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Sample records for biloba special extract

  1. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of the Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761® in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Egon; Nöldner, Michael; Leuschner, Jost

    2013-12-15

    Extracts from leaves of Ginkgo biloba are among the most widely used and best investigated phytopharmaceuticals worldwide. Almost all clinical trials and the majority of preclinical studies have been performed with a specifically defined extract (EGb 761(®)) standardized to contain confined concentrations of active ingredients and limited quantities of potentially harmful substances. Besides pharmaceutical grade extracts poorly characterized Ginkgo preparations are now increasingly appearing on the market as nutraceuticals. While the safety of EGb 761(®) has been evaluated in an extensive set of toxicology studies, adverse effects of Ginkgo extracts of non-pharmaceutical quality on reproductive functions in mice have been reported in several publications in recent years. As this species has not previously been used in reproductive toxicity studies with EGb 761(®), the present investigation was conducted to examine the influence of EGb 761(®) (100, 350 and 1225mg/kg/day) on embryo-fetal development in mice during the critical period of organogenesis. During external and internal inspection of the fetuses as well as examination of skeletal and soft tissues no embryotoxic properties were noted. In particular, the incidence of malformations, variations or retardations was not increased and the general condition of dams was not influenced. Thus, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) was above 1225mg/kg/day for the dams and the fetuses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. No significant effect of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S.J.H.; Jong, M.C.J. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medicinal treatment of vasospastic Raynaud phenomenon is limited to primarily vasodilator medicines. OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible beneficial effects and tolerability of 120 mg two times a day of Ginkgo Biloba special extract EGb 761 in patients suffering from Raynaud disease (RD)

  3. [Extract of Ginkgo biloba in glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, C; Pop, Adina; Cojocaru, Inga

    2011-01-01

    Protective and curative effects of the ginkgo biloba extract are known for a long time and confirmed the practical reality. Its main benefit is due to its antioxidant properties, manifested by activation of free radicals by flavonoids contained in gingko by binding free radicals.

  4. No significant effect of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredie, Sebastian J H; Jong, Miek C

    2012-03-01

    Medicinal treatment of vasospastic Raynaud phenomenon is limited to primarily vasodilator medicines. To explore the possible beneficial effects and tolerability of 120 mg two times a day of Ginkgo Biloba special extract EGb 761 in patients suffering from Raynaud disease (RD) (primary Raynaud phenomenon). In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study, 41 patients with RD were randomized to either the active treatment group (EGb 761, n = 21) or placebo group for 10 weeks, after an initial 2-week run-in phase. The primary efficacy variables were self-reported changes of the frequency, duration, and severity of vasospastic attacks between the placebo-controlled run-in phase and the end of the study. Most of the patients were female, and both groups were perfectly matched with respect to demographic characteristics. The frequency of daily attacks reduced from 3.6 ± 2.3 to 2.4 ± 2.6 (-33%) in the EGb 761 group and from 2.9 ± 2.0 to 2.0 ± 1.8 (-31%) in the placebo group with no significant difference according to the ordinary least squares test (P = 0.3564). Furthermore, no significant differences were found with respect to the duration and severity of vasospastic attacks between the EGb 761 and placebo groups (P = 0.4392 and P = 0.7187, respectively). In all, 17 adverse events (AEs) were reported, 6 AEs from 5 patients in the EGb 761 group and 11 AEs from 8 patients in the placebo group. Serious AEs did not occur. EGb 761 treatment showed an excellent safety profile in patients with RD but could not demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms compared with placebo.

  5. EGb 761: ginkgo biloba extract, Ginkor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    EGb 761 [Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, Rökan, Tanakan, Tebonin] is a standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. A standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves is a well defined product and contains approximately 24% flavone glycosides (primarily quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin) and 6% terpene lactones (2.8-3.4% ginkgolides A, B and C, and 2.6-3.2% bilobalide). Ginkgolide B and bilobalide account for about 0.8% and 3% of the total extract, respectively. Other constituents include proanthocyanadins, glucose, rhamnose, organic acids, D-glucaric and ginkgolic acids. EGb 761 promotes vasodilation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries. It inhibits platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time. EGb 761, which was originated by Dr Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals (Dr Willmar Schwabe Group), has been available in Europe as a herbal extract since the early 1990s. However, products containing EGb 761 are not approved for use by the US FDA. As a dietary supplement, Nature's Way in the US distributes and markets a standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (the EGb 761 Formula) under the name Gingold Nature's Way. The French company Beaufour-Ipsen and its German subsidiary Ipsen Pharma are co-developing EGb 761 with Dr Willmar Schwabe Group. Beaufour-Ipsen (France) is developing EGb 761 as Tanakan, Dr Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals (Germany) as Tebonin and Ipsen Pharma (Germany) as Rökan. Intersan was formerly developing EGb 761 in Germany, but Intersan appears to have been merged into Ipsen Pharma. However, there has been no recent development for these indications. In the UK and other European countries, the cardioprotective effects of EGb 761 in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion are being investigated in preclinical studies. The psychological and physiological benefits of ginkgo are said to be based on its primary action of regulating neurotransmitters and exerting

  6. Ginkgo Biloba extract for angina pectoris: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian; Wang, Xian; Xu, Hao

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo Biloba extract for patients with angina pectoris according to the available evidence. Electronic databases were searched for all of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of angina pectoris treatments with Ginkgo Biloba extract, either alone or combined with routine Western medicine (RWM), and controlled by untreated, placebo, Chinese patent medicine, or RWM treatment. The RCTs were retrieved from the following electronic databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, Springer, Elsevier, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP database, China Biology Medicine (CBM), Chinese Medical Citation Index (CMCI), from the earliest database records to December 2012. No language restriction was applied. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. RevMan 5.1.0 provided by Cochrane Collaboration The data were analysed by using. A total of 23 RCTs (involving 2,529 patients) were included and the methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. Ginkgo Biloba extract with RWM was more effective in angina relief and electrocardiogram improvement than RWM alone. Reported adverse events included epigastric discomfort, nausea, gastrointestinal reaction, and bitter taste. Ginkgo Biloba extract may have beneficial effects on patients with angina pectoris, although the low quality of existing trials makes it difficult to draw a satisfactory conclusion. More rigorous, high quality clinical trials are needed to provide conclusive evidence.

  7. Ginkgo biloba special extract LI 1370 improves dual-task walking in patients with MCI: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Yves J; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Reinhard, Sarah; Granacher, Urs; Monsch, Andreas U; Kressig, Reto W

    2017-08-01

    In patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), gait instability, particularly in dual-task situations, has been associated with impaired executive function and an increased fall risk. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) could be an effective mean to improve gait stability. This study investigated the effect of GBE on spatio-temporal gait parameters of MCI patients while walking under single and dual-task conditions. Fifty patients aged 50-85 years with MCI and associated dual-task-related gait impairment participated in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory phase IV drug trial. Intervention group (IG) patients received GBE (Symfona ® forte 120 mg) twice-daily for 6 months while control group (CG) patients received placebo capsules. A 6-month open-label phase with identical GBE dosage followed. Gait was quantified at months 0, 3, 6 and 12. After 6 months, dual-task-related cadence increased in the IG compared to the CG (p = 0.019, d = 0.71). No significant changes, but GBE-associated numerical non-significant trends were found after 6-month treatment for dual-task-related gait velocity and stride time variability. Findings suggest that 120 mg of GBE twice-daily for at least 6 months may improve dual-task-related gait performance in patients with MCI. The observed gait improvements add to the understanding of the self-reported unspecified improvements among MCI patients when treated with standardised GBE.

  8. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief.

  9. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer R

    2013-01-31

    Ginkgo is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and 'cerebral insufficiency'. It is thought to have several potential mechanisms of action including increased blood flow, platelet activating factor antagonism, and prevention of membrane damage caused by free radicals. Vascular factors and oxidative damage are thought to be two potential mechanisms in the pathology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The objective of this review was to determine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the progression of AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (January 1985 to October 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 October 2012. We searched the reference lists of identified reports and the Science Citation Index. We also contacted investigators of included studies for additional information. All randomised trials in people with AMD where Ginkgo biloba extract had been compared to control were included. The review author extracted data using a standardised form. The data were verified with the trial investigators. Trial quality was assessed. Two published trials were identified that randomised a total of 119 people. In one study conducted in France, 20 people were randomly allocated to Gingko biloba extract EGb 761 80 mg twice daily or placebo. In

  10. Mechanistic evaluation of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity in L5178Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haixia; Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Suhui; Dial, Stacey L; Guo, Lei; Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan

    2014-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been used for many thousand years as a traditional herbal remedy and its extract has been consumed for many decades as a dietary supplement. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is a complex mixture with many constituents, including flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones. The National Toxicology Program 2-year cancer bioassay found that G. biloba leaf extract targets the liver, thyroid gland, and nose of rodents; however, the mechanism of G. biloba leaf extract-associated carcinogenicity remains unclear. In the current study, the in vitro genotoxicity of G. biloba leaf extract and its eight constituents was evaluated using the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and Comet assay. The underlying mechanisms of G. biloba leaf extract-associated genotoxicity were explored. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the mutant frequency and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Western blot analysis confirmed that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol activated the DNA damage signaling pathway with increased expression of γ-H2AX and phosphorylated Chk2 and Chk1. In addition, G. biloba leaf extract produced reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels in L5178Y cells. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of mutants indicated that G. biloba leaf extract, quercetin, and kaempferol treatments resulted in extensive chromosomal damage. These results indicate that G. biloba leaf extract and its two constituents, quercetin and kaempferol, are mutagenic to the mouse L5178Y cells and induce DSBs. Quercetin and kaempferol likely are major contributors to G. biloba leaf extract-induced genotoxicity.

  11. Effects of Ginkgo biloba leaves (Ginkgo biloba) and Ginkgo biloba extract on nutrient and energy utilization of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X J; Yang, Z B; Ding, X; Yang, C W

    2018-02-15

    An experiment using 112 21-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers that were randomly allocated to 7 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design was conducted to assess the effects of Ginkgo biloba leaves (Ginkgo biloba, GL) and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB) on utilization of nutrients of broiler chickens. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal based diets: 1) T1, control diet; 2) T2, T1 + 20 g/kg GL; 3) T3, T1 + 40 g/kg GL; 4) T4, T1 + 60 g/kg GL; 5) T5, T1 + 0.4 g/kg EGB; 6) T6, T1 + 0.8 g/kg EGB; and 7) T7, T1 + 1.2 g/kg EGB. Endogenous losses were obtained from another 16 broilers. Excreta samples were collected to analyze the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE), and amino acids (AA), and GE was analyzed for computation of AME and TME. As compared with those of the control treatment, the apparent digestibility (AD) and true digestibility (TD) of EE, CP, Thr, Val, Ile, Leu, Phe, Lys, His, and Arg were quadratically (P < 0.05) increased; moreover, the AD and TD of Met was linearly (P < 0.05) increased as the concentration of the EGB in the diet increased. Increasing GL from 0 to 60 g/kg of diet linearly (P < 0.05) increased the AD and TD of EE, Thr, Val, Leu, His, and Met and tended (0.05 < P < 0.1) to increase the TME, TMEn, and Arg. Supplementation of EGB increased (P < 0.05) AD and TD of EE, Thr, Val, Ile, Leu, Phe, His, and Arg and tended (0.05 < P < 0.1) to increase Lys as compared with those in the GL-supplemented groups. Dietary supplementation of GL and EGB improved the utilization of nutrients of broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner, and the optimum supplementation levels of GL or EGB in the diet of broilers was 60 or 0.8 g/kg of diet, respectively.

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability studies of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba extracts, Ginkgo biloba extract phospholipid complexes and Ginkgo biloba extract solid dispersions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-peng; Sun, Jun; Chen, Hong-xuan; Xiao, Yan-yu; Liu, Dan; Chen, Jun; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-chang

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) through preparing G. biloba extract phospholipid complexes (GBP) and G. biloba extract solid dispersions (GBS). Firstly we prepared the GBP and GBS and studied their physicochemical properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dissolution. Then we studied the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability in rats. The results showed that the bioavailability of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in rats was increased remarkably after oral administration of GBP and GBS comparing with GBE. The bioavailabilities of GBP increased more than that of GBS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-05-07

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.

  15. Dual effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Lin, Juan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Sun, Xue-Min; Zeng, Cheng-Ming

    2009-02-01

    Extracts from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba have been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Today, various standardized preparations from G. biloba leaf extract have been developed. G. biloba leaf extract, which contains flavonoids and terpenoids as the major biologically active components, has become one of the most popular and commonly used herbal remedies due to its wide spectrum of beneficial effects on health. In this study, we investigated the effects of G. biloba leaf extract on the properties of human red blood cells in the presence and absence of amyloid peptide (Abeta25-35), peroxide and hypotonic stress. The results suggest that G. biloba leaf extract has a dual action, both protective and disruptive, on red blood cells, depending on whether an exogenous stress is present. G. biloba leaf extract has a protective role on red blood cells against Abeta- and hypotonic pressure-induced haemolysis, peroxide-induced lipoperoxidation, as well as glutathione consumption and methaemoglobin formation. On the other hand, G. biloba leaf extract also exhibited damage to red blood cells by increasing cell fragility, changing cellular morphology and inducing glutathione consumption and methaemoglobin formation, especially when applied at high doses. These anti- and pro-oxidative activities of polyphenolic substances are thought to be involved in the dual function of G. biloba leaf extract. The results of this study suggest that high doses of herbal remedies and dietary supplements can be toxic to cells.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on lantadenes-induced hepatotoxicity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimoo, Haroon A; Sharma, Rinku; Patil, Rajendra D; Sharma, Om P; Kumar, Pawan; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of freeze-dried methanolic leaf extract of Ginkgo biloba was evaluated against lantadenes-induced hepatic damage in guinea pigs. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis of lantadenes confirmed the presence of 72.82% of lantadene A. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis showed the presence of ginkgolide B, C, bilobalide and traces of ginkgolide A and J in G. biloba extract. The concentration of ginkgolide B in the sample was found as 0.29%. The elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase due to lantadenes were significantly restored towards normal values by G. biloba extract in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of lantadenes and G. biloba extract on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were assayed in liver homogenates to evaluate the antioxidant activity. G. biloba extract in a dose-dependent manner produced significant decrease in lantadenes-induced increased levels of LPO. The lantadene-induced decreased levels of SOD, GSH and catalase were elevated by G. biloba extract. The findings of biochemical and antioxidant enzyme levels were supported by gross and histopathological observations. Moreover, liver sections of G. biloba group also showed a marked decrease in apoptosis in comparison to lantadenes group. This study suggested that G. biloba could be used as a promising hepatoprotectant against lantadenes-induced hepatic damage. Future studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanism of hepatoprotection for practical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract on forearm haemodynamics in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Drabaek, H; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    The aim was to validate possible vasodilating effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract with a secondary aim of finding a pharmacodynamic signal relating to the active component of these extracts. We studied the effect of G. biloba extract on forearm haemodynamics in 16 healthy subjects (nine females......, seven males) with a median age of 32 years (range: 21-47). The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blinded cross-over design using oral treatment with G. biloba extract (Gibidyl Forte(R) t.i.d. or placebo for 6 weeks. Forearm blood flow and venous capacity were measured by strain...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of ginkgo biloba leaf extract on aeromonas hydrophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ginkgo biloba extract leaf (GBE) on growth and production of haemolysin by A. hydrophila at 4 deg C, 28 deg C, and 37 deg C was investigated as well as the effect of gamma irradiation on antimicrobial activity of ginkgo biloba leaf extract. A. hydrophila grown at 37 deg C for 24 h was inoculated (about 6 log cfu/ml) into TSB broth containing various GBE concentrations of 0.1,0.25,0.5,1,2.5,5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 15.0, or 20.0% and stored at 4 deg C, 28 deg C, and 37 deg C. The inhibitory effect of the GBE was more pronounced at low temperature of 4 deg C. A total of 5% GBE was necessary to inhibit A. hydrophila at 4 deg C, whereas 7.5% inhibited the bacteria at 28 deg C, and 10 % inhibited the bacteria at 37 deg C. Addition of GBE affected the growth and haemolysin production of the pathogen in varying degrees compared to the control . Also , it is evident that gamma irradiation of GBE up to 25 kGy did not change its antimicrobial activity during 72 h at 28 deg C

  19. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-09-30

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition.

  20. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract against oxidative stress induced by gamma-irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I. M.; El-Hindy, H.M.A.; Moussa, S.Z.; Mansour, S.Z.

    2013-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract against redox imbalance induced by protracted exposure to γ -rays. Rats were exposed to γ-radiation at a dose 2 Gy / week for 4 weeks (γ-radiated group) Ginkgo biloba extract was administered in a dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt. for 7 days before the first dose of γ-radiation and contemned during for exposure period (Ginkgo biloba pre- treated group) and also after the last dose of γ-radiation (Ginkgo biloba post- treated group), these groups were compared with either control or Ginkgo biloba animals. The results reveal obtained significant increases in malondialdhyde and nitric oxide concentrations in blood and liver of γ-irradiated group with concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Histopathological examinations in the liver revealed a severe damage showed by dilated congested control vein with ruptured endothelium. Vacuolated hapatocytes and extensive cell necrosis were also seen. Note extravagated RBCs within sinusoidal spaces. In addition, the enzymes of liver function and bilirubin content were increased. DNA fragmentation percentage and tumor necrosis factor alpha concentration were also increased in liver. Ginkgo biloba extract administration significantly ameliorated the adverse effects of γ-irradiation in rats. It could be concluded that Ginkgo biloba extract has a role in reducing the oxidative stress of pre or post γ-irradiation on liver tissue of rats

  1. [System evaluation on Ginkgo Biloba extract in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Kezhen

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect and safety of Ginkgo Biloba extract on the treatment of acute cerebral infarction.
 The Database of Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and VIPU were screened for literatures regarding Ginkgo Biloba extract in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction, including the clinical randomized controlled trials. Meta-analysis based on the Revman 4.2 system was performed.
 Compared with the control group, treatment with Ginkgo Biloba extract enhanced efficacy in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction (OR: 1.60-5.53), which displayed an improved neural function defect score [WMD -3.12 (95%CI: -3.96- -2.28)].
 Ginkgo Biloba extract is beneficial to the improvement of neurological function in patients with acute cerebral infarction and it is safe for patients.

  2. [Preparation of multivariant-phospholipid complex of Ginkgo biloba extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhipeng; Sun, Jun; Liu, Dan; Xiao, Yanyu; Cai, Baochang

    2010-08-01

    To prepare Ginkgo biloba extract multivariant-phospholipid complex(MGBP) and improve the vitro dissolution of ginkgo total flavonoids by adding another water-soluble carrier in phospholipid complex. MGBP was prepared using solvent evaporation method with Poloxamer-188 as the carrier and the multivariant complex was analyzed by DSC and X-diffraction technique. The physicochemical properties of the MGBP we also studied, including apparent oil-water distribution coefficients in different pH aqueous solution and its release in vitro. The in vitro dissolution of ginkgo total flavonoids was significantly increased while the apparent oil-water distribution coefficient was improved after been made into multivariant-phospholipid complex. The preparation technology of MGBP is simple and economic. MGBP can significantly increase the vitro dissolution of ginkgo total flavonoids and improve oil-water distribution coefficients, which can be the reference for the bioavailability in vivo in the further researches.

  3. Ginkgo biloba extracts: a review of the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, Christian; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Wurglics, Mario

    2013-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is among the most favourite and best explored herbal drugs. Standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba represent the only herbal alternative to synthetic antidementia drugs in the therapy of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's diseases. The clinical efficiency of such standardized Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) is still controversial, but authors of numerous international clinical studies recommended the use of GBE in the described therapies.Extracts of Ginkgo biloba are a mixture of substances with a wide variety of physical and chemical properties and activities. Numerous pharmacological investigations lead to the conclusion that the terpene trilactones (TTL) and the flavonoids of GBE are responsible for the main pharmacological effects of the extract in the therapy of cognitive decline. Therefore, the quality of GBE products must be oriented on a defined quantity of TTL and flavonoids. Furthermore, because of their toxic potential the amount of ginkgolic acid should be less than 5 ppm.However, data on pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, especially related to the central nervous system (CNS), which is the target tissue, are relatively rare. A few investigations characterize the TTL and flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba pharmacokinetically in plasma and in the brain. Recent investigations show that significant levels of TTL and Ginkgo biloba flavonoids cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the CNS of rats after oral application of GBE. Knowledge about the pharmacokinetic behaviour of these substances is necessary to discuss the pharmacological results on a more realistic basis.

  4. Ginkgo biloba Extract for Patients with Early Diabetic Nephropathy: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a Ginkgo biloba extract for patients with early diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs conducted on adults with early diabetic nephropathy which used Gingko biloba extract were included. The major databases were searched, and manufacturers of Gingko biloba products were contacted for information on any published or unpublished studies. Two authors independently extracted the data from the included studies. Data analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.0 software. Results. Sixteen RCTs were included. Ginkgo biloba extract decreased the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum creatinine (SCR, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. The extract also improved hemorheology. The methodological quality in the included studies was low. The explicit generation of the allocation sequence was described in only 6 trials. None of the included trials were confirmed to use blinding. Three studies had observed adverse events. One study using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi reported mild cough in both groups. No serious adverse effects were reported. Conclusions. Gingko biloba extract is a valuable drug which has prospect in treating early diabetic nephropathy, especially with high UAER baseline level. The safety for early diabetic nephropathy is uncertain. Long-term, double-blinded RCTs with large sample sizes are still needed to provide stronger evidence.

  5. Ginkgo biloba Extract for Patients with Early Diabetic Nephropathy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Mao, Wei; Guo, Xinfeng; Wu, Yifan; Li, Chuang; Lu, Zhaoyu; Su, Guobin; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhuangzhu; Guo, Rong; Jie, Xina; Wen, Zehuai; Liu, Xusheng

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a Ginkgo biloba extract for patients with early diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted on adults with early diabetic nephropathy which used Gingko biloba extract were included. The major databases were searched, and manufacturers of Gingko biloba products were contacted for information on any published or unpublished studies. Two authors independently extracted the data from the included studies. Data analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.0 software. Results. Sixteen RCTs were included. Ginkgo biloba extract decreased the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum creatinine (SCR), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The extract also improved hemorheology. The methodological quality in the included studies was low. The explicit generation of the allocation sequence was described in only 6 trials. None of the included trials were confirmed to use blinding. Three studies had observed adverse events. One study using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) reported mild cough in both groups. No serious adverse effects were reported. Conclusions. Gingko biloba extract is a valuable drug which has prospect in treating early diabetic nephropathy, especially with high UAER baseline level. The safety for early diabetic nephropathy is uncertain. Long-term, double-blinded RCTs with large sample sizes are still needed to provide stronger evidence. PMID:23533513

  6. Biochemical and molecular evidences for the antitumor potential of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; El-Mezayen, Hatem A; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Sayed, Alaa H; Ramadan, Aesha R

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest primary cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of 10% or less. This study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms in favor of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, the aim of this work was extended to explore the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in deterioration of HCC in rats. In the current study, HCC group experienced significant downregulation of ING-3 gene expression and upregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. Treatment of HCC groups with Ginkgo biloba leaves extract resulted in upregulation of ING-3 and downregulation of Foxp-1 gene expression in liver. In addition, there was significant increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and glypican-3 (GPC-3) levels in HCC group versus the negative control group. In contrast, the groups with HCC subjected to either high or low dose of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract elicited significant reduction (PGinkgo biloba leaves extract elicited marked improvement in the histological feature of liver tissue in HCC groups. In conclusion, this research indicated that the carcinogenic potency of N-nitrosodiethylamine targeted multiple systems on the cellular and molecular levels. In addition, the results of the current study shed light on the promising anticancer activity of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced chemically in the experimental model through its apoptotic and antiproliferative properties.

  7. Effect of Gingko biloba extract on scopolamine-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M; Nickmahzar, E G; Babakordi, F

    2013-09-01

    Apoptosis, known as programmed cell death, plays a crucial role in normal development and tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis is also involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Amnesia refers to the loss of memory and can also be a warning sign of neurodegenerative diseases. The antioxidant properties of Ginkgo biloba extract was known previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the rat's hippocampal apoptotic neurons number after Scopolamine based amnesia. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats were used. Rats were randomly divided into control, sham, protective and treatment groups. The rats in the sham group received only scopolamine hydrobromide (3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The rats in the protective and treatment groups received Ginkgo biloba extract (40, 80 mg/kg) for 7 days intraperitoneally before/after scopolamine injection. Then 48 h after the last injection, the brains of rats were withdrawn and fixed with paraformaldehyde, and then, after histological processing, the slices were stained with the TUNEL kit for apoptotic neurons. Data were compared by the ANOVA Post Hoc Tukey test; P Ginkgo biloba extract reduce the neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus before and/or after encounter with scopolamine. We concluded that pretreatment and treatment injection of Ginkgo biloba extract can have a protective effect for neurons and it can limit apoptosis in all area of the hippocampus.

  8. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States.

  9. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

  10. Attenuating Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Extract on Liver Fibrosis Induced by Thioacetamide in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract on experimental liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in male albino mice. The experimental mice were divided into four groups. The mice of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were given 150 mg/kg body weight of TAA by intraperitoneal injection, twice weekly, for 9 weeks. The mice of the third group were exposed to TAA and supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The animals of the fourth group were supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were statistically increased while the levels of plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased. The levels of liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glycogen and total protein were notably declined, whereas the level of total lipid was increased in mice of the second group. Furthermore, microscopic examination of liver sections from mice treated with TAA showed an abnormal morphology characterized by nodular transformations in liver parenchyma which surrounded by fibrous septa. Administration of G. biloba leaves extract reduced extent and development of fibrous septa, liver cells change, and biochemical alterations in mice exposed to TAA. This study showed that G. biloba leaves extract has a potential activity against TAA-induced liver fibrosis and suggested that the chemical constituents of G. biloba are effective in modulation of oxidative stress induced by TAA. PMID:23091357

  11. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, He-Ping; Ji, Wei; Lin, Jian; Chen, Hao; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Hu, Dong-Li; Liu, Li-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To assess the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion in healthy volunteers. METHODS Fourteen healthy male volunteers (age range 19–25 years) received orally administered bupropion (150 mg) alone and during treatment with G. biloba 240 mg day−1 (two 60-mg capsules taken twice daily) for 14 days. Serial blood samples were obtained over 72 h after each bupropion dose, and used to derive pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion and its CYP2B6-catalysed metabolite, hydroxybupropion. RESULTS Ginkgo biloba extract administration resulted in no significant effects on the AUC0–∞ of bupropion and hydroxybupropion. Bupropion mean AUC0–∞ value was 1.4 µg·h ml−1[95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 1.6] prior to G. biloba treatment and 1.2 µg·h ml−1 (95% CI 1.1, 1.4) after 14 days of treatment. Hydroxybupropion mean AUC0–∞ value was 8.2 µg·h ml−1 (95% CI 6.5, 10.4) before G. biloba administration and 8.7 µg·h ml−1 (95% CI 7.1, 10.6) after treatment. The Cmax of hydroxybupropion increased from 221.8 ng ml−1 (95% CI 176.6, 278.6) to 272.7 ng ml−1 (95% CI 215.0, 345.8) (P = 0.038) and the t1/2 of hydroxybupropion fell from 25.0 h (95% CI 22.7, 27.5) to 21.9 h (95% CI 19.9, 24.1) (P = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS Ginkgo biloba extract administration for 14 days does not significantly alter the basic pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion in healthy volunteers. Although G. biloba extract treatment appears to reduce significantly the t1/2 and increase the Cmax of hydroxybupropion, no bupropion dose adjustments appear warranted when the drug is administered orally with G. biloba extract, due to the lack of significant change observed in AUC for either bupropion or hydroxybupropion. PMID:19694739

  12. Evaluation of Ginkgo biloba extract as an activator of human glucocorticoid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Yang, Guixiang; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Baucom, Christie C; Chang, Thomas K H

    2013-01-30

    Ginkgo biloba, which is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines, is commonly used in the management of several conditions, including memory impairment. Previously, it was reported to decrease the expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor and the biosynthesis of glucocorticoids, thereby regulating glucocorticoid levels. However, it is not known whether Ginkgo biloba extract regulates the function of the glucocorticoid receptor. We determined whether Ginkgo biloba extract and several of its chemical constituents affect the activity of human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR). A hGR-dependent reporter gene assay was conducted in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and hGR target gene expression assays were performed in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Multiple lots and concentrations of the extract and several of its chemical constituents (ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, and bilobalide) did not increase hGR activity, as assessed by a cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay. The extract did not influence the expression of hGR target genes, including tyrosine aminotransferase (hTAT), constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR), or pregnane X receptor (hPXR), in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Moreover, hGR antagonism by mifepristone (also known as RU486) did not attenuate the extent of induction of hCAR- and hPXR-regulated target genes CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by Ginkgo biloba extract. Ginkgo biloba extract, ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, and bilobalide are not activators of hGR. Furthermore, the extract does not influence the hGR-hCAR or the hGR-hPXR signaling pathway in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against trimethyltin-induced hippocampal neuronal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhwinder; Sharma, Neha; Nehru, Bimla

    2018-02-01

    Despite the immense neuromodulatory potentials of Ginkgo biloba extract as a memory enhancer, its underlying mechanism seems inadequate particularly with regard to its anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of the present study is to investigate the protective potentials of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) against hippocampal neuronal injury induced by trimethyltin (TMT), a potent neurotoxicant. Male SD rats were administered trimethyltin (8.5 mg kg -1 b.wt) single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, followed by Ginkgo biloba extract (100 mg kg -1 b.wt i.p) for 21 days. The co-administration of GBE with TMT showed marked improvement in cognitive functions. Concomitantly, there was a significant decrease in oxidative stress as evident by reduction in MDA and total ROS levels. In addition, there was a marked suppression of astrocyte activation (GFAP), transcription factor NFκB and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1α, 1L-6), which were found to be elevated by TMT administration. Histopathological observations showed remarkable improvement in hippocampal neuronal injury in the conjunctive group. Therefore, it is suggested that Ginkgo biloba extract is an effective agent against trimethyltin-induced hippocampal neuronal loss owing to its antioxidative as well as anti-inflammatory properties.

  14. The chemopreventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract 761 against cisplatin ototoxicity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mirela Alves; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos; Meneses, Elienai de Alencar; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by using distortion product otoacoustic emission test, the action of Ginkgo biloba extract 761, which has a known antioxidant property, as a possible otoprotective against cisplatin induced hearing loss. This prospective and double blinded study was conducted on individuals that were to begin cisplatin treatment in a tertiary university center. They were randomized and allocated in two groups: control group (CG) (n = 07) receiving placebo and cisplatin and study group (SG) (n = 08) receiving Ginkgo biloba extract 761 (240 mg/day) and cisplatin. This prospective study was conducted on individuals that were treated by cancer with cisplatin (CDDP) in a tertiary University center. Both groups were instructed to ingest the either placebo or Ginkgo biloba extract 761 before the first cisplatin dose. They were rated and followed up for approximately 90 days. The maximum cumulative cisplatin dosage was 300 mg/m(2). The ototoxic effect was measured with distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions were recorded before the first cisplatin cycle, 30, 60 and 90 days after the treatment. The average of the amplitude of the signals were calculated and used for comparisons between the groups. Comparisons were made between baseline measurements and those recorded after maximum cumulative CDDP dose. The control group showed smaller distortion product otoacoustic emissions mean amplitudes and smaller signal/noise ratio than the study group (p Ginkgo biloba extract 761 probably has antioxidant properties, and might play otoprotective effect against cisplatin ototoxicity in these patients.

  15. Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of tinnitus: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Boetticher A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexander von BoetticherEar, Nose and Throat Surgery, Lueneburg, GermanyAbstract: Tinnitus is a symptom frequently encountered by ear, nose, and throat practitioners. A causal treatment is rarely possible, and drug and nondrug treatment options are limited. One of the frequently prescribed treatments is Ginkgo biloba extract. Therefore, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of Ginkgo biloba extract preparations were searched for and reviewed systematically. There is evidence of efficacy for the standardized extract, EGb 761® (Dr Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co KG Pharmaceuticals, Karlsruhe, Germany, in the treatment of tinnitus from three trials in patients in whom tinnitus was the primary complaint. Supportive evidence comes from a further five trials in patients with age-associated cognitive impairment or dementia in whom tinnitus was present as a concomitant symptom. As yet, the efficacy of other ginkgo preparations has not been proven, which does not necessarily indicate ineffectiveness, but may be due to flawed clinical trials. In conclusion, EGb 761®, a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, is an evidence-based treatment option in tinnitus.Keywords: tinnitus, Ginkgo biloba, EGb 761®, systematic review

  16. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on free radical metabolism of liver in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Free Radical Metabolism of Liver in mice during endurance exercise. Forty-eight mice were divided into the quiet group and the exercised group. And the two groups were both grouped again, including the control group and the drug-treated group.

  17. Clinical evaluation of Ginkgo biloba extract for diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract(GBEfor the patients with mild or moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDR. METHODS: Randomized controlled study. A total of 80 patients(150 eyeswith mild or moderate NPDR were divided into two groups: the control group(39 patients with 72 eyesand the treatment group(41 patients with 78 eyes. Patients in the control group were given 100mg enteric-coated aspirin tablets, orally, once per day. Based on the above treatment, the treated group was added with GBT 2mL, orally, three times per day. Patients were followed up for 6mo, and the overall curative effect, visual acuity, visual field mean defect, the result of fundus fluorescein angiography, serum lipid levels, platelet aggregation rate and platelet adhesion rate were measured and evaluated. RESULTS: After treatments, the total effective rate in the treatment group was 75.6% and significantly higher than that(58.7%in the control group(Z=2.6002, P=0.0047. Compared with the control group, the treatment group was found to have higher visual acuity and less visual field mean defect significantly(t=-2.01,P=0.0477; t=4.06,P=0.0001; the numbers of retinal micro-aneurysms and areas of retinal hemorrhage significantly decreased(t=7.86,Pt=3.13,P=0.0024; the serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in treatment group significantly decreased, the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased(t=2.25,P=0.0270; t=3.41,P=0.0010; t=3.34,P=0.0013; t=3.76,P=0.0003; t=-3.30,P=0.0014; platelet aggregation rate and platelet adhesion rate were significantly lower(t=4.31,Pt=4.93,PCONCLUSION: The results show that GBT for treatment of mild and moderate NPDR has a definite effect.

  18. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB 761) on astrocytes of rat hippocampus after exposure with scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Nikmahzar, Emsegol; Yadollahi, Negin; Ramazani, Kamyar

    2012-06-01

    The regular extract of Ginkgo biloba has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties in disorders like hypoxia, ischemia, seizure activity and peripheral nerve damage. Also, G. biloba has received attention as a potential cognitive enhancer for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, but there is not any documentation about the effect of an extract of G. biloba on astrocytes. Therefore, the aim of this study was examined the effects of G. biloba extract on the rat's hippocampal astrocytes after scopolamine based amnesia. In this study, 36 adult male Wistar rats were used. Rats were randomly distributed into control, sham, protective and treatment groups. The rats in the sham group only received scopolamine hydrobromide (3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The rats in the protective and treatment groups received G. biloba extract (40, 80 mg/kg) for 7 days intraperitoneally before and after scopolamine injection. Forty eight hours after the last injection, the brains of the rats were withdrawn and fixed with paraformaldehide, and then after histological processing, the slices were stained with phosphotungstic acid-haematoxylin for astrocytes. Data were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) post hoc Tukey test; Pbiloba extract can compensate for the reduction in the number of astrocytes in the hippocampus before or after the encounter with scopolamine. We concluded that a pretreatment and treatment injection of G. biloba extract can have a protective effect for astrocytes in all areas of hippocampal formation.

  19. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a process analytical technology tool in Ginkgo biloba extract qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sílvia S; Barata, Pedro A; Martins, José M; Menezes, José C

    2008-06-09

    Here, we describe the use of near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for qualification of Ginkgo biloba extract as raw material for use in pharmaceutical products. G. biloba extract shows unpredicted and uncontrolled variability in some of its quality specifications, intrinsic to its natural origin, which have influence on the manufacturing process of solid dosage forms (viz. granulation and compression). Some of these properties could not be determined by conventional quality control tests, so we investigated the use of NIR to qualify the batches of Ginkgo extract accordingly to its different features and establish a relationship with some of the manufacturing steps behaviour based on their qualification. Several approaches were evaluated, and the NIR method developed demonstrated to be sensitive to changes in important quality specifications and therefore adequate to qualify incoming batches of G. biloba extract. This could be considered a process analytical technology (PAT) application since it: (1) establishes the source of variability in a qualitative way, (2) explains its propagation to the final product quality attributes and (3) lays the basis for a control strategy to be applied in the manufacturing process.

  20. The Antibiofilm Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract Against Salmonella and Listeria Isolates from Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Park, Keun Cheol; Choi, Beom Geun; Park, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. are common foodborne pathogens in poultry and have caused a large number of outbreaks worldwide. Biofilm formation is common in the food industry and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract against the biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates from poultry at retail markets. Bacteria detection, isolation, and enumeration were carried out on 27 chicken and 29 ducks at retail markets. The effects of temperature and G. biloba extract against biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates were measured using the crystal violet assay and swimming and swarming motilities. The monitoring results of Salmonella and Listeria in 56 poultry carcasses at retail markets in Korea showed that the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in poultry was low (5.4%), but the prevalence of Listeria spp (78.6%) was high. L. innocua was the predominant serotype (80%) in the isolated Listeria species. Temperature, strain, and surface affected the biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. L. innocua showed the best biofilm formation ability on a 96-well plate, while Salmonella Enteritidis formed the most biofilm on a glass slide. Biofilm formation abilities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were increased with the increase of temperature. G. biloba extract at 75 μg/mL significantly inhibited biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp (p Listeria, but not L. monocytogenes. The findings of this study provided the basis for the application of G. biloba extract as a food additive to promote the quality and safety of poultry products.

  1. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yan-yu [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Yang, Hui, E-mail: 549456369@qq.com [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Wang, Tao [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Wang, Chuang [Department of Highway & Bridge, Shaanxi Railway Institute, Weinan 714000 (China)

    2016-11-25

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag{sup +} (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO{sub 3}) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO{sub 3} concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV–vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10–16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of −NH{sub 2}, −OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications. - Highlights: • Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were first prepared by a green synthetical way through Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract. • The synthesized AgNPs is of high crystallinity, stable and good dispersion with smaller sizes between 10–16 nm. • The achieved AgNPs exhibits good antibacterial activities. • The biosynthesis method is advantageous for its cost effectiveness, availability, portability, nontoxic and environmentally benign.

  2. Advances in the Studies of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves Extract on Aging-Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei; Yan, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Li, Jiantao; Mei, Dan

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of degenerative disorders in public health has promoted in-depth investigations of the underlying pathogenesis and the development of new treatment drugs. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb) is obtained from Ginkgo biloba leaves and has been used for thousands of years. In recent decades, both basic and clinical studies have established the effects of EGb. It is widely used in various degenerative diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, macroangiopathy and more. Here, we reviewed several pharmacological mechanisms of EGb, including its antioxidant properties, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunctions, and effect on apoptosis. We also described some clinical applications of EGb, such as its effect on neuro and cardiovascular protection, and anticancer properties. The above biological functions of EGb are mainly focused on aging-related disorders, but its effect on other diseases remains unclear. Thus, through this review, we aim to encourage further studies on EGb and discover more potential applications.

  3. Advances in the Studies of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves Extract on Aging-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei; Yan, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Li, Jiantao; Mei, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of degenerative disorders in public health has promoted in-depth investigations of the underlying pathogenesis and the development of new treatment drugs. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb) is obtained from Ginkgo biloba leaves and has been used for thousands of years. In recent decades, both basic and clinical studies have established the effects of EGb. It is widely used in various degenerative diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, macroangiopathy and more. Here, we reviewed several pharmacological mechanisms of EGb, including its antioxidant properties, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunctions, and effect on apoptosis. We also described some clinical applications of EGb, such as its effect on neuro and cardiovascular protection, and anticancer properties. The above biological functions of EGb are mainly focused on aging-related disorders, but its effect on other diseases remains unclear. Thus, through this review, we aim to encourage further studies on EGb and discover more potential applications PMID:29344418

  4. The standardized Ginkgo biloba extract Egb-761 protects vascular endothelium exposed to oxidized low density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, S V; Lesnik, P; Moreau, M; Bonello, L; Droy-Lefaix, M-T; Sennoune, S; Duran, M-J; Pressley, T A; Sampol, J; Chapman, J; Maixent, J-M

    2008-10-26

    Dietary antioxidants are frequently proposed as protective agents for the vascular endothelium during the onset of atherosclerosis. This protection may occur at two distinct levels. First, they prevent oxidative modification of atherogenic lipoproteins (LDL). Second, they can provide a cellular protection against oxidized LDL-mediated endothelium dysfunction, although this mechanism remains poorly considered in many instances. To gain insight into the mechanism underlying such cellular protection against oxidized LDL, we examined the impact of a popular traditional medicine, an extract from Ginkgo biloba with well-known antioxidant properties, on two endothelial cells properties: cell adhesion and ionic homeostasis. Cellular lipoperoxides levels were also measured as a marker of cellular oxidative stress. Human umbilical-vein endothelial cells were exposed to native (nat-) or oxidized (ox-) LDL, the latter prepared to be compatible with clinically observed levels of oxidation. Although nat-LDL had little effect, ox-LDL increased endothelial adhesive properties (35%, pGinkgo biloba EGb-761 totally protected adhesive properties and endothelial lipoperoxide levels. Moreover, it limited the decrease in Na,K-ATPase activity induced by ox-LDL to levels similar to nat-LDL. This suggests that EGb-761 protects endothelial adhesive properties and helps prevent the disruption of ionic homeostasis. The EGb-761-mediated inhibition of ox-LDL-induced lipoperoxide levels in endothelial cells appears to be an important mechanism by which Ginkgo biloba extract protects endothelial properties.

  5. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized using Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan-yu; Yang, Hui; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Various parts of plants can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is eco-friendly way and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this project, Ginkgo biloba leaf, an abundantly available medicinal plant in China, was for the first time adopted as a reducing and stabilizing agent to synthesize smaller sized and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). To improve the quality of AgNPs, the reduction was accelerated by changing the concentrations of initial Ag+ (0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mol/L) of the reaction mixture consisting of silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) and Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. At pH = 8 and lower AgNO3 concentration (0.02 mol/L), a colloid consisting of well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles was obtained. The synthesized nanocrystals were successfully characterized by UV-vis and XRD. TEM images revealed the size of the spherical AgNPs ranged between 10-16 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activities against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. Compared to traditional chemical methods, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract provides an easy green synthetical way. It is anticipated that the biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications.

  6. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the rat heart mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbeckaite, Sonata; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Majiene, Daiva; Jakstas, Valdas; Savickas, Arunas; Toleikis, Adolfas

    2007-05-22

    Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) originated from China, first introduced to Europe in the 18th century, it is now distributed all over the world. The leaves of Ginkgo biloba include a rich complex of active compounds responsible for various pharmacological properties. Ginkgo biloba extract improves blood circulation, protects against oxidative cell damage, blocks platelet aggregation that could be important for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore the fluid extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves was prepared and tested for it is effect on rat mitochondrial function. Our data showed that 0.5 microl/ml of GE (containing 0.57 ng/ml of rutin, 0.23 ng/ml of quercitrin, 0.105 ng/ml of hyperosid and 0.02 ng/ml of quercetin) had no effect on the State 2 respiration rate of mitochondria with all used substrates: pyruvate+malate, succinate and palmitoyl-L-carnitine. Further increase in GE concentration (2 and 4 microl/ml), increased the State 2 respiration rate with all respiratory substrates in a dose-dependent manner (by 35-116%). The State 3 respiration rate was not affected by GE. In order to identify which compounds of GE could be responsible for the observed effects, we measured the effect of pure flavonoids: rutin, quercetin, hyperosid and quercitrin on mitochondrial respiration. All flavonoids (except of hyperosid) at maximal used concentration, comparable/identical to that in GE, stimulated the State 2 respiration rate only by 8-20%, i.e. less effectively as compared to GE. Therefore, for the explanation of the GE-induced uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, other biologically active compounds of GE have to be taken into account in future studies.

  7. Stimulation of DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Filipe; Azevedo, Flávio; Johansson, Björn; Oliveira, Rui

    2011-06-01

    Many extracts prepared from plants traditionally used for medicinal applications contain a variety of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antigenotoxic activity. In this work we measured the DNA protective effect of extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves from oxidative stress using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as experimental model. The extract improved viability of yeast cells under oxidative stress imposed by hydrogen peroxide. In accordance with previous reports on antioxidant properties of G. biloba extracts, pre-incubation of yeast cells promoted a decrease in intracellular oxidation. We assessed DNA damage by our recently developed yeast comet assay protocol. Upon oxidative shock, DNA damage decreased in a dose-dependent manner in experiments of pre-incubation and simultaneous incubation with the extract, indicating a direct protective effect. In addition, the extract improved DNA repair rate following oxidative shock as measured by faster disappearance of comet tails. This suggests that the extract stimulates the DNA repair machinery in its DNA protective action in addition to directly protect DNA from oxidation. The observed DNA repair depends on the DNA repair machinery since no DNA repair was observed under restrictive conditions in a conditional mutant of the CDC9 gene (Accession No. Z74212), encoding the DNA ligase involved in the final step of both nucleotide and base excision repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence of the regulatory effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on skin blood flow and study of its effects on urinary metabolites in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Lamers, R.-J.A.N.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Nesselrooij, J.H.J. van; Roza, L.

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract has been advocated for the improvement of blood circulation in circulatory disorders. This study investigated the effect of the Gingko biloba extract EGb 761 on skin blood flow in healthy volunteers and accompanying changes in urinary metabolites. Twenty-seven healthy

  9. Cross matching observations on toxicological and clinical data for the assessment of tolerability and safety of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Tuula; Gaus, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross-matching of toxicological, clinical and other data improves risk analysis. • Induction of drug metabolism is linked to increased cell proliferation. • Rodents and man have differences in metabolism of Ginkgo biloba. • Controlled clinical data did not reveal any serious or specific adverse drug reaction. • Cross-matching of various sources gives strong evidence that G. biloba is safe. - Abstract: Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely used herbal remedies in Europe and the US. It may be purchased in different types of formulations, but most of the clinical studies have been performed with the controlled G. biloba extract EGb761 ® . Indications include Alzheimers disease, cardiovascular disease, dementia, memory loss, and cerebral ischemia. The pharmacological modes of action cover antioxidant effects, radical scavenging, inhibition of platelet activating factor, alterations in membrane fluidity (signal transduction), and inhibition of glucocorticoid synthesis. Due to the widespread and long-term use of G. biloba – about a million doses of EGb761 ® are sold per day – tolerability and safety are a crucial issue. Based on broad and long-term clinical use of G. biloba extracts, it is regarded as well tolerated in man. Cross matching, a tool we introduced, combines different fields of knowledge and types of data to a consolidated result. In this article, we combine toxicological and clinical data and utilize other sources of information to assess tolerability and safety of G. biloba. It is well known that because of biological differences between animals and man or even between animal species, animal experiments do not necessarily mimic the effects in humans. Therefore, for adequate risk assessment, the relevance of non-clinical toxicological findings should be correlated with human data. The cross matching of toxicological data and results from clinical studies is possible because many toxicological and clinical studies are available

  10. Interactions of pharmacokinetic profile of different parts from Ginkgo biloba extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, HanLiang; Qian, Dawei; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Hui; Shang, Erxing; Duan, Jinao

    2014-08-08

    Extracts from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves confer their therapeutic effects through the synergistic actions of flavonoid and terpenoid components, but some non-flavonoid and non-terpenoid components also exist in this extract. In the study of this paper, an investigation was carried out to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of fourteen compounds to clarify the influences of non-flavonoid and non-terpenoid fraction (WEF) on the pharmacokinetics profile of the flavonoid fraction (FF) and the terpene lactone fraction (TLF) from Ginkgo biloba extracts. A selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was established to determine the plasma concentrations of the fourteen compounds to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters after orally administration of FF, TLF, FF-WEF, FF-TLF, TLF-WEF and FF-TLF-WEF with approximately the same dose. At different time points, the concentration of rutin (1), isoquercitrin (2), quercetin 3-O-[4-O-(-β-D-glucosyl)-α-L-rhamnoside] (3), ginkgolide C (4), bilobalide (5), quercitrin (6), ginkgolide B (7), ginkgolide A (8), luteolin (9), quercetin (10), apigenin (11), kaempferol (12), isorhamnetin (13), genkwanin (14) in rat plasma were determined and main pharmacokinetic parameters including T1/2, Tmax, Cmax and AUC were calculated using the DAS 3.2 software package. The statistical analysis was performed using the Student׳s t-test with PGinkgo biloba extracts could increase the absorption and improve the bioavailability of flavonoid glycosides but decrease the absorption and reduce the bioavailability of flavonoid aglycones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract offers multiple mechanisms in bridling N-methylnitrosourea - mediated experimental colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; El-Abhar, Hanan S; Hassanin, Elsayed Abdul Khalik; Abdelkader, Noha F; Shalaby, Mohamed B

    2017-11-01

    In Egypt, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 6th cancer in both gender and CRC rates are high in subjects under 40 years of age. This study goaled to determine the development of CRC using relevant biochemical markers and to elucidate the potent mechanism of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract in retrogression of experimental CRC. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered N-methylnitrosourea (N-MNU; 2mg in 0.5ml water/rat) intrarectally thrice a week for five weeks to induce CRC, followed by treatment with either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 12.5mg/kg, i.p.) or Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract in a dose of 0.675 and 1.35g/kg, p.o. respectively. The developed tumor enhanced plasma TGF-β, and Bcl 2 , serum EGF, CEA, CCSA, and MMP-7 significantly. Also, gene expression analysis showed significant upregulation of colonic β-Catenin, K-ras and C-myc genes. Besides, immunohistochemical findings revealed significant increase in COX-2, cyclin D1 and survivin content in colon tissue. These data were further supported by the histological observations. Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract-treated rats; particularly those treated with dose of 1.35g/kg, exhibited significant reduction in the aforementioned parameters and improvement in the histological organization of the colon tissue. The therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract was comparable with that mediated by 5-FU. The current research proved that Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract could suppress tumor cell proliferation, promote apoptosis, and mitigat inflammation in vivo. The amelioration of these key events might be linked with the inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling module. The outcomes of the present investigation encourage the use of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract as a complementary and alternative therapeutic approach to abate CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction and Determination of Quercetin from Ginkgo biloba by DESs-Based Polymer Monolithic Cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Li, Guizhen; Ho Row, Kyung

    2017-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) were formed from choline chloride (ChCl). DES-modified polymer monolithic (DES-M), template molecular polymer monolithic and non-DES-M without a molecular template were synthesized in identical process. These polymer materials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The significant selective adsorption properties of the polymers were assessed by an absorption capacity experiment and solid-phase extraction (SPE). The optimized extraction procedure was as follows: ultrasonic time (30 min), optimal solvent (ethanol) and liquid to material ratio (20 mL g-1). Under this condition, the amount of quercetin extracted from Ginkgo biloba was 290.8 mg g-1. The purification of G. biloba was achieved by the SPE process. Based on the results, DESs-based monolithic cartridges can be used for simple and efficient extraction and as a pre-concentration technique for the purification of bioactive compounds or drugs in aqueous environments with high affinity and selectivity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract on forearm haemodynamics in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Drabaek, H; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    , seven males) with a median age of 32 years (range: 21-47). The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blinded cross-over design using oral treatment with G. biloba extract (Gibidyl Forte(R) t.i.d. or placebo for 6 weeks. Forearm blood flow and venous capacity were measured by strain-gauge...... plethysmography. Blood pressure was measured by standard sphygmomanometry, and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) was derived. Measurements were made at baseline and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks of treatment. Forearm blood flow was significantly higher during active treatment after 3 and 6 weeks as compared...

  14. Reversal of P-glycoprotein overexpression by Ginkgo biloba extract in the brains of pentylenetetrazole-kindled and phenytoin-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ce; Fan, Qing; Chen, Shu-Liang; Ma, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of Ginkgo biloba extract and phenytoin (PHT) sodium as a dose regimen simulating the clinical treatment of patients with epilepsy, on P-glycoprotein (P-GP) overexpression in a pentylenetetrazole-kindled mouse model of epilepsy. Epilepsy was induced by intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (40 mg/kg) for 7 days followed by intragastric administration of PHT (40 mg/kg) for 14 days. Thirty mice that developed seizures were randomly divided into three groups and administered PHT as well as the following treatments: saline (negative control); verapamil (20 mg/kg, positive control); and G. biloba (30 mg/kg). Seizure severity was recorded 30 minutes after treatment on Day 4 of drug administration, after which the mice were euthanized, and their brains isolated. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the expression of P-GP and caspase-3, respectively, in the brain tissue. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure the concentrations of PHT in the brains of the treated mice. After 4 consecutive days of treatment, the seizure severity in the mice in the G. biloba extract group was more significantly reduced than the seizure severity in the saline control group, and a significant difference was observed between the G. biloba extract and verapamil control groups (p biloba extract and verapamil than it did in the saline-treated control group (p biloba extract and verapamil showed significantly increased brain PHT concentrations (p biloba extract group was significantly lower than that in the vehicle control group (p biloba. Therefore, this study showed that treatment with G. biloba extract in combination with PHT prevented the upregulation of P-GP expression in mice. Moreover, G. biloba extract decreased seizure severity in pentylenetetrazole-kindled/PHT-treated mice through a mechanism that might be related to the reduction of P-GP expression in the brain

  15. Effects of a combined extract of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Pradeep J; Tanner, Sally; Lloyd, Jenny; Harrison, Ben; Curran, Leah; Oliver, Chris; Stough, Con

    2004-03-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera have been shown to produce positive effects on cognitive function in healthy subjects. While the exact mechanisms are not known, it has been suggested that antioxidant properties and cholinergic modulation may play a role. In the current study the sub-chronic (2 weeks) and chronic (4 weeks) effects of an extract containing Ginkgo biloba (120 mg) and Bacopa monniera (300 mg) (Blackmores Ginkgo Brahmi) on cognitive function were examined. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, independent group design in which 85 healthy subjects were allocated to one of two treatment conditions (placebo or combined Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera extract). Testing was conducted at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks post treatment. The results showed that the combined extract relative to placebo did not demonstrate any significant effects on tests investigating a range of cognitive processes including attention, short-term and working memory, verbal learning, memory consolidation, executive processes, planning and problem solving, information processing speed, motor responsiveness and decision making. These findings suggest that at least within the current treatment duration and doses, an extract containing Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera had no cognitive enhancing effects in healthy subjects. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on brain oxidative condition after cisplatin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Duygu; Peker, Emine G G; Karakurt, Meryem D; Gurel, Ayşe; Ayyildiz, Mustafa; Cevher, Şule C; Agar, Erdal; Dane, Senol

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on oxidative events of brain in cisplatin-administrated rats. Rats were divided into four experimental groups: 1) control (n=6); 2) cisplatin (8 mg/kg, intraperitoneally one dose, n=6); 3) EGb 761 (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 15 days, n=6); and 4) cisplatin + EGb 761 (n=6). After drug administration, rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were removed. Nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated in brain tissues. Single dose cisplatin administration significantly increased NO and GSH levels, but decreased MDA levels in brain tissue samples. EGb 761 treatment reversed the effects of cisplatin on NO and GSH levels, but did not affect the decreased MDA levels. Results of the study indicate that oxidative stress can be an important pathogenetic mechanism of cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. EGb 761, an standardized extract of G. biloba leaves that has antioxidant properties, may improve the oxidative stress-related neurological side effects of cisplatin.

  17. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in Alzheimer's disease: is there any evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramassamy, Charles; Longpré, Fanny; Christen, Yves

    2007-07-01

    For centuries, extracts from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree have been used as Chinese herbal medicine to treat a variety of health disorders. The standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 was marketed in France and Germany 30 years ago for various vascular and cerebral deficits and is now classified as a food supplement in the United States. EGb 761 is currently the focus of phase-III clinical trials, GEM and GuidAge studies, to evaluate its efficacy on the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in subjects over 70 years old. This review summarizes recent advancements in our understanding of the potential role of EGb 761 in the prevention of AD. Besides its well-known free radical scavenging properties, the ability of EGb 761 to protect neurons probably also involves other intracellular pathways. We will point out potential targets of EGb 761 in the amyloid cascade such as its antiamyloidogenic properties or the regulation of gene expression. Moreover we will discuss the complexity of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of EGb 761 and the significance of the synergic effect of different constituents of EGb 761.

  18. The hepatic protective mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract in rats with obstructive jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhe Weng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to examine the hepatic protective mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE in rats with obstructive jaundice (OJ. Twenty rats underwent bile duct ligation and received daily intraperitoneal injections of either control saline or Ginkgo biloba extract for 14 days. Ten sham-operated rats had their bile duct exposed but not ligated or sectioned. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT was analyzed for liver function tests and liver damage was further assessed by histologic examination. The levels of endothelin 1 (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO in blood and liver homogenate were measured. The serum alanine transaminase was elevated in the bile duct ligation rats (BDL rats; GBE could significantly lower serum transaminase level and ameliorate liver histological damage. ET-1 and NO levels in both plasma and liver tissue were also elevated in common bile duct (CBD-ligated rats, but this increase was significantly decreased by GBE treatment. Moreover, the degree of liver damage severity positively correlates with high levels of ET-1 and NO. GBE mediated the liver protective effect at least in part by suppressing overproduction of ET-1and NO and restoring a proper balance between ET-1and NO to some extent.

  19. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract reverses amyloid beta-peptide-induced isoprostane production in rat brain in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Luigi; Orlando, Giustino; Menghini, Luigi; Ferrante, Claudio; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Vacca, Michele

    2006-11-01

    Isoprostanes are prostaglandin (PG) isomers generated from oxygen radical peroxidation of arachidonic acid, which are reliable markers of membrane oxidative damage. Aging is characterized by an imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant detoxification pathways. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is reputed as a neuroprotective antioxidant agent. We have tested the effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract {containing 24.1 % flavonoids and 181 % terpene lactones [bilobalide (0.542 %), ginkgolide A (0.570 %), ginkgolide B (0.293 %), ginkgolide C (0.263 %), and ginkgolide J (0.138 %)]} on the production of 8-iso-PGF2alpha from rat brain synaptosomes obtained from young (3 months old) or aged (12 and 24 months old) rats, both in the basal state and after oxidative stress induced by either hydrogen peroxide or amyloid beta-peptide. Our findings show that Ginkgo biloba extract pretreatment is able to completely reverse both basal and hydrogen peroxide-stimulated isoprostane production (IC50 of 81.92 microM and 31.89 microM, respectively). Amyloid beta-peptide-induced isoprostane production was also inhibited, both in young and aged rats, to a level even lower than that in unstimulated synaptosomes. This suggests that the oxygen radical scavenging properties of the Ginkgo biloba extract are fully effective in young, as well as in old rats, showing a greater inhibition of isoprostane production in the latter.

  20. [Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in improving episodic memory of patients with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-xing; Dong, Zhen-hua; Yu, Zhong-hai; Xiao, Shi-yuan; Li, Ya-ming

    2012-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. It is important in terms of recognizing memory loss in older people as well as identifying a group of individuals at high risk of developing dementia and who may benefit from preventive strategies. Ginkgo biloba extract has been shown to possess polyvalent properties, such as anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation. Ginkgo biloba extract appears to have a neuroprotective effect against neurodegenerative diseases. To observe the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba leaf tablet in improving episodic memory of mild cognitive impairment. This is a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. The authors enrolled generally healthy, ambulatory or ambulatory-aided amnestic subjects with MCI, 60 to 85 years old, who expressed a memory complaint from Huadong Hospital, seven Community Health Centers in Shanghai, and Shanghai First Welfare Institution. A total of 120 MCI patients were randomly assigned to the Ginkgo biloba leaf tablet group (treatment group, 60 cases) and control group (60 cases). The patients in the treatment group took Ginkgo biloba leaf tablets 3 times a day, 19.2 mg each dose. The control group did not receive any intelligence-promoting or vasodilator reflex treatment except some health care. The patients were tested with nonsense picture recognition of the clinical memory scale and the logical memory test based on the Wechsler memory scale before and after treatment. After 6 months of treatment, the scores of the logical memory test and nonsense picture recognition were increased significantly in the treatment group (P0.05). After treatment, the positive rate of nonsense picture recognition was 55.17% in the treatment group, which was significantly higher than that of the control group at 32.73% (PGinkgo biloba leaf tablet showed good efficacy in promoting episodic memory function in MCI patients.

  1. Cross matching observations on toxicological and clinical data for the assessment of tolerability and safety of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Tuula; Gaus, Wilhelm

    2015-01-02

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely used herbal remedies in Europe and the US. It may be purchased in different types of formulations, but most of the clinical studies have been performed with the controlled G. biloba extract EGb761(®). Indications include Alzheimers disease, cardiovascular disease, dementia, memory loss, and cerebral ischemia. The pharmacological modes of action cover antioxidant effects, radical scavenging, inhibition of platelet activating factor, alterations in membrane fluidity (signal transduction), and inhibition of glucocorticoid synthesis. Due to the widespread and long-term use of G. biloba - about a million doses of EGb761(®) are sold per day - tolerability and safety are a crucial issue. Based on broad and long-term clinical use of G. biloba extracts, it is regarded as well tolerated in man. Cross matching, a tool we introduced, combines different fields of knowledge and types of data to a consolidated result. In this article, we combine toxicological and clinical data and utilize other sources of information to assess tolerability and safety of G. biloba. It is well known that because of biological differences between animals and man or even between animal species, animal experiments do not necessarily mimic the effects in humans. Therefore, for adequate risk assessment, the relevance of non-clinical toxicological findings should be correlated with human data. The cross matching of toxicological data and results from clinical studies is possible because many toxicological and clinical studies are available on G. biloba. We give an in depth analysis of the modes of action in animals and describe toxicological studies with regard to metabolism, pharmacokinetics, genotoxicity, as well as carcinogenicity (e.g., the Technical Report TR 578 of the US National Toxicology Program). In addition, 75 clinical trials with high methodological quality are summarized. They included a total of 7115 patients treated with G. biloba. Based on this

  2. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Ohta, Yuriko; Shimizu, Mikiko; Maruyama, Junya; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    The benefit of Ginkgo biloba for the treatment of dementia remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba in patients with dementia in whom administration effects were reported using meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane databases, and Ichushi for controlled trials of Ginkgo biloba for the treatment dementia. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analysis results were expressed as standard mean differences (SMDs) in scores of the Syndrome Kurztest (SKT), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) for cognition efficacy, or odds ratios (ORs) for dropouts and adverse drug reactions. Thirteen studies using the extract EGb761 met our inclusion criteria, which were duration of 12 to 52 weeks and daily dose of more than 120 mg, and included a total of 2381 patients. Meta-analysis was performed by using 9 of 13 studies, 7 of which used the SKT and 2 ADAS-Cog (dose 120 mg, 26 weeks) scores as efficacy parameters. In meta-analysis of all patients, SMDs (95% confidence interval [CI]) in the change in SKT scores (7 studies) were in favor of Ginkgo biloba over placebo (SMD = -0.90 [-1.46, -0.34]), but 2 studies that used ADAS-Cog did not show a statistically significant difference from placebo for ADAS-Cog (-0.06 [-0.41, 0.30]). For Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) subgroups, SMDs [95% CI] in SKT in the combined AD and VaD subgroup (-1.07 [-1.66, -0.47]) and AD subgroup (-1.36 [-2.27, -0.46]) were in favor of Ginkgo biloba over placebo. In terms of daily dose of Ginkgo biloba in the combined AD and VaD subgroup, SMD in SKT score in 240-mg daily dose groups was significantly greater than with placebo (-0.71 [-1.28, -0.14]). Dropout rates for any reason did not differ between two groups, but dropout rates due to side effects were significantly lower in Ginkgo biloba groups compared with placebo groups (OR = 1.72 [1.06, 2.80]). Taking a 240-mg

  3. [Value of Ginkgo biloba in treatment of Alzheimer dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, D

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an explosive growth of research concerning the extract of Ginkgo biloba termed Egb 761. In experimental studies, animal studies and clinical studies Ginkgo biloba has shown a similar pharmacological potency and clinical efficacy like synthetic defined drugs in the therapy of reduced cerebral performance. Ginkgo biloba special extract Egb 761 is a standardized and highly purified extract of Ginkgo leaves. Among the active constituents are the ginkgo-flavone glycosides and the terpene-lactones (ginkgolides, bilobalide). The multifactorial principle of action of Ginkgo biloba is characterized by rheological and blood-flow-promoting properties, protective effects against ischaemia and hypoxia, effects on nerve cell energy metabolism, antioedematous and myelin-protective effects, radical-scavenger activity, effects on various cerebral transmitter and receptor systems. These action principles constitute the rationale for clinical trials in vascular dementia and primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type, and in mixed forms of both. The cerebral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract has been demonstrated by electroencephalography. In clinical trials of different working-groups, effects of Ginkgo biloba on the cognitive performance, global function, and activities of the daily living have been found. Metaanalysis in the indication--demential disorders--comparing Ginkgo biloba versus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have shown a similar clinical efficacy of both therapy regimens with an additional drug safety benefit for Ginkgo. Due to the clinical efficacy the WHO accepted Ginkgo biloba as an antidementiv drug and add it in January 2000 into the recent ATC-Classification Index. In future antidementive therapy drugs with an different mode of action should be given in combination. Furthermore clinical trials with fixed combinations of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with Ginkgo biloba extracts in moderate or severe dementia

  4. Ginkgolide A contributes to the potentiation of acetaminophen toxicity by Ginkgo biloba extract in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, Ganesh; Chen, Jie; Chang, Thomas K.H.

    2006-01-01

    The present cell culture study investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract pretreatment on acetaminophen toxicity and assessed the role of ginkgolide A and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in hepatocytes isolated from adult male Long-Evans rats provided ad libitum with a standard diet. Acetaminophen (7.5-25 mM for 24 h) conferred hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. G. biloba extract alone increased LDH leakage in hepatocytes at concentrations ≥ 75 μg/ml and ≥ 750 μg/ml after a 72 h and 24 h treatment period, respectively. G. biloba extract (25 or 50 μg/ml once every 24 h for 72 h) potentiated LDH leakage by acetaminophen (10 mM for 24 h; added at 48 h after initiation of extract pretreatment). The effect was confirmed by a decrease in [ 14 C]-leucine incorporation. At the level present in a modulating concentration (50 μg/ml) of the extract, ginkgolide A (0.55 μg/ml), which increased CYP3A23 mRNA levels and CYP3A-mediated enzyme activity, accounted for part but not all of the potentiating effect of the extract on acetaminophen toxicity. This occurred as a result of CYP3A induction by ginkgolide A because triacetyloleandomycin (TAO), a specific inhibitor of CYP3A catalytic activity, completely blocked the effect of ginkgolide A. Ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside did not alter the extent of LDH leakage by acetaminophen. In summary, G. biloba pretreatment potentiated acetaminophen toxicity in cultured rat hepatocytes and ginkgolide A contributed to this novel effect of the extract by inducing CYP3A

  5. Fortified Extract of Red Berry, Ginkgo biloba, and White Willow Bark in Experimental Early Diabetic Retinopathy

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    Claudio Bucolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS. Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats.

  6. Cardioprotective Action of Ginkgo biloba Extract against Sustained β-Adrenergic Stimulation Occurs via Activation of M2/NO Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Thássio R. R.; de Jesus, Itamar C. G.; dos Santos, Jucilene F.; de Almeida, Grace K. M.; de Vasconcelos, Carla M. L.; Guatimosim, Silvia; Macedo, Fabrício N.; dos Santos, Robervan V.; de Menezes-Filho, José E. R.; Miguel-dos-Santos, Rodrigo; Matos, Paulo T. D.; Scalzo, Sérgio; Santana-Filho, Valter J.; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L. C.; Pereira-Filho, Rose N.; Lauton-Santos, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is the most popular phytotherapic agent used worldwide for treatment of several human disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in the protective actions of Ginkgo biloba on cardiovascular diseases remain poorly elucidated. Taking into account recent studies showing beneficial actions of cholinergic signaling in the heart and the cholinergic hypothesis of Ginkgo biloba-mediated neuroprotection, we aimed to investigate whether Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) promotes cardioprotection via activation of cholinergic signaling in a model of isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we show that GBE treatment (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days, v.o.) reestablished the autonomic imbalance and baroreflex dysfunction caused by chronic β-adrenergic receptor stimulation (β-AR, 4.5 mg/kg/day for 8 days, i.p.). Moreover, GBE prevented the upregulation of muscarinic receptors (M2) and downregulation of β1-AR in isoproterenol treated-hearts. Additionally, we demonstrated that GBE prevents the impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in the heart. GBE also prevented the pathological cardiac remodeling, electrocardiographic changes and impaired left ventricular contractility that are typical of cardiac hypertrophy. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in GBE cardioprotection in vivo, we performed in vitro studies. By using neonatal cardiomyocyte culture we demonstrated that the antihypertrophic action of GBE was fully abolished by muscarinic receptor antagonist or NOS inhibition. Altogether, our data support the notion that antihypertrophic effect of GBE occurs via activation of M2/NO pathway uncovering a new mechanism involved in the cardioprotective action of Ginkgo biloba. PMID:28553225

  7. Cardioprotective Action of Ginkgo biloba Extract against Sustained β-Adrenergic Stimulation Occurs via Activation of M2/NO Pathway

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    Thássio R. R. Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is the most popular phytotherapic agent used worldwide for treatment of several human disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in the protective actions of Ginkgo biloba on cardiovascular diseases remain poorly elucidated. Taking into account recent studies showing beneficial actions of cholinergic signaling in the heart and the cholinergic hypothesis of Ginkgo biloba-mediated neuroprotection, we aimed to investigate whether Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE promotes cardioprotection via activation of cholinergic signaling in a model of isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we show that GBE treatment (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days, v.o. reestablished the autonomic imbalance and baroreflex dysfunction caused by chronic β-adrenergic receptor stimulation (β-AR, 4.5 mg/kg/day for 8 days, i.p.. Moreover, GBE prevented the upregulation of muscarinic receptors (M2 and downregulation of β1-AR in isoproterenol treated-hearts. Additionally, we demonstrated that GBE prevents the impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in the heart. GBE also prevented the pathological cardiac remodeling, electrocardiographic changes and impaired left ventricular contractility that are typical of cardiac hypertrophy. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in GBE cardioprotection in vivo, we performed in vitro studies. By using neonatal cardiomyocyte culture we demonstrated that the antihypertrophic action of GBE was fully abolished by muscarinic receptor antagonist or NOS inhibition. Altogether, our data support the notion that antihypertrophic effect of GBE occurs via activation of M2/NO pathway uncovering a new mechanism involved in the cardioprotective action of Ginkgo biloba.

  8. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Tao, Ran

    2016-01-15

    In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet (UV), thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL) acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE) and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  9. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultraviolet (UV, thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  10. Reversal of P-glycoprotein overexpression by Ginkgo biloba extract in the brains of pentylenetetrazole-kindled and phenytoin-treated mice

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    Ce Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of Ginkgo biloba extract and phenytoin (PHT sodium as a dose regimen simulating the clinical treatment of patients with epilepsy, on P-glycoprotein (P-GP overexpression in a pentylenetetrazole-kindled mouse model of epilepsy. Epilepsy was induced by intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (40 mg/kg for 7 days followed by intragastric administration of PHT (40 mg/kg for 14 days. Thirty mice that developed seizures were randomly divided into three groups and administered PHT as well as the following treatments: saline (negative control; verapamil (20 mg/kg, positive control; and G. biloba (30 mg/kg. Seizure severity was recorded 30 minutes after treatment on Day 4 of drug administration, after which the mice were euthanized, and their brains isolated. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the expression of P-GP and caspase-3, respectively, in the brain tissue. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure the concentrations of PHT in the brains of the treated mice. After 4 consecutive days of treatment, the seizure severity in the mice in the G. biloba extract group was more significantly reduced than the seizure severity in the saline control group, and a significant difference was observed between the G. biloba extract and verapamil control groups (p < 0.05. P-GP expression in the brain more significantly decreased in the mice treated with G. biloba extract and verapamil than it did in the saline-treated control group (p < 0.05. Compared with the saline-treated control group, the mice treated with G. biloba extract and verapamil showed significantly increased brain PHT concentrations (p < 0.05. Furthermore, caspase-3 expression in the brain tissue of the G. biloba extract group was significantly lower than that in the vehicle control group (p < 0.05; this finding demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of G. biloba

  11. Effects of Gingko biloba Extract on Tissue Distribution of Fluoxetine and Venlafaxine in Rats

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    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many concerns about the interactions of herbal products with conventional drugs, which are mostly used as multiple drug treatment approach. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term use of Ginkgo biloba extract (GK on the absorption and tissue distribution of fluoxetine and venlafaxine. Materials and Methods: Forty-six Wistar rats are utilized and allocated into eight groups; 2 groups administered the vehicle and saved as control; 4 groups are treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of GK extract for 30 days; 2 groups are treated with 40mg/kg verapamil for 10 days. The liver, kidney and brain distribution of fluoxetine and venlafaxine were evaluated after single oral doses using HPLC method. Results: 200 mg/kg GK increases fluoxetine concentrations in all studied organs, while GK 100mg/kg increases venlafaxine levels in kidney tissue and not affected in the other two organs. Conclusion: Thirty days treatment with GK (100 mg/kg increases kidney availability of venlafaxine, while 200 mg GK dose increases fluoxetine availability in the liver, kidney and brain tissues after single oral doses. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 234-238

  12. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract improves the cognitive abilities of rats with D-galactose induced dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nuan; Chen, Xianming; Geng, Deqin; Huang, Hongli; Zhou, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been used in clinical trials for its beneficial effects on brain functions, particularly in dementia. Substantial experimental evidences indicated that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGB) protected neuronal cells from a variety of insults. We investigated the effect of EGB on cognitive ability and protein kinase B (PKB) activity in hippocampal neuronal cells of dementia model rats. Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose to induce dementia. Forty-eight Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups, including the control group, D-galactose group (Gal), low-dose EGB group (EGB-L), mid-dose EGB group (EGB-M), high-dose EGB group (EGB-H) and treatment group. The EGB-L, EGB-M and EGB-H groups were administered with EGB and D-galactose simultaneously. Y-maze, cresyl violet staining, TUNEL assays and immunohistochemistry staining were performed to detect learning and memory abilities, morphological changes in the hippocampus, neuronal apoptosis and the expressing level of phospho-PKB, respectively. Rats in the Gal group showed decreased abilities of learning and memory, and hippocampal pyramidal cell layer was damaged, while EGB administration improved learning and memory abilities. The Gal group exhibited many stained, condensed nuclei and micronuclei, either isolated or within the cytoplasm of cells (39.5±1.4). Apoptotic cells decreased in the groups of EGB-L (35.9±0.9), EGB-M (16.8±1.0) and EGB-H (10.1±0.8), and there were statistical significances compared with the Gal group. Immunoreactivity of phospho-PKB was localized diffusely throughout the cytosol of cells in all groups, while the immunoreactivity of the Gal group was weak. EGB significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in a dose-dependent manner, while it could decrease the nmber of TUNEL-positive cells, and increase the activity of PKB. Our results demonstrated that EGB attenuated memory impairment and cell apoptosis in

  13. Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts induces apoptosis in Lewis lung cancer cells involving MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chenjie; Su, Ya; Han, Dongdong; Gao, Yanqi; Zhang, Menghua; Chen, Huasheng; Xu, Aihua

    2017-02-23

    A fruit of Ginkgo biloba L. is known as Ginkgo nuts. It is an edible traditional Chinese medicine, and could be used for the treatment of cancer thousands of years ago in China. The extracts prepared from the exocarp of Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts, GBEE) has the effects of anti-cancer, immune promotion, anti-aging and etc. To study the effects of GBEE inducing apoptosis in Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells and the role of Mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathways in it. The LLC solid tumor model was established in C57BL/6J mice. The tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. A normal control group without tumor cells was established additionally. There were 10 mice in each group, and they were dosed 24h after inoculation. The GBEE (50, 100, 200mg/kg b.w.) groups were dosed by intragastric gavage (i.g.). The mice in positive control group were intraperitoneal (i.p.) injected with cyclophosphamide (CPA) at a dose of 20mg/kg (b.w.). The model control group and the normal control group were both given normal saline (NS) by i.g.. All the groups were dosed at a volume of 0.1mL/10g (b.w.), once a day for 18d. The day after the last administration, the transplanted tumors was stripped and weighed, and the inhibition rate was calculated. In vitro experiments, MTT method was applied to detect the effects of GBEE on LLC cells and primary cultured mouse lung cells. Annexin V-FITC/PI method was used to detect the apoptosis rate of LLC cells. Rhodamine 123 method was used to detect the Mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the levels of Fas mRNA. Western Blot was used to detect the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Cyt C, cleaved Caspase-3 and MAPK proteins in the corresponding parts of LLC cells. GBEE (50-200mg/kg) inhibited the growth of LLC transplanted tumors with a dose-effect relationship. GBEE (5-160µg/mL) inhibited the proliferation of LLC

  14. Ginkgo biloba extract alleviates oxidative stress and some neurotransmitters changes induced by aluminum chloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Naglaa El-Shahat; Abd El-Moneim, Ahmed E

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, twenty four adult male albino rats were classified into four groups. The control group received normal diet and water; the second group was treated daily with oral dose of Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) for 3 mo; the third group was treated daily with oral dose of aluminum chloride (10 mg/kg b.wt) for 3 mo; and the fourth group was treated with both Ginkgo biloba and aluminum chloride (200 and 10 mg/kg b.wt, respectively) using a stomach tube for 3 mo. The results showed that administration of AlCl 3 to rats induced significant increase (P Ginkgo biloba group. It could be concluded that the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba may be attributed to its antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antiproliferative effect of the Ginkgo biloba extract is associated with the enhancement of cytochrome P450 1B1 expression in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, XIAO-DAN; DONG, NI; MAN, HONG-TAO; FU, ZHONG-LIN; ZHANG, MEI-HONG; KOU, SHUANG; MA, SHI-LIANG

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a dioecious tree and its extract is a complex mixture that has been used for thousands of years to treat a variety of ailments in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to present our observations on the inhibitory effects of different Ginkgo biloba extracts on human breast cancer cell proliferation and growth. Our results demonstrated that treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with Ginkgo biloba leaves and ginkgo fruit extract inhibited cell proliferation. It was also observed that this inhibition was accompanied by the enhancement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, treatment with ginkgo fruit extract resulted in a higher CYP1B1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells compared to treatment with the Ginkgo biloba leaves extract. Our results suggested that the inhibitory effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract on estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer proliferation and the induction of CYP1B1 expression may be exerted through an alternative pathway, independent of the estrogen receptor or the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway. PMID:24649031

  16. [Ginkgo biloba extract enhances the immune function of spleen and thymus in SD rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Si, Lifang; Li, Xiangneng; Li, Zhansheng

    2015-06-01

    To study the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on the immune function of spleen and thymus in SD rats. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 rats each group). Three experimental groups were given GBE daily by gavage in doses of 40, 120, 360 mg/(kg.d), respectively. Animals in the control group were fed the same amount of PBS. After 28 days, the rats were sacrificed by chloral hydrate anesthesia. The spleen and thymus were harvested to determine the organ index first. MTT assay was used to detect the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation and transformation. Neutral red assay was performed to measure the rat peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. The ultrastructural changes of spleen and thymus were observed under scanning electron microscope. Administration of GBE in the rats increased the mass indexes of rat thymus and spleen, dose-dependently elevated the lymphocyte proliferative responses and enhanced the peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. In experimental groups, the numbers of mature spleen and thymus lymphocytes were significantly raised in comparison with the control rats. GBE plays a regulatory role in immune function of the rat by increasing the mass of immune organs, increasing the number of mature T lymphocytes as well as their proliferative responses, and enhancing the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages.

  17. Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGb-761 on Neuropathic Pain in Mice: Involvement of Opioid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chao; Li, Wei; Xu, Fan; Li, Mo; Yang, Liu; Hu, Xue-Yu; Ye, Zheng-Xu; Wang, Zhe; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2016-11-01

    Neuropathic pain is considered as one of the most difficult types of pain to manage with conventional analgesics. EGb-761 is extracted from leaves of Ginkgo biloba and has analgesia and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to examine the effect of EGb-761 on chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain behaviors, including thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying this action. To this end, CCI mice were intraperitoneally injected with EGb-761 (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg), and thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, cytokines, and mu-opioid receptor expression were measured. Results showed that EGb-761 attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia dose-dependently and the best delivery time window was from day 7 to day 14 after CCI. Additionally, EGb-761 treatment significantly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced mu opioid receptor (MOR) expression in the sciatic nerve. Moreover, the opioid antagonist naloxone prevented the effect of EGb-761 on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia but did not influence the effect of EGb-761 on inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, this study suggests that the potential of EGb-761 as a new analgesic for neuropathic pain treatment, and opioid system may be involved in the EGb-761-induced attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Fingerprint development for Ginkgo biloba extracts by pressurized capillary electrochromatography: comparison of column types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajing; Tanret, Indiana; Mangelings, Debby; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Yutian; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2010-07-01

    A pressurized capillary electrochromatographic (pCEC) fingerprint of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract was developed on three different types of capillary columns. A commercial column packed with 3-microm particles and an in-house column packed with 5-microm particles were investigated for their performance. Additionally, a monolithic column was included in the fingerprint study as a potential alternative to the conventional packed columns. The effects of experimental parameters, such as the composition of the mobile phase, the concentration and pH of the buffer, and the applied voltage, were studied. Binary mobile phases consisting of acetonitrile and a 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate electrolyte at pH 2.8 were used in gradient elution mode with an applied voltage of 5 kV. Under optimal gradient conditions, at least 45 peaks were observed within 60 min on the commercial packed column, whereas only about 20 peaks were separated on the methacrylate-based monolithic and the in-house packed columns. The commercial column thus clearly outperforms the two other. However, the properties of the monolithic stationary phase still might be adapted (i.e., by changing the polymerization-mixture composition, the porosity, and thus the selectivity of the phase might be changed), which could lead to an improved efficiency.

  19. Therapeutic dose of Ginkgo biloba extract 761 may alter the urine excretion of Wistar rats

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    Monica S. C. Dalmacio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wistar rats (n=20 were divided in two groups: G1 received 2 mg/kg of GBE (Ginkgo biloba extract 761, whereas G2 received the same volume of a sodium chloride solution (0.9%, both for 10 days. After a 7-day interval, the treatment was repeated for 8 days. Urine volume and food and water intake were measured daily during this protocol. Histological assessments were performed. No significant difference (p>0.05 was observed in food and water intake of animals during treatment with GBE. Animals who received GBE had a smaller urine volume and increase of weight with a significance difference (p<0.05 during the first and second exposure period. No histological alteration was observed in tissues, except for the kidney of the experimental group, which revealed a higher concentration of red cells in the glomerulus with a strong staining for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF. The introduction of GBE (therapeutic dose in health rats may promote alterations in the physiology of the kidney, but no sufficient to modify the glomerulus architecture, including at ultra structural level (electron microscopy.

  20. Therapeutic dose of Ginkgo biloba extract 761 may alter the urine excretion of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica S. C. Dalmacio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wistar rats (n=20 were divided in two groups: G1 received 2 mg/kg of GBE (Ginkgo biloba extract 761, whereas G2 received the same volume of a sodium chloride solution (0.9%, both for 10 days. After a 7-day interval, the treatment was repeated for 8 days. Urine volume and food and water intake were measured daily during this protocol. Histological assessments were performed. No significant difference (p>0.05 was observed in food and water intake of animals during treatment with GBE. Animals who received GBE had a smaller urine volume and increase of weight with a significance difference (p<0.05 during the first and second exposure period. No histological alteration was observed in tissues, except for the kidney of the experimental group, which revealed a higher concentration of red cells in the glomerulus with a strong staining for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF. The introduction of GBE (therapeutic dose in health rats may promote alterations in the physiology of the kidney, but no sufficient to modify the glomerulus architecture, including at ultra structural level (electron microscopy.

  1. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L. [Universite Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. The Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 Modulates Proteasome Activity and Polyglutamine Protein Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Stark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 has well-described antioxidative activities and effects on different cytoprotective signaling pathways. Consequently, a potential use of EGb 761 in neurodegenerative diseases has been proposed. A common characteristic feature of a variety of such disorders is the pathologic formation of protein aggregates, suggesting a crucial role for protein homeostasis. In this study, we show that EGb 761 increased the catalytic activity of the proteasome and enhanced protein degradation in cultured cells. We further investigated this effect in a cellular model of Huntington’s disease (HD by employing cells expressing pathologic variants of a polyglutamine protein (polyQ protein. We show that EGb 761 affected these cells by (i increasing proteasome activity and (ii inducing a more efficient degradation of aggregation-prone proteins. These results demonstrate a novel activity of EGb 761 on protein aggregates by enhancing proteasomal protein degradation, suggesting a therapeutic use in neurodegenerative disorders with a disturbed protein homeostasis.

  3. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

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    Daye Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of GBE on streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. GBE (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w. was administered orally once a day for a period of 30 days. Body weight and blood glucose levels were determined in different experimental days. Serum lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in hepatic and pancreatic tissue were measured at the end of the experimental period. Significant decreases in body weight and antioxidant ability and increases in blood glucose, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation were observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The administration of GBE and glibenclamide daily for 30 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats reversed the above parameters significantly. GBE possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and antihyperlipidemia activities in STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats, which promisingly support the use of GBE as a food supplement or an adjunct treatment for diabetics.

  4. Electrocardiographic profile of guinea pig heart submitted to Ginkgo biloba extract and its terpenoids

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    A.C.O. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiographic effects produced by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb and by ginkgolides A (GA and B (GB, and bilobalide (BB were investigated in guinea pig heart mounted in Langendorff apparatus (Tyrode, 34 ± 0.1 ºC, 95% O2, 5% CO2. Electrocardiographic parameters were evaluated in the conditions: 1 control with Tyrode and DMSO, 2 EGb (n=4, GA (n=5, GB (n=5 or BB (n=6, and 3 washout. The results showed that 0.1 and 1.0 mg/ml of EGb do not change the electrocardiographic parameters. However, 10 mg/ml of EGb increased the PR interval (PRi at 21% (p<0.001. This increase was also observed for 50 mM GA (20%, p<0.001 and 70 mM BB (13%, p<0.001, which indicates Ca2+ channel block. However, the 50 mM GB reduced the PRi at 11 % (p<0.001. The GA (23%, p<0.001, GB (16%, p<0.001, and BB (40%, p<0.001 reduced the QT interval (QTi, which suggests the activation of the potassium channel. However, EGb increased QTi (6%, p<0.001. The EGb (28%, p<0.05 and GB (13%, p<0.05 reduced the heart rate. Atrioventricular (AV block was observed with EGb, GA, and BB. We can conclude that EGb and its terpenoids alter the ECG parameters inducing AV block, which indicates possible arrhythmogenic potential.

  5. In vivo photoprotective effects of cosmetic formulations containing UV filters, vitamins, Ginkgo biloba and red algae extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, D G; Wagemaker, T A L; Alves, V M; Benevenuto, C G; Gaspar, L R; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the photoprotective effects of cosmetic formulations containing UV filters, red algae, Porphyra umbilicalis, extracts and combinations of the extract with vitamins and Ginkgo biloba through the use of in vivo preclinical studies. For this study, 4 groups of 4 hairless mice each were treated with topical formulations applied on the dorsum for 5 days as follows: group 1 - control (no treatment); group 2 - application of the formulation F (sunscreen formulation containing only UV filters); group 3 - application of the formulation FA (sunscreen formulation with red algae extract); and group 4 - application of the formulation FVGA (sunscreen formulation with red algae extract, G. biloba and vitamins A, C and E). The effects of these formulations were evaluated by determining the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema index. Apoptosis was detected by immunohistochemical staining with anti-p53 and anti-caspase-3 antibodies. The results showed that the formulations protected the skin from erythema when exposed to UV radiation. The group that received the formulation FVGA presented a greater TEWL than did the other groups, suggesting that this formulation was involved in cell renewal. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that UV radiation caused an increase in the expression of p53 and active caspase-3, confirming that the damage caused by UV radiation exposure led to apoptosis. The application of all formulations studied resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the expression of p53 and caspase-3, with a more pronounced effect observed following treatment with FA. In conclusion, extracts from the red algae P. umbilicalis could be considered effective ingredients to be used in sunscreen formulations. The combination of vitamins A, E, C and G. biloba along with red algae extracts can improve significantly the performance of the sunscreens, preventing UV-induced DNA damage and inflammation. Thus, they should be considered

  6. High-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wylie, Philip L; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-12-17

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with selected ion monitor method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts, and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) methanol and 10% formic acid, liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, and derivatization with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH). Separation of two saturated (C13:0 and C15:0) and six unsaturated ginkgolic acid methyl esters with different positional double bonds (C15:1 Δ8 and Δ10, C17:1 Δ8, Δ10, and Δ12, and C17:2) was achieved on a very polar (88% cyanopropyl) aryl-polysiloxane HP-88 capillary GC column. The double bond positions in the GAs were determined by ozonolysis. The developed GC/MS method was validated according to ICH guidelines, and the quantitation results were verified by comparison with a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method. Nineteen G. biloba authenticated and commercial plant samples and 21 dietary supplements purported to contain G. biloba leaf extracts were analyzed. Finally, the presence of the marker compounds, terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides for Ginkgo biloba in the dietary supplements was determined by UHPLC/MS and used to confirm the presence of G. biloba leaf extracts in all of the botanical dietary supplements.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODS OF STANDARTIZATION DRY EXTRACT AND MEDICAL DRUGS GINKGO BILOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Marchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents new approaches to standardization of dry extract and medicinal preparations (MD of ginkgo bilobate. Methods for the spectrophotometric determination of flavonoids, terpenolactones and ginkgoic acids in the active pharmaceutical substance “Ginkgo biloba dry extract “ (further in the text “ginkgo extract”, as well as methods for analysis of MD “GINKGO, tablets coated with 40 mg” (“GINKGO”, Tablets and “GINKGO, solution for enteral use, 40 mg/ml “(“GINKGO, solution”. The aim – development and validation of methods for standardization of plant-derived APS – ginkgo extract, as well as MD based on it. Materials and methods. The samples of the APS “Ginkgo biloba dry extract “, MD “GINKGO, tablets” and “GINKGO, solution”, produced by CJSC “VIFITEH” (Russia served as the objects of the study. Research methods: spectrophotometry (further in the text “SF-metry” and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Used equipment: SF-56 spectrophotometer manufactured by LLC “LOMO-SPECTR” (Russia and liquid chromatograph of the brand Shimadzu Prominence LC-20AD (Japan with software control and computer processing of analysis results. Results and discussion. The use of the method of SF-metry optimizes the analysis process not only during the standardization of the finished product, but also at all stages of industrial production of MD within the framework of interoperational control. The content of the sum of flavonoids in the samples of two series of ginkgo extract in terms of rutine was determined by direct SF-metry – (29.64 ± 0.36% and (28.88 ± 0.54%; method of differential SF-metry – (21.78 ± 0.41 and (20.98 ± 0.24%. The content of the amount of flavonoids in the preparations “GINKGO, tablets” and “GINKGO, solution” was: by direct SF-metry – (9.84 ± 0.15 mg/tab. and (10.07 ± 0.10 mg/ml; Method of differential SF-metry – (7.33 ± 1.13 mg/tab. and (8.30 ± 0.13 mg

  8. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and gene expression changes elicited by exposure of human hepatic cells to Ginkgo biloba leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollino, Maria Giuseppa; Raschellà, Giuseppe; Cordelli, Eugenia; Villani, Paola; Pieraccioli, Marco; Paximadas, Irene; Malandrino, Salvatore; Bonassi, Stefano; Pacchierotti, Francesca

    2017-11-01

    The use of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract as nutraceutical is becoming increasingly common. As a consequence, the definition of a reliable toxicological profile is a priority for its safe utilization. Recently, contrasting data have been reported on the carcinogenic potential of Ginkgo biloba extract in rodent liver. We measured viability, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), apoptosis, colony-forming efficiency, genotoxicity by comet assay, and gene expression changes associated with hepato-carcinogenicity in human cells of hepatic origin (HepG2 and THLE-2) treated with different concentrations (0.0005-1.2 mg/mL) of Ginkgoselect ® Plus. Our analyses highlighted a decrease of cell viability, not due to apoptosis, after treatment with high doses of the extract, which was likely due to ROS generation by a chemical reaction between extract polyphenols and some components of the culture medium. Comet assay did not detect genotoxic effect at any extract concentration. Finally, the array analysis detected a slight decrease in the expression of only one gene (IGFBP3) in Ginkgo-treated THLE-2 cells as opposed to changes in 28 genes in Aflatoxin B1 treated-cells. In conclusion, our results did not detect any significant genotoxic or biologically relevant cytotoxic effects and gross changes in gene expression using the Ginkgo extract in the hepatic cells tested. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Extract of Ginkgo biloba for Tardive Dyskinesia: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; Xiang, Y-Q; Ng, C H; Ungvari, G S; Chiu, H F K; Xiang, Y-T

    2016-05-01

    Free radicals may be involved in the pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia (TD). We conducted this meta-analysis to systematically examine the efficacy of extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), a potent antioxidant possessing free radical-scavenging properties, as a treatment for TD in schizophrenia using randomized controlled trial (RCT) data. Drawn from English and Chinese databases, 3 RCTs of EGb augmentation of antipsychotics (APs) vs. AP plus placebo or AP monotherapy were identified. 2 evaluators extracted data. The primary outcome measure was the severity of TD symptoms assessed by the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Weighted mean difference (WMD) and risk ratio (RR) ±95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager (version 5.1.7.0) and STATA (version 12.0). The 3 RCTs (n=299) from China, of 12 weeks duration, involved schizophrenia patients with TD of 55.9±13.4 years old. EGb (240 mg/day) outperformed the control group in reducing the severity of TD and clinical symptoms as measured by the AIMS (trials=3, n=299, WMD: -2.30 (95%CI: - 3.04, -1.55), P<0.00001) and the adverse drug reactions as assessed by the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) (trials=2, n=142, WMD: -2.38 (95%CI: -4.01, -0.74), P=0.004). Both the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (trials=2, n=239, P=0.87) and all-cause discontinuation (trials=3, n=299, P=0.21) were similar between the EGb and control group. This meta-analysis suggests that adjunctive EGb appeared to be an effective and safe option for improving TD in the treatment of schizophrenia patients. However, better RCTs are needed to demonstrate its efficacy and safety especially on cognitive function in TD. CRD42015024930. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Evaluation of ginkgo biloba extract on hematological changes affected with hazards of electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Baieth, H E

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to study if the GBE 761 (Ginkgo biloba leaves extract) which is beneficial in arterial disease owing to its vasodilator and blood flow acts against the hazards of exposure to electromagnetic field. Here, the GBE was used in two ways either as a protector or for treating the hazards due to exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF). For this purpose, albino rats were grouped into six groups and blood samples were collected from eye vein of the animals from all groups at the end of the experiment. This study concentrates on the cellular membrane and function of the RBCs and focuses on the rheological and physical measurements for blood and hemoglobin molecule because the RBCs membranes play an essential role in the blood flow rate. The changes in its biophysical properties of RBCs membrane will affect its capability for carrying on its metabolic functions. Furthermore, the molecular diameter of hemoglobin, its relaxation time and conductivity were calculated from the dielectric relaxation data. The results indicate that the administration of GBE led to the decrease of RBCs membrane elasticity will lead to the increase of the blood viscosity. Results suggest that GBE may be not of clinical value as anti-oxidant drug for such diseases occurred due to to EMF exposure for long time. It may be conclude that through treatment with those extract some physical measurements like "viscosity of blood, Osmotic fragility to measure the hemolysis rat of RBCs, the radius and the conductivity of hemoglobin molecule" should be considered during the time of treatment. Overall, these leaves (GBE) need more study and there is a recommendation to put the physical parameters parallel to the clinical study.

  11. Ginkgo biloba extract neuroprotective action is dependent on heme oxygenase 1 in ischemic reperfusion brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sofiyan; Zhuang, Hean; Biswal, Shyam; Christen, Yves; Doré, Sylvain

    2008-12-01

    Ginkgo biloba extracts are now prescribed in several countries for their reported health benefits, particularly for medicinal properties in the brain. The standardized Ginkgo extract, EGb761, has been reported to protect neurons against oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To characterize the oral consumption of EGb761 in transient ischemia, we performed the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) filament model in wild-type and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) knockouts. Mice were pretreated for 7 days before the transient occlusion or posttreated acutely during reperfusion; then neurobehavioral scores and infarct volumes were assessed. Furthermore, primary cortical neuronal cultures were used to investigate the contribution of the antioxidant enzyme HO-1 in the EGb761-associated cytoprotection. Mice that were pretreated with EGb761 had 50.9+/-5.6% less neurological dysfunction and 48.2+/-5.3% smaller infarct volumes than vehicle-treated mice; this effect was abolished in HO-1 knockouts. In addition to the prophylactic properties of EGb761, acute posttreatment 5 minutes and 4.5 hours after reperfusion also led to significant reduction in infarct size (P<0.01). After our previous demonstration that EGb761 significantly induced HO-1 levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner in neuronal cultures, here we revealed that this de novo HO-1 induction was required for neuroprotection against free radical damage and excitotoxicity as it was significantly attenuated by the enzyme inhibitor. These results demonstrate that EGb761 could be used as a preventive or therapeutic agent in cerebral ischemia and suggest that HO-1 contributes, at least in part, to EGb761 neuroprotection.

  12. High-resolution gas chromatography/mas spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high resolution GC/MS with Selected Ion Monitor (SIM) method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) meth...

  13. Efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba standardized extract in the treatment of vascular cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarin, Vida; Bašić Kes, Vanja; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Budišić, Mislav; Bošnjak Pašić, Marija; Črnac, Petra; Budinčević, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract in patients diagnosed with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Methods A total of 90 patients (aged 67.1±8.0 years; 59 women) were randomly allocated (1:1:1) to receive G. biloba 120 mg, G. biloba 60 mg, or placebo during a 6-month period. Assessment was made for efficacy indicators, including neuropsychological tests scores (Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric Scale, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impression) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Safety indicators included laboratory findings, reported adverse reactions, and clinical examination. Results At the end of 6-month study period, G. biloba 120 and 60 mg showed a statistically significant positive effect in comparison with placebo only on the Clinical Global Impression score (2.6±0.8 vs 3.1±0.7 vs 2.8±0.7, respectively; P=0.038). The Clinical Global Impression score showed a significant deterioration from the baseline values in the placebo group (−0.3±0.5; P=0.021) as opposed to G. biloba groups. No significant differences were found in the transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Adverse reactions were significantly more common and serious in the placebo group (16 subjects) than in either of the two G. biloba extract groups (eight and nine subjects, respectively), whereas laboratory findings and clinical examinations revealed no differences between the groups receiving G. biloba extract and placebo. Conclusion According to our results, G. biloba seemed to slow down the cognitive deterioration in patients with VCI, but the effect was shown in only one of the four neuropsychological tests administered. However, because of this mild effect in combination with a few adverse reactions, we cannot say that it is ineffective or unsafe either. Further studies are still needed to provide

  14. Targeted metabolomic profiling of cardioprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba L. extract on myocardial ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Jinlan; Ren, Tiankun; Dong, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) is one of the highest mortality diseases in the world. It is closely associated with metabolism disorders of endogenous substances. Ginkgo biloba L. extract (GBE) is a popular herbal medicine used for prevention and therapy of MI. But its regulation effect on the metabolism disorders caused by MI remains currently unknown. Our metabolomic profiling study provided insight into endogenous metabolic disorders of MI and cardioprotective mechanisms of GBE. The rats were preventive administrated of GBE (200mg/kg, i.g.) for 4 weeks and then subcutaneous injected of isoproterenol to establish MI model. Heart marker enzymes and histopathological examination were adopted to evaluate MI model and effect of GBE. On this base, endogenous metabolites in rat plasma and heart were well profiled using the developed targeted metabolomic profiling platform to comprehensively analyze metabolic pathways and find biomarkers. A targeted metabolomic profiling platform was developed and only 100μl biological sample was used to quantify 808 metabolites covering the core network of lipid, energy, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism. Then using this platform, endogenous metabolites of rats undergoing MI model and GBE pre-treatment were well profiled. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to discriminate between groups and find biomarkers. The metabolomic profiles of MI model rats pre-protected by GBE were significantly different from those of unprotected. 47 metabolites were found as potential biomarkers and indicated MI would lead to disturbed metabolism due to inflammation, oxidative stress and structural damage; while GBE could effectively restore fatty acid, sphingolipid, phosphoglyceride, glyceride, amino acid and energy metabolism, closely related to its antioxidant, PAF antagonist and hypolipidemic properties. The cardioprotective effect of GBE can be achieved through the comprehensive regulation of multiple metabolic

  15. Ginkgo biloba L. extract protects against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by modulating neuroinflammation and the cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Bang, Ji Hye; Lee, Jun; Han, Jung-Soo; Baik, Tae Gon; Jeon, Won Kyung

    2016-11-15

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE)-a widely used nutraceutical-is reported to have diverse functions, including positive effects on memory and vasodilatory properties. Although numerous studies have assessed the neuroprotective properties of GBE in ischemia, only a few studies have investigated the neuro-pharmacological mechanisms of action of GBE in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of GBE on CCH-induced neuroinflammation and cholinergic dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo). Chronic BCCAo was induced in adult male Wistar rats to reflect the CCH conditions. On day 21 after BCCAo, the animals were treated orally with saline or GBE (5, 10, 20, and 40mg/kg) daily for 42 days. After the final treatment, brain tissues were isolated for the immunohistochemical analysis of glial markers and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), as well as for the western blot analysis of proinflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptor (TLR)-related pathway, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), angiotensin-II (Ang-II), and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). BCCAo increased glial proliferation in the hippocampus and white matter, whereas proliferation was significantly attenuated by GBE treatment. GBE also attenuated the BCCAo-related increases in the hippocampal expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, RAGE, Ang-II, and phosphorylated MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK). Furthermore, GBE treatment restored the ChAT expression in the basal forebrain following BCCAo. These findings suggest that GBE has specific neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of CCH. The pharmacological mechanism of GBE partly involves the modulation of inflammatory mediators and the cholinergic system. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Heba M; Tadros, Mariane G; Mohamed, Mohamed R; Karim, Amr M; Khalifa, Amani E

    2011-11-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP), an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (SDH), induces neurodegeneration similar to that observed in Huntington's disease (HD). Reduction of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response, locomotor hypoactivity, bilateral striatal lesions as well as brain oxidative stress are major features of HD. The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on 3-NP induced neurobehavioral changes and striatal lesions. Rats administered 3-NP (20mg/kg, s.c.) for five consecutive days exhibited PPI deficits and locomotor hypoactivity whereas, pretreatment of animals with EGb 761 (100mg/kg, i.p. for 15 days) ahead of and during the induction of HD by 3-NP (20mg/kg for 5 days starting at day 8) ameliorated 3-NP-induced neurobehavioral deficits. Administration of 3-NP increased the level of striatal malondialdehyde (MDA). This effect was prevented in animals pre-treated with EGb 761. Changes in the level of apoptotic regulatory gene expressions, following 3-NP treatment, were demonstrated as both an up-regulation and a down-regulation of the expression levels of striatal Bax and Bcl-xl genes, respectively. In addition, an up-regulation of the expression level of striatal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was also observed. Pre-treatment with EGb 761 caused a down-regulation in striatal GAPDH and Bax together with an up-regulation of striatal Bcl-xl expression level as compared to the 3-NP treated group. Histochemical examination of striatal tissue showed that EGb 761 significantly prevented 3-NP induced inhibition of SDH activity. Histopathological examination further affirmed the neuroprotective effect of EGb 761 against 3-NP toxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that EGb 761 has a neuroprotective role in the current HD paradigm, which may be related to improvement of energy metabolism, antioxidant properties and antiapoptotic effects. Copyright

  17. The Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Hypoxic Fraction of C3H Mouse Fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yi, Chun Ja; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Purpose : To investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on hypoxic cell fraction and metabolic status in fibrosarcoma (FSa II) of C3H mouse. Materials and Methods : Fibrosarcoma (Fsa II), 6mm in diameter, growing in the right hind leg muscle of C3H mouse was used for estimation of hypoxic cell fraction using comparison of TCD{sub 50}. Radiation was given one hour after administration of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) with or without priming dose of GBE (100 mg/Kg, i.p.) given 24 hours earlier. Radiation was also given under air breathing condition or clamp hypoxia without GBE as controls. {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy was performed before and one hour after administration of GBE with or without priming dose of GBE. Results : TCD{sub 50/120's} were 81.7(77.7-86.0) Gy when irradiated under clamped hypoxia, 69.6 (66.8-72.5) Gy under air breathing condition,67.5(64.1-71.1) Gy with a single dose of GBE (100 mg/kg) given one hour before irradiation, and 62.2(59.1-65.5) Gy with two doses of GBE given at 25 hours and one hour before irradiation. The hypoxic cell fractions, estimated from TCD50/120's were 1.6% under air breathing condition, 7.2% after single dose of GBE, and 2.7% after two doses of GBE. Metabolic status of tumor, probably by increasing the blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients, resulting in increased radiosensitivity of tumor.

  18. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on radiosensitivity of mouse skin and jejunal crypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kyung Hwan; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract(GBE) is known to increase the peripheral blood circulation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of GBE on the acute normal tissue radiation reaction. C3H mice were divided into two groups, radiation alone and two doses GBE plus radiation, for both acute skin reaction and jejunal crypt assay. GBE was given i.p. one hour before irradiation with priming dose given one day earlier. Thirty to Fifty Gy for acute skin reaction and 11 to 14 Gy for jejunal crypt were irradiated to right hind leg and whole body, respectively. Radiation doses(RD{sub 50}) for peak skin score of 2.0 were 44.2Gy(40.6-48.2Gy) for radiation alone and 44.4Gy(41.6-47.4Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, showing no effect of GBE on acute radiation skin damage. The numbers of regenerating jejunal crypts per circumference were also almost the same for each radiation dose level(p=0.57-0.94), and the mean lethal doses(D{sub o}) were 1.80Gy(1.57-2.09Gy) for radiation alone and 1.88Gy(1.65-2.18Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, indicating no effect of GBE on jejunal crypt cell survival after radiation. GBE doesn't increase acute normal tissue radiation reaction in this model system. As GBE was verified to enhance radiation effect on tumor, high therapeutic gain is expected when GBE is combined with radiation therapy.

  19. Ginkgo Biloba Extract Kaempferol Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Aaron Y.; Li, Min; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi

    2010-01-01

    Background Kaempferol is one of the most important constituents in ginkgo flavonoids. Recent studies indicate kaempferol may have anti-tumor activities. The objective in this study was to determine the effect and mechanisms of kaempferol on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods Pancreatic cancer cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 were treated with Kampferol, and the inhibitory effects of kaempferol on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation were examined by direct cell counting, 3H-thymidine incorporation and MTS assay. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cells was determined as an index of cytotoxicity. Apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL assay. Results Upon the treatment with 70 μM kaempferol for 4 days, MIA PaCa-2 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by 79% and 45.7% as determined by direct cell counting and MTS assay, respectively, compared with control cells (Pkaempferol significantly inhibited Panc-1 cell proliferation. Kaempferol treatment also significantly reduced 3H-thymidine incorporation in both MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells. Combination treatment of low concentrations of kaempferol and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) showed an additive effect on the inhibition of MIA PaCa-2 cell proliferation. Furthermore, kaempferol had a significantly less cytotoxicity than 5-FU in normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (P=0.029). In both MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells, apoptotic cell population was increased when treated with kaempferol in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Ginkgo biloba extract kaempferol effectively inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and induces cancer cell apoptosis, which may sensitize pancreatic tumor cells to chemotherapy. Kaempferol may have clinical applications as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:18570926

  20. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  1. [Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). State of knowledge in the dawn of the year 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostre, F

    1999-07-01

    EGb 761 is a standardized extract of dried leaves of Ginkgo biloba containing 24% ginkgo-flavonol glycosides, 6% terpene lactones such as ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide. Its broad spectrum of pharmacological activities allows it to be in adequacy to the numerous pathological requirements--hemodynamic, hemorheological, metabolic--which occur in cerebral, retinal, cochleovestibular, cardiac or peripheral ischemia. Moreover, EGb 761 has direct effects against necrosis and apoptosis of neurons and improves neural plasticity as evidenced in vestibular compensation. At the molecular and the cellular levels, some evidence obtained with animal models indicates that EGb 761 can interact as a free radical-scavenger and a inhibitor of lipid peroxidation with all, or nearly all reactive oxygen species; maintains ATP content by a protection of mitochondrial respiration and preservation of oxidative phosphorylations; exerts arterial and venous vasoregulator effects involving the release of endothelial factors and the catecholaminergic system. Moreover, EGb 761 regulates ionic balance in damaged cells and exerts a specific and potent Platelet-activating factor antagonist activity. Numerous well-controlled clinical studies, realized in Europe and in USA, have revealed that EGb 761 is an effective therapy for a wide variety of disturbances of cerebral function, ranging from cerebral impairment of ischemic vascular origins (i.e. multi infarct dementia), early cognitive decline to mild-to-moderate cases of the more severe types of senile dementias (including Alzheimer's disease) or mixed origins (i.e. psychoorganic origin). Improvement of signs and symptoms have been demonstrated for cognitive functions, particularly for memory loss, attention, alertness, vigilance, arousal and mental fluidity. Some clinical studies have showed that EGb 761 treatment may improve the capacity of geriatric patients to cope with the stressful demands of daily life. The explanation is a dual

  2. Enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract by preparing solid dispersion via hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenping; Kang, Qian; Liu, Na; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhao, Bochen; Chen, Yanyan; Lan, Yi; Ma, Qiang; Wu, Qing

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) through the preparation of G. biloba extract solid dispersions (GBE-SD) via hot-melt extrusion (HME). First, we prepared the GBE-SD based on a Kollidon® VA64/Kolliphor® RH40 (85:15) spray dried powder. Then physicochemical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that GBE dispersed well in a carrier matrix. Subsequently, we studied the dissolution profile of total flavonoids (TFs) by HPLC-UV and total terpene lactones (TTLs) by HPLC-ELSD. The dissolution percentage of TFs and TTLs was improved within 120min. Finally, we studied the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability in rats by UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that the Cmax and AUC0-t of bilobalide (BB), ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC), quercetin (QCT), kaempferol (KMF) and isorhamnetin (ISR) in rats were significantly increased after the oral administration of GBE-SD compared with results after the oral administration of GBE. These results suggest that the solid dispersion preparation by HME could serve as a promising formulation approach to enhancing the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of GBE. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on the Tonus of the Small Intestine and the Colon of Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is widely used in folk medicine. Patients very often use the plant preparation with no concern for purity. They also tend to increase the dosage by themselves and this may result in certain insufficiently researched acute effects. Due to this extremely widespread application, the aim of this work is an examination of the possible acute effects of Ginkgo bilobaon the motility of the small and the large intestine of rabbits. Тhe effects of Gingium® - a standardized ginkgo biloba extract (GBE [one milliliter preparation contained 8.8–10.8 mg ginkgo flavonol glycoside and 2.0–2.8 mg lactone ring-containing terpenes (ginkgolides and bilobalides], on the tonus of isolated segments of the ileum and the colon of rabbits were examined. The experiments were carried out on isolated bowel incisions according to the Magnus method. Data was registered by physiography (Narco-Bio-System. Our results show that GBE (0.006 g/L, - 0.06 g/L concentration-dependently reduces the tonus of the ileum and the colon of rabbits. Apart from that, GBE reduces the increase of the tonus of the ileum caused by acetylcholine (ACh, but does not change colon tonus intensified by ACh. This indicates that the effects of the used extract in the ileum are predominantly achieved through cholinergic mechanisms, while the relaxant effects in the colon are achieved in some other way.

  4. Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, N. M.; Mohamed, E.T.; Mansour, H.H; Hafez, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

  5. Mitigating potential of Ginkgo biloba extract and melatonin against hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by Bisphenol A in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssaa M. Wahby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A is one of the anthropogenic chemicals produced worldwide, currently released into the environment and causes endocrine-disruption. The largest environmental compartments of BPA are abiotic associated with water and suspended solids that becomes an integrated part of the food chain. The present study aimed to examine the possible protective role of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE, melatonin and their combination against BPA-induced liver and kidney toxicity of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into five equal groups: control, BPA, BPA plus GBE, BPA plus melatonin and BPA plus GBE plus melatonin. The elevated activities of plasma ALT and AST in addition to increased levels of urea and creatinine concomitant with the decreased total plasma protein could reflect the injurious effect of BPA. Liver and kidney levels of TBARS were significantly increased, while GSH, SOD and GPX were decreased in BPA-treated rats. Also, CAT and GST activities were significantly disrupted in the liver and kidney of rats treated with BPA. Moreover, BPA significantly increased the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the liver and kidney tissues. The histopathological analysis confirmed these results. All the previous alterations in the liver and kidney could be ameliorated when BPA-treated rats were co-administrated either with GBE, melatonin or their combination. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against BPA-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potentials. Keywords: Bisphenol A, Ginkgo biloba extract, Melatonin, Lipid peroxidation, Antioxidant enzymes, Histopathological analysis

  6. Ginkgo biloba extract improved cognitive and neurological functions of acute ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Xinjiang; Fang, Qi; Zhou, Junshan; Zhang, Meijuan; Wang, Hui; Chen, Yan; Xu, Biyun; Wu, Yanfeng; Qian, Lai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) in acute ischaemic stroke and its impact on the recurrence of vascular events. Methods We conducted a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open label, blinded, controlled clinical trial enrollingpatients with an onset of acute stroke within 7 days from five hospitals in China Jiangsu Province. Participants were assigned to the GBE group (450 mg GBE with 100 mg aspirin daily) or the control group (100 mg aspirin daily) for 6 months. The primary outcome was the decline in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were other neuropsychological tests of cognitive and neurological function, the the incidence of adverse events and vascular events. Results 348 patients were enrolled: 179 in the GBE group and 169 in the control group. With 18 patients lost to follow-up, the dropout rate was 5.17%. Admission data between two groups were similar, but in the GBE group there was a marked slow down in the decline in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores (−2.77±0.21 vs −1.99±0.23, P=0.0116 (30 days); −3.34±0.24 vs −2.48±0.26, P=0.0165 (90 days); −4.00±0.26 vs −2.71±0.26, P=0.0004 (180 days)) compared with controls. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores at 12 and 30 days, the modified Rankin Scale scores for independent rate at 30, 90 and 180 days, and the Barthel Index scores at 30, 90 and 180 days in the GBE group were significantly improved compared with controls. Improvements were also observedin GBE groups for Mini-Metal State Examination scores of 30, 90 and 180 days, Webster’s digit symbol test scores at 30 days and Executive Dysfunction Index scores at 30 and 180 days. No significant differences were seen in the incidence of adverse events or vascular events. Conclusions We conclude that GBE in combination with aspirin treatment alleviated cognitive and neurological deficits after acute ischaemic stroke without increasing

  7. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on parkinsonisminduced biochemical changes in brain of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aziz, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neuro degenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, neuro modulatory effects of standardized ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and low dose whole-body γ-irradiation in a reserpine model of rat Parkinsonism were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pretreated orally with EGb 761 (100 mg/kg BW/day for 3 weeks) or low dose whole-body γ-irradiation (0.25 Gy once a week for 6 weeks) and their combination (EGb 761 was received during the last three weeks of the irradiation period) and then subjected to intraperitoneal injection of reserpine (5 mg/kg BW dissolved in 1% acetic acid) 24h after last dose of EGb761or radiation. All rats were sacrificed 24h after reserpine injection. Depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) level, increased oxidative stress indicated via depletion of glutathione (GSH), increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and iron levels; decrease of dopamine metabolites metabolizing enzymes; indicated by decrease of glutathione-S transferase (GST) and NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activities; mitochondrial dysfunction; indicated by decline of complex I activity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and increased apoptosis; indicated by the decrease of mitochondrial B cell lymphoma-2 protein (Bcl-2) level and as shown by transmission electron microscope (TEM) were observed in brain of reserpine-induced PD model group, along with behavioral study indicated by increased catalepsy score. Moreover, the level of GSH was correlated with the levels of both DA (r = 0.78) and MDA (r = -0.93). The level of Bcl-2 was correlated with the complex I activity (r = 0.94) and ATP level (r = 0.98). Results revealed that either EGb 761 or irradiation and their combination ameliorated most of the biochemical and behavioral changes induced by reserpine possibly via replenishment of normal glutathione levels. This study revealed that EGb 761, which is a widely used herbal medicine and low dose of whole-body

  8. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on procarcinogen-bioactivating human CYP1 enzymes: Identification of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin as potent inhibitors of CYP1B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Thomas K.H.; Chen Jie; Yeung, Eugene Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extracts and some of its individual constituents on the catalytic activity of human cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2. G. biloba extract of known abundance of terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation catalyzed by human recombinant CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2, and human liver microsomes, with apparent K i values of 2 ± 0.3, 5 ± 0.5, 16 ± 1.4, and 39 ± 1.2 μg/ml (mean ± SE), respectively. In each case, the mode of inhibition was of the mixed type. Bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C, and J, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamentin 3-O-rutinoside were not responsible for the inhibition of CYP1 enzymes by G. biloba extract, as determined by experiments with these individual chemicals at the levels present in the extract. In contrast, the aglycones of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamentin inhibited CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2. Among the three flavonol aglycones, isorhamentin was the most potent in inhibiting CYP1B1 (apparent K i = 3 ± 0.1 nM), whereas quercetin was the least potent in inhibiting CYP1A2 (apparent K i 418 ± 50 nM). The mode of inhibition was competitive, noncompetitive, or mixed, depending on the enzyme and the flavonol. G. biloba extract also reduced benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation, and the effect was greater with CYP1B1 than with CYP1A1 as the catalyst. Overall, our novel findings indicate that G. biloba extract and the flavonol aglycones isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin preferentially inhibit the in vitro catalytic activity of human CYP1B1

  9. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cerebral oxygen and glucose metabolism in elderly patients with pre-existing cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Hu, Zhiyong; Shen, Jianjun; McQuillan, Patrick M

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral injury caused by hypoperfusion during the perioperative period is one of the main causes of disability and death in patients after major surgery. No effective protective or preventative strategies have been identified. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cerebral oxygen and glucose metabolism in elderly patients with known, pre-existing cerebral ischemia. Sixty ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) II-III patients, diagnosed with vertebral artery ischemia by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD), and scheduled for elective total hip replacement surgery, were enrolled in the study. They were randomly allocated to receive either 1mg/kg Ginkgo biloba extract (G group n=30) or normal saline (D group n=30) after induction of anesthesia. Blood samples were collected from radial artery and jugular venous bulb catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of glucose and lactate concentrations preoperatively, before surgical incision, at the end of surgery, and on post-op day 1. Arterial O2 content (CaO2), jugular venous O2 content (CjvO2), arteriovenous O2 content difference (Da-jvO2), cerebral oxygen extraction rate (CEO2), and arteriovenous glucose and lactate content differences (Da-jvGlu and Da-jvLac) were calculated. There were no significant differences in CaO2 or Da-jvGlu during surgery between groups (p>0.05). However, the Ginkgo group had higher CjvO2, internal jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) and lower CEO2, Da-jvO2 and Da-jvLac at the end of surgery (T2) and on post-op day 1 (T3) than those in the control group (pGinkgo biloba extract can improve cerebral oxygen supply, decrease cerebral oxygen extraction rate and consumption, and help maintain the balance between cerebral oxygen supply and consumption. It has no effect, however, on cerebral glucose metabolism in elderly patients with known, pre-existing cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extracts of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártlová, Milena; Sovová, Helena; Opletal, L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 8 (2003), s. 628-629 ISSN 0009-2770. [zjazd chemických spoločností /55./. Košice, 08.09.2003-12.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0550 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : ginkgo biloba * chromatographic analysis * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.345, year: 2003

  11. Adulteration Determining of Pharmaceutical Forms of Ginkgo biloba Extracts from Different International Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ömür Demirezer; Aslı Büyükkaya; Ebru Uçaktürk; Ayşe Kuruüzüm-Uz; Zuhal Güvenalp; Erhan Palaska

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Ginkgo biloba products used for the same purpose, but licensed to varying authorities were analyzed in point of similarity to each other. A group of these products were licensed from health authorities as herbal medicinal product (HMP), while the other groups of products were licensed as the food supplement (FS). The evaluation of their phytoequivalence was carried out comparing the chromatographic fingerprint profiles. Furthermore, ginkgolides (ginkgolides GA, GB, GC, and GJ) ...

  12. Ginkgo biloba extracts attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in acute lung injury by inhibiting the COX-2 and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Chen, Nan; Ma, Chun-Hua; Tao, Jing; Bao, Jian-An; Zong-Qi, Cheng; Chen, Zu-Tao; Miao, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the role of Ginkgo biloba extract in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS. G. biloba extract (12 and 24 mg·kg(-1)) and dexamethasone (2 mg·kg(-1)), as a positive control, were given by i.p. injection. The cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted. The degree of animal lung edema was evaluated by measuring the wet/dry weight ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-1b, and interleukin-6, were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by H&E staining. The levels of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression were detected by Western blotting. Compared to the LPS group, the treatment with the G. biloba extract at 12 and 24 mg·kg(-1) markedly attenuated the inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression, and improved SOD activity, and inhibited MPO activity. The histological changes of the lungs were also significantly improved. The results indicated that G. biloba extract has a protective effect on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. The protective mechanism of G. biloba extract may be partly attributed to the inhibition of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 activation. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ginkgo biloba extract inhibits endotoxin-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppression of toll-like receptor 4 expression and NADPH oxidase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Yen; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Yuh-Lien; Wu, Tao-Cheng; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2007-03-07

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) initiates the inflammatory response in blood vessels in reaction to immune stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by gram-negative bacteria. LPS-induced proliferation and functional perturbation in vascular smooth muscle cells play important roles during atherogenesis. Ginkgo biloba extract is an antiatherothrombotic Chinese herbal medicine with anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of G. biloba extract on LPS-induced proliferation and TLR4 expression and the underlying mechanisms for these actions, in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), were examined in vitro. LPS-induced proliferation was mediated by the expression of TLR4 in HASMCs. LPS increased the expression of TLR4 in HASMCs, and this effect was mediated by the activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, phosphorylation of intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and increases in the cytoplasmic level of HuR and TLR4 mRNA stability. G. biloba extract inhibited LPS-induced HASMC proliferation and decreased the expression of TLR4 by inhibiting LPS-induced NADPH oxidase activation, mRNA stabilization, and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that LPS-induced TLR4 expression contributes to HASMC proliferation and that G. biloba inhibits LPS-stimulated proliferation of HASMCs by decreasing TLR4 expression.

  14. Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction and suppresses the inflammation‑ and apoptosis‑regulating p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases, nuclear factor‑κB and B‑cell lymphoma 2 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Zhang, Ya; Wen, Min; Zhang, Ju; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Yuan; Deng, Jiagang

    2017-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a plant known from the Mesozoic and has been regarded as one of the first to be used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The plant extract has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. The Ginkgo biloba leaf contains flavones and diterpenes. In addition, Ginkgo biloba performs certain pharmacologic actions, including antioxidant and anti‑aging activities. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibited infarct size, increased serum histamine levels and weakened creatine kinase (CK)‑MB activity in AMI mice. Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibited serum interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑1β levels, and caspase‑3/9 activity. In addition, it suppressed matrix metallopeptidase‑9, transforming growth factor‑β, p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB protein expression, and promoted B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) protein expression in AMI mice. The results of in vivo assays demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract prevents AMI and suppresses inflammation‑ and apoptosis‑regulating p38 MAPK, NF‑κB and Bcl‑2 signaling pathways.

  15. The protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb-761) on radiation-induced dermatitis: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirmibesoglu, E; Karahacioglu, E; Kilic, D; Lortlar, N; Akbulut, G; Omeroglu, S

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation of the skin induces production of free radicals, resulting in oxidative stress. EGb-761, an extract from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree, has been reported to be an effective exogenous antioxidant based on its free-radical scavenger properties. To investigate the protective effect of G. biloba extract (EGb-761) on radiation-induced dermatitis in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided equally into four groups: group 1 received sham radiotherapy (RT) without EGb-761, group 2 received sham RT with EGb-761, group 3 received RT without EGb-761, and group 4 received RT with EGb-761. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NOx) and glutathione (GSH) were measured. Dermatitis was assessed with a semiquantitative dermatitis item score. The intensity of staining and diffusion of expression for proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 were also evaluated. The enhanced oxidative stress seen after RT was markedly diminished when EGb-761 was administered with RT; significantly lower mean MDA (P < 0.005) and higher mean GSH (P < 0.001) levels were seen in group 4 compared with group 3. Although there was a decrease in NOx levels, this was not significant. All (100%) of the animals in group 3 developed dermatitis, whereas only 13% of the animals in group 4 did so (P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference between group 1 and group 3 in PCNA and TGF-β3 staining (P < 0.05), whereas no difference was seen between groups 3 and 4; however, the intensity of staining and diffusion of expression were lower in group 4 than in group 3. Prophylactic administration of EGb-761 seems to have a protective effect against radiation-induced dermatitis. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba standardized extract in the treatment of vascular cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demarin V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vida Demarin,1,2 Vanja Bašić Kes,1 Zlatko Trkanjec,1 Mislav Budišić,1 Marija Bošnjak Pašić,3,4 Petra Črnac,5 Hrvoje Budinčević4,5 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Center “Sestre Milosrdnice”, 2International Institute for Brain Health, 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 4Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University Josip Juraj Strossmayer, Osijek, 5Department of Neurology, Stroke and Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital “Sveti Duh”, Zagreb, Croatia Objectives: The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract in patients diagnosed with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Methods: A total of 90 patients (aged 67.1±8.0 years; 59 women were randomly allocated (1:1:1 to receive G. biloba 120 mg, G. biloba 60 mg, or placebo during a 6-month period. Assessment was made for efficacy indicators, including neuropsychological tests scores (Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric Scale, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impression and transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Safety indicators included laboratory findings, reported adverse reactions, and clinical examination. Results: At the end of 6-month study period, G. biloba 120 and 60 mg showed a statistically significant positive effect in comparison with placebo only on the Clinical Global Impression score (2.6±0.8 vs 3.1±0.7 vs 2.8±0.7, respectively; P=0.038. The Clinical Global Impression score showed a significant deterioration from the baseline values in the placebo group (-0.3±0.5; P=0.021 as opposed to G. biloba groups. No significant differences were found in the transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Adverse reactions were significantly more common and serious in the placebo group (16 subjects than in either of the two G. biloba extract groups (eight and nine subjects

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy template for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Ma, Xiuli; Xie, Hongkai; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Huang, Luqi

    2014-11-14

    Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves have been prepared. Two dummy template molecule with similar structural skeleton to GAs, 6-methoxysalicylic acid (MOSA, DT-1) and 6-hexadecyloxysalicylic acid (HOSA, DT-2), have been designed and synthesized. The performance of the DMIPs and NIPs were evaluated including selective recognition capacity, adsorption isotherm, and adsorption kinetics. The selective recognition capacity of the three GAs with four analogues on the sorbents illustrated that the DMIPs sorbents have high specificity for GAs. An efficient method based on DMIP-HOSA coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The method showed excellent recoveries (82.5-88.7%) and precision (RSD 0.5-2.6%, n=5) for licorice extracts, Gastrodia elata extracts and pepper extracts spiked at three concentration levels each (50, 100, 200 μg mL(-1)). The results indicated that GAs and standardized Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts could be obtained simultaneously through the DMIP-SPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 against noise trauma-induced hearing loss and tinnitus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziridis, Konstantin; Korn, Sabine; Ahlf, Sönke; Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and resulting comorbidities like subjective tinnitus are common diseases in modern societies. A substance shown to be effective against NIHL in an animal model is the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Further effects of the extract on the cellular and systemic levels of the nervous system make it a promising candidate not only for protection against NIHL but also for its secondary comorbidities like tinnitus. Following an earlier study we here tested the potential effectiveness of prophylactic EGb 761 treatment against NIHL and tinnitus development in the Mongolian gerbil. We monitored the effects of EGb 761 and noise trauma-induced changes on signal processing within the auditory system by means of behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. We found significantly reduced NIHL and tinnitus development upon EGb 761 application, compared to vehicle treated animals. These protective effects of EGb 761 were correlated with changes in auditory processing, both at peripheral and central levels. We propose a model with two main effects of EGb 761 on auditory processing, first, an increase of auditory brainstem activity leading to an increased thalamic input to the primary auditory cortex (AI) and second, an asymmetric effect on lateral inhibition in AI.

  19. Blood-brain barrier specific permeability assay reveals N-methylated tyramine derivatives in standardised leaf extracts and herbal products of Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könczöl, Árpád; Rendes, Kata; Dékány, Miklós; Müller, Judit; Riethmüller, Eszter; Balogh, György Tibor

    2016-11-30

    The linkage between the central nervous system availability and neuropharmacological activity of the constituents of Ginkgo biloba L. extracts (GBE) is still incomplete. In this study, the in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability profile of the standardised GBE was investigated by the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). Biomarkers, such as terpene trilactones, flavonoid aglycones and ginkgotoxin exerted moderate or good BBB-permeability potential (BBB+), while glycosides and biflavones were predicted as unable to pass the BBB. N-methyltyramine (NMT) and N,N-dimethyltyramine or hordenine (Hor) were identified among BBB+ compounds, while subsequent direct HRMS analysis revealed tyramine (Tyr) and N,N,N-trimethyltyramine or candicine (Can) in GBE as trace constituents. Distribution of Tyr, NMT, Hor and Can was determined by a validated ion-exchange mechanism-based liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method in G. biloba samples, such as herbal drugs and dietary supplements. The total content of the four tyramine derivatives in various GBEs ranged from 7.3 up to 6357μg/g dry extract with NMT and Hor as most abundant ones. Considering the pharmacological activities and the revealed fluctuation in the concentration of the analysed adrenergic protoalkaloids, the presented rapid LC-ESI-MS method is proposed for monitoring of the levels of Tyr, NMT, Hor and Can in G. biloba products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adulteration Determining of Pharmaceutical Forms of Ginkgo biloba Extracts from Different International Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ömür Demirezer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ginkgo biloba products used for the same purpose, but licensed to varying authorities were analyzed in point of similarity to each other. A group of these products were licensed from health authorities as herbal medicinal product (HMP, while the other groups of products were licensed as the food supplement (FS. The evaluation of their phytoequivalence was carried out comparing the chromatographic fingerprint profiles. Furthermore, ginkgolides (ginkgolides GA, GB, GC, and GJ and flavonoid aglycones (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were quantitatively analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS and HPLC-diode Array detector (HPLC-DAD assays. All six herbal medicinal products and two food supplements were found to be phytoequivalent to each other, but five of the seven food supplements did not possess similar content as herbal medicinal products, and the quantity of ginkgolides and flavonoid aglycones per tablet/capsule was found to be lower than declared on the labels. In addition, food supplements were found to be adultered with rutin to reach expected total flavonoid glycosides amount.

  1. Alleviating neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761®. Findings from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachinskaya N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Natalia Bachinskaya1, Robert Hoerr2, Ralf Ihl3For the GOTADAY Study Group1Institute of Gerontology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine; 2Clinical Research Department, Dr Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals, Karlsruhe, Germany; 3Geriatric Psychiatry Center, Maria-Hilf Hospital Krefeld, Krefeld, GermanyPurpose: To examine the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® on neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia.Patients and methods: Randomized, controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial involving 410 outpatients with mild to moderate dementia (Alzheimer’s disease with or without cerebrovascular disease, vascular dementia, scoring at least 5 on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, with at least one item score of 3 or more. Total scores on the SKT cognitive test battery (Erzigkeit’s short syndrome test were between 9 and 23. After random allocation, the patients took 240 mg of EGb 761® or placebo once daily for a period of 24 weeks. Changes from baseline to week 24 in the NPI composite and in the SKT total score were the primary outcomes. The NPI distress score was chosen as a secondary outcome measure to evaluate caregivers’ distress.Results: The NPI composite score improved by -3.2 (95% confidence interval -4.0 to -2.3 in patients taking EGb 761® (n = 202, but did not change (-0.9; 0.9 in those receiving placebo (n = 202, which resulted in a statistically significant difference in favor of EGb 761® (P < 0.001. Treatment with EGb 761® was significantly superior to placebo for the symptoms apathy/indifference, sleep/night-time behavior, irritability/lability, depression/dysphoria, and aberrant motor behavior. Caregivers’ distress evaluation revealed similar baseline pattern and improvements.Conclusion: Treatment with EGb 761®, at a once-daily dose of 240 mg, was safe, effectively alleviated behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild to moderate dementia, and improved the wellbeing of their caregivers

  2. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banin, R.M.; Hirata, B.K.S.; Andrade, I.S.; Zemdegs, J.C.S.; Clemente, A.P.G.; Dornellas, A.P.S.; Boldarine, V.T.; Estadella, D.; Albuquerque, K.T.; Oyama, L.M.; Ribeiro, E.B.; Telles, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), and protein kinase B (Akt), as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal fat diet (NFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V), and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb). NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment

  3. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banin, R.M.; Hirata, B.K.S. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Andrade, I.S.; Zemdegs, J.C.S. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Clemente, A.P.G. [Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, AL (Brazil); Dornellas, A.P.S.; Boldarine, V.T. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Estadella, D. [Departamento de Biociências, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Baixada Santista, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, K.T. [Curso de Nutrição, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Oyama, L.M.; Ribeiro, E.B. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Telles, M.M. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-25

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), and protein kinase B (Akt), as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal fat diet (NFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V), and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb). NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  4. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Banin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B, and protein kinase B (Akt, as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD or a normal fat diet (NFD for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V, and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb. NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  5. Protective effect and potential mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on STZ-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliyan, Rajeev; Sharma, P L

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes induced neuropathic pain is recognized as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat with conventional analgaesics. EGb 761 is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba that has analgaesic and antiinflammatory properties and modulatory effects on key pain-related molecules. We examined the effect of EGb 761 on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced neuropathic pain behaviours and assessed its mechanism of action. Streptozotocin (20 mg/kg i.p for 5 days) was administered to induce experimental diabetes. Pain hypersensitivity to radiant heat was measured using the Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer to test the pain threshold. Diabetic rats exhibited mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperanalgaesia after the third week of STZ injection and concomitantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and nitric oxide concentration. The antioxidant enzymes level of superoxide dismutase and catalase was markedly reduced in STZ-diabetic rats (p < 0.05). Systemic administration of EGb 761 (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), starting after the third week following STZ injection, dose-dependently reversed STZ-induced thermal hyperanalgaesia and mechanical allodynia. Moreover, it reduced oxidonitrosative stress and concomitantly restored the level of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.05) as compared with untreated diabetic rats. These results suggest that EGb 761 attenuated STZ-induced neuropathic pain behaviours by inhibiting oxidative and nitrosative stress and may constitute a new approach for treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Oleic acid derivative of polyethylenimine-functionalized proliposomes for enhancing oral bioavailability of extract of Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Yang, Shuang; Fan, Chunyu; Bi, Ye; Du, Lin; Zhao, Lingzhi; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lesheng; Teng, Lirong; Xie, Jing

    2016-05-01

    The present systematic study focused to investigate the oleic acid derivative of branched polyethylenimine (bPEI-OA)-functionalized proliposomes for improving the oral delivery of extract of Ginkgo biloba (GbE). The GbE proliposomes were prepared by a spray drying method at varying ratios of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, and the optimized formulation was tailored with bPEI-OA to obtain bPEI-OA-functionalized proliposomes. The formulations were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The release of GbE from proliposomes exhibited a sustained release. And the release rate was regulated by changing the amount of bPEI-OA on the proliposomes. The physical state characterization studies showed some interactions between GbE and other materials, such as hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces during the process of preparation of proliposomes. The in situ single-pass perfusion and oral bioavailability studies were performed in rats. The significant increase in absorption constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) from bPEI-OA-functionalized proliposomes indicated the importance of positive charge for effective uptake across the gastrointestinal tract. The oral bioavailability of bPEI-OA-functionalized proliposomes was remarkable enhanced in comparison with control and conventional proliposomes. The bPEI-OA-functionalized proliposomes showed great potential of improving oral absorption of GbE as a suitable carrier.

  7. Efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761®in dementia with behavioural and psychological symptoms: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, Armin; Schlaefke, Sandra; Überla, Karl

    2016-12-01

    To review current evidence of efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 ® in dementia with behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD). Randomized, placebo-controlled trials assessing the effects of EGb 761 ® in dementia patients with BPSD were included if the diagnosis was made in accordance with internationally accepted criteria, the treatment period was at least 22 weeks, outcome measures covered BPSD and at least two of the following domains of assessment, i.e. cognition, activities of daily living and clinical global assessment, and methodological quality was adequate. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model was used to calculate the pooled effect estimates and to compare effects of EGb 761 ® and placebo; furthermore, combined risk differences of response rates were calculated. Four published trials were identified, involving altogether 1,628 outpatients with mild to moderate dementia. Least-square mean differences for change from baseline in cognition, BPSD (including caregiver distress rating), activities of daily living, clinical global impression, and quality of life favoured EGb 761 ® (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). The pooled analyses provide evidence of efficacy of EGb 761 ® at a daily dose of 240 mg in the treatment of out-patients suffering from Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia with BPSD.

  8. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Polyprenols Extracted from Ginkgo biloba L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (GBP are a new type of lipid with 14–24 isoprenyl units, which in humans have strong bioactivity like the dolichols. A large amount of work showed that GBP had good antibacterial activity and powerful protective effects against acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and alcohol, as well as antitumor activity, but the safety of GBP was not considered. The current study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of these polyprenols. Acute toxicity in mice was observed for 14 days after GBP oral dosing with 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 21.5 g/kg body weight (b. wt. Further, an Ames toxicity assessment was carried out by plate incorporation assay on spontaneous revertant colonies of TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with GBP doses designed as 8, 40, 200, 1000 and 5000 μg/dish, and subchronic toxicity was evaluated in rats for 91 days at GBP doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b. wt./day. The weight, food intake, hematological and biochemical indexes, the ratio of viscera/body weight, and histopathological examinations of tissue slices of organs were all investigated. The results showed that no animal behavior and appearance changes and mortality were seen during the observation period with 21.5 g/kg GBP dose in the acute toxicity test. Also, no mutagenicity effects were produced by GBP (mutation rate < 2 on the four standard Salmonella strains (p > 0.05 in the Ames toxicity test. Furthermore, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of GBP was 2000 mg/kg for 91 days feeding of rats in the subchronic toxicity tests. Results also showed the hematological and biochemical indexes as well as histopathological examination changed within a small range, and all clinical observation indexes were normal. No other distinct impacts on cumulative growth of body weight, food intake and food utilization rate were discovered with GBP. No significant difference was discovered for the rats’ organ weight and the ratio of viscera

  9. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Malcolm P; Zimmermann, Eleanor F; Hunt, William T

    2013-03-28

    This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 2, 2004 and previously updated in 2007 and 2009.Tinnitus can be described as the perception of sound in the absence of external acoustic stimulation. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus is acknowledged to be satisfactory in all patients. There are a number of reports in the literature suggesting that Ginkgo biloba may be effective in the management of tinnitus. However, there also appears to be a strong placebo effect in tinnitus management. To assess the effect of Ginkgo biloba in patients who are troubled by tinnitus. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; AMED; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 12 March 2012. Adults (18 years and over) complaining of tinnitus or adults with a primary complaint of cerebral insufficiency, where tinnitus forms part of the syndrome. Both original authors independently extracted data and assessed trials for quality. For the 2012 update two authors determined trial eligibility, extracted data, analysed data and updated the contents of the review. Four trials with a total of 1543 participants were included in the review; we assessed all the included studies as having a low risk of bias. Three trials (1143 participants) included patients with a primary complaint of tinnitus and one (400 participants) included patients with mild to moderate dementia, some of whom had tinnitus.There was no evidence that Gingko biloba was effective in patients with a primary complaint of tinnitus. In the study of patients with dementia, mean baseline levels of tinnitus were low (1.7 to 2.5 on a 10-point subjective symptom rating scale). A small but statistically significant reduction of 1.5 and 0.7 points was

  10. Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaï, Saskia P A; Kruidenier, Lotte M; Bendermacher, Bianca L W; Prins, Martin H; Stokmans, Rutger A; Broos, Pieter P H L; Teijink, Joep A W

    2013-06-06

    People with intermittent claudication (IC) suffer from pain in the muscles of the leg occurring during exercise which is relieved by a short period of rest. Symptomatic relief can be achieved by (supervised) exercise therapy and pharmacological treatments. Ginkgo biloba is a vasoactive agent and is used to treat IC. To assess the effect of Ginkgo biloba on walking distance in people with intermittent claudication. For this update the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (March 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, Issue 2). Randomised controlled trials of Ginkgo biloba extract, irrespective of dosage, versus placebo in people with IC. Two authors independently assessed trials for selection, assessed study quality and extracted data. We extracted number of patients, mean walking distances or times and standard deviations. To standardise walking distance or time, caloric expenditures were used to express the difference between the different treadmill protocols, which were calculated from the speed and incline of the treadmill. Fourteen trials with a total of 739 participants were included. Eleven trials involving 477 participants compared Ginkgo biloba with placebo and assessed the absolute claudication distance (ACD). Following treatment with Ginkgo biloba at the end of the study the ACD increased with an overall effect size of 3.57 kilocalories (confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 7.23, P = 0.06), compared with placebo. This translates to an increase of just 64.5 ( CI -1.8 to 130.7) metres on a flat treadmill with an average speed of 3.2 km/h. Publication bias leading to missing data or "negative" trials is likely to have inflated the effect size. Overall, there is no evidence that Ginkgo biloba has a clinically significant benefit for patients with peripheral arterial disease.

  11. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Eralp, E; Ahmed, I; Kunitz, A; Itil, K Z

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, a standardized dry extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (SeGb), has been approved by German health authorities for the treatment of primary degenerative dementia and vascular dementia. More than 24 different brands of Ginkgo biloba extract are sold in the United States. Tacrine, also known as tetrahydroaminoacrine (THA), and donepezil are currently the only drugs approved in the United States for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies demonstrated that SeGb and tacrine induce significant pharmacological effects on the brains of young, healthy human males, as determined by bioelectrical activity measurements obtained using the quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalogram (QPEEG) method. The type of central nervous system (CNS) effects we have seen on computer-analyzed EEGs (CEEGs) after administration of tacrine or EGb suggests both are "cognitive activators" which are, as a class of products, characterized by a (prepost) relative increase of 7.5 to 13 Hz ("alpha") and decrease of 1.3 to 7.5 Hz ("delta" and "theta") activity. To determine whether EGb or tacrine had noticeable pharmacological effects on elderly subjects diagnosed with possible or probable Alzheimer's, the present open, uncontrolled trial was conducted. Data from 18 subjects (11 males, 7 females) at an average age of 67.4 years with light to moderate dementia (Mini Mental mean score = 23.7, ranges: 15-29 [Geriatric Depression Scale mean scores = 3.7; range: 3.2-5.4]) were analyzed for this presentation. Each subject was randomly administered a single oral "Test-Dose" of either 40 mg of tacrine or 240 mg of EGb2 in two separate sessions within 3- to 7-day intervals. Before drug administration and at 1- and 3-hour intervals after drug administration, CEEGs were recorded for a minimum of 10 minutes. The CEEGs were analyzed using Period Analysis programs we developed for QPEEG. The results indicated that both EGb and, to a lesser degree, tacrine induced pharmacological effects, as

  12. Sensory and chemical assessment of silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus treated with Ginkgo biloba leaf extract treatment during storage in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the physical (L*, a*, b*, texture profile analyses, pH, chemical (TVB-N, K value and TBA, microbiological, amino acid content, and flavor effects that Gingko biloba leaf extract (GBLE had on silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus stored at 4 ± 1 °C in ice for 18 days. Fresh pomfret samples were obtained directly from the local fish market and transported to the laboratory with ice immediately. After being gutted, washed, filleted and trimmed in a water-ice mixture, samples were treated with different concentrations of GBLE (0.0 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL, 5.0 mg/mL, 10.0 mg/mL and packaged in Polyethylene bag, then stored in a refrigerator at 4 ± 1 °C with ice. The results show that the shelf-life of untreated (0.0 mg/mL pomfret samples was 8–9 days compared to 14–15 days for the GBLE1 (2.5 mg/mL treated group. The assessment results showed that different concentrations of GBLE had variable effects on preserving the texture parameters of acceptability limit, inhibit lipid oxidation, protein degradation, and microorganism growth. 2.5 mg/mL of GBLE was the best for the preservation of pomfret during storage in ice. Therefore, there is potential use for GBLE as a preservative to extend the shelf-life of pomfret during chilled storage in ice.

  13. Anti-amnestic properties of Ginkgo biloba extract on impaired memory function induced by aluminum in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhady, Rasha M; Elsheikh, Amira M; Khalifa, Amani E

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum is the most widely used non-ferrous metal. However, recently it is reported to be a neurotoxic agent that could induce biochemical defects in brain by affecting levels of neurotransmitters and generating reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative stress. This study aimed at evaluating neuroprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract(2) (GBE) (200 mg/kg for 28 days) in antagonizing aluminum-induced neurotoxicity through investigating certain parameters such as serum aluminum level, brain aluminum content, brain regional distribution of aluminum, brain oxidative stress biomarkers' content, and brain acetylcholinesterase(3) (AChE) activity. Passive avoidance paradigm was used to assess memory retrieval of rats. Rats' activities were studied using open field test. Results showed that administration of aluminum (10 mg/kg for 28 days) impaired rats' memory retrieval associated with marked elevation of aluminum brain content, serum aluminum level and AChE activity. In addition, aluminum treatment induced significant elevation in its brain content in all tested regions. GBE treatment attenuated neurotoxic effects of aluminum as evidenced by improving rats' performance in passive avoidance and lowering brain AChE activity. Moreover, marked elevation in brain content of oxidized glutathione(4) (GSSG) and malonedialdehyde(5) (MDA) as well as depletion of reduced glutathione(6) (GSH) demonstrated following aluminum administration were reversed reaching normal levels after GBE treatment. Open field test, demonstrated no changes in latency period, number of ambulation, rearing, and grooming following aluminum or other treatments. Therefore, GBE may be a promising therapy ameliorating neurotoxicity of aluminum as an environmental toxic agent. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytochemical and medicinal importance of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Tamboli, Yasinalli; Zubaidha, P K

    2014-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L., also popularly known as living fossil, possesses a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. The leaf extract of G. biloba L. (EGb 761) has been used for years to treat age-related memory-deficit problems, including Alzheimer's and dementia. Experimental and clinical studies have revealed its beneficial effects on a wide range of pathological conditions including hepatoprotective, photoprotective effects, DNA repair mechanism, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent studies have also suggested that leaf extract of G. biloba L. may exert beneficial effects on cancer. This review focuses on recent scientific evidence of the reported medicinal effects of G. biloba L.

  15. Chemistry and biology of terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Nakanishi, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree, is the oldest living tree, with a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, the leaf extracts have been widely sold as phytomedicine in Europe and as a dietary supplement worldwide. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts have been postulated...

  16. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the fractionated radiation therapy in C3H mouse fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    A gingko biloba extract (GBE) has been known as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Its mechanisms of action are increase of the red blood cell deformability, decrease the blood viscosity, and decrease the hypoxic cell fraction in the tumor. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of GBE on fractionated radiotherapy and to clarify the mechanism of action of the GBE by estimating the blood flow in tumor and normal muscle. Fibrosarcoma (FSall) growing in a C3H mouse leg muscle was used as the tumor model. When the tumor size reached 7 mm in diameter, the GBE was given intraperitoneally at 1 and 25 hours prior to irradiation. The tumor growth delay was measured according to the various doses of radiation (3, 6, 9, 12, Gy and 15 Gy) and to the fractionation (single and fractionated irradiation) with and without the GBE injection. The radiation dose to the tumor the response relationships and the enhancement ratio of the GBE were measured. In addition, the blood flow of a normal muscle and a tumor was compared by laser Doppler flowmetry according to the GBE treatment. When the GBE was used with single fraction irradiation with doses ranging from 3 to 12 Gy, GBE increased the tumor growth delay significantly ({rho} < 0.05) and the enhancement ratio of the GBE was 1.16. In fractionated irradiation with 3 Gy per day, the relationships between the radiation dose (D) and the tumor growth delay (TGD) were TGD (days) = 0.26 x D (Gy)+0.13 in the radiation alone group, and the TGD (days) = 0.30 x D (Gy) + 0.13 in the radiation with GBE group. As a result, the enhancement ratio was 1.19 (95% confidence interval; 1.13 {approx} 1.27). Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure the blood flow. The mean blood flow was higher in the muscle (7.78 mL/100 g/min in tumor and the 10.15 mL/100 g/min in muscle, {rho} = 0.0001) and the low blood flow fraction (less than 2 mL/100 g/min) was higher in the tumor (0.5% vs. 5.2%, {rho} = 0.005). The blood flow was not changed with the GBE

  17. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the fractionated radiation therapy in C3H mouse fibrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il

    2002-01-01

    A gingko biloba extract (GBE) has been known as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Its mechanisms of action are increase of the red blood cell deformability, decrease the blood viscosity, and decrease the hypoxic cell fraction in the tumor. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of GBE on fractionated radiotherapy and to clarify the mechanism of action of the GBE by estimating the blood flow in tumor and normal muscle. Fibrosarcoma (FSall) growing in a C3H mouse leg muscle was used as the tumor model. When the tumor size reached 7 mm in diameter, the GBE was given intraperitoneally at 1 and 25 hours prior to irradiation. The tumor growth delay was measured according to the various doses of radiation (3, 6, 9, 12, Gy and 15 Gy) and to the fractionation (single and fractionated irradiation) with and without the GBE injection. The radiation dose to the tumor the response relationships and the enhancement ratio of the GBE were measured. In addition, the blood flow of a normal muscle and a tumor was compared by laser Doppler flowmetry according to the GBE treatment. When the GBE was used with single fraction irradiation with doses ranging from 3 to 12 Gy, GBE increased the tumor growth delay significantly (ρ < 0.05) and the enhancement ratio of the GBE was 1.16. In fractionated irradiation with 3 Gy per day, the relationships between the radiation dose (D) and the tumor growth delay (TGD) were TGD (days) = 0.26 x D (Gy)+0.13 in the radiation alone group, and the TGD (days) = 0.30 x D (Gy) + 0.13 in the radiation with GBE group. As a result, the enhancement ratio was 1.19 (95% confidence interval; 1.13 ∼ 1.27). Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure the blood flow. The mean blood flow was higher in the muscle (7.78 mL/100 g/min in tumor and the 10.15 mL/100 g/min in muscle, ρ = 0.0001) and the low blood flow fraction (less than 2 mL/100 g/min) was higher in the tumor (0.5% vs. 5.2%, ρ = 0.005). The blood flow was not changed with the GBE in normal

  18. Gingko biloba extracts protect auditory hair cells from cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by inhibiting perturbation of gap junctional intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S J; Kim, S W; Lee, J B; Lim, H J; Kim, Y J; Tian, C; So, H S; Park, R; Choung, Y-H

    2013-08-06

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) may play an important role in the hearing process. Cisplatin is an anticancer drug that causes hearing loss and Gingko biloba extracts (EGb 761) have been used as an antioxidant and enhancer for GJIC. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of EGb 761 in protecting against cisplatin-induced apoptosis and disturbance of GJIC. House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 auditory cells were cultured and treated with cisplatin (50 μM) and EGb (300 μg/ml) for 24h, and then analyzed by immunocytochemistry (Annexin V/propidium iodide) and Western blots. GJIC was evaluated by scrape-loading dye transfer (SLDT). Basal turn organ of Corti (oC) explants from neonatal (p3) rats were exposed to cisplatin (1-10 μM) and EGb (50-400 μg/ml). The number of intact hair cells was counted by co-labeling with phalloidin and MyoVIIa. EGb prevented cisplatin-induced apoptosis in immunostaining and decreased caspase 3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase bands, which were increased in cisplatin-treated cells in Western blots. EGb prevented abnormal intracellular locations of connexin (Cx) 26, 30, 31, and 43 in cells treated with cisplatin and increased quantities of Cx bands. EGb also prevented cisplatin-induced disturbance of GJIC in SLDT. In oC explants, EGb significantly prevented hair cell damage induced by cisplatin. In animal studies, EGb significantly prevented cisplatin-induced hearing loss across 16 and 32 kHz. These results show that cisplatin induces ototoxicity including hearing loss as well as down-regulation of GJIC and inhibition of Cxs in auditory cells. EGb prevents hearing loss in cisplatin-treated rats by inhibiting down-regulation of Cx expression and GJIC. The disturbance of GJIC or Cx expression may be one of the important mechanisms of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EGb761, an extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, reduces insulin resistance in a high-fat-fed mouse model

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    Wei-na Cong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available EGb761, a standardized and well-defined product extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, has beneficial effects on the treatment of multiple diseases, including diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, it is still unclear whether EGb761 can increase insulin sensitivity. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the effects of EGb761 on insulin sensitivity in an obese and insulin-resistant mouse model, established through chronic feeding of C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat diet (HFD, and to explore potential mechanisms. Mice fed with HFD for 18 weeks (starting from 4 weeks of age developed obesity, dyslipidemia (as indicated by biochemical measurements of blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and free fatty acids (FFA, and insulin resistance (as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, compared to control mice fed with a standard laboratory chow. Oral treatment of the HFD-fed mice with EGb761, at low (100 mg/kg, medium (200 mg/kg, or high (400 mg/kg doses, via oral gavage (once daily for 8 weeks (starting from 26 weeks of age dose-dependently enhanced glucose tolerance in OGTT, and decreased both the insulin levels (by 29%, 55%, and 70%, respectively, and the HOMA-IR index values (by 50%, 69%, and 80%, respectively. EGb761 treatment also ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, dyslipidemia, and liver injury, as indicated by decreases in body weight (by 4%, 11%, and 16%, respectively, blood TC levels (by 23%, 32%, and 37%, respectively, blood TG levels (by 17%, 23%, and 33%, respectively, blood FAA levels (by 35%, 38%, and 46%, respectively, and liver index (liver weight/body weight values (by 12.8%, 25%, and 28%, respectively in the low, medium, and high EGb761 dose groups, respectively. In further mechanism studies, EGb761 was found to protect hepatic insulin receptor β and insulin receptor substrate 1 from HFD-induced degradation, and to keep the AMP

  20. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid related cytokines in patients with IPF

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    Zhen-Chun Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF related cytokines in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Methods: A total of 60 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 30 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/kg•d, continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg•d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg•d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb, ie. ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12- week treatment. ELISA was used to detect the levels of TNF-毩, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in BALF. The radioimmunoassay was used to determine the levels of serum HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN. The pulmonary function detector was used to measure TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT. Results: After treatment, TNF-毩 level in the control group was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05, while HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN levels in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. After treatment, TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT in the two groups were significantly improved when compared with before treatment (P<0.05, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusions: EGb combined with prednisone can effectively enhance the levels of TNF-毩, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in BALF in patients with IPF, and

  1. Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Long-Term Cognitive Decline: A 20-Year Follow-Up Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Hélène; Meillon, Céline; Helmer, Catherine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean François

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan®) and piracetam (Nootropyl®) on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period. Methods and Findings The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study ‘Paquid’. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the ‘neither treatment’ group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the ‘neither treatment’ group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = −0.6). Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the ‘neither treatment’ group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = −0.03), whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = −1.40 and β = −0.44). When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = −1.07, β = −1.61 and β = −0.41). Conclusion Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in

  2. Ginkgo biloba extract and long-term cognitive decline: a 20-year follow-up population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Amieva

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan® and piracetam (Nootropyl® on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period.The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study 'Paquid'. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the 'neither treatment' group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the 'neither treatment' group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = -0.6. Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the 'neither treatment' group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = -0.03, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = -1.40 and β = -0.44. When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = -1.07, β = -1.61 and β = -0.41.Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in those who did not. This effect may be a specific medication

  3. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 has anti-inflammatory properties and ameliorates colitis in mice by driving effector T cell apoptosis.

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    Kotakadi, Venkata S; Jin, Yu; Hofseth, Anne B; Ying, Lei; Cui, Xiangli; Volate, Suresh; Chumanevich, Alexander; Wood, Patricia A; Price, Robert L; McNeal, Anna; Singh, Udai P; Singh, Narendra P; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Matesic, Lydia E; Auclair, Karine; Wargovich, Michael J; Hofseth, Lorne J

    2008-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a dynamic, chronic inflammatory condition of the colon associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Ginkgo biloba is a putative antioxidant and has been used for thousands of years to treat a variety of ailments. The aim of this study was to test whether the standardized G.biloba extract, EGb 761, is an antioxidant that can be used to prevent and treat colitis in mice. Here, we show that EGb 761 suppresses the activation of macrophages and can be used to both prevent and treat mouse colitis. Markers of inflammation (iNOS, Cox-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and inflammatory stress (p53 and p53-phospho-serine 15) are also downregulated by EGb 761. Furthermore, we show that EGb 761 reduces the numbers of CD4+/CD25-/Foxp3- effector T cells in the colon. Interestingly, EGb 761 drives CD4+ effector T cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, providing a mechanistic explanation to the reduction in numbers of this cell type in the colon. This current study is in agreement with previous studies supporting a use of EGb 761 as a complementary and alternative strategy to abate colitis and associated colon cancer.

  4. Effect of a short- and long-term treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract on amyloid precursor protein levels in a transgenic mouse model relevant to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Sabine; Rimbach, Gerald; Augustin, Kay; Schliebs, Reinhard; Wolffram, Siegfried; Cermak, Rainer

    2009-01-15

    Several clinical trials have reported beneficial effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in the prevention and therapy of cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the present long-term feeding trial was to study the impact of dietary EGb761 on Amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism in mice transgenic for human APP (Tg2576). Tg2576 mice were fed diets with and without EGb761 (300 mg/kg diet) for 1 and 16 months, respectively. Long-term treatment (16 months) with EGb761 significantly lowered human APP protein levels by approximately 50% as compared to controls in the cortex but not in the hippocampus. However, APP levels were not affected by EGb761 in young mice. Current data indicate that APP seems to be an important molecular target of EGb761 in relation to the duration of the Ginkgo biloba treatment and/or the age of the animals. Potential neuroprotective properties of EGb761 may be, at least partly, related to its APP lowering activity.

  5. Ginkgo biloba extract alters the binding of the sodium [{sup 123}I] iodide (Na{sup 123}I) on blood constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, Luiz Claudio Martins [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Via Cinco s/n, 21945-450 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias, E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24030-210, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24030-210, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, Rosimeire de Souza [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Thomaz, Helio [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Via Cinco s/n, 21945-450 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    We evaluated the in vitro effect of an aqueous extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) on the distribution in blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) and on the binding of Na{sup 123}I to the blood constituents using precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. The radioactivity percentages insoluble (SF) and insoluble fraction (IF) of blood constituents were determined. The EGb interfered (p<0.05) on the distribution of Na{sup 123}I in the P (from 69.64 to 86.13) and BC (from 30.36 to 13.87) and altered the fixation of the Na{sup 123}I in IF-P and in IF-BC. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between the Ginkgo biloba and blood constituents radiolabeled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of the binding of sodium iodide (Na{sup 123}I) to the blood constituents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This alteration should have influence in a diagnosis of nuclear medicine.

  6. The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) protects the kidney from damage produced by a single and low dose of carbon tetrachloride in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Morales, R M; Jaramillo-Juárez, F; Rodríguez-Vázquez, M L; Martínez-Saldaña, M C; Del Río, F A Posadas; Garfias-López, J A

    2017-09-05

    Gingko biloba leaves have been used as herbal medicine in China for 5000 years, and the standardized leaf extract (GB-STE) has some beneficial effects in the treatment of age-related, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of the Gingko biloba extract (GbE) against the toxicity of a single and relatively low dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). In male adult Wistar rats, we determined the urine flux, the concentration of total proteins in urine, the concentration of glucose in urine, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in renal cortex as well as two markers of renal function (clearance of inulin and p-aminohippurate); we also compared the histological lesions caused by CCl 4 . Carbon tetrachloride increased the urinary concentration of total proteins, and the renal concentration of MDA; however, it did not modify the urine flux, urinary concentration of glucose, nor the inuline or the p-aminohipurate clearances. Morphologically, CCl 4 generated some tubular damage that was more intense in the inner cortex of kidneys. The GbE extract counteracted the effects of CCl 4 on the concentration of total proteins in urine, the concentration of renal MDA, and the renal histological changes. In conclusion the main toxic effects produced by CCl 4 were prevented by the GbE, probably due to their antioxidant properties and the inhibition of the main P450 isoenzyme (CYP2E1) that metabolize CCl 4 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative Stress and C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident (Ischaemic Stroke): The role of Ginkgo biloba extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanoon, Imad A-J; Abdul-Jabbar, Hilmy As; Taha, Dhia A

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of oxidative stress and inflammation in ischaemic stroke patients by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), and highly-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the early post-ischaemic period, and to determine the role of Ginkgo biloba therapy in correcting the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. This study was conducted at Ibn Seena Hospital, Mosul City, Iraq and included 31 cerebrovascular accident (CVA) patients and 30 healthy controls. Ischaemic stroke patients were divided into two groups: group I (n = 15) received conventional therapy; group II (n = 16) received conventional therapy with G. biloba (1500 mg/day) for 30 days. Blood samples were obtained from patients and controls before treatment and assays done of serum levels of MDA, TAS, and hsCRP. For CVA patients, a post-treatment blood sample was taken and the same parameters reassessed. Compared with the controls, patients' serum levels of MDA, and hsCRP were significantly higher (P ≤0.001) and TAS significantly lower. Group I and II patients reported a significant reduction in serum levels of MDA and hsCRP and a significant increase in serum levels of TAS, in comparison with pre-treatment levels. There was no significant difference (P = 0.19) in serum MDA levels between groups I and II, whereas, serum TAS levels were significantly higher (P ≤0.01) and hsCRP significantly lower (P ≤0.01) in group II. Acute stroke is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the early period. G. biloba plays a potential role in reducing oxidative damage and inflammatory response.

  8. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Hyung; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Lee, Yong-Oh; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jang, In-Jin; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2010-02-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract is an herbal medicine used in the treatment of vascular disorders that may be coadministered with antiplatelet agents such as ticlopidine. Regulatory authorities requested evaluation of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between these entities, according to the drug-development guidance for fixed-dose combination formulations in Korea. This study was performed to evaluate the potential pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between ticlopidine and Ginkgo biloba extract. An open-label, randomized, 2-period, 2-treatment, 2-sequence, single-dose crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. All volunteers were randomly assigned to a sequence group for the 2 treatments, which consisted of ticlopidine 250 mg alone and ticlopidine 250 mg with Ginkgo biloba extract 80 mg, separated by a 1-week washout period between the treatments. Bleeding time was determined just before dosing and at 5, 12, and 48 hours after dosing. Platelet aggregation was evaluated before dosing and at 4, 8, 26, and 48 hours after dosing. Blood samples (8 mL) from each of the volunteers were collected from an indwelling intravenous cannula inserted into a forearm vein before dosing and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after dosing. Ticlopidine concentrations were determined by a validated method using HPLC and ultraviolet detection. Adverse events were identified using general health-related questions, vital signs, physical examinations, ECGs, and laboratory tests. A total of 24 healthy men participated in the study (mean [SD] age, 24.1 [4.3] years; weight, 66.6 [7.4] kg; height, 174.7 [5.0] cm). The baseline corrected bleeding times were not significantly different between the ticlopidine-alone and ticlopidine/ Ginkgo biloba groups, and changes in platelet aggregation were not significantly different between the groups. Likewise, the pharmacokinetic parameters of ticlopidine were not significantly different

  9. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Medicas]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Pereira, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Dire, Glaucio; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Rocha, Emely Kazan [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Celular e Genetica

    2005-10-15

    Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb) has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}) and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4} bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (P<0.05), probably caused by metabolites generated by EGb and capable of altering the bioavailability of the Na{sup 99m} TcO{sub 4}. (author)

  10. Systemic and cerebral exposure to and pharmacokinetics of flavonols and terpene lactones after dosing standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts to rats via different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Li, Li; Xu, Fang; Sun, Yan; Du, Feifei; Ma, Xutao; Zhong, Chenchun; Li, Xiuxue; Wang, Fengqing; Zhang, Nating; Li, Chuan

    2013-09-01

    Flavonols and terpene lactones are putatively responsible for the properties of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts that relate to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cerebral insufficiency. Here, we characterized rat systemic and cerebral exposure to these ginkgo compounds after dosing, as well as the compounds' pharmacokinetics. Rats received single or multiple doses of ShuXueNing injection (prepared from GBE50 for intravenous administration) or GBE50 (a standardized extract of G. biloba leaves for oral administration). Brain delivery of the ginkgo compounds was assessed with microdialysis. Various rat samples were analysed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Slow terminal elimination features of the flavonols counterbalanced the influence of poor oral bioavailability on their systemic exposure levels, which also resulted in significant accumulation of the compounds in plasma during the subchronic treatment with ShuXueNing injection and GBE50. Unlike the flavonols, the terpene lactones had poor enterohepatic circulation due to their rapid renal excretion and unknown metabolism. The flavonol glycosides occurred as major forms in plasma after dosing with ShuXueNing injection, while the flavonol aglycone conjugates were predominant in plasma after dosing with GBE50. Cerebral exposure was negligible for the flavonols and low for the terpene lactones. Unlike the significant systemic exposure levels, the levels of cerebral exposure to the flavonols and terpene lactones are low. The elimination kinetic differences between the two classes of ginkgo compounds influence their relative systemic exposure levels. The information gained is relevant to linking ginkgo administration to the medicinal effects. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley &. Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Systemic and cerebral exposure to and pharmacokinetics of flavonols and terpene lactones after dosing standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts to rats via different routes of administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Li, Li; Xu, Fang; Sun, Yan; Du, Feifei; Ma, Xutao; Zhong, Chenchun; Li, Xiuxue; Wang, Fengqing; Zhang, Nating; Li, Chuan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Flavonols and terpene lactones are putatively responsible for the properties of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts that relate to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cerebral insufficiency. Here, we characterized rat systemic and cerebral exposure to these ginkgo compounds after dosing, as well as the compounds’ pharmacokinetics. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats received single or multiple doses of ShuXueNing injection (prepared from GBE50 for intravenous administration) or GBE50 (a standardized extract of G. biloba leaves for oral administration). Brain delivery of the ginkgo compounds was assessed with microdialysis. Various rat samples were analysed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. KEY RESULTS Slow terminal elimination features of the flavonols counterbalanced the influence of poor oral bioavailability on their systemic exposure levels, which also resulted in significant accumulation of the compounds in plasma during the subchronic treatment with ShuXueNing injection and GBE50. Unlike the flavonols, the terpene lactones had poor enterohepatic circulation due to their rapid renal excretion and unknown metabolism. The flavonol glycosides occurred as major forms in plasma after dosing with ShuXueNing injection, while the flavonol aglycone conjugates were predominant in plasma after dosing with GBE50. Cerebral exposure was negligible for the flavonols and low for the terpene lactones. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Unlike the significant systemic exposure levels, the levels of cerebral exposure to the flavonols and terpene lactones are low. The elimination kinetic differences between the two classes of ginkgo compounds influence their relative systemic exposure levels. The information gained is relevant to linking ginkgo administration to the medicinal effects. PMID:23808355

  12. Bioavailability of the sodium pertechnetate and morphometry of organs isolated from rats: study of possible pharmacokinetic interactions of a ginkgo biloba extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds affect the bioavailability of radiobiocomplexes as radiopharmaceuticals. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb has several effects. The influence of an EGb on the bioavailability of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4 and on the morphometry of the organs was evaluated. Rats were treated with EGb and Na99mTcO4 was injected. The animals were sacrificed; the radioactivity in the organs was counted. The results showed that EGb altered the Na99mTcO4 bioavailability in the kidneys, liver and duodenum. Morphometric analysis of the organs showed significant alterations (PSubstâncias podem interferir na biodisponibilidade de radiobiocomplexos, como os radiofármacos. O extrato de Ginkgo Biloba (EGb apresenta efeitos. Avaliou-se a influência de um EGb na biodisponibilidade do pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO-4Na e na morfometria de órgãos de ratos que foram tratados com EGb. 99mTcO-4Na foi injetado, os animais sacrificados e a radioatividade nos órgãos contada. Os resultados mostraram que o EGb alterou a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na em rins, fígado e duodeno e alterações morfométricas significativas (p<0.05 foram encontradas. Sugere-se que o EGb poderia gerar metabólitos capazes de alterar morfometricamente os órgãos citados e alterar a biodisponibilidade do 99mTcO-4Na.

  13. Chemistry and biology of terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Nakanishi, Koji

    2004-03-19

    Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree, is the oldest living tree, with a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, the leaf extracts have been widely sold as phytomedicine in Europe and as a dietary supplement worldwide. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts have been postulated to include improvement of memory, increased blood circulation, as well as beneficial effects to sufferers of Alzheimer's disease. The most unique components of the extracts are the terpene trilactones, that is, ginkgolides and bilobalide. These structurally complex molecules have been attractive targets for total synthesis. Terpene trilactones are believed to be partly responsible for the neuromodulatory properties of Ginkgo biloba extracts, and several biological effects of the terpene trilactones have been discovered in recent years, making them attractive pharmacological tools that could provide insight into the effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts.

  14. Fuzzy clustering evaluation of the discrimination power of UV-Vis and (±) ESI-MS detection system in individual or coupled RPLC for characterization of Ginkgo Biloba standardized extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Albu, Florin; Naşcu-Briciu, Rodica Domnica; Sârbu, Costel

    2014-02-01

    Discrimination power evaluation of UV-Vis and (±) electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric techniques, (ESI-MS) individually considered or coupled as detectors to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) in the characterization of Ginkgo Biloba standardized extracts, is used in herbal medicines and/or dietary supplements with the help of Fuzzy hierarchical clustering (FHC). Seventeen batches of Ginkgo Biloba commercially available standardized extracts from seven manufacturers were measured during experiments. All extracts were within the criteria of the official monograph dedicated to dried refined and quantified Ginkgo extracts, in the European Pharmacopoeia. UV-Vis and (±) ESI-MS spectra of the bulk standardized extracts in methanol were acquired. Additionally, an RPLC separation based on a simple gradient elution profile was applied to the standardized extracts. Detection was made through monitoring UV absorption at 220 nm wavelength or the total ion current (TIC) produced through (±) ESI-MS analysis. FHC was applied to raw, centered and scaled data sets, for evaluating the discrimination power of the method with respect to the origins of the extracts and to the batch to batch variability. The discrimination power increases with the increase of the intrinsic selectivity of the spectral technique being used: UV-Viscluster analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA) indicates that the FHC algorithm produces better classification. However, PCA and CA may be successfully applied to discriminate between the manufacturing sources of the standardized extracts, and at some extent, to monitor the inter-batch variability. Although the chromatographic dimension sensibly contributes to the discrimination power, spectral MS data may be used as the lone powerful holistic alternative in characterization of standardized Ginkgo Biloba extracts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts inhibits angiogenesis and its effects on Wnt/β-catenin-VEGF signaling pathway in Lewis lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongdong; Cao, Chengjie; Su, Ya; Wang, Jun; Sun, Jian; Chen, Huasheng; Xu, Aihua

    2016-11-04

    A fruit of Ginkgo biloba L. also known as Ginkgo biloba, can be used for the treatment of cancer in Chinese traditional medicine. The scientific name of succulent skin, which is the episperm of Ginkgo nuts, is exocarp. Experiment shows that Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts (GBEE) has the effects of immune promotion, cancer inhibition and etc. Study on the activity of GBEE against Lewis lung cancer (LLC) angiogenesis and its partial molecular mechanism. The effect of GBEE on proliferation of LLC cells was detected by MTT method in vitro. The metastasis model of LLC was set up. The C57BL/6J mice were randomly separated into normal control, model control, positive control and GBEE (50, 100, 200mg/kg) treatment groups, n=10. The mice in normal group and model group were both intragastric gavage (i.g.) normal saline (NS) in a volume of 0.1mL/10g (b.w.), positive group were intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection cyclophosphamide (CPA) at a dose of 20mg/kg (b.w.) , the GBEE treatment groups were respectively i.g. GBEE 50, 100, and 200mg/kg (b.w.), once a day for 20d. After treatment, we calculated the tumor inhibition rate and anti-metastasis rate. The microvessel density (MVD) was measured by immunohistochemistry method in transplanted tumor. The expression levels of vascular en-dothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGFR2 mRNA or Wnt3a, β-catenin, VEGF, VEGFR2 and p-Akt/Akt protein expression were respectively tested by Quantitative Reverse transcription Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or western blot in vitro and vivo. GBEE suppressed the growth of LLC cells in a dose-dependent way at the dose of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160µg/mL in vitro. It can suppressed Wnt3a and β-catenin protein expression and the content of mRNA of VEGF and VEGFR2 in LLC cells significantly. In vivo, we discovered GBEE can retard the growth of LLC transplanted tumor in a dose-dependent way at the dose of 50, 100, 200mg/kg, suppressing tumor lung metastasis. The expression of CD34 was reduced, which

  16. Ginkgo biloba extract and its flavonol and terpenelactone fractions do not affect beta-secretase mRNA and enzyme activity levels in cultured neurons and in mice.

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    Augustin, Sabine; Huebbe, Patricia; Matzner, Nicole; Augustin, Kay; Schliebs, Reinhard; Cermak, Rainer; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Numerous clinical trials have reported beneficial effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in the prevention and therapy of cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although neuroprotective properties of EGb761 have been consistently reported, the molecular mechanisms of EGb761 and the specific role of its major constituents, the flavonols and terpenlactones, are largely unknown. One major hallmark of AD is the deposition of amyloid-beta (A beta) as amyloid plaques in the brain. A beta is a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Certain proteases, called beta-secretases (BACE), are crucial in the formation of A beta. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of EGb761 and its flavonol and terpenelactone fraction to modulate BACE-1 enzyme activity and mRNA levels in vitro and in vivo. Neither EGb761 nor its fractions affected BACE-1 activity in vitro. Furthermore, also in Neuro-2a cells and wild-type as well as transgenic (Tg2576) laboratory mice, no significant effect of EGb761 on BACE-1 enzyme activity and mRNA levels were observed. Current findings suggest that BACE-1 may not be a major molecular target of EGb761 and its flavonol and terpenelactone fraction.

  17. EGb761, a Ginkgo biloba extract, is effective against atherosclerosis in vitro, and in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo; Yoon, Ji Won; Kang, Seon Mee; Choi, Sung Hee; Cho, Bong Jun; Kim, Min; Park, Ho Seon; Cho, Hyun Ju; Shin, Hayley; Kim, Young-Bum; Kim, Hyo Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Kyong Soo

    2011-01-01

    EGb761, a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, has antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation and thus might protect against atherosclerosis. However, molecular and functional properties of EGb761 and its major subcomponents have not been well characterized. We investigated the effect of EGb761 and its major subcomponents (bilobalide, kaemferol, and quercetin) on preventing atherosclerosis in vitro, and in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. EGb761 (100 and 200 mg/kg) or normal saline (control) were administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, an obese insulin-resistant rat model, for 6 weeks (from 3 weeks before to 3 weeks after carotid artery injury). Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate cell proliferation and apoptosis in the injured arteries. Cell migration, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation, monocyte adhesion, and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 levels were explored in vitro. Treatment with EGb761 dose-dependently reduced intima-media ratio, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and induced greater apoptosis than the controls. Proliferation and migration of VSMCs in vitro were also decreased by the treatment of EGb761. Glucose homeostasis and circulating adiponectin levels were improved, and plasma hsCRP concentrations were decreased in the treatment groups. Caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation increased while monocyte adhesion and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 levels decreased significantly. Among subcomponents of EGb761, kaemferol and quercetin reduced VSMC migration and increased caspase activity. EGb761 has a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis and is a potential therapeutic agent for preventing atherosclerosis.

  18. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract treatment in the Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts in the femoral trabecular bone of Wistar rats with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

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    Leda M.F. Lucinda

    Full Text Available Evaluate the effect of the extract of Ginkgo biloba L., Ginkgoaceae (EGb in the Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts in the femoral trabecular bone of Wistar rats with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Rats were divided into five groups: osteoporosis; EGb1 (28 mg/kg; EGb2 (56 mg/kg; alendronate (0.2 mg/animal and control. The treatments were conducted for 20 or 30 days. The Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts cells was evaluated in the femoral trabecular bone. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis-induced group (Student's t-test. The other groups were analyzed by ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05. The percentage of Bcl-2 expression was reduced, when the control group (17.95 ± 3.45 20 days; 21.11 ± 3.43 30 days was compared with the osteoporosis group (10.64 ± 3.30 20 days; 9.72 ± 2.84 30 days. Nevertheless, this percentage increased in the EGb2 group (18.58 ± 3.41 20 days; 16.51 ± 1.80 30 days when compared to the osteoporosis group. The EGb increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, suggesting a decrease in osteoblast apoptosis.

  19. The extract of Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 reactivates a juvenile profile in the skeletal muscle of sarcopenic rats by transcriptional reprogramming.

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    Caroline Bidon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is a major public health problem in industrialized nations, placing an increasing burden on public healthcare systems because the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that characterizes this affection increases the dependence and the risk of injury caused by sudden falls in elderly people. Albeit exercise and caloric restriction improve sarcopenia-associated decline of the muscular performances, a more suitable and focused pharmacological treatment is still lacking.In order to evaluate such a possible treatment, we investigated the effects of EGb 761, a Ginkgo biloba extract used in chronic age-dependent neurological disorders, on the function of the soleus muscle in aged rats. EGb 761 induced a gain in muscular mass that was associated with an improvement of the muscular performances as assessed by biochemical and electrophysiological tests. DNA microarray analysis shows that these modifications are accompanied by the transcriptional reprogramming of genes related to myogenesis through the TGFbeta signaling pathway and to energy production via fatty acids and glucose oxidation. EGb 761 restored a more juvenile gene expression pattern by regenerating the aged muscle and reversing the age-related metabolic shift from lipids to glucose utilization.Thus, EGb 761 may represent a novel treatment for sarcopenia both more manageable and less cumbersome than exercise and caloric restriction.

  20. Summative interaction between astaxanthin, Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) and vitamin C in suppression of respiratory inflammation: a comparison with ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, David D; Varga, Balazs; Bak, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Mahmoud, Fadia F; Kalantari, Heybatullah; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Lekli, Istvan; Czompa, Attila; Tosaki, Arpad

    2011-01-01

    In this study, combinations of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb761) plus the carotenoid antioxidant astaxanthin (ASX) and vitamin C were evaluated for a summative dose effect in the inhibition of asthma-associated inflammation in asthmatic guinea-pigs. Ovalbumin-sensitized Hartley guinea-pigs challenged with ovalbumin aerosol to induce asthma, were administered EGb761, ASX, vitamin C or ibuprofen. Following killing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was evaluated for inflammatory cell infiltrates and lung tissue cyclic nucleotide content. Each parameter measured was significantly altered to a greater degree by drug combinations, than by each component acting independently. An optimal combination was identified that included astaxanthin (10 mg/kg), vitamin C (200 mg/kg) and EGb761 (10 mg/kg), resulting in counts of eosinophils and neutrophils each 1.6-fold lower; macrophages 1.8-fold lower, cAMP 1.4-fold higher; and cGMP 2.04-fold higher than levels in untreated, asthmatic animals (p ASX and vitamin C are shown here to interact summatively to suppress inflammation with efficacy equal to or better than ibuprofen, a widely used non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID). Such combinations of non-toxic phytochemicals constitute powerful tools for the prevention of onset of acute and chronic inflammatory disease if consumed regularly by healthy individuals; and may also augment the effectiveness of therapy for those with established illness. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Examining Brain-Cognition Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation in the Left Temporal and Left Prefrontal Cortex in an Object Working Memory Task

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    R. B. Silberstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of age related cognitive impairment, with preclinical evidence pointing to a pro-cholinergic effect. While a number of behavioral studies have reported improvements to working memory (WM associated with GBE, electrophysiological studies of GBE have typically been limited to recordings during a resting state. The current study investigated the chronic effects of GBE on steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP topography in nineteen healthy middle-aged (50-61 year old male participants whilst completing an object WM task. A randomized double-blind crossover design was employed in which participants were allocated to receive 14 days GBE and 14 days placebo in random order. For both groups, SSVEP was recorded from 64 scalp electrode sites during the completion of an object WM task both pre- and 14 days post-treatment. GBE was found to improve behavioural performance on the WM task. GBE was also found to increase the SSVEP amplitude at occipital and frontal sites and increase SSVEP latency at left temporal and left frontal sites during the hold component of the WM task. These SSVEP changes associated with GBE may represent more efficient processing during WM task completion.

  2. Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 and Betahistine

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    Larysa Sokolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicenter clinical trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and betahistine at recommended doses in patients with vertigo. One hundred and sixty patients (mean age 58 years were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with EGb 761 (240 mg per day or betahistine (32 mg per day for 12 weeks. An 11-point numeric analogue scale, the Vertigo Symptom Scale—short form, the Clinical Global Impression Scales and the Sheehan Disability Scale were used as outcome measures. Both treatment groups were comparable at baseline and improved in all outcome measures during the course of treatment. There was no significant intergroup difference with regard to changes in any outcome measure. Numerically, improvements of patients receiving EGb 761 were slightly more pronounced on all scales. Clinical global impression was rated “very much improved” or “much improved” in 79% of patients treated with EGb 761 and in 70% receiving betahistine. With 27 adverse events in 19 patients, EGb 761 showed better tolerability than betahistine with 39 adverse events in 31 patients. In conclusion, the two drugs were similarly effective in the treatment of vertigo, but EGb 761 was better tolerated. This trial is registered with controlled-trials.com ISRCTN02262139.

  3. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

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    Ghimeray AK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Amal Kumar Ghimeray,1 Un Sun Jung,1,2 Ha Youn Lee,1 Young Hoon Kim,1 Eun Kyung Ryu,1 Moon Sik Chang11R&D Center, Natural Solution Co., Ltd, Gojan-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Horticultural Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of KoreaBackground: In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro, and anti-wrinkle (in vivo effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract.Methods: Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2- and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow's feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo.Results: In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox. The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively.Conclusion: The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin.Keywords: antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-wrinkle, fruits, topical formulation

  4. Antidepressant-like effect of a Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) in the mouse forced swimming test: role of oxidative stress.

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    Rojas, Patricia; Serrano-García, Norma; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Ogren, Sven O; Rojas, Carolina

    2011-10-01

    EGb761 is a well-defined mixture of active compounds extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves. This extract is used clinically due to its neuroprotective effects, exerted probably via its potent antioxidant or free radical scavenger action. Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress, via free radical production, may play an important role in depression and animal models for depression-like behavior. Preclinical studies have suggested that antioxidants may have antidepressants properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like of EGb761 due to its antioxidant role against oxidative stress induced in the forced swimming test, the most widely used preclinical model for assessing antidepressant-like behavior. Male BALB/c mice were pretreated with EGb761 (10mg/kg, ip) daily for 17 days followed by the forced swimming test and spontaneous locomotor activity. Animals were sacrificed to evaluate lipid peroxidation, different antioxidant enzyme activities, serotonin and dopamine content in midbrain, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. EGb761 significantly decreased the immobility time (39%) in the forced swimming test. This antidepressant-like effect of EGb761 was associated with a reduction in lipid peroxidation and superoxide radical production (indicated by a downregulation of Mn-superoxide dismutase activity), both of which are indicators of oxidative stress. The protective effect of EGb761 is not related to excitatory or inhibitory effects in locomotor activity, and was also associated with the modulation of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. It is suggested that EGb761 produces an antidepressant-like effect, and that an antioxidant effect against oxidative stress may be partly responsible for its observed neuroprotective effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Gingko Biloba on Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    deLuna, Andres

    2000-01-01

    Gingko Biloba and its extract, EGb761, have been widely promoted for a variety of functions, including the enhancement of learning and memory. A review of the results of studies in animals supports this assertion, but studies in humans have not had the statistical requirements for any definite conclusions. Multiple mechanisms of action have been proposed, most focusing on effects on the hippocampus; however, the exact nature of the effects of Gingko Biloba has yet to be determined. Because Gi...

  6. Inhibition of lipid oxidation in foods and feeds and hydroxyl radical-treated fish erythrocytes: A comparative study of Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts and synthetic antioxidants

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    Huatao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and ethoxyquin (EQ and ethyl ether extracts, ethyl acetate extracts (EAE, acetone extracts, ethanol extracts and aqueous extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGbs on lipid oxidation in a linoleic acid emulsion, fish flesh and fish feed and in hydroxyl radical (·OH-treated carp erythrocytes. The linoleic acid, fish flesh and fish feed were incubated with BHT, EQ and EGbs at 45°C for 8 d, respectively, except for the control group. The lipid oxidation in the linoleic acid emulsion, fish flesh and fish feed was then measured by the ferric thiocyanate method or thiobarbituric acid method. The carp erythrocytes were treated with BHT, EQ or EGbs in the presence of 40 μmol/L FeSO4 and 20 μmol/L H2O2 at 37°C for 6 h, except for the control group. Oxidative stress and apoptosis parameters in carp erythrocytes were then evaluated by the commercial kit. The results showed that BHT, EQ and EGbs inhibited lipid oxidation in the linoleic acid emulsion, fish flesh and fish feed and ·OH-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA fragmentation (the biomarkers of apoptosis in carp erythrocytes. Furthermore, BHT, EQ and EGbs decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, inhibited the oxidation of cellular components and restored the activities of enzymatic antioxidants in ·OH-treated carp erythrocytes. Of all examined EGbs, EAE showed the strongest effects. The effects of EAE on lipid oxidation in the linoleic acid emulsion and on superoxide anion and malonaldehyde levels, catalase activity and apoptosis in ·OH-treated carp erythrocytes were equivalent to or stronger than those of BHT. Moreover, these results indicated that the inhibition order of EGbs on the generation of ROS and oxidation of cellular components in fish erythrocytes approximately agreed with that for the food and feed materials tested above. And, the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of EGbs were

  7. Protective effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of middle-aged rats.

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    Ribeiro, Marcelo L; Moreira, Luciana M; Arçari, Demetrius P; Dos Santos, Letícia França; Marques, Antônio Cezar; Pedrazzoli, José; Cerutti, Suzete M

    2016-10-15

    This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. (EGb) on short-term and long-term memory as well as on anxiety-like and locomotor activity using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT). Additionally, we evaluated the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of EGb on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) of middle-aged rats using the comet assay. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were administered vehicle or EGb (0.5mgkg(-1) or 1.0gkg(-1)) for 30days. Behavioural data showed that EGb treatment improved short-term memory. Neither an anti-anxiety effect nor a change in locomotor activity was observed. Twenty-four hours after the behavioural tests, the rats were decapitated, and the PFC and DH were quickly dissected out and prepared for the comet assay. The levels of DNA damage in the PFC were significantly lower in rats that were treated with 1.0gkg(-1) EGb. Both doses of EGb decreased H2O2-induced DNA breakage in cortical cells, whereas the levels of DNA damage in the EGb-treated animals were significantly lower than those in the control animals. No significant differences in the level of DNA damage in hippocampal cells were observed among the experimental groups. EGb treatment was not able to reduce H2O2-induced DNA damage in hippocampal cells. Altogether, our data provide the first demonstration that chronic EGb treatment improved the short-term memory of middle-aged rats, an effect that could be associated with a reduction in free radical production in the PFC. These data suggest that EGb treatment might increase the survival of cortical neurons and corroborate and extend the view that EGb has protective and therapeutic properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A dermocosmetic containing bakuchiol, Ginkgo biloba extract and mannitol improves the efficacy of adapalene in patients with acne vulgaris: result from a controlled randomized trial

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    Poláková K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Katarína Poláková,1 Aurélie Fauger,2 Michèle Sayag,2 Eric Jourdan2 1Saint Elisabeth´s Oncological Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia; 2Laboratoire Bioderma, Lyon, France Background: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of the pilosebaceous unit. Aim: To confirm that BGM (bakuchiol, Ginkgo biloba extract, and mannitol complex increases the established clinical efficacy of adapalene 0.1% gel in patients with acne. Methods: A clinical trial was conducted in acne patients. A total of 111 subjects received adapalene 0.1% gel and BGM complex or vehicle cream for 2 months. Assessments comprised Investigator Global Assessment (IGA, global efficacy, seborrhea intensity, inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions, and subject perception, as well as overall safety and local tolerance and quality of life. Results: At the end of the trial, inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions, IGA, global efficacy, and seborrhea intensity had significantly improved in both treatment groups. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 in favor of BGM complex for inflammatory lesions as well as IGA and seborrhea intensity. Global efficacy assessments and subject perception confirmed the superiority of BGM complex-including treatment over the comparative combination. Quality of life had improved more with the active combination than with the vehicle combination. In the active group, four subjects had to interrupt temporarily BGM complex and 12 adapalene compared to seven subjects interrupting the vehicle and eleven adapalene in the vehicle group. One subject withdrew from the trial due to an allergy to adapalene. The majority of all events were mild. Conclusion: BGM complex improves the treatment outcome of adapalene 0.1% gel in patients with acne vulgaris. Overall, safety and local tolerance of BGM complex were good. Keywords: adapalene, acne vulgaris, bakuchiol, BGM complex, P. acnes, sebum

  9. The effects of the standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba on steroidogenesis pathways and aromatase activity in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aromatase inhibitors that block estrogen synthesis are a proven first-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer. Although it is known that standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) induces anti-carcinogenic effects like the aromatase inhibitors, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis have not been studied yet. Therefore, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis and aromatase activity was studied using a H295R cell model, which was a good in vitro model to predict effects on human adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol were evaluated in the H295R cells by competitive enzyme-linked immunospecific assay after exposure to EGb761. Real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate effects on critical genes in steroid hormone production, specifically cytochrome P450 (CYP11/ 17/19/21) and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1/4). Finally, aromatase activities were measured with a tritiated water-release assay and by western blotting analysis. Results H295R cells exposed to EGb761 (10 and 100 μg/mL) showed a significant decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone, but no change in aldosterone or cortisol. Genes (CYP19 and 17β-HSD1) related to the estrogen steroidogenesis were significantly decreased by EGb761. EGb761 treatment of H295R cells resulted in a significant decrease of aromatase activity as measured by the direct and indirect assays. The coding sequence/ Exon PII of CYP19 gene transcript and protein level of CYP19 were significantly decreased by EGb761. Conclusions These results suggest that EGb761 could regulate steroidogenesis-related genes such as CYP19 and 17β-HSD1, and lead to a decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone. The present study provides good information on potential therapeutic effects of EGb761 on estrogen dependent breast cancer. PMID:27188280

  10. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the apoptosis of oxygen and glucose-deprived SH-SY5Y cells and its mechanism

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    Ba, Xiao-Hong; Min, Lian-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to observe the effects of the extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) on the apoptosis of oxygen and glucose-deprived (OGD) human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) cells and explore its mechanism. Materials and Methods: SH-SY5Y cells were divided into normal control group, OGD group, OGD for 4 h and EGb761-pretreated groups including very low-concentration (20 μg/ml), low-concentration group (25 μg/ml), moderate-concentration group (50 μg/ml) and high-concentration group (100 μg/ml). Twenty four hours after reoxygenation, cell viability was determined with 3-[4, 5-dimehyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, apoptosis rate was detected with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining flow cytometry and the protein level of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was observed with immunofluorescence technique in each group. Results: Cell viability was significantly lower in OGD group than in EGb761-pretreated groups, especially in moderate-concentration group (50 μg/ml) (P < 0.005). Apoptosis rate was significantly lower in EGb761-pretreated groups than in OGD group (P < 0.001). Immunofluorescent staining showed that there was AIF nuclear translocation in both EGb761-pretreated groups and OGD group, but AIF nuclear translocation was less in EGb761-pretreated groups than in OGD group. Conclusion: EGb761 can reduce the apoptosis of OGD SH-SY5Y cells probably through inhibiting AIF nuclear translocation. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of EGb761 in clinical practice. PMID:25821320

  11. Hyperbaric Oxygen and Ginkgo Biloba Extract Ameliorate Cognitive and Memory Impairment via Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Pathway in Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

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    Zhang, Li-Da; Ma, Li; Zhang, Li; Dai, Jian-Guo; Chang, Li-Gong; Huang, Pei-Lin; Tian, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and Ginkgo biloba extract (e.g., EGB 761) were shown to ameliorate cognitive and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the exact mechanism remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of HBO and EGB 761 via the function of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway. Methods: AD rats were induced by injecting β-amyloid 25–35 into the hippocampus. All animals were divided into six groups: Normal, sham, AD model, HBO (2 atmosphere absolute; 60 min/d), EGB 761 (20 mg·kg−1·d−1), and HBO/EGB 761 groups. Morris water maze tests were used to assess cognitive, and memory capacities of rats; TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling staining and Western blotting were used to analyze apoptosis and NF-κB pathway-related proteins in hippocampus tissues. Results: Morris water maze tests revealed that EGB 761 and HBO significantly improved the cognitive and memory ability of AD rats. In addition, the protective effect of combinational therapy (HBO/EGB 761) was superior to either HBO or EGB 761 alone. In line, reduced apoptosis with NF-κB pathway activation was observed in hippocampus neurons treated by HBO and EGB 761. Conclusions: Our results suggested that HBO and EGB 761 improve cognitive and memory capacity in a rat model of AD. The protective effects are associated with the reduced apoptosis with NF-κB pathway activation in hippocampus neurons. PMID:26608991

  12. EGb761, a Ginkgo biloba extract, is effective against atherosclerosis in vitro, and in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

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    Soo Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EGb761, a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, has antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation and thus might protect against atherosclerosis. However, molecular and functional properties of EGb761 and its major subcomponents have not been well characterized. We investigated the effect of EGb761 and its major subcomponents (bilobalide, kaemferol, and quercetin on preventing atherosclerosis in vitro, and in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: EGb761 (100 and 200 mg/kg or normal saline (control were administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, an obese insulin-resistant rat model, for 6 weeks (from 3 weeks before to 3 weeks after carotid artery injury. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate cell proliferation and apoptosis in the injured arteries. Cell migration, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation, monocyte adhesion, and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 levels were explored in vitro. Treatment with EGb761 dose-dependently reduced intima-media ratio, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and induced greater apoptosis than the controls. Proliferation and migration of VSMCs in vitro were also decreased by the treatment of EGb761. Glucose homeostasis and circulating adiponectin levels were improved, and plasma hsCRP concentrations were decreased in the treatment groups. Caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation increased while monocyte adhesion and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 levels decreased significantly. Among subcomponents of EGb761, kaemferol and quercetin reduced VSMC migration and increased caspase activity. CONCLUSIONS: EGb761 has a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis and is a potential therapeutic agent for preventing atherosclerosis.

  13. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by either destruction of pancreatic β-cells (type 1 DM) or unresponsiveness to insulin (type 2 DM). Conventional therapies for diabetes mellitus have been developed but still needs improvement. Many diabetic patients have complemented conventional therapy with alternative methods including oral supplementation of natural products. In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system. For the type 1 DM model, streptozotocin-induced mice were orally administered EGb 761 for 10 days prior to streptozotocin injection and then again administered EGb 761 for an additional 10 days. Streptozotocin-treated mice administered EGb 761 exhibited lower blood triglyceride levels, lower blood glucose levels and higher blood insulin levels compared to streptozotocin-treated mice. Furthermore, liver LPL and liver PPAR-α were increased whereas IL-1β and TNF-α were decreased in streptozotocin-injected mice treated with EGb 761 compared to mice injected with streptozotocin alone. For the type 2 DM model, mice were given high-fat diet for 60 days and then orally administered EGb 761 every other day for 80 days. We found that mice given a high-fat diet and EGb 761 showed decreased blood triglyceride levels, increased liver LPL, increased liver PPAR-α and decreased body weight compared to mice given high-fat diet alone. These results suggest that EGb 761 can exert protective effects in both type 1 and type 2 DM murine models.

  14. The efficacy and safety of systemic injection of Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb761, in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Won; Chang, Mun Young; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Kim, Tae Su; Kong, Soo-Keun; Chung, Jong Woo; Goh, Eui-Kyung

    2016-09-01

    Steroids are currently the most frequently accepted agents for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). However, the therapeutic effect of steroids is not always satisfactory. In this pilot study, we evaluated whether systemic treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) has an additive therapeutic effect in patients receiving a systemic steroid due to ISSNHL. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed. Fifty-six patients with ISSNHL were allocated to either EGb761 or placebo. In both groups, methylprednisolone was administered for 14 days. EGb761 was infused intravenously for 5 days in the EGb761 group, while the same amount of normal saline was infused in the placebo group. For the efficacy evaluation, pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) and short form-36 health (SF-36) survey outcomes were obtained before administration and on days 3, 5, 14 and 28 of administration. Twenty-four patients in each group completed the study protocol. There was no difference in hearing loss between the two groups before treatment. At day 28, air conduction threshold values in the placebo and EGb761 groups were 34.63 ± 28.90 and 23.84 ± 25.42 dB, respectively (p = 0.082). Speech discrimination scores in the placebo and EGb761 groups were 69.17 ± 40.89 and 87.48 ± 28.65 %, respectively (p = 0.050). THI and SF-36 scores in the placebo and EGb761 groups were similar. Although a combination of steroid and EGb761 for initial treatment did not show better pure tone threshold, compared with steroid alone, speech discrimination was significantly improved in combination therapy. Further studies will be needed to know if addition of EGb761 actually improves the outcome of ISSNHL treatment.

  15. Radioprotective efficacy of Ginkgo biloba and Angelica archangelica extract against technetium-99m-sestamibi induced oxidative stress and lens injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Mahmoud H; Shafaa, Medhat W; Abdel-Ghaffar, Amany; Saleh, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Technetium-99m is a radioactive tracer that emits gamma rays. Its half-life time is 6 h. Similar to other ionizing radiations, the main mechanism of radiation-induced effects is initiated through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba and Angelica archangelica against oxidative organ damage that was induced by 99m Tc-sestamibi. The experiments were performed on thirty-six Wistar-rats which were subdivided into control groups and groups exposed to 99m Tc-sestamibi. The irradiated groups were either untreated or pre-treated with G. biloba or A. archangelica. For all groups, the levels and/or activities of Catalase (CAT), Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) were measured in blood and lenses. The soluble/insoluble protein ratio was determined and lens-protein profiles were obtained via Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel-Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). There were no significant difference between the pre-treated and irradiated G. biloba group and control group, while both groups were significantly different (p archangelica did not confer any significant protection against 99m Tc-sestamibi induced toxicity. This study demonstrated that G. biloba, through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, successfully attenuated 99m Tc-sestamibi radiation-induced oxidative organ injury. The latter is a crucial factor of cataractogenesis in rats, suggesting that G. biloba may have a potential benefit in the protection against radiopharmaceuticals.

  16. The effect of gingko biloba extract on energy metabolic status in C3H mouse fibrosarcoma: evaluated by in vivo {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sung Whan; Kim, Won Dong; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Tae Kuen [Ulsan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    Gingko biloba extract (GBE), a natural product extracted from Gingko leaves, is known to increase the radiosensitivity of tumors. This radiosensitization probably arises from the increase in the peripheral blood flow by decreasing the blood viscosity and relaxing the vasospasm. The influence of a GBE on the metabolic status in fibrosarcoma II (FSall) of a C3H mouse was investigated using {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eighteen C3H mice with fibrosarcoma II (from 100 mm{sup 3} to 130 mm{sup 3}) were prepared for this experiment. The mice were divided into 2 groups; one (9 mice) without a priming dose, and the other (9 mice) with a priming dose of GBE. The GBE priming dose (100 mg/kg) was administered by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection 24 hours prior to the measurement. First {sup 31}P MRS spectra were measured in the mice from each group as a baseline and test dose of GBE (100 mg/kg) was then administered to each group. One hour later, the {sup 31}P MRS spectra were measured again to evaluate the change in the energy metabolic status. In the group without the priming dose, the mean pH, PCr/Pi, PME/ATP, Pi/ATP, PCr/(Pi + PME) values 1 hour after the test dose were not changed significantly compared to the values at the baseline. However, in the group with the priming dose, the mean PCr/Pi, Pi/ATP, PCr/(Pi + PME) values 1 hour after the test dose changed from the baseline values of 0.49, 0.77, 0.17 to 0.74, 0.57, 0.28 respectively. According to the paired t-test, the differences were statistically significant. The above findings suggest that the metabolic status is significantly improved after administering GBE if the priming dose is given 24 hours earlier. This shows that the radiosensitizing effect of GBE is based on the increase of tumor blood flow and the improvement in the metabolic status.

  17. Ginkgo biloba extract mitigates liver fibrosis and apoptosis by regulating p38 MAPK, NF-κB/IκBα, and Bcl-2/Bax signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Wang, Rong Wang, Yujie Wang, Ruqin Peng, Yan Wu, Yongfang Yuan Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai 9th People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Liver fibrosis is the consequence of diverse liver injuries and can eventually develop into liver cirrhosis. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE is an extract from dried ginkgo leaves that has many pharmacological effects because of its various ingredients and has been shown to be hepatoprotective. Purpose and methods: Aimed to investigate the underlying protective mechanisms of GBE on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (C, model group (M, low-dose group (L, and high-dose group (H. Liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 groups M, L, and H: group C was administered saline. In addition, GBE at different doses was used to treat groups L and H. Results: The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson’s trichrome staining, a liver function index, and a liver fibrosis index showed that GBE application noticeably mitigated fibrosis and improved the function of the liver. The western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses indicated that GBE reduced liver fibrosis not only by inhibiting p38 MAPK and NF-κBp65 via inhibition of IκBα degradation but also by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis via downregulation of Bax, upregulation of Bcl-2, and subsequent inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Inflammation-associated factors and hepatic stellate cell (HSC-activation markers further demonstrated that GBE could effectively inhibit HSC activation and inflammation as a result of its regulation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B/IκBα signaling. Conclusion: Our findings indicated a novel role for GBE in the treatment of liver fibrosis. The potential mechanisms may be associated with the following signaling pathways: 1 the p38 MAPK

  18. The effect of gingko biloba extract on energy metabolic status in C3H mouse fibrosarcoma: evaluated by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Sung Whan; Kim, Won Dong; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Charn Il; Lim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Tae Kuen

    2002-01-01

    Gingko biloba extract (GBE), a natural product extracted from Gingko leaves, is known to increase the radiosensitivity of tumors. This radiosensitization probably arises from the increase in the peripheral blood flow by decreasing the blood viscosity and relaxing the vasospasm. The influence of a GBE on the metabolic status in fibrosarcoma II (FSall) of a C3H mouse was investigated using 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eighteen C3H mice with fibrosarcoma II (from 100 mm 3 to 130 mm 3 ) were prepared for this experiment. The mice were divided into 2 groups; one (9 mice) without a priming dose, and the other (9 mice) with a priming dose of GBE. The GBE priming dose (100 mg/kg) was administered by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection 24 hours prior to the measurement. First 31 P MRS spectra were measured in the mice from each group as a baseline and test dose of GBE (100 mg/kg) was then administered to each group. One hour later, the 31 P MRS spectra were measured again to evaluate the change in the energy metabolic status. In the group without the priming dose, the mean pH, PCr/Pi, PME/ATP, Pi/ATP, PCr/(Pi + PME) values 1 hour after the test dose were not changed significantly compared to the values at the baseline. However, in the group with the priming dose, the mean PCr/Pi, Pi/ATP, PCr/(Pi + PME) values 1 hour after the test dose changed from the baseline values of 0.49, 0.77, 0.17 to 0.74, 0.57, 0.28 respectively. According to the paired t-test, the differences were statistically significant. The above findings suggest that the metabolic status is significantly improved after administering GBE if the priming dose is given 24 hours earlier. This shows that the radiosensitizing effect of GBE is based on the increase of tumor blood flow and the improvement in the metabolic status

  19. Authentication of Ginkgo biloba herbal dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P

    2014-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (known as ginkgo or maidenhair tree) is a phylogenetically isolated, charismatic, gymnosperm tree. Herbal dietary supplements, prepared from G. biloba leaves, are consumed to boost cognitive capacity via improved blood perfusion and mitochondrial function. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay was designed and validated for the authentication of G. biloba in herbal dietary supplements (n = 22; sensitivity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00; specificity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.64-1.00). This assay was further used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled ginkgo herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America: DNA amenable to PCR could not be extracted from three (7.5%) of the 40 supplements sampled, 31 of 37 (83.8%) assayable supplements contained identifiable G. biloba DNA, and six supplements (16.2%) contained fillers without any detectable G. biloba DNA. It is hoped that this assay will be used by supplement manufacturers to ensure that their supplements contain G. biloba.

  20. The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on genotoxic damage in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma receiving thyroid remnant ablation with iodine-131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardano, Angela; Ballardin, Michela; Caraccio, Nadia; Boni, Giuseppe; Traino, Claudio; Mariani, Giuliano; Ferdeghini, Marco; Barale, Roberto; Monzani, Fabio

    2012-03-01

    Radioiodine ((131)I) therapy is usually performed in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Although (131)I is generally considered safe, genotoxic damage has been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on the time-course of appearance, after (131)I therapy for DTC, of plasma factors with chromosome-damaging properties (so-called "clastogenic" factors [CFs]) and of micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes. Twenty-three patients (median age 42 years, range 18-73) with DTC receiving (131)I activity (3.7 GBq) for thyroid remnant ablation were randomly assigned to receive GBE (120 mg/day for one month; n=10) or placebo (n=13) in a double-blind manner. Blood samples were taken at various intervals (from baseline to 90 days) after (131)I therapy. The frequency of MN in blood lymphocytes was determined, and CFs were assayed in plasma by a method that used MN increase in lymphocytes from an healthy donor as the endpoint of the assay. MN in blood lymphocytes increased significantly after (131)I treatment in the placebo group, peaking at the 7th day (p=0.002) and slowly declining thereafter. In contrast, in similarly treated patients who were also treated with GBE both before and after (131)I treatment, a significant increase of blood lymphocyte MN level was not observed. In addition, only the placebo group showed a significant, progressive increase in CFs activity. This peaked at the 14th day (p=0.003 vs. baseline) and was still noted for the last plasma sample. The differences in the change in lymphocyte MN and CFs activity between the placebo and GBE-treated groups were significant (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Thyroid function tests, including serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-Tg antibody levels, were never significantly different. GBE may protect from possible oxidative and genotoxic damage associated with (131)I treatment in patients requiring (131)I therapy for thyroid

  1. Administration of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb761 Alone and in Combination with FK506 Promotes Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model of Partial Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahide Ekici Günay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radical damage is known to occur during liver regeneration. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 has antioxidant properties due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. FK506 has been widely used as an immunosuppressant that stimulates hepatocyte proliferation following partial hepatectomy. Aims: To explore whether EGb761 enhances liver regeneration after hepatectomy in rats, we investigated the effects of EGb761 alone and in combination with FK506 on the liver regenerative process. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: A total of 75 Wistar albino rats weighing 340.08±11.66 g were randomly divided into five experimental groups: sham, control, FK506, EGb761, and FK506 + EGb761. According to the study groups, rats were administered FK506 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day and EGb761 at 25 mg/kg/day three times via the intraperitoneal route. Then, two-thirds hepatectomy was performed according to the Higgins and Anderson technique in all the rats. At postoperative 48 h, 53 surviving rats were sacrificed. Serum and plasma samples were collected for analyzing thymidine kinase and oxidative stress marker levels. The regenerated liver was entirely resected, weighed, and sectioned. The mitotic index was assessed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The extent of liver regeneration was calculated using the Child’s formula. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, with a significance level of 5% (p<0.05. Results: Rats who received EGb761 showed significantly higher levels of liver regeneration than those who received FK506 or FK506 + EGb761 (p<0.01. Thymidine kinase level and mitotic index were significantly higher in the EGb761 (p<0.005 and FK506 (p<0.05 groups than in the control and sham groups. In addition, the liver regeneration percentage was significantly higher in the EGb761 group than in the FK506 group (p<0.01. Myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly correlated between the EGb761 and FK506 groups

  2. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in combined with prednisone on the arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Chun Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb in combined with prednisone on the arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Methods: A total of 76 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/ kg.d, continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg.d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg.d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb, i.e. Ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12-week treatment. PaO2, PaCO2, P(A-aO2, and SaO2 before and after treatment were detected. FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, TLC, and DLCO before and after treatment were determined. Results: PaO2, PaCO2, and SaO2 after treatment were significantly elevated, while P(A-aO2 was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment. The comparison of PaO2 and P(A-aO2 between the two groups was statistically significant, while the comparison of PaCO2 and SaO2 between the two groups was not statistically significant. After treatment, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, TLC, and DLCO in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. Conclusions: EGb in combined with prednisone in the treatment of IPF can effectively improve the arterial blood gas indicators and pulmonary function, and enhance the patients’ living qualities; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended.

  3. [Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the function of alveolar polymorphonuclear neutrophils in severe acute pancreatitis rats complicated with lung injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Min; Jin, Zhou-Xiang; Zhu, Shao-Jun

    2014-04-01

    To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on the function of alveolar polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats complicated with lung injury (LI). Forty-eight adult SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., the sham-operation group, the SAP group, and the GBE treatment group, 16 in each group. The SAP model was successfully induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate solution into the biliopancreatic duct. Rats in the sham-operation group only received flipping of the duodenum. Those in the GBE treatment group received GBE intervention based on SAP model. Equal volume of normal saline was given to rats in the sham-operation group and the SAP group. Rats were sacrificed at 6 and 12 h after operation respectively. The lung tissue was sampled to evaluate the LI score. The wet/dry ratio (W/D) of lung tissues was detected. The activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured. Alveolar PMN was harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage. The content of neutrophil elastase (NE) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). The percentage of CD11b/CD18 double positive PMN was detected using flow cytometry. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and NE protein in the lung tissue was detected by Western blot. Compared with the sham-operation group, significant pathologic lesion occurred in the lung tissue of rats in the SAP group; the pathologic LI score, lung tissue W/D ratio, MPO, and NE content in BALF significantly increased, the expression of ICAM-1 and NE in the lung tissue was obviously up-regulated, and the percentage of CD11b/CD18 double positive PMN significantly increased (P treatment group (P complicated with LI, resulting in the adherence of PMN to pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, and then activating PMN to release NE and aggravate LI. GBE could alleviate LI through down-regulating the expression ICAM-1 and CD11b/CD18

  4. Protective effects of the antioxidant Ginkgo biloba extract and the protease inhibitor aprotinin against Leiurus quinquestriatus venom-induced tissue damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Fatani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and proteases have been implicated in several diseases and extensive evidence indicates that antioxidants and protease inhibitors help prevent organ functional damage. Leiurus quinquestriatus (LQQ scorpion venom causes cellular injuries that may lead to multiple organ failure. Thus, the capability of the antioxidant "natural standardized extract of Gingko biloba leaves (Gin, EGb 761" and the non-selective protease inhibitor, aprotinin, in ameliorating venom-induced biochemical alterations indicative of cellular injury and oxidative stress was studied to determine their effectiveness in protecting rats from venom-evoked cellular damages. Thus, in this study, rats were treated with LQQ venom (0.3mg.kg-1, subcutaneously alone or after Gin (150mg.kg-1, orally, daily for 2 weeks before venom and/or aprotinin (Apr, 46000 KIU.kg-1, intraperitoneally, 30 min before venom. Control groups were injected with saline or treatment modalities. Lungs and hearts were excised after decapitating rats (n=8/group 60 min after venom injection and the following activities were measured: reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA - an index of lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Our findings demonstrate that LQQ venomsignificantly elevated GSH (p<0.05 vs. control, MDA (p<0.05, G6PD (p<0.05, and LDH activities (p<0.001 in hearts of envenomed rats. The venom also elevated MDA (p<0.05 vs. control and reduced GSH and GPx (p<0.05 in the lungs of envenomed rats. In general, pretreatment with EGb761 attenuated LQQ venom-evoked increases in GSH (p<0.05 vs. venom, MDA in rat hearts and lungs (p<0.05 vs. venom, plus LDH in the heart (p<0.01. Aprotinin alone significantly reduced the venom-elicited increase in G6PD and LDH activities and the decrease in GPx levels (p<0.05. In general, these protective effects of EGb761 on GSH, MDA (p<0.01 vs. venom and LDH (p<0.001 in the

  5. Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761, Donepezil and their Combination on Central Cholinergic Function in Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Christoph; Hopfeld, Julia; Lau, Helene; Klein, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo extract EGb 761 and cholinesterase inhibitors have been shown to be effective in the treatment of dementia patients. In addition to neuroprotective effects, Ginkgo extract EGb 761 has been reported to elevate brain levels of certain neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and acetylcholine. In the present study, we investigated the impact of EGb 761, donepezil and the combination of both drugs on the central cholinergic system in aged rats. 24 month old rats received EGb 761 (100 mg/kg/day), donepezil (1.5 mg/kg/day), the combination of both drugs or vehicle control by oral gavage for 14 days. We used microdialysis in rat hippocampus to monitor extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh), choline, glucose and lactate. Brain homogenates were prepared to measure activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and high affinity choline uptake (HACU). While EGb 761 alone had no effect, donepezil and the combination of donepezil and EGb 761 increased basal ACh levels by 2- to 3-fold. Concomitantly, significant reductions of AChE and HACU were measured in both groups. No differences were seen between donepezil and the combination in these parameters. Treatment with EGb 761 decreased extracellular choline release and showed a tendency to moderately elevate ChAT activity. We found that donepezil and EGb 761 do not display a pharmacological interaction when given together. Adding EGb 761 did not modify the effects of donepezil on the hippocampal cholinergic system. Reduced choline levels indicate neuroprotective properties of EGb 761. Therefore, the combination of EGb 761 and donepezil may be beneficial in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  6. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of Ginkgo biloba extract (CAS No. 90045-36-6) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (Gavage studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract has been used primarily as a medicinal agent in the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular dysfunction. Ginkgo biloba extract was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of its widespread use as an herbal supplement to promote mental function and the limited availability of toxicity and carcinogenicity data. Furthermore, one of the major ingredients in Ginkgo biloba extract, quercetin, is a known mutagen. The Ginkgo biloba extract used in the current studies was procured from a supplier known to provide material to United States companies and contained 31.2% flavonol glycosides, 15.4% terpene lactones (6.94% bilo-balide, 3.74% ginkgolide A, 1.62% ginkgolide B, 3.06% ginkgolide C), and 10.45 ppm ginkgolic acid. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice were administered Ginkgo biloba extract in corn oil by gavage for 3 months or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg Ginkgo biloba extract/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. Additional groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (clinical pathology study) were administered the same doses, 5 days per week for 23 days. All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of all dosed groups were similar to those of the vehicle control groups. Liver weights of all dosed groups of males and females were significantly greater than those of the vehicle control groups. The incidences of hepatocyte hypertrophy in all dosed groups of males and in 500 and 1,000 mg/kg females were significantly greater than those in the vehicle control groups; there was a dose-related increase in severity of this lesion in males. Hepatocyte fatty change occurred in all dosed males. The incidences of thyroid gland follicular cell

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of a maltose-bonded silica gel stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction chromatography and its application in Ginkgo Biloba extract separation in two-dimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qianying; Yang, Kaiya; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao; Lan, Minbo

    2016-09-01

    Maltose covalently bonded to silica was prepared by using carbonyl diimidazole as a cross-linker and employed as a stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. The column efficiency and the effect of water content, buffer concentration, and pH value influenced on retention were investigated. The separation or enrichment selectivity was also studied with nucleosides, saccharides, amino acids, peptides, and glycopeptides. The results indicated that the stationary phase processed good separation efficiency and separation selectivity in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mode. Moreover, a two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography× reversed-phase liquid chromatography method with high orthogonality was developed to analyze the Ginkgo Biloba extract fractions. The development of this two-dimensional chromatographic system would be an effective tool for the separation of complex samples of different polarities and contents. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract and their catalytic activity for the Huisgen [3+2] cycloaddition of azides and alkynes at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    During this study, we report the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) using Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent under surfactant-free conditions. The formation of Cu NPs is monitored by recording the UV-vis absorption spectra. The green synthesized Cu NPs are characterized by TEM, EDS, FT-IR and UV-visible techniques. According to UV-vis results, the synthesized Cu NPs by this method are quite stable even after one month indicating the stability of Cu NPs. In terms of environmental impact and economy, metallic Cu NPs offer several advantages over homogeneous and traditional heterogeneous catalysts. In addition, due to the increased metal surface area, Cu NPs shows very high catalytic activity for the Huisgen [3+2] cycloaddition of azides and alkynes at room temperature. Furthermore, the catalyst can be simply recovered and reused several times with almost no loss in activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [INDENA SPA company's patent portfolio of Ginkgo biloba preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Guo, Kai; Cheng, Xin-min; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-01

    INDENA SPA Company in Italy is a multi-national company that produces and sells plant extracts. Based on its own re- search advantages in the field of Ginkgo biloba preparation, the company protects its own products market effectively through building patent portfolio around the patents of its opponent. Based on the multi-angle analysis for patent portfolio of G. biloba preparation from the aspects of application time, legal status, technical development route, and patent portfolio layout, this article provides technical reference on research and development of G. biloba preparation, and the author suggest that Chinese applicants learn techniques and layout experiences of other patents fully to enhance the level of research and patent protection level.

  10. determination of cypermethrin residues in gingkgo biloba leaves by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and rapid method was described for the determination of cypermethrin in Ginkgo biloba leaves by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. A mixture of hexane and acetone (99:1) was used to extract the samples. After the sample cleanup was carried out with a mixture of petroleum ether ...

  11. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  12. Antifeedant Activity of Ginkgo biloba Secondary Metabolites against Hyphantria cunea Larvae: Mechanisms and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Ren, Lili; Chen, Fang; Feng, Yuqian; Luo, Youqing

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a typical relic plant that rarely suffers from pest hazards. This study analyzed the pattern of G. biloba pest hazards in Beijing; tested the antifeedant activity of G. biloba extracts, including ginkgo flavonoids, ginkgolide, and bilobalide, against Hyphantria cunea larvae; determined the activities of glutathione transferase (GSTs), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed-functional oxidase (MFO), in larvae after feeding on these G. biloba secondary metabolites; and screened for effective botanical antifeedants in the field. In this study, no indicators of insect infestation were found for any of the examined leaves of G. biloba; all tested secondary metabolites showed significant antifeedant activity and affected the activity of the four larval detoxifying enzymes. Ginkgolide had the highest antifeedant activity and the most significant effect on the detoxifying enzymes (Pbiloba extracts or ginkgolide both significantly repelled H. cunea larvae in the field (Pbiloba secondary metabolites against H. cunea larvae, and the results provide new insights into the mechanism of G. biloba pest resistance. This study also developed new applications of G. biloba secondary metabolites for effective pest control.

  13. The Effect of Gingko Biloba on Hearing in Mice with Noise-Induced Temporary Threshold Shift

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji-Won; Shim, Byoung Soo; Chung, Jong Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Gingko biloba extract is known for enhancing blood circulation, scavenging free radicals, and antagonizing against platelet-activating factor. This study evaluated the effect of Gingko biloba on the noise-induced temporary threshold shift of hearing. Materials and Methods Temporary threshold shift was induced by exposing mice to 110 dB SPL sound for 1 hour. The experimental group consisted of mice fed Gingko biloba [3 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, and 12 mg/kg in 0.5% carboxymethy...

  14. Otoprotection in guinea pigs exposed to pesticides and ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Andréa Dulor; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da; Munaro, Gisiane; Zanrosso, Crisley Dossin

    2012-06-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, despite the risk of hearing loss related to the exposure to their chemical components. This study looks into protective drugs to counteract the ototoxicity of pesticides. This study aims to analyze the effect ginkgo biloba extract may have in protecting against possible cochlear damage caused by organophosphate pesticides (methamidophos). Anatomic changes are assessed through surface and electron microscopy. This is a prospective experimental study. Twenty-one guinea pigs were given saline solution, pesticide, and ginkgo biloba alone or combined for seven consecutive days. Then their cochleas were removed and examined in a scanning electron microscope. Pesticide-exposed guinea pigs had morphological alterations in their cochleas and injuries in the three turns analyzed through electron microscopy. Injury intensity varied according to the dosages of the agents given to the test subjects. Guinea pigs treated with pesticide and ginkgo biloba maintained the architecture of their outer hair cells in all cochlear turns. The antioxidant properties found in the ginkgo biloba extract protected guinea pigs from pesticide ototoxicity.

  15. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the padiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na. The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received 99mTcO4Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of 99mTcO4Na (PO extrato de Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb tem sido usado para tratar dificuldades de concentração, memória, age como antagonista do fator de ativação de plaquetas e previne contra danos causados por radicais livres. EGb é um extrato padronizado com 24% de flavonóides e 6% de lactonas terpênicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de um EGb na ultraestrutura de alguns órgãos isolados de ratos e na biodistribuição do radiofármaco pertecnetato de sódio (99mTcO4Na. Os animais foram tratados com EGb e após 6 dias receberam 99mTcO4Na. Os órgãos foram isolados e a radioatividade determinada. Os tecidos foram fixados para microscopia eletrônica. Os resultados mostraram que EGb alterou a ultraestrutura do rim, figado e duodeno e modificou a biodistribuição do 99mTcO4Na. Sugerimos que substâncias presentes no EGb poderiam agir diretamente ou gerar metabólitos capazes de promover alterações na biodistribuição e na morfologia de órgãos em nível ultraestrutural.

  16. Ultrastructural analysis of kidney, liver and duodenum isolated from treated rats with Ginkgo Biloba extract and effects of this medicinal plant on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Arnobio, Adriano; Olej, Beni; Timoteo, Margareth de Oliveira; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com; Carvalho, Jorge Jose de; Nascimento, Ana Lucia [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Histologia e Embriologia; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2008-12-15

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) has been used to treat memory and concentration deficits, acts as platelet activating factor antagonism and prevents against damages caused by free radicals. EGb is a standardized extract that contains 24% flavonoids and 6% terpenoids. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible influence of an EGb on the ultrastructure of some organs isolated from rats and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na). The animals were treated with EGb and after six days, received {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na. The organs were isolated and fixed for ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that EGb has modified the ultrastructure of kidney, liver and duodenum and altered the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na (P<0.05). It is speculated that the substances present in the EGb could act directly or generate metabolites capable to promote changes on the biodistribution of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}Na and on the morphology of organs at ultrastructural level. (author)

  17. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761); Effet de l'extrait de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) chez le rat sur un modele experimental d'encephalopathie aigue apres irradiation corporelle totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, I.; Bok, B. [Hopital Bichat, 75 - Paris (France); Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Drieu, K. [IHB-IPSEN, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-06-01

    To define the therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats. Ninety four-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) at day 1 while 15 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioural study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed test, was performed after irradiation. Orally treatment was started one day (study A) or twenty two days (study B) after irradiation and repeated daily for twelve days. In the irradiated group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: EGb 761 (50 mg/kg), EGb 761 (100 mg/kg), water. This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (45 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 7 to day 14. In study B (45 rats) the behavioural test was performed from day 28 to day 35. Study A (three groups of 15 rats): following TBI, irradiated rats treated with water demonstrated a significant delay in a learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (P < 0.0002) or irradiated rats treated with EGb 761 (50 mg/kg; P < 0.007) or EGb 761 (100 mg/kg; P < 0.0002). The irradiated rats, treated with EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Study B (three groups of 15 rats): the irradiated rats, treated with water of EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. (authors)

  18. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in arteriosclerosis prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Günter; Schäfer, Petra; Winkler, Karl; Malmsten, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The prevention or deceleration of atherogenesis is one of the most significant anti-aging objectives since this is a matter of avoidance of myocardial infarction and stroke. To approach this prophylactic aim, phytochemical nutrition counteracting peroxidation of blood lipids based on their scavenger qualities for reactive oxygen species (ROS) can possibly serve. For example, oxidized LDL particles are highly atherogenic. Against this background, we investigated in a pilot study the effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761: Rökan novo), the free oxygen radical scavenging properties of which are well-documented, on the atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation in cardiovascular high-risk patients. In eight patients who had undergone an aortocoronary bypass operation, the reduction of atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation amounted to 11.9 +/- 2.5% (p Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761, 2 x 120 mg daily, Rökan novo, Spitzner Arzneimittel, Ettlingen, Germany). Additionally, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was upregulated by 15.7 +/- 7.0% (p ginkgo treatment. The atherosclerosis inhibiting effect is due to an upregulation in the body's own radical scavenging enzymes and an attenuation of the risk factors oxLDL/LDL and Lp(a). Furthermore, the significant increase in the vasodilator cAMP and cGMP concentration powerfully supports the maintenance of an open bypass.

  19. Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761®) Inhibits Glutamate-induced Up-regulation of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Through Inhibition of c-Fos Translocation in Rat Primary Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu Suk; Lee, Ian Myungwon; Sim, Seobo; Lee, Eun Joo; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    EGb 761(®) , a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, has antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties in experimental models of neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) acts a neuromodulator and plays a crucial role in the manifestation of neurotoxicity leading to exaggerated neuronal cell death in neurological insult conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of EGb 761 on the basal and glutamate-induced activity and expression of tPA in rat primary cortical neurons. Under basal condition, EGb 761 inhibited both secreted and cellular tPA activities, without altering tPA mRNA level, as modulated by the activation of p38. Compared with basal condition, EGb 761 inhibited the glutamate-induced up-regulation of tPA mRNA resulting in the normalization of overt tPA activity and expression. c-Fos is a component of AP-1, which plays a critical role in the modulation of tPA expression. Interestingly, EGb 761 inhibited c-Fos nuclear translocation without affecting c-Fos expression in glutamate-induced rat primary cortical neurons. These results demonstrated that EGb 761 can modulate tPA activity under basal and glutamate-stimulated conditions by both translational and transcriptional mechanisms. Thus, EGb 761 could be a potential and effective therapeutic strategy in tPA-excessive neurotoxic conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Ginkgo biloba Extract Prevents Female Mice from Ischemic Brain Damage and the Mechanism Is Independent of the HO1/Wnt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsulkar, Jatin; Glueck, Bryan; Hinds, Terry D; Shah, Zahoor A

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that gender differences exist in experimental or clinical stroke with respect to brain damage and loss of functional outcome. We have previously reported neuroprotective properties of Ginkgo biloba/EGb 761® (EGb 761) in transient and permanent mouse models of brain ischemia using male mice, and the mechanism of action was attributed to the upregulation of the heme oxygenase 1 (HO1)/Wnt pathway. Here, we sought to investigate whether EGb 761's protective effect in ovariectomized female mice following stroke is also mediated by the HO1/Wnt pathway. Female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to remove the protective effect of estrogen and were treated with EGb 761 for 7 days prior to inducing permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and allowed to survive for an additional 7 days. At day 8, animals were sacrificed, and the brains were harvested for infarct volume analysis, western blots, and immunohistochemistry. The OVX female mice treated with EGb 761 showed significantly lower infarct size as compared to Veh/OVX animals. EGb 761 treatment in female mice inhibited apoptosis by preventing caspase-3 cleavage and blocking the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. EGb 761 pretreatment significantly enhanced neurogenesis in OVX mice as compared to the Veh/OVX group and significantly upregulated androgen receptor expression with no changes in HO1/Wnt signaling. These results suggest that EGb 761 prevented brain damage in OVX female mice by improving grip strength and neurological deficits, and the mechanism of action is not through HO1/Wnt but via blocking the extrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  1. Comparison of antioxidant activity in commercial Ginkgo biloba preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, David; Wilkins, Richard M; Gok, Muhamed Asim

    2003-10-01

    To compare the relative levels of antioxidant activity in vitro in Ginkgo biloba samples (in tablet or capsule form) from different commercial suppliers, to determine whether some brands may be more efficacious in their potential to increase endogenous antioxidant activity, and thereby counter oxidative stress related disorders. Antioxidant activity of the above sample extracts was determined in vitro against the ABTS.(+) (2-2'-amino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical, relative to Trolox (water-soluble vitamin E analogue) antioxidant standards, using an established assay procedure. The relative antioxidant activity of G. biloba sample extracts was expressed in terms of millimoles per liter of Trolox equivalent (TE) for the initial extract, micromol TE per whole tablet, nmol TE per mg tablet, and nmol TE per mg ginkgo content. Data (as mean +/- standard deviation (SD) from 4 separate estimations) obtained in this study showed a considerable variation (approximately 50-fold) in the level of antioxidant activity in preparations from different suppliers, particularly when compared on an equivalent (i.e., nmol TE/mg ginkgo) basis. Of the 18 products investigated, the highest level of antioxidant activity (whether expressed as micromol TE per whole tablet or nmol TE/mg ginkgo) was obtained for Pharma Nord Bio-Biloba (Pharma Nord, Morpeth, UK) tablets (p antioxidant activity of the various products investigated can be accounted for in terms of the physical nature of the G. biloba (i.e., dried leaf powder or standardized concentrated extract) used in tablet formulation. However, even when comparing products based on concentrated extract, the data demonstrated that there is still a considerable variation in antioxidant activity. Presumably this may result from differences in the manufacturing process between suppliers, which in turn may limit the efficacy of these preparations in the prevention or treatment of disease.

  2. Development of an ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of seven flavonoids in rat plasma: Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic investigation of Ginkgo biloba extract and single pure ginkgo flavonoids after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Xiao, Jie; Hou, Huiping; Li, Pei; Yuan, Ziyue; Xu, Huarong; Liu, Ran; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2017-08-15

    For deeper pharmacokinetic investigation and further curative application of ginkgo flavonoids, a delicate, efficient and precise UFLC-MS/MS technique for synchronous quantitation of seven flavonoids, apigenin, luteolin, naringenin, quercetin, diosmetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in rat plasma has been established. After mixing with the internal standard (IS) linarin, bio-samples were pretreated via ethyl acetate for liquid-liquid extraction, then isolated at 0.2ml/min flow rate on a Venusil MP C 18 chromatographic column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm) by means of gradient elution. 0.1% formic acid-water and methanol system was used as the mobile phase. Mass spectrometric inspection was conducted on a 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in patterns of negative ion and multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM). All calibration curves proved favorable linearity (R 2 ≥0.9918) in linear ranges. Intra-day and inter-day precisions didn't exceed 14.0% for all the analytes, and the accuracy was within 6.9%. Extraction recoveries of analytes and IS were less than ±15.0% of nominal concentrations. This method has been under thorough and firm verification for a comparative pharmacokinetic research after gavage between Ginkgo biloba extract and single pure ginkgo flavonoids. The results demonstrated that there're evident pharmacokinetic discrepancies, and possible structural influences were innovatively proposed. Generally, substitution with 3-hydroxylation, a double bond in ring C, ring B methoxylation often confer longer onset period. The existence of ring B catechol group gives rise to faster clearance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Review of Ginkgo biloba-induced toxicity, from experimental studies to human case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Xiaoqing; Ren, Zhen; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Wada, Keiji; Guo, Lei

    2017-01-02

    Ginkgo biloba seeds and leaves have been used as a traditional herbal remedy for thousands of years, and its leaf extract has been consumed as a botanical dietary supplement for decades. Ginkgo biloba extract is a complex mixture with numerous components, including flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones, and is one of the most widely sold botanical dietary supplements worldwide. Concerns about potential health risks for the general population have been raised because of the widespread human exposure to Ginkgo biloba and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities in rodents. The National Toxicology Program conducted 2-year gavage studies on one Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and concluded that there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of this extract in mice based on an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma. Recently, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects from experimental studies both in vitro and in vivo to human case reports (caused by ginkgo seeds or leaves), and also summarizes the negative results from relatively large clinical trials.

  4. Ginkgo biloba e memória: mito ou realidade? Ginkgo biloba and memory: myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes V. Forlenza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos extratos de Ginkgo biloba para tratamento e prevenção de afecções relacionadas ao envelhecimento e, particularmente, de transtornos da memória baseia-se em práticas médicas ancestrais e estende-se largamente nos dias de hoje. Contudo, a literatura médica carece de estudos sistemáticos sobre a eficácia de seus princípios ativos no tratamento das demências e da doença de Alzheimer. Em virtude do uso muitas vezes indiscriminado desses produtos, além da falta de um controle adequado sobre sua produção e comercialização, a prescrição da Ginkgo biloba nos transtornos de memória foi questionada nos últimos anos pelos seguidores da boa prática clínica. O presente estudo revê criticamente a literatura médica relevante ao emprego dessas substâncias na doença de Alzheimer e outros transtornos da memória, bem como os subsídios científicos para os supostos efeitos neuroprotetores da Ginkgo biloba.Ginkgo biloba extracts are largely prescribed in many countries for the treatment of ageing and memory-related problems, and have long been used in China as a traditional medicine for various disorders of health. However, there is still controversy on the alleged efficacy of Ginkgo biloba for the treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. There is a paucity of clinical studies conducted with methodological adequacy. Preliminary clinical trials have rejected the benefits of Ginkgo biloba on moderate and severe dementia. However, more recent and current studies focus on its putative neuro-protective effects, being more beneficial in mild cognitive impairment and in early stages of Alzheimer's disease. The present review addresses the potential benefits of Ginkgo biloba in memory disorders and dementia, in the light of the neurobiological bases of its protective effect.

  5. Effekten af Ginkgo biloba-ekstrakt hos patienter med claudicatio intermittens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabaek, H; Petersen, J R; Wïnberg, N

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen patients with stable intermittent claudication were randomized in a double blind cross-over study comparing the effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract GB-8 at a dose of 120 mg o.d. with placebo. All patients were treated for three months with the active extract and three months with placebo...... and the inability to remember were both reduced, when comparing results during active treatment to placebo. Short-term memory did not change significantly. In conclusion, our study has shown that treatment with the Ginkgo biloba extract GB-8 improves some cognitive functions in elderly patients with moderate...

  6. Fixed Drug Eruption to Supplement Containing Ginkgo Biloba and Vinpocetine: A Case Report and Review of Related Cutaneous Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Fixed drug eruption is a cutaneous reaction to a systemic agent that typically presents as an annular or oval erythematous patch or blister and subsequently resolves with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation at the site. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and vinpocetine are nutritional supplements used to enhance memory in patients with dementia and age-related memory impairment conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. PURPOSE: To describe a fixed drug eruption in a man who repeatedly developed pruritus and macular erythema on his distal penile shaft after ingesting a natural product containing Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine. METHODS: The medical literature was retrospectively reviewed using PubMed, searching specifically for the terms cutaneous/skin adverse/side effects, fixed drug eruption, Ginkgo biloba, and vinpocetine. Patient reports and previous reviews of the subject were critically assessed, and the salient features of cutaneous adverse effects in patients receiving either Ginkgo biloba or vinpocetine are presented. RESULTS: Cutaneous adverse effects from Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine are infrequent. Ginkgo biloba fruit can result in contact dermatitis (following topical exposure) and mucosal symptoms of the mouth and anus (following oral exposure); in addition, an erythematous maculopapular generalized eruption or possibly Steven-Johnson syndrome can occur after oral ingestion of the Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. Facial erythema has been associated with vinpocetine ingestion. Pruritus and an annular erythema localized to the distal penile shaft developed after initial and repeat ingestion of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine product. CONCLUSION: Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine should be added to the agents that can potentially cause a fixed drug eruption.

  7. Additional information to the in vitro antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugasi, A; Horvahovich, P; Dworschák, E

    The in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extract from Ginkgo biloba L. was examined in different systems. The extract showed hydrogen-donating ability, reducing power, copper-binding property, free radical scavenging activity in a H2O2/.OH-luminol system and it

  8. Clinical and genomic safety of treatment with Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract (IDN 5933/Ginkgoselect®Plus) in elderly: a randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial [GiBiEx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Prinzi, Giulia; Lamonaca, Palma; Russo, Patrizia; Paximadas, Irene; Rasoni, Giuseppe; Rossi, Raffaella; Ruggi, Marzia; Malandrino, Salvatore; Sánchez-Flores, Maria; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Benassi, Barbara; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Villani, Paola; Panatta, Martina; Cordelli, Eugenia

    2018-01-22

    Numerous health benefits have been attributed to the Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBLE), one of the most extensively used phytopharmaceutical drugs worldwide. Recently, concerns of the safety of the extract have been raised after a report from US National Toxicology Program (NTP) claimed high doses of GBLE increased liver and thyroid cancer incidence in mice and rats. A safety study has been designed to assess, in a population of elderly residents in nursing homes, clinical and genomic risks associated to GBLE treatment. GiBiEx is a multicentre randomized clinical trial, placebo controlled, double blinded, which compared subjects randomized to twice-daily doses of either 120-mg of IDN 5933 (also known as Ginkgoselect®Plus) or to placebo for a 6-months period. IDN 5933 is extracted from dried leaves and contains 24.3% flavone glycosides and 6.1% of terpene lactones (2.9% bilobalide, 1.38% ginkgolide A, 0.66% ginkgolide B, 1.12% ginkgolide C) as determined by HPLC. The study was completed by 47 subjects, 20 in the placebo group and 27 in the treatment group. Clinical (adverse clinical effect and liver injury) and genomic (micronucleus frequency, comet assay, c-myc, p53, and ctnnb1 expression profile in lymphocytes) endpoints were assessed at the start and at the end of the study. No adverse clinical effects or increase of liver injury markers were reported in the treatment group. The frequency of micronuclei [Mean Ratio (MR) = 1.01, 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) 0.86-1.18), and DNA breaks (comet assay) (MR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.58-1.43), did not differ in the two study groups. No significant difference was found in the expression profile of the three genes investigated. None of the markers investigated revealed a higher risk in the treatment group, supporting the safety of IDN 5933 at doses prescribed and for duration of six months. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03004508 , December 20, 2016. Trial retrospectively registered.

  9. Influence of Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) on expression of IL-1 Beta, IL-6, TNF-alfa, HSP-70, HSF-1 and COX-2 after noise exposure in the rat cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Remzi; Sjostrand, Alev Pektas; Yenıgun, Alper; Karatas, Ersin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Ozturan, Orhan

    2017-10-14

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Ginkgo Biloba in early treatment of noise induced hearing loss on expression of IL-6, IL-1 Beta, TNF-alfa, HSP-70, HSF-1 and COX-2 in the rat cochlea. Thirty two female rats were randomly divided into four groups (Acoustic Trauma, Ginkgo Biloba, Acoustic Trauma+Ginkgo Biloba, Non Treatment). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was applied in all the groups. At the end of the study, IL-1Beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, HSP-70, HSF-1 and COX-2 were studied in cochlear tissue with ELISA and Western blot analysis. There were significant increases in ABR values measured at days 1 and 7 compared to baseline values in Group 3. IL-1 Beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha values were significantly higher in Group 1 than in the other groups. Whereas HSP-70 and HSF-1 values were found to be significantly lower in Group 1 compared to those in Group 2 and Group 3. COX-2 of Group 1 was significantly higher than the other groups. Ginkgo Biloba is helpful in the treatment of noise induced hearing loss and exerts its effect by inhibiting expression of IL-1 Beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and COX-2 and increasing HSP-70 and HSF-1 values in rat cochlea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rethinking Ginkgo biloba L.: Medicinal uses and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Tasiu

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba) is an ancient medicinal tree species that has been in existence for millennia without undergoing modifications due to its resistance to environmental stresses. Palaeobotanical history showed a wide distribution of the species across the globe but declined over geological time, becoming restricted to narrow geographical range with few surviving individuals in the modern day. The tree is slow growing, adapted to many ecological conditions and shows numerous adaptation in developmental patterns. Medicinal use of the species is attracting research interest, especially the various parts of the tree that are used in orthodox or traditional medicine to treat diseases due to the many bioactive compounds. The primary compounds receiving increasing research interest are the triterpene lactones and flavonoids; these are the target of biotechnological strategies being employed to enhance production. Many genetic and environmental factors have contributed to the endangered status of the species; conservation measures are required to protect it from extinction. In many countries, the cultivation of plantations for the supply of ginkgo leaf-based pharmaceutical formulations is in progress, and efforts to standardize ginkgo leaf extract as herbal medication for human use are being made. Microcuttings and cuttings, cryopreservation, and plant tissue culture have all aided to conserve G. biloba. PMID:26392712

  11. Effect of ginkgo biloba on blood pressure and incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Tina E.; Lovato, James F.; Arnold, Alice M.; Furberg, Curt D.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Burke, Gregory L.; Nahin, Richard L.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Yasar, Sevil; Williamson, Jeff D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that ginkgo biloba is cardioprotective, in part, through its vasodilatory and antihypertensive properties. However, definitive data on its blood pressure-lowering effects in humans is lacking. Methods We determined the effects of ginkgo biloba extract (240 mg/day) on blood pressure and incident hypertension in 3,069 participants (mean age, 79 yrs; 46% female; 96% White) from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory study. We also examined whether the treatment effects are modified by baseline hypertension status. Results At baseline 54% of the study participants were hypertensive, 28% were pre-hypertensive, and 17% were normotensive. Over a median follow-up of 6.1 years, there were similar changes in blood pressure and pulse pressure in the ginkgo biloba and placebo groups. Although baseline hypertension status did not modify the antihypertensive effects of ginkgo biloba, it did influence the changes in blood pressure variables observed during follow-up, with decreases in hypertensives, increases in normotensives, and no changes in pre-hypertensives. Among participants who were not on antihypertensive medications at baseline, there was no difference between treatment groups in medication use over time, as the OR (95% CI) for being a never-user in the ginkgo biloba group was 0.75 (0.48–1.16). The rate of incident hypertension also did not differ between participants assigned to ginkgo biloba vs. placebo (HR, 0.99, 95% CI, 0.84–1.15). Conclusions Our data indicate that ginkgo biloba does not reduce blood pressure or the incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women. PMID:20168306

  12. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on blood pressure and incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Tina E; Lovato, James F; Arnold, Alice M; Furberg, Curt D; Kuller, Lewis H; Burke, Gregory L; Nahin, Richard L; Lopez, Oscar L; Yasar, Sevil; Williamson, Jeff D

    2010-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Ginkgo biloba is cardioprotective, in part, through its vasodilatory and antihypertensive properties. However, definitive data on its blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in humans is lacking. We determined the effects of G. biloba extract (240 mg/day) on BP and incident hypertension in 3,069 participants (mean age, 79 years; 46% female; 96% white) from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study. We also examined whether the treatment effects are modified by baseline hypertension status. At baseline, 54% of the study participants were hypertensive, 28% were prehypertensive, and 17% were normotensive. Over a median follow-up of 6.1 years, there were similar changes in BP and pulse pressure (PP) in the G. biloba and placebo groups. Although baseline hypertension status did not modify the antihypertensive effects of G. biloba, it did influence the changes in BP variables observed during follow-up, with decreases in hypertensives, increases in normotensives, and no changes in prehypertensives. Among participants who were not on antihypertensive medications at baseline, there was no difference between treatment groups in medication use over time, as the odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) for being a never-user in the G. biloba group was 0.75 (0.48-1.16). The rate of incident hypertension also did not differ between participants assigned to G. biloba vs. placebo (hazard ratio (HR), 0.99, 95% CI, 0.84-1.15). Our data indicate that G. biloba does not reduce BP or the incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women.

  13. Determination of Ginkgolides A, B, C, J and Bilobalide in Plasma by LC-ESI (-)/MS/MS (QQQ) and its Application to the Pharmacokinetic Study of Ginkgo Biloba Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Yan, Z; Li-Li, G; Guo-Ming, S; Rong, R; Jing-Zhen, T

    2016-10-01

    A simple, rapid, and specific high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the quantification of ginkgolides in rat plasma, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters of ginkgolides after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) was acquired. Methods: Plasma samples were pretreated with ethyl acetate extraction. Sulfamethoxazole was used as the internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column (2.1 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol/0.1% formic acid water (gradient elution: 0~25 min (77:23)→(60:40), V/V) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min -1 . The detection was performed on a triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionization (ESI) source for 25 min. The detection was operated by multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) under negative ionization mode of the transitions of m/z 325→163 for BB, 469→423 for GJ, 439→125 for GC, 453→351 for GA, 423→367 for GB and of m/z 252→156 for sulfamethoxazole (IS) respectively. Results: The pharmacokinetic properties of BB, GJ, GA, GB and GC were in line with the open 2-compartment model after oral administration of GBE in rats; The pharmacokinetic parameters of various lactones were calculated, and drugs-time curve and the curve fitting diagram of 5 ginkgolides were drew; The absorption and distribution rate of BB, GJ, GA, GB and GC were fast in rats in vivo, and half-life of absorption was less than 3 h. Conclusion: The developed LC-ESI (-)/MS/MS (QQQ) method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability of ginkgolides in rats after administration of GBE, which can provide basis for further clinical efficacy studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Effects of Physical Activity and Ginkgo Biloba on Cognitive Function and Oxidative Stress Modulation in Ischemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghef, Ladan; Bafandeh Gharamaleki, Hassan

    2017-09-01

    Either exercise or Ginkgo biloba is reported to improve cognitive functioning. The aim of this study is to compare the protective effects of forced exercise and Ginkgo biloba on oxidative stress as well as memory impairments induced by transient cerebral ischemia. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with treadmill running or Ginkgo biloba extract for 2 weeks before cerebral ischemia. Memory was assessed using a Morris water maze (MWM) task. At the end of the behavioral testing, oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated in the hippocampus tissue. As expected, the cerebral ischemia induced memory impairment in the MWM task, and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. These effects were significantly prevented by treadmill running. Indeed, it ameliorated oxidative stress and memory deficits induced by ischemia. In contrast, Ginkgo biloba was not as effective as exercise in preventing ischemia-induced memory impairments. The results confirmed the neuroprotective effects of treadmill running on hippocampus-dependent memory.

  15. Effect of ginkgo biloba on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonk, M.I.; Colbers, A.; Poirters, A.; Schouwenberg, B.J.; Burger, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal herbs may cause clinically relevant drug interactions with antiretroviral agents. Ginkgo biloba extract is a popular herbal product among HIV-infected patients because of its positive effects on cognitive function. Raltegravir, an HIV integrase inhibitor, is increasingly being used as part

  16. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on corticosterone stress responses after inescapable shock exposure in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, C.R.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Extracts from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree (GBE) are found to be clinically effective in neuroprotection, cerebral and cardiovascular function and cognitive processing. Recent animal findings suggest that GBE also may improve stress adaptation and prevent learned helplessness, as evidenced

  17. Effekten af Ginkgo biloba-ekstrakt hos patienter med claudicatio intermittens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabaek, H; Petersen, J R; Wïnberg, N

    1996-01-01

    and the inability to remember were both reduced, when comparing results during active treatment to placebo. Short-term memory did not change significantly. In conclusion, our study has shown that treatment with the Ginkgo biloba extract GB-8 improves some cognitive functions in elderly patients with moderate...

  18. Effect of ginkgo biloba on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonk, Maren; Colbers, Angela; Poirters, Anne; Schouwenberg, Bas; Burger, David

    2012-10-01

    Medicinal herbs may cause clinically relevant drug interactions with antiretroviral agents. Ginkgo biloba extract is a popular herbal product among HIV-infected patients because of its positive effects on cognitive function. Raltegravir, an HIV integrase inhibitor, is increasingly being used as part of combined antiretroviral therapy. Clinical data on the potential inhibitory or inductive effect of ginkgo biloba on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir were lacking, and concomitant use was not recommended. We studied the effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in an open-label, randomized, two-period, crossover phase I trial in 18 healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned to a regimen of 120 mg of ginkgo biloba twice daily for 15 days plus a single dose of raltegravir (400 mg) on day 15, a washout period, and 400 mg of raltegravir on day 36 or the test and reference treatments in reverse order. Pharmacokinetic sampling of raltegravir was performed up to 12 h after intake on an empty stomach. All subjects (9 male) completed the trial, and no serious adverse events were reported. Geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from dosing to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) and the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of raltegravir with ginkgo biloba versus raltegravir alone were 1.21 (0.93 to 1.58) and 1.44 (1.03 to 2.02). Ginkgo biloba did not reduce raltegravir exposure. The potential increase in the C(max) of raltegravir is probably of minor importance, given the large intersubject variability of raltegravir pharmacokinetics and its reported safety profile.

  19. Polysaccharides fraction isolated from ginkgo biloba folium: immunopharmacological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hăncianu, Monica; Pavelescuz, M; Miron, Anca; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Grigorescu, Em; Lupuşoru, Cătălina; Stănescu, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Many macromolecular compounds of vegetal polysaccharides type develop important immunostimulatory properties. Crude macromolecular fraction was isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. (codified as PGfol) harvested from Botanical Gardens of Iaşi, Romania. The hot water extract was partially purified and submitted to chemical and immunopharmacological studies. The immunostimulatory activity of PGfol was further investigated by a series of tests on rats: phagocytosis capacity of PMN cells by NBT test, serum complement activity and determination of the activity of splenic T-lymphocytes. PGfol has a good immunostimulatory activity which is equal or higher to Levamisole (positive control).

  20. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb 761®) and its specific acylated flavonol constituents increase dopamine and acetylcholine levels in the rat medial prefrontal cortex: possible implications for the cognitive enhancing properties of EGb 761®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, J; Yoshitake, S; Ijiri, S; Koch, E; Nöldner, M; Yoshitake, T

    2012-08-01

    Experimental and clinical data suggest that the Ginkgo biloba standardized extract EGb 761® exerts beneficial effects in conditions which are associated with impaired cognitive function. However, the neurochemical correlates of these memory enhancing effects are not yet fully clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of repeated oral administration of EGb 761® and some of its characteristic constituents on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (5-HT), acetylcholine (ACh) and the metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of awake rats by use of in vivo microdialysis technique. Subacute (14 days, once daily), but not acute, oral treatment with EGb 761® (100 and 300 mg/kg) or the flavonoid fraction, which represents about 24% of the whole extract caused a significant and dose-dependent increase in extracellular DA levels in the mPFC. Repeated administration of EGb 761® also caused a modest but significant increase in the NA levels, whereas the concentrations of 5-HT and those of the metabolites DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA were not affected. The same treatment regimen was used in a subsequent study with the aim of investigating the effects of two Ginkgo-specific acylated flavonols, 3-O-(2''-O-(6'''-O-(p-hydroxy-trans-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucosyl)-α-L-rhamnosyl)quercetin (Q-ag) and 3-O-(2''-O-(6'''-O-(p-hydroxy-trans-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucosyl)-α-L-rhamnosyl)kaempferol (K-ag). Both compounds together represent about 4.5% of the whole extract. Repeated oral treatment with Q-ag (10 mg/kg) for 14 days caused a significant increase in extracellular DA levels of 159% and extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels of 151% compared to controls. Similarly, administration of K-ag (10 mg/kg) induced a significant rise of DA levels to 142% and ACh levels to 165% of controls, whereas treatment with isorhamnetin, an O

  1. [Ginkgo Biloba as a cognitive enhancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arushanian, E B; Beĭer, E V

    2008-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba preparations exhibit nootropic activity in the absence of side effects, which is confirmed by numerous experimental observations and clinical results. The neuroprotector effect of these drugs is based on the antitoxicant action, antioxidant properties, and the ability to normalize the neuromediator and energy transfer mechanisms in cerebral neurons. In this review, recent data on the influence of various Ginkgo Biloba preparations on the cognitive functions in animals and humans and neurochemical mechanisms of the nootropic effect are summarized.

  2. Study of neuroprotective function of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) derived-flavonoid monomers using a three-dimensional stem cell-derived neural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueting; Sun, Jiachen; George, Julian; Ye, Hua; Cui, Zhanfeng; Li, Zhaohui; Liu, Qingxi; Zhang, Yaozhou; Ge, Dan; Liu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    An in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system that can mimic organ and tissue structure and function in vivo will be of great benefit for drug discovery and toxicity testing. In this study, the neuroprotective properties of the three most prevalent flavonoid monomers extracted from EGb 761 (isorharmnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin) were investigated using the developed 3D stem cell-derived neural co-culture model. Rat neural stem cells were differentiated into co-culture of both neurons and astrocytes at an equal ratio in the developed 3D model and standard two-dimensional (2D) model using a two-step differentiation protocol for 14 days. The level of neuroprotective effect offered by each flavonoid was found to be aligned with its effect as an antioxidant and its ability to inhibit Caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell exposure to quercetin (100 µM) following oxidative insult provided the highest levels of neuroprotection in both 2D and 3D models, comparable with exposure to 100 µM of Vitamin E, whilst exposure to isorhamnetin and kaempferol provided a reduced level of neuroprotection in both 2D and 3D models. At lower dosages (10 µM flavonoid concentration), the 3D model was more representative of results previously reported in vivo. The co-cultures of stem cell derived neurons and astrocytes in 3D hydrogel scaffolds as an in vitro neural model closely replicates in vivo results for routine neural drug toxicity and efficacy testing. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:735-744, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Impact of Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba extracts on expression level of transcriptional factors and xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes / Wpływ ekstraktów z Panax ginseng i Ginkgo biloba na poziom ekspresji czynników transkrypcyjnych i enzymów cytochromu P450 metabolizujących ksenobiotyki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogacz Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Mimo powszechnego stosowania Panax ginseng i Ginkgo biloba dane dotyczące bezpieczeństwa, a także interakcji pomiędzy preparatami roślinnymi a lekami syntetycznymi są bardzo ograniczone. W niniejszych badaniach założono, iż żeń-szeń oraz miłorząb mogą modulować aktywność i zawartość izoenzymów cytochromu P450 biorących udział w biotransformacji różnych substancji ksenobiotycznych. Cel: Określenie wpływu preparatów roślinnych na poziom ekspresji enzymów CYP i ich czynników transkrypcyjnych. Metody: Szczurom rasy Wistar podawano standaryzowany Panax ginseng (30 mg/kg oraz Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg przez 3 do 10 dni. Ekspresję w tkance wątrobowej analizowano za pomocą metody PCR w czasie rzeczywistym. Wyniki: Uzyskane wyniki wykazały spadek poziomu mRNA CYP3A1 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP3A4 po podaniu ekstraktu z żeń-szenia. Ekspresja genu CYP2C6 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP2C9 również uległa obniżeniu. Dodatkowo, obserwowaliśmy wzrost ekspresji CYP1A1 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP1A1 i CYP1A2 (homolog ludzkiego enzymu CYP1A2 po 10 dniach stosowania P. ginseng. Ponadto, ekstrakt z G. biloba spowodował również wzrost poziomu mRNA CYP1A1, CYP2C6, CYP3A1 i CYP3A2 w modelu in vivo. Wnioski: Badania sugerują, że wyciągi roślinne mogą modulować ekspresję czynników transkrypcyjnych i enzymów CYP uczestniczących w metabolizmie ksenobiotyków i chemicznej karcynogenezie.

  4. Analytical methods applied to assess the effects of gamma irradiation on color, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba L

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2014-01-01

    The extracts from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba are widely used in medicines and food supplements in order to overcome different health problems. To provide decontamination, irradiation is a safe and effective technique, particularly suitable to be integrated in quality control of the postharvest samples. In this study, different analytical methods were applied to assess the effects of gamma irradiation (1 and 10 kGy) in G. biloba color, chemical composition and antioxidant properties. Irradiat...

  5. Effects of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on the acquisition, retrieval and extinction of conditioned suppression: Evidence that short-term memory and long-term memory are differentially modulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlam, C R; Vendrasco, N C; Oliveira, D R; Gaiardo, R B; Cerutti, S M

    2016-10-15

    Studies in our laboratory have characterized the putative neuromodulatory effects of a standardized extract of the green leaves of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), which comprises a formulation of 24% ginkgo-flavoglycosides and 6% ginkgo-terpenoid lactones, on conditioned suppression. This model comprises a suitable animal model for investigating the behavioral changes and pharmacological mechanisms that underlie fear memory and anxiety. The characterization of the effects on distinct stages of fear memory or fear extinction will help illustrate both the beneficial and harmful effects. Three hundred adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 30 groups according to the treatment as follows: i-ii) control groups (CS-US and CSno-US); iii) vehicle group (12% Tween®80); and iv-vi) EGb groups (250, 500 and 1000mgkg(-1)); or experimental procedures designed to assess the effects of EGb treatment prior to the acquisition (n=20 per group) and retrieval of conditioned fear (n=10 per group) or prior to the extinction training (n=10 per group) and extinction retention test (n=10 per group). Furthermore, to better understand the effects of acute EGb treatment on fear memory, we conducted two additional analyses: the acquisition of within- and between-session extinction of fear memory (short- and long-term memory, respectively). No difference was identified between the control and treatment groups during the retention test (P>0.05), with the exception of the CSno-US group in relation to all groups (Pmemory, which was verified by the suppression ration in the first trial of extinction training (SR=0.39) and the extinction retention test session (SR=0.53, Pmemory acquisition, which were evaluated during the retention test (SR=0.79). Moreover, EGb administered at 1000mgkg(-1) prior to conditioning did not enhance the long-term extinction memory, i.e., it did not prevent the return of extinguished fear memory in the extinction retention test, in which the spontaneous recovery of fear was

  6. Current Perspectives on the Beneficial Role of Ginkgo biloba in Neurological and Cerebrovascular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Kevin M.; Shah, Zahoor A.

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract is an alternative medicine available as a standardized formulation, EGb 761 ® , which consists of ginkgolides, bilobalide, and flavonoids. The individual constituents have varying therapeutic mechanisms that contribute to the pharmacological activity of the extract as a whole. Recent studies show anxiolytic properties of ginkgolide A, migraine with aura treatment by ginkgolide B, a reduction in ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity by bilobalide, and an alternative a...

  7. Development of two step liquid-liquid extraction tandem UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of Ginkgo flavonoids, terpene lactones and nimodipine in rat plasma: Application to the pharmacokinetic study of the combination of Ginkgo biloba dispersible tablets and Nimodipine tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Pei; Liu, Ran; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive, reliable and accurate UHPLC-MS/MS method has been firstly established and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ginkgo flavonoids, terpene lactones and nimodipine in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba dispersible tablets, Nimodipine tablets and the combination of the both, respectively. The plasma samples were extracted by two step liquid-liquid extraction, nimodipine was extracted by hexane-ether (3:1, v/v) at the first step, after that ginkgo flavonoids and terpene lactones were extracted by ethyl acetate. Then the analytes were successfully separated by running gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on a UHPLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the negative ion and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curves for the determination of all the analytes showed good linearity (R(2)>0.99), and the lower limits of quantification were 0.50-4.00ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were in the range of 3.6%-9.2% and 3.2%-13.1% for all the analytes. The mean extraction recoveries of the analytes were within 69.82%-103.5% and the matrix were within 82.8%-110.0%. The validated method had been successfully applied to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of ginkgo flavonoids, terpene lactones and nimodipine in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba dispersible tablets, Nimodipine tablets with the combination of the both. There were no statistically significant differences on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of all the analytes between the combined and single administration groups. Results showed that the combination of the two agents may avoid dosage adjustments in clinic and the combination is more convenient as well as efficient on different pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extract ofGinkgo bilobapromotes neuronal regeneration in the hippocampus after exposure to acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ling; Ma, Yu-Xin; Fan, Yu-Bao; Lai, Sheng-Min; Liu, Hong-Qing; Liu, Jing; Luo, Li; Li, Guo-Ying; Tian, Su-Min

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a neuroprotective effect of extract of Ginkgo biloba against neuronal damage, but have mainly focused on antioxidation of extract of Ginkgo biloba . To date, limited studies have determined whether extrasct of Ginkgo biloba has a protective effect on neuronal damage. In the present study, acrylamide and 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg extract of Ginkgo biloba were administered for 4 weeks by gavage to establish mouse models. Our results showed that 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg extract of Ginkgo biloba effectively alleviated the abnormal gait of poisoned mice, and up-regulated protein expression levels of doublecortin (DCX), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the hippocampus. Simultaneously, DCX- and GAP-43-immunoreactive cells increased. These findings suggest that extract of Ginkgo biloba can mitigate neurotoxicity induced by acrylamide, and thereby promote neuronal regeneration in the hippocampus of acrylamide-treated mice.

  9. Ototoxicidade da cisplatina e otoproteção pelo extrato de ginkgo biloba às células ciliadas externas: estudo anatômico e eletrofisiológico Cisplatin ototoxycity and otoprotector to cilliated cells by ginkgo biloba extract: anatomic and eletrophisiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Hyppolito

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A Cisplatina é uma potente droga antineoplásica, largamente utilizada para o tratamento do câncer, tanto em adultos quanto em crianças. Dentre seus efeitos colaterais, a ototoxicidade se apresenta como um dos mais importantes e leva à perda auditiva irreversível, bilateral, para as altas freqüências (4KHz#8KHz. Estudos têm tentado identificar drogas que, associadas à cisplatina possam atuar como otoprotetores. Sabe-se que o mecanismo da ototoxicidade pela cisplatina está relacionado a alterações nos mecanismos antioxidantes das células ciliadas, principalmente as células ciliadas externas da cóclea. OBJETIVO: Nossa proposta foi de avaliar através de emissões otoacústicas, por produtos de distorção (EOAPD e por microscopia eletrônica de superfície (ME, a ação do extrato de ginkgo biloba (EGB 761, que tem conhecida ação antioxidante, como possível otoprotetor, utilizando como modelo experimental cobaias albinas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Observamos EOAPD presentes pré e pós tratamento no grupo EGB (100 mg/Kg/dia via oral e 90 minutos após cisplatina (80 mg/Kg/dia via intraperitoneal por 8 dias. RESULTADO: Houve também manutenção da arquitetura ciliar nas células ciliadas externas em todas as espiras da cóclea, enquanto que no grupo tratado somente com cisplatina (80 mg/Kg/dia via intraperitoneal por 8 dias, houve desaparecimento das EOAPD pós tratamento, com desaparecimento dos cilios das células ciliadas externas e distorção na arquitetura dos cílios remanescentes à ME. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a EGB, por sua ação antioxidante, atua como fator otoprotetor à ototoxicidade pela cisplatina, devendo ser testada tal ação na prática clínica em pacientes que utilizam a cisplatina, pois o uso do EGB está extremamente difundido no tratamento de diferentes doenças.Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug for cancer treatment in children and adults. The side effects of cisplatin

  10. Otoproteção em cobaias expostas a agrotóxico e ginkgo biloba Otoprotection in guinea pigs exposed to pesticides and ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Dulor Finkler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os agrotóxicos são amplamente utilizados na agricultura e, atualmente, fazem parte do grupo de agentes químicos que podem levar à perda auditiva. A identificação de drogas que, associadas aos ototóxicos, possam atuar como otoprotetores é objeto de estudo. OBJETIVO: Analisar a existência de efeito otoprotetor do extrato de Ginkgo biloba aos possíveis danos cocleares causados pelo agrotóxico do grupo dos organofosforados - metamidofós, avaliando-se as alterações anatômicas por meio da microscopia eletrônica de superfície. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo experimental prospectivo utilizando 21 cobaias, que sofreram ação da administração de soro fisiológico, agrotóxico e ginkgo biloba isoladamente e associadas, durante sete dias consecutivos. Após, as cócleas foram removidas e avaliadas anatomicamente pela microscopia eletrônica de varredura. RESULTADOS: As cobaias submetidas ao agrotóxico apresentaram alterações morfológicas cocleares, com lesões nas três espiras analisadas na microscopia eletrônica, intensificadas de acordo com a dosagem recebida do agente. As cobaias tratadas com agrotóxico e Ginkgo biloba apresentaram uma manutenção da arquitetura ciliar nas células ciliadas externas em todas as espiras da cóclea. CONCLUSÃO: O extrato de Ginkgo biloba, por sua ação antioxidante, atuou como fator otoprotetor à ototoxicidade pelo agrotóxico em cobaias.Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, despite the risk of hearing loss related to the exposure to their chemical components. This study looks into protective drugs to counteract the ototoxicity of pesticides. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the effect ginkgo biloba extract may have in protecting against possible cochlear damage caused by organophosphate pesticides (methamidophos. Anatomic changes are assessed through surface and electron microscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective experimental study. Twenty-one guinea pigs were given saline

  11. Effect of biflavones of Ginkgo biloba against UVB-induced cytotoxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Jin [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Medical School

    2001-04-01

    The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiated fibroblasts was examined by using a neutral red dye uptake assay and a lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Crude extract along with individual components, including flavone-glycosides and biflavones, were applied to cultured normal human skin fibroblasts for 12 hours, and 0, 20, 40 and 80 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB were irradiated. Two synthetic flavonoids, quercetin and rutin, which have polyphenol structures close to the flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba extract, were used to compare any structure-related activity under the same conditions. At the concentrations (from 0.25 to 2 mg/ml) treated with biflavone components (isoginkgetin/ginkgetin, sciadopitysin) and quercetin, high neutral red dye uptake was detected with gradual increases in UVB irradiation. The time-course release of LDH was determined as the cytotoxicity index (%) during 24 hours following a high dose UVB irradiation (200 mJ/cm{sup 2}), and the pattern of this cytotoxicity index was similar to that of the neutral red dye uptake results. Sciadopitysin, isoginkgetin/ginkgetin and quercetin treatments lowered cytotoxicity indices to 50.81, 67.81 and 62.19%, respectively, compared to 95.38% for the untreated control. The antioxidant potential of biflavones of Ginkgo biloba could be explained on the basis of structure-related activity; hydroxy- and methyl-substitutions on the basic structure of these flavonoids played a role, as other reports have suggested. (author)

  12. Natural substances in psychiatry (Ginkgo biloba in dementia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T; Martorano, D

    1995-01-01

    Natural substances and/or their synthetically developed active ingredients are frequently used in medicine. In psychiatry, two of the most well known natural compounds are reserpine and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb). EGb is among the most popular over-the-counter medicines in Europe and is also available in the United States, primarily in health food stores. Already the European medical community has recognized EGb as an effective compound in the treatment of cerebral insufficiency. In a pilot bioequivalency study, the effects of three different commercially available EGb products were examined. Findings indicated significant quantitative central nervous system (CNS) effects in, at least, one of the three. Furthermore, the CNS effects of Ginkgold were similar to other psychoactive compounds classified as cognitive activators. Recent studies in which EGb 761 demonstrated therapeutic effects in the treatment of dementia have earned EGb the approval of the German BGA (Bundesgesundheit Amt) for use in the treatment of dementia.

  13. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants; Determinacao de elementos traco nos fitofarmacos ginseng e ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avino, Simone; Saiki, Mitiko; Fulfaro, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  14. Development of Speciality polymer to extract uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabushi, Iwao

    1983-01-01

    Polymer adsorbents were designed to extract uranium efficiently from sea water. The unique coordination structure of uranyl ion was suggested from x-ray crystallography and determining factors influencing equilibrium constants were elucidated. A quantitative estimation of the ligand efficiency was obtained. Based on these considerations on the coordination chemistry of uranyl ion, new polymer adsorbents were prepared and found to show excellent adsorption characteristics. The macrocyclic ligands mimicking crystallographic structure of the complex: planer headentate, were found to show large equilibrium constants as well as high selectivities toward metal ions. Direct usage of sea current was proposed as a most economical way of treating a huge amount of sea water. The polymer adsorbent could recover uranium with large adsorption rate just by immersing the resin into Kuroshio. (author)

  15. DNA polymorphism in the living fossil Ginkgo biloba from the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuddus, Ruhul H; Kuddus, Nayema N; Dvorchik, Igor

    2002-02-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis is a valuable tool in studying inter- and intra-specific genetic variations, patterns of gene expression, and for the identification of specific genes using nearly isogenic variants. Here we used RAPD analysis to study the genetic variation in Ginkgo biloba grown in the eastern United States. Our results support the evidence that Southern blot hybridization of RAPD using probes made from cloned DNA fragments allows a more accurate analysis of the RAPD pattern than dye-stained gels or Southern blot hybridization of RAPD blots using probes made from purified PCR products. Using these techniques, we observed a high degree of relatedness among plants grown in certain localities although significant genetic variation may exist in the species, and could be a possible explanation for the observed variations in the efficacy of medications derived from G. biloba extract.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Ginkgo biloba against Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant which has potent insecticidal activity against brown planthopper. The MeOH extract was tested in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory assay with IC50 values of 252.1 μg/mL. Two ginkgolides and thirteen flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. It revealed that the 13 isolated flavonoids were found to inhibit AChE with IC50 values ranging from 57.8 to 133.1 μg/mL in the inhibitory assay. AChE was inhibited dose dependently by all tested flavonoids, and compound 6 displayed the highest inhibitory effect against AChE with IC50 values of 57.8 μg/mL.

  17. Design of countercurrent separation of Ginkgo biloba terpene lactones by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feng; Friesen, J Brent; McAlpine, James B; Pauli, Guido F

    2012-06-15

    Terpene lactones such as bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C, and J are major bioactive compounds of Ginkgo biloba L. Purification of these compounds is tedious due to their similar chemical properties. For the purpose of developing an effective and efficient method for both analytical and preparative separation of terpene lactones in G. biloba, an innovative orthogonality-enhanced high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established. Taking advantage of quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) methodology, partition coefficients (K) of individual terpene lactones were calculated directly from crude G. biloba leaf extract, using their H-12 signals as distinguishing feature. The partitioning experiment assisted the design of a two dimensional (2D) HSCCC procedure using a pair of orthogonal HSCCC solvent systems (SSs), ChMWat +4 and HEMSoWat +3/0.05%. It was surprising that the resolution of ginkgolides A and B was improved by 25% in the HEMWat +3 SS modified with 0.5% DMSO. Consequently, all five terpene lactones could be well separated with qHNMR purity>95% from G. biloba leaf extract. The separation was further evaluated by offline qHNMR analysis of HSCCC fractions associated with Gaussian curve fitting. The results showed less than 2% error in HSCCC retention predicted from the partitioning experiment. This compelling consistency demonstrates that qHNMR-derived K determination ("K-by-NMR") can be used to predict CCC fractionation and target purification of analytes from complex mixtures. Furthermore, Gaussian curve fitting enabled an accurate prediction of less than 2% impurity in the CCC fraction, which demonstrates its potential as a powerful tool to study the presence of minor constituents, especially when they are beyond the detection limit of conventional spectroscopic detectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Identification of special quality eggs with NIR spectroscopy technology based on symbol entropy feature extraction method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Hong, Wen-Xue

    2011-11-01

    Fast, nondestructive and accurate identification of special quality eggs is an urgent problem. The present paper proposed a new feature extraction method based on symbol entropy to identify near infrared spectroscopy of special quality eggs. The authors selected normal eggs, free range eggs, selenium-enriched eggs and zinc-enriched eggs as research objects and measured the near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra in the range of 12 000-4 000 cm(-1). Raw spectra were symbolically represented with aggregation approximation algorithm and symbolic entropy was extracted as feature vector. An error-correcting output codes multiclass support vector machine classifier was designed to identify the spectrum. Symbolic entropy feature is robust when parameter changed and the highest recognition rate reaches up to 100%. The results show that the identification method of special quality eggs using near-infrared is feasible and the symbol entropy can be used as a new feature extraction method of near-infrared spectra.

  19. Regional distribution of Ginkgo biloba-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, P E; Moore, C A; Collie, M T; Satvat, E

    2009-04-01

    A growing literature supports the notion that Ginkgo biloba has cognitive enhancing and anxiolytic properties; however, its effects on neuronal populations have yet to be characterized. The present study used c-Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) to characterize functional activity in selected brain regions following administration of a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract. Because Ginkgo is typically consumed orally, Exp 1 sought to identify patterns of neural activity induced by oral administration. To ensure that the alterations in functional neural activity observed in Exp 1 were not simply due to novel gustatory experience, Exp 2 characterized patterns of Fos-IR following intraperitoneal administration of Ginkgo. Rats were habituated to handling and experimental conditions. In Exp 1, rats self-administered 150 mg/kg Ginkgo or vehicle alone (strawberry jam) orally. In Exp 2, rats were injected with Ginkgo (2.5 or 25 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (0.3% gum Arabic). Animals were anaesthetized and perfused transcardially. Brains were sectioned, immunostained using a c-Fos antibody, then the number of labelled cells was quantified microscopically in selected brain regions. In both experiments Ginkgo increased Fos-IR in numerous brain regions including the insular cortex and amygdala. Intraperitoneal administration induced Fos-IR in some additional regions including the nucleus accumbens and dentate gyrus. Results provide important preliminary data serving to identify several candidate neural sites involved in the cognitive enhancing and anxiolytic effects of Ginkgo biloba.

  20. Improvement In Rabbit Corneal Cell Suspension Viability After Freezing With Gingko Biloba Extrakt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Aktan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the addition of Gingko Biloba extract (EGb 761 to rabbit corneal epithelial medium before cell freezing improved cell viability after freezing then thawing. After removal of corneas, they were treated with enzymes and the corneal epithelium was prepared as a single cell suspension in freezing media with or without EGb 761. After freezing for two weeks then thawing, a higher cell viability was found in the cornea cell suspensions which had been frozen pretreated with EGb 761 in the media. The improvement with corneal cell viability with EGb 761 pretreatment is postulated to be based on the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract.

  1. Flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba fallen leaves induce apoptosis through modulation of p53 activation in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jung; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the apoptotic effect of flavonoids in methanol extracts of Ginkgo biloba fallen leaves (MEGFL) on melanoma cells. Ginkgo biloba is a deciduous castle chaplain and its leaves include various types of flavonoids such as flavonol-O-glycosides. Ginkgo biloba is known to have therapeutic properties against a number of diseases such as cerebrovascular diseases, blood circulation disease and hypertension. In the present study MEGFL exhibited a higher cytotoxic effect on melanoma cells than Ginkgo biloba leaves (MEGL). It was also found that MEGFL induced apoptotic cell death which was characterized by DNA fragmentation. During the cell death process following treatment with MEGFL, the expression of a variety of death-associated proteins including p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c and Bax were analyzed in the cytosol of melanoma cells. MEGFL significantly increased the expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9 and p53 in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that MEGFL induced apoptotic cell death by increasing the expression of cell death-associated proteins in melanoma cells.

  2. The protective effect of two commercial formats of Ginkgo biloba on motor alterations induced by cassava juice (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, E; Vázquez-Luna, A; Rodríguez-Landa, J F; Mérida-Portilla, C V; Díaz-Sobac, R

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of 2 commercial formats of Ginkgo biloba on motor alterations induced by cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice consumption in male Wistar rats. The effects were evaluated with the open field and swim tests at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment, one hour after administering the product. Compared to controls, open field crossings increased after day 21 of cassava juice consumption, and lateral swimming in the swim test was reported after day 7. Ginkgo biloba extracts prevented motor alterations associated with cassava juice consumption, probably due to the flavonoid content in both formats of Ginkgo biloba. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Ginkgo biloba induced mood dysregulation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Seung Sun; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2018-01-15

    Impairment of cognitive function as well as negative symptom is the major factor causing the decline of a patient's functioning in chronic stages of schizophrenia. However, until now, there were no definite treatment options that could effectively reduce the impairment. We report a case of mood dysregulation associated with use of Ginkgo biloba in a patient with schizophrenia. After Ginkgo biloba was given, the patient experienced cluster symptoms of mood dysregulation including irritability, difficulty in controlling anger, agitation and restlessness. We estimated the possibility as "probable" according to Naranjo scale considering circumstantial evidence. This case suggests that Ginkgo biloba may have caused mood dysregulation in this patient. Although it is generally accepted as safe, more attention should be given to the adverse effect when treating with Ginkgo biloba.

  4. Ginkgo biloba treating patients with attention-deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Various medications such as clonidine facilitate calming, enhance frustration tolerance and reduce aggression in attention-deficit disorder (ADD) patients. The use of Ginkgo biloba was studied as an herbal alternative. Six psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with ADD were rated at baseline and while taking Ginkgo biloba to determine its efficacy as a treatment for ADD. Comparisons of Wender Utah ratings within subject were used to measure behavioral changes in the subjects. During Ginkgo biloba treatment, the patients' mean scores improved significantly overall and in hyperactivity, inattention, and immaturity factors. This preliminary study indicates that Ginkgo biloba might be a beneficial and useful treatment of ADD, with minimal side effects. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effekten af Ginkgo biloba-ekstrakt hos patienter med claudicatio intermittens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabaek, H; Petersen, J R; Wïnberg, N

    1996-01-01

    of concentration, and inability to remember. Short-term memory was objectively assessed. We did not find any significant changes in either peripheral blood pressures, walking distances or the severity of leg pain. Systemic blood pressure was reduced both by placebo and GB-8. The impairment of concentration...... and the inability to remember were both reduced, when comparing results during active treatment to placebo. Short-term memory did not change significantly. In conclusion, our study has shown that treatment with the Ginkgo biloba extract GB-8 improves some cognitive functions in elderly patients with moderate...

  6. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on visual field and contrast sensitivity in Chinese patients with normal tension glaucoma: a randomized, crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinxing; Kong, Xiangbin; Huang, Rui; Jin, Ling; Ding, Xiaohu; He, Mingguang; Liu, Xing; Patel, Mehul Chimanlal; Congdon, Nathan G

    2014-01-07

    We evaluated the effect of ginkgo biloba extract on visual field defect and contrast sensitivity in a Chinese cohort with normal tension glaucoma. In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, patients newly diagnosed with normal tension glaucoma, either in a tertiary glaucoma clinic (n = 5) or in a cohort undergoing routine general physical examinations in a primary care clinic (n = 30), underwent two 4-week phases of treatment, separated by a washout period of 8 weeks. Randomization determined whether ginkgo biloba extract (40 mg, 3 times per day) or placebo (identical-appearing tablets) was received first. Primary outcomes were change in contrast sensitivity and mean deviation on 24-2 SITA standard visual field testing, while secondary outcomes included IOP and self-reported adverse events. A total of 35 patients with mean age 63.7 (6.5) years were randomized to the ginkgo biloba extract-placebo (n = 18) or the placebo-ginkgo biloba extract (n = 17) sequence. A total of 28 patients (80.0%, 14 in each group) who completed testing did not differ at baseline in age, sex, visual field mean deviation, contrast sensitivity, IOP, or blood pressure. Changes in visual field and contrast sensitivity did not differ by treatment received or sequence (P > 0.2 for all). Power to have detected a difference in mean defect as large as previously reported was 80%. In contrast to some previous reports, ginkgo biloba extract treatment had no effect on mean defect or contrast sensitivity in this group of normal tension glaucoma patients. (http://www.chictr.org number, ChiCTR-TRC-08000724).

  7. Clonazepam quiets tinnitus: a randomised crossover study with Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seon-Sook; Nam, Eui-Cheol; Won, Jun Yeon; Lee, Kang Uk; Chun, Wanjoo; Choi, Hyun Kyung; Levine, Robert Aaron

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effect of Ginkgo biloba and clonazepam, a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor agonist, upon tinnitus. This was an open-label, randomised, crossover study. 27 men and 11 women (aged 16-80 (mean 58)) with tinnitus for more than 2 months were enrolled. Participants were randomised to either clonazepam or G biloba for the first 3 weeks. For the next 2 weeks of washout no medication was taken. For the final 3 weeks, subjects were given the other drug. The initial dose of clonazepam and G biloba was one tablet daily (clonazepam 0.5 mg; G biloba 40 mg). Subjects were instructed to increase the dose by one tablet every 3 days to a maximum of four tablets daily until they perceived a satisfactory decrease in tinnitus loudness or intolerable side effects. Tinnitus was assessed with pitch and loudness matching, tinnitus handicap inventory, and visual analogue scales of loudness, duration and annoyance. Comparing before and after each drug, clonazepam significantly improved tinnitus loudness (74% of subjects), duration (63%), annoyance (79%), and tinnitus handicap inventory score (61%), whereas the G biloba showed no significant differences on any of these measures. Clonazepam is effective in treating tinnitus; G biloba is ineffective.

  8. Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vauth Christoph

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefit of Ginkgo biloba has been discussed controversially. The aim of this review was to assess the effects of Ginkgo biloba in Alzheimer's disease as well as vascular and mixed dementia covering a variety of outcome domains. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane databases, CINAHL and PsycINFO for controlled trials of ginkgo for Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia. Studies had to be of a minimum of 12 weeks duration with at least ten participants per group. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analysis results were expressed as risk ratios or standardized mean differences (SMD in scores. Results Nine trials using the standardized extract EGb761® met our inclusion criteria. Trials were of 12 to 52 weeks duration and included 2372 patients in total. In the meta-analysis, the SMDs in change scores for cognition were in favor of ginkgo compared to placebo (-0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.14; -0.01, p = 0.04, but did not show a statistically significant difference from placebo for activities in daily living (ADLs (SMD = -0.32, 95% CI -0.66; 0.03, p = 0.08. Heterogeneity among studies was high. For the Alzheimer subgroup, the SMDs for ADLs and cognition outcomes were larger than for the whole group of dementias with statistical superiority for ginkgo also for ADL outcomes (SMD = -0.44, 95% CI -0.77; -0.12, p = 0.008. Drop-out rates and side effects did not differ between ginkgo and placebo. No consistent results were available for quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms, possibly due to the heterogeneity of the study populations. Conclusions Ginkgo biloba appears more effective than placebo. Effect sizes were moderate, while clinical relevance is, similar to other dementia drugs, difficult to determine.

  9. Ginkgo biloba as an Alternative Medicine in the Treatment of Anxiety in Dementia and other Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Barreto, George E; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Mental disorders are the most common health problems in the worldwide population. Current medicines against these conditions have undesired side effects or limited effectiveness. These disadvantageous pharmacological and therapeutic characteristics provoke a low adherence to treatment in an important percentage of patients with mental disorders. Since ancient times, ethnically different groups have been using plants extracts as medicines for the treatment of mental conditions including dementia, depression and anxiety disorders. Among them are extracts of Ginkgo biloba, a tree in the division Gingophyta, that has been used by millions of people worldwide. This review aims to discuss current scientific evidence of efficacy, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects as mechanism of action, side effects and potential interaction with other commonly prescribed anxiolytic drugs. A PubMed search of preclinical studies as well as individual clinical trials and meta-analysis were scrutinized. Various preclinical and clinical studies have shown a positive effect of Ginkgo biloba to improve cognitive abilities in impaired individuals and reducing anxiety under pathological conditions. A more advanced clinical research is needed to confirm the efficacy of Gingko biloba for the treatment of anxiety in different health conditions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Detection of adulterated Ginkgo biloba supplements using chromatographic and spectral fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fingerprints of 18 commercially available Ginkgo biloba supplements, 12 samples of raw Ginkgo biloba leaves, and 3 Ginkgo biloba Standard Reference Materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were acquired directly (no chromatography) by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry a...

  11. Efficacy and adverse effects of ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meng-Shan; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Chen-Chen; Wang, Hui-Fu; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Wang, Chong; Jiang, Teng; Zhu, Xi-Chen; Tan, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Research into Ginkgo biloba has been ongoing for many years, while the benefit and adverse effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 for cognitive impairment and dementia has been discussed controversially. To discuss new evidence on the clinical and adverse effects of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 for cognitive impairment and dementia. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and other relevant databases were searched in March 2014 for eligible randomized controlled trials of Ginkgo biloba EGb761 therapy in patients with cognitive impairment and dementia. Nine trials met our inclusion criteria. Trials were of 22-26 weeks duration and included 2,561 patients in total. In the meta-analysis, the weighted mean differences in change scores for cognition were in favor of EGb761 compared to placebo (-2.86, 95%CI -3.18; -2.54); the standardized mean differences in change scores for activities in daily living (ADLs) were also in favor of EGb761 compared to placebo (-0.36, 95%CI -0.44; -0.28); Peto OR showed a statistically significant difference from placebo for Clinicians' Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale (1.88, 95%CI 1.54; 2.29). All these benefits are mainly associated with EGb761 at a dose of 240 mg/day. For subgroup analysis in patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms, 240 mg/day EGb761 improved cognitive function, ADLs, CGIC, and also neuropsychiatric symptoms with statistical superiority than for the whole group. For the Alzheimer's disease subgroup, the main outcomes were almost the same as the whole group of patients with no statistical superiority. Finally, safety data revealed no important safety concerns with EGb761. EGb761 at 240 mg/day is able to stabilize or slow decline in cognition, function, behavior, and global change at 22-26 weeks in cognitive impairment and dementia, especially for patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  12. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ramos Farias Moreno

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is the phytoterapic most used in popular medicine in the treatment of cerebral senescence. Red blood cells (RBC labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m is used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. This labeling depends on a reducing agent, usually the stannous ion. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceutical. We have evaluated the influence of the Ginkgo biloba extract on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m. Blood was withdrawn and incubated with Ginkgo biloba extract (0; 0.004; 0.04; 0.4; 4; 20 and 40 mg/ml. Stannous chloride (1.2 ml/ml was added and, then, Tc-99m was added. Plasma (P and blood cells (RBC were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF and insoluble fractions (IF separated. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in the radioactivity (from 97.7 ± 0.7 to 49.5 ± 3.9% in RBC with the drug (4 mg/ml. In the labeling process of RBC with Tc-99m, the stannous and pertechnetate ions pass though the membrane, so, we suggest that the Ginkgo biloba effect can be explained by (i an inhibition of the transport of these ions, (ii damage in membrane, (iii competition with the cited ions for the same binding sites, or (iv possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion.

  13. [Research on systematic evolution of ginkgo biloba based on chemical composition of wood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qi-Liang; Hu, Ai-Hua; Xing, Shi-Yan; Wang, Fang

    2009-06-01

    In the present article, the authors mensurated the infrared spectra of 22 conifer and broadleaf trees such as ginkgo biloba L., cycas revoluta thunb., Populus tomentosa Carr and so on using FTIR, analyzed the difference of a number of absorb peaks in fingerprint area, the characteristic absorb peak position of cellulose and lignin of these trees and their alternation regulations of relative intensity, then discussed the evolutional issue of ginkgo biloba. The results show that ginkgo biloba is different from cycas in the infrared spectra of wood but similar to the conifer trees, which illustrates the ginkgo biloba. is more evolutional than cycas in the timber's chemical composition but with similar affiliation to conifer trees. The content of lignin in the ginkgo biloba wood is more than that in other conifer trees, which may be a original character of ginkgo biloba. Meanwhile, the ginkgo biloba has some syringyl lignins in addition to guaiacyl, and it has the evolutional tendency for broadleaf trees.

  14. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba added to risperidone in patients with autistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of autism. Forty-seven outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of autism ages between 4 and 12 years were assigned to this double blinded clinical trial and were randomly divided into two groups. One group received risperidone plus Ginko T.D and the other received risperidone plus placebo. The dose of risperidone was 1-3 mg/day and the dose of Ginko T.D. was 80 mg/day for patients under 30 kg and 120 mg/day for patients above 30 kg. Patients were assessed using Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) rating scale and the side effect check list every 2 weeks until the endpoint. None of the 5 subscales of ABC-C rating scale showed significant differences between the two groups. Incidents of side effects were not significantly different between the two groups. Adding Ginkgo biloba to risperidone did not affect the treatment outcome of ADs. Nevertheless, further observations are needed to confirm this result.

  15. HILIC-UPLC-MS/MS combined with hierarchical clustering analysis to rapidly analyze and evaluate nucleobases and nucleosides in Ginkgo biloba leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Zhou, Guisheng; Tang, Yuping; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-02-01

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been widely used in dietary supplements and more recently in some foods and beverages. In addition to the well-known flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones, G. biloba leaves are also rich in nucleobases and nucleosides. To determine the content of nucleobases and nucleosides in G. biloba leaves at trace levels, a reliable method has been established by using hydrophilic interaction ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) working in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Eleven nucleobases and nucleosides were simultaneously determined in seven min. The proposed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, and repeatability, as well as recovery. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) was performed to evaluate and classify the samples according to the contents of the eleven chemical constituents. The established approach could be helpful for evaluation of the potential values as dietary supplements and the quality control of G. biloba leaves, which might also be utilized for the investigation of other medicinal herbs containing nucleobases and nucleosides. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Spontaneous Bleeding Associated with Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Goldberg, Harley; Padula, Amy; Avins, Andrew L

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) is a herbal remedy used by over 2% of the adult population in the United States. Several review articles have suggested that ginkgo may increase the risk of bleeding. OBJECTIVE To report a case of bleeding associated with using ginkgo, to systematically review the literature for similar case reports, and to evaluate whether using ginkgo is causally related to bleeding. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, IBIDS, and the Cochrane Collaboration Database from 1966 to October 2004 with no language restrictions. REVIEW METHODS Published case reports of bleeding events in persons using ginkgo were selected. Two reviewers independently abstracted a standard set of information to assess whether ginkgo caused the bleeding event. RESULTS Fifteen published case reports described a temporal association between using ginkgo and a bleeding event. Most cases involved serious medical conditions, including 8 episodes of intracranial bleeding. However, 13 of the case reports identified other risk factors for bleeding. Only 6 reports clearly described that ginkgo was stopped and that bleeding did not recur. Bleeding times, measured in 3 reports, were elevated when patients were taking ginkgo. CONCLUSION A structured assessment of published case reports suggests a possible causal association between using ginkgo and bleeding events. Given the widespread use of this herb and the serious nature of the reported events, further studies are needed. Patients using ginkgo, particularly those with known bleeding risks, should be counseled about a possible increase in bleeding risk. PMID:16050865

  17. Quantification of a botanical negative marker without an identical standard: ginkgotoxin in Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B; Klein, Larry L; Friesen, J Brent; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F

    2014-03-28

    A new strategy for the analysis of natural products uses a combination of quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) and adsorbent-free countercurrent separation (CS) methodology to establish a quantification method for ginkgotoxin (4'-O-methylpyridoxine) in Ginkgo biloba preparations. The target analyte was concentrated in a one-step CS process using the ChMWat +2 solvent system (CHCl3-MeOH-H2O, 10:5:5) and subsequently assayed by qHNMR. While commercial G. biloba seeds contained 59 μg of ginkgotoxin per seed, the compound was below the limit of detection (9 ppm) in a typical leaf extract. Due to the enrichment potential and loss-free operation of CS, the combination of CS and qHNMR is a generally suitable approach for threshold assays aimed at quantifying target compounds such as botanical negative markers at the low ppm level. As the proof of principle is demonstrated for relatively small CS capacities (20 mL, 1:40 loading) and modest NMR sensitivity (n = 16, 400 MHz, 5 mm RT probe), the approach can be adapted to quantification at the ppb level. The procedure enables the quantification of a botanical negative marker in the absence of identical reference material, which otherwise is a prerequisite for LC-based assays.

  18. Current Perspectives on the Beneficial Role of Ginkgo biloba in Neurological and Cerebrovascular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kevin M; Shah, Zahoor A

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract is an alternative medicine available as a standardized formulation, EGb 761(®), which consists of ginkgolides, bilobalide, and flavonoids. The individual constituents have varying therapeutic mechanisms that contribute to the pharmacological activity of the extract as a whole. Recent studies show anxiolytic properties of ginkgolide A, migraine with aura treatment by ginkgolide B, a reduction in ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity by bilobalide, and an alternative antihypertensive property of quercetin, among others. These findings have been observed in EGb 761 as well and have led to clinical investigation into its use as a therapeutic for conditions such as cognition, dementia, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases. This review explores the therapeutic mechanisms of the individual EGb 761 constituents to explain the pharmacology as a whole and its clinical application to cardiovascular and neurological disorders, in particular ischemic stroke.

  19. Effekten af Ginkgo biloba-ekstrakt hos patienter med claudicatio intermittens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabaek, H; Petersen, J R; Wïnberg, N

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen patients with stable intermittent claudication were randomized in a double blind cross-over study comparing the effects of the Ginkgo biloba extract GB-8 at a dose of 120 mg o.d. with placebo. All patients were treated for three months with the active extract and three months with placebo....... The effects of treatment on arterial insufficiency were quantified by measurements of systemic and peripheral systolic blood pressures, and pain-free and maximal walking distances on a tread-mill. Questionnaires based on visual analogue scales were used to quantify the severity of leg pain, impairment...... of concentration, and inability to remember. Short-term memory was objectively assessed. We did not find any significant changes in either peripheral blood pressures, walking distances or the severity of leg pain. Systemic blood pressure was reduced both by placebo and GB-8. The impairment of concentration...

  20. Current Perspectives on the Beneficial Role of Ginkgo biloba in Neurological and Cerebrovascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kevin M.; Shah, Zahoor A.

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract is an alternative medicine available as a standardized formulation, EGb 761®, which consists of ginkgolides, bilobalide, and flavonoids. The individual constituents have varying therapeutic mechanisms that contribute to the pharmacological activity of the extract as a whole. Recent studies show anxiolytic properties of ginkgolide A, migraine with aura treatment by ginkgolide B, a reduction in ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity by bilobalide, and an alternative antihypertensive property of quercetin, among others. These findings have been observed in EGb 761 as well and have led to clinical investigation into its use as a therapeutic for conditions such as cognition, dementia, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases. This review explores the therapeutic mechanisms of the individual EGb 761 constituents to explain the pharmacology as a whole and its clinical application to cardiovascular and neurological disorders, in particular ischemic stroke. PMID:26604665

  1. Identification of Ginkgo biloba supplements adulteration using high performance thin layer chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely sold herbal supplements and medicines in the world. Its popularity stems to have a positive effect on memory and the circulatory system in clinical studies. As ginkgo popularity increased, non-proprietary extracts were introduced claiming to have similar phyto...

  2. Advances in Ginkgo biloba research: Genomics and metabolomics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maiden hair tree, Ginkgo biloba is very much resistant to a wide spectrum of biotic and abiotic stress conditions. It hardly seems to be attacked by any herbivore or microbe. In spite of its strong resistant nature to wide stress conditions, only little research has been carried out at genomics and metabolomics level to ...

  3. Gezondheidsclaims voor kruidenpreparaten op basis van Ginkgo biloba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom SMGJ; Fransen HP; Rompelberg CJM; de Rooij EK; Pronk MEJ; Baars AJ; de Kaste D; Verhagen H; SIR; CVG; KCF

    2007-01-01

    Er is onvoldoende bewijs voor drie geclaimde gezondheidseffecten bij het gebruik van kruidenpreparaten op basis van de Japanse notenboom Ginkgo biloba. Ook toont een analyse van 29 Ginkgo-preparaten aan dat het merendeel niet bevat wat op het etiket vermeld staat. Daarnaast kan bij de aanbevolen

  4. Gezondheidsclaims voor kruidenpreparaten op basis van Ginkgo biloba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom SMGJ; Fransen HP; Rompelberg CJM; Rooij EK de; Pronk MEJ; Baars AJ; Kaste D de; Verhagen H; SIR; CVG; KCF

    2007-01-01

    Evidence is lacking for three health claims of herbal products with Ginkgo biloba. Besides, analysis of 29 Ginkgo products showed that most of these products did not comply with the declaration on the label. Furtermore, safety can not be guaranteed at the recommended daily dose. This was observed

  5. Modifications in Ginkgo biloba L. in response to environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K. (Univ. to Tennessee, Martin (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (maidenhair tree) was studied in polluted and relatively clean habitats of West Tennessee. In spite of its known resistance to smog and automobile exhaust fumes, it exhibited a decrease in leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length in polluted habitats. Furthermore, there was a definite trend towards lower stomatal density along the pollution gradient in selected habitats.

  6. In vivo antimutagenic activity of the medicinal plants Pfaffia glomerata (Brazilian ginseng) and Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I V; Düsman, E; Mattge, G I; Toledo, F; Reusing, A F; Vicentini, V E P

    2017-09-27

    Complementary and alternative therapies, including the use of medicinal plants, have become almost standard among the world's population. Pfaffia glomerata (PG), popularly known as Brazilian ginseng, is widely used as a restorer of vital functions, increasing mental balance, and is used for the treatment of diabetes and rheumatism. Ginkgo biloba (GB) is one of the oldest known gymnosperms, whose leaves are widely used for its potentiating action on the nervous system. The biological activities of these plants were determined on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. For cytotoxic and mutagenic acute analysis, plant extracts were administered by gavage at concentrations of 0.15, 1.5, and 15 mg PG/mL water and 1, 2, and 3 mg GB/mL water. For antimutagenic analysis, plant extracts aqueous solution (PG, 1.5 mg/mL or GB, 2 mg/mL) were administered by gavage before (pretreatment), simultaneous to (simultaneous treatment), or after (post-treatment) the administration of cyclophosphamide (1.5 mg/mL, intraperitoneally). Both plant extracts have no cytotoxic or mutagenic potential, and they significantly reduce the percentage of chromosomal aberrations induced by the cyclophosphamide given simultaneously (PG, 87%; GB, 75%), pretreatment (PG, 98%, GB, 78%) and post-treatment (PG, 99%, GB, 75%). This beneficial antimutagenic property of the medicinal plants P. glomerata and G. biloba presented here, with no cytotoxic or mutagenic activity, can efficiently contribute to improvements in quality of life and recovery for people undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment, or those looking for health and preventive habits.

  7. Contribution of a phytotoxic compound to the allelopathy of Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Takeshita, Sayaka

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) has not changed over 121 million years. There may be unknown special strategy for the survival. Gingko litter inhibited the growth of weed species ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). The inhibition was greater with the litter of the close position than that of the far position from the gingko tree. A phytotoxic substance, 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid (HHPEBA) was isolated in the litter. HHPEBA concentration was greater in the litter of the close position than that of the far position from the tree. HHPEBA inhibited the ryegrass growth at concentrations greater than 3 μM. HHPEBA was estimated to be able to cause 47–62% of the observed growth inhibition of ryegrass by the gingko litter. Therefore, HHPEBA may contribute to the inhibitory effect caused by ginkgo litter and may provide a competitive advantage for gingko to survive through the growth inhibition of the neighboring plants. PMID:24300166

  8. Contribution of a phytotoxic compound to the allelopathy of Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Takeshita, Sayaka

    2013-11-01

    Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) has not changed over 121 million years. There may be unknown special strategy for the survival. Gingko litter inhibited the growth of weed species ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). The inhibition was greater with the litter of the close position than that of the far position from the gingko tree. A phytotoxic substance, 2-hydroxy-6-(10-hydroxypentadec-11-enyl)benzoic acid (HHPEBA) was isolated in the litter. HHPEBA concentration was greater in the litter of the close position than that of the far position from the tree. HHPEBA inhibited the ryegrass growth at concentrations greater than 3 μM. HHPEBA was estimated to be able to cause 47-62% of the observed growth inhibition of ryegrass by the gingko litter. Therefore, HHPEBA may contribute to the inhibitory effect caused by ginkgo litter and may provide a competitive advantage for gingko to survive through the growth inhibition of the neighboring plants.

  9. UTILIZAÇÕES E INTERAÇÕES MEDICAMENTOSAS DE PRODUTOS CONTENDO O GINKGO BILOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira Oliveira da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Ginkgo Biloba has been used in various dosage forms like capsules, creams, shampoos, and other forms, having multiple uses for the treatment of various diseases, one of the older drugs used and studied to date. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the main uses of this herbal, showing various therapeutics uses, such as dizziness, headache, peripheral circulatory disorders and other diseases. Moreover, it is worth highlighting its role as a drug and as such its warnings, for example, children under 12 years and patients treated with antithrombotics. Its adverse effects may worsen the condition of the individual if there is not an interruption of treatment. Added to this the need to do an analysis to minimize the risk of possible drug interactions before starting treatment to avoid in example the interaction between Ginkgo and calcium channel inhibitors antihypertensives (nifedipine, amlodipine and diltiazem, that may increase adverse effects of these drugs.

  10. HPLC determination of certain flavonoids and terpene lactones in selected Ginkgo biloba L. phytopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Mostafa K; Khalifa, Sherief I; El-Gindy, Alaa; Tawfik, Kamilia A

    2005-01-01

    The biologically active secondary metabolites of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in phytopharmaceuticals were analyzed using two simple, rapid, accurate and sensitive HPLC methods. The proposed methods were successfully applied in the determination of terpenes and flavonoids in four phytopharmaceutical preparations selected from the Egyptian market. The terpenes; ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, and bilobalide were analyzed using RP 18 column with a mobile phase consisting of water/methanol/isopropanol (72.5:17.5:10, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml min-1 and UV detection at 220 nm. The flavonoids; quercetin and kaempferol were analyzed using RP 18 column in a step gradient elution with acetonitrile and water at pH 3.3 and flow rate of 1.5 ml min-1 with UV detection at 370 nm. The two HPLC methods were completely validated.

  11. Adulteration of Ginkgo biloba products and a simple method to improve its detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmuth, Hans; Savage, Kate; Dowell, Ashley; Mouatt, Peter

    2014-05-15

    Extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaf are widely available worldwide in herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, botanicals and complementary medicines, and several pharmacopoeias contain monographs for ginkgo leaf, leaf extract and finished products. Being a high-value botanical commodity, ginkgo extracts may be the subject of economically motivated adulteration. We analysed eight ginkgo leaf retail products purchased in Australia and Denmark and found compelling evidence of adulteration with flavonol aglycones in three of these. The same three products also contained genistein, an isoflavone that does not occur in ginkgo leaf. Although the United States Pharmacopeia - National Formulary (USP-NF) and the British and European Pharmacopoeias stipulate a required range for flavonol glycosides in ginkgo extract, the prescribed assays quantify flavonol aglycones. This means that these pharmacopoeial methods are not capable of detecting adulteration of ginkgo extract with free flavonol aglycones. We propose a simple modification of the USP-NF method that addresses this problem: by assaying for flavonol aglycones pre and post hydrolysis the content of flavonol glycosides can be accurately estimated via a simple calculation. We also recommend a maximum limit be set for free flavonol aglycones in ginkgo extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining Metabolic Profiling and Gene Expression Analysis to Reveal the Biosynthesis Site and Transport of Ginkgolides in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xu; Yang, Hua; Liu, Xinguang; Shen, Qian; Wang, Ning; Qi, Lian-wen; Li, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The most unique components of Ginkgo biloba extracts are terpene trilactones (TTLs) including ginkgolides and bilobalide. Study of TTLs biosynthesis has been stagnant in recent years. Metabolic profiling of 40 compounds, including TTLs, flavonoids, and phenolic acids, were globally analyzed in leaf, fibrous root, main root, old stem and young stem extracts of G. biloba. Most of the flavonoids were mainly distributed in the leaf and old stem. Most of phenolic acids were generally distributed among various tissues. The total content of TTLs decreased in the order of the leaf, fibrous root, main root, old stem and young stem. The TTLs were further analyzed in different parts of the main root and old stem. The content of TTLs decreases in the order of the main root periderm, the main root cortex and phloem and the main root xylem. In old stems, the content of TTLs in the cortex and phloem was much higher than both the old stem periderm and xylem. The expression patterns of five key genes in the ginkgolide biosynthetic pathway were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-Q-PCR). Combining metabolic profiling and RT-Q-PCR, the results showed that the fibrous root and main root periderm tissues were the important biosynthesis sites of ginkgolides. Based on the above results, a model of the ginkgolide biosynthesis site and transport pathway in G. biloba was proposed. In this putative model, ginkgolides are synthesized in the fibrous root and main root periderm, and these compounds are then transported through the old stem cortex and phloem to the leaves. PMID:28603534

  13. Special features of SCF solid extraction of natural products: deoiling of wheat gluten and extraction of rose hip oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggers R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical CO2 extraction has shown great potential in separating vegetable oils as well as removing undesirable oil residuals from natural products. The influence of process parameters, such as pressure, temperature, mass flow and particle size, on the mass transfer kinetics of different natural products has been studied by many authors. However, few publications have focused on specific features of the raw material (moisture, mechanical pretreatment, bed compressibility, etc., which could play an important role, particularly in the scale-up of extraction processes. A review of the influence of both process parameters and specific features of the material on oilseed extraction is given in Eggers (1996. Mechanical pretreatment has been commonly used in order to facilitate mass transfer from the material into the supercritical fluid. However, small particle sizes, especially when combined with high moisture contents, may lead to inefficient extraction results. This paper focuses on the problems that appear during scale-up in processes on a lab to pilot or industrial plant scale related to the pretreatment of material, the control of initial water content and vessel shape. Two applications were studied: deoiling of wheat gluten with supercritical carbon dioxide to produce a totally oil-free (< 0.1 % oil powder (wheat gluten and the extraction of oil from rose hip seeds. Different ways of pretreating the feed material were successfully tested in order to develop an industrial-scale gluten deoiling process. The influence of shape and size of the fixed bed on the extraction results was also studied. In the case of rose hip seeds, the present work discusses the influence of pretreatment of the seeds prior to the extraction process on extraction kinetics.

  14. The Comparison of Ginkgo biloba and Cinnarizine effectiveness in tinnitus intensity of patients with subjective tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Khazraei

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It was found that after two months of treatment with Ginkgo biloba (120-140 mg daily tinnitus severity and the adverse changes on quality of life significantly decreased in the patients, whereas Cinnarizine did not reduce the latter significantly. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (Cinnarizine & Ginko biloba.

  15. Ginkgo biloba and risk of cancer: secondary analysis of the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Mary L; Sorkin, Barbara C; Nahin, Richard L; Kuller, Lewis H; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2010-07-01

    Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests that Ginkgo biloba has cancer chemopreventive properties, but epidemiological evidence is sparse. We analyzed cancer as a secondary endpoint in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) Study, the largest randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of Ginkgo supplementation to date. A total of 3069 GEM participants 75+ years of age were randomized to twice-daily doses of either 120 mg Ginkgo extract (EGb 761) or placebo and followed for a median 6.1 years. We identified hospitalizations for invasive cancer by reviewing hospital admission and discharge records for all reported hospitalizations over follow-up. Using an intention-to-treat approach, we compared the risk of cancer hospitalization between participants assigned to treatment and those assigned to placebo. During the intervention, there were 148 cancer hospitalizations in the placebo group and 162 in the EGb 761 group (Hazard ratio (HR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-1.36; p = 0.46). Among the site-specific cancers analyzed, we observed an increased risk of breast (HR, 2.15; 95%CI, 0.97-4.80; p = 0.06) and colorectal (HR, 1.62; 95%CI, 0.92-2.87; p = 0.10) cancer, and a reduced risk of prostate cancer (HR, 0.71; 95%CI, 0.43-1.17; p = 0.18). Overall, these results do not support the hypothesis that regular use of Ginkgo biloba reduces the risk of cancer. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Characterization of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase (HDS) gene from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Soo-Un

    2010-02-01

    Diterpene trilactone ginkgolides, one of the major constituents of Ginkgo biloba extract, have shown interesting bioactivities including platelet-activating factor antagonistic activity. 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase (HDS), converting 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate into 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate, is the penultimate enzyme of the seven-step 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway that supplies building blocks for plant isoprenoids of plastid origin such as ginkgolides and carotenoids. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of the full-length cDNA encoding HDS (GbHDS, GenBank accession number: DQ251630) from G. biloba. Full-length cDNA of GbHDS, 2,763 bp long, contained an ORF of 2,226 bp encoding a protein composed of 741 amino acids. The theoretical molecular weight and pI of the deduced mature GbHDS of 679 amino acid residues are 75.6 kDa and 5.5, respectively. From 2 weeks after initiation of the culture onward, transcription level of this gene in the ginkgo embryo roots increased to about two times higher than that in the leaves. GbHDS was predicted to possess chloroplast transit peptide of 62 amino acid residues, suggesting its putative localization in the plastids. The transient gene expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts confirmed that the transit peptide was capable of delivering the GbHDS protein from the cytosol into the chloroplasts. The isolation and characterization of GbHDS gene enabled us to further understand the role of GbHDS in the terpenoid biosynthesis in G. biloba.

  17. Special features of SCF solid extraction of natural products: deoiling of wheat gluten and extraction of rose hip oil

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, R.; Ambrogi, A.; Schnitzler, J. von

    2000-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 extraction has shown great potential in separating vegetable oils as well as removing undesirable oil residuals from natural products. The influence of process parameters, such as pressure, temperature, mass flow and particle size, on the mass transfer kinetics of different natural products has been studied by many authors. However, few publications have focused on specific features of the raw material (moisture, mechanical pretreatment, bed compressibility, etc.), which cou...

  18. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange, a unique and effective method for MS fragmentation behavior elucidation of ginkgolides and its application to systematic research in Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xingliang; Luo, Jun; Xu, Deran; Zou, Hongyan; Kong, Lingyi

    2017-02-05

    Ginkgolides, the main active constituents of Ginkgo biloba, possess significant selectively inhibition on platelet-activating factor and pancreatic lipase and attract wide attention in pharmacological research area. In our study, an effective hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange method was developed by exchanging the α-Hs of lactone groups in ginkgolides with Ds, which was very useful for the elucidation of the fragmentation patterns of ginkgolides in Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS), especially in accurately distinguishing the type and position of substituent in framework of ginkgolides. Then, a systematic research strategy for qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginkgolides, based on H/D exchange, tandem solid-phase extraction and LC-Q-TOF-MS, was developed, which was successfully applied in each medicinal part of G. biloba, which indicated that ginkgolide B was the most abundant ginkgolide in the seeds of G. biloba (60.6μg/g). This research was the successful application of H/D exchange in natural products, and proved that H/D exchange is a potential method for analysis research of complex TCMs active constituents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid determination of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba kernels and leaves by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Xu, Yueting; Huang, Yilei; Liu, Charles; Jiang, Kezhi; Wang, Lili

    2017-12-01

    A novel method based on direct analysis in real time integrated with mass spectrometry was established and applied into rapid determination of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba kernels and leaves. Instrument parameter settings were optimized to obtain the sensitive and accurate determination of ginkgolic acids. At the sample introduction speed of 0.2 mm/s, high intensity of [M-H] - ions for ginkgolic acids were observed in the negative ion mode by utilization of high-purity helium gas at 450°C. Two microliters of methanol extract of G. biloba kernels or leaves dropped on the surface of Quick-Strip module was analyzed after solvent evaporated to dryness. A series of standard solutions of ginkgolic acid 13:0 in the range of 2-50 mg/L were analyzed with a correlation coefficient r = 0.9981 and relative standard deviation (n = 5) from 12.5 to 13.7%. The limit of detection was 0.5 mg/L. The results of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry were in agreement with those observed by thermochemolysis gas chromatography. The proposed method demonstrated significant potential in the application of the high-throughput screening and rapid analysis for ginkgolic acids in dietary supplements. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Antibacterial/Antifungal Activity and Synergistic Interactions between Polyprenols and Other Lipids Isolated from Ginkgo Biloba L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Tao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyprenols separated from lipids are promising new components from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (GBL. In this paper, ginkgo lipids were isolated by extraction with petroleum ether, saponification, and molecular distillation. Eight known compounds: isophytol (1, nerolidol (2, linalool (3, β-sitosterol acetate (4, β-sitosterol (5, stigmasterol (6, ergosterol (7, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8 and Ginkgo biloba polyprenols (GBP were separated from GBL by chromatography and identified mainly by NMR. The separated and identified compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time in GBL. The 3D-DAD-HPLC-chromatogram (190–232 nm of GBP was recorded. This study provides new evidence as there are no previous reports on antibacterial/antifungal activities and synergistic interactions between GBP and the compounds separated from GBL lipids against Salmonella enterica, Staphylocococus aureus and Aspergillus niger. Nerolidol (2 showed the highest activity among all the tested samples and of all mixture groups tested the GBP with isophytol (1 mixture had the strongest synergistic effect against Salmonella enterica among the three tested strains. A proportion of isophytol and GBP of 38.19%:61.81% (wt/wt was determined by mixture design as the optimal proportion for the synergistic effect of GBP with isophytol against Salmonella enterica.

  1. The mechanism of pollination drop withdrawal in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yan; Wang, Di; Jiang, Xiao X; Zhang, Min; Wang, Li

    2012-05-01

    The pollination drop (PD) is a characteristic feature of many wind-pollinated gymnosperms. Although accumulating evidence shows that the PD plays a critical role in the pollination process, the mechanism of PD withdrawal is still unclear. Here, we carefully observed the PD withdrawal process and investigated the underlying mechanism of PD withdrawal, which will aid the understanding of wind-pollination efficiency in gymnosperms. In Ginkgo biloba, PDs were secreted on the micropyle during the pollination period and persisted for about 240 h when not pollinated under laboratory conditions. The withdrawal of an isolated PD required only 1 h for evaporation, much less than a PD on the living ovule, which required 100 h. When pollinated with viable pollen, PDs withdrew rapidly within 4 h. In contrast, nonviable pollen and acetone-treated pollen did not cause PD withdrawal. Although 100% relative humidity significantly inhibited PD withdrawal, pollinated PDs still could withdraw completely within 48 h. Pollen grains of Cycas revoluta, which are similar to those of G. biloba, could induce PD withdrawal more rapidly than those of two distantly related gymnosperms (Pinus thunbergii and Abies firma) or two angiosperms (Paeonia suffruticosa and Orychophragmus violaceus). Furthermore, pollen of G. biloba and C. revoluta submerged immediately when encountering the PD, then sank to the bottom and entered the micropyle. The saccate pollen of P. thunbergii and A. firma submerged into the PD, but remained floating at the top and finally accumulated on the micropyle after PD withdrawal. In contrast, pollen of the angiosperms P. suffruticosa, Salix babylonica, and O. violaceus did not submerge, instead remaining clustered at the edge without entering the PD. We conclude that PD withdrawal is primarily determined by the dynamic balance between evaporation and ovule secretion, of which pollen is a critical stimulator. When conspecific pollen grains were submerged in the PD, ovule

  2. The mechanism of pollination drop withdrawal in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Biao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pollination drop (PD is a characteristic feature of many wind-pollinated gymnosperms. Although accumulating evidence shows that the PD plays a critical role in the pollination process, the mechanism of PD withdrawal is still unclear. Here, we carefully observed the PD withdrawal process and investigated the underlying mechanism of PD withdrawal, which will aid the understanding of wind-pollination efficiency in gymnosperms. Results In Ginkgo biloba, PDs were secreted on the micropyle during the pollination period and persisted for about 240 h when not pollinated under laboratory conditions. The withdrawal of an isolated PD required only 1 h for evaporation, much less than a PD on the living ovule, which required 100 h. When pollinated with viable pollen, PDs withdrew rapidly within 4 h. In contrast, nonviable pollen and acetone-treated pollen did not cause PD withdrawal. Although 100% relative humidity significantly inhibited PD withdrawal, pollinated PDs still could withdraw completely within 48 h. Pollen grains of Cycas revoluta, which are similar to those of G. biloba, could induce PD withdrawal more rapidly than those of two distantly related gymnosperms (Pinus thunbergii and Abies firma or two angiosperms (Paeonia suffruticosa and Orychophragmus violaceus. Furthermore, pollen of G. biloba and C. revoluta submerged immediately when encountering the PD, then sank to the bottom and entered the micropyle. The saccate pollen of P. thunbergii and A. firma submerged into the PD, but remained floating at the top and finally accumulated on the micropyle after PD withdrawal. In contrast, pollen of the angiosperms P. suffruticosa, Salix babylonica, and O. violaceus did not submerge, instead remaining clustered at the edge without entering the PD. Conclusions We conclude that PD withdrawal is primarily determined by the dynamic balance between evaporation and ovule secretion, of which pollen is a critical stimulator

  3. Effects of Withania somnifera and Ginkgo biloba on Neural Regeneration using Planarian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, M.; Brinker, R.

    2016-12-01

    Elderly populations and associated age-related diseases, including damaged peripheral and central neural systems, are increasing. Both systems are vital, and methods to sustain function are sought. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether Withania somnifera (WS) and Ginkgo biloba (GB) extracts are conducive to planarian regeneration. After acclimation, brown planaria were cut across lateral nerve cord. Experimental groups were treated with 100μg WS or GB extract. Planarian length was measured and piece tested for negative phototaxis. In phototactic test, planaria were allowed 30 seconds to cross petri dish and stay under dark side. A positive response signified photoreceptor presence, indicating regeneration. Both GB and WS groups expressed more favorable cumulative regeneration rates than control group (97.31%, 71.44%, and 40.60% respectively). The null hypothesis (identical regeneration rates) was rejected (p-value ≈ 0.0375). Because phototactic data wasn't taken on days 4 and 5, there was no significant difference in average day of first phototactic response. Most WS and GB planaria first responded on day 6, suggesting that, had data been taken on days 4 and 5, both plant-treated groups would have exhibited even sooner responses than control. Future studies include quantifying regeneration via planarian locomotive velocity (pLMV) and other stereotypical responses.

  4. Ginkgo biloba: An adjuvant therapy for progressive normal and high tension glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulska-Heinrich, A.K.; Mozaffarieh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gingko biloba has been used for hundreds of years to treat various disorders such as asthma, vertigo, fatigue and, tinnitus or circulatory problems. Two of the main extracts are EGb761 and LI 1370. Most pharmacological, toxicological and clinical studies have focused on the neuroprotective value of these two main extracts. Neuroprotection is a rapidly expanding area of research. This area is of particular interest due to the fact that it represents a new avenue of therapy for a frustrating disease that may progress despite optimal treatment. One such disease is glaucoma. Glaucoma leads to the loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons but also to tissue remodelling which involves both the optic nerve head and the retina. In the retina the astrocytes get activated. In addition, the optic nerve gets thinner and the cells of the lateral geniculate ganglion disappear partially. On average, ocular blood flow (OBF) is reduced in glaucoma patients in various tissues of the eye. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for glaucomatous damage. Nevertheless, there is little doubt that other risk factors besides IOP are involved. One such risk factor is a primary vascular dysregulation (PVD) occurring in patients with a disturbed autoregulation, another risk factor is oxidative stress. PMID:22355250

  5. The Effect of Ginkgo Biloba (EGb 761 on Epileptic Activity in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vasic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Different animal models are used to evaluate the process of epileptogenesis. In this investigation the kindling model of epilepsy was used. The epileptic focus was induced in Chinchilla rabbits by stimulation of the hippocampus with electric stimuli. We presumed that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba affect the formation of kindling epilepsy. Bioelectric activity of the brain was registered throughout the development of kindling with and without standardized extracts from dried ginkgo leaves (EGb 761. For each animal the following has been determined: the values of the minimum current strength necessary for the origination of threshold after-discharge (AD – discharges appearing after the cessation of stimulation; duration of the threshold AD; number of stimulations necessary for the origination of full kindling; time latency for the development of full kindling; number of spontaneous epileptogenic discharges manifested in EEG two days following the formation of full kindling during 60-minute registration. The results show that the process of epileptogenesis was influenced by EGb 761. It has been established that if the animals received EGb 761, significantly weaker minimum current strength was necessary for the development of the epileptogenic focus and the AD were longer, while the number of necessary electrostimulations for the appearance of full kindling was less and the latency was shorter.

  6. The Protective Role of Ginkgo Biloba against Radiation Induced Injury on Rat Gastro-intestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Gharib, O.A.; El-Sheikh, M.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) is an antioxidant substance exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of gastrointestinal injury induced by exposing rats to acute doses of γ-rays and the potential value of EGb 761 in preventing changes in these parameters. Male albino rats were treated orally with the extract in a dose of 100 mg/ kg for 7 successive days before whole body exposure to acute radiation levels of 2 and 6 Gray (Gy). Control groups were run concurrently. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Various inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters were determined in the stomach and intestine. Both tissues were also examined histopathologically. Exposure to radiation led to dose dependent changes in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite associated with a glutathione (GSH) decrease as well as in the level of inflammatory parameters (elevation of Tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) associated with depletion of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). Pre-treatment with EGb 761 protected against the changes in both oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. EGb 761 exerted a protective effect against the radiation induced gastrointestinal damage, possibly through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

  7. Root development and structure in seedlings of Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacorsi, Nikole K; Seago, James L

    2016-02-01

    The popular, highly recognizable, well-known gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba, was studied to document selected developmental features, which are little known in its primary root system from root tips to cotyledonary node following seed germination. Using seedlings grown in soil, vermiculite, or a mixture, we examined sections at various distances from the root cap to capture a developmental sequence of anatomical structures by using standard brightfield, epifluorescence, and confocal microscopic techniques. The vascular cylinder is usually a diarch stele, although modified diarchy and triarchy are found. Between exarch protoxylem poles, metaxylem usually develops into a complete disc, except near the transition region, which has irregularly arranged tracheary cells. The disc of primary xylem undergoes secondary growth on its metaxylem flanks with many tracheids added radially within a few weeks. Production of fibers in secondary phloem also accompanies secondary growth. In the cortex, endodermis produces Casparian bands early in development and continues into the upper transition region. Phi cells with phi-thickenings (bands of lignified walls) of a layer of inner cortex are often evident before endodermis, and then adjoining, additional layers of cortex develop phi cells; phi cells do not occur in the upper transition region or stem. An exodermis is produced early in root development and is continuous into the transition region and cotyledonary node. Seedling root axes of Ginkgo biloba are more complex than the literature suggests, and our findings contribute to our knowledge of root structure of this ancient gymnosperm. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Mass spectrometric imaging of flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sebastian; Stengel, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. is known to be rich in flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. However, the distribution within specific plant organs (e.g. within leaves) is not known. By using HPLC-MS and MS/MS we have identified a number of previously known G. biloba flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids from leaves. Namely, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, laricitrin/mearnsetin and apigenin glycosides were identified. Furthermore, biflavonoids like ginkgetin/isoginkgetin were also detected. The application of MALDI mass spectrometric imaging, enabled the compilation of concentration profiles of flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in G. biloba L. leaves. Both, flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids show a distinct distribution in leaf thin sections of G. biloba L. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of the Ginkgo biloba 11S seed globulin ginnacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Chen, Yu-Wei; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu, E-mail: zhangy@iit.edu [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The crystallization of ginnacin, the 11S seed storage protein from G. biloba, is reported. Ginkgo biloba, a well known ‘living fossil’ native to China, is grown worldwide as an ornamental shade plant. Medicinal and nutritional uses of G. biloba in Asia have a long history. However, ginkgo seed proteins have not been well studied at the biochemical and molecular level. In this study, the G. biloba 11S seed storage protein ginnacin was purified by sequential anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. A crystallization screen was performed and well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained. There are six protomers in an asymmetric unit. Structure refinement is currently in progress.

  10. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; Lasheen, Noha N.; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by P...

  11. Identification of Ginkgo biloba supplements adulteration using high performance thin layer chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Gafner, Stefan; Upton, Roy; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely sold herbal supplements and medicines in the world. Its popularity stems from having a positive effect on memory and the circulatory system in clinical studies. As ginkgo popularity increased, non-proprietary extracts were introduced claiming to have a similar phytochemical profile as the clinically tested extracts. The standardized commercial extracts of G. biloba leaf used in ginkgo supplements contain not less than 6% sesquiterpene lactones and 24% flavonol glycosides. While sesquiterpene lactones are unique constituents of ginkgo leaf, the flavonol glycosides are found in many other botanical extracts. Being a high value botanical, low quality ginkgo extracts may be subjected to adulteration with flavonoids to meet the requirement of 24% flavonol glycosides. Chemical analysis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that adulteration of ginkgo leaf extracts in many of these products is common, the naturally flavonol glycoside-rich extract being spiked with pure flavonoids or extracts made from another flavonoid-rich material, such as the fruit/flower of Japanese sophora (Styphnolobium japonicum), which also contains the isoflavone genistein. Recently, genistein has been proposed as an analytical marker for the detection of adulteration of ginkgo extracts with S. japonicum. This study confirms that botanically authenticated G. biloba leaf and extracts made therefrom do not contain genistein, and the presence of which even in trace amounts is suggestive of adulteration. In addition to the mass spectrometric approach, a high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed as a fast and economic method for chemical fingerprint analysis of ginkgo samples.

  12. Spectroscopic investigation of Ginkgo biloba terpene trilactones and their interaction with amyloid peptide Aβ(25-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangtao; Petrovic, Ana G.; Dzyuba, Sergei V.; Berova, Nina; Nakanishi, Koji; Polavarapu, Prasad L.

    2008-04-01

    The beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in the "treatment" of dementia are attributed to its terpene trilactone (TTL) constituents. The interactions between TTLs and amyloid peptide are believed to be responsible in preventing the aggregation of peptide. These interactions have been investigated using infrared vibrational absorption (VA) and circular dichroism (VCD) spectra. Four TTLs, namely ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC) and bilobalide (BB) and amyloid Aβ(25-35) peptide, as a model for the full length peptide, are used in this study. GA-monoether and GA-diether have also been synthesized and investigated to help understand the role of individual carbonyl groups in these interactions. The precipitation and solubility issues encountered with the mixture of ginkgolide + Aβ peptide for VA and VCD studies were overcome using binary ethanol-D 2O solvent mixture. The experimental VA and VCD spectra of GA, GB, GC and BB, GA-monoether and GA-diether have been analyzed using the corresponding spectra predicted with density functional theory. The time-dependent experimental VA and VCD spectra of Aβ(25-35) peptide and the corresponding experimental spectra in the presence of TTLs indicated that the effect of the TTLs in modulating the aggregation of Aβ(25-35) peptide is relatively small. Such small effects might indicate the absence of a specific interaction between the TTLs and Aβ(25-35) peptide as a major force leading to the reduced aggregation of amyloid peptides. It is possible that the therapeutic effect of G. biloba extract does not originate from direct interactions between TTLs and the Aβ(25-35) peptide and is more complex.

  13. Catechins and procyanidins of Ginkgo biloba show potent activities towards the inhibition of β-amyloid peptide aggregation and destabilization of preformed fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiyan; Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Liu, Yong; Liu, Liang; Han, Quan-Bin; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-04-22

    Catechins and procyanidins, together with flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones, are three important categories of components in the standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761). In this research, catechins and proanthocyanidins were found to exist in both the extract of Ginkgo leaves and Ginkgo products. By comparing with reference compounds, six of them were identified as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and procyanidins B1 and B3. The activities of these polyphenols in the inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and the destabilization of preformed fibrils were evaluated using biochemical assays, which showed that all six of the polyphenols, as well as a fraction of the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) containing catechins and procyanidins, exerted potent inhibitory activities towards Aβ42 aggregation and could also destabilize the performed fibrils. Catechins and procyanidins can therefore be regarded as the potent active constituents of EGb761 in terms of their inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and destabilization of the fibrils. Although quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that the catechins and procyanidins are only present in low concentrations in EGb761, these components should be studied in greater detail because of their potent inhibitory effects towards Aβ42 aggregation and their ability to destabilize preformed fibrils, especially during the quality control of Ginkgo leaves and the manufacture of Ginkgo products.

  14. The Cimicifuga racemosa special extract BNO 1055 prevents hot flashes in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Priya; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2010-09-01

    Hot flashes are a disorder of thermoregulation due to the lack of estrogens and are the most common and characteristic climacteric complaint. Hormone replacement therapy is the gold standard treatment but now its use is limited due to several side effects. Need therefore arises to search for non-estrogenic alternatives. It is well established that extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) ease climacteric complaints but solid animal experimental data supporting such effects are not available. The availability of sensitive transponders which record subcutaneous temperature continuously enables nowadays experiments in rats to establish whether they have hot flashes following ovariectomy (Seidlova-Wuttke et al. 2003) and if so, whether they can be influenced by the extract of CR BNO 1055. Intact Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were acclimatized and their subcutaneous body temperature was measured in 5 min intervals and mean values from 3h recordings were calculated. Thereafter, the rats were ovx and fed either with soy free (sf) or CR BNO 1055 (25 mg/animal/day) food. Temperature was recorded again after acute and sub-acute application of CR. In individual intact animals temperature was stable over the 3h recording period. Following ovx temperature pulses appeared with peaks occurring every 20-40 min. These fluctuations were not seen in CR BNO 1055 treated animals resulting in significantly higher mean temperatures in ovx in comparison to intact or ovx CR BNO treated rats. This reduction of hot flashes by BNO 1055 outlasted the experimental period of 3 weeks. These results suggest that the ovx rats and the new temperature-sensitive device may be useful for the study of hot flashes. Furthermore the results prove that the CR BNO 1055 exerts hot flash reducing effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the anti-osteoporotic effect of Ginkgo biloba L. in Wistar rats with glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis by bone densitometry using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and mechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucinda, Leda M F; Aarestrup, Beatriz J V; Reboredo, Maycon M; Pains, Thais D A; Chaves, Raphael Z; Reis, João E P; Louzada, Mário J Q; Guerra, Martha O

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate the effect of the extract of Ginkgo biloba in the bone alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density, in the mechanical properties of the tibia in rats with glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis. After osteoporosis induction, the rats were divided into five groups: Osteoporosis; EGb1 (28 mg/Kg); EGb2 (56 mg/Kg); alendronate (0.2 mg/animal) and control. The animals were treated during 20 and 30 days. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis's (Student's t-test), while the other were analyzed by ANOVA test followed by Tukey/Dunnett'T3 (pGinkgo biloba restored bone alkaline phosphatase and bone mineral density using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

  16. Proper interpretation of chronic toxicity studies and their statistics: A critique of "Which level of evidence does the US National Toxicology Program provide? Statistical considerations using the Technical Report 578 on Ginkgo biloba as an example".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Grace E; Haseman, Joseph K; Zeiger, Errol

    2015-09-02

    A recent article by Gaus (2014) demonstrates a serious misunderstanding of the NTP's statistical analysis and interpretation of rodent carcinogenicity data as reported in Technical Report 578 (Ginkgo biloba) (NTP, 2013), as well as a failure to acknowledge the abundant literature on false positive rates in rodent carcinogenicity studies. The NTP reported Ginkgo biloba extract to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. Gaus claims that, in this study, 4800 statistical comparisons were possible, and that 209 of them were statistically significant (p<0.05) compared with 240 (4800×0.05) expected by chance alone; thus, the carcinogenicity of Ginkgo biloba extract cannot be definitively established. However, his assumptions and calculations are flawed since he incorrectly assumes that the NTP uses no correction for multiple comparisons, and that significance tests for discrete data operate at exactly the nominal level. He also misrepresents the NTP's decision making process, overstates the number of statistical comparisons made, and ignores the fact that the mouse liver tumor effects were so striking (e.g., p<0.0000000000001) that it is virtually impossible that they could be false positive outcomes. Gaus' conclusion that such obvious responses merely "generate a hypothesis" rather than demonstrate a real carcinogenic effect has no scientific credibility. Moreover, his claims regarding the high frequency of false positive outcomes in carcinogenicity studies are misleading because of his methodological misconceptions and errors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Ginkgo biloba Food Supplements on the European Market - Adulteration Patterns Revealed by Quality Control of Selected Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czigle, Szilvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Háznagy-Radnai, Erzsébet; Csupor, Dezső; Tekeľová, Daniela

    2018-03-05

    The aim of this study was to prove whether Ginkgo biloba food supplements on the European market comply with pharmaceutical quality, and whether their composition satisfies the European Pharmacopoeia criteria. Medicinal products containing a standardised Ginkgo leaf extract are used for the improvement of cognitive impairment and quality of life in mild dementia. Further, Ginkgonis folium is used for the treatment of peripheral circulation disorders. Pharmacopoeial Ginkgo dry extract contains 22.0 - 27.0% flavonoids and 5.4 - 6.6% terpene lactones (ginkgolides, bilobalide). In addition to its widespread use as an herbal medicine (herbal medicinal product), the same extract can be an ingredient in food supplements. The content of active secondary metabolites was quantified in a number of European food supplements containing Ginkgo dry extract or Ginkgo leaf. Flavonoids were quantified using a modified pharmacopoeial HPLC-UV method, and terpene lactones (ginkgolides A, B, C, and bilobalide) using LC-MS/MS. Some Ginkgo leaf supplement samples were also analysed by microscopy. The quality of food supplements on the European market is dubious. In this paper, we present selected examples of several methods of adulteration and falsification, including higher/lower doses of Ginkgo dry extract or Ginkgo leaf than declared and the addition of undeclared extraneous materials. These examples reveal several patterns in the manufacturing of adulterated products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Ginkgo biloba Responds to Herbivory by Activating Early Signaling and Direct Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsbaha Zebelo, Simon; Foti, Maria; Fliegmann, Judith; Bossi, Simone; Maffei, Massimo E.; Bertea, Cinzia M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) is one of the most ancient living seed plants and is regarded as a living fossil. G. biloba has a broad spectrum of resistance or tolerance to many pathogens and herbivores because of the presence of toxic leaf compounds. Little is known about early and late events occurring in G. biloba upon herbivory. The aim of this study was to assess whether herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis was able to induce early signaling and direct defense in G. biloba by evaluating early and late responses. Methodology/Principal Findings Early and late responses in mechanically wounded leaves and in leaves damaged by S. littoralis included plasma transmembrane potential (Vm) variations, time-course changes in both cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) and H2O2 production, the regulation of genes correlated to terpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, the induction of direct defense compounds, and the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results show that G. biloba responded to hebivory with a significant Vm depolarization which was associated to significant increases in both [Ca2+]cyt and H2O2. Several defense genes were regulated by herbivory, including those coding for ROS scavenging enzymes and the synthesis of terpenoids and flavonoids. Metabolomic analyses revealed the herbivore-induced production of several flavonoids and VOCs. Surprisingly, no significant induction by herbivory was found for two of the most characteristic G. biloba classes of bioactive compounds; ginkgolides and bilobalides. Conclusions/Significance By studying early and late responses of G. biloba to herbivory, we provided the first evidence that this “living fossil” plant responds to herbivory with the same defense mechanisms adopted by the most recent angiosperms. PMID:22448229

  19. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  20. Ginkgo biloba responds to herbivory by activating early signaling and direct defenses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Mohanta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae is one of the most ancient living seed plants and is regarded as a living fossil. G. biloba has a broad spectrum of resistance or tolerance to many pathogens and herbivores because of the presence of toxic leaf compounds. Little is known about early and late events occurring in G. biloba upon herbivory. The aim of this study was to assess whether herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis was able to induce early signaling and direct defense in G. biloba by evaluating early and late responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Early and late responses in mechanically wounded leaves and in leaves damaged by S. littoralis included plasma transmembrane potential (Vm variations, time-course changes in both cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+](cyt and H(2O(2 production, the regulation of genes correlated to terpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, the induction of direct defense compounds, and the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The results show that G. biloba responded to hebivory with a significant Vm depolarization which was associated to significant increases in both [Ca(2+](cyt and H(2O(2. Several defense genes were regulated by herbivory, including those coding for ROS scavenging enzymes and the synthesis of terpenoids and flavonoids. Metabolomic analyses revealed the herbivore-induced production of several flavonoids and VOCs. Surprisingly, no significant induction by herbivory was found for two of the most characteristic G. biloba classes of bioactive compounds; ginkgolides and bilobalides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By studying early and late responses of G. biloba to herbivory, we provided the first evidence that this "living fossil" plant responds to herbivory with the same defense mechanisms adopted by the most recent angiosperms.

  1. Estaquia de Ginkgo biloba L. utilizando três substratos Ginkgo biloba L. cutting using three substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Bitencourt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba é arbórea, decídua, cuja folhagem se torna amarelada no outono antes da queda das folhas, o que a torna valorizada em jardinagem. A estaquia é um método de propagação vegetativa baseado na capacidade das células em retomarem o processo de divisão celular, formando raízes em estacas destacadas de ramos provenientes de plantas matrizes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a influência de diferentes substratos, assim como, a aplicação da auxina sintética o ácido indol butírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas de Ginkgo biloba. No inverno de 2005, ramos foram coletados e transportados até o Laboratório de Macropropagação, onde foram confeccionadas estacas sem folhas, com 10-12 cm de comprimento. Os tratamentos com regulador vegetal (T foram T1- 0 mg L-1 AIB em solução; T2- 4000 mg L-1 AIB em solução; T3- 8000 mg L-1 AIB em solução; T4- 0 mg kg-1 AIB em talco; T5- 4000 mg kg-1 AIB em talco e T6- 8000 mg kg-1 AIB em talco. Para cada tratamento foram utilizados três diferentes substratos (S, S1- areia, S2- fibra de casca de coco (coxim e S3- casca de arroz carbonizada. Após 120 dias da instalação, foram avaliadas as porcentagens de estacas enraizadas, vivas, com calos e mortas; o número de raízes por estaca e o comprimento das três maiores raízes por estaca. Os melhores resultados no enraizamento foram obtidos com estacas tratadas com 4000 e 8000 mg kg-1 AIB em talco, utilizando o coxim como substrato (45,00 e 46,25% de enraizamento, respectivamente.Ginkgo biloba is an arboreal and deciduous species, the foliage of which becomes yellowish in the autumn, before leaf drop, increasing its value for gardening. Cutting is a method of vegetative propagation based on the capacity of cells to recover the cell division process, originating roots in cuttings detached from branches of stock plants. This study aimed to verify the influence of different substrates, as well as the application of the

  2. [Ginkgo extract in impaired vision--treatment with special extract EGb 761 of impaired vision due to dry senile macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fies, P; Dienel, Angelika

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo special extract Egb 761 was investigated in a controlled, double-blind trial involving 99 patients with impaired vision due to senile, dry macular degeneration. The primary objective target variable was the change in the corrected visual acuity of the more severely impaired eye at baseline, during a six months treatment period with either 240 mg/die (group I = 50 patients) or 60 mg/die (group II = 49 patients) Egb 761. Marked improvement of the study participants' vision was observed in both treatment groups already after four weeks, with more pronounced improvements in group I (acuity increases by 0.13 in group I vs. 0.10 in group II after 24 weeks). The fraction of patients with improvement of visual acuity > or = 0.2 was nearly twice as large in the group treated with 240 mg/die Egb 761 as in patients receiving the lower dosage (p = 0.08). Subjective health impairments, if present, could be improved during treatment as well. The investigator rated a favorable tolerability for both dosages of Egb 761. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of Egb 761 in patients with senile, dry macular degeneration, with obvious benefits in every-day life.

  3. Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M; Clarke, Stephen J; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) for 3 weeks (120 mg twice daily). Trough concentrations of drugs were measured before and after ginkgo biloba treatment using LC-MS/MS. Toxicities were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Trough concentrations before and after treatment with ginkgo biloba were not significantly different for tamoxifen (93.5 ± 29.0, 86.5 ± 25.3 ng/mL; p=0.16), letrozole (91.1 ± 50.4, 89.6 ± 52.14 ng/mL; p=0.60) or anastrozole (29.1 ± 8.6, 29.1 ± 7.6 ng/mL; p=0.97). Ginkgo biloba was well tolerated, with no difference in toxicity during ginkgo biloba. Co-administration of ginkgo biloba does not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole. There was no difference in the toxicity profile of hormone therapy with ginkgo biloba use in women with early stage breast cancer.

  4. Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charemboon, Thammanard; Jaisin, Kankamol

    2015-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of dementia in individuals without dementia. English databases including Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO, were searched, and randomized double-blind controlled studies comparing Ginkgo biloba with placebo in prevention of dementia were considered. Two trials met inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad criteria. Meta-analysis of the two trials involving 5,889 participants indicated no significant difference in dementia rate between Ginkgo biloba and the placebo (347/2,951 vs. 330/2,938, odds ratio = 1.05, 95% CI 0.89-1.23) and there was no considerable heterogeneity between the trials. The two studies revealed no statistically significant differences in the rate of serious adverse effect between Ginko biloba and the placebo. There is no convincing evidence from this review that demonstrated Ginkgo biloba in late-life can prevent the development of dementia. Using it for this indication is not suggested at present.

  5. Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of tinnitus: An updated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian-Sani, Mohammad Reza; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Yang, Qian

    2017-06-01

    Tinnitus is one of the common diseases of the ear that is associated with numerous physical and mental disorders. One of the known mechanisms in the tinnitus area with unknown reason is oxidative events. Based on the prevalence and economic costs and physical- psychological side effects caused by tinnitus and the importance of finding a suitable solution for its prevention and treatment, the need for further studies becomes more obvious in this context. This review article aimed to review studies on the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba as a medicinal plant on patients with tinnitus. Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), PubMed, LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. There are many studies on the therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba on patients with tinnitus. Most findings are in contrast with each other so that some of studies reported that Ginkgo biloba is effective in the treatment of tinnitus and other studies referred to it as ineffective herbal medicine. Generally, according to the previous studies and the present study, it can mention that the Ginkgo biloba may somewhat improve tinnitus. Since tinnitus is multifactorial, it is recommended to evaluate patients individually based on the cause of tinnitus, treatment formulas, and different doses of Ginkgo biloba at the more extensive level in future studies.

  6. Fermentation enhances Ginkgo biloba protective role on gamma-irradiation induced neuroinflammatory gene expression and stress hormones in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amel F M; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan M

    2016-05-01

    Ionizing radiation has attracted a lot of attention due to its beneficial and possible harmful effects to the human population. The brain displays numerous biochemical and functional alterations after exposure to irradiation, which induces oxidative-stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study evaluated the neuro-protective role of fermented Ginkgo biloba (FGb) leaf extract, compared to non-fermented G. biloba (Gb) leaf extract against γ-irradiation (6Gy) in the rats' brain. The changes of the Gb phytochemical constituents after fermentation, using Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and elevation of the calcium level in the brain cytosolic fraction of γ-irradiated rats. Further, significant increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA), the stress hormones (catecholamines); epinephrine (EN), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels and the interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression relative ratio in parallel with a significant decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and DNA fragmentation in the brain tissues of the γ-irradiated rats were observed. The pre-treatment with Gb extract significantly amended these biochemical parameters. Meanwhile, the pre-treatment with the FGb showed more improvement, compared to Gb, of these biochemical parameters in the brain of γ-irradiated rats, which could be attributed to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity after fermentation. These findings suggested that fermentation enhances the protective effect of Gb in the brain on the neuroinflammation, release of the stress hormones, apoptosis and oxidative damage induced by γ-irradiation. fermentation improved the bio-activities of Gb leaf extract and thus enhanced the in-vivo antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, leading to

  7. Screening and Identifying Antioxidative Components in Ginkgo biloba Pollen by DPPH-HPLC-PAD Coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiying; Chen, Xiangyan; Netrusov, A I; Zhou, Qingxin; Guo, Danyang; Liu, Xiaoyong; He, Hailun; Xin, Xue; Wang, Yifen; Chen, Leilei

    2017-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba is one of ancient trees that exists from billions of years ago, its leaf and nut are used as herbs and foods in China, while so far its pollen does not have any application except pollination. In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba pollen, and rapidly screen its antioxidative components, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability, total flavonoid, total phenol, and proanthocyanidin of Ginkgo biloba pollen were determined and compared with those of Ginkgo biloba leaf and nut, and the off-line DPPH-HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI-MS2 were applied for screening and identifying the antioxidant flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba pollen. The results showed that the DPPH scavenging ability of Ginkgo biloba pollen was much higher than Ginkgo biloba nut, but lower than Ginkgo biloba leaf, while the total content of flavonoid in Ginkgo biloba pollen was approximately 4.37 times higher than in Ginkgo biloba leaf. Further studies found that the major flavonol aglycone in Ginkgo biloba pollen was kaempferol, which accounted for 96.71% of the total aglycones (includes quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin), and the main flavonoid components in Ginkgo biloba pollen were flavonoid glycosides. Finally, ten antioxidant peaks were screened and identified to be flavonoids (including kaempferol and nine flavonoid glycosides), so flavonoids were likely to be the main antioxidant components in GP, and among them, three novel kaempferol glycosides (peaks 1, 2, and 3) were found in Ginkgo biloba pollen for the first time, which had never been found in Ginkgo biloba.

  8. New optimized DNA extraction protocol for fingerprints deposited on a special self-adhesive security seal and other latent samples used for human identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Julieta; Leder, Monika; Jaureguiberry, Stella M; Brem, Gottfried; Boselli, Gabriel O

    2011-09-01

    Obtaining complete short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from fingerprints containing minimal amounts of DNA, using standard extraction techniques, can be difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new kit, Fingerprint DNA Finder (FDF Kit), recently launched for the extraction of DNA and STR profiling from fingerprints placed on a special device known as Self-Adhesive Security Seal Sticker(®) and other latent fingerprints on forensic evidentiary material like metallic guns. The DNA extraction system is based on a reversal of the silica principle, and all the potential inhibiting substances are retained on the surface of a special adsorbent, while nucleic acids are not bound and remain in solution dramatically improving DNA recovery. DNA yield was quite variable among the samples tested, rendering in most of the cases (>90%) complete STR profiles, free of PCR inhibitors, and devoid of artifacts. Even samples with DNA amount below 100 pg could be successfully analyzed. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Eric D; Katari, Manpreet S; Stevenson, Dennis W; Rudd, Stephen A; Douglas, Andrew W; Moss, Walter N; Twigg, Richard W; Runko, Suzan J; Stellari, Giulia M; McCombie, W R; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2005-10-15

    Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate), female (megasporangiate), and vegetative organs (leaves) of Ginkgo biloba. RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants--many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and pollen evolution, and to resolve the ambiguous phylogenetic

  10. Efeito do extrato de Ginkgo Biloba (EGb) sobre o sistema reprodutor masculino de ratos Wistar adultos

    OpenAIRE

    Oshio, Leonardo Toshio

    2012-01-01

    O Extrato de Ginkgo biloba (EGb) é um dos fitoterápicos mais consumidos no mundo e tem sido utilizado no tratamento da disfunção erétil e como afrodisíaco. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a toxicidade sistêmica do EGb e o efeito sobre o sistema reprodutor masculino de ratos Wistar. Oitenta animais de três meses de idade foram tratados com água destilada (Grupo Controle) e extrato aquoso de Ginkgo biloba nas seguintes doses: 3,5 (EGb 3,5); 7,0 (EGb 7,0) e 14,0 mg/...

  11. The health state of Ginkgo biloba L. in the presence of microfungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamčíková Katarína

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The health state of Ginkgo biloba L. and damage caused by microscopic fungi were evaluated over the 2010-2011 time period, in selected localities of Slovakia and Czechia. The trees were assessed and put into two categories of health. Trees in very good (category 1 or good vitality and health with no or only light damage (category 2. A total of seven species of microscopic fungi were identified from samples taken from branches, fruits, and leaves. The following fungal genera were detected: Epicoccum, Fusarium, Alternaria, Phomopsis, Cylindrosporium, Phyllosticta, and Cladosporium. This present study is the first report about microscopic fungi determined on G. biloba for Slovakia

  12. Chloroplast Phylogenomics Indicates that Ginkgo biloba Is Sister to Cycads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Huang, Ya-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed. This study aimed to use the chloroplast phylogenomic approach to examine possible factors that lead to such disagreeing placements. We found the sequence types used in the analyses as the most critical factor in the conflicting placements of ginkgo. In addition, the placement of ginkgo varied in the trees inferred from nucleotide (NU) sequences, which notably depended on breadth of taxon sampling, tree-building methods, codon positions, positions of Gnetopsida (common name: gnetophytes), and including or excluding gnetophytes in data sets. In contrast, the trees inferred from amino acid (AA) sequences congruently supported the monophyly of a ginkgo and Cycadales (common name: cycads) clade, regardless of which factors were examined. Our site-stripping analysis further revealed that the high substitution saturation of NU sequences mainly derived from the third codon positions and contributed to the variable placements of ginkgo. In summary, the factors we surveyed did not affect results inferred from analyses of AA sequences. Congruent topologies in our AA trees give more confidence in supporting the ginkgo–cycad sister-group hypothesis. PMID:23315384

  13. Direct observation of bulk and surface chemical morphologies of Ginkgo biloba leaves by Fourier transform mid- and near-infrared microspectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun

    2013-11-01

    Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy is a powerful tool to obtain knowledge about the spatial and/or temporal distributions of the chemical compositions of plants for better understanding of their biological properties. However, the chemical morphologies of plant leaves in the plane of the blade are barely studied, because sections in this plane for mid-infrared transmission measurements are difficult to obtain. Besides, native compositions may be changed by chemical reagents used when plant samples are microtomed. To improve methods for direct infrared microspectroscopic imaging of plant leaves in the plane of the blade, the bulk and surface chemical morphologies of nonmicrotomed Ginkgo biloba leaves were characterized by near-infrared transmission and mid-infrared attenuated total reflection microspectroscopic imaging. A new self-modeling curve resolution procedure was proposed to extract the spectral and concentration information of pure compounds. Primary and secondary metabolites of secretory cavities, veins, and mesophylls of Ginkgo biloba leaf blades were analyzed, and the distributions of cuticle, protein, calcium oxalate, cellulose, and ginkgolic acids on the adaxial surface were determined. By the integration of multiple infrared microspectroscopic imaging and chemometrics methods, it is possible to analyze nonmicrotomed leaves and other plant samples directly to understand their native chemical morphologies in detail.

  14. Ginkgo biloba protects against intermittent hypoxia-induced memory deficits and hippocampal DNA damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Basel A; Abd El-Aziz, Samy M

    2012-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the potential protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced memory deficits and oxidative stress in rats. The passive avoidance reflex (PAR) test was employed to assess the effect of concurrent EGb 761 treatment in different dose levels on the memory deficits that were induced by concurrent long-term exposure to IH (21 days). The levels of hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and intracellular glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were estimated. In addition, serum and hippocampal 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were assessed to study the effect of EGb 761 on hippocampal oxidative DNA damage induced by IH. Exposure to long-term IH in rats induced marked memory impairment that was indicated by a significant decrease in the retention latency in the PAR test. This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in hippocampal oxidative stress and DNA damage. EGb 761 that was administered in either 50- or 100-mg/kg doses per day reversed IH-induced memory deficits, an effect that was accompanied by a significant decrease in hippocampal MDA and NO levels. The antioxidant defence (GSH and GSH-Px) that was depressed by IH was significantly reactivated by EGb 761. Furthermore, serum and hippocampal levels of 8-OHdG that were elevated by IH were significantly reduced. EGb 761 can protect against IH-induced memory impairment, oxidative stress and neuronal DNA damage, possibly through multiple mechanisms involving its potential anti-oxidative effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Preconditioning with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761®) provides neuroprotection through HO1 and CRMP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Shadia E; Shah, Zahoor A

    2012-04-01

    Ginkgo biloba/EGb 761® (EGb 761) is a popular and standardized natural extract used worldwide for the treatment of many ailments. Although EGb 761 is purported to have a plethora of benefits, here, we were interested to study the neuroprotective properties of EGb 761 and its components and determine whether nuclear factor E2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) induction of the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) pathway contributes to neuroprotection. Mice were pretreated with EGb 761 or one of its constituents (bilobalide, ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, and terpene free material [TFM]) for 7days and then subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and 48 h of reperfusion. All components except TFM significantly reduced infarct volumes and neurologic deficits. Next, we examined the antioxidant and neuritogenic properties of EGb 761 in primary neurons. Compared with vehicle-treated cells, pretreatment with EGb 761 significantly enhanced the survival of neurons exposed to tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Bilobalide and ginkgolide A also protected cells against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis showed that EGb 761 pretreatment significantly increased the protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO1, GAPDH, β-actin, CRMP2, and histone H3 during t-BuOOH-induced oxidative stress. These findings suggest that EGb 761 not only has antioxidant activity but also neuritogenic potential. Demonstrating such effects for possible drug discovery may prove beneficial in stroke and ischemic brain injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on dementia: An overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiuju; Wang, Chong-Wen; Shi, Jun; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2017-01-04

    To assess the cumulative evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) in the treatment of dementia. Overview of systematic reviews. PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were searched in June 2016. Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of GbE on different outcomes in people with dementia or cognitive impairment were included. Methodological quality of the included SRs was assessed using the AMSTAR tool. The quality of evidence of the primary studies was assessed using GRADE. Twelve SRs with meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria. The quality of the evidence reported in these SRs varies ranging from low to moderate level. Overall, the available evidence suggests that GbE has potentially beneficial effects over placebo on cognitive performance, activities of daily living, and clinical global impression in the treatment of dementia at doses greater than 200mg/day (usually 240mg/day) administrated for 22 weeks or longer, and that GbE appears to be safe for human consumption. No sufficient evidence supports the favorable effects of GbE administrated for less than 22 weeks. The available evidence consistently indicates that a dose less than 200mg/day of GbE may not be adequate to yield clinical relevant effects in the treatment of dementia. GbE has potentially beneficial effects for people with dementia when it is administered at doses greater than 200mg/day for at least 5 months. Given the lower quality of the evidence, further rigorously-designed, multicenter-based, large-scale RCTs are warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hayder M. al-kuraishy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 112 volunteers was enrolled to study the effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects,the central cognitive effect was assessed by Critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFFF, Psychomotor vigilance Task (PVT and computerized N-back test. Results: Placebo produced no significant effects on all neurocognitive tests measure p>0.05 in normal healthy volunteers, Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea improve psychomotor vigilance task and low to moderate working memory accuracy, The combined effect of Rhodiola rosea and Ginkgo biloba leading to more significant effect on psychomotor vigilance task, all levels of short term working memory accuracy and critical fusion versus flicker p<0.01, more than of Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea when they used alone. Conclusion: The combined effect of Rhodiola rosea and Ginkgo biloba leading to more significant effect on cognitive function than either Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea when they used alone. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 7-13

  18. Direct analysis of 18 flavonol glycosides, aglycones and terpene trilactones in Ginkgo biloba tablets by matrix solid phase dispersion coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Guang; Yang, Hua; Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Lei; Qin, Yong; Wang, Qi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba have been comprehensively studied. However, little attention has been devoted to the simultaneous extraction and analysis of flavonols and terpene trilactones, especially for direct quantification of flavonol glycosides. This work described a rapid strategy for one-step extraction and quantification of the components. A matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) method was designed for the extraction of ginkgo ingredients and compared with the heat-reflux and ultrasonic extraction methods. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem-triple-quadrupole-mass spectrometry (QQQ-MS) method was developed for detection of the 18 components, including 10 original flavonol glycosides, 3 aglycones, and 5 lactones. Subsequently, the proposed strategy was used for the analysis of 12 G. biloba tablets. Results showed that MSPD produced comparable extraction efficiency but consumed less time and required lower solvent volumes compared with conventional methods. Without hydrolysis, the concentration detected was much closer to the original in the sample. The total flavonol glycoside contents in ginkgo tablets ranged from 3.59 to 125.21μgmg(-1), and the terpene trilactone varied from 3.45 to 57.8μgmg(-1) among different manufacturers. In conclusion, the proposed MSPD and UHPLC-QQQ-MS is rapid and sensitive in providing comprehensive profile of chemical constituents especially the genuine flavonol glycosides for improved quality control of ginkgo products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation of copper by the aquatic macrophyte Salvinia biloba Raddi (Salviniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aquatic macrophytes have properties and mechanisms which are useful for the removal of substances in solution, commonly used in phytoremediation processes in aquatic environments. This study evaluated the performance of copper (Cu accumulation by Salvinia biloba Raddi (Salviniaceae in different metal concentrations (1, 3 and 5 µg mL-1, as well as the control treatment, measured at intervals of 0, 7 and 14 days under laboratory conditions, with control as to pH and luminosity. After the experiment, the S. biloba biomass was washed, kiln dried, crushed and subjected to the process of digestion, and subsequently the accumulated copper content was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that S. biloba is apt at accumulating copper, varying significantly between different treatments and days of exposure to the contaminant, as well as its interaction (treatment × days. The highest accumulation values were observed in treatment with 5 µg mL-1, which at 14 days, with 11,861 µg g-1 of copper. We observed symptoms of toxicity and mortality in plants, probably indicating the effect of copper on the species when at high levels. Salvinia biloba is an efficient species in the removal of copper in solution, its recommendation as a remediating agent in aquatic ecosystems being possible.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba phytosomes in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Suresh R; Pilgaonkar, Vinaya W; Panda, Vandana S

    2006-11-01

    Ginkgo biloba from the traditional Chinese system of medicine has been found to possess neurocognitive enhancing effects. The mechanism of action of Ginkgo seems to be related to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, Ginkgo biloba phytosomes were administered to Wistar rats at 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg for 7 and 14 days. Chemical hypoxia was induced by administration of sodium nitrite (75 mg/kg) 1 h after the last administration of treatment. Thirty minutes after sodium nitrite administration, the animals were killed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and striatum were isolated and homogenized. The supernatants were used for the estimation of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Ginkgo biloba phytosome treatment was found to increase superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in all the brain regions compared with those treated only with sodium nitrite. The prevention of depletion of the antioxidant enzymes by sodium nitrite in the presence of Ginkgo biloba phytosomes may be correlated to its antioxidant activity. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Role of Ginkgo Biloba in Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced in Rats By L-Methionine and Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of Ginkgo biloba in hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress. Methionine was supplied orally to adult male albino rats with a dose of 1.7 g/kg/day during 4 weeks. Irradiation was applied to rats by whole body gamma irradiation with a dose of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Ginkgo biloba (100 mg/kg/day) was supplemented orally to rats, daily, during the period of methionine administration and/or radiation exposure. Biochemical analysis in blood and brain tissues showed that methionine and/or gamma irradiation produced significant increases in homocysteine and acetylcholine esterase levels and significant decrease in nitric oxide (NO). Significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant decreases in glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were observed and alteration in plasma lipid profile was also recorded. Ginkgo biloba supplementation has significantly decreased homocysteine and acetylcholine esterase levels and increased NO while was associated with significant improvement of oxidative stress and lipid profile. It could be concluded that the protective effect of Gingko biloba against hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties.

  2. Establishing a leaf proteome reference map for Ginkgo biloba provides insight into potential ethnobotanical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although ginkgo (Maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba L.) is an ancient medicinal and ornamental tree, there has not previously been any systematic proteomic study of the leaves. Herein we describe results from the initial study identifying abundant ginkgo leaf proteins and present a gel reference map. Pr...

  3. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong Lai Teik, Derek; Lee, Xiao Shiang; Lim, Chu Jian; Low, Chia Mei; Muslima, Mariyam; Aquili, Luca

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N = 24), and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks) in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo) increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline) to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal) was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa) that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo) blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline) to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo. These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852.

  4. Protective effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba against learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetti, Raghu; Raghuveer, C V; Mallikarjuna, Rao C

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is present in the ground water, World Health Organization permitted level of fluoride in the ground water is 0.5 ppm. Tooth pastes, mouth washes, tea and sea fish are the sources of fluoride. Exposure to these multiple sources results in several adverse effects in addition to the fluorosis. The present study aimed to test the effect of vitamin C and Ginkgo biloba against the behavioural deficits caused by fluoride. Rats were divided into five groups with six animals in each group (n = 6). Control group received ordinary tap water with 0.5 ppm of fluoride, the remaining groups received 100 ppm of fluoride for 30 days prior to fluoride exposure. Two groups of animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C and G. biloba for 15 days prior to fluoride exposure. After 45 days, behavioural studies (T-Maze, passive avoidance) were conducted on the experimental animals. The results of the present study showed no behavioural deficits in the control group of animals however, the rats that received fluoride water exhibited impairment in their spatial learning and memory deficits. The deficits are not marked in the vitamin C and G. biloba groups. To conclude chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride causes severe impairment in the spatial learning and memory, these deficits can be ameliorated with the vitamin C and G. biloba. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development in etiolated seedlings of Ginkgo biloba L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlovič, A.; Slováková, L.; Demko, V.; Durchan, Milan; Mikulová, K.; Hudák, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2009), s. 510-516 ISSN 0300-3604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Aminolevulinic acid * Ginkgo biloba * light-independent chlorophyll biosynthesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.072, year: 2009

  6. [Optimize dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills by using design space approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-Chen; Wang, Qing-Qing; Chen, An; Pan, Fang-Lai; Gong, Xing-Chu; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Purification and Characterization of a Novel ~18 kDa Antioxidant Protein from Ginkgo biloba Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba seeds are widely used as a food and traditional medicine in China. In the present study, a novel antioxidant protein named GBSP was purified from Ginkgo biloba seeds. The protein (GBSP was purified by homogenization of Ginkgo biloba seed powder in saline solution, 70% ammonium sulphate precipitation, filtration on a DEAE-Cellulose52 anion exchange column, gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column, and preparative chromatography on a C18 column using RP-HPLC. GBSP showed an apparent molecular weight of 18 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analyses. The amino acid sequence obtained by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis showed GBSP was a novel protein, as no matching protein in was found the database. The protein exhibited significant antioxidant activities against free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS and superoxide anion and showed higher activity than α-tocopherol in a linoleic acid emulsion assay system. Furthermore, GBSP exhibited notable reducing power and a strong chelating effect on Cu2+and Fe2+. Therefore, the present study demonstrates, for the first time, that this novel protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds is an excellent antioxidant.

  8. Draft genome of the living fossil Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui; Zhao, Yunpeng; Zhang, He; Fan, Guangyi; Liu, Xin; Zhou, Wenbin; Shi, Chengcheng; Wang, Jiahao; Liu, Weiqing; Liang, Xinming; Fu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Kailong; Zhao, Lijun; Zhang, Fumin; Lu, Zuhong; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Fu, Chengxin; Ge, Song; Chen, Wenbin

    2016-11-21

    Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) is one of the most distinctive plants. It possesses a suite of fascinating characteristics including a large genome, outstanding resistance/tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, and dioecious reproduction, making it an ideal model species for biological studies. However, the lack of a high-quality genome sequence has been an impediment to our understanding of its biology and evolution. The 10.61 Gb genome sequence containing 41,840 annotated genes was assembled in the present study. Repetitive sequences account for 76.58% of the assembled sequence, and long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are particularly prevalent. The diversity and abundance of LTR-RTs is due to their gradual accumulation and a remarkable amplification between 16 and 24 million years ago, and they contribute to the long introns and large genome. Whole genome duplication (WGD) may have occurred twice, with an ancient WGD consistent with that shown to occur in other seed plants, and a more recent event specific to ginkgo. Abundant gene clusters from tandem duplication were also evident, and enrichment of expanded gene families indicates a remarkable array of chemical and antibacterial defense pathways. The ginkgo genome consists mainly of LTR-RTs resulting from ancient gradual accumulation and two WGD events. The multiple defense mechanisms underlying the characteristic resilience of ginkgo are fostered by a remarkable enrichment in ancient duplicated and ginkgo-specific gene clusters. The present study sheds light on sequencing large genomes, and opens an avenue for further genetic and evolutionary research.

  9. Los estados inmaduros de Coelosis biloba (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae y notas sobre su biología Immature stages of Coelosis biloba (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae with notes on their biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Pardo-Locarno

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen la larva de tercer estadio y las pupas de macho y hembra de Coelosis biloba (Linné 1767 con ejemplares recolectados en Colombia (Cauca y Valle y en México (Veracruz asociados con los hormigueros de Atta cephalotes (Linné 1750. Se incluyen ilustraciones de las estructuras diagnósticas, una clave para separar las larvas de tercer estadio hasta ahora conocidas de la tribu Oryctini en América, y observaciones sobre la biología de C. biloba como inquilino de los nidos de hormigas.The larva of third instar, male and female pupae of Coelosis biloba obtained inside ant nests of Atta cephalotes in Colombia (Cauca, Valle and Mexico (Veracruz are described. Drawings of diagnostic structures, a key to the known third instar larvae of American Oryctini, and observations on the biology of C. biloba as inquiline of ant nests, are included.

  10. Characterization and evaluation of a macroporous adsorbent for possible use in the expanded bed adsorption of flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chase, Howard A

    2009-12-11

    The suitability of the use of macroporous adsorbent Amberlite XAD7HP in expanded bed adsorption processes for the isolation of flavonoids from crude extracts of Ginkgo biloba L. has been assessed. The expansion and hydrodynamic properties of expanded beds were investigated and analyzed. The bed expansion as a function of operational fluid velocity was measured and correlated with the Richardson-Zaki equation. Theoretical predictions of the correlation parameters (the terminal settling velocity u(t) and exponent n) were improved by modifying equations in the literature. Residence time distributions (RTDs) were studied using acetone as a tracer. Three measures of liquid phase dispersion (the height equivalent of theoretical plate, Bodenstein number and axial distribution coefficient) were investigated and compared to values previously obtained with commercial EBA adsorbents developed for protein purification. A suitable bed expansion ratio was found to be 1.25 times the settled bed height, which occurred at a corresponding flow velocity of 183 cm/h. For an initial settled bed height of 42 cm, the mean residence time of liquid in the expanded bed was around 28 min. Under these flow conditions, the axial mixing coefficient D(ax) was 7.54 x 10(-6) m(2)/s and the Bodenstein number was 28; the number of theoretical plates (N) was 19 and the height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) was 2.77 cm. Rutin trihydrate was used as a model flavonoid for the characterization of the adsorption properties of Amberlite XAD7HP. Adsorption was observed to reach equilibrium within 3 h with 70% of the adsorption capacity being achieved within 30 min. The estimated maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity for rutin was estimated to be 43.0 mg/(gresin) when the results were fitted to Langmuir isotherms. The adsorption performance was not seriously impaired by the physical presence of G. biloba leaf powders. Assessment of the kinetics of the adsorption of rutin revealed that the rate

  11. An effective identification and quantification method for Ginkgo biloba flavonol glycosides with targeted evaluation of adulterated products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan-Chun; Mani, Ana; Cai, Yaling; Thomson, Jaclyn; Ma, Jie; Peudru, Flavie; Chen, Sarah; Luo, Mai; Zhang, Junzeng; Chapman, Robert G; Shi, Zhen-Tuo

    2016-04-15

    Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) leaf extract is one of the most popular herbal products on the market, as it contains flavone glycosides (≥ 24%) and terpene lactones (≥ 6%), which are proposed to have significant physiological effects. Unfortunately, the challenging financial climate has resulted in a natural health product market containing adulterated ginkgo products. 42 ginkgo samples were analyzed to establish an HPLC profile for authentic ginkgo and common ginkgo adulterants, and to develop a method capable of easily detecting adulteration in ginkgo commercial products. In this study an efficient and targeted HPLC analysis method was established that is capable of distinguishing flavonol glycosides and aglycones simultaneously for the evaluation of ginkgo powdered extracts (PEs) and finished products in a single, 13 min run. Thirteen ginkgo leaf samples, fifteen standardized powdered extracts, and fourteen commercially available ginkgo products have been analyzed using this new HPLC method. Chromatograms were compared to six standard reference materials: one flavonol glycoside (rutin), three aglycones (quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin), and two isoflavones (genestin and genistein). The quantitative chromatographic data was interpreted by principal component analysis (PCA), which assisted in the detection of unexpected chromatographic features in various adulterated botanical products. Only three of the commercially available ginkgo finished products tested in this study were determined to be authentic, with flavonol glycoside rutin, and aglycones quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin found to be common adulterants in the ginkgo powdered extract and finished product samples. Despite evidence of adulteration in most of the samples, each of the samples discussed herein met most of the current pharmacopeial standards. It is therefore critical that a preliminary evaluation be utilized to detect adulteration in commercial ginkgo products, prior to the

  12. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone. PMID:28101298

  13. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; Lasheen, Noha N; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180-200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD + . Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF- α , and IL1- β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF- α , IL-1 β , and testicular mitochondrial NAD + were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD + , which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone.

  14. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Ibrahim Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone.

  15. Análise das bulas de medicamentos à base de Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Branco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba L. atua no aumento do fluxo sanguíneo dos tecidos protegendo-os contra os danos causados pela hipóxia, além de inibir a agregação plaquetária. Sua indicação terapêutica consiste em casos de desordens e sintomas decorrentes da deficiência do fluxo sanguíneo no cérebro e que podem acarretar na perda de memória, alteração da função cognitiva, tonturas, dor de cabeça, vertigens, estágios iniciais de demência, zumbidos, estágios iniciais de Alzheimer e demências mistas, entre outros. Neste sentido os medicamentos à base de Ginkgo biloba L. configuram entre os fitoterápicos mais vendidos do Brasil. As bulas têm como objetivo central esclarecer e informar, pacientes e profissionais da saúde, sobre seus benefícios e seus riscos com intuito de promover o uso racional de medicamento. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as informações contidas nas bulas de medicamentos à base Ginkgo biloba L., comercializadas no Brasil, frente à legislação nacional referente. Assim, em uma amostragem correspondente a 30 % de medicamentos registrados na ANVISA, pode-se constatar que nenhuma bula analisada neste trabalho encontra-se totalmente de acordo com as exigências da legislação vigente no Brasil. Palavras-chave: Ginkgo biloba. Fitoterápicos. Bula de medicamentos. Legislação. ABSTRACT Analysis of the package inserts for medicines to the base of Ginkgo biloba L. Ginkgo biloba L. acts by increasing the blood flow in the tissues, thus protecting them against damage caused by hypoxia, besides inhibiting platelet aggregation. It is therapeutically indicated in cases of disorders and symptoms arising from deficient blood flow in the brain, such as memory loss, changes in cognitive function, dizziness, headache, vertigo, early stages of dementia, tinnitus, early stages of Alzheimer's and other types of dementia. These symptoms occur mainly in elderly patients and there is a continuous rise in the consumption of this

  16. Streptomyces ginkgonis sp. nov., an endophyte from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xia; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Nana; Chen, Yue; Huang, Li-Li

    2017-11-24

    A novel endophytic actinomycete strain, designated KM-1-2 T , was isolated from seeds of Ginkgo biloba at Yangling, China. A polyphasic approach was used to study the taxonomy of strain KM-1-2 T and it was found to show a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of members of the genus Streptomyces. The diamino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was identified as LL-diaminopimelic acid. No diagnostic sugars were detected in whole cell hydrolysates. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H 6 ) and MK-9(H 8 ). The diagnostic phospholipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G + C content of the novel strain was determined to be 72.9 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids (> 10.0 %) were identified as iso-C 14 : 0 , iso-C 16 : 0 , C 16 : 0 and C 17 : 0 cyclo. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain is closely related to Streptomyces carpaticus JCM 6915 T (99.3%), Streptomyces harbinensis DSM 42076 T (98.9%) and Streptomyces cheonanensis JCM 14549 T (98.5%). DNA-DNA hybridizations with these three close relatives gave similarity values of 39.1 ± 1.9, 35.8 ± 2.3, and 47.4 ± 2.7%, respectively, which indicated that strain KM-1-2 T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces. This is consistent with the morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data. Cumulatively, these data suggest that strain KM-1-2 T represents a novel Streptomyces species, for which the name Streptomyces ginkgonis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain KM-1-2 T (= CCTCC AA2016004 T  = KCTC 39801 T ).

  17. Anti-Thrombotic Effect of Carthamus tinctorius Linn Extracts in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    from:http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_ animals/legislation_en..htm. 11. Liu XG, Xu LN. A rat middle cerebral artery thrombosis model for evaluation of thrombolytic and antithrombotic agents. Yao Xue Xue Bao 1995; 30: 662-667. 12. Zhang Y, Gu D, Mao S, Chen W. Protective effects of. Ginkgo biloba extract on ...

  18. YY-1224, a terpene trilactone-strengthened Ginkgo biloba, attenuates neurodegenerative changes induced by β-amyloid (1-42) or double transgenic overexpression of APP and PS1 via inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Yi; Chung, Yoon Hee; Shin, Eun-Joo; Dang, Duy-Khanh; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Ko, Sung Kwon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Baik, Tae Gon; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Ong, Wei-Yi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2017-04-27

    Ginkgo biloba has been reported to possess free radical-scavenging antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory properties. In our pilot study, YY-1224, a terpene trilactone-strengthened extract of G. biloba, showed anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antioxidant effects. We investigated the pharmacological potential of YY-1224 in β-amyloid (Aβ) (1-42)-induced memory impairment using cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) knockout (-/-) and APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic (APP/PS1 Tg) mice. Repeated treatment with YY-1224 significantly attenuated Aβ (1-42)-induced memory impairment in COX-2 (+/+) mice, but not in COX-2 (-/-) mice. YY-1224 significantly attenuated Aβ (1-42)-induced upregulation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor gene expression, reactive oxygen species, and pro-inflammatory factors. In addition, YY-1224 significantly inhibited Aβ (1-42)-induced downregulation of PAF-acetylhydrolase-1 (PAF-AH-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) gene expression. These changes were more pronounced in COX-2 (+/+) mice than in COX-2 (-/-) mice. YY-1224 significantly attenuated learning impairment, Aβ deposition, and pro-inflammatory microglial activation in APP/PS1 Tg mice, whereas it significantly enhanced PAF-AH and PPARγ expression. A preferential COX-2 inhibitor, meloxicam, did not affect the pharmacological activity by YY-1224, suggesting that the COX-2 gene is a critical mediator of the neuroprotective effects of YY-1224. The protective activity of YY-1224 appeared to be more efficacious than a standard G. biloba extract (Gb) against Aβ insult. Our results suggest that the protective effects of YY-1224 against Aβ toxicity may be associated with its PAF antagonistic- and PPARγ agonistic-potential as well as inhibition of the Aβ-mediated pro-inflammatory switch of microglia phenotypes through suppression of COX-2 expression.

  19. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

    2011-10-26

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection.

  20. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runko Suzan J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate, female (megasporangiate, and vegetative organs (leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and

  1. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Eric D; Katari, Manpreet S; Stevenson, Dennis W; Rudd, Stephen A; Douglas, Andrew W; Moss, Walter N; Twigg, Richard W; Runko, Suzan J; Stellari, Giulia M; McCombie, WR; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2005-01-01

    Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate), female (megasporangiate), and vegetative organs (leaves) of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and pollen evolution, and to

  2. Ginkgo biloba: a natural reducing agent for the synthesis of cytocompatible graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a novel two-dimensional planar nanocomposite material consisting of rings of carbon atoms with a hexagonal lattice structure. Graphene exhibits unique physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, elasticity, and cytocompatible properties that lead to many potential biomedical applications. Nevertheless, the water-insoluble property of graphene restricts its application in various aspects of biomedical fields. Therefore, the objective of this work was to find a novel biological approach for an efficient method to synthesize water-soluble and cytocompatible graphene using Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition, we investigated the biocompatibility effects of graphene in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Synthesized graphene oxide (GO) and GbE-reduced GO (Gb-rGO) were characterized using various sequences of techniques: ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy. Biocompatibility of GO and Gb-rGO was assessed in human breast cancer cells using a series of assays, including cell viability, apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The successful synthesis of graphene was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and FTIR. DLS analysis was performed to determine the average size of GO and Gb-rGO. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the crystalline nature of graphene. SEM was used to investigate the surface morphologies of GO and Gb-rGO. AFM was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene and the height profile of GO and Gb-rGO. The formation of defects in Gb-rGO was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the prepared GO and Gb-rGO was investigated using a water-soluble tetrazolium 8 assay on human breast cancer cells. GO exhibited a dose-dependent toxicity, whereas Gb-rGO-treated cells showed significant

  3. Ginkgo biloba: a natural reducing agent for the synthesis of cytocompatible graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Background Graphene is a novel two-dimensional planar nanocomposite material consisting of rings of carbon atoms with a hexagonal lattice structure. Graphene exhibits unique physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, elasticity, and cytocompatible properties that lead to many potential biomedical applications. Nevertheless, the water-insoluble property of graphene restricts its application in various aspects of biomedical fields. Therefore, the objective of this work was to find a novel biological approach for an efficient method to synthesize water-soluble and cytocompatible graphene using Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition, we investigated the biocompatibility effects of graphene in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Materials and methods Synthesized graphene oxide (GO) and GbE-reduced GO (Gb-rGO) were characterized using various sequences of techniques: ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy. Biocompatibility of GO and Gb-rGO was assessed in human breast cancer cells using a series of assays, including cell viability, apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Results The successful synthesis of graphene was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and FTIR. DLS analysis was performed to determine the average size of GO and Gb-rGO. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the crystalline nature of graphene. SEM was used to investigate the surface morphologies of GO and Gb-rGO. AFM was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene and the height profile of GO and Gb-rGO. The formation of defects in Gb-rGO was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the prepared GO and Gb-rGO was investigated using a water-soluble tetrazolium 8 assay on human breast cancer cells. GO exhibited a dose-dependent toxicity, whereas Gb

  4. Otoproteção em cobaias expostas a agrotóxico e ginkgo biloba Otoprotection in guinea pigs exposed to pesticides and ginkgo biloba

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Dulor Finkler; Aron Ferreira da Silveira; Gisiane Munaro; Crisley Dossin Zanrosso

    2012-01-01

    Os agrotóxicos são amplamente utilizados na agricultura e, atualmente, fazem parte do grupo de agentes químicos que podem levar à perda auditiva. A identificação de drogas que, associadas aos ototóxicos, possam atuar como otoprotetores é objeto de estudo. OBJETIVO: Analisar a existência de efeito otoprotetor do extrato de Ginkgo biloba aos possíveis danos cocleares causados pelo agrotóxico do grupo dos organofosforados - metamidofós, avaliando-se as alterações anatômicas por meio da microscop...

  5. Characterization of UGT716A1 as a Multi-substrate UDP:Flavonoid Glucosyltransferase Gene in Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojia; Shen, Guoan; Di, Shaokang; Dixon, Richard A.; Pang, Yongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L., a “living fossil” and medicinal plant, is a well-known rich source of bioactive flavonoids. The molecular mechanism underlying the biosynthesis of flavonoid glucosides, the predominant flavonoids in G. biloba, remains unclear. To better understand flavonoid glucosylation in G. biloba, we generated a transcriptomic dataset of G. biloba leaf tissue by high-throughput RNA sequencing. We identified 25 putative UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) unigenes that are potentially involved in the flavonoid glycosylation. Among them, we successfully isolated and expressed eight UGT genes in Escherichia coli, and found that recombinant UGT716A1 protein was active toward broad range of flavonoid/phenylpropanoid substrates. In particular, we discovered the first recombinant UGT protein, UGT716A1 from G. biloba, possessing unique activity toward flavanol gallates that have been extensively documented to have significant bioactivity relating to human health. UGT716A1 expression level paralleled the flavonoid distribution pattern in G. biloba. Ectopic over-expression of UGT716A1 in Arabidopsis thaliana led to increased accumulation of several flavonol glucosides. Identification and comparison of the in vitro enzymatic activity of UGT716A1 homologs revealed a UGT from the primitive land species Physcomitrella patens also showed broader substrate spectrum than those from higher plants A. thaliana, Vitis vinifera, and Medicago truncatula. The characterization of UGT716A1 from G. biloba bridges a gap in the evolutionary history of UGTs in gymnosperms. We also discuss the implication of UGT716A1 for biosynthesis, evolution, and bioengineering of diverse glucosylated flavonoids. PMID:29270187

  6. Characterization of UGT716A1 as a Multi-substrate UDP:Flavonoid Glucosyltransferase Gene in Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia Su

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba L., a “living fossil” and medicinal plant, is a well-known rich source of bioactive flavonoids. The molecular mechanism underlying the biosynthesis of flavonoid glucosides, the predominant flavonoids in G. biloba, remains unclear. To better understand flavonoid glucosylation in G. biloba, we generated a transcriptomic dataset of G. biloba leaf tissue by high-throughput RNA sequencing. We identified 25 putative UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT unigenes that are potentially involved in the flavonoid glycosylation. Among them, we successfully isolated and expressed eight UGT genes in Escherichia coli, and found that recombinant UGT716A1 protein was active toward broad range of flavonoid/phenylpropanoid substrates. In particular, we discovered the first recombinant UGT protein, UGT716A1 from G. biloba, possessing unique activity toward flavanol gallates that have been extensively documented to have significant bioactivity relating to human health. UGT716A1 expression level paralleled the flavonoid distribution pattern in G. biloba. Ectopic over-expression of UGT716A1 in Arabidopsis thaliana led to increased accumulation of several flavonol glucosides. Identification and comparison of the in vitro enzymatic activity of UGT716A1 homologs revealed a UGT from the primitive land species Physcomitrella patens also showed broader substrate spectrum than those from higher plants A. thaliana, Vitis vinifera, and Medicago truncatula. The characterization of UGT716A1 from G. biloba bridges a gap in the evolutionary history of UGTs in gymnosperms. We also discuss the implication of UGT716A1 for biosynthesis, evolution, and bioengineering of diverse glucosylated flavonoids.

  7. Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba Enhance Antibacterial Activity of Five Classes of Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ran; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Polyprenol (GBP) from Ginkgo biloba Leaves (GBL) is an important lipid with many bioactive effects. The effect of GBP on antibacterial properties of five antibiotics belonging to different classes was through analysis of inhibition halos, MIC, and FIC index. And we studied the time-killing curves and Ca2+ mobilization assay in Staphylococcus aureus cells treated with GBP microemulsion and gentamicin sulfate under MIC/2 conditions. These results showed that the GBP microemulsion (average diame...

  8. X-RAY: CHARACTERIZATION OF Ginkgo biloba L. SEEDS USING DIGITAL AND MANUAL MEASUREMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ADRIANA RITA SALINAS; ROQUE MARIO CRAVIOTTO; VILMA BISARO; CARINA DEL VALLE GALLO; MIRIAM ARANGO

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to: a) verify if digital radiographic image measurements of G. biloba seeds could replace those obtained with a manual caliper; b) determine the degree of seed development through digitally measuring the air chamber of the seed and, c) make a radiographic pattern to characterize the seed species according to its anatomical and morphological structure, identify physical damage and characterize the species according to physical variables. In order to draw the radiograp...

  9. Efeitos do extrato de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761 sobre a atividade motora e a memória em ratos nadadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira Cruz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O extrato de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761 ou exercício físico, modificam as funções cognitivas e aliviam os sintomas de ansiedade; contudo, estes efeitos devem ser melhor caracterizados. A administração oral repetida do extrato (40 ou 80 mg/kg/dia e exercício de natação em ratos indicam um aumento de entradas nos braços fechados no labirinto em cruz elevado (F5,55 = 6.295; p < 0,001 e uma diminuição na imobilidade no campo aberto (F5,55 = 6.997; p < 0,001, sugerindo um aumento na atividade motora. Além disto, o exercício de natação aumenta a exploração no campo aberto e o tratamento com EGb 761 cancela este efeito (F5,55 = 8.575; p < 0,001; indicando uma interação entre EGb 761 e exercício de natação, provavelmente, com um mesmo substrato neurobiológico. Análises comportamentais no teste de reconhecimento de objetos mostraram que o exercício de natação e/ou tratamento com EGb 761, durante os testes de 24 horas, gastavam mais tempo explorando os novos objetos que os familiares (F5,55 = 4.392; p < 0,01; razão de discriminação; memória a longo prazo, indicando que o exercício de natação e/ou EGb 761 alteram a memória. Estes resultados levantam a possibilidade do EGb 761 e exercício físico atuarem em diferentes regiões do cérebro e provocarem diferentes efeitos sobre a atividade motora e funções cognitivas. Palavras-chave: Atividade motora. Campo aberto. Ginkgo biloba. Memória. Labirinto em cruz elevado. Reconhecimento de objetos. ABSTRACT Either ingestion of a Ginkgo biloba proprietary extract (EGb 761 or physical exercise can enhance cognitive functioning and alleviate symptoms of anxiety; however, their combined effects have yet to be characterized. Rats subjected to repeated oral administration of the extract (40 or 80 mg/kg/day and swimming exercise exhibited an increased number of closed-arm entries in the elevated plus-maze and decreased immobility in the open field, suggesting an

  10. Development and characterization of novel microsatellite markers for Ginkgo biloba using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Wang, X X; Xu, M; Cao, F L; Yu, F X; Xu, L A

    2016-03-28

    As a "living fossil" that is used to understand the evolutionary history of seed plants, Ginkgo biloba is a well-known multipurpose tree with edible seeds, medicinal properties, and ornamental value, but little is known about its genetic diversity. Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), markers have proven to be powerful tools for genetic studies of plants. In this study, we isolated 30 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in G. biloba using 454 pyrosequencing. The characteristics of these loci were tested with 48 cultivars. The number of alleles (NA) per locus ranged from two to seven. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.750 and from 0.021 to 0.792, with an average of 0.326 and 0.443, respectively. In terms of genetic diversity in the Ginkgo population, NA was 3.300, NE was 2.090, I was 0.782, HO was 0.326, and HE was 0.443. These polymorphic SSRs will be useful for the assessment of population genetic diversity and resource conservation of G. biloba.

  11. Interaction of human chymase with ginkgolides, terpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba investigated by molecular docking simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Amit; Marabotti, Anna; Ramteke, Pramod W; Facchiano, Angelo

    2016-04-29

    The search for natural chymase inhibitors has a good potential to provide a novel therapeutic approach against the cardiovascular diseases and other heart ailments. We selected from literature 20 promising Ginkgo biloba compounds, and tested them for their potential ability to bind chymase enzyme using docking and a deep analysis of surface pocket features. Docking results indicated that the compounds may interact with the active site of human chymase, with favorable distinct interactions with important residues Lys40, His57, Lys192, Phe191, Val146, Ser218, Gly216, and Ser195. In particular, proanthocyanidin is the one with the best-predicted binding energy, with seven hydrogen bonds. Interestingly, all active G. biloba compounds have formed the hydrogen bond interactions with the positively charged Lys192 residue at the active site, involved in the mechanism of pH enhancement for the cleavage of angiotensin I site. Ginkgolic acid and proanthocyanidin have better predicted binding energy towards chymase than other serine proteases, i.e kallikrein, tryptase and elastase, suggesting specificity for chymase inhibition. Our study suggests these G. biloba compounds are a promising starting point for developing chymase inhibitors for the potential development of future drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the anti-osteoporotic effect of Ginkgo biloba L. in Wistar rats with glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis by bone densitometry using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and mechanical testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEDA M.F. LUCINDA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Evaluate the effect of the extract of Ginkgo biloba in the bone alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density, in the mechanical properties of the tibia in rats with glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis. After osteoporosis induction, the rats were divided into five groups: Osteoporosis; EGb1 (28 mg/Kg; EGb2 (56 mg/Kg; alendronate (0.2 mg/animal and control. The animals were treated during 20 and 30 days. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis’s (Student’s t-test, while the other were analyzed by ANOVA test followed by Tukey/Dunnett’T3 (p<0.05. In the osteoporosis group the bone alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density, the bone stiffness, the maximum load and the resilience were reduced. The bone alkaline phosphatase values increased in the EGb1 and EGb2 groups (30 days. In addition, in the EGb2 and alendronate groups (20 and 30 days the bone mineral density increased. The extract of Ginkgo biloba restored bone alkaline phosphatase and bone mineral density using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

  13. Ginkgo Biloba for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Kang; Liu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a natural medicine used for cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this review is to explore the effectiveness and safety of Ginkgo biloba in treating mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Electronic search was conducted from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and four major Chinese databases from their inception up to 1(st) December, 2014 for randomized clinical trials on Ginkgo biloba in treating mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Meta-analyses were performed by RevMan 5.2 software. 21 trials with 2608 patients met the inclusion criteria. The general methodological quality of included trials was moderate to poor. Compared with conventional medicine alone, Ginkgo biboba in combination with conventional medicine was superior in improving Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores at 24 weeks for patients with Alzheimer's disease (MD 2.39, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.50, PGinkgo biboba demonstrated similar but inconsistent findings. Adverse events were mild. Ginkgo biloba is potentially beneficial for the improvement of cognitive function, activities of daily living, and global clinical assessment in patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. However, due to limited sample size, inconsistent findings and methodological quality of included trials, more research are warranted to confirm the effectiveness and safety of ginkgo biloba in treating mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Special licorice extracts containing lowered glycyrrhizin and enhanced licochalcone A prevented Helicobacter pylori-initiated, salt diet-promoted gastric tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Park, Sang-Ho; Hong, Kyung-Sook; Han, Young-Min; Jang, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2014-06-01

    In spite of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions, conventional licorice extracts (c-lico) were limitedly used due to serious side effects of glycyrrhizin. As our group had successfully isolated special licorice extracts (s-lico) lowering troublesome glycyrrhizin, but increasing licochalcone A, we have compared anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective actions of s-lico and c-lico against either in vitro or in vivo Helicobacter pylori infection. RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to check anti-inflammatory action and electron spin resonance (ESR) and DCFDA spectroscopy to check antioxidative action. s-lico or c-lico was pretreated 1 hours before H. pylori infection on AGS cells. Interleukin-10 deficient mice inoculated H. pylori and followed with high salt containing pallet diets to produce H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumors, during which s-lico or c-lico-containing pellet diets were administered up to 24 weeks. s-lico had fabulous efficacy on scavenging ROS which was further confirmed by DCFDA study and ESR measurement. The expressions of COX-2, iNOS, VEGF, and IL-8 were increased after H. pylori infection, of which levels were significantly decreased with s-lico in a dose-dependent manner. s-lico significantly ameliorated hypoxia-induced or H. pylori-induced angiogenic activities. s-lico significantly ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastric damages as well as gastritis. Our animal model showed significant development of gastric tumors including adenoma and dysplasia relevant to H. pylori infection, and s-lico administration significantly attenuated incidence of H. pylori-induced gastric tumorigenesis. Special licorice extracts can be anticipating substance afforded significant attenuation of either H. pylori-induced gastritis or tumorigenesis based on potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic actions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Black Cohosh Hepatic Safety: Follow-Up of 107 Patients Consuming a Special Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome Herbal Extract and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Firenzuoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available European Medicines Agency (EMEA and the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC on July 2006 have released an alert to get European sanitary authorities aware of 42 cases of suspected hepatotoxic reactions in patients consuming Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome. In the public statement EMEA itself considered reliable as hepatotoxic reactions only four cases, on the base of RUCAM score: two were considered possible and two probable. Lacking in almost all of them a precise description of cases, especially a botanical-chemical analysis of the suspected substance, we think there is no real proof of supposed C. racemosa rhizome hepatotoxicity. In our department we administer from about 10 years C. racemosa as special herbal dry extract as single substance or mixed with other medicinal plants at the dose of 500–1000 mg daily, for treatment of menopause related disorders without any reported adverse effect. After EMEA's official signal we have contacted all our patients using a C. racemosa rhizome herbal extract continuously from more than 12 months to verify possible hepatotoxic effects. We followed-up 107 women, and asked them by telephone (33/107 and/or after anamnesis and clinical examination (74/107 to undergo a blood sample examination. In all the patients there was no sign of hepatic disease, or worsening of already altered but stable parameters. We think on the base of these data and current literature C. racemosa rhizome extract should not be considered a potential hepatotoxic substance.

  16. Black Cohosh Hepatic Safety: Follow-Up of 107 Patients Consuming a Special Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome Herbal Extract and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firenzuoli, Fabio; Gori, Luigi; Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    European Medicines Agency (EMEA) and the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) on July 2006 have released an alert to get European sanitary authorities aware of 42 cases of suspected hepatotoxic reactions in patients consuming Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome. In the public statement EMEA itself considered reliable as hepatotoxic reactions only four cases, on the base of RUCAM score: two were considered possible and two probable. Lacking in almost all of them a precise description of cases, especially a botanical-chemical analysis of the suspected substance, we think there is no real proof of supposed C. racemosa rhizome hepatotoxicity. In our department we administer from about 10 years C. racemosa as special herbal dry extract as single substance or mixed with other medicinal plants at the dose of 500–1000 mg daily, for treatment of menopause related disorders without any reported adverse effect. After EMEA's official signal we have contacted all our patients using a C. racemosa rhizome herbal extract continuously from more than 12 months to verify possible hepatotoxic effects. We followed-up 107 women, and asked them by telephone (33/107) and/or after anamnesis and clinical examination (74/107) to undergo a blood sample examination. In all the patients there was no sign of hepatic disease, or worsening of already altered but stable parameters. We think on the base of these data and current literature C. racemosa rhizome extract should not be considered a potential hepatotoxic substance. PMID:21660145

  17. Drained peatlands used for extraction and agriculture: biogeochemical status with special attention to greenhouse gas fluxes and rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Andrey; Chistotin, Maxim; Suvorov, Gennady; Glagolev, Mikhail; Kravchenko, Irina; Minaeva, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Many peatlands previously drained for peat extraction or utilized for agriculture (directly or after partial cutoff) are left abandoned during last decades in Europe, and especially in its eastern part. In the European part of Russia alone, several million hectares of peatlands have been modified for peat extraction and agriculture by direct water level draw-down and nowadays are not under use by economic reasons. This makes up one of the most serious and urgent problems of wise use and management of peatlands in these regions with serious feedback to people, environment and economy (Quick Scan of Peatlands in Central and Eastern Europe, 2009). Drainage for agriculture leads to peat oxidation resulting in substantial emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and sometimes nitrous oxide) to the atmosphere. Together with peat fires this is the most significant negative input of peatland degradation to climate change (Assessment on Peatlands Biodiversity and Climate Change, 2008; Peatlands and Climate Change, 2008). Besides that, dehydrated peatlands often release methane. Starting from 2003, the effect of drainage and subsequent utilization of peatlands on the emissions of carbon dioxide and methane was studied in Tomsk region (West Siberia) during the summer-fall periods (Glagolev et al. 2008). The measurements were conducted by chamber method at peatlands drained for use as croplands (now partly being fallows) and peat cutting (currently abandoned or reclaimed for forest planting, haying, or pasturing), as well as at a wide range of undrained oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic mires and burnt mire areas of different regeneration stages. The statistical analysis of data from a large number of study sites indicated a higher release of carbon dioxide from disturbed peatlands compared to undrained ones. At the same time some drained peatlands had considerable methane emission rates, additionally enhanced by the intensive efflux from the surface of drainage

  18. Genetic variation of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) based on cpDNA PCR-RFLPs: inference of glacial refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L; Chen, X-Y; Zhang, X; Li, Y-Y; Fu, C-X; Qiu, Y-X

    2005-04-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a famous living fossil, is the sole survivor of the genus Ginkgo. To make inferences about the glacial refugia that harbored G. biloba, we examined the genetic structure of eight potential refugial populations and plantations using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) with eight size variants in the trnK1-trnK2 fragment. The data consist of haplotypes from 158 trees collected from eight localities. The majority of the cpDNA haplotypes are restricted to minor portions of the geographical range. Our results suggest that refugia of G. biloba were located in southwestern China. This area is a current biodiversity hotspot of global importance, and may have been protected from the extremes of climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene. The Ginkgos on West Tianmu Mountain, which were previously considered to be wild by many researchers, may, instead, have been introduced by Buddhist monks.

  19. Isolation and functional characterization of a circadian-regulated CONSTANS homolog (GbCO) from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiaping; Mao, Dun; Liu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Lanlan; Xu, Feng; Wang, Guiyuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Liao, Yongling

    2017-09-01

    This is the first report to clone and functionally characterize a flowering time gene GbCO in perennial gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. GbCO complements the co mutant of Arabidopsis, restoring normal early flowering. CONSTANS (CO) is a central regulator of photoperiod pathway, which channels inputs from light, day length, and circadian clock to promote the floral transition. In order to understand the role of CO in gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba, which has a long juvenile phase (15-20 years), a CO homolog (GbCO) was isolated and characterized from G. biloba. GbCO encodes a 1741-bp gene with a predicted protein of 400 amino acids with two zinc finger domains (B-box I and B-box II) and a CCT domain. Phylogenic analysis classified GbCO into the group 1a clade of CO families in accordance with the grouping scheme for Arabidopsis CO (AtCO). Southern blot analysis indicated that GbCO belongs to a multigene family in G. biloba. Real-time PCR analysis showed that GbCO was expressed in aerial parts of Ginkgo, with the highest transcript level of GbCO being observed in shoot apexes. GbCO transcript level exhibited a strong diurnal rhythm under flowering-inductive long days and peaked during early morning, suggesting that GbCO is tightly coupled to the floral inductive long-day signal. In addition, an increasing trend of GbCO transcript level was observed both in shoot tips and leaves as the shoot growth under long-day condition, whereas GbCO transcript level decreased in both tissues under short-day condition prior to growth cessation of shoot in G. biloba. GbCO complemented the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant, restoring normal early flowering. All the evidence being taken together, our findings suggested that GbCO served as a potential inducer of flowering in G. biloba.

  20. Effect of Enzyme Inhibitors on Terpene Trilactones Biosynthesis and Gene Expression Profiling in Ginkgo biloba Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijia; Tong, Hui; Wang, Mingxuan; Zhu, Jianhua; Zi, Jiachen; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of terpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba is unclear. In this present study, suspension cultured cells of G. biloba were used to explore the regulation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways in response to specific enzyme inhibitors (lovastatin and clomazone). The results showed that the biosynthesis of bilobalide was more highly correlated with the MVA pathway, and the biosynthesis of ginkgolides was more highly correlated with the MEP pathway. Meanwhile, according to the results, it could be speculated that bilobalide might be a product of ginkgolide metabolism.

  1. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on cerebral blood flow assessed by quantitative MR perfusion imaging: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashayekh, Ameneh; Pham, Dzung L.; Yousem, David M.; Dizon, Mercedes; Barker, Peter B.; Lin, Doris D.M. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), a dietary supplement used for a number of conditions including dementia, has been suggested to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF). The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in CBF could be detected by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in elderly human subjects taking EGb. DSC-MRI was performed in nine healthy men (mean age 61 {+-} 10 years) before and after 4 weeks of 60 mg EGb taken twice daily. One subject underwent six consecutive scans to evaluate intrasubject reproducibility. CBF values were computed before and after EGb, and analyzed at three different levels of spatial resolution, using voxel-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM), and regions of interest in different lobes, and all regions combined. Normalized intrasubject CBF (nCBF) measurements had a standard deviation of 7% and 4% in gray and white matter (WM) regions, respectively. SPM using an uncorrected, voxel-level threshold of P {<=} 0.001 showed a small CBF increase in the left parietal-occipital region. CBF in individual lobar regions did not show any significant change post-EGb, but all regions combined showed a significant increase of non-normalized CBF after EGb (15% in white and 13% in gray matter, respectively, P {<=} 0.0001). nCBF measured by DSC-MRI has good intrasubject reproducibility. In this small cohort of normal elderly individuals, a mild increase in CBF is found in the left parietal-occipital WM after EGb, as well as a small but statistically significant increase in global CBF. (orig.)

  2. [Preparation of Ginkgo biloba extract 50-phospholipid complex and study on its physicochemical properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Le; Lai, Chun-Li; Zhao, Jian-Bin; Chen, Jian-Hai

    2010-10-01

    To optimize the preparation technology of GBE 50-phospholipid complex and study its physicochemical properties. The preparation conditions for GBE 50-phospholipid complex were optimized by means of single factor study and orthogonal design, and taking the complexing rate of total flavonoids as assessment criteria, the complex was analyzed by DSC, IR and determined apparent oil-water distribution coefficients in different pH aqueous solution. The optimized preparation conditions for GBE 50-phospholipid complex were obtained as follows: the solvent was Tetrahydrofuran, the temperature was 30 degrees C, the concentration of GBE 50 was 20 mg/mL, the ratio of GBE 50 to phospholipids was 1 to 1, and the complexing rate was 98%. The complex significantly improved GBE 50 on the solubility in octanol, also on the oil-water apparent partition coefficient. GBE 50-phospholipid complex is very different from GBE 50 on the physicochemical properties.

  3. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the expressions of Cox-2 and GST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Its underlying biological mechanism remains unclear and no well-documented drug and ... Objectives: To explore the effect of EGb on expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and glutathione S-transferase Pi. (GST-Pi) in the ..... in an animal model of Parkinson's disease: Therapeutic perspectives. Nutri-.

  4. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the expressions of Cox-2 and GST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was performed to explore the effect of EGb on expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and glutathione S-transferase Pi (GST-Pi) in the pathogenesis of HCC risk. Methods: 120 Wistar rats were divided into three groups at random: normal control group (control group), HCC risk group without ...

  5. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the expressions of Cox-2 and GST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cox-2) and glutathione S-transferase Pi. (GST-Pi) in the pathogenesis of HCC. Methods: 120 Wistar rats were divided into three groups at random: normal control group (control group), HCC risk group without treatment (HCC risk group), HCC risk ...

  6. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A; Lloyd, Jenny; Silber, Beata; Redman, Stephanie; Hutchison, Chris; Wesnes, Keith; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2008-12-01

    While Ayurvedic medicine has touted the cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera for centuries, there is a need for double-blind placebo-controlled investigations. One hundred and seven healthy participants were recruited for this double-blind placebo-controlled independent group design investigation. Sixty-two participants completed the study with 80% treatment compliance. Neuropsychological testing using the Cognitive Drug Research cognitive assessment system was conducted at baseline and after 90 days of treatment with a special extract of Bacopa monniera (2 x 150 mg KeenMind) or placebo. The Bacopa monniera product significantly improved performance on the 'Working Memory' factor, more specifically spatial working memory accuracy. The number of false-positives recorded in the Rapid visual information processing task was also reduced for the Bacopa monniera group following the treatment period. The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Ginkgo biloba: a natural reducing agent for the synthesis of cytocompatible graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurunathan S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jae Woong Han, Jung Hyun Park, Vasuki Eppakayala, Jin-Hoi Kim Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea Background: Graphene is a novel two-dimensional planar nanocomposite material consisting of rings of carbon atoms with a hexagonal lattice structure. Graphene exhibits unique physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, elasticity, and cytocompatible properties that lead to many potential biomedical applications. Nevertheless, the water-insoluble property of graphene restricts its application in various aspects of biomedical fields. Therefore, the objective of this work was to find a novel biological approach for an efficient method to synthesize water-soluble and cytocompatible graphene using Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition, we investigated the biocompatibility effects of graphene in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Materials and methods: Synthesized graphene oxide (GO and GbE-reduced GO (Gb-rGO were characterized using various sequences of techniques: ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and Raman spectroscopy. Biocompatibility of GO and Gb-rGO was assessed in human breast cancer cells using a series of assays, including cell viability, apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. Results: The successful synthesis of graphene was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and FTIR. DLS analysis was performed to determine the average size of GO and Gb-rGO. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the crystalline nature of graphene. SEM was used to investigate the surface morphologies of GO and Gb-rGO. AFM was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene and the height profile of GO and Gb-rGO. The formation of defects in Gb-rGO was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility

  8. Ginkgotides: Proline-Rich Hevein-Like Peptides from Gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang; Serra, Aida; Xiao, Tianshu; Sze, Siu Kwan; Yang, Daiwen; Tam, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Hevein and hevein-like peptides belong to the family of chitin-binding cysteine-rich peptides. They are classified into three subfamilies, the prototypic 8C- and the 6C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. Thus far, only five 8C-hevein-like peptides have been characterized from three angiosperms and none from gymnosperm. To determine their occurrence and distribution in the gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba leaves were examined. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of eleven novel 8C-hevein-l...

  9. Complete 1H NMR spectral analysis of ten chemical markers of Ginkgo biloba

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, José G.; Lankin, David C.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2012-01-01

    The complete and unambiguous 1H NMR assignments of ten marker constituents of Ginkgo biloba are described. The comprehensive 1H NMR profiles (fingerprints) of ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, bilobalide, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, isoquercetin, and rutin in DMSO-d6 were obtained through the examination of 1D 1H NMR and 2D 1H,1H-COSY data, in combination with 1H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA). The computational analysis of discrete spin systems allowed a ...

  10. Efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on vaginal estrous and ovarian histological alterations for evaluating anti-implantation and abortifacient potentials in albino female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmazoudy, Reda H; Attia, Azza A

    2012-12-01

    Ginkgo extract, EGb 761 is known as a vasoregulatory variable for the conventional reproduction therapy. EGb 761 was orally administered in 0 (control), 3.7, 7.4, and 14.8 mg/kg bw/day for 28 days (thereafter mated with normal fertile male), from day 1 to day 7 of pregnancy or from the 10th to 18th day of pregnancy, respectively. Vaginal smears were performed daily. On 20th day of pregnancy, the females were killed by cervical dislocation and their kidneys, liver, brain, placenta, spleen and ovaries were removed and weighed. The ovaries were prepared for histological examinations, and then ovarian follicles were counted. Maternal toxicity, estrous cycle, reproductive hormones, ovarian follicle counts, resorption index, implantation index, fetal viability and fetuses, and placenta mean weights were evaluated. There was a dose-dependent ovarian toxic effect of EGb 761. Ovarian follicle counts, resorption index, implantation index, fetal viability were significantly reduced in 14.8 mg/kg bw/day dose. Treatment with 14.8 mg/kg bw/day EGb 761 induced disruption of estrous cycle and caused maternal toxicity, in addition to fetal toxicity. Therefore, the data obtained indicate that Ginkgo biloba extract at 14.8 mg/kg bw/day dose level exhibit toxic effect on reproductive cyclicity and could have anti-implantation and abotifacient properties in female mice. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cellulose structure and lignin distribution in normal and compression wood of the Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Seppo; Wang, Yurong; Pönni, Raili; Hänninen, Tuomas; Mononen, Marko; Ren, Haiqing; Serimaa, Ritva; Saranpää, Pekka

    2015-04-01

    We studied in detail the mean microfibril angle and the width of cellulose crystals from the pith to the bark of a 15-year-old Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.). The orientation of cellulose microfibrils with respect to the cell axis and the width and length of cellulose crystallites were determined using X-ray diffraction. Raman microscopy was used to compare the lignin distribution in the cell wall of normal/opposite and compression wood, which was found near the pith. Ginkgo biloba showed a relatively large mean microfibril angle, varying between 19° and 39° in the S2 layer, and the average width of cellulose crystallites was 3.1-3.2 nm. Mild compression wood without any intercellular spaces or helical cavities was observed near the pith. Slit-like bordered pit openings and a heavily lignified S2L layer confirmed the presence of compression wood. Ginkgo biloba showed typical features present in the juvenile wood of conifers. The microfibril angle remained large over the 14 annual rings. The entire stem disc, with a diameter of 18 cm, was considered to consist of juvenile wood. The properties of juvenile and compression wood as well as the cellulose orientation and crystalline width indicate that the wood formation of G. biloba is similar to that of modern conifers. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Proteomic analysis of the low mutation rate of diploid male gametes induced by colchicine in Ginkgo biloba L.

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    Nina Yang

    Full Text Available Colchicine treatment of G. biloba microsporocytes results in a low mutation rate in the diploid (2n male gamete. The mutation rate is significantly lower as compared to other tree species and impedes the breeding of new economic varieties. Proteomic analysis was done to identify the proteins that influence the process of 2n gamete formation in G. biloba. The microsporangia of G. biloba were treated with colchicine solution for 48 h and the proteins were analyzed using 2-D gel electrophoresis and compared to protein profiles of untreated microsporangia. A total of 66 proteins showed difference in expression levels. Twenty-seven of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among the 27 proteins, 14 were found to be up-regulated and the rest 13 were down-regulated. The identified proteins belonged to five different functional classes: ATP generation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism; protein metabolism; ROS scavenging and detoxifying enzymes; cell wall remodeling and metabolism; transcription, cell cycle and signal transduction. The identification of these differentially expressed proteins and their function could help in analysing the mechanism of lower mutation rate of diploid male gamete when the microsporangium of G. biloba was induced by colchicine.

  13. Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hayder M. al-kuraishy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The present study investigates the effect of combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba and/or rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy. Subjects and Methods: A total number of 112 volunteers was enrolled to study the effect of Ginkgo biloba and rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy as compared to placebo effects,the central cognitive effect was assessed by Critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFFF, Psychomotor vigilance Task (PVT and computerized N-back test. Results: Placebo produced no significant effects on all neurocognitive tests measure p>0.05 in normal healthy volunteers, Ginkgo biloba or Rhodiola rosea improve psychomotor vigilance task and low to moderate working memory accuracy, The combined effect of Rhodiola rosea and Ginkgo biloba leading to more significant effect on psychomotor vigilance task, all levels of short term working memory accuracy and critical fusion versus flicker p [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 7-13

  14. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong

    Total flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000 cm-1 for rapid and nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in different colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and total flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for total flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of total flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090 cm-1 and 6620-6880 cm-1), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for total flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r2 = 0.82, RMSEP = 2.62 mg g-1) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.

  15. [Effects of air temperature and soil moisture on flavonoids accumulation in Ginkgo biloba leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Guo, Xu-Qin; Chang, Li; Cao, Fu-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Taking the 2-year old Ginkgo biloba seedlings as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted in an artificial climate chamber to study the effects of air temperature and soil moisture on the flavonoids accumulation in leaves. Three levels of air temperature (15/5 degrees C, 25/15 degrees C, and 35/25 degrees C day/night) and three levels of soil moisture (55%-60%, 40%-45%, and 30%-35% of field capacity) were installed, yielding nine temperature-soil moisture combinations. Under the three levels of soil moisture, the quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and total flavonoids contents in the leaves were higher at 15/5 degrees C than at 25/15 degrees C and 35/25 degrees C. Soil moisture had minor effects on the flavonoids accumulation. The leaf kaempferol content was the highest, followed by quercetin and isorhamnetin. The total flavonoids yield per plant at 35/25 degrees C was higher than that at 15/5 degrees C and 25/15 degrees C. It was suggested that to adopt appropriate soil covering and watering before harvesting to decrease the ambient temperature could benefit the enhancement of leaf flavonoids content and the improvement of per unit area flavonoids production in G. biloba leaf-harvesting plantation.

  16. Assessing the ecohydrological separation hypothesis and seasonal variations in water use by Ginkgo biloba L. in a subtropical riparian area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Peifang; Liao, Xiaolin; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Ao, Yanhui; Shen, Mengmeng; Liu, Jingjing; Li, Kun

    2017-10-01

    In this study we used a dual stable isotope approach (δ18O and δ2H) to assess the ecohydrological separation hypothesis and to identify the seasonal variation in water sources of Ginkgo biloba L. in the riparian zone in the Taihu Lake basin, China. Three study sites located at 5, 10, and 30 m from a river bank were established. From August 2014 to July 2015, samples of rainwater, river water, groundwater, bulk soil water at five soil depths (i.e. 0-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-120, 120-150 cm), and xylem water of G. biloba, were collected and their δ18O and δ2H values were measured. Generally, the δ18O and δ2H values for xylem water, groundwater, and soil water clustered together and separated from those of river water, suggesting the possible occurrence of ecohydrological separation. However, the line-conditioned excess (lc-excess) values of most xylem water were positive, indicating a mixture of different water sources. Significant correlations were observed between the contributions of precipitation, soil water, and groundwater to water uptake by G. biloba, further supporting ecohydrological connectivity rather than ecohydrological separation. G. biloba switched its major water sources from soil water at 0-60 cm depth and precipitation in the wet summer, to soil water from >90 cm depth and groundwater in the dry winter. The river water was a minor water source for G. biloba, but its contribution was comparatively greater at the site closest to the river bank. Our findings contribute to understanding of plant-soil-water relationships and the water balance, and may provide important information for investigations of nutrient sources and sinks in riparian zones. The present study suggests the need to rethink the application of ecohydrological connectivity and separation in different biomes, especially where river water and groundwater recharge each other over time.

  17. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  18. Variation in Ginkgo biloba L. leaf characters across a climatic gradient in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bainian; Dilcher, David L; Beerling, David J; Zhang, Chengjun; Yan, Defei; Kowalski, Elizabeth

    2003-06-10

    Fossil leaves assigned to the genus Ginkgo are increasingly being used to reconstruct Mesozoic and Tertiary environments based on their stomatal and carbon isotopic characteristics. We sought to provide a more secure basis for understanding variations seen in the plant fossil record by determining the natural variability of these properties of sun and shade leaf morphotypes of Ginkgo biloba trees under the present atmospheric CO2 concentration and a range of contemporary climates in three Chinese locations (Lanzhou, Beijing, and Nanjing). Climate had no major effects on leaf stomatal index (proportion of leaf surface cells that are stomata) but did result in more variable stomatal densities. The effects of climate and leaf morphotype on stomatal index were rather conserved (fossil Ginkgo cuticles dating to the Mesozoic and Tertiary, which suggests to us that the physiology of leaf carbon uptake and regulation of water loss in Ginkgo has remained highly conserved despite the potential for evolutionary change over millions of years.

  19. [Study on optimization of drying method and its mechanism in Ginkgo biloba leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Han-Liang; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Ren, Hao; Qian, Ye-Fei; Tang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Pei

    2013-07-01

    To provide a scientific evidence for the initial primary processing method, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with a triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the contents variation of catechins, flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, biflavones, terpene lactones and phenolic acids during the process of drying in the sun, in the shade, and baked with 35, 45, 60, 80 degrees C, respectively. The results show that drying in the 80 degrees C is conducive to the accumulation of catechins, flavonoid glycosides, terpene lactones, better than the effects of other procedures. Therefore, the fast drying at 80 degrees C is beneficial for the retention of various types of active ingredient of Ginkgo biloba, and this method could be applied as a preferably dry processing.

  20. Establishing a leaf proteome reference map for Ginkgo biloba provides insight into potential ethnobotanical uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvackova, Lubica; Ondruskova, Emilia; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Miernyk, Ján A; Hrubík, Pavel; Hajduch, Martin

    2014-11-26

    Although ginkgo (Maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba L.) is an ancient medicinal and ornamental tree, there has not previously been any systematic proteomic study of the leaves. Herein we describe results from the initial study identifying abundant ginkgo leaf proteins and present a gel reference map. Proteins were isolated from fully developed mature leaves in biological triplicate and analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis plus tandem mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we were able to reproducibly quantify 190 abundant protein spots, from which 157 proteins were identified. Most of identified proteins are associated with the energy and protein destination/storage categories. The reference map provides a basis for understanding the accumulation of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in mature leaves (e.g., identification of chalcone synthase, the first committed enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis). We additionally detected several proteins of as yet unknown function. These proteins comprise a pool of potential targets that might be useful in nontraditional medical applications.

  1. RESEARCH ON BEHAVIOUR OF GINKGO BILOBA IN THE INITIATION STAGE OF IN VITRO CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Radomir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the realizations of the tehnology of producing biological material with rapidly clonal multiplication with reference at the phase of in vitro initiation. The growth of Ginkgo biloba explants was influenced by the period of explants sampling and by the composition of culture medium. The explants sampled from the herbaceous shoots a year old cropping at the end of the summer have the best behavior. They have registered 80% explants growth on culture medium MS with 20 mg/l benzyladenine. As one goes along the concentration of benzyladenine decreased, has been found a diminution of the number of explants growth until 25% and a progresive growth of the length of the shoots obtained.

  2. The effect of Ginkgo biloba on functional outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouei, Darioush Savadi; Rikhtegar, Reza; Hashemilar, Mazyar; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Sharifi-Bonab, Mohsen; Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Elyar; Zarrintan, Sina; Sharifipour, Ehsan

    2013-11-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a major cerebrovascular disease with potential morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of thrombolytic therapy in some centers, risk factor modification and rehabilitation therapy are the mainstays of stroke management. There is supporting evidence that Ginkgo biloba may afford neuroprotection and improve the outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial, we assessed the efficacy of G biloba on functional outcome in patients with acute stroke. The National Institutes of Heath Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used to measure functional outcome. A total of 102 patients with acute ischemic stroke were studied. All patients received either G biloba or placebo tablets for 4 months. This trial was registered to the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir; trial IRCT138804212150N1). There were 52 patients who received G biloba and 50 patients who were in the placebo group. Age, sex distribution, previous medical condition, and laboratory data did not have any significant difference between the 2 groups (P>.05). The mean difference of 4-month follow-up NIHSS scores and NIHSS scores at admission was 4.7±2.7 and 4.1±3.0 in the G biloba and placebo groups, respectively (P>.05). The primary outcome-a 50% reduction in the 4-month follow-up NIHSS score compared to the baseline NIHSS score-was reached in 17 patients (58.6%) and 5 patients (18.5%) in the G biloba and placebo groups, respectively (Pbiloba group compared to the placebo group (Pbiloba may have protective effects in ischemic stroke. Therefore, the administration of G biloba is recommended after acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Acetazolamide and Gingko Biloba on the Human Pulmonary Vascular Response to an Acute Altitude Ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Tao; Wang, Jiye; Swenson, Erik R.; Zhang, Xiangnan; Hu, Yunlong; Chen, Yaoming; Liu, Mingchao; Zhang, Wenbin; Zhao, Feng; Shen, Xuefeng; Yang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ke, Tao, Jiye Wang, Erik R. Swenson, Xiangnan Zhang, Yunlong Hu, Yaoming Chen, Mingchao Liu, Wenbin Zhang, Feng Zhao, Xuefeng Shen, Qun Yang, Jingyuan Chen, and Wenjing Luo. Effect of acetazolamide and gingko biloba on the human pulmonary vascular response to an acute altitude ascent. High Alt Med Biol 14:162–167, 2013.—Acetazolamide and gingko biloba are the two most investigated drugs for the prevention of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Evidence suggests that they may also reduce pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). To investigate whether these two drugs for AMS prevention also reduce PASP with rapid airlift ascent to high altitude, a randomized controlled trial was conducted on 28 healthy young men with acetazolamide (125 mg bid), gingko biloba (120 mg bid), or placebo for 3 days prior to airlift ascent (397 m) and for the first 3 days at high altitude (3658 m). PASP, AMS, arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were assessed both at 397 m and 3658 m. HR, PEF, and PASP increased with altitude exposure (pbiloba (mean at 3658 m, 33.7 mm Hg, p=0.001; incremental change, 13.1 mm Hg, 95%CI., 9.6–16.5 mm Hg, p=0.002), and with placebo (mean at 3658 m, 34.7 mm Hg, pgingko biloba, mitigates the early increase of PASP in a quick ascent profile. PMID:23795737

  4. Caracteres morfoanatómicos y micrográficos de la hoja de Ginkgo biloba L (Ginkgoaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Cargo, Jorge C.; Gattuso, Susana; Gattuso, Martha

    2000-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. es una especie nativa del sudeste de Asia, cuyas hojas enteras o fragmentadas son usadas en medicina por sus propiedades terapéuticas. Se presenta un estudio de los caracteres morfoanatómicos y micrográficos del pecíolo y de la lámina, arquitectura foliar y vista superficial de la epidermis. Se incluye una tabla de caracteres para el reconocimiento de la droga cruda.

  5. The presence of sinapyl lignin in Ginkgo biloba cell cultures changes our views of the evolution of lignin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, Esther Novo; Gómez Ros, Laura V; Pomar, Federico; Bernal, María A; Paradela, Alberto; Albar, Juan P; Ros Barceló, Alfonso

    2009-02-01

    Suspension cell cultures (SCCs) from one of the oldest seed plants, Ginkgo biloba, show unpredictable alterations in the nature of the lignins, such as is the recruitment of sinapyl alcohol for lignin biosynthesis, compared with the woody tissues of the same species, which lack syringyl (S) lignins. These results show that, in this gymnosperm, the genes involved in sinapyl alcohol biosynthesis are latent and that their regulatory regions respond, by initiating gene expression, to the developmental signals and the environmental clues, which condition its in vitro culture. G. biloba SCCs not only synthesize S lignins but also their extracellular proteome contains both class III peroxidases capable of oxidizing sinapyl alcohol and enzymes involved in H2O2 production, observation which suggests that the peroxidase branch for the oxidative coupling of sinapyl alcohol units into lignins is operative. The incomplete knowledge of the G. biloba peroxidase-encoding genes led us to purify, characterize and partially sequence the peroxidase responsible for monolignol oxidation. When the major peroxidase from G. biloba SCCs (GbPrx) was purified to homogeneity, it showed absorption maxima in the visible region at 414 (Soret band), and at 543 and 570 nm, which calls to mind those shown by low-spin ferric peroxidases. However, the results also showed that the paraperoxidase-like character of GbPrx is not an obstacle for oxidizing the three monolignols compared with high-spin ferric peroxidases. Taken together, these results mean that the time at which the evolutionary gain of the segment of the route that leads to the biosynthesis of S lignins took place in seed plants needs to be revised.

  6. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  7. Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. A randomized, placebo-controlled, trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Radmanesh, Mehrsa; Salari, Elham; Mahaki, Behzad

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba as a complementary therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children and adolescents with ADHD received methylphenidate (20-30 mg/day) plus either G. biloba (80-120 mg/day) or placebo for 6 weeks. Parent and teacher forms of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) were completed at baseline, week 2, and week 6. Treatment response was defined as 27% improvement from baseline in the ADHD-RS-IV. Compared with placebo, more reduction was observed with G. biloba regarding ADHD-RS-IV parent rating inattention score (-7.74 ± 1.94 vs. -5.34 ± 1.85, P biloba compared with placebo based on parent rating (93.5% vs. 58.6%, P = 0.002). The G. biloba is an effective complementary treatment for ADHD. Further studies with longer treatment duration are warranted in this regard. IRCT2014111519958N1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Caracterização do extrato seco de Ginkgo biloba L. em formulações de uso tópico

    OpenAIRE

    Banov, Daniel; Rolim Baby, André; Martins del Bosco, Livia; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Robles Velasco, María Valeria

    2006-01-01

    As propriedades terapêuticas do extrato de Ginkgo biloba L. estão relatadas na literatura por muito tempo e, atualmente, este tem sido adicionado em formulações de uso tópico devido sua ação antioxidante. Nesta pesquisa, o extrato seco de Ginkgo biloba L. foi incorporado nas formas farmacêuticas de emulsão óleo-em-água (O/A) e gel hidrofílico. A identificação dos flavonóides foi realizada por cromatografia de camada delgada (CCD) e seu conteúdo, equivalente em quercetina, foi quantificado por...

  9. Permian ginkgophyte fossils from the Dolomites resemble extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaf-like fructifications of Ginkgo biloba L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Structural elucidation and analysis of fructifications of plants is fundamental for understanding their evolution. In case of Ginkgo biloba, attention was drawn by Fujii in 1896 to aberrant fructifications of Ginkgo biloba whose seeds are attached to leaves, called O-ha-tsuki in Japan. This well-known phenomenon was now interpreted by Fujii as being homologous to ancestral sporophylls. The common fructification of Ginkgo biloba consists of 1-2 (rarely more) ovules on a dichotomously divided stalk, the ovules on top of short stalklets, with collars supporting the ovules. There is essentially no disagreement that either the whole stalk with its stalklets, collars and ovules is homologous to a sporophyll, or, alternatively, just one stalklet, collar and ovule each correspond to a sporophyll. For the transition of an ancestral sporophyll resembling extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaves into the common fructification with stalklet/collar/ovule, evolutionary reduction of the leaf lamina of such ancestral sporophylls has to be assumed. Furthermore, such ancestral sporophylls would be expected in the fossil record of ginkgophytes. Results From the Upper Permian of the Bletterbach gorge (Dolomites, South Tyrol, Italy) ginkgophyte leaves of the genus Sphenobaiera were discovered. Among several specimens, one shows putatively attached seeds, while other specimens, depending on their state of preservation, show seeds in positions strongly suggesting such attachment. Morphology and results of a cuticular analysis are in agreement with an affiliation of the fossil to the ginkgophytes and the cuticle of the seed is comparable to that of Triassic and Jurassic ones and to those of extant Ginkgo biloba. The Sphenobaiera leaves with putatively attached seeds closely resemble seed-bearing O-ha-tsuki leaves of extant Ginkgo biloba. This leads to the hypothesis that, at least for some groups of ginkgophytes represented by extant Ginkgo biloba, such sporophylls represent the

  10. Permian ginkgophyte fossils from the Dolomites resemble extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaf-like fructifications of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thilo C; Meller, Barbara; Kustatscher, Evelyn; Butzmann, Rainer

    2010-11-03

    Structural elucidation and analysis of fructifications of plants is fundamental for understanding their evolution. In case of Ginkgo biloba, attention was drawn by Fujii in 1896 to aberrant fructifications of Ginkgo biloba whose seeds are attached to leaves, called O-ha-tsuki in Japan. This well-known phenomenon was now interpreted by Fujii as being homologous to ancestral sporophylls. The common fructification of Ginkgo biloba consists of 1-2 (rarely more) ovules on a dichotomously divided stalk, the ovules on top of short stalklets, with collars supporting the ovules. There is essentially no disagreement that either the whole stalk with its stalklets, collars and ovules is homologous to a sporophyll, or, alternatively, just one stalklet, collar and ovule each correspond to a sporophyll. For the transition of an ancestral sporophyll resembling extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaves into the common fructification with stalklet/collar/ovule, evolutionary reduction of the leaf lamina of such ancestral sporophylls has to be assumed. Furthermore, such ancestral sporophylls would be expected in the fossil record of ginkgophytes. From the Upper Permian of the Bletterbach gorge (Dolomites, South Tyrol, Italy) ginkgophyte leaves of the genus Sphenobaiera were discovered. Among several specimens, one shows putatively attached seeds, while other specimens, depending on their state of preservation, show seeds in positions strongly suggesting such attachment. Morphology and results of a cuticular analysis are in agreement with an affiliation of the fossil to the ginkgophytes and the cuticle of the seed is comparable to that of Triassic and Jurassic ones and to those of extant Ginkgo biloba. The Sphenobaiera leaves with putatively attached seeds closely resemble seed-bearing O-ha-tsuki leaves of extant Ginkgo biloba. This leads to the hypothesis that, at least for some groups of ginkgophytes represented by extant Ginkgo biloba, such sporophylls represent the ancestral state of

  11. Permian ginkgophyte fossils from the Dolomites resemble extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaf-like fructifications of Ginkgo biloba L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustatscher Evelyn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural elucidation and analysis of fructifications of plants is fundamental for understanding their evolution. In case of Ginkgo biloba, attention was drawn by Fujii in 1896 to aberrant fructifications of Ginkgo biloba whose seeds are attached to leaves, called O-ha-tsuki in Japan. This well-known phenomenon was now interpreted by Fujii as being homologous to ancestral sporophylls. The common fructification of Ginkgo biloba consists of 1-2 (rarely more ovules on a dichotomously divided stalk, the ovules on top of short stalklets, with collars supporting the ovules. There is essentially no disagreement that either the whole stalk with its stalklets, collars and ovules is homologous to a sporophyll, or, alternatively, just one stalklet, collar and ovule each correspond to a sporophyll. For the transition of an ancestral sporophyll resembling extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaves into the common fructification with stalklet/collar/ovule, evolutionary reduction of the leaf lamina of such ancestral sporophylls has to be assumed. Furthermore, such ancestral sporophylls would be expected in the fossil record of ginkgophytes. Results From the Upper Permian of the Bletterbach gorge (Dolomites, South Tyrol, Italy ginkgophyte leaves of the genus Sphenobaiera were discovered. Among several specimens, one shows putatively attached seeds, while other specimens, depending on their state of preservation, show seeds in positions strongly suggesting such attachment. Morphology and results of a cuticular analysis are in agreement with an affiliation of the fossil to the ginkgophytes and the cuticle of the seed is comparable to that of Triassic and Jurassic ones and to those of extant Ginkgo biloba. The Sphenobaiera leaves with putatively attached seeds closely resemble seed-bearing O-ha-tsuki leaves of extant Ginkgo biloba. This leads to the hypothesis that, at least for some groups of ginkgophytes represented by extant Ginkgo biloba, such

  12. Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba Enhance Antibacterial Activity of Five Classes of Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Polyprenol (GBP) from Ginkgo biloba Leaves (GBL) is an important lipid with many bioactive effects. The effect of GBP on antibacterial properties of five antibiotics belonging to different classes was through analysis of inhibition halos, MIC, and FIC index. And we studied the time-killing curves and Ca(2+) mobilization assay in Staphylococcus aureus cells treated with GBP microemulsion and gentamicin sulfate under MIC/2 conditions. These results showed that the GBP microemulsion (average diameter 90.2 nm) combining with gentamicin sulfate had the highest enhancing antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, and the MIC value was 33.0 μg/mL. The increase of the antibacterial effect of tested antibiotics was positively correlated with the decrease of the average diameter of GBP microemulsion. Moreover, GBP microemulsion enhanced antibacterial effect and prolonged antibacterial time of GBP combining with gentamicin sulfate against Staphylococcus aureus. GBP microemulsion could enhance the ability of gentamicin inducing an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations to Staphylococcus aureus. GBP microemulsion could help some classes of antibiotics to inhibit or kill bacteria. This study supports the fact that GBP microemulsion obviously can not only reduce the dosage of some classes of antibiotics, but also reduce the frequency of the antibiotic use in vitro.

  13. Polyprenols of Ginkgo biloba Enhance Antibacterial Activity of Five Classes of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyprenol (GBP from Ginkgo biloba Leaves (GBL is an important lipid with many bioactive effects. The effect of GBP on antibacterial properties of five antibiotics belonging to different classes was through analysis of inhibition halos, MIC, and FIC index. And we studied the time-killing curves and Ca2+ mobilization assay in Staphylococcus aureus cells treated with GBP microemulsion and gentamicin sulfate under MIC/2 conditions. These results showed that the GBP microemulsion (average diameter 90.2 nm combining with gentamicin sulfate had the highest enhancing antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, and the MIC value was 33.0 μg/mL. The increase of the antibacterial effect of tested antibiotics was positively correlated with the decrease of the average diameter of GBP microemulsion. Moreover, GBP microemulsion enhanced antibacterial effect and prolonged antibacterial time of GBP combining with gentamicin sulfate against Staphylococcus aureus. GBP microemulsion could enhance the ability of gentamicin inducing an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations to Staphylococcus aureus. GBP microemulsion could help some classes of antibiotics to inhibit or kill bacteria. This study supports the fact that GBP microemulsion obviously can not only reduce the dosage of some classes of antibiotics, but also reduce the frequency of the antibiotic use in vitro.

  14. Improved metabolites of pharmaceutical ingredient grade Ginkgo biloba and the correlated proteomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Li, Ximin; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yanzhen; Lu, Xiaoping; Tian, Jingkui

    2015-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba is an attractive and traditional medicinal plant, and has been widely used as a phytomedicine in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Flavonoids and terpene lactones are the major bioactive components of Ginkgo, whereas the ginkgolic acids (GAs) with strong allergenic properties are strictly controlled. In this study, we tested the content of flavonoids and GAs under ultraviolet-B (UV-B) treatment and performed comparative proteomic analyses to determine the differential proteins that occur upon UV-B radiation. That might play a crucial role in producing flavonoids and GAs. Our phytochemical analyses demonstrated that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the content of active flavonoids, and decreased the content of toxic GAs. We conducted comparative proteomic analysis of both whole leaf and chloroplasts proteins. In total, 27 differential proteins in the whole leaf and 43 differential proteins in the chloroplast were positively identified and functionally annotated. The proteomic data suggested that enhanced UV-B radiation exposure activated antioxidants and stress-responsive proteins as well as reduced the rate of photosynthesis. We demonstrate that UV-B irradiation pharmaceutically improved the metabolic ingredients of Ginkgo, particularly in terms of reducing GAs. With high UV absorption properties, and antioxidant activities, the flavonoids were likely highly induced as protective molecules following UV-B irradiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. An antifungal protein from Ginkgo biloba binds actin and can trigger cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ningning; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Mühlhäuser, Philipp; Liu, Qiong; Riemann, Michael; Ulrich, Anne S; Nick, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Ginkbilobin is a short antifungal protein that had been purified and cloned from the seeds of the living fossil Ginkgo biloba. Homologues of this protein can be detected in all seed plants and the heterosporic fern Selaginella and are conserved with respect to domain structures, peptide motifs, and specific cysteine signatures. To get insight into the cellular functions of these conserved motifs, we expressed green fluorescent protein fusions of full-length and truncated ginkbilobin in tobacco BY-2 cells. We show that the signal peptide confers efficient secretion of ginkbilobin. When this signal peptide is either cleaved or masked, ginkbilobin binds and visualizes the actin cytoskeleton. This actin-binding activity of ginkbilobin is mediated by a specific subdomain just downstream of the signal peptide, and this subdomain can also coassemble with actin in vitro. Upon stable overexpression of this domain, we observe a specific delay in premitotic nuclear positioning indicative of a reduced dynamicity of actin. To elucidate the cellular response to the binding of this subdomain to actin, we use chemical engineering based on synthetic peptides comprising different parts of the actin-binding subdomain conjugated with the cell-penetrating peptide BP100 and with rhodamine B as a fluorescent reporter. Binding of this synthetic construct to actin efficiently induces programmed cell death. We discuss these findings in terms of a working model, where ginkbilobin can activate actin-dependent cell death.

  16. Complete 1H NMR spectral analysis of ten chemical markers of Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, José G; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2012-08-01

    The complete and unambiguous (1)H NMR assignments of ten marker constituents of Ginkgo biloba are described. The comprehensive (1)H NMR profiles (fingerprints) of ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, bilobalide, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, isoquercetin, and rutin in DMSO-d(6) were obtained through the examination of 1D (1)H NMR and 2D (1)H,(1)H-COSY data, in combination with (1)H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA). The computational analysis of discrete spin systems allowed a detailed characterization of all the (1)H NMR signals in terms of chemical shifts (δ(H)) and spin-spin coupling constants (J(HH)), regardless of signal overlap and higher order coupling effects. The capability of the HiFSA-generated (1)H fingerprints to reproduce experimental (1)H NMR spectra at different field strengths was also evaluated. As a result of this analysis, a revised set of (1)H NMR parameters for all ten phytoconstituents was assembled. Furthermore, precise (1)H NMR assignments of the sugar moieties of isoquercetin and rutin are reported for the first time. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Carbohydrate Modification on Glycoproteins from Seeds of Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Hu, Xiao-Chun; Cai, Zhi-Peng; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li

    2017-09-06

    Recent progress in the relationship between carbohydrate cross-reactive determinants (CCDs) and allergic response highlights the importance of carbohydrate moieties in the innate immune system. Previous research pointed out that the protein allergen in Ginkgo biloba seeds is glycosylated, and the oligosaccharides conjugated to these proteins might also contribute to the allergy. The aim of this study was to analyze carbohydrate moieties, especially N-linked glycans, of glycoproteins from Ginkgo seeds originating from different places for detailed structures, to enable further research on the role played by N-glycans in Ginkgo-caused allergy. Results of monosaccharide composition and immunoblotting assays indicated the existence of N-glycans. Detailed structural elucidation of the N-glycans was further carried out by means of hydrophilic interaction ultraperformance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In total, 14 out of 16 structures detected by UPLC were confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS and tandem mass spectrometry, among which complex-type N-glycans bearing Lewis A determinants and high-mannose-type N-glycans were identified from Ginkgo seeds for the first time. Precise quantification of N-glycans was performed by use of an external standard, and both the absolute amount of each N-glycan and the percentage of different types of N-glycan showed significant diversity among the samples without any pattern of geographic variation.

  18. Ginkgolic Acid C 17:1, Derived from Ginkgo biloba Leaves, Suppresses Constitutive and Inducible STAT3 Activation through Induction of PTEN and SHP-1 Tyrosine Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ho Baek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolic acid C 17:1 (GAC 17:1 extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has been previously reported to exhibit diverse antitumor effect(s through modulation of several molecular targets in tumor cells, however the detailed mechanism(s of its actions still remains to be elucidated. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is an oncogenic transcription factor that regulates various critical functions involved in progression of diverse hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma, therefore attenuating STAT3 activation may have a potential in cancer therapy. We determined the anti-tumor mechanism of GAC 17:1 with respect to its effect on STAT3 signaling pathway in multiple myeloma cell lines. We found that GAC 17:1 can inhibit constitutive activation of STAT3 through the abrogation of upstream JAK2, Src but not of JAK1 kinases in U266 cells and also found that GAC can suppress IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in MM.1S cells. Treatment of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP inhibitor blocked suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation by GAC 17:1, thereby indicating a critical role for a PTP. We also demonstrate that GAC 17:1 can induce the substantial expression of PTEN and SHP-1 at both protein and mRNA level. Further, deletion of PTEN and SHP-1 genes by siRNA can repress the induction of PTEN and SHP-1, as well as abolished the inhibitory effect of drug on STAT3 phosphorylation. GAC 17:1 down-regulated the expression of STAT3 regulated gene products and induced apoptosis of tumor cells. Overall, GAC 17:1 was found to abrogate STAT3 signaling pathway and thus exert its anticancer effects against multiple myeloma cells.

  19. Abundant RNA editing sites of chloroplast protein-coding genes in Ginkgo biloba and an evolutionary pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Huang, Sheng; Xiao, Guanghui; Zhang, Yuzhou; Yu, Jianing

    2016-12-01

    RNA editing is a posttranscriptional modification process that alters the RNA sequence so that it deviates from the genomic DNA sequence. RNA editing mainly occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondrial genomes, and the number of editing sites varies in terrestrial plants. Why and how RNA editing systems evolved remains a mystery. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest seed plants and has an important evolutionary position. Determining the patterns and distribution of RNA editing in the ancient plant provides insights into the evolutionary trend of RNA editing, and helping us to further understand their biological significance. In this paper, we investigated 82 protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genome of G. biloba and identified 255 editing sites, which is the highest number of RNA editing events reported in a gymnosperm. All of the editing sites were C-to-U conversions, which mainly occurred in the second codon position, biased towards to the U_A context, and caused an increase in hydrophobic amino acids. RNA editing could change the secondary structures of 82 proteins, and create or eliminate a transmembrane region in five proteins as determined in silico. Finally, the evolutionary tendencies of RNA editing in different gene groups were estimated using the nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate selection mode. The G. biloba chloroplast genome possesses the highest number of RNA editing events reported so far in a seed plant. Most of the RNA editing sites can restore amino acid conservation, increase hydrophobicity, and even influence protein structures. Similar purifying selections constitute the dominant evolutionary force at the editing sites of essential genes, such as the psa, some psb and pet groups, and a positive selection occurred in the editing sites of nonessential genes, such as most ndh and a few psb genes.

  20. Una experiencia educativa acerca de Ginkgo biloba, una especie vegetal con aplicación medicinal

    OpenAIRE

    Fait, María Elisa; Fangano, I.; Valle, M. del; Moracci, Luis; Beltrami, Franco; Rosella, María Adelaida; Vairo Cavalli, Sandra; Morcelle del Valle, Susana R.

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) —un árbol ornamental popular en parques y veredas de nuestra ciudad— es ideal para la forestación urbana debido a su gran resistencia a pestes y contaminación, así como también por su bajo potencial invasivo. Esta especie, también conocida como “fósil viviente”, es considerada una de las más antiguas, ya que ha sobrevivido durante millones de años en la superficie de nuestro planeta, soportando incluso catástrofes nucleares como la bomba de Hiroshima. Las hojas ...

  1. Changes in nutrients and decay rate of Ginkgo biloba leaf litter exposed to elevated O3 concentration in urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone (O3 pollution has been widely concerned in the world, particularly in the cities of Asia, including China. Elevated O3 concentrations have potentially influenced growth and nutrient cycling of trees in urban forest. The decomposition characteristics of urban tree litters under O3 exposure are still poorly known. Ginkgo biloba is commonly planted in the cities of northern China and is one of the main tree species in the urban forest of Shenyang, where concentrations of ground-level O3 are very high in summer. Here, we hypothesized that O3 exposure at high concentrations would alter the decomposition rate of urban tree litter. In open-top chambers (OTCs, 5-year-old G. biloba saplings were planted to investigate the impact of elevated O3 concentration (120 ppb on changes in nutrient contents and decomposition rate of leaf litters. The results showed that elevated O3 concentration significantly increased K content (6.31 ± 0.29 vs 17.93 ± 0.40, P < 0.01 in leaves of G. biloba, significantly decreased the contents of total phenols (2.82 ± 0.93 vs 1.60 ± 0.44, P < 0.05 and soluble sugars (86.51 ± 19.57 vs 53.76 ± 2.40, P < 0.05, but did not significantly alter the contents of C, N, P, lignin and condensed tannins, compared with that in ambient air. Furthermore, percent mass remaining in litterbags after 150 days under ambient air and elevated O3 concentration was 56.0% and 52.8%, respectively. No significant difference between treatments was observed in mass remaining at any sampling date during decomposition. The losses of the nutrients in leaf litters of G. biloba showed significant seasonal differences regardless of O3 treatment. However, we found that elevated O3 concentration slowed down the leaf litter decomposition only at the early decomposition stage, but slightly accelerated the litter decomposition at the late stage (after 120 days. This study provides our understanding of the ecological processes regulating

  2. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  3. Moderate doses of commercial preparations of Ginkgo biloba do not alter markers of liver function but moderate alcohol intake does: A new approach to identify and quantify biomarkers of 'adverse effects' of dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Kellogg, Mark D; Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv

    2017-03-01

    It is difficult to determine if certain dietary supplements are safe for human consumption. Extracts of leaves of Ginkgo biloba trees are dietary supplements used for various purported therapeutic benefits. However, recent studies reported they increased risk of liver cancer in rodents. Therefore, this study assessed the association between ginkgo consumption and liver function using NHANES 2001-2012 data (N = 29,684). Since alcohol is known to adversely affect liver function, association of its consumption with liver function was also assessed. Alcohol and ginkgo extract intake of adult consumers and clinical markers of liver function (alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin) were examined. Moderate consumers of alcohol (0.80 ± 0.02 drinks/day) had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase than non-consumers (P  0.01) in levels of markers of liver function in 616 ginkgo consumers (65.1 ± 4.4 mg/day intake) compared to non-consumers. While moderate alcohol consumption was associated with changes in markers of liver function, ginkgo intake as typically consumed by U.S. adults was not associated with these markers. Biomarkers measured by NHANES may be useful to examine potential adverse effects of dietary supplements for which insufficient human adverse event and toxicity data are available. Not applicable, as this is secondary analysis of publicly released observational data (NHANES 2001-2012). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Investigating sesquiterpene biosynthesis in Ginkgo biloba: molecular cloning and functional characterization of (E,E)-farnesol and a-bisabolene synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species and has been extensively investigated as a source of bioactive natural compounds, including flavonoids, diterpene lactones, terpenoids and polysaccharides which accumulate in leaf tissues. Relatively few genes associated with biosynthetic pathwa...

  5. Ginkgo biloba and Angelica archangelica bring back an impartial hepatic apoptotic to anti-apoptotic protein ratio after exposure to technetium 99mTc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raafat, Bassem M; Saleh, Ahmed; Shafaa, Medhat W; Khedr, Mahmoud; Ghafaar, Amany A

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to study the effect of ionizing radiation on apoptosis-related protein concentrations as well as the radio-protective role of Ginkgo biloba and Angelica archangelica. The experiments were performed on 68 adult Wistar rats weighing 175 g (±10 g). Animals were subdivided into control group in which the animals received neither the protector nor the isotopes. The second group represents the animals that received 1 mCi of (99m)Tc only. The third group represents the animals that received A. archangelica for 7 days. The fourth group represents the animals that received G. biloba for 7 days. The fifth group represents the animals that received 1 mCi of (99m)Tc once after receiving A. archangelica for 7 days. The sixth group represents the animals that received mCi of (99m)Tc once after receiving G. biloba for 7 days. Radiation was administered as intravenous injection by 1 mCi of (99m)Tc with the legend methoxyisobutylisonitrile for 24 h. The concentration of p53, Bcl2 and malondialdehyde in liver as well as histopathological examination of liver cells were carried out. Results showed that apoptotic to anti-apoptotic protein ratio significantly (p archangelica and G. biloba in a dose based on the animal body weight. Electron microscope photographing supported this finding. It was concluded that both antioxidants can be used as radio-protective agents in cases of ionizing radiation exposure.

  6. Natural Compounds as Occult Ototoxins? Ginkgo biloba Flavonoids Moderately Damage Lateral Line Hair Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveux, Sarah; Smith, Nicole K; Roche, Anna; Blough, Bruce E; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Coffin, Allison B

    2017-04-01

    Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine. Using the zebrafish lateral line, we screened a natural products library to identify potential ototoxins. We found that the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, both from the Gingko biloba plant, demonstrated significant ototoxicity, killing up to 30 % of lateral line hair cells. We then examined a third Ginkgo flavonoid, isorhamnetin, and found similar levels of ototoxicity. After flavonoid treatment, surviving hair cells demonstrated reduced uptake of the vital dye FM 1-43FX, suggesting that the health of the remaining hair cells was compromised. We then asked if these flavonoids enter hair cells through the mechanotransduction channel, which is the site of entry for many known ototoxins. High extracellular calcium or the quinoline derivative E6 berbamine significantly protected hair cells from flavonoid damage, implicating the transduction channel as a site of flavonoid uptake. Since known ototoxins activate cellular stress responses, we asked if reactive oxygen species were necessary for flavonoid ototoxicity. Co-treatment with the antioxidant D-methionine significantly protected hair cells from each flavonoid, suggesting that antioxidant therapy could prevent hair cell loss. How these products affect mammalian hair cells is still an open question and will be the target of future experiments. However, this research demonstrates the potential for ototoxic damage caused by unregulated

  7. Light and temperature regulation of greening in dark-grown ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skribanek, Anna; Solymosi, Katalin; Hideg, Eva; Böddi, Béla

    2008-12-01

    The last steps of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis were studied at different light intensities and temperatures in dark-germinated ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) seedlings. Pigment contents and 77 K fluorescence emission spectra were measured and the plastid ultrastructure was analysed. All dark-grown organs contained protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) forms with similar spectral properties to those of dark-grown angiosperm seedlings, but the ratios of these forms to each other were different. The short-wavelength, monomeric Pchlide forms were always dominating. Etioplasts with small prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and few prothylakoids (PTs) differentiated in the dark-grown stems. Upon illumination with high light intensities (800 micromol m(-2) s(-1) photon flux density, PFD), photo-oxidation and bleaching occurred in the stems and the presence of (1)O(2) was detected. When Chl accumulated in plants illuminated with 15 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PFD it was significantly slower at 10 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. At room temperature, the transformation of etioplasts into young chloroplasts was observed at low light, while it was delayed at 10 degrees C. Grana did not appear in the plastids even after 48 h of greening at 20 degrees C. Reaccumulation of Pchlide forms and re-formation of PLBs occurred when etiolated samples were illuminated with 200 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PFD at room temperature for 24 h and were then re-etiolated for 5 days. The Pchlide forms appeared during re-etiolation had similar spectral properties to those of etiolated seedlings. These results show that ginkgo seedlings are very sensitive to temperature and light conditions during their greening, a fact that should be considered for ginkgo cultivation.

  8. Effect of single-dose Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Gregory S; McKeever, Rita G; Patel, Urvi; Okaneku, Jolene; Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2015-02-01

    Panax ginseng and Gingko biloba are commonly used herbal supplements in the United States that have been reported to increase alertness and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of these specific herbals on driving performance. 30 volunteers were tested using the STISIM3® Driving Simulator (Systems Technology Inc., Hawthorne, CA, USA) in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups of 10 subjects per group. After 10-min of simulated driving, subjects received either ginseng (1200 mg), Gingko (240 mg), or placebo administered orally. The test herbals and placebo were randomized and administered by a research assistant outside of the study to maintain blinding. One hour following administration of the herbals or placebo, the subjects completed an additional 10-min of simulated driving. Standard driving parameters were studied including reaction time, standard deviation of lateral positioning, and divided attention. Data collected for the divided attention parameter included time to response and number of correct responses. The data was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). There was no difference in reaction time or standard deviation of lateral positioning for both the ginseng and Ginkgo arms. For the divided attention parameter, the response time in the Ginkgo arm decreased from 2.9 to 2.5 s. The ginseng arm also decreased from 3.2 to 2.4 s. None of these values were statistically significant when between group differences were analyzed. The data suggests there was no statistically significant difference between ginseng, Ginkgo or placebo on driving performance. We postulate this is due to the relatively small numbers in our study. Further study with a larger sample size may be needed in order to elucidate more fully the effects of Ginkgo and ginseng on driving ability.

  9. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Ginkgo biloba Reveals the Mechanism of Inverted Repeat Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Huang, Ya-Yi; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2012-01-01

    We determined the complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) of Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo), the only relict of ginkgophytes from the Triassic Period. The cpDNA molecule of ginkgo is quadripartite and circular, with a length of 156,945 bp, which is 6,458 bp shorter than that of Cycas taitungensis. In ginkgo cpDNA, rpl23 becomes pseudo, only one copy of ycf2 is retained, and there are at least five editing sites. We propose that the retained ycf2 is a duplicate of the ancestral ycf2, and the ancestral one has been lost from the inverted repeat A (IRA). This loss event should have occurred and led to the contraction of IRs after ginkgos diverged from other gymnosperms. A novel cluster of three transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, trnY-AUA, trnC-ACA, and trnSeC-UCA, was predicted to be located between trnC-GCA and rpoB of the large single-copy region. Our phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests that the three predicted tRNA genes are duplicates of trnC-GCA. Interestingly, in ginkgo cpDNA, the loss of one ycf2 copy does not significantly elevate the synonymous rate (Ks) of the retained copy, which disagrees with the view of Perry and Wolfe (2002) that one of the two-copy genes is subjected to elevated Ks when its counterpart has been lost. We hypothesize that the loss of one ycf2 is likely recent, and therefore, the acquired Ks of the retained copy is low. Our data reveal that ginkgo possesses several unique features that contribute to our understanding of the cpDNA evolution in seed plants. PMID:22403032

  10. The Effects of Fertilization on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba L. is one of the most extensively planted and productive commercial species in temperate areas around the world, but slow-growth is the most limiting factor for its utilization. Fertilization is one of the key technologies for high quality and high forest yield. To better understand the impacts of fertilization on Ginkgo productivity, the effects of fertilization treatments (single fertilizer and combined fertilizer on growth, nutrient content in Ginkgo leaves, and photosynthesis characteristics were studied in a 10-year-old Ginkgo plantation over two years. The single factor experiments suggested that DBH (diameter at breast height, H (height, NSL (length of new shoots, and V (trunk volume showed significant differences between the different levels of single nitrogen (N or phosphate (P fertilizer application. Orthogonal test results showed that the nine treatments all promoted the growth of Ginkgo, and the formula (N: 400 g·tree−1, P: 200 g·tree−1, potassium (K: 90 g·tree−1 was the most effective. Gs (stomatal conductance and Pn (net photosynthesis rate showed significant differences between the different amounts of single N or P fertilizer application, while single K fertilizer only affected Pn. Combined N, P, and K fertilizer had significant promoting effects on Ci (intercellular CO2 concentration, Gs and Pn. N and P contents in Ginkgo leaves showed significant differences between the different amounts of a single N fertilizer application. A single P fertilizer only improved foliar P contents in Ginkgo leaves. A single K fertilizer application improved N and K content in Ginkgo leaves. The effects of different N, P, and K fertilizer treatments on the nutrient content of Ginkgo leaves were different.

  11. Efeito do extrato de Ginkgo biloba L., Ginkgoaceae, na osteoporose induzida em ratas Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda M. F. Lucinda

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou os efeitos do tratamento por vinte dias com extrato de Ginkgo biloba (EGb na osteoporose induzida por glicocorticóides. Foram utilizadas 36 ratas divididas em seis grupos (n=6: Controle, osteoporose, controle positivo, EGb1 (14 mg EGb/mg/kg/dia, EGb2 (28 mg EGb/kg/dia e EGb3 (56 mg EGb/kg/dia. Os tratamentos foram realizados por vinte dias, após a indução da osteoporose. Após a eutanásia foram removidos o fêmur e a mandíbula de todos os animais. A mandíbula esquerda foi radiografada digitalmente para avaliação da cortical e do suporte ósseo periodontal (SOP. A análise histomorfométrica foi realizada no fêmur e mandíbula direitos. O grupo controle foi comparado ao grupo osteoporose (Teste t de Student e os demais grupos foram submetidos a ANOVA, seguido do teste post-hoc de Dunnett. Houve redução significava do SOP mesial, percentual ósseo alveolar (POA mandibular, percentual ósseo trabecular (POT do fêmur no grupo osteoporose. Houve aumento do SOP mesial no grupo controle positivo, EGb2 e EGb3. O POA da mandíbula e o POT do fêmur aumentaram nos grupos EGb2 e EGb3. O EGb nas doses de 28 mg/kg e 56 mg/kg recuperou de forma significativa o SOP mesial, o POA da mandíbula e o POT do fêmur.

  12. Phytotoxic mechanisms of bur cucumber seed extracts on lettuce with special reference to analysis of chloroplast proteins, phytohormones, and nutritional elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Min; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Jin-Hyo; Lee, In-Yong; Moon, Bong-Kyu; Yoon, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Bioherbicides from plant extracts are an effective and environmentally friendly method to prevent weed growth. The present investigation was aimed at determining the inhibitory effect of bur cucumber seed extracts (BSE) on lettuce plant growth. Bur cucumber seeds were ground with water, and two different concentrations of seed extracts (10% and 20%) were prepared and applied to lettuce plants. Decreased plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, anProd. Type: FTPd leaf area were found in lettuce exposed to BSE as compared with controls. A significant reduction in lettuce biomass was observed in 20% BSE-treated plants due to the presence of higher amounts of phenolic content in the extracts. Moreover, a significant inhibitory chemical, 2-linoleoyl glycerol, was identified in BSE extracts. The mechanism of plant growth inhibition was assayed in lettuce proteins by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and the LC-MS/MS method. In total, 57 protein spots were detected in plants treated with 20% BSE and control plants. Among these, 39 proteins were down-regulated and 18 proteins were up-regulated in plants exposed to 20% BSE as compared with controls. The presence of low levels of chlorophyll a/b binding protein and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 in BSE-exposed plants reduced photosynthetic pigment synthesis and might be a reason for stunted plant growth. Indeed, the plant-growth stimulating hormone gibberellin was inhibited, and synthesis of stress hormones such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were triggered in lettuce by the effects of BSE. Uptake of essential nutrients, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, S, and Mo, was deficient and accumulation of the toxic ions Cu, Zn, and Na was higher in BSE-treated plants. The results of this study suggest that extracts of bur cucumber seeds can be an effective eco-friendly bioherbicide for weed control that work by inhibiting mechanisms of photosynthesis and regulating phytohormones and nutritional elements

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cytochrome P450 taxoid 9á-hydroxylase in Ginkgo biloba cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Han, Zhentai; Sun, Guiling; Hoffman, Angela; Wilson, Iain W; Yang, Yanfang; Gao, Qian; Wu, Jianqiang; Xie, Dan; Dai, Jungui; Qiu, Deyou

    2014-01-17

    Taxol is a well-known effective anticancer compound. Due to the inability to synthesize sufficient quantities of taxol to satisfy commercial demand, a biotechnological approach for a large-scale cell or cell-free system for its production is highly desirable. Several important genes in taxol biosynthesis are currently still unknown and have been shown to be difficult to isolate directly from Taxus, including the gene encoding taxoid 9α-hydroxylase. Ginkgo biloba suspension cells exhibit taxoid hydroxylation activity and provides an alternate means of identifying genes encoding enzymes with taxoid 9α-hydroxylation activity. Through analysis of high throughput RNA sequencing data from G. biloba, we identified two candidate genes with high similarity to Taxus CYP450s. Using in vitro cell-free protein synthesis assays and LC-MS analysis, we show that one candidate that belongs to the CYP716B, a subfamily whose biochemical functions have not been previously studied, possessed 9α-hydroxylation activity. This work will aid future identification of the taxoid 9α-hydroxylase gene from Taxus sp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Divdaivu Ginka (Ginkgo Biloba) farmakoloģiskās īpašības un tā preparātu aprite SIA "Gulbju aptiekā"

    OpenAIRE

    Indriča, Alīna

    2014-01-01

    Divdaivu ginks (Ginkgo biloba) ir viens no vecākajiem kokiem pasaulē. Ķīnas tradicionālajā medicīnā ginka lapas un sēklas izmanto jau vismaz 5000 gadus. Standartizēts Ginkgo biloba ekstrakts satur – 24% flavonglikozīdu un 6% terpēnlaktonu. Šī darba mērķis ir veikt apkopoto datu analīzi par Ginkgo biloba preparātu apriti „Gulbju aptiekā” – Gulbenē, 2013. gada laikā, kā arī noskaidrot cilvēku informētību par Ginkgo biloba preparātu lietošanu. Darbā tika izvirzīti 4 uzdevumi: Noskaidrot, k...

  15. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes......Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...

  16. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  17. Efeito do EGB761 (Extrato de Ginkgo biloba sobre a qualidade de vida em pacientes asmáticos moderados submetidos a tratamento de manutenção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Hillebrand

    Full Text Available A busca de tratamentos alternativos e eficazes para o controle da asma brônquica é fator importante na melhora da qualidade de vida dos portadores da doença. O efeito do extrato de Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba L., na resposta asmática ao tratamento de manutenção para asma brônquica moderada persistente, foi estudado em um ensaio clínico randomizado, cego, placebo controlado.

  18. 19 (Special Issue)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mwakagugu

    19 (Special Issue). Tanzania Dental Journal 2017. 1. PRESIDENTS SPEECH AT THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE TANZANIA DENTAL. ASSOCIATION 31ST SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE AND .... awareness on oral health issues, high tooth decay, gum diseases and predominant tooth extraction as consistently reported ...

  19. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE-761) on the survival of fasciocutaneous flaps in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambuy, Marina T C; Costa, Antonio C da; Cohen, Carina; Chakkour, Ivan

    2012-02-01

    Cutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps are used widely in the surgical reconstruction of various body segments, especially to cover exposed vital tissues. Partial or total necrosis of these flaps, secondary to insufficient tissue irrigation, is one possible complication. Therefore, investigations into antiplatelet aggregation, vasodilation and antioxidant properties are highly significant. The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of GbE 761 on the survival of fasciocutaneous flaps in rats. For that purpose, GbE 761 was administered to 30 rats after the creation of 10 × 3 cm dorsal flaps on each animal. The rats were divided into three equal groups. GbE 761 was administered to Group A, starting immediately after surgery; Group B received it 24 h after the flap was cut; and Group C (controls) received 0.9% NaCl solution. The average area of necrosis was 29.53% in Group A, 26.25% in Group B and 46.12% in Group C. The difference between Groups B and C was statistically significant (p = 0.026). These initial findings suggest that GbE 761 administered on day 1 after surgery reduces the percentage of necrosis in fasciocutaneous flaps, relative to not giving GbE at all. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Action Mechanism of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Intervened by Exercise Therapy in Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Liu, Jia-Hong; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chung, Jin-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), an imbalance between androgen/estrogen, overexpression of stromal, and epithelial growth factors associated with chronic inflammation, has become an atypical direct cause of mortality of aged male diseases. Ginkgo possesses anti-inflammatory, blood flow-enhancing, and free radical scavenging effects. Considering strenuous exercise can reduce BPH risks, we hypothesize Ginkgo + exercise (Ginkgo + Ex) could be beneficial to BPH. To verify this, rat BPH model was induced by s.c. 3.5 mg testosterone (T) and 0.1 mg estradiol (E2) per head per day successively for 8 weeks, using mineral oil as placebo. Cerenin® 8.33 μL/100 g was applied s.c. from the 10th to the 13th week, and simultaneously, Ex was applied (30 m/min, 3 times/week). In BPH, Ginkgo alone had no effect on T, 5α-reductase, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but suppressed androgen receptor (AR), aromatase, E2 and estrogen receptor (ER), and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); Ex alone significantly reduced T, aromatase, E2, ER, AR, and PCNA, but highly raised DHT. While Ginkgo + Ex androgenically downregulated T, aromatase, E2, and ER, but upregulated DHT, AR, and PCNA, implying Ginkgo + Ex tended to worsen BPH. Conclusively, Ginkgo or Ex alone may be more beneficial than Ginkgo + Ex for treatment of BPH. PMID:23690843

  1. Action Mechanism of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Intervened by Exercise Therapy in Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Chi Peng

    2013-01-01

    overexpression of stromal, and epithelial growth factors associated with chronic inflammation, has become an atypical direct cause of mortality of aged male diseases. Ginkgo possesses anti-inflammatory, blood flow-enhancing, and free radical scavenging effects. Considering strenuous exercise can reduce BPH risks, we hypothesize Ginkgo + exercise (Ginkgo + Ex could be beneficial to BPH. To verify this, rat BPH model was induced by s.c. 3.5 mg testosterone (T and 0.1 mg estradiol (E2 per head per day successively for 8 weeks, using mineral oil as placebo. Cerenin® 8.33 μL/100 g was applied s.c. from the 10th to the 13th week, and simultaneously, Ex was applied (30 m/min, 3 times/week. In BPH, Ginkgo alone had no effect on T, 5α-reductase, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, but suppressed androgen receptor (AR, aromatase, E2 and estrogen receptor (ER, and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA; Ex alone significantly reduced T, aromatase, E2, ER, AR, and PCNA, but highly raised DHT. While Ginkgo + Ex androgenically downregulated T, aromatase, E2, and ER, but upregulated DHT, AR, and PCNA, implying Ginkgo + Ex tended to worsen BPH. Conclusively, Ginkgo or Ex alone may be more beneficial than Ginkgo + Ex for treatment of BPH.

  2. Contribution to the aetiology of synovitis in chickens, with special reference to non-infective factors. V. Extractability of glucosaminoglycans/mucoproteins from tendon tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walsum, J; Vertommen, M H; vd Laan, A

    1981-07-01

    A comparative study was undertaken regarding the extractability of glucosaminoglycans and mucoproteins in the tendon tissue of birds highly susceptible to synovitis, viz.broiler breed cocks (BB cocks), and of birds highly resistant to synovitis. viz. White Leghorn hens (WL hens). It was shown that in ;the case of WL hens this extractability decreased in accordance with ageing. In the case of BB cocks such a decrease was not observed. This observation is in support of a working hypothesis which supposes a relatively high degree of interaction between the several components of tendon components of tendon tissue (e.g. collagen and glucosaminoglycans/mucoproteins) in the case of WL hens, and a relatively low degree of this interaction in the case of BB cocks. Moreover the results of this study account for the observation that the tendon tissue of WL hens is more resistant to tensile stress than that of BB cocks, and they indicate that the above interaction is a determinant in the aetiology of synovitis.

  3. Ginkgotides: Proline-Rich Hevein-Like Peptides from GymnospermGinkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang; Serra, Aida; Xiao, Tianshu; Sze, Siu Kwan; Yang, Daiwen; Tam, James P

    2016-01-01

    Hevein and hevein-like peptides belong to the family of chitin-binding cysteine-rich peptides. They are classified into three subfamilies, the prototypic 8C- and the 6C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. Thus far, only five 8C-hevein-like peptides have been characterized from three angiosperms and none from gymnosperm. To determine their occurrence and distribution in the gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba leaves were examined. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of 11 novel 8C-hevein-like peptides, namely ginkgotides gB1-gB11. Proteomic analysis showed that the ginkgotides contain 41-44 amino acids (aa), a chitin-binding domain and are Pro-rich, a distinguishing feature that differs from other hevein-like peptides. Solution NMR structure determination revealed that gB5 contains a three β-stranded structure shaped by a cystine knot with an additional disulfide bond at the C-terminus. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the ginkgotide precursors contain a three-domain architecture, comprised of a C-terminal tail (20 aa) that is significantly shorter than those of other 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides, which generally contain a protein cargo such as a Barwin-like protein (126 aa) or class I chitinase (254 aa). Transcriptomic data mining found an additional 48 ginkgotide homologs in 39 different gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ginkgotides and their homologs belong to a new class of 8C-hevein-like peptides. Stability studies showed that ginkgotides are highly resistant to thermal, acidic and endopeptidase degradation. Ginkgotides flanked at both the N- and C-terminal ends by Pro were resistant to exopeptidase degradation by carboxypeptidase A and aminopeptidase. Antifungal assays showed that ginkgotides inhibit the hyphal growth of phyto-pathogenic fungi. Taken together, ginkgotides represent the first suite of hevein-like peptides isolated and characterized from gymnosperms. As a group, they represent a novel class of 8C-hevein-like peptides that

  4. Ginkgotides: Proline-Rich Hevein-Like Peptides from Gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang; Serra, Aida; Xiao, Tianshu; Sze, Siu Kwan; Yang, Daiwen; Tam, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Hevein and hevein-like peptides belong to the family of chitin-binding cysteine-rich peptides. They are classified into three subfamilies, the prototypic 8C- and the 6C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. Thus far, only five 8C-hevein-like peptides have been characterized from three angiosperms and none from gymnosperm. To determine their occurrence and distribution in the gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba leaves were examined. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of 11 novel 8C-hevein-like peptides, namely ginkgotides gB1–gB11. Proteomic analysis showed that the ginkgotides contain 41–44 amino acids (aa), a chitin-binding domain and are Pro-rich, a distinguishing feature that differs from other hevein-like peptides. Solution NMR structure determination revealed that gB5 contains a three β-stranded structure shaped by a cystine knot with an additional disulfide bond at the C-terminus. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the ginkgotide precursors contain a three-domain architecture, comprised of a C-terminal tail (20 aa) that is significantly shorter than those of other 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides, which generally contain a protein cargo such as a Barwin-like protein (126 aa) or class I chitinase (254 aa). Transcriptomic data mining found an additional 48 ginkgotide homologs in 39 different gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ginkgotides and their homologs belong to a new class of 8C-hevein-like peptides. Stability studies showed that ginkgotides are highly resistant to thermal, acidic and endopeptidase degradation. Ginkgotides flanked at both the N- and C-terminal ends by Pro were resistant to exopeptidase degradation by carboxypeptidase A and aminopeptidase. Antifungal assays showed that ginkgotides inhibit the hyphal growth of phyto-pathogenic fungi. Taken together, ginkgotides represent the first suite of hevein-like peptides isolated and characterized from gymnosperms. As a group, they represent a novel class of 8C-hevein-like peptides

  5. Ginkgotides: Proline-rich Hevein-like Peptides from Gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Ho Wong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hevein and hevein-like peptides belong to the family of chitin-binding cysteine-rich peptides. They are classified into three subfamilies, the prototypic 8C- and the 6C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. Thus far, only five 8C-hevein-like peptides have been characterized from three angiosperms and none from gymnosperm. To determine their occurrence and distribution in the gymnosperm, Ginkgo biloba leaves were examined. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of eleven novel 8C-hevein-like peptides, namely ginkgotides gB1–gB11. Proteomic analysis showed that the ginkgotides contain 41–44 amino acids (aa, a chitin-binding domain and are Pro-rich, a distinguishing feature that differs from other hevein-like peptides. Solution 1H-NMR structure determination revealed that gB5 contains a three β-stranded structure shaped by a cystine knot with an additional disulfide bond at the C-terminus. Transcriptomic analysis showed that the ginkgotide precursors contain a three-domain architecture, comprised of a C-terminal tail (20 aa that is significantly shorter than those of other 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides, which generally contain a protein cargo such as a Barwin-like protein (126 aa or class I chitinase (254 aa. Transcriptomic data mining found an additional 48 ginkgotide homologs in 39 different gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ginkgotides and their homologs belong to a new class of 8C-hevein-like peptides. Stability studies showed that ginkgotides are highly resistant to thermal, acidic and endopeptidase degradation. Ginkgotides flanked at both the N- and C-terminal ends by Pro were resistant to exopeptidase degradation by carboxypeptidase A and aminopeptidase. Antifungal assays showed that ginkgotides inhibit the hyphal growth of phyto-pathogenic fungi. Taken together, ginkgotides represent the first suite of hevein-like peptides isolated and characterized from gymnosperms. As a group, they represent a novel class of 8C

  6. Distribution of coniferin in freeze-fixed stem of Ginkgo biloba L. by cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Dan; Hanaya, Yuto; Akita, Takuya; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Masato; Kuroda, Katsushi; Yagami, Sachie; Takama, Ruka; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the role of coniferin in planta, semi-quantitative cellular distribution of coniferin in quick-frozen Ginkgo biloba L. (ginkgo) was visualized by cryo time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (cryo-TOF-SIMS/SEM) analysis. The amount and rough distribution of coniferin were confirmed through quantitative chromatography measurement using serial tangential sections of the freeze-fixed ginkgo stem. The lignification stage of the sample was estimated using microscopic observations. Coniferin distribution visualized at the transverse and radial surfaces of freeze-fixed ginkgo stem suggested that coniferin is stored in the vacuoles, and showed good agreement with the assimilation timing of coniferin to lignin in differentiating xylem. Consequently, it is suggested that coniferin is stored in the tracheid cells of differentiating xylem and is a lignin precursor.

  7. Supplementing cognitive aging: a selective review of the effects of ginkgo biloba and a number of everyday nutritional substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise A; Riby, Leigh M; Reay, Jonathon L

    2010-01-01

    This review concerns a number of substances that have been receiving much attention, particularly in the media, for their potential to protect against age-related cognitive decline, and a focus is placed upon recent findings. Omega-3 fatty acids appear to play important roles in preserving neuronal structure and function and minimizing cognitive decline, whereas the antioxidant vitamins C and E appear to be particularly beneficial for combating age-related oxidative stress when administered in combination. Fruit and vegetable polyphenols also offer great potential, although most research thus far has involved rodents. Finally, there is mixed evidence regarding the cognitive enhancing properties of Ginkgo biloba, and the B vitamins folate and cobalamin, with all of these requiring further investigation.

  8. The Efficacy and Safety of Add-on Ginko TD (Ginkgo Biloba Treatment for PTSD: Results of a 12-Week Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Koohi Habibi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Exposure to traumatic stressors lead to activation of arousal responses mediated by serotonergic and noradrenergic systems and it may cause a change in numerous neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine systems. There is ample experimental and clinical evidence to suggest that Ginkgo biloba extract is neuroprotective and has antioxidant properties and can restore stress-induced elevation in brain levels of catecholamines, 5-HT and plasma corticosterone to normal level. "nMethod: In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the efficacy and safety of adding-on a fixed-dose (200mg of Ginkgo TD to the previous treatment regime of adults with PTSD were examined. Subjects were forty male and female outpatients from a public-owned psychiatric clinic who met criteria for PTSD seven month after a 6.3 Richter earthquake in Bam city on December 26, 2003. The changes in five symptom domains including posttraumatic stress, anxiety and affective symptoms, general health and subjective stress after trauma were ssessed at weeks 0, 12 and 16 to examine effectiveness of the added-on Ginkgo TD and stability of its effects. "nResults: Ginkgo TD was associated with a significantly greater improvement than placebo in PTSD patients as measured by five symptom domain scales including: GHQ-28; Watson PTSD Scale; HAM-D; HAM-A and IES (p= 0.02, 0.01, 0.001, 0.01, 0.02 respectively Four weeks after the discontinuation of intervention, no significant difference was determined between the two groups in the five outcome measures (p= 0.005, 0.01, 0.004, 0.005, 0.01 respectively. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of side effects. "nConclusions: We found Ginkgo TD to be superior to placebo as an adding-on in the treatment of PTSD. Although we did not examine the comparative efficacy of Ginkgo TD on the three main elements of PTSD, beneficial effects both on specific PTSD symptomatology and general conditions including

  9. Characterization of the major aroma-active compounds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2014-05-21

    The aroma-active compounds present in tree-ripened fruits of the five mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars Haden, White Alfonso, Praya Sowoy, Royal Special, and Malindi were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometery (GC-O). Application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) afforded 54 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 4 to ≥2048, 16 of which are reported for the first time in mango. The results of the identification experiments in combination with the FD factors revealed 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone as an important aroma compound in all cultivars analyzed. Twenty-seven aroma-active compounds were present in at least one mango cultivar at an FD factor ≥128. Clear differences in the FD factors of these odorants between each of the mango cultivars suggested that they contributed to the unique sensory profiles of the individual cultivars.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of three genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase from Ginkgo biloba in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Cheng; Linling, Li; Shuiyuan, Cheng; Fuliang, Cao; Feng, Xu; Honghui, Yuan; Conghua, Wu

    2013-01-01

    Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR, EC1.1.1.219) catalyzes a key step late in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins), and other flavonoids important to plant survival and human nutrition. Three DFR cDNA clones (designated GbDFRs) were isolated from the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. The deduced GbDFR proteins showed high identities to other plant DFRs, which form three distinct DFR families. Southern blot analysis showed that the three GbDFRs each belong to a different DFR family. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the GbDFRs share the same ancestor as other DFRs. The expression of the three recombinant GbDFRs in Escherichia coli showed that their actual protein sizes were in agreement with predictions from the cDNA sequences. The recombinant proteins were purified and their activity was analyzed; both GbDFR1 and GbDFR3 could catalyze dihydroquercetin conversion to leucocyanidin, while GbDFR2 catalyzed dihydrokaempferol conversion to leucopelargonidin. qRT-PCR showed that the GbDFRs were expressed in a tissue-specific manner, and transcript accumulation for the three genes was highest in young leaves and stamens. These transcription patterns were in good agreement with the pattern of anthocyanin accumulation in G.biloba. The expression profiles suggested that GbDFR1 and GbDFR2 are mainly involved in responses to plant hormones, environmental stress and damage. During the annual growth cycle, the GbDFRs were significantly correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. A fitted linear curve showed the best model for relating GbDFR2 and GbDFR3 with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. GbDFR1 appears to be involved in environmental stress response, while GbDFR3 likely has primary functions in the synthesis of anthocyanins. These data revealed unexpected properties and differences in three DFR proteins from a single species.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of three genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase from Ginkgo biloba in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hua

    Full Text Available Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR, EC1.1.1.219 catalyzes a key step late in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids important to plant survival and human nutrition. Three DFR cDNA clones (designated GbDFRs were isolated from the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. The deduced GbDFR proteins showed high identities to other plant DFRs, which form three distinct DFR families. Southern blot analysis showed that the three GbDFRs each belong to a different DFR family. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the GbDFRs share the same ancestor as other DFRs. The expression of the three recombinant GbDFRs in Escherichia coli showed that their actual protein sizes were in agreement with predictions from the cDNA sequences. The recombinant proteins were purified and their activity was analyzed; both GbDFR1 and GbDFR3 could catalyze dihydroquercetin conversion to leucocyanidin, while GbDFR2 catalyzed dihydrokaempferol conversion to leucopelargonidin. qRT-PCR showed that the GbDFRs were expressed in a tissue-specific manner, and transcript accumulation for the three genes was highest in young leaves and stamens. These transcription patterns were in good agreement with the pattern of anthocyanin accumulation in G.biloba. The expression profiles suggested that GbDFR1 and GbDFR2 are mainly involved in responses to plant hormones, environmental stress and damage. During the annual growth cycle, the GbDFRs were significantly correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. A fitted linear curve showed the best model for relating GbDFR2 and GbDFR3 with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. GbDFR1 appears to be involved in environmental stress response, while GbDFR3 likely has primary functions in the synthesis of anthocyanins. These data revealed unexpected properties and differences in three DFR proteins from a single species.

  12. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yong-Ling; Shen, Yong-Bao; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Shui-Yuan; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter. PMID:26351628

  13. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Three Genes Encoding Dihydroflavonol-4-Reductase from Ginkgo biloba in Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Cheng; Linling, Li; Shuiyuan, Cheng; Fuliang, Cao; Feng, Xu; Honghui, Yuan; Conghua, Wu

    2013-01-01

    Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR, EC1.1.1.219) catalyzes a key step late in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins), and other flavonoids important to plant survival and human nutrition. Three DFR cDNA clones (designated GbDFRs) were isolated from the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. The deduced GbDFR proteins showed high identities to other plant DFRs, which form three distinct DFR families. Southern blot analysis showed that the three GbDFRs each belong to a different DFR family. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the GbDFRs share the same ancestor as other DFRs. The expression of the three recombinant GbDFRs in Escherichia coli showed that their actual protein sizes were in agreement with predictions from the cDNA sequences. The recombinant proteins were purified and their activity was analyzed; both GbDFR1 and GbDFR3 could catalyze dihydroquercetin conversion to leucocyanidin, while GbDFR2 catalyzed dihydrokaempferol conversion to leucopelargonidin. qRT-PCR showed that the GbDFRs were expressed in a tissue-specific manner, and transcript accumulation for the three genes was highest in young leaves and stamens. These transcription patterns were in good agreement with the pattern of anthocyanin accumulation in G.biloba. The expression profiles suggested that GbDFR1 and GbDFR2 are mainly involved in responses to plant hormones, environmental stress and damage. During the annual growth cycle, the GbDFRs were significantly correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. A fitted linear curve showed the best model for relating GbDFR2 and GbDFR3 with anthocyanin accumulation in leaves. GbDFR1 appears to be involved in environmental stress response, while GbDFR3 likely has primary functions in the synthesis of anthocyanins. These data revealed unexpected properties and differences in three DFR proteins from a single species. PMID:23991027

  14. Isolation, Expression, and Promoter Analysis of GbWRKY2: A Novel Transcription Factor Gene from Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ling Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factor is involved in multiple life activities including plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic responses. We identified 28 WRKY genes from transcriptome data of Ginkgo biloba according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc finger structure and selected three WRKY genes, which are GbWRKY2, GbWRKY16, and GbWRKY21, for expression pattern analysis. GbWRKY2 was preferentially expressed in flowers and strongly induced by methyl jasmonate. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA of GbWRKY2. The full-length cDNA of GbWRKY2 was 1,713 bp containing a 1,014 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 337 amino acids. The GbWRKY2 genomic DNA had one intron and two exons. The deduced GbWRKY2 contained one WRKY domain and one zinc finger motif. GbWRKY2 was classified into Group II WRKYs. Southern blot analysis revealed that GbWRKY2 was a single copy gene in G. biloba. Many cis-acting elements related to hormone and stress responses were identified in the 1,363 bp-length 5′-flanking sequence of GbWRKY2, including W-box, ABRE-motif, MYBCOREs, and PYRIMIDINE-boxes, revealing the molecular mechanism of upregulated expression of GbWRKY2 by hormone and stress treatments. Further functional characterizations in transiently transformed tobacco leaves allowed us to identify the region that can be considered as the minimal promoter.

  15. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  16. Review of Theoretical Prediction Models for Organic Extract Metabolites, Effect of Drying Temperature on Smooth Muscle Relaxing Activity Induced by Organic Extracts Specially Cecropia Obtusifolia Portal and Web Server Predictors of Drug-Protein Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Crespo, Francisco; García-Mera, Xerardo; Guillén-Poot, Mónica Anahi; May-Díaz, Héctor Fernado; Tun-Suárez, Adrián; Aguirre-Crespo, A; Hernández-Rodríguez, J; Vergara-Galicia, Jorge; Rodríguez-López, V; Prado-Prado, Francisco J

    2015-02-19

    Cecropia obtusifolia bertol is medicinal specie used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension and it has scientific studies that support the traditional use. However, it is required to understand the influence of drying temperature on the yield and pharmacological activity. Drying rate, extraction efficiency, changes in the UV-Vis spectrum and estimating chlorophylls were stimulated with the increasing temperature. Finally, relaxant activity of vascular smooth muscle is increased by 70ºC and reducing ability by the method of CARF increases with temperature. Analytical studies are required to identify changes in the metabolic content and those that ensure the safety and efficacy for human consumption. In this sense, bioinformatic studies may be helpful. Studies such as QSAR can help us to study these metabolites derived from natural products. MIND-BETS model and NL MIND-BETS model to predict DPIs was introduced using MARCH-INSIDE (MI) software to calculate structural parameters for drugs and enzymes respectively. We firstly revised the state-of-art on the design with review of previous works with hypertension activity based on theoretical studies. A study, evaluating the effect of drying temperature of leaves of C. obtusifolia on the relaxing of vascular smooth muscle, antioxidant activity and the presence of chlorophylls, with a focus on Cecropia metabolites. Last, we carried out QSAR studies using MIND-BEST and NL MIND-BEST web servers in order to understand the essential metabolites structural requirement for binding with receptors for FDA proteins.

  17. Investigating sesquiterpene biosynthesis in Ginkgo biloba: molecular cloning and functional characterization of (E,E)-farnesol and α-bisabolene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Iffat; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Baerson, Scott R; Techen, Natascha; Chappell, Joe; Khan, Ikhlas A; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest living tree species and has been extensively investigated as a source of bioactive natural compounds, including bioactive flavonoids, diterpene lactones, terpenoids and polysaccharides which accumulate in foliar tissues. Despite this chemical diversity, relatively few enzymes associated with any biosynthetic pathway from ginkgo have been characterized to date. In the present work, predicted transcripts potentially encoding enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of diterpenoid and terpenoid compounds, including putative terpene synthases, were first identified by mining publicly-available G. biloba RNA-seq data sets. Recombinant enzyme studies with two of the TPS-like sequences led to the identification of GbTPS1 and GbTPS2, encoding farnesol and bisabolene synthases, respectively. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis revealed the two terpene synthase genes as primitive genes that might have evolved from an ancestral diterpene synthase.

  18. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ginkgo biloba in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: From Ancient Tradition to Modern-Day Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Brondino, Natascia; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Re, Simona; Lanati, Niccol?; Thiemann, Pia; Verna, Anna; Emanuele, Enzo; Politi, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (Gb) has demonstrated antioxidant and vasoactive properties as well as clinical benefits in several conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy, and peripheral nerve damage. Additionally, Gb is supposed to act as potential cognitive enhancer in dementia. So far, several trials have been conducted to investigate the potential effectiveness of Gb in neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analys...

  20. Analysis of codon usage patterns in Ginkgo biloba reveals codon usage tendency from A/U-ending to G/C-ending

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Dong, Hui; Jiang, Cong; Cao, Fuliang; Tao, Shentong; Xu, Li-an

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most ancient tree species, the codon usage pattern analysis of Ginkgo biloba is a useful way to understand its evolutionary and genetic mechanisms. Several studies have been conducted on angiosperms, but seldom on gymnosperms. Based on RNA-Seq data of the G. biloba transcriptome, amount to 17,579 unigenes longer than 300 bp were selected and analyzed from 68,547 candidates. The codon usage pattern tended towards more frequently use of A/U-ending codons, which showed an obvious gradient progressing from gymnosperms to dicots to monocots. Meanwhile, analysis of high/low-expression unigenes revealed that high-expression unigenes tended to use G/C-ending codons together with more codon usage bias. Variation of unigenes with different functions suggested that unigenes involving in environment adaptation use G/C-ending codons more frequently with more usage bias, and these results were consistent with the conclusion that the formation of G. biloba codon usage bias was dominated by natural selection. PMID:27808241

  1. Specialized science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  2. Special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  3. Antioxidant activity from the leaf extracts of Jacaranda puberula Cham., Bignoniaceae, a Brazilian medicinal plant used for blood depuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Macedo Lessa dos Santos

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from Jacaranda puberula Cham., Bignoniaceae, was assayed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging method. Three phytomedicines (F1, F2, and F3 used as blood depurative, were tested by the same method. The free radical scavenger potential was measured by the discoloration of the solution. The EC50 values from Gingko bilobaEGb 761® extract and rutin, used as antioxidant for medical purposes, were used as reference. The ethanol extract (EE, ethyl acetate (EA, butanol (EB, aqueous (EAq and the sample A (obtained from extract EB, showed lower EC50 values than other extracts and phytomedicines. The antioxidant activity (AA of the extracts was related with the presence of the polyphenol compounds such as verbascoside (1 and cis-caffeoyl aldehyde (2. These structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data.

  4. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    -disciplinarily, because they work with both derivative and contributory approaches. Derivative, because specialized language retrieves its philosophy of science as well as methods from both the natural sciences, social sciences and humanistic sciences. Contributory because language results support the communication...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...

  5. Special Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Phil

    1986-01-01

    Specialized publications such as "Opera News,""Gourmet," and "Forbes" can bring an institution's story to targeted audiences. The experiences of Chautauqua Institution are described. Some of the benefits of marketing articles to these publications are discussed. (MLW)

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08 on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol (ANZCTRN12612000827831

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6–14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS. Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12612000827831.

  7. The effects of oral Ginkgo biloba supplementation on radiation-induced oxidative injury in the lens of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumus, Seydi; Taysi, Seyithan; Orkmez, Mustafa; Saricicek, Edibe; Demir, Elif; Adli, Mustafa; Al, Behcet

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of Ginkgo biloba (GB) against radiation-induced cataract in the rat lens after total cranial irradiation with a single 5 Gray (Gy) dose of gamma irradiation. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiment. The rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group 1 did not receive GB or irradiation (control group) but received 1-ml saline orally plus sham-irradiation. Group 2 received total cranium 5 Gy of gamma irradiation as a single dose (IR group) plus 1-ml saline orally. Group 3 received total cranium irradiation plus 40 mg/kg/day GBE (IR plus GBE group). Biochemical parameters measured in murine lenses were carried out using spectrophotometric techniques. Lens total (enzymatic plus non-enzymatic) superoxide scavenger activity (TSSA), non-enzymatic superoxide scavenger activity (NSSA), glutathione reductase (GRD), and glutathione-S- transferase (GST) activities significantly increased in the IR plus GBE groups when compared with the IR group. However, TSSA, GRD and GST activities were significantly lower in the IR group when compared with the control group. Lens xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the IR group significantly increased compared to that of both the control and IR plus GBE groups. GBE has clear antioxidant properties and is likely to be a valuable drug for protection against gamma-irradiation and/or be used as an antioxidant against oxidative stress.

  8. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of bovine serum albumin with Ginkgol C15:1 from Ginkgo biloba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yang-Yang [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yang, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: XM_Yang1963@126.com [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Yue-Ying [School of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Feng, Chun-Lai [School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The interaction between Ginkgol C15:1 (Ginkgol), a natural bioactive compound from Ginkgo biloba, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence, UV–vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under simulative physiological conditions. The results showed that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by Ginkgol was a static quenching procedure through forming a 1:1 ground-state Ginkgol–BSA complex with a binding constant of about 2.6×10{sup 3} L mol{sup −1}. The values of the thermodynamic parameters indicated that electrostatic and hydrophobic forces played important roles in the interaction of BSA with Ginkgol. The binding distance between BSA and Ginkgol was 3.37 nm, based on Föster’s non-radiative energy transfer theory, and subdomain IIA (Sudlow site I) was the primary binding site which was consistent with that results of molecular docking modeling. The results of UV–vis, CD, three-dimensional fluorescence and FT-IR spectra indicated that binding of Ginkgol to BSA induced conformational changes of BSA. - Highlights: • This is the first time to report the interaction between Ginkgol C15:1 and BSA. • Researching the binding properties of Ginkgol C15:1 and BSA in-depth. • From the aspect of BSA structure change, verified the anticancer activity of Ginkgol. • Molecular docking study explored the interaction of Ginkgol on BSA.

  9. Ginkgo biloba prevents transient global ischemia-induced delayed hippocampal neuronal death through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsulkar, Jatin; Shah, Zahoor A

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported neuroprotective properties of Ginkgo biloba/EGb 761® (EGb 761) in transient and permanent mouse models of brain ischemia. In a quest to extend our studies on EGb 761 and its constituents further, we used a model of transient global ischemia induced delayed hippocampal neuronal death and inflammation. Mice pretreated with different test drugs for 7 days were subjected to 8-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (tBCCAO) at day 8. After 7 days of reperfusion, mice brains were dissected out for TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry. In situ detection of fragmented DNA (TUNEL staining) showed that out of all test drugs, only EGb 761 (13.6% ± 3.2) pretreatment protected neurons in the hippocampus against global ischemia (vs. vehicle, 85.1% ± 9.9; p<0.05). Immunofluorescence-based studies demonstrated that pretreatment with EGb 761 upregulated the expression levels of heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as compared to the vehicle group. In addition, increased number of activated astrocytes and microglia in the vehicle group was observed to be significantly lower in the EGb 761 pretreated group. Together, these results suggest that EGb 761 is a multifunctional neuroprotective agent, and the protection is in part associated with activation of the HO1/Nrf2 pathway, upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of inflammatory mediators such as astrocytes and microglia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloning and characterization of Ginkgo biloba levopimaradiene synthase which catalyzes the first committed step in ginkgolide biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepmann, H G; Pang, J; Matsuda, S P

    2001-08-15

    Levopimaradiene synthase, which catalyzes the initial cyclization step in ginkgolide biosynthesis, was cloned and functionally characterized. A Ginkgo biloba cDNA library was prepared from seedling roots and a probe was amplified using primers corresponding to conserved gymnosperm terpene synthase sequences. Colony hybridization and rapid amplification of cDNA ends yielded a full-length clone encoding a predicted protein (873 amino acids, 100,289 Da) similar to known gymnosperm diterpene synthases. The sequence includes a putative N-terminal plastid transit peptide and three aspartate-rich regions. The full-length protein expressed in Escherichia coli cyclized geranylgeranyl diphosphate to levopimaradiene, which was identical to a synthetic standard by GC/MS analysis. Removing 60 or 79 N-terminal residues increased levopimaradiene production, but a 128-residue N-terminal deletion lacked detectable activity. This is the first cloned ginkgolide biosynthetic gene and the first in vitro observation of an isolated ginkgolide biosynthetic enzyme. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Special Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Peter R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes six special reports: "Libraries and the National Information Infrastructure" (Peter R. Young and Jane Williams); "Library Cooperation and Networking" (JoAn Segal); "Mexican Information Resources in Electronic Format" (Shirley Ainsworth); "The International Role of U.S. Librarians" (Hannelore B.…

  12. Biofuels Special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, J.; Adolf, S.; Cragg, C.; Smits, M.; Kanen, J.L.M.; Kemfert, C.; De Jong, R.; Schroeter, S.; Terzic, B.

    2009-01-01

    The EU has decided to push ahead with biofuels, deflecting criticism with stringent environmental safeguards. In a special section correspondents of the magazine take stock of the ups and downs of the biofuels business. As it turns out, national policies differ widely, leading to a very uneven playing field. Nevertheless, it appears that biofuels have reached the point of no return

  13. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Analysis of Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase and Mevalonate Kinase Genes Involved in Terpene Trilactone Biosynthesis from Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangwen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolides and bilobalide, collectively termed terpene trilactones (TTLs, are terpenoids that form the main active substance of Ginkgo biloba. Terpenoids in the mevalonate (MVA biosynthetic pathway include acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (AACT and mevalonate kinase (MVK as core enzymes. In this study, two full-length (cDNAs encoding AACT (GbAACT, GenBank Accession No. KX904942 and MVK (GbMVK, GenBank Accession No. KX904944 were cloned from G. biloba. The deduced GbAACT and GbMVK proteins contain 404 and 396 amino acids with the corresponding open-reading frame (ORF sizes of 1215 bp and 1194 bp, respectively. Tissue expression pattern analysis revealed that GbAACT was highly expressed in ginkgo fruits and leaves, and GbMVK was highly expressed in leaves and roots. The functional complementation of GbAACT in AACT-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Δerg10 and GbMVK in MVK-deficient strain Δerg12 confirmed that GbAACT mediated the conversion of mevalonate acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA and GbMVK mediated the conversion of mevalonate to mevalonate phosphate. This observation indicated that GbAACT and GbMVK are functional genes in the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA biosynthesis pathway. After G. biloba seedlings were treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, the expression levels of GbAACT and GbMVK increased, and TTL production was enhanced. The cloning, characterization, expression and functional analysis of GbAACT and GbMVK will be helpful to understand more about the role of these two genes involved in TTL biosynthesis.

  14. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Analysis of Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase and Mevalonate Kinase Genes Involved in Terpene Trilactone Biosynthesis from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiangwen; Yan, Jiaping; Meng, Xiangxiang; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Weiwei; Liao, Yongling; Qu, Jinwang

    2017-01-02

    Ginkgolides and bilobalide, collectively termed terpene trilactones (TTLs), are terpenoids that form the main active substance of Ginkgo biloba . Terpenoids in the mevalonate (MVA) biosynthetic pathway include acetyl-CoA C -acetyltransferase (AACT) and mevalonate kinase (MVK) as core enzymes. In this study, two full-length (cDNAs) encoding AACT ( GbAACT , GenBank Accession No. KX904942) and MVK ( GbMVK , GenBank Accession No. KX904944) were cloned from G. biloba . The deduced GbAACT and GbMVK proteins contain 404 and 396 amino acids with the corresponding open-reading frame (ORF) sizes of 1215 bp and 1194 bp, respectively. Tissue expression pattern analysis revealed that GbAACT was highly expressed in ginkgo fruits and leaves, and GbMVK was highly expressed in leaves and roots. The functional complementation of GbAACT in AACT-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Δerg10 and GbMVK in MVK-deficient strain Δerg12 confirmed that GbAACT mediated the conversion of mevalonate acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA and GbMVK mediated the conversion of mevalonate to mevalonate phosphate. This observation indicated that GbAACT and GbMVK are functional genes in the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) biosynthesis pathway. After G. biloba seedlings were treated with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, the expression levels of GbAACT and GbMVK increased, and TTL production was enhanced. The cloning, characterization, expression and functional analysis of GbAACT and GbMVK will be helpful to understand more about the role of these two genes involved in TTL biosynthesis.

  15. A pipeline for the de novo assembly of the Themira biloba (Sepsidae: Diptera) transcriptome using a multiple k-mer length approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melicher, Dacotah; Torson, Alex S; Dworkin, Ian; Bowsher, Julia H

    2014-03-12

    The Sepsidae family of flies is a model for investigating how sexual selection shapes courtship and sexual dimorphism in a comparative framework. However, like many non-model systems, there are few molecular resources available. Large-scale sequencing and assembly have not been performed in any sepsid, and the lack of a closely related genome makes investigation of gene expression challenging. Our goal was to develop an automated pipeline for de novo transcriptome assembly, and to use that pipeline to assemble and analyze the transcriptome of the sepsid Themira biloba. Our bioinformatics pipeline uses cloud computing services to assemble and analyze the transcriptome with off-site data management, processing, and backup. It uses a multiple k-mer length approach combined with a second meta-assembly to extend transcripts and recover more bases of transcript sequences than standard single k-mer assembly. We used 454 sequencing to generate 1.48 million reads from cDNA generated from embryo, larva, and pupae of T. biloba and assembled a transcriptome consisting of 24,495 contigs. Annotation identified 16,705 transcripts, including those involved in embryogenesis and limb patterning. We assembled transcriptomes from an additional three non-model organisms to demonstrate that our pipeline assembled a higher-quality transcriptome than single k-mer approaches across multiple species. The pipeline we have developed for assembly and analysis increases contig length, recovers unique transcripts, and ass