on Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Belczynski, K; Gladysz, W; Ruiter, A J; Woosley, S; Wiktorowicz, G; Chen, H -Y; Bulik, T; O'Shaughnesy, R; Holz, D E; Fryer, C L; Berti, E

    2016-01-01

    Mergers of two stellar origin black holes are a prime source of gravitational waves and are under intensive investigations. One crucial ingredient in their modeling has so far been neglected. Pair-instability pulsation supernovae with associated severe mass loss may suppress formation of massive black holes, decreasing black hole merger rates for the highest black hole masses. The mass loss associated with pair-instability pulsation supernovae limits the Population I/II stellar-origin black hole mass to 50 Msun, in tension with earlier predictions that the maximum black hole mass could be as high as 100 Msun. Suppression of double black hole merger rates by pair-instability pulsation supernovae is negligible for our evolutionary channel. Our standard evolutionary model with inclusion of pair-instability pulsation supernovae and with pair-instability supernovae is fully consistent with the LIGO detections of black hole mergers: GW150914, GW151226 and LVT151012. The LIGO observations seem to exclude high (>400 ...

  14. Gravitational Radiation of Binaries Coalescence into Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾; 仲元红; 潘宇

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the gravitation waveforms of binaries coalescence into intermediate mass black holes (about 30 times of the solar mass). We focus on the non-spinning intermediate mass black hole located less than 100 Mpc from earth. By comparing two simulation waveforms (effective one body numerical relativity waveform (EOBNR), phenomenological waveform), we discuss the relationship between the effective distance and frequency; and through analyzing large amounts of data in event, we find that the phenomenological waveform is much smoother than EOBNR waveform, and has higher accuracy at the same effective distance.

  15. The Formation and Gravitational-Wave Detection of Massive Stellar Black-Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Cantiello, Matteo; Holz, Daniel E; Fryer, Chris L; Mandel, Ilya; Miller, M Coleman; Walczak, Marek

    2014-01-01

    If binaries consisting of two 100 Msun black holes exist they would serve as extraordinarily powerful gravitational-wave sources, detectable to redshifts of z=2 with the advanced LIGO/Virgo ground-based detectors. Large uncertainties about the evolution of massive stars preclude definitive rate predictions for mergers of these massive black holes. We show that rates as high as hundreds of detections per year, or as low as no detections whatsoever, are both possible. It was thought that the only way to produce these massive binaries was via dynamical interactions in dense stellar systems. This view has been challenged by the recent discovery of several stars with mass greater than 150 Msun in the R136 region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Current models predict that when stars of this mass leave the main sequence, their expansion is insufficient to allow common envelope evolution to efficiently reduce the orbital separation. The resulting black-hole--black-hole binary remains too wide to be able to coalesce wi...

  16. Modeling gravitational radiation from coalescing binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, J; Loustó, C O; Takahashi, R

    2002-01-01

    With the goal of bringing theory, particularly numerical relativity, to bear on an astrophysical problem of critical interest to gravitational wave observers we introduce a model for coalescence radiation from binary black hole systems. We build our model using the "Lazarus approach", a technique that bridges far and close limit approaches with full numerical relativity to solve Einstein equations applied in the truly nonlinear dynamical regime. We specifically study the post-orbital radiation from a system of equal-mass non-spinning black holes, deriving waveforms which indicate strongly circularly polarized radiation of roughly 3% of the system's total energy and 12% of its total angular momentum in just a few cycles. Supporting this result we first establish the reliability of the late-time part of our model, including the numerical relativity and close-limit components, with a thorough study of waveforms from a sequence of black hole configurations varying from previously treated head-on collisions to rep...

  17. Using Pulsar Timing observations to understand the formation and evolution of supermassive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Neil; Sampson, Laura; McWilliams, Sean

    2015-04-01

    The astrophysical processes that form and harden supermassive black hole binaries impart distinct features that may be observed in the gravitational-wave spectrum within the sensitive frequency range of Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA). We investigate how well the various formation and hardening mechanisms can be constrained by applying Bayesian inference to simulated PTA data sets. We find that even without strong priors on the merger rate, any detection of the signal will place interesting constraints on the astrophysical models. Folding in priors on the merger rate allows us to place interesting constraints on the astrophysical models even before a detection is made.

  18. Determining the progenitors of merging black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias; Munoz, Julian B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a possible method for determining the progenitors of black hole (BH) mergers observed via their gravitational wave (GW) signal. We argue that measurements of the cross-correlation of the GW events with overlapping galaxy catalogs may provide an additional tool in determining if BH mergers trace the stellar mass of the Universe, as would be expected from mergers of the endpoints of stellar evolution. If on the other hand the BHs are of primordial origin, as has been recently suggested, their merging would be preferentially hosted by lower biased objects, and thus have a lower cross-correlation with luminous galaxies. Here we forecast the expected precision of the cross-correlation measurement for current and future GW detectors such as LIGO and the Einstein Telescope. We then predict how well these instruments can distinguish the model that identifies high-mass BH-BH mergers as the merger of primordial black holes that constitute the dark matter in the Universe from more traditional astrophysica...

  19. Comparison of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with gasoline and ramses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Jared M.; Capelo, Pedro R.; Volonteri, Marta; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Supermassive black hole dynamics during galaxy mergers is crucial in determining the rate of black hole mergers and cosmic black hole growth. As simulations achieve higher resolution, it becomes important to assess whether the black hole dynamics is influenced by the treatment of the interstellar medium in different simulation codes. We compare simulations of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with two codes: the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code gasoline, and the adaptive mesh refinement code ramses. We seek to identify predictions of these models that are robust despite differences in hydrodynamic methods and implementations of subgrid physics. We find that the general behavior is consistent between codes. Black hole accretion is minimal while the galaxies are well-separated (and even as they fly by within 10 kpc at the first pericenter). At late stages, when the galaxies pass within a few kpc, tidal torques drive nuclear gas inflow that triggers bursts of black hole accretion accompanied by star formation. We also note quantitative discrepancies that are model dependent: our ramses simulations show less star formation and black hole growth, and a smoother gas distribution with larger clumps and filaments than our gasoline simulations. We attribute these differences primarily to the subgrid models for black hole fueling, feedback, and gas thermodynamics. The main conclusion is that differences exist quantitatively between codes, and this should be kept in mind when making comparisons with observations. However, both codes capture the same dynamical behaviors in terms of triggering black hole accretion, star formation, and black hole dynamics, which is reassuring.

  20. Impact of Higher-order Modes on the Detection of Binary Black Hole Coalescences

    CERN Document Server

    Pekowsky, Larne; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Laguna, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The inspiral and merger of black-hole binary systems are a promising source of gravitational waves. The most effective method to look for a signal with a well understood waveform, such as the binary black hole signal, is matched filtering against a library of model waveforms. Current model waveforms are comprised solely of the dominant radiation mode, the quadrupole mode, although it is known that there can be significant power in the higher-order modes. The binary black hole waveforms produced by numerical relativity are accurate through late inspiral, merger, and ringdown and include the higher-order modes. The available numerical-relativity waveforms span an increasing portion of the physical parameter space of unequal mass, spin and precession. In this paper, we investigate the degree to which gravitational-wave searches could be improved by the inclusion of higher modes in the model waveforms, for signals with a variety of initial mass ratios and generic spins. Our investigation studies how well the quad...

  1. Binary black hole shadows, chaotic scattering and the Cantor set

    CERN Document Server

    Shipley, Jake

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the qualitative features of binary black hole shadows using the model of two extremally charged black holes in static equilibrium (a Majumdar--Papapetrou solution). Our perspective is that binary spacetimes are natural exemplars of {\\it chaotic scattering}, because they admit more than one fundamental null orbit, and thus an uncountably-infinite set of perpetual orbits which generate scattering singularities in initial data. Inspired by the three-disc model, we develop an appropriate symbolic dynamics to describe planar null geodesics on the double black hole spacetime. We show that a one-dimensional (1D) black hole shadow may constructed through an iterative procedure akin to the construction of the Cantor set; thus the shadow is self-similar. Next, we study non-planar rays, to understand how angular momentum affects the existence and properties of the fundamental null orbits. Taking slices through 2D shadows, we observe three types of 1D shadow: regular, Cantor-like, and highly chaotic. The s...

  2. Unstable flip-flopping spinning binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lousto, Carlos O

    2016-01-01

    We give a unified description of the flip-flop effect in spinning binary black holes and the anti-alignment instability in terms of real and imaginary flip-flop frequencies. We find that this instability is only effective for mass ratios $0.5binary black holes and it is relevant for astrophysical modeling and final recoil computations of such binary systems.

  3. Black Hole Mergers and the QCD Axion at Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dubovsky, Sergei; Lasenby, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In the next few years Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) may see gravitational waves (GWs) from thousands of black hole (BH) mergers. This marks the beginning of a new precision tool for physics. Here we show how to search for new physics beyond the standard model using this tool, in particular the QCD axion in the mass range ma ~ 10^-14 to 10^-10 eV. Axions (or any bosons) in this mass range cause rapidly rotating BHs to shed their spin into a large cloud of axions in atomic Bohr orbits around the BH, through the effect of superradiance. This results in a gap in the mass vs. spin distribution of BHs when the BH size is comparable to the axion's Compton wavelength. By measuring the spin and mass of the merging objects observed at LIGO, we could verify the presence and shape of the gap in the BH distribution produced by the axion. The axion cloud can also be discovered through the GWs it radiates via axion annihilations or level transitions. A blind monochromatic GW search may reveal up to 10^5 BHs radiating through axion ...

  4. The NINJA-2 project: Detecting and characterizing gravitational waveforms modelled using numerical binary black hole simulations

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C -H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Roux, A Le; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Brügmann, B; Buchman, L T; Campanelli, M; Chu, T; Etienne, Z B; Hannam, M; Healy, J; Hinder, I; Kidder, L E; Laguna, P; Liu, Y T; London, L; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; MacDonald, I; Marronetti, P; Mösta, P; Müller, D; Mundim, B C; Nakano, H; Paschalidis, V; Pekowsky, L; Pollney, D; Pfeiffer, H P; Ponce, M; Pürrer, M; Reifenberger, G; Reisswig, C; Santamaría, L; Scheel, M A; Shapiro, S L; Shoemaker, D; Sopuerta, C F; Sperhake, U; Szilágyi, B; Taylor, N W; Tichy, W; Tsatsin, P; Zlochower, Y

    2014-01-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect gravitational waves emitted from merging binary black holes and recover their parameters with next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete binary black hole hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a "blind injection challenge" similar to that conducted in recent LIGO and Virgo science runs, we added 7 hybrid waveforms to two months of data recolored to predictions of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analyzed by gravitational-wave detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered w...

  5. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E.; Galley, Chad R.; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A.; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A.

    2015-09-01

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic -2Yℓm waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8 . We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50 M⊙ to 300 M⊙ for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases).

  6. Multivariate Classification with Random Forests for Gravitational Wave Searches of Black Hole Binary Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Paul T; Hodge, Kari A; Talukder, Dipongkar; Capano, Collin; Cornish, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    Searches for gravitational waves produced by coalescing black hole binaries with total masses $\\gtrsim25\\,$M$_\\odot$ use matched filtering with templates of short duration. Non-Gaussian noise bursts in gravitational wave detector data can mimic short signals and limit the sensitivity of these searches. Previous searches have relied on empirically designed statistics incorporating signal-to-noise ratio and signal-based vetoes to separate gravitational wave candidates from noise candidates. We report on sensitivity improvements achieved using a multivariate candidate ranking statistic derived from a supervised machine learning algorithm. We apply the random forest of bagged decision trees technique to two separate searches in the high mass $\\left( \\gtrsim25\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot \\right)$ parameter space. For a search which is sensitive to gravitational waves from the inspiral, merger, and ringdown (IMR) of binary black holes with total mass between $25\\,$M$_\\odot$ and $100\\,$M$_\\odot$, we find sensitive volume impr...

  7. The final spin from binary black holes in quasi-circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Fabian; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the problem of predicting the spin magnitude and direction of the black hole resulting from the merger of two black holes with arbitrary masses and spins inspiralling in quasi-circular orbits. We do this by analyzing a catalog of 641 recent numerical-relativity simulations collected from the literature and spanning a large variety of initial conditions. By combining information from the post-Newtonian approximation, the extreme mass-ratio limit and perturbative calculations, we improve our previously proposed phenomenological formulae for the final remnant spin. In contrast with alternative suggestions in the literature, and in analogy with our previous expressions, the new formula is a simple algebraic function of the initial system parameters and is not restricted to binaries with spins aligned/anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum, but can be employed for fully generic binaries. The accuracy of the new expression is significantly improved, especially for almost extremal progenitor spins...

  8. Binary black hole shadows, chaotic scattering and the Cantor set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Jake O.; Dolan, Sam R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the qualitative features of binary black hole shadows using the model of two extremally charged black holes in static equilibrium (a Majumdar–Papapetrou solution). Our perspective is that binary spacetimes are natural exemplars of chaotic scattering, because they admit more than one fundamental null orbit, and thus an uncountably infinite set of perpetual null orbits which generate scattering singularities in initial data. Inspired by the three-disc model, we develop an appropriate symbolic dynamics to describe planar null geodesics on the double black hole spacetime. We show that a one-dimensional (1D) black hole shadow may be constructed through an iterative procedure akin to the construction of the Cantor set; thus the 1D shadow is self-similar. Next, we study non-planar rays, to understand how angular momentum affects the existence and properties of the fundamental null orbits. Taking slices through 2D shadows, we observe three types of 1D shadow: regular, Cantor-like, and highly chaotic. The switch from Cantor-like to regular occurs where outer fundamental orbits are forbidden by angular momentum. The highly chaotic part is associated with an unexpected feature: stable and bounded null orbits, which exist around two black holes of equal mass M separated by {a}1\\lt a\\lt \\sqrt{2}{a}1, where {a}1=4M/\\sqrt{27}. To show how this possibility arises, we define a certain potential function and classify its stationary points. We conjecture that the highly chaotic parts of the 2D shadow possess the Wada property. Finally, we consider the possibility of following null geodesics through event horizons, and chaos in the maximally extended spacetime.

  9. Nucleosynthesis constraints on the neutron star-black hole merger rate

    CERN Document Server

    Bauswein, Andreas; Janka, H -Thomas; Goriely, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    We derive constraints on the time-averaged event rate of neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) mergers by using estimates of the population-integrated production of heavy rapid neutron-capture (r-process) elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140 by such events in comparison to the Galactic repository of these chemical species. Our estimates are based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations convolved with theoretical predictions of the binary population. This allows us to determine a strict upper limit of the average NS-BH merger rate of ~6*10^-5 per year. We quantify the uncertainties of this estimate to be within factors of a few mostly because of the unknown BH spin distribution of such systems, the uncertain equation of state of NS matter, and possible errors in the Galactic content of r-process material. Our approach implies a correlation between the merger rates of NS-BH binaries and of double NS systems. Predictions of the detection rate of gravitational-wave signals from such compact-object binaries by ...

  10. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS CONSTRAINTS ON THE NEUTRON STAR-BLACK HOLE MERGER RATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauswein, A. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ardevol Pulpillo, R.; Janka, H.-T. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Goriely, S., E-mail: bauswein@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 226, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-11-01

    We derive constraints on the time-averaged event rate of neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) mergers by using estimates of the population-integrated production of heavy rapid neutron-capture (r-process) elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140 by such events in comparison to the Galactic repository of these chemical species. Our estimates are based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations convolved with theoretical predictions of the binary population. This allows us to determine a strict upper limit of the average NS-BH merger rate of ∼6× 10{sup –5} per year. We quantify the uncertainties of this estimate to be within factors of a few mostly because of the unknown BH spin distribution of such systems, the uncertain equation of state of NS matter, and possible errors in the Galactic content of r-process material. Our approach implies a correlation between the merger rates of NS-BH binaries and of double NS systems. Predictions of the detection rate of gravitational-wave signals from such compact object binaries by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo on the optimistic side are incompatible with the constraints set by our analysis.

  11. Brownian motion of massive black hole binaries and the final parsec problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bortolas, E; Dotti, M; Spera, M; Mapelli, M

    2016-01-01

    Massive black hole binaries (BHBs) are expected to be one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of the pulsar timing array and of forthcoming space-borne detectors. They are believed to form in the final stages of galaxy mergers, and then harden by slingshot ejections of passing stars. However, evolution via the slingshot mechanism may be ineffective if the reservoir of interacting stars is not readily replenished, and the binary shrinking may come to a halt at roughly a parsec separation. Recent simulations suggest that the departure from spherical symmetry, naturally produced in merger remnants, leads to efficient loss cone refilling, preventing the binary from stalling. However, current N-body simulations able to accurately follow the evolution of BHBs are limited to very modest particle numbers. Brownian motion may artificially enhance the loss cone refilling rate in low-N simulations, where the binary encounters a larger population of stars due its random motion...

  12. Relativistic black hole-neutron star binaries in quasiequilibrium: effects of the black hole excision boundary condition

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Faber, Joshua A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2007-01-01

    We construct new models of black hole-neutron star binaries in quasiequilibrium circular orbits by solving Einstein's constraint equations in the conformal thin-sandwich decomposition together with the relativistic equations of hydrostationary equilibrium. We adopt maximal slicing, assume spatial conformal flatness, and impose equilibrium boundary conditions on an excision surface (i.e., the apparent horizon) to model the black hole. In our previous treatment we adopted a "leading-order" appr...

  13. Eccentricity boost of stars around shrinking massive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Mao; Seto, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    Based on a simple geometrical approach, we analyze the evolution of the Kozai-Lidov mechanism for stars around shrinking massive black hole binaries on circular orbits. We find that, due to a peculiar bifurcation pattern induced by the Newtonian potential of stellar clusters, the orbit of stars could become highly eccentric. This transition occurs abruptly for stars with small initial eccentricities. The approach presented in this paper may be useful for studying the Kozai-Lidov mechanism in various astrophysical contexts.

  14. Searching for GW signals from eccentric supermassive black-hole binaries with pulsar-timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen; Gair, Jonathan; Huerta, Eliu; McWilliams, Sean

    2015-04-01

    The mergers of massive galaxies leads to the formation of supermassive black-hole binaries in the common merger remnants. Various mechanisms have been proposed to harden these binaries into the adiabatic GW inspiral regime, from interactions with circumbinary disks to stellar scattering. It may be the case that these mechanisms leave the binary with a residual eccentricity, such that the deviation to the time-of-arrival of pulsar signals induced by the emitted GW passing between the Earth and a pulsar will contain a signature of this eccentricity. Current pulsar-timing search pipelines only probe circular binary systems, but much effort is now being devoted to considering the influence of the binary environment on GW signals. We will detail our efforts in constructing a generalised GW search pipeline to constrain the eccentricity of single systems with arrays of precisely-timed pulsars, which may shed light on the influence of various supermassive black-hole binary hardening mechanisms and illuminate the importance of environmental couplings.

  15. Hierarchical black hole triples in young star clusters: impact of Kozai-Lidov resonance on mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Kimpson, Thomas O; Mapelli, Michela; Ziosi, Brunetto M

    2016-01-01

    Mergers of compact object binaries are one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of second-generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors (Advanced LIGO and Virgo). Dynamical simulations of young dense star clusters (SCs) indicate that ~27 per cent of all double compact object binaries are members of hierarchical triple systems (HTs). In this paper, we consider 570 HTs composed of three compact objects (black holes or neutron stars) that formed dynamically in N-body simulations of young dense SCs. We simulate them for a Hubble time with a new code based on the Mikkola's algorithmic regularization scheme, including the 2.5 post-Newtonian term. We find that ~88 per cent of the simulated systems develop Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations. KL resonance triggers the merger of the inner binary in three systems (corresponding to 0.5 per cent of the simulated HTs), by increasing the eccentricity of the inner binary. Accounting for KL oscillations leads to an increase of the...

  16. Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: Environment and Galaxy Host Properties of PTA and eLISA sources

    CERN Document Server

    Palafox, Eva Martínez; Colín, Pedro; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black hole (BH) binaries would comprise the strongest sources of gravitational waves (GW) once they reach <<1 pc separations, for both pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) and space based (SB) detectors. While BH binaries coalescences constitute a natural outcome of the cosmological standard model and galaxy mergers, their dynamical evolution is still poorly understood and therefore their abundances at different stages. We use a dynamical model for the decay of BH binaries coupled with a cosmological simulation and semi-empirical approaches to the occupation of haloes by galaxies and BHs, in order to follow the evolution of the properties distribution of galaxies hosting BH binaries candidates to decay due to GWs emission. Our models allow us to relax simplifying hypothesis about the binaries occupation in galaxies and their mass, as well as redshift evolution. Following previously proposed electromagnetic (EM) signatures of binaries in the subpc regime, that include spectral features and variabilit...

  17. Swift coalescence of supermassive black holes in cosmological mergers of massive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazeel M; Mayer, Lucio; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies with a sizable mass. It is expected that a pair of SMBHs originally in the nuclei of two merging galaxies would form a binary and eventually coalesce via a burst of gravitational waves. So far theoretical models and simulations have been unable to predict directly the SMBH merger timescale from ab-initio galaxy formation theory, focusing only on limited phases of the orbital decay of SMBHs under idealized conditions of the galaxy hosts. The predicted SMBH merger timescales are long, of order Gyrs, which could be problematic for future gravitational wave searches. Here we present the first multi-scale $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological simulation that follows the orbital decay of a pair of SMBHs in a merger of two typical massive galaxies at $z\\sim3$, all the way to the final coalescence driven by gravitational wave emission. The two SMBHs, with masses $\\sim10^{8}$ M$_{\\odot}$, settle quickly in the nucleus of the merger remnant. The remnant is triaxial and ex...

  18. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circum-binary accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    We explore the hardening of a massive black hole binary embedded in a circum-binary gas disc when the binary and the gas are coplanar and the gas is counter-rotating. The secondary black hole, revolving in the direction opposite to the gas, experiences a drag from gas-dynamical friction and from direct accretion of part of it. Using two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical grid simulations we investigate the effect of changing the accretion prescriptions on the dynamics of the secondary black hole...

  19. Direct formation of supermassive black holes via multi-scale gas inflows in galaxy mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Escala, A; Callegari, S

    2010-08-26

    Observations of distant quasars indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses already existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which the 'seeds' of such black holes form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain the rapid appearance of these supermassive black holes because gas accretion is not sufficiently efficient. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas within isolated protogalaxies, but current models require idealized conditions, such as metal-free gas, to prevent cooling and star formation from consuming the gas reservoir. Here we report simulations showing that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the conditions for direct collapse into a supermassive black hole with no need to suppress cooling and star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows give rise to an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk of a few billion solar masses, which funnels more than 10(8) solar masses of gas to a sub-parsec-scale gas cloud in only 100,000 years. The cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, which eventually leads to the formation of a massive black hole. The black hole can subsequently grow to a billion solar masses on timescales of about 10(8) years by accreting gas from the surrounding disk. PMID:20740009

  20. ASTRONOMICAL PLATE ARCHIVES AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hudec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent extensive digitisation of astronomical photographic plate archives, the development of new dedicated software and the use of powerful computers have for the first time enabled effective data mining in extensive plate databases, with wide applications in various fields of recent astrophysics. As an example, analyses of supermassive binary black holes (binary blazars require very long time intervals (50 years and more, which cannot be provided by other data sources. Examples of data obtained from data mining in plate archives are presented and briefly discussed.

  1. Models of Kilonova/macronova emission from black hole-neutron star mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi

    2016-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star mergers are among the promising gravitational-wave sources for ground-based detectors, and gravitational waves from black hole-neutron mergers are expected to be detected in the next few years. Simultaneous detection of electromagnetic counterparts with gravitational-wave detection provides rich information about the merger events. Among the possible electromagnetic counterparts from the black hole-neutron merger, the emission powered by the decay of radioactive r-process nuclei, so called kilonova/macronova, is one of the best targets for follow-up observation. We derive fitting formulas for the mass and the velocity of ejecta from a generic black hole-neutron merger based on recently performed numerical relativity simulations. We combined these fitting formulas with a new semi-analytic model for a black hole-neutron kilonova/macronova lightcurve which reproduces the results of radiation-transfer simulations. Specifically, the semi-analytic model reproduces the result of each band mag...

  2. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Baragoya, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet-Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglia, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Diaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endroczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gaspar, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; Gonzalez, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kranz, O; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Krolak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, J; Li, T G F; Liguori, N; Lindquist, P E; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Luan, J; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lundgren, A P; Macdonald, E; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marandi, A; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Marka, S; Marka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McKechan, D J A; McWilliams, S; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meier, T; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mori, T; Morriss, S R; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Muller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Necula, V; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nishizawa, A; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Page, A; Pagliaroli, G; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Peiris, P; Pekowsky, L; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Phelps, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Pold, J; Postiglione, F; Prato, M; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Quetschke, V; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Racz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rakhmanov, M; Rankins, B; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Redwine, K; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, C; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosinska, D; Rover, C; Rowan, S; Rudiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sainathan, P; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaria, L; Santiago-Prieto, I; Santostasi, G; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R L; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Sintes, A M; Skelton, G R; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Soto, J; Speirits, F C; Sperandio, L; Stefszky, M; Stein, A J; Stein, L C; Steinert, E; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S E; Stroeer, A S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sung, M; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, J R; Taylor, R; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Thuring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C; Torrie, C I; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tseng, K; Ugolini, D; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasuth, M; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Veltkamp, C; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Villar, A E; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Wan, Y; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Wanner, A; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R; Willke, B; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, K; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yeaton-Massey, D; Yoshida, S; Yu, P; Yvert, M; Zadrozny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100--450 solar masses and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88+88 solar masses, for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc^3 per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  3. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100-450 solar Mass and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88 + 88 solar Mass , for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc(exp 3) per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  4. Pulsar-Black Hole Binaries in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Faucher-Giguere, C -A

    2010-01-01

    Binaries consisting of a pulsar and a black hole (BH) are a holy grail of astrophysics, both for their significance for stellar evolution and for their potential application as probes of strong gravity. In spite of extensive surveys of our Galaxy and its system of globular clusters, no pulsar-black hole (PSR-BH) binary has been found to date. Clues as to where such systems might exist are therefore highly desirable. We show that if the central parsec around Sgr A* harbors a cluster of ~25,000 stellar BHs (as predicted by mass segregation arguments) and if it is also rich in recycled pulsar binaries (by analogy with globular clusters), then 3-body exchange interactions should produce PSR-BHs in the Galactic center. Simple estimates of the formation rate and survival time of these binaries suggest that a few PSR-BHs should be present in the central parsec today. The proposed formation mechanism makes unique predictions for the PSR-BH properties: 1) the binary would reside within ~1 pc of Sgr A*; 2) the pulsar w...

  5. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  6. The effect of lensing magnification on the apparent distribution of black hole mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Liang; Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Sigurdson, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of gravitational waves indicates that stellar-mass black hole binaries are likely to be a key population of sources for forthcoming observations. With future upgrades, ground-based detectors could detect merging black hole binaries out to cosmological distances. Gravitational wave bursts from high redshifts ($z \\gtrsim 1$) can be strongly magnified by gravitational lensing due to intervening galaxies along the line of sight. In the absence of electromagnetic counterparts,...

  7. Multipole Analysis of Kicks in Collision of Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Sarah H

    2008-01-01

    Thorne and Kidder give expressions which allow for analytical estimates of the "kick", it i.e. the recoil, produced from asymmetrical gravitational radiation during the interaction of black holes, or in fact any gravitating compact bodies. (The Thorne-Kidder formula uses momentum flux calculations based on the linearized General Relativity of gravitational radiation.) We specifically treat kicks arising in the binary interaction of equal mass black holes, when at least one of the black holes has significant spin, a. Such configurations can produce very large kicks in computational simulations. We consider both fly-by and quasicircular orbits. For fly-by orbits we find substantial kicks from those Thorne-Kidder terms which are linear in a. For the quasi-circular case, we consider in addition the nonlinear contribution (O(a^2)) to the kicks, and provide a dynamical explanation for such terms. However, in the cases of maximal kick velocities, the dependence on spin is largely linear (reproduced in numerical resu...

  8. Prospects for experimental research on black holes in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    Cygnus X-1, the single widely accepted example of a black hole in a binary system, is characterized by unusual X-ray properties. The X-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-1 is not cut off above 20 keV, as in most strong X-ray sources. Recent scintillation counter measurements reveal a power law spectrum extending from 40 to 200 keV with a photon spectral index of approximately 2.2. However, it is not clear that these and other X-ray properties of the system are related to the black-hole nature of Cygnus X-1. It is suggested that without a direct test to show that the mass of the compact object in other systems similar to Cygnus X-1 (Circinus X-1 and GX339-4) exceeds the limit of the neutron star mass, a better understanding of the accretion disk phenomenon must be achieved to demonstrate how the properties peculiar to these systems are related to the black hole nature of the compact object. Current accretion disk models are examined, including the alpha-accretion disk and two-temperature accretion disk models.

  9. On the rarity of double black hole binaries: consequences for gravitational-wave detection

    OpenAIRE

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Taam, Ronald E.; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Rasio, Frederic A.; Bulik, Tomasz

    2006-01-01

    Double black hole binaries are among the most important sources of gravitational radiation for ground-based detectors such as LIGO or VIRGO. Even if formed with lower efficiency than double neutron star binaries, they could dominate the predicted detection rates, since black holes are more massive than neutron stars and therefore could be detected at greater distances. Here we discuss an evolutionary process that can very significantly limit the formation of close double black hole binaries: ...

  10. Tidal disruption events from supermassive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Eric R; Nixon, Chris; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the pre-disruption gravitational dynamics and post-disruption hydrodynamics of the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. We focus on binaries with relatively low mass primaries ($10^6M_{\\odot}$), moderate mass ratios, and separations with reasonably long gravitational wave inspiral times (tens of Myr). First, we generate a large ensemble (between 1 and 10 million) of restricted three-body integrations to quantify the statistical properties of tidal disruptions by circular SMBH binaries of initially-unbound stars. Compared to the reference case of a disruption by a single SMBH, the binary potential induces significant variance into the specific energy and angular momentum of the star at the point of disruption. Second, we use Newtonian numerical hydrodynamics to study the detailed evolution of the fallback debris from 120 disruptions randomly selected from the three-body ensemble (excluding only the most deeply penetrating encounters). We find that the overall mor...

  11. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARY EVOLUTION IN AXISYMMETRIC GALAXIES: THE FINAL PARSEC PROBLEM IS NOT A PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a galaxy merger, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy is thought to sink to the center of the potential and form an SMBH binary; this binary can eject stars via three-body scattering, bringing the SMBHs ever closer. In a static spherical galaxy model, the binary stalls at a separation of about a parsec after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. Earlier work has shown that the centrophilic orbits in triaxial galaxy models are key in refilling the loss cone at a high enough rate to prevent the black holes from stalling. However, the evolution of binary SMBHs has never been explored in axisymmetric galaxies, so it is not clear if the final parsec problem persists in these systems. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in galaxy models with a range of ellipticity. For the first time, we show that mere axisymmetry can solve the final parsec problem; we find the SMBH evolution is independent of N for an axis ratio of c/a = 0.8, and that the SMBH binary separation reaches the gravitational radiation regime for c/a = 0.75

  12. Detecting eccentric supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays: Resolvable source strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, S R; Gair, J R; McWilliams, S T

    2015-01-01

    The couplings between supermassive black-hole binaries and their environments within galactic nuclei have been well studied as part of the search for solutions to the final parsec problem. The scattering of stars by the binary or the interaction with a circumbinary disk may efficiently drive the system to sub-parsec separations, allowing the binary to enter a regime where the emission of gravitational-waves can drive it to merger within a Hubble time. However, these interactions can also affect the orbital parameters of the binary. In particular, they may drive an increase in binary eccentricity which survives until the system's gravitational-wave signal enters the pulsar-timing array band. Therefore, if we can measure the eccentricity from observed signals, we can potentially deduce some of the properties of the binary environment. To this end, we build on previous techniques to present a general Bayesian pipeline with which we can detect and estimate the parameters of an eccentric supermassive black-hole bi...

  13. Parameter estimates in binary black hole collisions using neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, M; González, J A; Guzmán, F S

    2016-01-01

    We present an algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), that estimates the mass ratio in a binary black hole collision out of given Gravitational Wave (GW) strains. In this analysis, the ANN is trained with a sample of GW signals generated with numerical simulations. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated with GWs generated also with simulations for given mass ratios unknown to the ANN. We measure the accuracy of the algorithm in the interpolation and extrapolation regimes. We present the results for noise free signals and signals contaminated with Gaussian noise, in order to foresee the dependence of the method accuracy in terms of the signal to noise ratio.

  14. Recent Advances in the Numerical Simulations of Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Since the breakthrough papers from 2005/2006, the field of numerical relativity has experienced a growth spurt that took the two-body problem in general relativity from the category of "really-hard-problems" to the realm of "things-we-know-how-to-do". Simulations of binary black holes in circular orbits, the holy grail of numerical relativity, are now tractable problems that lead to some of the most spectacular results in general relativity in recent years. We cover here some of the latest achievements and highlight the field's next challenges.

  15. SECULAR EVOLUTION OF COMPACT BINARIES NEAR MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SOURCES AND OTHER EXOTICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, Fabio [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Perets, Hagai B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    The environment near supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei contains a large number of stars and compact objects. A fraction of these are likely to be members of binaries. Here we discuss the binary population of stellar black holes and neutron stars near SMBHs and focus on the secular evolution of such binaries, due to the perturbation by the SMBH. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbit around the SMBH are strongly affected by secular Kozai processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (Kozai cycles). During periapsis approach, at the highest eccentricities during the Kozai cycles, gravitational wave (GW) emission becomes highly efficient. Some binaries in this environment can inspiral and coalesce at timescales much shorter than a Hubble time and much shorter than similar binaries that do not reside near an SMBH. The close environment of SMBHs could therefore serve as a catalyst for the inspiral and coalescence of binaries and strongly affect their orbital properties. Such compact binaries would be detectable as GW sources by the next generation of GW detectors (e.g., advanced-LIGO). Our analysis shows that {approx}0.5% of such nuclear merging binaries will enter the LIGO observational window while on orbits that are still very eccentric (e {approx}> 0.5). The efficient GW analysis for such systems would therefore require the use of eccentric templates. We also find that binaries very close to the SMBH could evolve through a complex dynamical (non-secular) evolution, leading to emission of several GW pulses during only a few years (though these are likely to be rare). Finally, we note that the formation of close stellar binaries, X-ray binaries, and their merger products could be induced by similar secular processes, combined with tidal friction rather than GW emission as in the case of compact object binaries.

  16. Inspiral of generic black hole binaries: spin, precession and eccentricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Janna; McWilliams, Sean T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College of Columbia University, 3009 Broadway, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Contreras, Hugo, E-mail: janna@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-09-07

    Given the absence of observations of black hole binaries, it is critical that the full range of accessible parameter space be explored in anticipation of future observation with gravitational-wave detectors. To this end, we compile the Hamiltonian equations of motion describing the conservative dynamics of the most general black hole binaries and incorporate an effective treatment of dissipation through gravitational radiation, as computed by Will and collaborators. We evolve these equations for systems with orbital eccentricity and precessing spins. We find that, while spin-spin coupling corrections can destroy constant radius orbits in principle, the effect is so small that orbits will reliably tend to quasi-spherical orbits as angular momentum and energy are lost to gravitational radiation. Still, binaries that are initially highly eccentric may retain eccentricity as they pass into the detectable bandwidth of ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We also show that a useful set of natural frequencies for an orbit demonstrating both spin precession and periastron precession is comprised of (1) the frequency of angular motion in the orbital plane, (2) the frequency of the plane precession and (3) the frequency of radial oscillations. These three natural harmonics shape the observed waveform.

  17. The parameters of binary black hole system in PKS 1510-089

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Juan; Fan Jun-Hui; Yuan Yu-Hai

    2007-01-01

    Observations of PKS 1510-089 indicate the existence of a deep flux minimum with a timescale of ~35 min and an interval of about 336±14 d. A binary black hole system is proposed to be at the nucleus of this object. The secondary black hole orbits around the primary black hole.The minimum is caused by the periodic eclipse of the primary black hole by the secondary black hole.Based on the observations of PKS 1510-089,we estimate the parameters of the binary black hole system.The masses for the primary and secondary black holes are 1.37×109M⊙(M⊙ is the solar mass) and 1.37×107M⊙,and the major axis for this pair being about 0.1 parsec(pc).

  18. Momentum flow in black-hole binaries. I. Post-Newtonian analysis of the inspiral and spin-induced bobbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is presented of a new Caltech/Cornell research program that is exploring the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime in binary black-hole collisions and mergers, and of an initial project in this program aimed at elucidating the flow of linear momentum in binary black holes (BBHs). The 'gauge-dependence' (arbitrariness) in the localization of linear momentum in BBHs is discussed, along with the hope that the qualitative behavior of linear momentum will be gauge-independent. Harmonic coordinates are suggested as a possibly preferred foundation for fixing the gauge associated with linear momentum. For a BBH or other compact binary, the Landau-Lifshitz formalism is used to define the momenta of the binary's individual bodies in terms of integrals over the bodies' surfaces or interiors, and define the momentum of the gravitational field (spacetime curvature) outside the bodies as a volume integral over the field's momentum density. These definitions will be used in subsequent papers that explore the internal nonlinear dynamics of BBHs via numerical relativity. This formalism is then used, in the 1.5 post-Newtonian approximation, to explore momentum flow between a binary's bodies and its gravitational field during the binary's orbital inspiral. Special attention is paid to momentum flow and conservation associated with synchronous spin-induced bobbing of the black holes, in the so-called 'extreme-kick configuration' (where two identical black holes have their spins lying in their orbital plane and antialigned).

  19. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  20. Music from the heavens - Gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Salcido, Jaime; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilising cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with a model to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the black holes. The EAGLE models predict $\\sim2$ detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between $10^5 \\textrm{M}_{\\odot} h^{-1}$ seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between $z\\sim2.5...

  1. Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Ruffini, R

    2015-12-01

    Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (E_{iso}≳10^{52}  erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs. PMID:26684106

  2. The black hole merger event GW150914 within a modified theory of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    In February 2016 the first observation of gravitational waves were reported. The source of this event, denoted as GW150914, was identified as the merger of two black holes with a about 30 solar masses each, at a distance of approximately 400Mpc. These data where deduced using the Theory of General Relativity. Since 2009 a modified theory was proposed which adds near massive objects phenomenologically the contribution of a dark energy, whose origin are vacuum uctuations. The dark energy accumulates toward smaller distances, reducing effec- tively the gravitational constant. In this contribution we show that as a consequence the deduces chirping mass and the luminosity distance are larger. This result suggests that the black hole merger corresponds to two massive black holes near the center of primordial galaxies at large luminosity distance, i.e. large redshifts.

  3. Searching for the Nearest Extragalactic Binary Black Hole: A Spectroscopic Study of NGC 4736

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Annika; Kwan, Teiler J.; Fisher, Robert Scott; Mason, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, Maoz et al. concluded that the nearby galaxy NGC 4736 (d=16 million light years) is in the late stages of a merger event. After further investigation, in 2005, Maoz et al. observed UV variability in the nuclear region of NGC 4736, revealing a second unknown source in the nucleus. Since late stage mergers are an ideal location to search for binary black holes (BBH), members of our team hypothesized that the second source could be a second black hole, making this a potential BBH system. This is important since observational evidence for their existence remains sparse, even though BBH are predicted by many theories and potentially play an important role in galaxy evolution. In January of 2008, NGC 4736 was observed with the GMOS-N instrument on Gemini North. Optical longslit spectra of the nuclear region were obtained with spatial resolution of 0.1454''/pixel and a spectral resolution of R~1700. At this resolution, the two nuclear sources are spatially resolved at a projected separation of 2.5''. As a result, we can classify the nature of the second source by looking at the optical line ratios following Ho et al. (1997). High signal-to-noise spectra of the unknown source displayed strong emission of [SII] and [NII], but an extremely weak [OIII] emission line. The unknown source has a calculated [NII]/[Hα] ratio of 1.37 and an upper limit of 0.6 for the [OIII]/[Hβ] ratio. Placing the unknown source on the BPT-NII diagram (Baldwin et al., 1981), we tentatively conclude that it is a low-luminosity second black hole potentially making NGC 4736 the nearest BBH system. The result will enable future high-spectral and spatial resolution observations of a low-luminosity system in extremely late stages of merging, which will be a significant step forward in validating models of galaxy mergers and AGN activity.

  4. Nova Sco and coalescing low mass black hole binaries as LIGO sources

    CERN Document Server

    Sipior, M S; Sipior, Michael S.; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2002-01-01

    Double neutron star binaries, analogous to the well known Hulse--Taylor pulsar PSR 1913+16, are guaranteed-to-exist sources of high frequency gravitational radiation detectable by LIGO. There is considerable uncertainty in the estimated rate of coalescence of such systems, with conservative estimates of ~1 per million years per galaxy, and optimistic theoretical estimates one or more magnitude larger. Formation rates of low-mass black hole-neutron star binaries may be higher than those of NS-NS binaries, and may dominate the detectable LIGO signal rate. We estimate the enhanced coalescence rate for BH-BH binaries due to weak asymmetric kicks during the formation of low mass black holes like Nova Sco, and find they may contribute significantly to the LIGO signal rate, possibly dominating the phase I detectable signals if the range of BH masses for which there is significant kick is broad enough. For a standard Salpeter IMF, assuming mild natal kicks, we project that the R6 merger rate of BH-BH systems is ~0.5,...

  5. Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R M; Ravi, V; Lentati, L T; Lasky, P D; Hobbs, G; Kerr, M; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; Levin, Y; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Osłowski, S; Reardon, D J; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J-B; Wen, L; Wyithe, J S B; Zhu, X-J

    2015-09-25

    Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems would modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrained the characteristic amplitude of this background, A(c,yr), to be <1.0 × 10(-15) with 95% confidence. This limit excludes predicted ranges for A(c,yr) from current models with 91 to 99.7% probability. We conclude that binary evolution is either stalled or dramatically accelerated by galactic-center environments and that higher-cadence and shorter-wavelength observations would be more sensitive to gravitational waves. PMID:26404832

  6. On the detection of eccentric supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Eliu; McWilliams, Sean; Gair, Jonathan; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    It is believed that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses between a million up to a few billion solar masses are ubiquitous in nearby galactic nuclei. Hence, the merger of a pair of galaxies hosting these compact objects may result in the formation of a compact binary that decays to small orbital separations via interactions with its stellar and gaseous environments. Recent studies suggest that these formation channels imply that SMBH binaries may have large orbital eccentricities when they become dominated by gravitational wave emission. In light of these considerations, we present a novel and comprehensive framework that we put at work to carry out an end-to-end analysis of the effect of eccentricity on the amplitude and spectrum of a stochastic, isotropic gravitational wave background from SMBH binaries and single resolvable sources that may be detected with Pulsar Timing Arrays.

  7. Improved gravitational waveforms from spinning black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard post-Newtonian approximation to gravitational waveforms, called T-approximants, from nonspinning black hole binaries are known not to be sufficiently accurate close to the last stable orbit of the system. A new approximation, called P-approximants, is believed to improve the accuracy of the waveforms rendering them applicable up to the last stable orbit. In this study we apply P-approximants to the case of a test particle in equatorial orbit around a Kerr black hole parameterized by a spin-parameter q that takes values between -1 and 1. In order to assess the performance of the two approximants we measure their effectualness (i.e., larger overlaps with the exact signal), and faithfulness (i.e., smaller biases while measuring the parameters of the signal) with the exact (numerical) waveforms. We find that in the case of prograde orbits, that is orbits whose angular momentum is in the same sense as the spin angular momentum of the black hole, T-approximant templates obtain an effectualness of ∼0.99 for spins q 0.99 for all spins up to q=0.95. The bias in the estimation of parameters is much lower in the case of P-approximants than T-approximants. We find that P-approximants are both effectual and faithful and should be more effective than T-approximants as a detection template family when q>0. For q<0 both T- and P-approximants perform equally well so that either of them could be used as a detection template family

  8. Ultrafast Outflows from Black Hole Mergers with a Mini-disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter; Shoemaker, Ian; Senno, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the direct detection of gravitational waves from black hole (BH) mergers was announced by the Advanced LIGO Collaboration. Multi-messenger counterparts of stellar-mass BH mergers are of interest, and it had been suggested that a small disk or celestial body may be involved in the binary of two BHs. To test such possibilities, we consider the fate of a wind powered by an active minidisk in a relatively short, super-Eddington accretion episode onto a BH with ∼10–100 solar masses. We show that its thermal emission could be seen as a fast optical transient with the duration from hours to days. We also find that the coasting outflow forms external shocks due to interaction with the interstellar medium, whose synchrotron emission might be expected in the radio band on a timescale of years. Finally, we also discuss a possible jet component and the associated high-energy neutrino emission as well as ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray acceleration.

  9. MOCCA-SURVEY Database I: Coalescing Binary Black Holes Originating From Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Askar, Abbas; Gondek-Rosińska, Dorota; Giersz, Mirek; Bulik, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    In this first of a series of papers, we utilize results for around two thousand star cluster models simulated using the MOCCA code for star cluster evolution (Survey Database I) to determine the astrophysical properties and local merger rate densities for coalescing binary black holes (BBHs) originating from globular clusters (GCs). We extracted information for all coalescing BBHs that escape the cluster models and subsequently merge within a Hubble time along with BBHs that are retained in our GC models and merge inside the cluster via gravitational wave (GW) emission. By obtaining results from a substantial number of realistic star cluster models that cover different initial parameters, we have an extremely large statistical sample of BBHs with stellar mass and massive stellar BH ($\\lesssim 100M_{\\odot}$) components that merge within a Hubble time. Using this data, we estimate local merger rate densities for these BBHs originating from GCs to be at least 5.4 ${\\rm Gpc}^{-3}\\,{\\rm yr}^{-1}$

  10. The r-process in black hole-neutron star mergers based on a fully general-relativistic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, N.; Wanajo, S.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Kiuchi, K.; Kyutoku, K.; Shibata, M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the black hole-neutron star binary merger in the contest of the r-process nucleosynthesis. Employing a hydrodynamical model simulated in the framework of full general relativity, we perform nuclear reaction network calculations. The extremely neutron-rich matter with the total mass 0.01 M⊙ is ejected, in which a strong r-process with fission cycling proceeds due to the high neutron number density. We discuss relevant astrophysical issues such as the origin of r-process elements as well as the r-process powered electromagnetic transients.

  11. Detecting Black-Hole Binary Clustering via the Second-Generation Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Namikawa, Toshiya; Taruya, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    First discovery of the gravitational wave (GW) event, GW150914, suggests a higher merger rate of black-hole (BH) binaries. If this is true, a number of BH binaries will be observed via the second-generation GW detectors, and the statistical properties of the observed BH binaries can be scrutinized. A naive but important question to ask is whether the spatial distribution of BH binaries faithfully traces the matter inhomogeneities in the Universe or not. Although the BH binaries are thought to be formed inside the galaxies in most of the scenarios, there is no observational evidence to confirm such a hypothesis. Here, we estimate how well the second-generation GW detectors can statistically confirm the BH binaries to be a tracer of the large-scale structure by looking at the auto- and cross-correlation of BH binaries with photometric galaxies and weak lensing measurements, finding that, with a three-year observation, the $>3\\sigma$ detection of non-zero signal is possible if the BH merger rate today is $\\dot{n...

  12. The coalescence rates of double black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Dominik, Michal; Prestwich, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We present the summary of the recent investigations of double black hole binaries in context of their formation and merger rates. In particular we discuss the spectrum of black hole masses, the formation scenarios in the local Universe and the estimates of detection rates for gravitational radiation detectors like LIGO and VIRGO. Our study is based on observed properties of known Galactic and extra-galactic stellar mass black holes and evolutionary predictions. We argue that the binary black ...

  13. Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can we see what LISA will hear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Coalescing massive black hole binaries are formed when galaxies merge. The final stages of this coalescence produce strong gravitational wave signals that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. When the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.

  14. Brownian motion of massive black hole binaries and the final parsec problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolas, E.; Gualandris, A.; Dotti, M.; Spera, M.; Mapelli, M.

    2016-09-01

    Massive black hole binaries (BHBs) are expected to be one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves in the frequency range of the pulsar timing array and of forthcoming space-borne detectors. They are believed to form in the final stages of galaxy mergers, and then harden by slingshot ejections of passing stars. However, evolution via the slingshot mechanism may be ineffective if the reservoir of interacting stars is not readily replenished, and the binary shrinking may come to a halt at roughly a parsec separation. Recent simulations suggest that the departure from spherical symmetry, naturally produced in merger remnants, leads to efficient loss cone refilling, preventing the binary from stalling. However, current N-body simulations able to accurately follow the evolution of BHBs are limited to very modest particle numbers. Brownian motion may artificially enhance the loss cone refilling rate in low-N simulations, where the binary encounters a larger population of stars due its random motion. Here we study the significance of Brownian motion of BHBs in merger remnants in the context of the final parsec problem. We simulate mergers with various particle numbers (from 8k to 1M) and with several density profiles. Moreover, we compare simulations where the BHB is fixed at the centre of the merger remnant with simulations where the BHB is free to random walk. We find that Brownian motion does not significantly affect the evolution of BHBs in simulations with particle numbers in excess of one million, and that the hardening measured in merger simulations is due to collisionless loss cone refilling.

  15. Brownian motion of massive black hole binaries and the final parsec problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolas, E.; Gualandris, A.; Dotti, M.; Spera, M.; Mapelli, M.

    2016-06-01

    Massive black hole binaries (BHBs) are expected to be one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of the pulsar timing array and of forthcoming space-borne detectors. They are believed to form in the final stages of galaxy mergers, and then harden by slingshot ejections of passing stars. However, evolution via the slingshot mechanism may be ineffective if the reservoir of interacting stars is not readily replenished, and the binary shrinking may come to a halt at roughly a parsec separation. Recent simulations suggest that the departure from spherical symmetry, naturally produced in merger remnants, leads to efficient loss cone refilling, preventing the binary from stalling. However, current N-body simulations able to accurately follow the evolution of BHBs are limited to very modest particle numbers. Brownian motion may artificially enhance the loss cone refilling rate in low-N simulations, where the binary encounters a larger population of stars due its random motion. Here we study the significance of Brownian motion of BHBs in merger remnants in the context of the final parsec problem. We simulate mergers with various particle numbers (from 8k to 1M) and with several density profiles. Moreover, we compare simulations where the BHB is fixed at the centre of the merger remnant with simulations where the BHB is free to random walk. We find that Brownian motion does not significantly affect the evolution of BHBs in simulations with particle numbers in excess of one million, and that the hardening measured in merger simulations is due to collisionless loss cone refilling.

  16. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circum-binary accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    We explore the hardening of a massive black hole binary embedded in a circum-binary gas disc when the binary and the gas are coplanar and the gas is counter-rotating. The secondary black hole, revolving in the direction opposite to the gas, experiences a drag from gas-dynamical friction and from direct accretion of part of it. Using two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical grid simulations we investigate the effect of changing the accretion prescriptions on the dynamics of the secondary black hole which in turn affect the binary hardening and eccentricity evolution. We find that realistic accretion prescriptions lead to results that differ from those inferred assuming accretion of all the gas within the Roche Lobe of the secondary black hole. Different accretion prescriptions result in different disc's surface densities which alter the black hole's dynamics back. Full 3D SPH realizations of a number of representative cases, run over a shorter interval of time, validate the general trends observed in the less compu...

  17. Formation of optical lines in black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, K; Johnston, H; Hunstead, R W; Wu, Kinwah; Soria, Roberto; Johnston, Helen; Hunstead, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The HI Balmer emission lines of black-hole binaries show double-peaked profiles during the high-soft state and the quiescent state. In the high-soft state the profiles are asymmetric with a stronger red peak, but the profiles are symmetric in the quiescent state. We suggest that in the high-soft state the emission lines originate from the temperature-inversion layer caused by irradiative heating of an optically thick accretion disk. Irradiative heating also causes the formation of a disk wind, which mildly absorbs the blue peak of the lines. The double-peaked lines seen in the quiescent state arise from an optically thin disk. In the absence of a disk wind, the lines are unabsorbed and so the symmetry of the line profiles is preserved.

  18. Black hole binary inspiral: Analysis of the plunge

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Richard H; Khanna, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Binary black hole coalescence has its peak of gravitational wave generation during the "plunge," the transition from quasicircular early motion to late quasinormal ringing. Although advances in numerical relativity have provided plunge waveforms, there is still no intuitive or phenomenological understanding of plungecomparable to that of the early and late stages. Here we make progress in developing such understanding by focusing on the excitation of quasinormal ringing (QNR) during the plunge. We rely on insights of the linear mathematics of the particle perturbation model for the extreme mass limit. Our analysis, based on the Fourier domain Green function, and a simple initial model, point to the crucial role played by the kinematics near the "light ring" (the circular photon orbit) in determining the excitation of QNR. That insight is then shown to successfully explain Schwarzschild QNR found with evolution codes. Lastly, a phenomenological explanation is given for the underlying importance of the light ri...

  19. Black hole binary inspiral: Analysis of the plunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard H.; Nampalliwar, Sourabh; Khanna, Gaurav

    2016-02-01

    Binary black hole coalescence has its peak of gravitational-wave generation during the "plunge," the transition from quasicircular early motion to late quasinormal ringing (QNR). Although advances in numerical relativity have provided plunge waveforms, there is still no intuitive or phenomenological understanding of plunge comparable to that of the early and late stages. Here we make progress in developing such understanding by relying on insights of the linear mathematics of the particle perturbation model for the extreme mass limit. Our analysis, based on the Fourier-domain Green function, and a simple initial model, point to the crucial role played by the kinematics near the "light ring" (the circular photon orbit) in determining the plunge radiation and the excitation of QNR. That insight is then shown to successfully explain results obtained for particle motion in a Schwarzschild background.

  20. Production of 56Ni in black hole-neutron star merger accretion disc outflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likely outcome of a compact object merger event is a central black hole surrounded by a rapidly accreting torus of debris. This disc of debris is a rich source of element synthesis, the outcome of which is needed to predict electromagnetic counterparts of individual events and to understand the contribution of mergers to galactic chemical evolution. Here we study disc outflow nucleosynthesis in the context of a two-dimensional, time-dependent black hole-neutron star merger accretion disc model. We use two time snapshots from this model to examine the impact of the evolution of the neutrino fluxes from the disc on the element synthesis. While the neutrino fluxes from the early-time disc snapshot appear to favor neutron-rich outflows, by the late-time snapshot the situation is reversed. As a result we find copious production of 56Ni in the outflows. (paper)

  1. Identifying Decaying Supermassive Black Hole Binaries from their Variable Electromagnetic Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Haiman, Zoltán; Menou, Kristen; Lippai, Zoltán; Frei, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) with masses in the range 10^4-10^7 M_sun/(1+z), produced in galaxy mergers, are thought to complete their coalescence due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs). The anticipated detection of the GWs by the LISA will constitute a milestone for fundamental physics and astrophysics. While the GW signatures themselves will provide a treasure trove of information, if the source can be securely identified in electromagnetic (EM) bands, this would open up entirely new scientific opportunities, to probe fundamental physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. We discuss several ideas, involving wide-field telescopes, that may be useful in locating electromagnetic counterparts to SMBHBs detected by LISA. In particular, the binary may produce a variable electromagnetic flux, such as a roughly periodic signal due to the orbital motion prior to coalescence, or a prompt transient signal caused by shocks in the circumbinary disk when the SMBHB recoils and "shakes" the disk. We discu...

  2. GW150914: First results from the search for binary black hole coalescence with Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bohémier, K.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cokelaer, T.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Dietz, A.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Goggin, L. M.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Rocchi, A.; Rodriguez, A. C.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Santamaría, L.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    On September 14, 2015, at 09∶50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) simultaneously observed the binary black hole merger GW150914. We report the results of a matched-filter search using relativistic models of compact-object binaries that recovered GW150914 as the most significant event during the coincident observations between the two LIGO detectors from September 12 to October 20, 2015 GW150914 was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 σ .

  3. A Population of Short-Period Variable Quasars from PTF as Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Charisi, M; Haiman, Z; Price-Whelan, A M; Graham, M J; Bellm, E C; Laher, R R; Marka, S

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) at sub-parsec separations should be common in galactic nuclei, as a result of frequent galaxy mergers. Hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary discs predict strong periodic modulation of the mass accretion rate on time-scales comparable to the orbital period of the binary. As a result, SMBHBs may be recognized by the periodic modulation of their brightness. We conducted a statistical search for periodic variability in a sample of 35,383 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the photometric database of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We analysed Lomb-Scargle periodograms and assessed the significance of our findings by modeling each individual quasar's variability as a damped random walk (DRW). We identified 50 quasars with significant periodicity beyond the DRW model, typically with short periods of a few hundred days. We find 33 of these to remain significant after a re-analysis of their periodograms including additional optical data from the intermediate-PT...

  4. Origin and Implications of high eccentricities in massive black hole binaries at sub-pc scales

    CERN Document Server

    Roedig, Constanze

    2011-01-01

    We outline the eccentricity evolution of sub-parsec massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) forming in galaxy mergers. In both stellar and gaseous environments, MBHBs are expected to grow large orbital eccentricities before they enter the gravitational wave (GW) observational domain. We re--visit the predicted eccentricities detectable by space based laser interferometers (as the proposed ELISA/NGO) for both environments. Close to coalescence, many MBHBs will still maintain detectable eccentricities, spanning a broad range from <10^{-5} up to <~ 0.5. Stellar and gas driven dynamics lead to distinct distributions, with the latter favoring larger eccentricities. At larger binary separations, when emitted GWs will be observed by pulsar timing arrays (PTAs), the expected eccentricities are usually quite large, in the range 0.01-0.7, which poses an important issue for signal modelling and detection algorithms. In this window, large eccentricities also have implications on proposed electromagnetic counterparts to...

  5. Misaligned accretion on to supermassive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dunhill, Alex; Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of high-resolution numerical simulations of gas clouds falling onto binary supermassive black holes to form circumbinary accretion discs, with both prograde and retrograde cloud orbits. We explore a range of clouds masses and cooling rates. We find that for low mass discs that cool fast enough to fragment, prograde discs are significantly shorter-lived than similar discs orbiting retrograde with respect to the binary. For fragmenting discs of all masses, we also find that prograde discs fragment across a narrower radial region. If the cooling is slow enough that the disc enters a self-regulating gravitoturbulent regime, we find that alignment between the disc and binary planes occurs on a timescale primarily dictated by the disc thickness. We estimate realistic cooling times for such discs, and find that in the majority of cases we expect fragmentation to occur. The longer lifetime of low-mass fragmenting retrograde discs allows them to drive significant binary evolution, and may provid...

  6. Gravitational wave quasinormal mode from Population III massive black hole binaries in various models of population synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kinugawa, Tomoya; Nakamura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the remnant black holes after merging binary black holes, we show that ringdown gravitational waves of Population III binary black holes mergers can be detected with the rate of $5.9-500~{\\rm events~yr^{-1}}~({\\rm SFR_p}/ (10^{-2.5}~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr^{-1}~Mpc^{-3}})) \\cdot ({\\rm [f_b/(1+f_b)]/0.33})$ for various parameters and functions. This rate is estimated for the events with SNR$>8$ for the second generation gravitational wave detectors such as KAGRA. Here, ${\\rm SFR_p}$ and ${\\rm f_b}$ are the peak value of the Population III star formation rate and the fraction of binaries, respectively. When we consider only the events with SNR$>35$, the event rate becomes $0.046-4.21~{\\rm events~yr^{-1}}~({\\rm SFR_p}/ (10^{-2.5}~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr^{-1}~Mpc^{-3}})) \\cdot ({\\rm [f_b/(1+f_b)]/0.33})$. This suggest that for remnant black hole's spin $q_f>0.95$ we have the event rate with SNR$>35$ less than $0.037~{\\rm events~yr^{-1}}~({\\rm SFR_p}/ (10^{-2.5}~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr^{-1}~Mpc^{-3}})) \\cdot ({\\rm [f_b/(1+f_b...

  7. Production of the entire range of r-process nuclides by black hole accretion disk outflows from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-08-01

    We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion disks formed in double neutron star and neutron star - black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disk outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A nuclear physics inputs. Some of our models produce an abundance spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar System r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disk and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disk outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.

  8. A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black-hole system

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, R. P.; Paragi, Z.; Jarvis, M. J.; Coriat, M.; Bernardi, G; Fender, R. P.; S. Frey; Heywood, I.; Klöckner, H. -R.; Grainge, K.; Rumsey, C.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to multiple supermassive black holes in some. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component is more distant at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence of a black hole with mass $\\sim$10$^9$ M$_\\odot$ (about 100 parsecs). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary...

  9. Massive black hole binaries from runaway collisions: the impact of metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Michela

    2016-07-01

    The runaway collision scenario is one of the most promising mechanisms to explain the formation of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in young dense star clusters. On the other hand, the massive stars that participate in the runaway collisions lose mass by stellar winds. In this paper, we discuss new N-body simulations of massive (6.5 × 104 M⊙) star clusters, in which we added upgraded recipes for stellar winds and supernova explosion at different metallicity. We follow the evolution of the principal collision product (PCP), through dynamics and stellar evolution, till it forms a stellar remnant. At solar metallicity, the mass of the final merger product spans from few solar masses up to ˜30 M⊙. At low metallicity (0.01-0.1 Z⊙) the maximum remnant mass is ˜250 M⊙, in the range of IMBHs. A large fraction (˜0.6) of the PCPs are not ejected from the parent star cluster and acquire stellar or black hole (BH) companions. Most of the long-lived binaries hosting a PCP are BH-BH binaries. We discuss the importance of this result for gravitational wave detection.

  10. Massive black hole binaries from runaway collisions: the impact of metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Michela

    2016-04-01

    The runaway collision scenario is one of the most promising mechanisms to explain the formation of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in young dense star clusters. On the other hand, the massive stars that participate in the runaway collisions lose mass by stellar winds. In this paper, we discuss new N-body simulations of massive (6.5 × 104 M⊙) star clusters, in which we added upgraded recipes for stellar winds and supernova explosion at different metallicity. We follow the evolution of the principal collision product (PCP), through dynamics and stellar evolution, till it forms a stellar remnant. At solar metallicity, the mass of the final merger product spans from few solar masses up to ˜30 M⊙. At low metallicity (0.01 - 0.1 Z⊙) the maximum remnant mass is ˜250 M⊙, in the range of IMBHs. A large fraction (˜0.6) of the PCPs are not ejected from the parent star cluster and acquire stellar or black hole (BH) companions. Most of the long-lived binaries hosting a PCP are BH-BH binaries. We discuss the importance of this result for gravitational wave detection.

  11. Massive black hole binaries from runaway collisions: the impact of metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The runaway collision scenario is one of the most promising mechanisms to explain the formation of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in young dense star clusters. On the other hand, the massive stars that participate in the runaway collisions lose mass by stellar winds. In this paper, we discuss new N-body simulations of massive (6.5x10^4 Msun) star clusters, in which we added upgraded recipes for stellar winds and supernova explosion at different metallicity. We follow the evolution of the principal collision product (PCP), through dynamics and stellar evolution, till it forms a stellar remnant. At solar metallicity, the mass of the final merger product spans from few solar masses up to ~30 Msun. At low metallicity (0.01-0.1 Zsun) the maximum remnant mass is ~250 Msun, in the range of IMBHs. A large fraction (~0.6) of the PCPs are not ejected from the parent star cluster and acquire stellar or black hole (BH) companions. Most of the long-lived binaries hosting a PCP are BH-BH binaries. We discuss the imp...

  12. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A

    2015-09-18

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic _{-2}Y_{ℓm} waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8. We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50M_{⊙} to 300M_{⊙} for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases). PMID:26430979

  13. INTERRUPTION OF TIDAL-DISRUPTION FLARES BY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are products of galaxy mergers, and are important in testing Λ cold dark matter cosmology and locating gravitational-wave-radiation sources. A unique electromagnetic signature of SMBHBs in galactic nuclei is essential in identifying the binaries in observations from the IR band through optical to X-ray. Recently, the flares in optical, UV, and X-ray caused by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) tidally disrupting nearby stars have been successfully used to observationally probe single SMBHs in normal galaxies. In this Letter, we investigate the accretion of the gaseous debris of a tidally disrupted star by a SMBHB. Using both stability analysis of three-body systems and numerical scattering experiments, we show that the accretion of stellar debris gas, which initially decays with time ∝t -5/3, would stop at a time Ttr ≅ ηTb. Here, η ∼ 0.25 and Tb is the orbital period of the SMBHB. After a period of interruption, the accretion recurs discretely at time Tr ≅ ξb, where ξ ∼ 1. Both η and ξ sensitively depend on the orbital parameters of the tidally disrupted star at the tidal radius and the orbit eccentricity of SMBHB. The interrupted accretion of the stellar debris gas gives rise to an interrupted tidal flare, which could be used to identify SMBHBs in non-active galaxies in the upcoming transient surveys.

  14. Bright transients from strongly-magnetized neutron star-black hole mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Levin, Janna; Murray, Norman W.; Price, Larry

    2016-07-01

    Direct detection of black hole-neutron star pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet black hole-neutron star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the x ray to γ rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from 1012 to 1016 G respectively and a 10 M⊙ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the neutron star magnetic-field strength, and may be observable with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor with a rate up to a few per year for neutron star field strengths ≳1014 G . We also discuss a possible decaying post-merger event which could accompany this signal. As an electromagnetic counterpart to these otherwise dark pairs, the black-hole battery should be of great value to the development of multi-messenger astronomy in the era of aLIGO.

  15. Observable signatures of a black hole ejected by gravitational-radiation recoil in a galaxy merger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Abraham

    2007-07-27

    According to recent simulations, the coalescence of two spinning black holes (BHs) could lead to a BH remnant with recoil speeds of up to thousands of km s(-1). Here we examine the circumstances resulting from a gas-rich galaxy merger under which the ejected BH would carry an accretion disk and be observable. As the initial BH binary emits gravitational radiation and its orbit tightens, a hole is opened in the disk which delays the consumption of gas prior to the eventual BH ejection. The punctured disk remains bound to the ejected BH within the region where the gas orbital velocity is larger than the ejection speed. For a approximately 10(7) M[middle dot in circle] BH the ejected disk has a characteristic size of tens of thousands of Schwarzschild radii and an accretion lifetime of approximately 10(7) yr. During that time, the ejected BH could traverse a considerable distance and appear as an off-center quasar with a feedback trail along the path it left behind. PMID:17678347

  16. Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.

  17. Extra-large remnant recoil velocities and spins from near-extremal-Bowen-York-spin black-hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evolve equal-mass, equal-spin black-hole binaries with specific spins of a/mH∼0.925, the highest spins simulated thus far and nearly the largest possible for Bowen-York black holes, in a set of configurations with the spins counteraligned and pointing in the orbital plane, which maximizes the recoil velocities of the merger remnant, as well as a configuration where the two spins point in the same direction as the orbital angular momentum, which maximizes the orbital hangup effect and remnant spin. The coordinate radii of the individual apparent horizons in these cases are very small and the simulations require very high central resolutions (h∼M/320). We find that these highly spinning holes reach a maximum recoil velocity of ∼3300 km s-1 (the largest simulated so far) and, for the hangup configuration, a remnant spin of a/mH∼0.922. These results are consistent with our previous predictions for the maximum recoil velocity of ∼4000 km s-1 and remnant spin; the latter reinforcing the prediction that cosmic censorship is not violated by merging highly spinning black-hole binaries. We also numerically solve the initial data for, and evolve, a single maximal-Bowen-York-spin black hole, and confirm that the 3-metric has an O(r-2) singularity at the puncture, rather than the usual O(r-4) singularity seen for nonmaximal spins.

  18. Evolution Of Massive Black Hole Binaries In Rotating Stellar Nuclei: Implications For Gravitational Wave Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Rasskazov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We compute the isotropic gravitational wave (GW) background produced by binary supermassive black holes (SBHs) in galactic nuclei. In our model, massive binaries evolve at early times via gravitational-slingshot interaction with nearby stars, and at later times by the emission of GWs. Our expressions for the rate of binary hardening in the "stellar" regime are taken from the recent work of Vasiliev et al., who show that in the non-axisymmetric galaxies expected to form via mergers, stars are supplied to the center at high enough rates to ensure binary coalescence on Gyr timescales. We also include, for the first time, the extra degrees of freedom associated with evolution of the binary's orbital plane; in rotating nuclei, interaction with stars causes the orientation and the eccentricity of a massive binary to change in tandem, leading in some cases to very high eccentricities (e>0.9) before the binary enters the GW-dominated regime. We argue that previous studies have over-estimated the mean ratio of SBH mas...

  19. Misaligned gas discs around eccentric black-hole binaries and implications for the final-parsec problem

    CERN Document Server

    Aly, Hossam; Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of low mass (Md /Mb = 0.005) misaligned gaseous discs around eccentric supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. These are expected to form from randomly oriented accretion events onto a SMBH binary formed in a galaxy merger. When expanding the interaction terms between the binary and a circular ring to quadrupole order and averaging over the binary orbit, we expect four non-precessing disc orientations: aligned or counter-aligned with the binary, or polar orbits around the binary eccentricity vector with either sense of rotation. All other orientations precess around either of these, with the polar precession dominating for high eccentricity. These expectations are borne out by smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of initially misaligned viscous circumbinary discs, resulting in the formation of polar rings around highly eccentric binaries in contrast to the co-planar discs around circular binaries. Moreover, we observe disc tearing and violent interactions between different...

  20. Jet spectral breaks in black hole X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, D M; Casella, P; Cantrell, A G; Chatterjee, R; Fender, R P; Gallo, E; Gandhi, P; Homan, J; Maitra, D; Miller-Jones, J C A; O'Brien, K; Shahbaz, T

    2012-01-01

    In X-ray binaries, compact jets are known to commonly radiate at radio to infrared frequencies, whereas at optical to gamma-ray energies, the contribution of the jet is debated. The total luminosity, and hence power of the jet is critically dependent on the position of the break in its spectrum, between optically thick (self-absorbed) and optically thin synchrotron emission. This break, or turnover, has been reported in just one black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) thus far, GX 339-4, and inferred via spectral fitting in two others, A0620-00 and Cyg X-1. Here, we collect a wealth of multiwavelength data from the outbursts of BHXBs during hard X-ray states, in order to search for jet breaks as yet unidentified in their spectral energy distributions. In particular, we report the direct detection of the jet break in the spectrum of V404 Cyg during its 1989 outburst, at nu_b = (1.8 +- 0.3) x 10^14 Hz (1.7 +- 0.2 microns). We increase the number of BHXBs with measured jet breaks from three to eight. Jet breaks are found...

  1. Robust GRMHD Evolutions of Merging Black-Hole Binaries in Magnetized Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard; Etienne, Zachariah; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Baker, John

    2016-03-01

    Black-hole binary (BHB) mergers are expected to be powerful sources of gravitational radiation at stellar and galactic scales. A typical astrophysical environment for these mergers will involve magnetized plasmas accreting onto each hole; the strong-field gravitational dynamics of the merger may churn this plasma in ways that produce characteristic electromagnetic radiation visible to high-energy EM detectors on and above the Earth. Here we return to a cutting-edge GRMHD simulation of equal-mass BHBs in a uniform plasma, originally performed with the Whisky code. Our new tool is the recently released IllinoisGRMHD, a compact, highly-optimized ideal GRMHD code that meshes with the Einstein Toolkit. We establish consistency of IllinoisGRMHD results with the older Whisky results, and investigate the robustness of these results to changes in initial configuration of the BHB and the plasma magnetic field, and discuss the interpretation of the ``jet-like'' features seen in the Poynting flux post-merger. Work supported in part by NASA Grant 13-ATP13-0077.

  2. On minor black holes in galactic nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik; Yaqoob, Tahir; Winter, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Small and intermediate mass black holes should be expected in galactic nuclei as a result of stellar evolution, minor mergers and gravitational dynamical friction. If these minor black holes accrete as X-ray binaries or ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and are associated with star formation, they could account for observations of many low luminosity AGN or LINERs. Accreting and inspiralling intermediate mass black holes could provide a crucial electromagnetic counterpart to strong gravitational ...

  3. Electromagnetic extraction of energy from black hole-neutron star binaries

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliams, Sean T

    2011-01-01

    The coalescence of black hole-neutron star binaries is expected to be a principal source of gravitational waves for the next generation of detectors, Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Ideally, these and other gravitational wave sources would have a distinct electromagnetic counterpart, as significantly more information could be gained through two separate channels. In addition, since these detectors will probe distances with non-negligible redshift, a coincident observation of an electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal would facilitate a novel measurement of dark energy [1]. For black hole masses not much larger than the neutron star mass, the tidal disruption and subsequent accretion of the neutron star by the black hole provides one avenue for generating an electromagnetic counterpart [2]. However, in this work, we demonstrate that, for all black hole-neutron star binaries observable by Advanced LIGO/Virgo, the interaction of the black hole with the magnetic field of the neutron star will...

  4. Binary-black-hole encounters, gravitational bursts, and maximum final spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washik, Matthew C; Healy, James; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A

    2008-08-01

    The spin of the final black hole in the coalescence of nonspinning black holes is determined by the "residual" orbital angular momentum of the binary. This residual momentum consists of the orbital angular momentum that the binary is not able to shed in the process of merging. We study the angular momentum radiated, the spin of the final black hole, and the gravitational bursts in a sequence of equal mass encounters. The initial orbital configurations range from those producing an almost direct infall to others leading to numerous orbits before infall, with multiple bursts of radiation. Our sequence consists of orbits with fixed impact parameter. What varies is the initial linear momentum of the black holes. For this sequence, the final black hole of mass M_{h} gets a maximum spin parameter a/M_{h} approximately 0.823, with this maximum occurring for initial orbital angular momentum L/M_{h};{2} approximately 1.176. PMID:18764445

  5. Prospects of eLISA for detecting Galactic binary black holes similar to GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the prospects of eLISA for detecting gravitational waves (GWs) from Galactic binary black holes (BBHs) similar to GW150914. For a comoving merger rate that is consistent with current observation, eLISA is likely to identify at least one BBH with a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, eLISA has a potential to measure the eccentricity of the BBH as small as e ˜ 0.02, corresponding to the residual value e ˜ 10-6 at 10 Hz. Therefore, eLISA could provide us with a crucial information to understand the formation processes of relatively massive BBHs like GW150914. We also derive a simple scaling relation for the expected number of detectable Galactic BBHs.

  6. Prospects of eLISA for Detecting Galactic Binary Black Holes Similar to GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Seto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the prospects of eLISA for detecting gravitational waves (GWs) from Galactic binary black holes (BBHs) similar to GW150914. For a comoving merger rate that is consistent with current observation, eLISA is likely to identify at least one BBH with a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, eLISA has a potential to measure the eccentricity of the BBH as small as $e\\sim 0.05$, corresponding to the residual value $e\\sim 10^{-6}$ at 10Hz. Therefore, eLISA could provide us with a crucial information to understand the formation processes of relatively massive BBHs like GW150914. We also derive a simple scaling relation for the expected number of detectable Galactic BBHs.

  7. Fast radio bursts and their possible "afterglows" as Kerr-Newman black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tong; Liu, Mo-Lin; Li, Ang

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are radio transients lasting only about a few milliseconds. They seem to occur at cosmological distances. We propose that these events can be originated in the collapse of the magnetosphere of Kerr-Newman black holes (KNBHs). We show that the closed orbits of charged particles in the magnetosphere of these objects are unstable. After examining their dependences on the mass, charge, and angular momentum of the particle and the spin of the KNBH, we conclude that the resulting timescale and radiation mechanism fit well with the extant observations of FRBs. Furthermore, we argue that the merger of a KNBH binary is one of the plausible central engines for potential gamma-ray or radio "afterglow" following a certain FRBs, and can also account for gravitational wave (GW) events like GW 150914. Our model leads to predictions that can be tested by combined multi-wavelength electromagnetic and GW observations.

  8. Constraining the formation of black-holes in short-period Black-Hole Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Repetto, Serena

    2015-01-01

    The formation of stellar mass black holes is still very uncertain. Two main uncertainties are the amount of mass ejected in the supernova event (if any) and the magnitude of the natal kick the black hole receives at birth (if any). Repetto et al. (2012), studying the position of Galactic X-ray binaries containing black holes, found evidence for black holes receiving high natal kicks at birth. In this Paper we extend that study, taking into account the previous binary evolution of the sources as well. The seven short-period black-hole X-ray binaries that we use, are compact binaries consisting of a low-mass star orbiting a black hole in a period less than $1$ day. We trace their binary evolution backwards in time, from the current observed state of mass-transfer, to the moment the black hole was formed, and we add the extra information on the kinematics of the binaries. We find that several systems could be explained by no natal kick, just mass ejection, while for two systems (and possibly more) a high kick is...

  9. The final spin from binary black holes in quasi-circular orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Fabian; Barausse, Enrico; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the problem of predicting the spin magnitude and direction of the black hole resulting from the merger of two black holes with arbitrary masses and spins inspiralling in quasi-circular orbits. We do this by analyzing a catalog of 641 recent numerical-relativity simulations collected from the literature and spanning a large variety of initial conditions. By combining information from the post-Newtonian approximation, the extreme mass-ratio limit and perturbative calculations, we imp...

  10. Short Gamma-Ray Bursts from the Merger of Two Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Perna, Rosalba; Giacomazzo, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Short Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are explosions of cosmic origin believed to be associated with the merger of two compact objects, either two neutron stars, or a neutron star and a black hole. The presence of at least one neutron star has long been thought to be an essential element of the model: its tidal disruption provides the needed baryonic material whose rapid accretion onto the post-merger black hole powers the burst. The recent tentative detection by the Fermi satellite of a short GRB in association with the gravitational wave signal GW150914 produced by the merger of two black holes has shaken this standard paradigm. Here we show that the evolution of two high-mass, low-metallicity stars with main sequence rotational speeds a few tens of percent of the critical speed eventually undergoing a weak supernova explosion {\\em can} produce a short gamma-ray burst. The outer layers of the envelope of the last exploding star remain bound and circularize at large radii. With time, the disk cools and becomes neutr...

  11. Detecting Eccentric Supermassive Black Hole Binaries with Pulsar Timing Arrays: Resolvable Source Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Huerta, E. A.; Gair, J. R.; McWilliams, S. T.

    2016-01-01

    The couplings between supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) and their environments within galactic nuclei have been well studied as part of the search for solutions to the final parsec problem. The scattering of stars by the binary or the interaction with a circumbinary disk may efficiently drive the system to sub-parsec separations, allowing the binary to enter a regime where the emission of gravitational waves can drive it to merger within a Hubble time. However, these interactions can also affect the orbital parameters of the binary. In particular, they may drive an increase in binary eccentricity which survives until the system’s gravitational-wave (GW) signal enters the pulsar-timing array (PTA) band. Therefore, if we can measure the eccentricity from observed signals, we can potentially deduce some of the properties of the binary environment. To this end, we build on previous techniques to present a general Bayesian pipeline with which we can detect and estimate the parameters of an eccentric SMBHB system with PTAs. Additionally, we generalize the PTA {{ F }}{{e}}-statistic to eccentric systems, and show that both this statistic and the Bayesian pipeline are robust when studying circular or arbitrarily eccentric systems. We explore how eccentricity influences the detection prospects of single GW sources, as well as the detection penalty incurred by employing a circular waveform template to search for eccentric signals, and conclude by identifying important avenues for future study.

  12. A probable Milli-Parsec Supermassive Binary Black Hole in the Nearest Quasar Mrk 231

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Chang-Shuo; Dai, Xinyu; Yu, Qingjuan

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive binary black holes (BBHs) are unavoidable products of galaxy mergers and are expected to exist in the cores of many quasars. Great effort has been made during the past several decades to search for BBHs among quasars; however, observational evidence for BBHs remains elusive and ambiguous, which is difficult to reconcile with theoretical expectations. In this paper, we show that the distinct optical-to-UV spectrum of Mrk 231 can be well interpreted as emission from accretion flows onto a BBH, with a semimajor axis of ~590AU and an orbital period of ~1.2 year. The flat optical and UV continua are mainly emitted from a circumbinary disk and a mini-disk around the secondary black hole (BH), respectively; and the observed sharp drop off and flux deficit at wavelength lambda ~ 4000-2500 Angstrom is due to a gap (or hole) opened by the secondary BH migrating within the circumbinary disk. If confirmed by future observations, this BBH will provide a unique laboratory to study the interplay between BBHs an...

  13. Attempt to explain black hole spin in X-ray binaries with new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that the spin of black holes in X-ray binaries is mainly natal. A significant spin-up from accretion is not possible. If the secondary has a low mass, the black hole spin cannot change too much even if the black hole swallows the whole stellar companion. If the secondary has a high mass, its lifetime is too short to transfer the necessary amount of matter and spin the black hole up. However, while black holes formed from the collapse of a massive star with Solar metallicity are expected to have low birth spin, current spin measurements show that some black holes in X-ray binaries are rotating very rapidly. Here I show that, if these objects are not the Kerr black holes of general relativity, the accretion of a small amount of matter ($\\sim 2$~$M_\\odot$) can make them look like very fast-rotating Kerr black holes. Such a possibility is not in contradiction with any observation and it can explain current spin measurements in a very simple way.

  14. Attempt to explain black hole spin in X-ray binaries by new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely believed that the spin of black holes in X-ray binaries is mainly natal. A significant spin-up from accretion is not possible. If the secondary has a low mass, the black hole spin cannot change too much even if the black hole swallows the whole stellar companion. If the secondary has a high mass, its lifetime is too short to transfer the necessary amount of matter and spin the black hole up. However, while black holes formed from the collapse of a massive star with solarmetallicity are expected to have low birth spin, current spin measurements show that some black holes in X-ray binaries are rotating very rapidly. Here we show that, if these objects are not the Kerr black holes of general relativity, the accretion of a small amount of matter (∝2 Msun) can make them look like very fast-rotating Kerr black holes. Such a possibility is not in contradiction with any observation and it can explain current spin measurements in a very simple way. (orig.)

  15. Attempt to explain black hole spin in X-ray binaries by new physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely believed that the spin of black holes in X-ray binaries is mainly natal. A significant spin-up from accretion is not possible. If the secondary has a low mass, the black hole spin cannot change too much even if the black hole swallows the whole stellar companion. If the secondary has a high mass, its lifetime is too short to transfer the necessary amount of matter and spin the black hole up. However, while black holes formed from the collapse of a massive star with solar metallicity are expected to have low birth spin, current spin measurements show that some black holes in X-ray binaries are rotating very rapidly. Here we show that, if these objects are not the Kerr black holes of general relativity, the accretion of a small amount of matter (2 ) can make them look like very fast-rotating Kerr black holes. Such a possibility is not in contradiction with any observation and it can explain current spin measurements in a very simple way.

  16. Probing the Galactic Binary Black Hole Spin with Photon Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2007-01-01

    It is generally considered that the X-ray emission in AGN and Galactic Black Hole Candidates is produced by flares above the surface of a geometrically thin optically thick accretion disk, which extends down to the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO) of the black hole. We consider the influence of the black hole geometry on the light curves of these flares. To this end we follow a large number of photon orbits emitted impulsively in a locally isotropic fashion, at any phase of the disk orbit and examine their arrival times at infinity by an observer near the plane of the disk. We find out that the presence of the black hole spin induces a certain delay in the photon arrivals, as prograde photon orbits reach the observer on shorter (on the average) times than the retrograde ones. We form a histogram of the differences in photon time arrivals and we find that it exhibits several well defined peaks depending on the flare position and the black hole spin separated by $\\Delta t \\simeq 30 M$, where M is the black hole mass. The peaks disappear as the spin parameter goes to zero, implying that one could in principle measure the value of the black hole spin with timing measurements of sufficiently high signal to noise ratio.

  17. Gravitational waves from black hole-neutron star binaries I: Classification of waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Using our new numerical-relativity code SACRA, long-term simulations for inspiral and merger of black hole (BH)-neutron star (NS) binaries are performed, focusing particularly on gravitational waveforms. As the initial conditions, BH-NS binaries in a quasiequilibrium state are prepared in a modified version of the moving-puncture approach. The BH is modeled by a nonspinning moving puncture and for the NS, a polytropic equation of state with $\\Gamma=2$ and the irrotational velocity field are employed. The mass ratio of the BH to the NS, $Q=M_{\\rm BH}/M_{\\rm NS}$, is chosen in the range between 1.5 and 5. The compactness of the NS, defined by ${\\cal C}=GM_{\\rm NS}/c^2R_{\\rm NS}$, is chosen to be between 0.145 and 0.178. For a large value of $Q$ for which the NS is not tidally disrupted and is simply swallowed by the BH, gravitational waves are characterized by inspiral, merger, and ringdown waveforms. In this case, the waveforms are qualitatively the same as that from BH-BH binaries. For a sufficiently small va...

  18. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater. PMID:26551801

  19. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50 M⊙ and 500 M⊙ and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ˜200 M⊙, where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100 M⊙ can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130 M⊙ or greater.

  20. Binary Systems with a Black Hole Component as Sources of Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Koçak, D

    2016-01-01

    Discovery of gravitational waves by LIGO team (Abbott et al. 2016) bring a new era for observation of black hole systems. These new observations will improve our knowledge on black holes and gravitational physics. In this study, we present angular momentum loss mechanism through gravitational radiation for selected X-ray binary systems. The angular momentum loss in X-ray binary systems with a black hole companion due to gravitational radiation and mass loss time-scales are estimated for each selected system. In addition, their gravitational wave amplitudes are also estimated and their detectability with gravitational wave detectors has been discussed.

  1. Black hole mass and binary model for BL Lac object OJ 287

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F. K.; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2002-01-01

    Recent intensive observations of the BL Lac object OJ 287 raise a lot of questions on the models of binary black holes, processing jets, rotating helical jets and thermal instability of slim accretion disks. After carefully analyzing their radio flux and polarization data, Valtaoja et al. (\\cite{valtaoja00}) propose a new binary model. Based on the black hole mass of $4 \\times 10^8 {\\rm M_\\odot}$ estimated with the tight correlations of the black hole masses and the bulge luminosity or centra...

  2. Detecting massive black hole binaries and unveiling their cosmic history with gravitational wave observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, A

    2012-01-01

    Space based gravitational wave astronomy will open a completely new window on the Universe and massive black holes binaries are expected to be among the primary actors on this upcoming stage. The New Gravitational-wave Observatory (NGO) is a space interferometer proposal derived from the former Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept. We describe here its capabilities of observing massive black hole binaries throughout the Universe, measuring their relevant parameters (masses, spins, distance to the observer) to high precision. The statistical properties of the population of detected systems can be used to constrain the massive black hole cosmic history, providing deep insights into the faint, high redshift Universe.

  3. On the use of black hole binaries as probes of local dark energy properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accretion of dark energy onto black holes will take place when dark energy is not a cosmological constant. It has been proposed that the time evolution of the mass of the black holes in binary systems due to dark energy accretion could be detectable by gravitational radiation. This would make it possible to use observations of black hole binaries to measure local dark energy properties, e.g., to determine the sign of 1+w where w is the dark energy equation of state. In this Letter we show that such measurements are unfeasible due to the low accretion rates.

  4. On the use of black hole binaries as probes of local dark energy properties

    OpenAIRE

    Enander, Jonas; Mortsell, Edvard

    2009-01-01

    Accretion of dark energy onto black holes will take place when dark energy is not a cosmological constant. It has been proposed that the time evolution of the mass of the black holes in binary systems due to dark energy accretion could be detectable by gravitational radiation. This would make it possible to use observations of black hole binaries to measure local dark energy properties, e.g., to determine the sign of 1+w where w is the dark energy equation of state. In this Letter we show tha...

  5. An improved analytical description of inspiralling and coalescing black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault

    2009-01-01

    We present an analytical formalism, within the Effective-One-Body framework, which predicts gravitational-wave signals from inspiralling and coalescing black-hole binaries that agree, within numerical errors, with the results of the currently most accurate numerical relativity simulations for several different mass ratios. We think that our formalism opens a realistic possibility of constructing a sufficiently accurate, large bank of gravitational wave templates, as needed both for detection and data analysis of (non spinning) coalescing binary black holes.

  6. Constraints on individual supermassive black hole binaries from pulsar timing array limits on continuous gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Katelin; Ma, Chung-Pei

    2016-06-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are placing increasingly stringent constraints on the strain amplitude of continuous gravitational waves emitted by supermassive black hole binaries on subparsec scales. In this paper, we incorporate independent information about the dynamical masses Mbh of supermassive black holes in specific galaxies at known distances and use this additional information to further constrain whether or not those galaxies could host a detectable supermassive black hole binary. We estimate the strain amplitudes from individual binaries as a function of binary mass ratio for two samples of nearby galaxies: (1) those with direct dynamical measurements of Mbh in the literature, and (2) the 116 most massive early-type galaxies (and thus likely hosts of the most massive black holes) within 108 Mpc from the MASSIVE Survey. Our exploratory analysis shows that the current PTA upper limits on continuous waves (as a function of angular position in the sky) can already constrain the mass ratios of hypothetical black hole binaries in many galaxies in our samples. The constraints are stronger for galaxies with larger Mbh and at smaller distances. For the black holes with Mbh ≳ 5 × 109 M⊙ at the centres of NGC 1600, NGC 4889, NGC 4486 (M87), and NGC 4649 (M60), any binary companion in orbit within the PTA frequency bands would have to have a mass ratio of a few per cent or less.

  7. Matched Filtering of Numerical Relativity Templates of Spinning Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Vaishnav, Birjoo; Herrmann, Frank; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made towards the solution of the binary-black-hole problem in numerical relativity. The waveforms produced by numerical relativity will play a role in gravitational wave detection as either test-beds for analytic template banks or as template banks themselves. As the parameter space explored by numerical relativity expands, the importance of quantifying the effect that each parameter has on first the detection of gravitational waves and then the parameter estimation of their sources increases. In light of this, we present a study of equal-mass, spinning binary-black-hole evolutions through matched filtering techniques commonly used in data analysis. We study how the match between two numerical waveforms varies with numerical resolution, initial angular momentum of the black holes and the inclination angle between the source and the detector. This study is limited by the fact that the spinning black-hole-binaries are oriented axially and the waveforms only contain approximately two...

  8. Relativistic boost as the cause of periodicity in a massive black-hole binary candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Daniel J; Haiman, Zoltán; Schiminovich, David

    2015-09-17

    Because most large galaxies contain a central black hole, and galaxies often merge, black-hole binaries are expected to be common in galactic nuclei. Although they cannot be imaged, periodicities in the light curves of quasars have been interpreted as evidence for binaries, most recently in PG 1302-102, which has a short rest-frame optical period of four years (ref. 6). If the orbital period of the black-hole binary matches this value, then for the range of estimated black-hole masses, the components would be separated by 0.007-0.017 parsecs, implying relativistic orbital speeds. There has been much debate over whether black-hole orbits could be smaller than one parsec (ref. 7). Here we report that the amplitude and the sinusoid-like shape of the variability of the light curve of PG 1302-102 can be fitted by relativistic Doppler boosting of emission from a compact, steadily accreting, unequal-mass binary. We predict that brightness variations in the ultraviolet light curve track those in the optical, but with a two to three times larger amplitude. This prediction is relatively insensitive to the details of the emission process, and is consistent with archival ultraviolet data. Follow-up ultraviolet and optical observations in the next few years can further test this prediction and confirm the existence of a binary black hole in the relativistic regime. PMID:26381982

  9. Comparisons of eccentric binary black hole simulations with post-Newtonian models

    CERN Document Server

    Hinder, Ian; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    We present the first comparison between numerical relativity (NR) simulations of an eccentric binary black hole system with corresponding post-Newtonian (PN) results. We evolve an equal-mass, non-spinning configuration with an initial eccentricity e = 0.1 for 21 gravitational wave cycles before merger, and find agreement in the gravitational wave phase with an adiabatic eccentric PN model with 2 PN radiation reaction within 0.1 radians for 8 cycles. The NR and PN phase difference grows to 0.8 radians by 5 cycles before merger. We find that these results can be obtained by expanding the eccentric PN expressions in terms of the frequency-related variable x = (omega M)^{2/3} with M the total mass of the binary. When using instead the mean motion n = 2 pi/P, where P is the orbital period, the comparison leads to significant disagreements with NR. We also introduce a new method for matching NR and PN waveforms, based on extrapolating parameters determined from least squares fitting as t -> -infinity.

  10. The Missing Link: Bayesian Detection and Measurement of Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Philip B; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2015-01-01

    We perform Bayesian analysis of gravitational-wave signals from non-spinning, intermediate-mass black-hole binaries (IMBHBs) with observed total mass, $M_{\\mathrm{obs}}$, from $50\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ to $500\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ and mass ratio $1\\mbox{--}4$ using advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. We employ inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform models based on the effective-one-body formalism and include subleading modes of radiation beyond the leading $(2,2)$ mode. The presence of subleading modes increases signal power for inclined binaries and allows for improved accuracy and precision in measurements of the masses as well as breaking of extrinsic parameter degeneracies. For low total masses, $M_{\\mathrm{obs}} \\lesssim 50 \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$, the observed chirp mass $\\mathcal{M}_{\\rm obs} = M_{\\mathrm{obs}}\\,\\eta^{3/5}$ ($\\eta$ being the symmetric mass ratio) is better measured. In contrast, as increasing power comes from merger and ringdown, we find that the total mass $M_{\\mathrm{obs}}$ has better relative prec...

  11. CONSTRAINING THE DARK ENERGY EQUATION OF STATE USING LISA OBSERVATIONS OF SPINNING MASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravitational wave (GW) signals from coalescing massive black hole (MBH) binaries could be used as standard sirens to measure cosmological parameters. The future space-based GW observatory Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will detect up to a hundred of those events, providing very accurate measurements of their luminosity distances. To constrain the cosmological parameters, we also need to measure the redshift of the galaxy (or cluster of galaxies) hosting the merger. This requires the identification of a distinctive electromagnetic event associated with the binary coalescence. However, putative electromagnetic signatures may be too weak to be observed. Instead, we study here the possibility of constraining the cosmological parameters by enforcing statistical consistency between all the possible hosts detected within the measurement error box of a few dozen of low-redshift (z < 3) events. We construct MBH populations using merger tree realizations of the dark matter hierarchy in a ΛCDM universe, and we use data from the Millennium simulation to model the galaxy distribution in the LISA error box. We show that, assuming that all the other cosmological parameters are known, the parameter w describing the dark energy equation of state can be constrained to a 4%-8% level (2σ error), competitive with current uncertainties obtained by type Ia supernovae measurements, providing an independent test of our cosmological model.

  12. Mergers of magnetized neutron stars with spinning black holes: disruption, accretion, and fallback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sarvnipun; Anderson, Matthew; Besselman, Michael; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David

    2010-09-10

    We investigate the merger of a neutron star in orbit about a spinning black hole in full general relativity with a mass ratio of 5:1, allowing the star to have an initial magnetization of 10(12)  G. We present the resulting gravitational waveform and analyze the fallback accretion as the star is disrupted. We see no significant dynamical effects in the simulations or changes in the gravitational waveform resulting from the initial magnetization. We find that only a negligible amount of matter becomes unbound; 99% of the neutron star material has a fallback time of 10 seconds or shorter to reach the region of the central engine and that 99.99% of the star will interact with the central disk and black hole within 3 hours. PMID:20867561

  13. Mergers of Magnetized Neutron Stars with Spinning Black Holes: Disruption, Accretion and Fallback

    CERN Document Server

    Chawla, Sarvnipun; Besselman, Michael; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the merger of a neutron star (of compaction ratio $0.1$) in orbit about a spinning black hole in full general relativity with a mass ratio of $5:1$, allowing for the star to have an initial magnetization of $10^{12} {\\rm Gauss}$. We present the resulting gravitational waveform and analyze the fallback accretion as the star is disrupted. The evolutions suggest no significant effects from the initial magnetization. We find that only a negligible amount of matter becomes unbound; $99\\%$ of the neutron star material has a fallback time of 10 seconds or shorter to reach the region of the central engine and that $99.99\\%$ of the star will interact with the central disk and black hole within 3 hours.

  14. DOUBLE QUASARS: PROBES OF BLACK HOLE SCALING RELATIONSHIPS AND MERGER SCENARIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the available sample of double quasars, and investigate their physical properties. Our sample comprises 85 pairs, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We derive physical parameters for the engine and the host, and model the dynamical evolution of the pair. First, we compare different scaling relationships between massive black holes and their hosts (bulge mass, velocity dispersion, and their possible redshift dependences), and discuss their consistency. We then compute dynamical friction timescales for the double quasar systems to investigate their frequency and their agreement with the merger drivenscenario for quasar triggering. In optical surveys, such as the SDSS, N double,qso/N qso ∼ 0.1%. Comparing typical merging timescales to expected quasar lifetimes, the fraction of double quasars should be roughly a factor of 10 larger than observed. Additionally, we find that, depending on the correlations between black holes and their hosts, the occurrence of double quasars could be redshift dependent. Comparison of our models to the SDSS quasar catalog suggests that double quasars should be more common at high redshift. We compare the typical separations at which double quasars are observed to the predictions of merger simulations. We find that the distribution of physical separations peaks at ∼30 kpc, with a tail at larger separations (∼100-200 kpc). The peak of the distribution is roughly consistent with the first episode of quasar activity found in equal mass mergers simulations. The tail of the quasar pairs distribution at large separations is instead inconsistent with any quasar activity predicted by published simulations. These large separation pairs are instead consistent with unequal mass mergers where gas is dynamically perturbed during the first pericentric passage, but the gas reaches the black hole only at the next apocenter, where the pair is observed.

  15. The Final Spin from Binary Black Holes in Quasi-circular Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Fabian; Barausse, Enrico; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2016-07-01

    We revisit the problem of predicting the spin magnitude and direction of the black hole (BH) resulting from the merger of two BHs with arbitrary masses and spins inspiraling in quasi-circular orbits. We do this by analyzing a catalog of 619 recent numerical-relativity simulations collected from the literature and spanning a large variety of initial conditions. By combining information from the post-Newtonian approximation, the extreme mass-ratio limit, and perturbative calculations, we improve our previously proposed phenomenological formulae for the final remnant spin. In contrast with alternative suggestions in the literature, and in analogy with our previous expressions, the new formula is a simple algebraic function of the initial system parameters and is not restricted to binaries with spins aligned/anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum but can be employed for fully generic binaries. The accuracy of the new expression is significantly improved, especially for almost extremal progenitor spins and for small mass ratios, yielding an rms error σ ≈ 0.002 for aligned/anti-aligned binaries and σ ≈ 0.006 for generic binaries. Our new formula is suitable for cosmological applications and can be employed robustly in the analysis of the gravitational waveforms from advanced interferometric detectors.

  16. Observing the dynamics of supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingarelli, C M F; Grover, K; Sidery, T; Smith, R J E; Vecchio, A

    2012-08-24

    Pulsar timing arrays are a prime tool to study unexplored astrophysical regimes with gravitational waves. Here, we show that the detection of gravitational radiation from individually resolvable supermassive black hole binary systems can yield direct information about the masses and spins of the black holes, provided that the gravitational-wave-induced timing fluctuations both at the pulsar and at Earth are detected. This in turn provides a map of the nonlinear dynamics of the gravitational field and a new avenue to tackle open problems in astrophysics connected to the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes. We discuss the potential, the challenges, and the limitations of these observations. PMID:23002736

  17. Spin-multipole effects in binary black holes and the test-body limit

    OpenAIRE

    Vines, Justin; Steinhoff, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the Hamiltonian for the conservative dynamics of generic-orbit arbitrary-mass-ratio spinning binary black holes, at the leading post-Newtonian orders at each order in an expansion in spins, to all orders in the spins. The leading-order couplings can all be obtained from a map to the motion of a test black hole (a test body with the spin-induced multipoles of a Kerr black hole) in the Kerr spacetime, as is confirmed with direct post-Newtonian calculations for arbitrary mass ratios. ...

  18. Spin-multipole effects in binary black holes and the test-body limit

    CERN Document Server

    Vines, Justin

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the Hamiltonian for the conservative dynamics of generic-orbit arbitrary-mass-ratio spinning binary black holes, at the leading post-Newtonian orders at each order in an expansion in spins, to all orders in the spins. The leading-order couplings can all be obtained from a map to the motion of a test black hole (a test body with the spin-induced multipoles of a Kerr black hole) in the Kerr spacetime, as is confirmed with direct post-Newtonian calculations for arbitrary mass ratios. Furthermore, all of the couplings can be "deduced" from those of a pole-dipole test body in Kerr.

  19. The Binary Black Hole Model for Mrk 231 Cannot Explain the Observed Emission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Leighly, Karen M.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Lucy, Adrian B.

    2016-01-01

    Mrk 231 is a nearby quasar with an unusually red continuum, generally explained as heavy reddening by dust (e.g., Leighly et al. 2014). Yan et al. 2015 proposed that Mrk 231 is a milli-parsec black-hole binary with little intrinsic reddening. The large-mass black hole experiences advection-dominated accretion, emitting little continuum, while the accretion disk of the small-mass black hole emits as an ordinary quasar, dominating the observed weak UV continuum and contributing all of the photo...

  20. Gravitational waves from resolvable massive black hole binary systems and observations with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, A; Volonteri, M

    2008-01-01

    Massive black holes are key components of the assembly and evolution of cosmic structures and a number of surveys are currently on-going or planned to probe the demographics of these objects and to gain insight into the relevant physical processes. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) currently provide the only means to observe gravitational radiation from massive black hole binary systems with masses >10^7 solar masses. The whole cosmic population produces a stochastic background that could be detectable with upcoming Pulsar Timing Arrays. Sources sufficiently close and/or massive generate gravitational radiation that significantly exceeds the level of the background and could be individually resolved. We consider a wide range of massive black hole binary assembly scenarios, we investigate the distribution of the main physical parameters of the sources, such as masses and redshift, and explore the consequences for Pulsar Timing Arrays observations. Depending on the specific massive black hole population model, we est...

  1. Estimates of black hole natal kick velocities from observations of low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ilya

    2016-02-01

    The birth kicks of black holes, arising from asymmetric mass ejection or neutrino emission during core-collapse supernovae, are of great interest for both observationally constraining supernova models and population-synthesis studies of binary evolution. Recently, several efforts were undertaken to estimate black hole birth kicks from observations of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We follow up on this work, specifically focusing on the highest estimated black hole kick velocities. We find that existing observations do not require black hole birth kicks in excess of approximately 80 km s-1, although higher kicks are not ruled out.

  2. On the Apparent Lack of Be X-ray Binaries with Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    In the Galaxy there are 64 Be X-ray binaries. Out of those, 42 host a neutron star, and for the reminder the nature of a companion is not known. None, so far, is known to host a black hole. There seems to be no apparent mechanism that would prevent formation or detection of Be stars with black holes. This disparity is referred to as a missing Be -- black hole X-ray binary problem. We point out that current evolutionary scenarios that lead to the formation of Be X-ray binaries predict that the ratio of these binaries with neutron stars to the ones with black holes is rather high F_NStoBH = 10--50, with the more likely formation models providing the values at the high end. The ratio is a natural outcome of (i) the stellar initial mass function that provides more neutron stars than black holes and (ii) common envelope evolution (i.e. a major mechanism involved in the formation of interacting binaries) that naturally selects progenitors of Be X-ray binaries with neutron stars (comparable mass binaries have more l...

  3. Major galaxy mergers and the growth of supermassive black holes in quasars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Sanders, David B; Urry, C Megan; Schawinski, Kevin; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2010-04-30

    Despite observed strong correlations between central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and star formation in galactic nuclei, uncertainties exist in our understanding of their coupling. We present observations of the ratio of heavily obscured to unobscured quasars as a function of cosmic epoch up to z congruent with 3 and show that a simple physical model describing mergers of massive, gas-rich galaxies matches these observations. In the context of this model, every obscured and unobscured quasar represents two distinct phases that result from a massive galaxy merger event. Much of the mass growth of the SMBH occurs during the heavily obscured phase. These observations provide additional evidence for a causal link between gas-rich galaxy mergers, accretion onto the nuclear SMBH, and coeval star formation. PMID:20339033

  4. The Merger-Free Co-Evolution of Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca Jane; Lintott, Chris; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2016-06-01

    Calm, "secular" accretion and evolutionary processes, once thought to be relegated to the sidelines of galaxy evolution, are now understood to play a significant role in the buildup of stellar mass in galaxies. Most galaxies are formed and evolve via a mix of secular-driven evolution and more violent processes like strong disk instabilities and galaxy mergers; this makes isolating the effects of secular evolution in galaxies very difficult. Massive pure disk galaxies, lacking the classical or "pseudo" bulge components that arise naturally from mergers and disk instabilities (respectively), are a unique opportunity to study galaxy evolution in the absence of violent processes. Previous studies have disagreed on whether the black hole-galaxy mass correlation is driven by galaxy-galaxy interactions or something more fundamental. Here we present new evidence using a statistically significant sample of AGN hosted in bulgeless disk galaxies at z evolution in the absence of mergers.

  5. Linking the fate of massive black hole binaries to the active galactic nuclei luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Dotti, Massimo; Montuori, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Massive black hole binaries are naturally predicted in the context of the hierarchical model of structure formation. The binaries that manage to lose most of their angular momentum can coalesce to form a single remnant. In the last stages of this process, the holes undergo an extremely loud phase of gravitational wave emission, possibly detectable by current and future probes. The theoretical effort towards obtaining a coherent physical picture of the binary path down to coalescence is still underway. In this paper, for the first time, we take advantage of observational studies of active galactic nuclei evolution to constrain the efficiency of gas-driven binary decay. Under conservative assumptions we find that gas accretion toward the nuclear black holes can efficiently lead binaries of any mass forming at high redshift (> 2) to coalescence within the current time. The observed "downsizing" trend of the accreting black hole luminosity function further implies that the gas inflow is sufficient to drive light ...

  6. Are Compton-thick AGNs the Missing Link between Mergers and Black Hole Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevski, Dale D.; Brightman, Murray; Nandra, Kirpal; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salvato, Mara; Aird, James; Bell, Eric F.; Hsu, Li-Ting; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Koo, David C.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mozena, Mark; Rosario, David; Trump, Jonathan R.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the host morphologies of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z∼ 1 to test whether obscured super-massive black hole growth at this epoch is preferentially linked to galaxy mergers. Our sample consists of 154 obscured AGNs with {N}{{H}}\\gt {10}23.5 {{cm}}-2 and z\\lt 1.5. Using visual classifications, we compare the morphologies of these AGNs to control samples of moderately obscured (1022 cm{}-2\\lt {N}{{H}}\\lt {10}23.5 {{cm}}-2) and unobscured ({N}{{H}}\\lt {10}22 {{cm}}-2) AGN. These control AGNs have similar redshifts and intrinsic X-ray luminosities to our heavily obscured AGN. We find that heavily obscured AGNs are twice as likely to be hosted by late-type galaxies relative to unobscured AGNs ({65.3}-4.6+4.1% versus {34.5}-2.7+2.9%) and three times as likely to exhibit merger or interaction signatures ({21.5}-3.3+4.2% versus {7.8}-1.3+1.9%). The increased merger fraction is significant at the 3.8σ level. If we exclude all point sources and consider only extended hosts, we find that the correlation between the merger fraction and obscuration is still evident, although at a reduced statistical significance (2.5σ ). The fact that we observe a different disk/spheroid fraction versus obscuration indicates that the viewing angle cannot be the only thing differentiating our three AGN samples, as a simple unification model would suggest. The increased fraction of disturbed morphologies with obscuration supports an evolutionary scenario, in which Compton-thick AGNs are a distinct phase of obscured super-massive black hole (SMBH) growth following a merger/interaction event. Our findings also suggest that some of the merger-triggered SMBH growth predicted by recent AGN fueling models may be hidden among the heavily obscured, Compton-thick population.

  7. The Population of Viscosity- and Gravitational Wave-Driven Supermassive Black Hole Binaries Among Luminous AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Haiman, Zoltán; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) in galactic nuclei are thought to be a common by-product of major galaxy mergers. We use simple disk models for the circumbinary gas and for the binary-disk interaction to follow the orbital decay of SMBHBs with a range of total masses (M) and mass ratios (q), through physically distinct regions of the disk, until gravitational waves (GWs) take over their evolution. Prior to the GW-driven phase, the viscous decay is in the stalled "secondary-dominated" regime. SMBHBs spend a non-negligible fraction of 10^7 years at orbital periods t_var between a day and a year. A dedicated optical or X-ray survey could identify coalescing SMBHBs statistically, as a population of periodically variable quasars, whose abundance N_var is proportional to t_var^alpha, in a range of periods t_var around tens of weeks. SMBHBs with M < 10^7 M_sun, with 0.5 < alpha < 1.5, would probe the physics of viscous orbital decay, whereas the detection of a population of higher-mass binaries, w...

  8. Consequences of Mechanical and Radiative Feedback from Black Holes in Disc Galaxy Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ena; Naab, Thorsten; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Johansson, Peter H.; Moster, Benjamin P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of AGN mechanical and radiation feedback on the formation of bulge dominated galaxies via mergers of disc galaxies. The merging galaxies have mass-ratios of 1:1 to 6:1 and include pre-existing hot gaseous halos to properly account for the global impact of AGN feedback. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation code (GADGET-3) we compare three models with different AGN feedback models: (1) no black hole and no AGN feedback; (2) thermal AGN feedback; and (3) mechanica...

  9. Mergers of Magnetized Neutron Stars with Spinning Black Holes: Disruption, Accretion and Fallback

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Sarvnipun; Anderson, Matthew; Besselman, Michael; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the merger of a neutron star (of compaction ratio $0.1$) in orbit about a spinning black hole in full general relativity with a mass ratio of $5:1$, allowing for the star to have an initial magnetization of $10^{12} {\\rm Gauss}$. We present the resulting gravitational waveform and analyze the fallback accretion as the star is disrupted. The evolutions suggest no significant effects from the initial magnetization. We find that only a negligible amount of matter becomes unbound; ...

  10. Hydrodynamical simulations of the tidal stripping of binary stars by massive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainetti, Deborah; Lupi, Alessandro; Campana, Sergio; Colpi, Monica

    2016-04-01

    In a galactic nucleus, a star on a low angular momentum orbit around the central massive black hole can be fully or partially disrupted by the black hole tidal field, lighting up the compact object via gas accretion. This phenomenon can repeat if the star, not fully disrupted, is on a closed orbit. Because of the multiplicity of stars in binary systems, also binary stars may experience in pairs such a fate, immediately after being tidally separated. The consumption of both the binary components by the black hole is expected to power a double-peaked flare. In this paper, we perform for the first time, with GADGET2, a suite of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of binary stars around a galactic central black hole in the Newtonian regime. We show that accretion luminosity light curves from double tidal disruptions reveal a more prominent knee, rather than a double peak, when decreasing the impact parameter of the encounter and when elevating the difference between the mass of the star which leaves the system after binary separation and the mass of the companion. The detection of a knee can anticipate the onset of periodic accretion luminosity flares if one of the stars, only partially disrupted, remains bound to the black hole after binary separation. Thus knees could be precursors of periodic flares, which can then be predicted, followed up and better modelled. Analytical estimates in the black hole mass range 105-108 M⊙ show that the knee signature is enhanced in the case of black holes of mass 106-107 M⊙.

  11. The imminent detection of gravitational waves from massive black-hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliams, Sean T; Pretorius, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of massive galaxies indicate that they double in mass and quintuple in size between redshift z = 1 and the present, despite undergoing very little star formation, suggesting that galaxy mergers drive the evolution. Since these galaxies will contain supermassive black holes, this suggests a larger black hole merger rate, and therefore a larger gravitational-wave signal, than previously expected. We calculate the merger-driven evolution of the mass function, and find that merger rates are 10 to 30 times higher and gravitational waves are 3 to 5 times stronger than previously estimated, so that the gravitational-wave signal may already be detectable with existing data from pulsar timing arrays. We also provide an explanation for the disagreement with past estimates that were based on dark matter halo simulations.

  12. Delayed outflows from black hole accretion tori following neutron star binary coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Expulsion of neutron-rich matter following the merger of neutron star (NS) binaries is crucial to the radioactively-powered electromagnetic counterparts of these events and to their relevance as sources of r-process nucleosynthesis. Numerical simulations of NS-NS coalescence find, however, a wide range in the quantity of prompt dynamically-ejected mass. Here we explore the long-term (viscous) evolution of remnant black hole accretion disks formed in such mergers by means of two-dimensional, time-dependent hydrodynamical simulations. The evolution of the electron fraction due to charged-current weak interactions is included, and neutrino self-irradiation is modeled as a lightbulb that accounts for the disk geometry and moderate optical depth effects. Over several viscous times (~1s), a fraction ~10% of the initial disk mass is ejected as a moderately neutron-rich wind (Y_e ~ 0.2) powered by viscous heating and nuclear recombination, with neutrino self-irradiation playing a sub-dominant role. Although the prope...

  13. Constraining the formation of black holes in short-period black hole low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Serena; Nelemans, Gijs

    2015-11-01

    The formation of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) is still very uncertain. Two main uncertainties are the amount of mass ejected in the supernova (SN) event (if any) and the magnitude of the natal kick (NK) the BH receives at birth (if any). Repetto et al., studying the position of Galactic X-ray binaries containing BHs, found evidence for BHs receiving high NKs at birth. In this paper, we extend that study, taking into account the previous binary evolution of the sources as well. The seven short-period BH X-ray binaries that we use are compact binaries consisting of a low-mass star orbiting a BH in a period less than 1 d. We trace their binary evolution backwards in time, from the current observed state of mass transfer, to the moment the BH was formed, and we add the extra information on the kinematics of the binaries. We find that several systems could be explained by no NK, just mass ejection, while for two systems (and possibly more) a high kick is required. So unless the latter have an alternative formation, such as within a globular cluster, we conclude that at least some BHs get high kicks. This challenges the standard picture that BH kicks would be scaled down from neutron star kicks. Furthermore, we find that five systems could have formed with a non-zero NK but zero mass ejected (i.e. no SN) at formation, as predicted by neutrino-driven NKs.

  14. Prospects for Detection of Extragalactic Stellar Black Hole Binaries in the Nearby Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Benacquista, Matthew; Mata, Alberto; Belczynski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Stellar mass black hole binaries have individual masses between 10-80 solar masses. These systems may emit gravitational waves at frequencies detectable at Megaparsec distances by space-based gravitational wave observatories. In a previous study, we determined the selection effects of observing these systems with detectors similar to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna by using a generated population of binary black holes that covered a reasonable parameter space and calculating their signal-to-noise ratio. We further our study by populating the galaxies in our nearby (less than 30 Mpc) universe with binary black hole systems drawn from a distribution found in the Synthetic Universe to ultimately investigate the likely event rate of detectable binaries from galaxies in the nearby universe.

  15. Exploring the use of numerical relativity waveforms in burst analysis of precessing black hole mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in numerical relativity and an ever improving performance of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In preparation for the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) and a new era in gravitational wave astronomy, the numerical relativity and gravitational wave data analysis communities are collaborating to ascertain the most useful role for numerical relativity waveforms in the detection and characterization of binary black hole coalescences. In this paper, we explore the detectability of equal mass, merging black hole binaries with precessing spins and total mass MT(set-membership sign)[80,350]M·, using numerical relativity waveforms and templateless search algorithms designed for gravitational wave bursts. In particular, we present a systematic study using waveforms produced by the MayaKranc code that are added to colored, Gaussian noise and analyzed with the Omega burst search algorithm. Detection efficiency is weighed against the orientation of one of the black-hole's spin axes. We find a strong correlation between the detection efficiency and the radiated energy and angular momentum, and that the inclusion of the l=2, m=±1, 0 modes, at a minimum, is necessary to account for the full dynamics of precessing systems.

  16. Evidence of a Massive Black Hole Companion in the Massive Eclipsing Binary V Puppis

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, S -B; Fernandez-Lajus, E

    2008-01-01

    Up to now, most stellar-mass black holes were discovered in X-ray emitting binaries, in which the black holes are formed through a common-envelope evolu tion. Here we give evidence for the presence of a massive black hole candidate as a tertiary companion in the massive eclipsing binary V Puppis. We found that the orbital period of this short-period binary (P=1.45 days) shows a periodic variation while it undergoes a long-term increase. The cyclic period oscillation can be interpreted by the light-travel time effect via the presence of a third body with a mass no less than 10.4 solar mass. However, no spectral lines of the third body were discovered indicating that it is a massive black hole candidate. The black hole candidate may correspond to the weak X-ray source close to V Puppis discovered by Uhuru, Copernicus, and ROSAT satellites produced by accreting materials from the massive binary via stellar wind. The circumstellar matter with many heavy elements around this binary may be formed by the supernova e...

  17. Black Hole Spin-Orbit Misalignment in Galactic X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Fragos, T; Rantsiou, E; Belczynski, K

    2010-01-01

    In black hole X-ray binaries, a misalignment between the spin axis of the black hole and the orbital angular momentum can occur during the supernova explosion that forms the compact object. In this letter we present population synthesis models of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries, and study the probability density function of the misalignment angle, and its dependence on our model parameters. In our modeling, we also take into account the evolution of misalignment angle due to accretion of material onto the black hole during the X-ray binary phase. The major factor that sets the misalignment angle for X-ray binaries is the natal kick that the black hole may receive at its formation. However, large kicks tend to disrupt binaries, while small kicks allow the formation of XRBs and naturally select systems with small misalignment angles. Our calculations predict that the majority (>67%) of Galactic field BH XRBs have rather small (>10 degrees) misalignment angles, while some systems may reach misalignment angles...

  18. Energetics and phasing of nonprecessing spinning coalescing black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Alessandro; Damour, Thibault; Reisswig, Christian; Pollney, Denis

    2016-02-01

    We present an improved numerical relativity (NR) calibration of the new effective-one-body (EOB) model for coalescing nonprecessing spinning black hole binaries recently introduced by Damour and Nagar [Phys. Rev. D 90, 044018 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.044018]. We do so by comparing the EOB predictions to both the phasing and the energetics provided by two independent sets of NR data covering mass ratios 1 ≤q ≤9.989 and dimensionless spin range -0.95 ≤χ ≤+0.994 . One set of data is a subset of the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog of public waveforms; the other set consists of new simulations obtained with the Llama code plus Cauchy characteristic evolution. We present the first systematic computation of the gauge-invariant relation between the binding energy and the total angular momentum, Eb(j ), for a large sample of, spin-aligned, SXS and Llama data. The dynamics of the EOB model presented here involves only two free functional parameters, one [a6c(ν )] entering the nonspinning sector, as a 5PN effective correction to the interaction potential, and one [c3(a˜1,a˜2,ν )] in the spinning sector, as an effective next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order correction to the spin-orbit coupling. These parameters are determined [together with a third functional parameter Δ tNQC(χ ) entering the waveform] by comparing the EOB phasing with the SXS phasing, the consistency of the energetics being checked afterwards. The quality of the analytical model for gravitational wave data analysis purposes is assessed by computing the EOB/NR faithfulness. Over the NR data sample and when varying the total mass between 20 and 200 M⊙ the EOB/NR unfaithfulness (integrated over the NR frequency range) is found to vary between 99.493% and 99.984% with a median value of 99.944%.

  19. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY EVOLUTION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models of galaxy formation invoke the major merger of gas-rich progenitor galaxies as the trigger for significant phases of black hole growth and the associated feedback that suppresses star formation to create red spheroidal remnants. However, the observational evidence for the connection between mergers and active galactic nucleus (AGN) phases is not clear. We analyze a sample of low-mass early-type galaxies known to be in the process of migrating from the blue cloud to the red sequence via an AGN phase in the green valley. Using deeper imaging from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, we show that the fraction of objects with major morphological disturbances is high during the early starburst phase, but declines rapidly to the background level seen in quiescent early-type galaxies by the time of substantial AGN radiation several hundred Myr after the starburst. This observation empirically links the AGN activity in low-redshift early-type galaxies to a significant merger event in the recent past. The large time delay between the merger-driven starburst and the peak of AGN activity allows for the merger features to decay to the background and hence may explain the weak link between merger features and AGN activity in the literature.

  20. Shining Light on Quantum Gravity with Pulsar-Black Hole Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, John; Kavic, Michael; Lippert, Matthew; Simonetti, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsars are some of the most accurate clocks found in nature, while black holes offer a unique arena for the study of quantum gravity. As such, pulsar-black hole (PSR-BH) binaries provide ideal astrophysical systems for detecting effects of quantum gravity. With the success of aLIGO and the advent of instruments like the SKA and eLISA, the prospects for discovery of such PSR-BH binaries are very promising. We argue that PSR-BH binaries can serve as ready-made testing grounds for proposed reso...

  1. A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black hole system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, R P; Paragi, Z; Jarvis, M J; Coriat, M; Bernardi, G; Fender, R P; Frey, S; Heywood, I; Klöckner, H-R; Grainge, K; Rumsey, C

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to some hosting multiple supermassive black holes. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest black hole pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component in this system is at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence (about 100 parsecs for a black hole with mass one billion times that of the Sun). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs (ref. 10). Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z = 0.39, with the closest pair separated by about 140 parsecs and significantly more distant from Earth than any other known binary of comparable orbital separation. The effect of the tight pair is to introduce a rotationally symmetric helical modulation on the structure of the large-scale radio jets, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments. PMID:24990745

  2. ELECTROMAGNETIC EXTRACTION OF ENERGY FROM BLACK-HOLE-NEUTRON-STAR BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Levin, Janna, E-mail: stmcwill@princeton.edu [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The coalescence of black-hole-neutron-star binaries is expected to be a principal source of gravitational waves for the next generation of detectors, Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. For black hole masses not much larger than the neutron star mass, the tidal disruption of the neutron star by the black hole provides one avenue for generating an electromagnetic counterpart. However, in this work, we demonstrate that, for all black-hole-neutron-star binaries observable by Advanced LIGO/Virgo, the interaction of the black hole with the magnetic field of the neutron star will generate copious luminosity, comparable to supernovae and active galactic nuclei. This novel effect may have already been observed as a new class of very short gamma-ray bursts by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Telescope. These events may be observable to cosmological distances, so that any black-hole-neutron-star coalescence detectable with gravitational waves by Advanced LIGO/Virgo could also be detectable electromagnetically.

  3. Final mass and maximum spin of merged black holes and the golden black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results on the mass and spin of the final black hole from mergers of equal mass, spinning black holes. The study extends over a broad range of initial orbital configurations, from direct plunges to quasicircular inspirals to more energetic orbits (generalizations of Newtonian elliptical orbits). It provides a comprehensive search of those configurations that maximize the final spin of the remnant black hole. We estimate that the final spin can reach a maximum spin a/Mh≅0.99±0.01 for extremal black hole mergers. In addition, we find that, as one increases the orbital angular momentum from small values, the mergers produce black holes with mass and spin parameters (Mh/M,a/Mh) spiraling around the values (M-circumflexh/M,a-circumflex/Mh) of a golden black hole. Specifically, (Mh-M-circumflexh)/M∝e±Bφcosφ and (a-a-circumflex)/Mh∝e±Cφsinφ, with φ a monotonically growing function of the initial orbital angular momentum. We find that the values of the parameters for the golden black hole are those of the final black hole obtained from the merger of a binary with the corresponding spinning black holes in a quasicircular inspiral.

  4. Quasars in the Time Domain: Supermassive Black Hole Binaries and Extreme Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Stern, Daniel; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Glikman, Eilat

    2016-01-01

    Quasar variability can offer insights into the physics of AGN, as it is driven by the variations in the accretion rate, changes in obscuration, and/or instabilities and propagation effects of the relativistic jets. Large synoptic sky surveys such as CRTS (crts.caltech.edu) offer new possibilities in this domain.We use the data set of CRTS light curves of ~335,000 known, spectroscopically confirmed quasars. They have up to a few hundred data points each, with baselines of up to 10 years. This is an unprecedented data set for the studies of quasar variability.We have previously identified a characteristic time scale of stochastic quasar variability, ~54 days (restframe), which anticorrelates with luminosity and black hole mass. While the origin of this phenomenon is not yet understood, it may lead to new insights into the physics of AGN accretion disks and quasars in general. While most quasars show such a characteristic time scale and trends, a subset exhibit a time scale that is significantly different than expected given their physical parameters. We have also found a number of other objects that show extreme variability (in RMS amplitude, or other measures). For a number of these objects we have now detected significant spectroscopic changes that correlate with the photometric variability. We will describe some of the more interesting cases.An even more interesting is the recent detection of periodically variable quasars, which are interpreted as a signature of close (milliparsec scale) supermassive black hole binaries (SMBH) en route to a merger. This population may offer new insights into the assembly of SMBH and their physics in the gravitational wave regime. We have initiate a spectroscopic monitoring program of these objects, and have already detected some spectroscopic changes for some of them. We will describe these results and their possible interpretations.

  5. Electromagnetic signatures of supermassive black hole binaries resolved by PTAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) may eventually be able to detect not only the stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background of SMBH binaries, but also individual, particularly massive binaries whose signals stick out above the background. In this contribution, we discuss the possibility of identifying and studying such ‘resolved’ binaries through their electromagnetic emission. The host galaxies of such binaries are themselves expected to be also very massive and rare, so that out to redshifts z ≈ 0.2 a unique massive galaxy may be identified as the host. At higher redshifts, the PTA error boxes are larger and may contain as many as several hundred massive-galaxy interlopers. In this case, the true counterpart may be identified, if it is accreting gas efficiently, as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) with a peculiar spectrum and variable emission features. Specifically, the binary’s tidal torques expel the gas from the inner part of the accretion disc, making it unusually dim in x-ray and UV bands and in broad optical emission lines. The tails of the broad wings of any FeKα emission line may also be ‘clipped’ and missing. The binary’s orbital motion, as well as the gas motions it induces, may trigger quasiperiodic variations. These include coherent flux variability, such as luminous, multi-wavelength flares, as well as Doppler shifts of broad emission lines and ‘see-saw’ oscillations in the FeKα line. Additional features, such as evidence for a recent major merger or dual collimated jets, could also corroborate the counterpart. These properties would make resolved PTA sources stand out among AGN with similar overall luminosities and allow their identification. (paper)

  6. Suppression of the accretion rate in thin discs around binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Enrico; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J.

    2016-05-01

    We present three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations investigating the dependence of the accretion rate on the disc thickness around an equal-mass, circular black hole binary system. We find that for thick/hot discs, with H/R ≳ 0.1, the binary torque does not prevent the gas from penetrating the cavity formed in the disc by the binary (in line with previous investigations). The situation drastically changes for thinner discs, in this case the mass accretion rate is suppressed, such that only a fraction (linearly dependent on H/R) of the available gas is able to flow within the cavity and accrete on to the binary. Extrapolating this result to the cold and thin accretion discs expected around supermassive black hole binary systems implies that this kind of systems accretes less material than predicted so far, with consequences not only for the electromagnetic and gravitational waves emissions during the late inspiral phase but also for the recoil speed of the black hole formed after binary coalescence, thus influencing also the evolutionary path both of the binary and of the host galaxy. Our results, being scale-free, are also applicable to equal mass, circular binaries of stellar mass black holes, such as the progenitor of the recently discovered gravitational wave source GW150914.

  7. Suppression of the accretion rate in thin discs around binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Enrico; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations investigating the dependence of the accretion rate on the disc thickness around an equal-mass, circular black hole binary system. We find that for thick/hot discs, with H/R ≳ 0.1, the binary torque does not prevent the gas from penetrating the cavity formed in the disc by the binary (in line with previous investigations). The situation drastically changes for thinner discs; in this case the mass accretion rate is suppressed, such that only a fraction (linearly dependent on H/R) of the available gas is able to flow within the cavity and accrete on to the binary. Extrapolating this result to the cold and thin accretion discs expected around supermassive black hole binary systems implies that this kind of system accretes less material than predicted so far, with consequences not only for the electromagnetic and gravitational waves emissions during the late inspiral phase but also for the recoil speed of the black hole formed after binary coalescence, thus influencing also the evolutionary path both of the binary and of the host galaxy. Our results, being scale-free, are also applicable to equal-mass, circular binaries of stellar mass black holes, such as the progenitor of the recently discovered gravitational wave source GW150914.

  8. Extremely fast orbital decay of the black hole X-ray binary Nova Muscae 1991

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, J I González; Rebolo, R; Casares, J

    2016-01-01

    We present new medium-resolution spectroscopic observations of the black hole X-ray binary Nova Muscae 1991 taken with X-Shooter spectrograph installed at the 8.2m-VLT telecope. These observations allow us to measure the time of inferior conjunction of the secondary star with the black hole in this system that, together with previous measurements, yield an orbital period decay of $\\dot P=-20.7\\pm12.7$ ms yr$^{-1}$ ($-24.5\\pm15.1$ $\\mu $s per orbital cycle). This is significantly faster than those previously measured in the other black hole X-ray binaries A0620-00 and XTE J1118+480. No standard black hole X-ray binary evolutionary model is able to explain this extremely fast orbital decay. At this rate, the secondary star would reach the event horizon (as given by the Schwarzschild radius of about 32 km) in roughly 2.7 Myr. This result has dramatic implications on the evolution and lifetime of black hole X-ray binaries.

  9. From Gamma-Ray Bursts/Hypernovae To Black-Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, Enrique Moreno

    2013-01-01

    In this work I summarize a model of binary stellar evolution involving Case C mass transfer followed by a common envelope that strips away the hydrogen from the core of the primary star at the cost of shrinking the orbital separation and then, through tidal interaction, spins it up. This model is then used to produce the possible progenitors of long gamma-ray burst / hypernova (GRB/HN) explosions. As the core collapses with the newly supplied angular momentum it produces a Kerr black hole surrounded by an accretion disk. Energy is extracted from the rotation of the black hole (BH) through the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism to power both, the long gamma-ray burst and the accompanying hypernova (supernova type Ic broad line). If the binary survives the asymmetric mass loss its remnant is a black-hole binary that may eventually be observed as a soft X-ray transient (SXT) when the companion evolves and starts to transfer mass back to the black hole. A comparison with a sample of black-hole binaries where the mas...

  10. Do the Most Massive Black Holes at $z=2$ Grow via Major Mergers?

    CERN Document Server

    Mechtley, M; Windhorst, R A; Andrae, R; Cisternas, M; Cohen, S H; Hewlett, T; Koekemoer, A M; Schramm, M; Schulze, A; Silverman, J D; Villforth, C; van der Wel, A; Wisotzki, L

    2015-01-01

    The most frequently proposed model for the origin of quasars holds that the high accretion rates seen in luminous active galactic nuclei are primarily triggered during major mergers between gas-rich galaxies. While plausible for decades, this model has only begun to be tested with statistical rigor in the past few years. Here we report on a Hubble Space Telescope study to test the merger-triggering hypothesis for $z=2$ quasars with high super-massive black hole masses ($M_\\mathrm{BH}=10^9-10^{10}~M_\\odot{}$), which dominate cosmic black hole growth at this redshift. We compare Wide Field Camera 3 $F160W$ (rest-frame $V$-band) imaging of 19 point source-subtracted quasar hosts to a matched sample of 84 inactive galaxies, testing whether the quasar hosts have a statistically higher fraction of strong gravitational interaction signatures. We recover strong distortion fractions of $f_\\mathrm{m,qso}=0.39\\pm{}0.11$ for the quasar hosts and $f_\\mathrm{m,gal}=0.30\\pm{}0.05$ for the inactive galaxies (distribution mod...

  11. Influence of neutrinos on r-process nucleosynthesis in black hole-neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.; Duez, Matthew D.; Faber, Joshua A.; Foucart, Francois; Lombardi, James C.; Ott, Christian D.; Ponce, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    During a black hole-neutron star merger, baryonic material can be dynamically ejected. Because this ejecta is extremely neutron-rich, the r-process rapidly synthesizes heavy nuclides as the material expands and cools. This can contribute to galactic chemical evolution of the r-process elements and lead to a short-lived optical transient, called a kilonova, powered by the radioactive decay of the heavy nuclides. We use the nuclear reaction network SkyNet to model r-process nucleosynthesis under varying levels of neutrino irradiation by post-processing tracer particles in the ejecta of a full numerical relativity simulation of a black hole-neutron star merger. We find the ejected material robustly produces the second and third r-process peaks, whose abundances remain unchanged even for very high neutrino luminosities, due to the rapid velocities of the outflow. Nonetheless, we find that neutrinos can have an impact on the detailed abundance pattern by significantly enhancing the amount of material produced in the first peak around A ~ 78 . Electron neutrinos are captured by neutrons to produce protons while neutron capture is occurring. These protons rapidly form low-mass seed nuclei, a fraction of which eventually ends up in the first peak after neutron capture ceases. Partially supported by NASA and NSF under AST-1205732, AST-1313091, AST-1333520, PF3-140114, PF4-150122, and PHY-1151197.

  12. Ultrafast Outflows from Black Hole Mergers with a Mini-Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kohta; Meszaros, Peter; Shoemaker, Ian; Senno, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the direct detection of gravitational waves from black hole (BH) mergers was announced by the Advanced LIGO Collaboration. Multi-messenger counterparts of stellar-mass BH mergers are now of great interest, and it has been suggested that a small disk or celestial body may be involved in the coalescence of two BHs. We consider the fate of a wind powered by an active mini-disk in a short accretion episode onto the merged BH with about 10-100 solar masses, and find that its thermal emission could be seen as a fast optical transient with the duration of hours. We also show that the coasting outflow forms external shocks due to interaction with the interstellar medium, whose synchrotron emission might be detected in the radio band on a time scale of years. Finally, we also discuss a possible jet component and the associated high-energy emission.

  13. Measuring intermediate mass black hole binaries with advanced gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Veitch, John; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms (SEOBNR) to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50 and 500 $M_\\odot$ and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ~200 $M_\\odot$, where the signal-to-noise-ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; (iv) sp...

  14. High-energy observations of black hole binaries with the INTEGRAL satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Del Santo, Melania

    2012-01-01

    Black-hole binaries are important sources through which studying accretion onto compact objects. In the X/gamma-ray domain, these objects show several and complex spectral behaviours and transitions. Based on INTEGRAL observations collected during the last eightyears, we have now a new view on the high energy emission of black-hole binary. An additional component above 200 keV has been observed in a few systems, during either hard/intermediate or low/hard states. The nature of this hard-tail is still debated, as also the one observed in soft states. However, among a number of models, it is usually attributed to the presence of a small fraction of non-thermal electrons in a hot-Comptonising plasma. I review the high energy emission from black hole binary systems and report on some INTEGRAL observations of three different objects: 1E 1740.7-2942, GX 339-4, Cyg X-1.

  15. Black hole binary OJ287 as a testing platform for general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Valtonen, M J; Mikkola, S; Wiik, K; Lehto, H J

    2012-01-01

    The blazar OJ287 is the most promising (and the only) case for an extragalactic binary black hole system inspiralling under the action of gravitational radiation reaction. At present, though it is not possible to directly observe the binary components, it is possible to observe the jet emanating form the primary black hole. We argue that the orbital motion of the secondary black hole is reflected in the wobble of the jet and demonstrate that the wobble is orbital position dependent. The erratic wobble of the jet, reported in Agudo et al. (2012), is analyzed by taking into account the binary nature of the system and we find that the erratic component of jet wobble is very small.

  16. Black hole binary OJ287 as a testing platform for general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blazar OJ287 is the most promising (and the only) case for an extragalactic binary black hole system inspiralling under the action of gravitational radiation reaction. At present, though it is not possible to directly observe the binary components, it is possible to observe the jet emanating from the primary black hole. We have argued that the orbital motion of the secondary black hole is reflected in the wobble of the jet, and demonstrated that the wobble is orbital position dependent. The erratic wobble of the jet is analyzed by taking into account the binary nature of the system, and we have found that the erratic component of jet wobble is very small

  17. Rapid Optical Fluctuations in the Black Hole Binary, V4641 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Uemura, M; Ishioka, R; Tanabe, K; Kiyota, S; Monard, B; Stubbings, R; Nelson, P; Richards, T; Bailyn, C D; Santallo, R; Uemura, Makoto; Kato, Taichi; Ishioka, Ryoko; Tanabe, Kenji; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Monard, Berto; Stubbings, Rod; Nelson, Peter; Richards, Tom; Bailyn, Charles; Santallo, Roland

    2002-01-01

    We report on unprecedented short-term variations detected in the optical flux from the black hole binary system, V4641 Sgr. Amplitudes of the optical fluctuations were larger at longer time scales, and surprisingly reached ~60% around a period of ~10 min. The power spectra of fluctuations are characterized by a power law. It is the first case in black hole binaries that the optical emission was revealed to show short-term and large-amplitude variations given by such a power spectrum. The optical emission from black hole binaries is generally dominated by the emission from the outer portion of an accretion disc. The rapid optical fluctuations however indicate that the emission from an inner accretion region significantly contributes to the optical flux. In this case, cyclo-synchrotron emission associated with various scales of magnetic flares is the most promising mechanism for the violently variable optical emission.

  18. UNDERSTANDING BLACK HOLE MASS ASSEMBLY VIA ACCRETION AND MERGERS AT LATE TIMES IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accretion is thought to primarily contribute to the mass accumulation history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) throughout cosmic time. While this may be true at high redshifts, at lower redshifts and for the most massive black holes (BHs) mergers themselves might add significantly to the mass budget. We explore this in two disparate environments—a massive cluster and a void region. We evolve SMBHs from 4 > z > 0 using merger trees derived from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of these two regions, scaled to the observed value of the stellar mass fraction to account for overcooling. Mass gains from gas accretion proportional to bulge growth and BH-BH mergers are tracked, as are BHs that remain ''orbiting'' due to insufficient dynamical friction in a merger remnant, as well as those that are ejected due to gravitational recoil. We find that gas accretion remains the dominant source of mass accumulation in almost all SMBHs; mergers contribute 2.5% ± 0.1% for all SMBHs in the cluster and 1.0% ± 0.1% in the void since z = 4. However, mergers are significant for massive SMBHs. The fraction of mass accumulated from mergers for central BHs generally increases for larger values of the host bulge mass: in the void, the fraction is 2% at M *, bul = 1010 M ☉, increasing to 4% at M *, bul ≳ 1011 M ☉, and in the cluster it is 4% at M *, bul = 1010 M ☉ and 23% at 1012 M ☉. We also find that the total mass in orbiting SMBHs is negligible in the void, but significant in the cluster, in which a potentially detectable 40% of SMBHs and ≈8% of the total SMBH mass (where the total includes central, orbiting, and ejected SMBHs) is found orbiting at z = 0. The existence of orbiting and ejected SMBHs requires modification of the Soltan argument. We estimate this correction to the integrated accreted mass density of SMBHs to be in the range 6%-21%, with a mean value of 11% ± 3%. Quantifying the growth due to mergers at these late times, we

  19. UNDERSTANDING BLACK HOLE MASS ASSEMBLY VIA ACCRETION AND MERGERS AT LATE TIMES IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulier, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Lackner, Claire N.; Cen, Renyue [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Natarajan, Priyamvada, E-mail: akulier@princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Accretion is thought to primarily contribute to the mass accumulation history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) throughout cosmic time. While this may be true at high redshifts, at lower redshifts and for the most massive black holes (BHs) mergers themselves might add significantly to the mass budget. We explore this in two disparate environments—a massive cluster and a void region. We evolve SMBHs from 4 > z > 0 using merger trees derived from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of these two regions, scaled to the observed value of the stellar mass fraction to account for overcooling. Mass gains from gas accretion proportional to bulge growth and BH-BH mergers are tracked, as are BHs that remain ''orbiting'' due to insufficient dynamical friction in a merger remnant, as well as those that are ejected due to gravitational recoil. We find that gas ac