WorldWideScience

Sample records for billion unserved people

  1. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  2. Can the World's Farmers Feed a World of 10 Billion People In Spite of Climate Change? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    The rapid rise in agricultural productivity due to technological innovation and science-based methods was one of the great human achievements of the 20th century. We now face the prospect of needing to double agricultural output by the latter third of the current century to match the growth of demand for food and fiber—albeit the pace of growth in demand shows signs of slowing in the future. How farmers and the agricultural industry deal with climate change will, in large measure, determine success or failure. The Earth is committed to about the same amount of warming in the future as has been experienced over the past hundred years regardless of future greenhouse gas emissions trajectories; such will require adaptive responses by plants, animals, producers and consumers if society’s goals for global food security are to be met. In this paper, I summarize the state-of-the science of how climate change may affect our global agricultural production system. I review the latest thinking on the combined effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes on crop productivity across the globe. Prospects for adaptation in agriculturally important regions are examined. While it appears that global food production will be adequate to meet global food demand in spite of advancing climate change, it is clear that many parts of the tropics and dry sub-tropics will see yield decreases and possible loss of comparative advantage. In those regions, continued large population growth and deleterious climate changes will contribute to declining per capita agricultural production. Increasing numbers of people at risk of hunger are probable there.

  3. Safely Managed Sanitation for All Means Fecal Sludge Management for At Least 1.8 Billion People in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David M; Sumner, Trent A; Brown, Joe M

    2017-02-14

    Although global access to sanitation is increasing, safe management of fecal waste is a rapidly growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the current need for fecal sludge management (FSM) in LMICs by region, urban/rural status, and wealth. Recent Demographic and Health Survey data from 58 countries (847 685 surveys) were used to classify households by sanitation facility (facilities needing FSM, sewered facilities, ecological sanitation/other, or no facilities). Onsite piped water infrastructure was quantified to approximate need for wastewater management and downstream treatment. Over all surveyed nations, 63% of households used facilities requiring FSM, totaling approximately 1.8 billion people. Rural areas had similar proportions of toilets requiring FSM as urban areas. FSM needs scaled inversely with wealth: in the poorest quintile, households' sanitation facilities were almost 170 times more likely to require FSM (vs sewerage) than in the richest quintile. About one out of five households needing FSM had onsite piped water infrastructure, indicating domestic or reticulated wastewater infrastructure may be required if lacking for safe management of aqueous waste streams. FSM strategies must be included in future sanitation investment to achieve safe management of fecal wastes and protect public health.

  4. Quarter One:36.25 Billion USD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From January to March,2007,China’s total international trade value was 457.74 billion US dollars,and the rise was 23.3% compared with last year.The import made to 205.65 billion US dollars and the export was 252.09 billion US dollars,up

  5. Life with Four Billion Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Thomas [Ginkgo Bioworks, Inc.

    2013-04-10

    Today it is commonplace to design and construct single silicon chips with billions of transistors. These are complex systems, difficult (but possible) to design, test, and fabricate. Remarkably, simple living systems can be assembled from a similar number of atoms, most of them in water molecules. In this talk I will present the current status of our attempts at full understanding and complexity reduction of one of the simplest living systems, the free-living bacterial species Mesoplasma florum. This 400 nm diameter cell thrives and replicates every 40 minutes with a genome of only 800 kilobases. Our recent experiments using transposon gene knockouts identified 354 of 683 annotated genes as inessential in laboratory culture when inactivated individually. While a functional redesigned genome will certainly not remove all of those genes, this suggests that roughly half the genome can be removed in an intentional redesign. I will discuss our recent knockout results and methodology, and our future plans for Genome re-engineering using targeted knock-in/knock-out double recombination; whole cell metabolic models; comprehensive whole cell metabolite measurement techniques; creation of plug-and-play metabolic modules for the simplified organism; inherent and engineered biosafety control mechanisms. This redesign is part of a comprehensive plan to lay the foundations for a new discipline of engineering biology. Engineering biological systems requires a fundamentally different viewpoint from that taken by the science of biology. Key engineering principles of modularity, simplicity, separation of concerns, abstraction, flexibility, hierarchical design, isolation, and standardization are of critical importance. The essence of engineering is the ability to imagine, design, model, build, and characterize novel systems to achieve specific goals. Current tools and components for these tasks are primitive. Our approach is to create and distribute standard biological parts

  6. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  7. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  8. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Beukes, Nicolas J.;

    2013-01-01

    It is widely assumedthat atmospheric oxygen concentrations remained persistently low (less than 1025 timespresent levels) for about the first 2 billion years of Earth’s history1. The first long-term oxygenation of the atmosphere is thought tohave taken place around2.3 billion years ago, during th...

  9. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  10. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  11. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sean A; Døssing, Lasse N; Beukes, Nicolas J; Bau, Michael; Kruger, Stephanus J; Frei, Robert; Canfield, Donald E

    2013-09-26

    It is widely assumed that atmospheric oxygen concentrations remained persistently low (less than 10(-5) times present levels) for about the first 2 billion years of Earth's history. The first long-term oxygenation of the atmosphere is thought to have taken place around 2.3 billion years ago, during the Great Oxidation Event. Geochemical indications of transient atmospheric oxygenation, however, date back to 2.6-2.7 billion years ago. Here we examine the distribution of chromium isotopes and redox-sensitive metals in the approximately 3-billion-year-old Nsuze palaeosol and in the near-contemporaneous Ijzermyn iron formation from the Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. We find extensive mobilization of redox-sensitive elements through oxidative weathering. Furthermore, using our data we compute a best minimum estimate for atmospheric oxygen concentrations at that time of 3 × 10(-4) times present levels. Overall, our findings suggest that there were appreciable levels of atmospheric oxygen about 3 billion years ago, more than 600 million years before the Great Oxidation Event and some 300-400 million years earlier than previous indications for Earth surface oxygenation.

  12. State Companies Invest Billions in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weiqiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ East China's Fujian Province has emerged as a hot destination for several giant State companies including national oil conglomerates,despite the financial crisis,attracting investments worth billions of yuan.Late last year,China's largest offshore oil producer CNOOC launched two major projects in the province-one at Ningde Industrial Zone and the other the construction of the second phase of natural gas pipeline in the West Straits Economic Zone.The latter will secure safe,stable,efficient and sustainable supply of energy to the province.So far,CNOOC has invested 15 billion yuan(US$2.2billion)in the province,with the money going to projects such as liquefied natural gas(LNG)receiving stations,natural gas networks and LNG cold energy projects.

  13. 1.3 Billion People: A Weighty Responsibility——China's Population Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2005-01-01

    A sample survey of the 2004 population increase releasedby the State Statistics Bureau shows that by the end of 2004 the total population of the Chinese mainland was 1.29988 billion, and that it was increasing by 208,000 people per day. According to this data,on January 6, 2005,China's population(excluding HongKong, Macao andTaiwan) reached 1.3 billion.

  14. 10 billion years of massive Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Edward Nairne Cunningham

    2009-01-01

    The most massive galaxies in the local universe are not forming new stars -- but we don’t know why. As a step towards figuring out why big galaxies stop forming stars, we set out to measure when they stop forming stars. By looking at the colors of massive galaxies have changed over 10 billion year

  15. RMB26 Billion to Protect Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rcently, Beijing International Power Develop and Investment Corporation and Beijing Comprehensive Investment Company announced the merge and establishment of Beijing Energy Investment (Group) Co., Ltd.Some insider said this"big cruiser" of total energy worthy RMB26 billion will offer more solid and reliable assurance for capital energy security.

  16. The nonprofit sector's $100 billion opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bill; Jansen, Paul; Silverman, Les

    2003-05-01

    Imagine what an extra $100 billion a year could do for philanthropic and other nonprofit institutions. According to a new study, the nonprofit sector could free that amount--maybe even more--by making five changes in the way it operates. The study asked two central questions: Does the sector's money flow from its source to its ultimate use as efficiently and effectively as possible? If not, where are the big opportunities to increase social benefit? According to former senator Bill Bradley and McKinsey's Paul Jansen and Les Silverman, nonprofits could save roughly $25 billion a year by changing the way they raise funds. By distributing funds more quickly, they could put an extra $30 billion to work. Organizations could generate more than $60 billion a year by streamlining and restructuring the way in which they provide services and by reducing administrative costs. And they could free up even more money--an amount impossible to estimate--by better allocating funds among service providers. The authors admit that making those changes won't be easy. The nonprofit world, historically seen as a collection of locally focused charities, has become an enormous sector, but it lacks the managerial processes and incentives that help keep the for-profit world on track. And when the baby boomers start to retire in less than a decade, public budgets will be squeezed even more than they are today. If the nonprofit sector is to help the nation cope with the stresses ahead, it must become more efficient and challenge its traditional concepts of stewardship.

  17. Chongqing Clothing Enterprises Grasp 1.3-billion-yuan Orders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Fashion Festival of Chongqing held on Sep. 25th provides the city with a platform for international communication, bringing business opportunities. At the negotiation meeting & the signing ceremony among the firms processing export garment, the signed 1.3-billion-yuan orders attracted people's attention.

  18. Insurers Domestic Stock Holdings at US$13 Billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Insurers had invested nearly RMB106 billion (US$13billion) in mainland stock markets by late October, encouraged by officials eager to prop up sagging markets, the Xinhua News Agency said on Dec. 3.

  19. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  20. Life: the first two billion years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Andrew H; Bergmann, Kristin D; Strauss, Justin V

    2016-11-05

    Microfossils, stromatolites, preserved lipids and biologically informative isotopic ratios provide a substantial record of bacterial diversity and biogeochemical cycles in Proterozoic (2500-541 Ma) oceans that can be interpreted, at least broadly, in terms of present-day organisms and metabolic processes. Archean (more than 2500 Ma) sedimentary rocks add at least a billion years to the recorded history of life, with sedimentological and biogeochemical evidence for life at 3500 Ma, and possibly earlier; phylogenetic and functional details, however, are limited. Geochemistry provides a major constraint on early evolution, indicating that the first bacteria were shaped by anoxic environments, with distinct patterns of major and micronutrient availability. Archean rocks appear to record the Earth's first iron age, with reduced Fe as the principal electron donor for photosynthesis, oxidized Fe the most abundant terminal electron acceptor for respiration, and Fe a key cofactor in proteins. With the permanent oxygenation of the atmosphere and surface ocean ca 2400 Ma, photic zone O2 limited the access of photosynthetic bacteria to electron donors other than water, while expanding the inventory of oxidants available for respiration and chemoautotrophy. Thus, halfway through Earth history, the microbial underpinnings of modern marine ecosystems began to take shape.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  1. Glory & Dream of International Necktie Metropolis With Output Value of RMB M-Billion Yuan——On the Development of Shengzhou Necktie Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Status of necktie industry: industrial cluster with output of RMB 10 billion Over 1,100 necktie enterprises, more than 50,000 employees and about 100,000 people living on the necktie industry; annual production of neckties over 300 million with output value of RMB 10 billion; taking up about 90% of national gross and 40% of global gross.

  2. Sneak Peek to the 2016 Billion-Ton Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The 2005 Billion-Ton Study became a landmark resource for bioenergy stakeholders, detailing for the first time the potential to produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually in a sustainable manner from U.S. agriculture and forest resources. The 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update expanded and updated the analysis, and in 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office plans to release the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy.

  3. Proton collider breaks the six-billion-dollar barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    Vaughan, C

    1990-01-01

    The SSC will cost at least 1 billion more than its estimated final price of 5.9 billion dollars. Critics in congress believe the final bill could be double that figure. The director of the SSC blames most of the increase in cost on technical problems with developing the superconducting magnets for the SSC (1/2 page).

  4. Xinjiang Hongze Mining Invests 1 billion-1.2 billion yuan in a 20,000-ton Copper Mining Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Xinjiang Hongze Mining Co.,Ltd.plans to invest 1 billion-1.2 billion yuan in a 20,000-ton copper mining project in Wuqia County.So far, it has completed registration,and completed consolidation of 7 mining rights of copper,lead

  5. China's Textile Export Reached 140 billion USD in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Statistics released by China Customs shows that the export value of the Chinese textile and apparel in 2006 totaled over 144 billion US dollars. Among them, the export value of garments was 95.19 billion US dollars, with a rise of 28.9% compared with the previous year. The export value of yarns, fabrics and finished products was 48.8 billion US dollars, and it went up 18.7%. If small volume trades were accounted, the total value would be around 146 US dollars.

  6. God particle disappears down 6 billion pound drain

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, M

    2001-01-01

    An estimated 6 billion pounds has been spent looking for the Higgs particle over the last three decades. Recent results from LEP though, are now causing some scientists to doubt that it exists at all (1 page).

  7. Summary and Comparison of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report with the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    In terms of the magnitude of the resource potential, the results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16) are consistent with the original 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 report, U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry (BT2. An effort was made to reevaluate the potential forestland, agricultural, and waste resources at the roadside, then extend the analysis by adding transportation costs to a biorefinery under specified logistics assumptions to major resource fractions.

  8. Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

  9. Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivity...... as recorded in the isotope delta C-13, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way....

  10. Bill and Melinda Gates Pledge $1-Billion for Minority Scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Peter; Lederman, Douglas; van der Werf, Martin; Pulley, John

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a $1 billion dollar grant from Bill and Melinda Gates to send 20,000 low-income minority students to college. The Gates Millenium Scholars Program will require students to demonstrate financial need and maintain a 3.0 grade point average in college. A list of the largest private gifts to higher education since 1967 is also provided. (DB)

  11. With US$5 Billion,China Purchases 42 Boeing Planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 8, Air China, China Eastern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines signed the final Purchase agreement of 42 Boeing planes with Boeing. The price in catalogue is US$5.04 billion. The first plane will be delivered in 2008.

  12. With US$5 Billion,China Purchases 42 Boeing Planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      On August 8, Air China, China Eastern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines signed the final Purchase agreement of 42 Boeing planes with Boeing. The price in catalogue is US$5.04 billion. The first plane will be delivered in 2008.……

  13. The China-ROK Trade Surpasses US$130 Billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In 2006,the important trade partnership between China and POK was further strengthened and consolidated.By the end of 2005,POK recognized China's status of market economy, making the bilateral trade environment more fair and reasonable.The governments of both sides have strived for the target of increasing the bilateral trade to US$200 billion by 2012.

  14. Firms' Overseas Investment Jumps to US$6.9 Billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Foreign investment by domestic firms, excluding banks,jumped 26% last year to US$6.9 billion, the Ministry of Commerce said on February 10. The government has been encouraging domestic companies to head overseas to secure resources, build brands and win market share, and it also welcomes the effect an outflow of investment has on the yuan.

  15. Four laser companies to exceed $1 billion revenue in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoss, Andreas F.

    2017-02-01

    It seems very likely that for first time four companies will exceed the revenue of 1 billion in 2016. This comes along with substantial changes in the market for lasers and laser systems. The article analyzes some of the changes and looks at the individual success strategies of the major players in these markets.

  16. Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

  17. Cost of solving mysteries of universe: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    "An international consortium of physicists on Thursday released the first detailed design of what they believe will be the next big thing in physics. The machine, 20 miles long, will slam together electrons and their opposites, positrons, to produce fireballs of energy re-creating conditions when the universe was only a trillionth of a second old. It would cost about $6.7 billion." (1 page)

  18. 6.4 Billion Yuan for NSFC Projects in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ NSFC President Prof.Chen Yiyu announced at NSFC's Sixth Plenary Session of the General Assembly that a budget of 53.59 billon yuan,which is an increased of 25% to that of last year,was approved by the government for the fiscal year 2008.In practice,NSFC,based on the demand of national budgeting reform and the development of basic research,will arrange a funding plan of 6.4 billion yuan.

  19. Feeding nine billion people sustainably: conserving land and water through shifting diets and changes in technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Duchin, Faye

    2014-04-15

    In the early 21st century the extensive clearing of forestland, fresh water scarcity, and sharp rises in the price of food have become causes for concern. These concerns may be substantially exacerbated over the next few decades by the need to provide improved diets for a growing global population. This study applies an inter-regional input-output model of the world economy, the World Trade Model, for analysis of alternative scenarios about satisfying future food requirements by midcentury. The scenario analysis indicates that relying only on more extensive use of arable land and fresh water would require clearing forests and exacerbating regional water scarcities. However, a combination of less resource-intensive diets and improved agricultural productivity, the latter especially in Africa, could make it possible to use these resources sustainably while also constraining increases in food prices. Unlike the scenario outcomes from other kinds of economic models, our framework reveals the potential for a decisive shift of production and export of agricultural products away from developed countries toward Africa and Latin America. Although the assumed changes in diets and technologies may not be realizable without incentives, our results suggest that these regions exhibit comparative advantages in agricultural production due to their large remaining resource endowments and their potential for higher yields.

  20. Oilsands race: investment intentions at $61 billion and still counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K. L.

    2001-08-06

    Oil sand projects underway and in announced planning stages add up to $61 billion, suggesting that after a two decade struggle to adapt the technology to the market gyrations set off by the energy free trade, mastery of the world's biggest oil deposit appears to be at hand. It is forecast that oil sands production will more than triple by 2010 to 1.9 million barrels per day from the present 580,000. Reduction in production costs to about US$10-12 per barrel, and expectations of as little as US$8 per barrel, also indicate that oilsands production is now a mature industry. There are some 5,000 tradesmen working on Suncor's Project Millennium which will double the Suncor plant's output to 225,000 barrels per day by 2002. The target for 2005 is set at 260,000 barrels. Allied plans call for a $350 million upgrader expansion. Suncor hopes to reach combined mining and in-situ output of 450,000 barrels a day by 2008. Although Suncor's projected cost has risen by 56 per cent to $3.25 billion, the expansion plan has not paused. Company spokespeople estimate that the whole project is competitive at $10 a barrel. Syncrude likewise continues on its $8 billion Syncrude 21 project begun in 1996 and expected to be completed in 2007. The new Aurora Mine helped raise production to 90 million barrels in 2000. This, coupled with improvements to the complex's Mildred Lake processing site and overall production gain of 100,000 barrels per day, promises more than 360,000 barrels per day by 2005. There is also the $1.8 billion Muskeg River Mine project by the Albian Sands partnership (Shell, Chevron and Western Oilsands) and two more in-situ development projects in the planning stages by Petro-Canada in the Fort McMurray area, each rated as a potential 60,000 barrel per day producer. The most ambitious plan by an oilsands newcomer remains the $8 billion package called Horizon, proposed by Canadian Natural Resources, with regulatory applications in 2002, and output

  1. The nuclear interaction at Oklo 2 billion years ago

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Y; Fukahori, T; Ohnuki, T; Nakagawa, M; Hidaka, H; Oura, Y; Møller, P; Fujii, Yasunori; Iwamoto, Akira; Fukahori, Tokio; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Oura, Yasuji; Moller, Peter

    2000-01-01

    We re-examine Shlyakhter's effort to constrain the time-variability of the coupling constants of the fundamental interactions by studying the anomalous isotopic abundance of Sm observed at the remnants of the natural reactors which were in operation at Oklo about 2 billion years ago. We rely on new samples that were carefully collected to minimize natural contamination and also on a careful temperature estimate of the operating reactor. We find that our result almost re-establishes the original conclusion; the upper bounds on the fractional rate of change of the strong and electromagnetic interaction coupling constants are 10^{-18}-10^{-19} y^{-1} and 10^{-17} y^{-1}, respectively. To reinforce the results obtained from Sm, we also applied our analysis to Gd, for which it was essential to take into account the effect of contamination.

  2. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions: the first billion seconds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baym, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    I first review the early history of the ultrarelativistic heavy ion program, starting with the 1974 Bear Mountain Workshop, and the 1983 Aurora meeting of the U.S. Nuclear Science Committtee, just one billion seconds ago, which laid out the initial science goals of an ultrarelativistic collider. The primary goal, to discover the properties of nuclear matter at the highest energy densities, included finding new states of matter - the quark-gluon plasma primarily - and to use collisions to open a new window on related problems of matter in cosmology, neutron stars, supernovae, and elsewhere. To bring out how the study of heavy ions and hot, dense matter in QCD has been fulfilling these goals, I concentrate on a few topics, the phase diagram of matter in QCD, and connections of heavy ion physics to cold atoms, cosmology, and neutron stars.

  3. Gamma-ray blazars within the first two billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, Marco; Paliya, Vaidehi; Gasparrini, Dario; Ojha, Roopesh; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    MeV blazars, with a high-energy peak in the MeV band, are the most powerful persistent sources in the Universe, exhibiting larger-than-average jet powers, accretion luminosities, and black hole masses. Their detection above redshift 3 has the power to constrain the formation mechanism of heavy black holes. Here we report the first detection with the Fermi Large Area Telescope of gamma-ray emitting blazars beyond redshift 3. The newly detected objects have black-hole masses in excess of 1 billion solar masses and very prominent disk and gamma-ray emission. We will discuss the new finding within the context of blazar evolution and the disk-jet connection in powerful jetted AGN.

  4. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Official Nailed for Corpuption China's biggest corruption scandal involving public pension funds was uncovered and swiftly dealt with, when Zhu Junyi, a senior Shanghai official accused of having misappropriated 3.2 billion yuan in public funds,

  5. $17 billion needed for population programme to year 2000: Dr. Nafis Sadik launches State of World Population Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in her address on July 11 to the Foreign Press Association in London on the occasion of the release of the "1995 State of the World Population Report," stated that governments needed to invest in people, and that the estimated amount needed to reduce population numbers in developing countries was $17 billion for the year 2000. Two-thirds of the cost would be supplied by the developing countries. She said that coordinating population policies globally through such documents as the Programme of Action from the Cairo Conference would aid in slowing population growth. World population, currently 5.7 billion, is projected to reach 7.1-7.83 billion in 2015 and 7.9-11.9 billion in 2050. She also noted that certain conditions faced by women bear upon unsustainable population growth. The cycle of poverty continues in developing countries because very young mothers, who face higher risks in pregnancy and childbirth than those who delay childbearing until after the age of 20, are less likely to continue their education, more likely to have lower-paying jobs, and have a higher rate of separation and divorce. The isolation of women from widespread political participation and the marginalization of women's concerns from mainstream topics has resulted in ineffective family planning programs, including prevention of illness or impairment related to pregnancy or childbirth. Women, in most societies, cannot fully participate in economic and public life, have limited access to positions of influence and power, have narrower occupational choices and lower earnings than men, and must struggle to reconcile activities outside the home with their traditional roles. Sustainable development can only be achieved when social development expands opportunities for individuals (men and women), and their families, empowering them in the attainment of their social, economic, political, and cultural aspirations.

  6. Yichuan Power’s High-precision Aluminum Belt Project Invests RMB2.95 Billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Yichuan Power Group’s continuous casting and rolling aluminum belt project features an annual production capacity of 250,000 tons and commenced construction in April 2009.Total investment in the project will be RMB2.95 billion, and following production,sales income are projected to reach RMB5.2 billion,with profits and taxes amounting to RMB0.6 billion.

  7. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  8. People First

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Around mid-January, when the whole nation was looking forward to celebrating China's traditional Spring Festival, local people's congresses and people's political consultative conferences were busy holding their annual sessions. And in March, the National People's Congress (NPC) and the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) will hold their annual sessions.

  9. Understanding "people" people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  10. Fiscal Deficit Will Be Cut Down RMB19.8 Billion This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      When delivering the government work report on March5, Premier Wen Jiabao said,"China will carry out the stable fiscal policy this year and cut down the fiscal deficit accordingly, plan to arrange a central fiscal deficit of RMB300 billion,which is RMB19.8 billion less than last year."……

  11. Fiscal Deficit Will Be Cut Down RMB19.8 Billion This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ When delivering the government work report on March5, Premier Wen Jiabao said,"China will carry out the stable fiscal policy this year and cut down the fiscal deficit accordingly, plan to arrange a central fiscal deficit of RMB300 billion,which is RMB19.8 billion less than last year."

  12. The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food

  13. The Rise of a 100-Billion-Yuan Copper Industry Cluster in Huangshi, Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On 28th,Sep.,Amer(Huangshi)Electronic Information Industrial Park with a total investment of 20 billion Yuan officially broke ground in Huangshi Economic and Technological Development Zone,Hubei,which indicated the rise of a 100-Billion-Yuan Copper Industry Cluster centering on Amer’s Industrial Park project.Amer International Group,a World’s Top 500Company,is a leading global group focusing

  14. Qinghai 100 Billion Yuan Lithium Market Attracts Domestic and Overseas Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai,a province whose lithium resource reserve accounts for one third of global total reserve,promises a fertile land of investment for many enterprises in the industry.In 2014,the"Qinghai Province Development Plan of 100 Billion Yuan Grade Lithium Battery Industry"clearly proposed to convert the advantage of Qinghai Province’s lithium battery industry to economic advantage to the maximum degree,construct 100 billion yuan

  15. The People Who Guide China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    President, Chairman of the Central Military Commission What is it like to lead 1.3 billion people and keep an extremely vast,complicated country on the track of sustained economic growth accompanied by ever-increasing in- ternational prestige’? China’s Hu Jintao seems to have the an- swer. The 65-year-old was elected on March 15 to another term of five years as both Chinese president and chairman of the Central Military Commission,the country’s top military command,by nearly 3,000 members of the national legislature.

  16. Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance N. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Sun Grant Center; Karlen, Douglas L. [Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States). National Lab. for Agriculture and the Environment; Lacey, Jeffrey A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Process Science and Technology Division

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership (referred to as the Partnership) to address information gaps associated with enabling the vision of a sustainable, reliable, billion-ton U.S. bioenergy industry by the year 2030 (i.e., the Billion-Ton Vision). Over the past 7 years (2008–2014), the Partnership has been successful at advancing the biomass feedstock production industry in the United States, with notable accomplishments. The Billion-Ton Study identifies the technical potential to expand domestic biomass production to offset up to 30% of U.S. petroleum consumption, while continuing to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and export. This study verifies for the biofuels and chemical industries that a real and substantial resource base could justify the significant investment needed to develop robust conversion technologies and commercial-scale facilities. DOE and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Partnership to demonstrate and validate the underlying assumptions underpinning the Billion-Ton Vision to supply a sustainable and reliable source of lignocellulosic feedstock to a large-scale bioenergy industry. This report discusses the accomplishments of the Partnership, with references to accompanying scientific publications. These accomplishments include advances in sustainable feedstock production, feedstock yield, yield stability and stand persistence, energy crop commercialization readiness, information transfer, assessment of the economic impacts of achieving the Billion-Ton Vision, and the impact of feedstock species and environment conditions on feedstock quality characteristics.

  17. Chongqing Clothing Enterprises Grasp 1.3-billion-yuan Orders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Fashion Festival of Chongqing held on Sep. 25th provides the city with a platform for international communication, bringing business opportunities. At the negotiation meeting & the signing ceremony among the firms processing export garment, the signed 1.3-billion-yuan orders attracted people’s attention.

  18. Qijiang Plans to Build 50 Billion Yuan Industrial Cluster for Transport-use Aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The reporter learned from the China International Transport-use Aluminum Forum2015 that 5 years later Qijiang District is expected to develop transport-use aluminum industrial cluster with annual output of 50billion yuan.According to statistics,last year 1 in every 9automobile OEM manufacturers nationwide

  19. Shangdong Electrc Power,CNOOC-Shell ink 1.51-billion-yuan contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The EPC contract for CNOOC-Shell Petrochemical Complex Project has recently been signed in Huizhou City,Cuangdong Province between Shangdong Electric Power Construction Corporation (SEPCC)and CNOOC-Shell Petrochemical Limited.Under the contract valued at 1.51 billion yuan

  20. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-06

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified the broad biophysical potential of biomass nationally, and BT2 elucidated the potential economic availability of these resources. These reports clearly established the potential availability of up to one billion tons of biomass resources nationally. However, many questions remain, including but not limited to crop yields, climate change impacts, logistical operations, and systems integration across production, harvest, and conversion. The present report aims to address many of these questions through empirically modeled energy crop yields, scenario analysis of resources delivered to biorefineries, and the addition of new feedstocks. Volume 2 of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report is expected to be released by the end of 2016. It seeks to evaluate environmental sustainability indicators of select scenarios from volume 1 and potential climate change impacts on future supplies.

  1. U of M seeking $1.1 billion in projects for Soudan Mine lab.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The University of Minnesota is hoping that groundbreaking research underway at its labs at the Soudan Underground Mine near Tower will help secure up to $1.1 billion in the next 5 to 20 years to expand its work into particle physics (1 page).

  2. XNMG’s Reserves Increase over RMB 230 Billion in 4 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The 100 million tons of proven iron ore in south Xinjiang marks the successful conclusion of mineral exploration of Xinjiang Nonferrous Metals Group (XNMG) this year. It enables XNMG’s potential economic value of newlyincreased resources to exceed RMB 230 billion since implementation of the strategy of geological prospecting and resource consolidation,

  3. Anhui Tongling Invests 1 Billion Yuan to Set up “Copper Industry Fund”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On September 12, the signing ceremony for "Anhui Copper Industry Fund" set up by Anhui Tongling Development & Investment Group Co., Ltd. and Shanghai V. Stone Investment Management Co., Ltd. was held in Tongling. The fund is 1 billion yuan.

  4. Guangdong Aluminum to Raise RMB 3 billion for New Production Base in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>On July 7, a loan signing ceremony was held between the Guangdong Aluminum Group, China Construction Bank, Hua Xia Bank and Guangzhou Bank Consortium. It is reported that these banks will provide Guangdong Aluminum Group with RMB 30 billion for an alu-minum oxide and supporting bauxite mining project in Guizhou.

  5. Price of next big thing in physics: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The price of exploring inner space went up Thursday. The machine discusses in a news conference in Beijing, will be 20 miles long and would cost about $6.7 billion and 13'000 person-years of labor to be built. (1,5 page)

  6. Nickel Ores With a Value More than RMB130billion is Found Out in Nanyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>According to the report from Henan Provincial Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,it has found out a large copper and nickel mineral deposit in Zhouan,Tanghe county.With a total worth of RMB 130billion,it is the largest nickel

  7. China Gold Group Invested 2.18 billion Yuan to Buy Gold Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Ministry of Finance recently proclaimed that China Gold Group has invested 2.18 billion Yuan to gain the exploration right on the Yang- shan gold mine in Wen County,Gansu Prov- ince.Yangshan is located at the place where

  8. Chinalco Plans to Invest 6 Billion Yuan in Guizhou in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to Xiong Weiping,President of Chinalco,Chinalco plans to invest 6 billion yuan in Guizhou this year;it will step up aluminum industrial base projects and co-generation projects in Guiyang and Zunyi,take strong measures to support deep processing of aluminumin Guizhou,extend the industry chain,and

  9. People's Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is the moment the city takes on its young and beautiful look.It is the moment the people do everything to surprise the world.It is the momcnt the whole country hold the breath.The 29th Olympic Games is approaching in Beijing.

  10. Malthus is still wrong: we can feed a world of 9-10 billion, but only by reducing food demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2015-08-01

    In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over the following century he was criticised for underestimating the potential for scientific and technological innovation to provide positive change. Since then, he has been proved wrong, with a number of papers published during the past few decades pointing out why he has been proved wrong so many times. In the present paper, I briefly review the main changes in food production in the past that have allowed us to continue to meet ever growing demand for food, and I examine the possibility of these same innovations delivering food security in the future. On the basis of recent studies, I conclude that technological innovation can no longer be relied upon to prove Malthus wrong as we strive to feed 9-10 billion people by 2050. Unless we are prepared to accept a wide range of significant, undesirable environmental consequences, technology alone cannot provide food security in 2050. Food demand, particularly the demand for livestock products, will need to be managed if we are to continue to prove Malthus wrong into the future.

  11. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Innovated In China Deng Zhonghan, the 37-year-old co-founder and CEO of Beijing-based chips manufacturer Vimicro Corporation, walked away with top honors in an annual selection of business people of the year sponsored by national broadcaster China Central Television (CCTV). Deng's pocketing of the prestigious honors in China's business world came as no surprise since his company's breakthroughs in developing chips with proprietary intellectual property in China perfectly matches the key selection criteri...

  12. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Thai Premier Under Fire Central Bangkok buzzed with discontent March 14. Tens of thousands of protestors marched from the city's royal plaza down toward the office of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, where they held an all-night rally and put the seat of government under virtual siege. Organizers claimed that close to 200,000 people joined the protest demanding the resignation of Thaksin. The demonstration was one of the largest since corruption charges were levied

  13. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Held Hostage by Politicized Pandas Giant pandas became the preferred option when the Communist Party of China, on behalf of the people on China's mainland, considered sending a gift of goodwill to Taiwan during former Kuomintang Chairman Lien Chan's 2005 cross-strait visit. But Taiwan leader Chen Shui-bian said his authorities would rather not give the pandas permission to enter the island, citing

  14. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Rocking the 'Cross-Strait' Boat Just as people thought that crossstrait tensions couldn't get any more testy amid Taiwan leader Chen Shui-bian's efforts to hinder the development of cross-strait ties between the mainland and the island, they did when Chen stumbled upon a new secession drive. Chen announced February 27 his decision to terminate the "National Unification Council" and scrap the

  15. Spatial variability in oceanic redox structure 1.8 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulton, Simon W.; Fralick, Philip W.; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of ocean chemistry during the Proterozoic eon (2.5-0.542 billion years ago) is thought to have played a central role in both the timing and rate of eukaryote evolution(1,2). The timing of the deposition of iron formations implies that, early in the Earth's history, oceans were...... to reconstruct oceanic redox conditions from the 1.88- to 1.83-billion-year-old Animikie group from the Superior region, North America. We find that surface waters were oxygenated, whereas at mid-depths, anoxic and sulphidic (euxinic) conditions extended over 100 km from the palaeoshoreline. The spatial extent...... of euxinia varied through time, but deep ocean waters remained rich in dissolved iron. Widespread euxinia along continental margins would have removed dissolved iron from the water column through the precipitation of pyrite, which would have reduced the supply of dissolved iron and resulted in the global...

  16. Two billion years of magmatism recorded from a single Mars meteorite ejection site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapen, Thomas J.; Righter, Minako; Andreasen, Rasmus; Irving, Anthony J.; Satkoski, Aaron M.; Beard, Brian L.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Caffee, Marc W.

    2017-01-01

    The timing and nature of igneous activity recorded at a single Mars ejection site can be determined from the isotope analyses of Martian meteorites. Northwest Africa (NWA) 7635 has an Sm-Nd crystallization age of 2.403 ± 0.140 billion years, and isotope data indicate that it is derived from an incompatible trace element–depleted mantle source similar to that which produced a geochemically distinct group of 327- to 574-million-year-old “depleted” shergottites. Cosmogenic nuclide data demonstrate that NWA 7635 was ejected from Mars 1.1 million years ago (Ma), as were at least 10 other depleted shergottites. The shared ejection age is consistent with a common ejection site for these meteorites. The spatial association of 327- to 2403-Ma depleted shergottites indicates >2 billion years of magmatism from a long-lived and geochemically distinct volcanic center near the ejection site. PMID:28164153

  17. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  18. Medicare, Medicaid fraud a billion-dollar art form in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcok, M

    1997-01-01

    Medicare and Medicaid fraud costs billions of dollars each year in the US. Investigators have shown that fraud is found in all segments of the health care system. Even though the Canadian system has stricter regulations and tighter controls, can regulators here afford to be complacent about believing that such abuse would not happen here? One province has established an antifraud unit to monitor its health insurance scheme; it already has 1 prosecution under its belt. PMID:9141996

  19. Complaint Regarding the Use of Audit Results on a $1 Billion Missile Defense Agency Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-12

    our scope and methodology. See Appendix B for the sequence of events. Background Missile Defense Agency MDA is a research , development, and...a $2.07 billion cost-plus-fixed/award-fee1 proposal submitted by a DoD contractor for the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Core Completion...negotiated, DCAA discontinued its audit of the GMD proposal. MDA Did Not Consider the DCAA Preliminary Audit Results DFARS Procedures, Guidance , and

  20. Chongqing Hechuan District Plans to Build 10 Billion Yuan Size Aluminum Industry Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Recently,the reporter learned from Chongqing Hechuan District Aluminum Industry Integration Enterprise Discussion Meeting that Hechuan District would build aluminum industrial park at Caojie Development Park,and strive to fulfill 10 billion yuan output value within 3 to 5 years.It has been learned that Hechuan District currently has 29 aluminum product enterprises(including enterprises with aluminum and aluminum products as raw material),in which 9

  1. Molycorp to acquire leading rare earth processor Neo Material Technologies in $1.3 Billion Deal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Molycorp, Inc. ("Molycorp") and /Neo Material Technologies Inc. ("Neo Materials,' or "Neo") announced on March 8th the signing of a definitive agreement under which Molycorp will acquire Neo Materials for approximately CDN $1.3 billion. This will create one of the most technologically advanced, vertically integrated rare earth companies in the world.

  2. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  3. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  4. 47 CFR 22.949 - Unserved area licensing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Zone. (a) Phase I. Phase I is a one-time process that provides an opportunity for eligible parties to... of part 1 of this chapter. After such procedures, the application of the winning bidder may...

  5. Baikuang Group Invests 5 Billion in Developing An Integrated Coal-power-aluminum Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Baise Baikuang Group Co.,Ltd.was formally established on September 24.The group is a municipal state-owned enterprise in Baise,formerly known as Guangxi Baise Mining Bureau Co.,Ltd.The Group,with 20 whollyowned and holding enterprises and a total asset of RMB 6 billion,is a major lignite production base in Guangxi,an important manganese carbonate base in China and a benchmark small and medium sized coal mine in China.It’s said

  6. Exploring for Galaxies in the First Billion Years with Hubble and Spitzer - Pathfinding for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Garth D.

    2017-01-01

    Hubble has revolutionized the field of distant galaxies through its deep imaging surveys, starting with the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) in 1995. That first deep survey revealed galaxies at redshift z~1-3 that provided insights into the development of the Hubble sequence. Each new HST instrument has explored new regimes, through the peak of star formation at z~2-3, just 2-3 billion years after the Big Bang, to our first datasets at a billion years at z~6, and then earlier to z~11. HST's survey capabilities were enhanced by 40X with ACS, and then similarly with the WFC3/IR, which opened up the first billion years to an unforeseen degree. I will discuss what we have learned from the remarkable HST and Spitzer imaging surveys (HUDF, GOODS, HUDF09/12 and CANDELS), as well as surveys of clusters like the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF). Lensing clusters provide extraordinary opportunities for characterizing the faintest earliest galaxies, but also present extraordinary challenges. Together these surveys have resulted in the measurement of the volume density of galaxies in the first billion years down to astonishingly faint levels. The role of faint galaxies in reionizing the universe is still much-discussed, but there is no doubt that such galaxies contribute greatly to the UV ionizing flux, as shown by deep luminosity function studies. Together Hubble and Spitzer have also established the stellar-mass buildup over 97% of cosmic history. Yet some of the greatest surprises have come from the discovery of very luminous galaxies at z~8-11, around 400-650 million years after the Big Bang. Spectroscopic followup by Keck of some of these very rare, bright galaxies has confirmed redshifts from z~7 to z~9, and revealed, surprisingly, strong Lyα emission near the peak of reionization when the HI fraction in the IGM is high. The recent confirmation of a z=11.1 galaxy, just 400 million years after the Big Bang, by a combination of Hubble and Spitzer data, moved Hubble into JWST territory

  7. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, M T; Tice, M M; Chamberlain, C P

    2009-11-12

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of Precambrian cherts have been used to establish much of our understanding of the early climate history of Earth and suggest that ocean temperatures during the Archaean era ( approximately 3.5 billion years ago) were between 55 degrees C and 85 degrees C (ref. 2). But, because of uncertainty in the delta(18)O of the primitive ocean, there is considerable debate regarding this conclusion. Examination of modern and ancient cherts indicates that another approach, using a combined analysis of delta(18)O and hydrogen isotopes (deltaD) rather than delta(18)O alone, can provide a firmer constraint on formational temperatures without independent knowledge of the isotopic composition of ambient waters. Here we show that delta(18)O and deltaD sampled from 3.42-billion-year-old Buck Reef Chert rocks in South Africa are consistent with formation from waters at varied low temperatures. The most (18)O-enriched Buck Reef Chert rocks record the lowest diagenetic temperatures and were formed in equilibrium with waters below approximately 40 degrees C. Geochemical and sedimentary evidence suggests that the Buck Reef Chert was formed in shallow to deep marine conditions, so our results indicate that the Palaeoarchaean ocean was isotopically depleted relative to the modern ocean and far cooler (

  8. Greenhouse gas implications of a 32 billion gallon bioenergy landscape in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, E. H.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Wang, W.; Khanna, M.; Long, S.; Dwivedi, P.; Parton, W. J.; Hartman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable bioenergy for transportation fuel and greenhouse gas (GHGs) reductions may require considerable changes in land use. Perennial grasses have been proposed because of their potential to yield substantial biomass on marginal lands without displacing food and reduce GHG emissions by storing soil carbon. Here, we implemented an integrated approach to planning bioenergy landscapes by combining spatially-explicit ecosystem and economic models to predict a least-cost land allocation for a 32 billion gallon (121 billion liter) renewable fuel mandate in the US. We find that 2022 GHG transportation emissions are decreased by 7% when 3.9 million hectares of eastern US land are converted to perennial grasses supplemented with corn residue to meet cellulosic ethanol requirements, largely because of gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage. If renewable fuel production is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by 12%, because it induces more cellulosic biofuel and land under perennial grasses (10 million hectares) than under the mandate alone. While GHG reducing bioenergy landscapes that meet RFS requirements and do not displace food are possible, the reductions in GHG emissions are 50% less compared to previous estimates that did not account for economically feasible land allocation.

  9. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Jens; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day dormant descendants of this population of active black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall - the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600 - a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 Mpc from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the ...

  10. Evidence for arsenic metabolism and cycling by microorganisms 2.7 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforna, Marie Catherine; Philippot, Pascal; Somogyi, Andrea; van Zuilen, Mark A.; Medjoubi, Kadda; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2014-11-01

    The ability of microbes to metabolize arsenic may have emerged more than 3.4 billion years ago. Some of the modern environments in which prominent arsenic metabolism occurs are anoxic, as were the Precambrian oceans. Early oceans may also have had a relatively high abundance of arsenic. However, it is unclear whether arsenic cycling occurred in ancient environments. Here we assess the chemistry and nature of cell-like globules identified in salt-encrusted portions of 2.72-billion-year-old fossil stromatolites from Western Australia. We use Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence to show that the globules are composed of organic carbon and arsenic (As). We argue that our data are best explained by the occurrence of a complete arsenic cycle at this site, with As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction by microbes living in permanently anoxic conditions. We therefore suggest that arsenic cycling could have occurred more widely in marine environments in the several hundred million years before the Earth’s atmosphere and shallow oceans were oxygenated.

  11. Increased subaerial volcanism and the rise of atmospheric oxygen 2.5 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kump, Lee R; Barley, Mark E

    2007-08-30

    The hypothesis that the establishment of a permanently oxygenated atmosphere at the Archaean-Proterozoic transition (approximately 2.5 billion years ago) occurred when oxygen-producing cyanobacteria evolved is contradicted by biomarker evidence for their presence in rocks 200 million years older. To sustain vanishingly low oxygen levels despite near-modern rates of oxygen production from approximately 2.7-2.5 billion years ago thus requires that oxygen sinks must have been much larger than they are now. Here we propose that the rise of atmospheric oxygen occurred because the predominant sink for oxygen in the Archaean era-enhanced submarine volcanism-was abruptly and permanently diminished during the Archaean-Proterozoic transition. Observations are consistent with the corollary that subaerial volcanism only became widespread after a major tectonic episode of continental stabilization at the beginning of the Proterozoic. Submarine volcanoes are more reducing than subaerial volcanoes, so a shift from predominantly submarine to a mix of subaerial and submarine volcanism more similar to that observed today would have reduced the overall sink for oxygen and led to the rise of atmospheric oxygen.

  12. The evolution in the stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Lidman, Chris; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Guatelli, Susanna; Hill, Allison R.; Hoekstra, Henk; Kurinsky, Noah; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Z. Cemile; Safavi-Naeini, Mitra; Sifón, Cristóbal; Stefanon, Mauro; van de Sande, Jesse; van Dokkum, Pieter; Weigel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Using a sample of 98 galaxy clusters recently imaged in the near-infrared with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) New Technology Telescope, WIYN telescope and William Herschel Telescope, supplemented with 33 clusters from the ESO archive, we measure how the stellar mass of the most massive galaxies in the universe, namely brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), increases with time. Most of the BCGs in this new sample lie in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.6, which has been noted in recent works to mark an epoch over which the growth in the stellar mass of BCGs stalls. From this sample of 132 clusters, we create a subsample of 102 systems that includes only those clusters that have estimates of the cluster mass. We combine the BCGs in this subsample with BCGs from the literature, and find that the growth in stellar mass of BCGs from 10 billion years ago to the present epoch is broadly consistent with recent semi-analytic and semi-empirical models. As in other recent studies, tentative evidence indicates that the stellar mass growth rate of BCGs may be slowing in the past 3.5 billion years. Further work in collecting larger samples, and in better comparing observations with theory using mock images, is required if a more detailed comparison between the models and the data is to be made.

  13. The Interstellar Medium In Galaxies Seen A Billion Years After The Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Capak, P L; Jones, G; Casey, C M; Riechers, D; Sheth, K; Carollo, C M; Ilbert, O; Karim, A; LeFevre, O; Lilly, S; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Yan, L

    2015-01-01

    Evolution in the measured rest frame ultraviolet spectral slope and ultraviolet to optical flux ratios indicate a rapid evolution in the dust obscuration of galaxies during the first 3 billion years of cosmic time (z>4). This evolution implies a change in the average interstellar medium properties, but the measurements are systematically uncertain due to untested assumptions, and the inability to measure heavily obscured regions of the galaxies. Previous attempts to directly measure the interstellar medium in normal galaxies at these redshifts have failed for a number of reasons with one notable exception. Here we report measurements of the [CII] gas and dust emission in 9 typical (~1-4L*) star-forming galaxies ~1 billon years after the big bang (z~5-6). We find these galaxies have >12x less thermal emission compared with similar systems ~2 billion years later, and enhanced [CII] emission relative to the far-infrared continuum, confirming a strong evolution in the interstellar medium properties in the early u...

  14. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  15. GERLUMPH Data Release 2: 2.5 billion simulated microlensing light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Vernardos, Georgios; Bate, Nicholas F; Croton, Darren; Vohl, Dany

    2015-01-01

    In the upcoming synoptic all--sky survey era of astronomy, thousands of new multiply imaged quasars are expected to be discovered and monitored regularly. Light curves from the images of gravitationally lensed quasars are further affected by superimposed variability due to microlensing. In order to disentangle the microlensing from the intrinsic variability of the light curves, the time delays between the multiple images have to be accurately measured. The resulting microlensing light curves can then be analyzed to reveal information about the background source, such as the size of the quasar accretion disc. In this paper we present the most extensive and coherent collection of simulated microlensing light curves; we have generated $>2.5$ billion light curves using the GERLUMPH high resolution microlensing magnification maps. Our simulations can be used to: train algorithms to measure lensed quasar time delays, plan future monitoring campaigns, and study light curve properties throughout parameter space. Our ...

  16. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

  17. Dust production 0.7-1.5 billion years after the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic dust is an important component of the Universe, and its origin, especially at high redshifts, is still unknown. I present a simple but powerful method of assessing whether dust observed in a given galaxy could in principle have been formed by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars or supernovae (SNe). Using this method I show that for most of the galaxies with detected dust emission between z=4 and z=7.5 (1.5-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang) AGB stars are not numerous and efficient enough to be responsible for the measured dust masses. Supernovae could account for most of the dust, but only if all of them had efficiencies close to the maximal theoretically allowed value. This suggests that a different mechanism is responsible for dust production at high redshifts, and the most likely possibility is the grain growth in the interstellar medium.

  18. Leveraging Billions of Faces to Overcome Performance Barriers in Unconstrained Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Taigman, Yaniv

    2011-01-01

    We employ the face recognition technology developed in house at face.com to a well accepted benchmark and show that without any tuning we are able to considerably surpass state of the art results. Much of the improvement is concentrated in the high-valued performance point of zero false positive matches, where the obtained recall rate almost doubles the best reported result to date. We discuss the various components and innovations of our system that enable this significant performance gap. These components include extensive utilization of an accurate 3D reconstructed shape model dealing with challenges arising from pose and illumination. In addition, discriminative models based on billions of faces are used in order to overcome aging and facial expression as well as low light and overexposure. Finally, we identify a challenging set of identification queries that might provide useful focus for future research.

  19. Geodynamo, solar wind, and magnetopause 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Hofmann, Axel; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Mamajek, Eric E; Liu, Dunji; Sibeck, David G; Neukirch, Levi P; Usui, Yoichi

    2010-03-05

    Stellar wind standoff by a planetary magnetic field prevents atmospheric erosion and water loss. Although the early Earth retained its water and atmosphere, and thus evolved as a habitable planet, little is known about Earth's magnetic field strength during that time. We report paleointensity results from single silicate crystals bearing magnetic inclusions that record a geodynamo 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago. The measured field strength is approximately 50 to 70% that of the present-day field. When combined with a greater Paleoarchean solar wind pressure, the paleofield strength data suggest steady-state magnetopause standoff distances of < or = 5 Earth radii, similar to values observed during recent coronal mass ejection events. The data also suggest lower-latitude aurora and increases in polar cap area, as well as heating, expansion, and volatile loss from the exosphere that would have affected long-term atmospheric composition.

  20. The habitability of the Universe through 13 billion years of cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Dayal, Pratika; Cockell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The field of astrobiology has made tremendous progress in modelling galactic-scale habitable zones which offer a stable environment for life to form and evolve in complexity. Recently, this idea has been extended to cosmological scales by studies modelling the habitability of the local Universe in its entirety (e.g. Dayal et al. 2015; Li & Zhang 2015). However, all of these studies have solely focused on estimating the potentially detrimental effects of either Type II supernovae (SNII) or Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), ignoring the contributions from Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and active galactic nuclei (AGN). In this study we follow two different approaches, based on (i) the amplitude of deleterious radiation and (ii) the total planet-hosting volume irradiated by deleterious radiation. We simultaneously track the contributions from the key astrophysical sources (SNII, SNIa, AGN and GRBs) for the entire Universe, for both scenarios, to determine its habitability through 13.8 billion years of cosmic time. We find...

  1. Three Principles to REVISE People's Unethical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Gino, Francesca; Barkan, Rachel; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Dishonesty and unethical behavior are widespread in the public and private sectors and cause immense annual losses. For instance, estimates of U.S. annual losses indicate $1 trillion paid in bribes, $270 billion lost due to unreported income, and $42 billion lost in retail due to shoplifting and employee theft. In this article, we draw on insights from the growing fields of moral psychology and behavioral ethics to present a three-principle framework we call REVISE. This framework classifies forces that affect dishonesty into three main categories and then redirects those forces to encourage moral behavior. The first principle, reminding, emphasizes the effectiveness of subtle cues that increase the salience of morality and decrease people's ability to justify dishonesty. The second principle, visibility, aims to restrict anonymity, prompt peer monitoring, and elicit responsible norms. The third principle, self-engagement, increases people's motivation to maintain a positive self-perception as a moral person and helps bridge the gap between moral values and actual behavior. The REVISE framework can guide the design of policy interventions to defeat dishonesty.

  2. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  3. Cooling and exhumation of continents at billion-year time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, T.; Bowring, S. A.; Perron, T.; Mahan, K. H.; Dudas, F. O.

    2011-12-01

    The oldest rocks on Earth are preserved within the continental lithosphere, where assembled fragments of ancient orogenic belts have survived erosion and destruction by plate tectonic and surface processes for billions of years. Though the rate of orogenic exhumation and erosion has been measured for segments of an orogenic history, it remains unclear how these exhumation rates have changed over the lifetime of any terrane. Because the exhumation of the lithospheric surface has a direct effect on the rate of heat loss within the lithosphere, a continuous record of lithosphere exhumation can be reconstructed through the use of thermochronology. Thermochronologic studies have typically employed systems sensitive to cooling at temperatures <300 °C, such as the (U-Th)/He and 40Ar/39Ar systems. This largely restricts their application to measuring cooling in rocks from the outer 10 km of the Earth's crust, resulting in a thermal history that is controlled by either upper crustal flexure and faulting and/or isotherm inflections related to surface topography. Combining these biases with the uplift, erosion and recycling of these shallow rocks results in a poor preservation potential of any long-term record. Here, an ancient and long-term record of lithosphere exhumation is constructed using U-Pb thermochronology, a geochronologic system sensitive to cooling at temperatures found at 20-50 km depth (400-650 °C). Lower crustal xenoliths provide material that resided at these depths for billions of years or more, recording a thermal history that is buried deep enough to remain insensitive to upper crustal deformation and instead is dominated by the vertical motions of the continents. We show how this temperature-sensitive system can produce a long-term integrated measure of continental exhumation and erosion. Preserved beneath Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks within Montana, USA, the Great Falls Tectonic Zone formed when two Archean cratons, the Wyoming Province and Medicine

  4. Environmentally Benign Coal Mining: Target One Billion Tonne Coal Production by CIL by 2019-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh1,2 and

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the most abundant fuel resource in India. Coal is the major source of energy and is the principal contributor for the industrial growth of the developing nation like India. Coal is a bridge component in a current, balanced energy group. It is connection for the future as a vital low cost energy solution for achieving sustainability challenges for competing with the developed countries. The largest consumer of coal in India is power sector, and the industrial sector is coming next to power sector. The major consumption of coal in India is in steel plant, cement plant and brick-manufacturing units.52%of primary energy is coal dependent1.About 66% of India's power generation is based upon coal production1. While coal is considered the most significant element for the growth of country, it faces major and massive social and environmental issues. Environmental worries are the most important parameter for the coal industry’s future. In comparison to the other fossil fuels, coal is more pollution causing and less energy efficient. Coal has an important role in fulfillment of current needs. 212.10 Million Tonnes of coal was imported in the financial year 2014-152.The coal demand will be increasing due to increase in electricity demand of the country. Coal India being the largest producer of coal in India has to plan accordingly to fulfill the coal demand of country. A road map for enhancement of coal production up to 1 Billion of coal by 2019-2020 has been prepared by Coal India3. Due to coal mining the key environmental impacts are on air, water, land, forest, biodiversity, and climate etc. The biggest challenge is to put on the innovative technologies in the most efficient and environmentally friendly manner and to solve social issues by taking care of the implementation of rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R.Thrust is now to promote inclusive growth of mining areas by adequate corporate social responsibilities (CSR activities4,5. Thus the

  5. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. World Dwarf Games 2017 Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support and information to people of short stature and their families. LPA is ...

  6. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-04-17

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores.

  7. Constraining the last 7 billion years of galaxy evolution in semi-analytic models

    CERN Document Server

    Mutch, Simon J; Croton, Darren J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the ability of the Croton et al. (2006) semi-analytic model to reproduce the evolution of observed galaxies across the final 7 billion years of cosmic history. Using Monte-Carlo Markov Chain techniques we explore the available parameter space to produce a model which attempts to achieve a statistically accurate fit to the observed stellar mass function at z=0 and z~0.8, as well as the local black hole-bulge relation. We find that in order to be successful we are required to push supernova feedback efficiencies to extreme limits which are, in some cases, unjustified by current observations. This leads us to the conclusion that the current model may be incomplete. Using the posterior probability distributions provided by our fitting, as well as the qualitative details of our produced stellar mass functions, we suggest that any future model improvements must act to preferentially bolster star formation efficiency in the most massive halos at high redshift.

  8. Analogues of primeval galaxies two billion years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorín, Ricardo; Fontana, Adriano; Pérez-Montero, Enrique; Castellano, Marco; Guaita, Lucia; Grazian, Andrea; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Ribeiro, Bruno; Schaerer, Daniel; Tasca, Lidia A. M.; Thomas, Romain; Bardelli, Sandro; Cassarà, Letizia; Cassata, Paolo; Cimatti, Andrea; Contini, Thierry; Barros, Stephane De; Garilli, Bianca; Giavalisco, Mauro; Hathi, Nimish; Koekemoer, Anton; Le Brun, Vincent; Lemaux, Brian C.; Maccagni, Dario; Pentericci, Laura; Pforr, Janine; Talia, Margherita; Tresse, Laurence; Vanzella, Eros; Vergani, Daniela; Zamorani, Giovanni; Zucca, Elena; Merlin, Emiliano

    2017-03-01

    Deep observations are revealing a growing number of young galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time1. Compared to typical galaxies at later times, they show more extreme emission-line properties2, higher star formation rates3, lower masses4, and smaller sizes5. However, their faintness precludes studies of their chemical abundances and ionization conditions, strongly limiting our understanding of the physics driving early galaxy build-up and metal enrichment. Here we study a rare population of ultraviolet-selected, low-luminosity galaxies at redshift 2.4 frame properties expected from primeval galaxies. These low-mass, highly compact systems are rapidly forming galaxies able to double their stellar mass in only a few tens of millions of years. They are characterized by very blue ultraviolet spectra with weak absorption features and bright nebular emission lines, which imply hard radiation fields from young hot massive stars6,7. Their highly ionized gas phase has strongly sub-solar carbon and oxygen abundances, with metallicities more than a factor of two lower than that found in typical galaxies of similar mass and star formation rate at z≤2.58. These young galaxies reveal an early and short stage in the assembly of their galactic structures and their chemical evolution, a vigorous phase that is likely to be dominated by the effects of gas-rich mergers, accretion of metal-poor gas and strong outflows.

  9. The evolution in the stellar mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Guatelli, Susanna; Hill, Allison R; Hoekstra, Henk; Kurinsky, Noah; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Z Cemile; Safavi-Naeini, Mitra; Sifon, Cristobal; Stefanon, Mauro; van de Sande, Jesse; van Dokkum, Pieter; Weigel, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of 98 galaxy clusters recently imaged in the near infra-red with the ESO NTT, WIYN and WHT telescopes, supplemented with 33 clusters from the ESO archive, we measure how the stellar mass of the most massive galaxies in the universe, namely Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG), increases with time. Most of the BCGs in this new sample lie in the redshift range $0.2billion years ago to the present epoch is broadly consistent with recent semi-analytic and semi-empirical models. As in other recent studies, tentative evidence indicates that the stellar mass growth rate of BCGs may be slowing in the past 3.5 billi...

  10. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J B; Evans, W C; Bergfeld, D; Hunt, A G

    2014-02-20

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  11. Large Molecular Gas Reservoirs in Ancestors of Milky Way-Mass Galaxies 9 Billion Years Ago

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, Casey; Glazebrook, Karl; Quadri, Ryan; Bekiaris, Georgios; Dickinson, Mark; Finkelstein, Steven; Fisher, David; Inami, Hanae; Livermore, Rachael; Spitler, Lee; Straatman, Caroline; Tran, Kim-Vy

    2016-01-01

    The gas accretion and star-formation histories of galaxies like the Milky Way remain an outstanding problem in astrophysics. Observations show that 8 billion years ago, the progenitors to Milky Way-mass galaxies were forming stars 30 times faster than today and predicted to be rich in molecular gas, in contrast with low present-day gas fractions ($<$10%). Here we show detections of molecular gas from the CO(J=3-2) emission (rest-frame 345.8 GHz) in galaxies at redshifts z=1.2-1.3, selected to have the stellar mass and star-formation rate of the progenitors of today's Milky Way-mass galaxies. The CO emission reveals large molecular gas masses, comparable to or exceeding the galaxy stellar masses, and implying most of the baryons are in cold gas, not stars. The galaxies' total luminosities from star formation and CO luminosities yield long gas-consumption timescales. Compared to local spiral galaxies, the star-formation efficiency, estimated from the ratio of total IR luminosity to CO emission,} has remained...

  12. Gaia Data Release 1: Astrometry - one billion positions, two million proper motions and parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindegren, L; Bastian, U; Hernández, J; Klioner, S; Hobbs, D; Bombrun, A; Michalik, D; Ramos-Lerate, M; Butkevich, A; Comoretto, G; Joliet, E; Holl, B; Hutton, A; Parsons, P; Steidelmüller, H; Abbas, U; Altmann, M; Andrei, A; Anton, S; Bach, N; Barache, C; Becciani, U; Berthier, J; Bianchi, L; Biermann, M; Bouquillon, S; Bourda, G; Brüsemeister, T; Bucciarelli, B; Busonero, D; Carlucci, T; Castañeda, J; Charlot, P; Clotet, M; Crosta, M; Davidson, M; de Felice, F; Drimmel, R; Fabricius, C; Fienga, A; Figueras, F; Fraile, E; Gai, M; Garralda, N; Geyer, R; González-Vidal, J J; Guerra, R; Hambly, N C; Hauser, M; Jordan, S; Lattanzi, M G; Lenhardt, H; Liao, S; Löffler, W; McMillan, P J; Mignard, F; Mora, A; Morbidelli, R; Portell, J; Riva, A; Sarasso, M; Serraller, I; Siddiqui, H; Smart, R; Spagna, A; Stampa, U; Steele, I; Taris, F; Torra, J; van Reeven, W; Vecchiato, A; Zschocke, S; de Bruijne, J; Gracia, G; Raison, F; Lister, T; Marchant, J; Messineo, R; Soffel, M; Osorio, J; de Torres, A; O'Mullane, W

    2016-01-01

    Gaia Data Release 1 (Gaia DR1) contains astrometric results for more than 1 billion stars brighter than magnitude 20.7 based on observations collected by the Gaia satellite during the first 14 months of its operational phase. We give a brief overview of the astrometric content of the data release and of the model assumptions, data processing, and validation of the results. For stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, complete astrometric single-star solutions are obtained by incorporating positional information from the earlier catalogues. For other stars only their positions are obtained by neglecting their proper motions and parallaxes. The results are validated by an analysis of the residuals, through special validation runs, and by comparison with external data. Results. For about two million of the brighter stars (down to magnitude ~11.5) we obtain positions, parallaxes, and proper motions to Hipparcos-type precision or better. For these stars, systematic errors depending e.g. on positi...

  13. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth A; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark; Mao, Wendy L

    2015-11-24

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ∼ 3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ∼ 3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ(13)CPDB of -24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ∼ 300 My earlier than has been previously proposed.

  14. Survival of pure disk galaxies over the last 8 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdeva, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Pure disk galaxies without any bulge component, i.e., neither classical nor pseudo, seem to have escaped the affects of merger activity inherent to hierarchical galaxy formation models as well as strong internal secular evolution. We discover that a significant fraction (15 - 18 %) of disk galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field (0.4 < z < 1.0) as well as in the local Universe (0.02 < z < 0.05) are such pure disk systems (hereafter, PDS). The spatial distribution of light in these PDS is well described by a single exponential function from the outskirts to the centre and appears to have remained intact over the last 8 billion years keeping the mean central surface brightness and scale-length nearly constant. These two disk parameters of PDS are brighter and shorter, respectively, than of those disks which are part of disk galaxies with bulges. Since the fraction of PDS as well as their profile defining parameters do not change, it indicates that these galaxies have not witnessed either major mergers or ...

  15. The First Billion Years project: birthplaces of direct collapse black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Bhaskar; Johnson, Jarrett L; Khochfar, Sadegh; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the environment in which direct-collapse black holes may form by analysing a cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation that is part of the First Billion Years project. This simulation includes the most relevant physical processes leading to direct collapse of haloes, most importantly, molecular hydrogen depletion by dissociation of $H_2$ and $H^-$ from the evolving Lyman-Werner radiation field. We selected a sample of pristine atomic cooling haloes that have never formed stars in their past, have not been polluted with heavy elements and are cooling predominantly via atomic hydrogen lines. Amongst them we identified six haloes that could potentially harbour massive seed black holes formed via direct collapse (with masses in the range of $10^{4-6} M_{sun}$). These potential hosts of direct-collapse black holes form as satellites and are found within 15 physical kpc of proto-galaxies, with stellar masses in the range $10^{5-7} M_{sun}$ and maximal star formation rates of 0.1 Msun/yr over the past 5...

  16. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-01-01

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments.

  17. Stop-and-Stare: Optimal Sampling Algorithms for Viral Marketing in Billion-scale Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hung T; Dinh, Thang N

    2016-01-01

    Influence Maximization (IM), that seeks a small set of key users who spread the influence widely into the network, is a core problem in multiple domains. It finds applications in viral marketing, epidemic control, and assessing cascading failures within complex systems. Despite the huge amount of effort, IM in billion-scale networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and World Wide Web has not been satisfactorily solved. Even the state-of-the-art methods such as TIM+ and IMM may take days on those networks. In this paper, we propose SSA and D-SSA, two novel sampling frameworks for IM-based viral marketing problems. SSA and D-SSA are up to 1200 times faster than the SIGMOD 15 best method, IMM, while providing the same $(1- 1/e-\\epsilon)$ approximation guarantee. Underlying our frameworks is an innovative Stop-and-Stare strategy in which they stop at exponential check points to verify (stare) if there is adequate statistical evidence on the solution quality. Theoretically, we prove that SSA and D-SSA are the first appr...

  18. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe.

  19. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-07-21

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO(2) distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO(2)-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by "Business as Usual" projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO(2) would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO(2) emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled.

  20. Rapid oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Genming; Ono, Shuhei; Beukes, Nicolas J; Wang, David T; Xie, Shucheng; Summons, Roger E

    2016-05-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is, and has been, a primary driver of biological evolution and shapes the contemporary landscape of Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Although "whiffs" of oxygen have been documented in the Archean atmosphere, substantial O2 did not accumulate irreversibly until the Early Paleoproterozoic, during what has been termed the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE). The timing of the GOE and the rate at which this oxygenation took place have been poorly constrained until now. We report the transition (that is, from being mass-independent to becoming mass-dependent) in multiple sulfur isotope signals of diagenetic pyrite in a continuous sedimentary sequence in three coeval drill cores in the Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. These data precisely constrain the GOE to 2.33 billion years ago. The new data suggest that the oxygenation occurred rapidly-within 1 to 10 million years-and was followed by a slower rise in the ocean sulfate inventory. Our data indicate that a climate perturbation predated the GOE, whereas the relationships among GOE, "Snowball Earth" glaciation, and biogeochemical cycling will require further stratigraphic correlation supported with precise chronologies and paleolatitude reconstructions.

  1. A Massive Galaxy in its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Erica; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z=2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0x10^11 Msun, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90[+45-20]Msun/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317+-30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z~2 and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavil...

  2. Current trends, innovations and issues in nursing education to cater for the bottom billion nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek-Hong Lim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nurse education is undergoing a processof transition. Nurses worldwide are working towardsachievement of higher levels of education and trainingthrough an improved education system. Current trendsand innovations in nursing education are emerging toprepare more nurses and to deliver education to studentsacross geographical boundaries while taking intoconsideration their work and family responsibilities. Thecurrent trends and innovations in nursing educationrange from full time face-to-face interactions to distanceeducation programmes. Teaching approaches such asblended learning, online or e-Learning have providednurses with an avenue for continuing education fordevelopment and progression in their career pathways.Every nurse aspires to reach her highest potential. Whilethe current trends and innovations in nursing educationprovides the flexibility for nurses to continue learningand upgrade their professional qualifications, there areissues to be considered in catering to the needs of thebottom billion nurses. An exploration of related issueswill include views from different perspectives, such asthat of the institution/provider, instructor/facilitatorand student/learner involved in the development andimplementation of the related education programmes.

  3. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  4. Archean rocks in antarctica: 2.5-billion-year uranium-lead ages of pegmatites in enderby land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, E S; Manton, W I

    1979-10-26

    Uranium-lead isotopic data indicate that the granulite-facies Napier complex of Enderby Land, Antarctica, was cut by charnockitic pegmatites 2.5 billion years ago and by pegmatites lacking hypersthene 0.52 billion years ago. The 4-bil-lion-years lead-lead ages (whole rock) reported for the Napier complex are rejected since these leads developed in three stages. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland suggest that the Napier complex may be a continuation of the Archean granulitic terrain of southern India.

  5. PEOPLE/POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    ’Marshall Plan’ With Chinese Characteristics Xu Shaiula. a former senior tax official, recently suggested the Chinese Government launch a $500-billion financing assistance program for developing countries, in order to speed up the world’s recovery from the ongoing economic crisis.

  6. The transition to a sulphidic ocean approximately 1.84 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Simon W; Fralick, Philip W; Canfield, Donald E

    2004-09-09

    The Proterozoic aeon (2.5 to 0.54 billion years (Gyr) ago) marks the time between the largely anoxic world of the Archean (> 2.5 Gyr ago) and the dominantly oxic world of the Phanerozoic (Proterozoic has traditionally been explained by progressive oxygenation of the deep ocean in response to an increase in atmospheric oxygen around 2.3 Gyr ago. This postulated rise in the oxygen content of the ocean is in turn thought to have led to the oxidation of dissolved iron, Fe(II), thus ending the deposition of banded iron formations (BIF) around 1.8 Gyr ago. An alternative interpretation suggests that the increasing atmospheric oxygen levels enhanced sulphide weathering on land and the flux of sulphate to the oceans. This increased rates of sulphate reduction, resulting in Fe(II) removal in the form of pyrite as the oceans became sulphidic. Here we investigate sediments from the approximately 1.8-Gyr-old Animikie group, Canada, which were deposited during the final stages of the main global period of BIF deposition. This allows us to evaluate the two competing hypotheses for the termination of BIF deposition. We use iron-sulphur-carbon (Fe-S-C) systematics to demonstrate continued ocean anoxia after the final global deposition of BIF and show that a transition to sulphidic bottom waters was ultimately responsible for the termination of BIF deposition. Sulphidic conditions may have persisted until a second major rise in oxygen between 0.8 to 0.58 Gyr ago, possibly reducing global rates of primary production and arresting the pace of algal evolution.

  7. Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

    2008-02-01

    Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history

  8. ESA's billion star surveyor - Flight operations experience from Gaia's first 1.5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, D.; Rudolph, A.; Whitehead, G.; Loureiro, T.; Serpell, E.; di Marco, F.; Marie, J.; Ecale, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper details the initial in-flight mission operations experience from ESA's ultra-precise Gaia spacecraft. Tasked with mapping the positions and movements of 1 billion stars to unprecedented precision (to the 10 s of micro-arc-second level, comparable to the width of a coin on the Moon as viewed from Earth). ESA's Science cornerstone mission is expected to also discover and chart 100,000's of new objects including near Earth Asteroids, exoplanets, brown dwarfs and Quasars. After a flawless launch 19 Dec 2013, Gaia was brought the circa 1.5 million kms into L2 via a sequence of technically demanding orbit transfer manoeuvres using onboard thrusters in thrust vectoring mode. Starting in parallel to this, and lasting 6 months, the full spacecraft was commissioned and brought gradually up to the highest operational mode. A number of problems were detected and tackled during commissioning and early routine phase operations. An apparent dimming of the on-board laser and imaged stars, was tracked down to water ice building up inside the telescope enclosure. Also apparent was more straylight than expected. Elsewhere, a micro-propulsion thruster developed unexpected performance levels and a back-up chemical thruster suffered a failed latch valve. These issues, like several others, were dealt with and solved in a series of review meetings, in-orbit special operations and newly developed procedures and on-board software changes. After commissioning Gaia was working so well that it was producing approximately 45% more science data than originally foreseen, primarily since it was able to see stars fainter than required. The mission operations concept was quickly adapted to partially automate ground operations and increase ground station time to allow the full scientific potential of Gaia to be realised.

  9. BASF and Sinopec Break Ground on $1.4 Billion Expansion of Nanjing Joint Venture Chemical Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ BASF and Sinopec began the construction for the expansion of their joint venture,BASF-YPC Co.,Ltd.(BYC).BASF and Sinopec plan to jointly invest approximately $1.4 billion in technologies to produce downstream chemical intermediates and specialties for the Chinese market.

  10. CSCEC and Chinalco Joined Hands to Invest 5 Billion Yuan for Making Deployment in Building New Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    CSCEC-Chinalco New Material Co.,Ltd,a company jointly invested by China State Construction Engineering Corporation(CSCEC)and Chinalco,was inaugurated in Chengdu,Sichuan,on December 15,CSCECChinalco will invest nearly 5 billion yuan capital in the next five years to makedeployment in the building new materials

  11. Shandong XinfaPlans to Invest 70 billion Yuan to Develop CoalPower-Aluminum Project in Zunyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>DOn April 18, Shandong Xinfa Group and Zunyi People’s Government formally signed a framework cooperation agreement for coalpower-aluminum integrated project, planning to invest 70 billion yuan to concentrate on building North Guizhou coal-power-aluminum integrated resource downstream processing base.

  12. Shandong Plans to Cultivate Two Aluminum Industry Groups with Sales Income Topping 100 billion yuan Within Three Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Recently,Shandong Province unveiled"Nonferrous Industry Transition and Upgrading Plan",which proposed that by 2017 it would cultivate 2 ultra large aluminum industry groups with sales income topping 100 billion yuan,aluminum capacity will be reduced to 9million tonnes;before 2020 it will no longer add new capacity.

  13. 77 FR 29458 - Supervisory Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... would allow a banking organization to assume a known adverse outcome, such as suffering a credit loss... Supervisory Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in Total..., applicable to all Federal Reserve-supervised, FDIC- supervised, and OCC-supervised banking organizations...

  14. Shanghai 2010 Apparel Retail Sales Report Top 10 Department Stores Retail Worth CNY5 billion in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Shanghai – According to Shanghai Apparel Association, CNY5.22 billion was spent in Shanghai top 10 department stores in the whole year of 2010, rising by about 8.7 per cent y/y. We’ve seen distinct growth in the average retail

  15. Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R.; Schreiber, N. M. Förster; Übler, H.; Lang, P.; Naab, T.; Bender, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, S.; Alexander, T.; Beifiori, A.; Belli, S.; Brammer, G.; Burkert, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Chan, J.; Davies, R.; Fossati, M.; Galametz, A.; Genel, S.; Gerhard, O.; Lutz, D.; Mendel, J. T.; Momcheva, I.; Nelson, E. J.; Renzini, A.; Saglia, R.; Sternberg, A.; Tacchella, S.; Tadaki, K.; Wilman, D.

    2017-03-01

    In the cold dark matter cosmology, the baryonic components of galaxies—stars and gas—are thought to be mixed with and embedded in non-baryonic and non-relativistic dark matter, which dominates the total mass of the galaxy and its dark-matter halo. In the local (low-redshift) Universe, the mass of dark matter within a galactic disk increases with disk radius, becoming appreciable and then dominant in the outer, baryonic regions of the disks of star-forming galaxies. This results in rotation velocities of the visible matter within the disk that are constant or increasing with disk radius—a hallmark of the dark-matter model. Comparisons between the dynamical mass, inferred from these velocities in rotational equilibrium, and the sum of the stellar and cold-gas mass at the peak epoch of galaxy formation ten billion years ago, inferred from ancillary data, suggest high baryon fractions in the inner, star-forming regions of the disks. Although this implied baryon fraction may be larger than in the local Universe, the systematic uncertainties (owing to the chosen stellar initial-mass function and the calibration of gas masses) render such comparisons inconclusive in terms of the mass of dark matter. Here we report rotation curves (showing rotation velocity as a function of disk radius) for the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies, and find that the rotation velocities are not constant, but decrease with radius. We propose that this trend arises because of a combination of two main factors: first, a large fraction of the massive high-redshift galaxy population was strongly baryon-dominated, with dark matter playing a smaller part than in the local Universe; and second, the large velocity dispersion in high-redshift disks introduces a substantial pressure term that leads to a decrease in rotation velocity with increasing radius. The effect of both factors appears to increase with redshift. Qualitatively, the observations suggest that baryons in the early

  16. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Ram Rideout

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity. Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster. We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced. Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in

  17. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harald Furnes; Maarten de Wit; Yildirim Dilek

    2014-01-01

    We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimi-nation systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%), linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%). The remaining 25%Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74%) of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type), in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals), starting in late Paleo-to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0e1.8 Ga), exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incom-patible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles) in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50% of all known

  18. Gaia Data Release 1. Astrometry: one billion positions, two million proper motions and parallaxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegren, L.; Lammers, U.; Bastian, U.; Hernández, J.; Klioner, S.; Hobbs, D.; Bombrun, A.; Michalik, D.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Butkevich, A.; Comoretto, G.; Joliet, E.; Holl, B.; Hutton, A.; Parsons, P.; Steidelmüller, H.; Abbas, U.; Altmann, M.; Andrei, A.; Anton, S.; Bach, N.; Barache, C.; Becciani, U.; Berthier, J.; Bianchi, L.; Biermann, M.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Busonero, D.; Carlucci, T.; Castañeda, J.; Charlot, P.; Clotet, M.; Crosta, M.; Davidson, M.; de Felice, F.; Drimmel, R.; Fabricius, C.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Fraile, E.; Gai, M.; Garralda, N.; Geyer, R.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Guerra, R.; Hambly, N. C.; Hauser, M.; Jordan, S.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Lenhardt, H.; Liao, S.; Löffler, W.; McMillan, P. J.; Mignard, F.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Portell, J.; Riva, A.; Sarasso, M.; Serraller, I.; Siddiqui, H.; Smart, R.; Spagna, A.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I.; Taris, F.; Torra, J.; van Reeven, W.; Vecchiato, A.; Zschocke, S.; de Bruijne, J.; Gracia, G.; Raison, F.; Lister, T.; Marchant, J.; Messineo, R.; Soffel, M.; Osorio, J.; de Torres, A.; O'Mullane, W.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) contains astrometric results for more than 1 billion stars brighter than magnitude 20.7 based on observations collected by the Gaia satellite during the first 14 months of its operational phase. Aims: We give a brief overview of the astrometric content of the data release and of the model assumptions, data processing, and validation of the results. Methods: For stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, complete astrometric single-star solutions are obtained by incorporating positional information from the earlier catalogues. For other stars only their positions are obtained, essentially by neglecting their proper motions and parallaxes. The results are validated by an analysis of the residuals, through special validation runs, and by comparison with external data. Results: For about two million of the brighter stars (down to magnitude 11.5) we obtain positions, parallaxes, and proper motions to Hipparcos-type precision or better. For these stars, systematic errors depending for example on position and colour are at a level of ± 0.3 milliarcsecond (mas). For the remaining stars we obtain positions at epoch J2015.0 accurate to 10 mas. Positions and proper motions are given in a reference frame that is aligned with the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to better than 0.1 mas at epoch J2015.0, and non-rotating with respect to ICRF to within 0.03 mas yr-1. The Hipparcos reference frame is found to rotate with respect to the Gaia DR1 frame at a rate of 0.24 mas yr-1. Conclusions: Based on less than a quarter of the nominal mission length and on very provisional and incomplete calibrations, the quality and completeness of the astrometric data in Gaia DR1 are far from what is expected for the final mission products. The present results nevertheless represent a huge improvement in the available fundamental stellar data and practical definition of the optical reference frame.

  19. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Furnes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimination systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%, linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%. The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74% of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type, in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals, starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0–1.8 Ga, exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incompatible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50

  20. Evidence for Oxygenic Photosynthesis Half a Billion Years Before the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah; Reinhard, Chris; Asael, Dan; Lyons, Tim; Hofmann, Axel; Rouxel, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Despite detailed investigations over the past 50 years, there is still intense debate about when oxygenic photosynthesis evolved. Current estimates span over a billion years of Earth history, ranging from prior to 3.7 Ga, the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks, to 2.4-2.3 Ga, coincident with the rise of atmospheric oxygen ("The Great Oxidation Event" or GOE). As such, a new, independent perspective is needed. We will provide such a perspective herein by using molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in a novel way to track the onset of manganese(II)oxidation and thus biological oxygen production. The oxidation of Mn(II) in modern marine setting requires free dissolved oxygen. Mn is relatively unique in its environmental specificity for oxygen as an electron acceptor among the redox-sensitive transition metals, many of which, like Fe, can be oxidized under anoxic conditions either through a microbial pathway and/or with alternative oxidants such as nitrate. There are large Mo isotope fractionations associated with the sorption of Mo (as a polymolybdate complex) onto Mn-oxyhydroxides, with an approximately -2.7‰ fractionation in d98Mo associated with Mo sorption onto Mn-oxyhydroxides (e.g., birnessite, vernadite). In contrast, sorption of Mo onto the Fe-oxyhydroxide (e.g., ferrihydrite) results in a fractionation of only -1.1‰ or less. Because of this difference in Mo isotope fractionation, Mo isotope values should become lighter with increasing Mn content, if Mn oxidation occurred during deposition and is an important vector of Mo transfer to the sediment. We find a strong positive correlation between d98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios in iron formations deposited before and after the Great Oxidation Event. Most strikingly, Mo isotope data and Fe/Mn ratios correlate over a 2.5‰ range in d98Mo values in the Mn-rich (0.1 - 6%) iron formation of the 2.95 Ga Sinqeni Formation, South Africa. The large isotopic shifts occur over a relatively thin (3 meter thick) horizon, reflecting

  1. China Nonferrous Metal Invested 1.3-billion in a Rare Earth Separation Project in Xinfeng,Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On the 9th Oct,a signing ceremony on project investment and construction was held between China Nonferrous Metal Industry’s Foreign Engineering and Construction Co.,Ltd.and the Xinfeng County Government,Guangdong.According to agreement,the company will invest RMB 1.3 billion in Xinfeng County to develop a rare earth separation project in the south,in

  2. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  3. Molecular dynamics beyonds the limits: Massive scaling on 72 racks of a BlueGene/P and supercooled glass dynamics of a 1 billion particles system

    KAUST Repository

    Allsopp, Nicholas

    2012-04-01

    We report scaling results on the world\\'s largest supercomputer of our recently developed Billions-Body Molecular Dynamics (BBMD) package, which was especially designed for massively parallel simulations of the short-range atomic dynamics in structural glasses and amorphous materials. The code was able to scale up to 72 racks of an IBM BlueGene/P, with a measured 89% efficiency for a system with 100 billion particles. The code speed, with 0.13. s per iteration in the case of 1 billion particles, paves the way to the study of billion-body structural glasses with a resolution increase of two orders of magnitude with respect to the largest simulation ever reported. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our code by studying the liquid-glass transition of an exceptionally large system made by a binary mixture of 1 billion particles. © 2012.

  4. THE SOUTHERN FRAGMENT OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: “LANDSCAPE” HISTORY OVER TWO BILLION YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich

    2015-09-01

    background of sub-continental sedimentation. In the Late Paleozoic, the geologic development was marked by major transformation of the pattern of tectonic structures, that was most likely related to inside-plate extension and thinning of the continental crust. In the Mid and Late Carbon (Fig. 4A, the integrated Tungusskiy sedimentation basin was formed as a result of continuous and uniform bending. In the Early Permian (see Fig. 4Б, positive tectonic movements led to significant dewatering of the Paleozoic basins, so that they turned into a washed-out area. Overall raising of the Siberian Platform preconditioned climate changes, such as aridization and climate cooling. In the Mesozoic, landscapes were presented by a combination of flat uplands, wide river valleys with swampy plains and lakes wherein carbonous sediments were accumulated. Basic volcanism with shield eruptions and sub-volcanic rocks was typical then. In the Jurassic (see Fig. 4B, elements observed in the recent topography of the Siberian Platform were formed. In that period, major structural transformation occurred in association with the largest diastrophic cycles in the territory of the Eastern Asia, including formation of the Baikal rift and its branches.From the analyses of the available data which are briefly presented above, it is obvious that the period of two billion years in the Earth history includes numerous epochs of diastrophic processes of tremendous destructive capacity. Unconformities of formations differing in ages by millions and even hundreds of million years, as those dating back to the Pre-Cambrian, suggest quite realistic yet astounding visions. At the background of scenarios of floods, rock up-thrusts, volcanic explosions and earthquakes evidenced from the very remote past, the current geological and climatic phenomena may seem quite trivial.

  5. People in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方岩

    2004-01-01

    “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.”is a famous saying about customs. But what exactly do the Romans and other people do that is so different? Where do women wear tings in their noses to show they are married, for example? Where do people greet each other with a bow rather than a handshake? Here are some other ways people behave and beautify themselves around the world.

  6. Education for rural people

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nearly one out of six people in the world is suffering from hunger and illiteracy. This book was developed to assist policy makers dealing with rural poverty, food insecurity and education challenges confronting rural people. It seeks to address the correlation between education, training, empowerment and food security, mainly through a number of examples from all over the world. It is about strengthening the capacity of rural people to achieve food security. It identifies different dimension...

  7. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth's Sedimentary Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T; Galloway, Jennifer M; Bell, Kimberley M; Sulphur, Kyle C; Heaman, Larry M; Beranek, Luke P; Fallas, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon.

  8. Psychodrama with Deaf People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Lynette; Robinson, Luther D.

    1971-01-01

    Observations based on psychodrama with deaf people, relating to interaction between people and the communication process, are made. How role training skills, which involve some of the skills of psychodrama, can be applied by professionals in vocational and social learning situations is illustrated. (KW)

  9. Can Noise Kill People?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲娣

    2007-01-01

    Someone is singing next door,but you feel unhappy because her singing is just making a noise.We know that too much noise makes people feel terrible. Scientists are still trying to find out more about noise,but already it is known that a noise of over 85 decibels can make some people tired and anxious.

  10. Activities for Older People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Along with the improvement of the standard of living and medical care the lifespan of people in China has increased greatly in the 1990s. There are more older people living in Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin than in the rest of the country. The government and

  11. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

  12. Earth's air pressure 2.7 billion years ago constrained to less than half of modern levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sanjoy M.; Buick, Roger; Hagadorn, James W.; Blake, Tim S.; Perreault, John M.; Harnmeijer, Jelte P.; Catling, David C.

    2016-06-01

    How the Earth stayed warm several billion years ago when the Sun was considerably fainter is the long-standing problem of the `faint young Sun paradox'. Because of negligible O2 and only moderate CO2 levels in the Archaean atmosphere, methane has been invoked as an auxiliary greenhouse gas. Alternatively, pressure broadening in a thicker atmosphere with a N2 partial pressure around 1.6-2.4 bar could have enhanced the greenhouse effect. But fossilized raindrop imprints indicate that air pressure 2.7 billion years ago (Gyr) was below twice modern levels and probably below 1.1 bar, precluding such pressure enhancement. This result is supported by nitrogen and argon isotope studies of fluid inclusions in 3.0-3.5 Gyr rocks. Here, we calculate absolute Archaean barometric pressure using the size distribution of gas bubbles in basaltic lava flows that solidified at sea level ~2.7 Gyr in the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Our data indicate a surprisingly low surface atmospheric pressure of Patm = 0.23 +/- 0.23 (2σ) bar, and combined with previous studies suggests ~0.5 bar as an upper limit to late Archaean Patm. The result implies that the thin atmosphere was rich in auxiliary greenhouse gases and that Patm fluctuated over geologic time to a previously unrecognized extent.

  13. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  14. People on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Many people live away from their homes and communities. Worldwide, about 125 million people are migrant workers, immigrants, or refugees in search of education, employment, or safety, making them vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Some practical approaches to HIV prevention with people on the move are delineated. These include: 1) the project in Niger describing its work with migrant peer educators; 2) a national program improving health services; 3) a program in India providing STI treatment and health information for truck drivers; 4) a South African HIV program, which includes activities within communities; and 5) HIV prevention programs for refugees in Tanzania and Mozambique.

  15. OFDA People-Trak

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — People-Trak HRIS is a workforce management tool. It will provide tracking and management tools for recruiting, training, contact info, performance, travel monitoring...

  16. Organizing homeless people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    People who are homeless belong to some of the most vulnerable, dispersed and disorganized groups in welfare societies. Yet in 2001, a national interest organization of homeless people was formed for the first time in Denmark. This article identifies the processes that facilitated the formation...... of the organization. It focuses on the importance of ideological and institutional conditions and changes, and it stresses the importance of alliances between progressive actors in the field and in the political-administrative system, in addition to the presence of dedicated activists among people who are or have...... been homeless. The analysis may thus serve as a case of inspiration for activists and professionals who want to improve homeless people's opportunities for participation in other national settings....

  17. PEOPLE/POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lifetime Achievement Laureate Sun Jiadong, a senior Chinese expert in carrier rocket and satellite technology, received a Lifetime Achievement Award as part of the 2010 CCTV Economic People of the Year program.

  18. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  19. Policing Transgender People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.

  20. A constraint on a varying proton--electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonaite, J; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-01-01

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10$\\%$ of the age of the universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton--electron mass ratio, $\\mu$. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443$+$2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to $\\mu$, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of $\\Delta\\mu/\\mu=(-9.5\\pm5.4_{\\textrm{stat}} \\pm 5.3_{\\textrm{sys}})\\times 10^{-6}$.

  1. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-05-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

  2. Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-02-20

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to μ, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of Δμ/μ=(-9.5 ± 5.4(stat)± 5.3(syst))×10(-6).

  3. Serving the People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese people in recent years have shown an increased ,interest in finding a "red-collar job, a widespread Internet term nowadays meaning a public service job. Official figures show the number of applicants for the national civil servant examination, which selects candidates for government departments, has surged from 87,000 in 2003 to 1.44 million in 2009.

  4. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  5. Transgender People (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person comfortable or uncomfortable with his or her anatomy is unclear, but they believe it's the result of a complex mixture of biology, psychology, and environmental factors — and not simply a matter of choice. Helping Transgender Teens The idea that people can feel that they' ...

  6. HIV among Transgender People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Transgender People Format: Select One File [82K] ...

  7. People's Theatre in Amerika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Karen Malpede

    A history of the people's theatre movement in this country from the early 1920s to the early 1970s, this book deals with the structural and thematic connections between the radical theatre of the twenties and thirties and current work of such revolutionary theatres as the Living Theatre, Open Theatre, Bread and Puppet Theatre, El Teatro Campesino,…

  8. People and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    practiceOrganic agriculture has excellent opportunities to create strong links between the environment it operates in, the people who live there and local nature and landscape. The Dutch organic sector aspires to strengthen these links and it is already well on its way. Together with researchers and

  9. PEOPLE/POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Honored Artist Tan Jing, China’s well-known singer, was honored as one of the 2011 China Cultural figures, a prize jointly conferred by the Chinese Culture Promotion Society and Phoenix TV in Hong Kong. Set up in 2009, the title is for honoring outstanding people in preserving

  10. The peopling of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The peopling of Greenland has a complex history shaped by population migrations, isolation and genetic drift. The Greenlanders present a genetic heritage with components of European and Inuit groups; previous studies using uniparentally inherited markers in Greenlanders have reported evidence of ...

  11. Serving the People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The civil service is still popular but not as much as it once was chinese people in recent years have shown an increased interest in finding a "red-collar job," a widespread Internet term nowadays meaning a public service job.

  12. Mobile hydrocarbon microspheres from >2-billion-year-old carbon-bearing seams in the South African deep subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, G; Moser, D; Hay, M; Myneni, S; Onstott, T C; Southam, G

    2012-11-01

    By ~2.9 Ga, the time of the deposition of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, life is believed to have been well established on Earth. Carbon remnants of the microbial biosphere from this time period are evident in sediments from around the world. In the Witwatersrand Supergroup, the carbonaceous material is often concentrated in seams, closely associated with the gold deposits and may have been a mobile phase 2 billion years ago. Whereas today the carbon in the Witwatersrand Supergroup is presumed to be immobile, hollow hydrocarbon spheres ranging in size from 50 μm were discovered emanating from a borehole drilled through the carbon-bearing seams suggesting that a portion of the carbon may still be mobile in the deep subsurface. ToF-SIMS and STXM analyses revealed that these spheres contain a suite of alkane, alkenes, and aromatic compounds consistent with the described organic-rich carbon seams within the Witwatersrand Supergroup's auriferous reef horizons. Analysis by electron microscopy and ToF-SIMS, however, revealed that these spheres, although most likely composed of biogenic carbon and resembling biological organisms, do not retain any true structural, that is, fossil, information and were formed by an abiogenic process.

  13. Electric Vehicle Plan [in France]. 4 billion euros for 2020; Plan Voiture Electrique. 4 miljard euro tot 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zutphen, E.

    2009-11-15

    On October 1st 2009 two ministries (Environment and Industry) announced fourteen measures for promoting plug-in and hybrid vehicles in their 'Plan Voiture Electrique'. The investments amount to up to 4 billion euros until 2020. The aim is to have 450 thousand hybrids and electric vehicles on the roads of France in 2015. In 2020 there should be 2 million of them and in 2025 4.5 million. The plan has three areas of attention: incentives for the purchase of electric or hybrid vehicles, the infrastructure (charging points) and the production of the vehicle and the batteries within France. [Dutch] Op 1 oktober 2009 werden door 2 ministeries (Milieu en Industrie) in het 'Plan Voiture Electrique' veertien maatregelen bekendgemaakt waarmee plug-in-hybrides en elektrische autos zullen worden gepromoot. De investeringen bedragen tot 2020 4 miljard euro. Het doel is om in 2015 450 duizend hybrides en elektrische voertuigen op de Franse wegen te laten rijden. In 2020 moeten dat er 2 miljoen zijn en in 2025 4,5 miljoen. Het plan betreft drie verschillende actiegebieden: stimulering van de aankoop van elektrische- of hybride voertuigen, de infrastructuur (oplaadpunten), en de productie in eigen land van zowel het voertuig als de batterijen.

  14. Impacts of a 32-billion-gallon bioenergy landscape on land and fossil fuel use in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Wang, Weiwei; Khanna, Madhu; Long, Stephen P.; Dwivedi, Puneet; Parton, William J.; Hartman, Melannie; Delucia, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transportation biofuels may require considerable changes in land use to meet mandated targets. Understanding the possible impact of different policies on land use and greenhouse gas emissions has typically proceeded by exploring either ecosystem or economic modelling. Here we integrate such models to assess the potential for the US Renewable Fuel Standard to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector through the use of cellulosic biofuels. We find that 2022 US emissions are decreased by 7.0 ± 2.5% largely through gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage by perennial grasses. If the Renewable Fuel Standard is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, these emissions could be reduced by 12.3 ± 3.4%. Our integrated approach indicates that transitioning to cellulosic biofuels can meet a 32-billion-gallon Renewable Fuel Standard target with negligible effects on food crop production, while reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. However, emissions savings are lower than previous estimates that did not account for economic constraints.

  15. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  16. The rapid assembly of an elliptical galaxy of 400 billion solar masses at a redshift of 2.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Cooray, Asantha; Feruglio, C; Ivison, R J; Riechers, D A; Gurwell, M; Bussmann, R S; Harris, A I; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Baker, A J; Bock, J; Boylan-Kolchin, M; Bridge, C; Calanog, J A; Casey, C M; Cava, A; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Cox, P; Farrah, D; Frayer, D; Hopwood, R; Jia, J; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Martínez-Navajas, P; Negrello, M; Neri, R; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Pérez-Fournon, I; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Smith, A; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J L; Zemcov, M

    2013-06-20

    Stellar archaeology shows that massive elliptical galaxies formed rapidly about ten billion years ago with star-formation rates of above several hundred solar masses per year. Their progenitors are probably the submillimetre bright galaxies at redshifts z greater than 2. Although the mean molecular gas mass (5 × 10(10) solar masses) of the submillimetre bright galaxies can explain the formation of typical elliptical galaxies, it is inadequate to form elliptical galaxies that already have stellar masses above 2 × 10(11) solar masses at z ≈ 2. Here we report multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a rare merger of two massive submillimetre bright galaxies at z = 2.3. The system is seen to be forming stars at a rate of 2,000 solar masses per year. The star-formation efficiency is an order of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, so the gas reservoir will be exhausted and star formation will be quenched in only around 200 million years. At a projected separation of 19 kiloparsecs, the two massive starbursts are about to merge and form a passive elliptical galaxy with a stellar mass of about 4 × 10(11) solar masses. We conclude that gas-rich major galaxy mergers with intense star formation can form the most massive elliptical galaxies by z ≈ 1.5.

  17. Art for the People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Low-price performance tickets a big hit with Beijing’s budget conscious concert goers It was eight o’clock on the morning of January 1,one and a half hours be- fore standing tickets for the National Grand Theater were to go on sale for that night’s New Year Concert and al- ready a crowd of more than 500 people milled around outside the venue’s ticket office. Despite the sub-zero temperatures

  18. Technology for helping people

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    The first THE Port hackathon problem-solving workshop was held at CERN from 31 October to 2 November in the framework of the 60th anniversary celebrations. The aim of the event was to develop technological projects that can help to solve the day-to-day needs of people living in areas of the planet that experience conflicts or natural disasters.   Collage of shots from THE Port hackathon. Credit: THE Port association The event was dedicated to humanitarian and social topics inspired by members of non-governmental organisations‬. “There is plenty of room for technology to help in humanitarian fields. That’s why we came up with the idea of bringing people together to work on these topics,” explains Ines Knäpper, Project Manager of THE Port hackathon. “We started six months ago setting up THE Port association.* The success of the event was only possible because of the joint effort of a team of roughly twenty people. They were inspired by the aim...

  19. Do People "Pop Out"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Katja M; Vuong, Quoc C; Thornton, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    The human body is a highly familiar and socially very important object. Does this mean that the human body has a special status with respect to visual attention? In the current paper we tested whether people in natural scenes attract attention and "pop out" or, alternatively, are at least searched for more efficiently than targets of another category (machines). Observers in our study searched a visual array for dynamic or static scenes containing humans amidst scenes containing machines and vice versa. The arrays consisted of 2, 4, 6 or 8 scenes arranged in a circular array, with targets being present or absent. Search times increased with set size for dynamic and static human and machine targets, arguing against pop out. However, search for human targets was more efficient than for machine targets as indicated by shallower search slopes for human targets. Eye tracking further revealed that observers made more first fixations to human than to machine targets and that their on-target fixation durations were shorter for human compared to machine targets. In summary, our results suggest that searching for people in natural scenes is more efficient than searching for other categories even though people do not pop out.

  20. Do People "Pop Out"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja M Mayer

    Full Text Available The human body is a highly familiar and socially very important object. Does this mean that the human body has a special status with respect to visual attention? In the current paper we tested whether people in natural scenes attract attention and "pop out" or, alternatively, are at least searched for more efficiently than targets of another category (machines. Observers in our study searched a visual array for dynamic or static scenes containing humans amidst scenes containing machines and vice versa. The arrays consisted of 2, 4, 6 or 8 scenes arranged in a circular array, with targets being present or absent. Search times increased with set size for dynamic and static human and machine targets, arguing against pop out. However, search for human targets was more efficient than for machine targets as indicated by shallower search slopes for human targets. Eye tracking further revealed that observers made more first fixations to human than to machine targets and that their on-target fixation durations were shorter for human compared to machine targets. In summary, our results suggest that searching for people in natural scenes is more efficient than searching for other categories even though people do not pop out.

  1. The journey begins at 8am. Destination: unknown Time machine launches quest of discovery: how existence began 13.7 billion years ago.

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A story that began 13.7 billion years ago will start a new chapter this morning. Since the big bang threw space and time into being, no living creature of which we know has been able to discern just what happened in the moments at which existence began. (2 pages)

  2. Charles Dickens' old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, D C; Charles, L A

    Charles Dickens, rare among authors of any period, presented a host of elderly and old characters in his novels and stories. More than 120 such characters were identified, distributed among four levels of involvement (protagonist to minor role) and six categories of behavior (warm and sympathetic to villainous and threatening). The two-thirds male, one-third female characters tended to be concentrated at the minor, rather than major, levels of involvement in plots, but they represented a great range of behavior. Dickens' old people were fully engaged in life and society and were not age-stereotyped.

  3. PEOPLE/POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Olympic Chief Backs China Jacques Rogge,President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC),has found the recipe for successful engagement with China."You don’t obtain anything in China with a loud voice,"Rogge told British newspaper Financial Times on April 26,and said "respectful,quiet but firm" dis- cussion was the way to get things done.According to the IOC chief,a big mistake of people in the West is that they want to impose their views on others. Rogge called on the West,which he said had only

  4. Realities of sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annan, R.H.

    1997-12-01

    The author gives a brief overview of rural electrification projects which have been developed worldwide based on different forms of renewable energy sources. Rural electrification provides hope to the 1.3 billion people who are still unserved by the power grid, and as a consequence are severely disadvantaged in todays economy in most facits of daily life and health. He recommends a more concerted effort to consolidate the experiences gained from present programs in order to present a more organized program by the time of the 2002 UNCED conference. His recommendation is that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory serve as a secretariat, to gather and formalize the information which has been learned to this point in time.

  5. People and Places. Teacher's Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Priscilla H., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews teachers' resources related to people and places. Most of these focus on the identification of geographic locations and historical biographies of famous individuals or groups of people. Includes discussions of reference works, audio cassettes, activity kits, and fiction. (MJP)

  6. Shielding: people and shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krissdottir, M.; Simon, J.

    1977-01-01

    Housing is something that protects and defends. This book explores the ways in which humans have sought to defend themselves against physical dangers and to protect themselves against the imagined evils of the natural world by means of the shelters built. The book examines briefly the shelters built in ancient times, and shows how several basic types recurred in different ages and at different times. Following this there is a brief survey of the kinds of shelters built by the native peoples of Canada, depending on their environment--climate, the natural materials on hand--and the culture and life-style of each people. The next chapter explores the psychology of human beings, and how shelters should satisfy not only physical needs but psychological needs as well--the need for companionship and yet for privacy, space for children to play and community centers for adults to meet. The second half of the book looks at the dilemmas of housing today, and at various attempts around the world and in Canada to solve the problems--garden cities in England, the famous community of Tapiola in Finland, the technological innovations of Disneyland, new housing suburbs in Canada. There is a discussion of the problems of urban renewal, of overcoming the high cost of home-ownership--condominiums, cooperatives, owner-built homes, and the disadvantages of trailers--and of overcoming the energy crisis by building ecological houses.

  7. Peopling Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Biehl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of Global Health brings together a vastly diverse array of actors working to address pressing health issues worldwide with unprecedented financial and technological resources and informed by various agendas. While Global Health initiatives are booming and displacing earlier framings of the field (such as tropical medicine or international health, critical analyses of the social, political, and economic processes associated with this expanding field — an “open source anarchy” on the ground — are still few and far between. In this essay, we contend that, among the powerful players of Global Health, the supposed beneficiaries of interventions are generally lost from view and appear as having little to say or nothing to contribute. We make the case for a more comprehensive and people-centered approach and demonstrate the crucial role of ethnography as an empirical lantern in Global Health. By shifting the emphasis from diseases to people and environments, and from trickle-down access to equality, we have the opportunity to set a humane agenda that both realistically confronts challenges and expands our vision of the future of global communities.

  8. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  9. Dipolar geomagnetic field and low orbital obliquity during the last two billion years: Evidence from paleomagnetism of evaporite basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    Paleomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient geomagnetic fields and paleoclimatic zones. Precambrian glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial paleomagnetic latitudes indicate a paleoclimatic paradox that can be explained either by Snowball Earth episodes, or high orbital obliquity, or dramatically non-uniformitarian geomagnetic fields. Here I present the first global paleomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Evaporation exceeds precipitation in today's subtropical desert belts, generally within a zone of 15-35° from the equator. Assuming a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic field for Cenozoic- Mesozoic time, evaporite basins of the past 250 Myr have a volume-weighted mean paleolatitude of 23±4°, also squarely within the subtropics. Carboniferous-Permian evaporites have an indistinguishable weighted-mean paleolatitude of 22±4°, which does not change significantly when recently hypothesized octupolar field components are included in the calculations. Early Paleozoic (including late Ediacaran) evaporites are lower-latitude (weighted mean 10±5°), but detailed analyses of individual examples show this cannot be attributed solely to nondipolar field components or sedimentary inclination biases; the cause may be due to particular paleogeographic effects on regional tropical climates, or incomplete sampling by the paleomagnetic data. Proterozoic (pre-Ediacaran) evaporite basins have a volume- weighted mean inclination of 33±4°, which would correspond to a mean paleolatitude of 18±3° for a pure GAD field. This latter mean is indistinguishable, within error, from the Cenozoic-Mesozoic mean and demonstrates the success of the GAD model as a first-order description of the geomagnetic field for the last two billion years. Also, general circulation climate models of a high-obliquity Earth predict either no strong zonal

  10. Study on Cultivated Land Protection & 500 Billion Kilograms Grain Production for 21 st Century%走向21世纪5000亿公斤粮食目标与耕地资源保护之探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭珂珊

    2000-01-01

    It′s imperative to protect and utilize reasonably cultivated land for natural economical development and living sandard for the people.The population is increasing with 16 million and the cultivated land is decreasing with 4×105 ha per year in China,and the need for grain is increasing from one year to another.Based on the fact above,this paper advocates some measures for the grain yield,500 billion kilograms by the year 2000.%为了发展国民经济,改善人民的物质生活,解决121亿人的吃饭问题,必须合理的保护利用现在的耕地资源.针对我国人口年增1600万,耕地减少600万亩,人需粮食逐年增长的实际,根据中国的国情,提出了相当之对策,保持2000年实行5 000亿kg粮食生产目标.

  11. Research with Arctic peoples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, H Sally; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2006-01-01

    of environmental and health issues that are unique to the Arctic regions, and research exploring these issues offers significant opportunities, as well as challenges. On July 28-29, 2004, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research co-sponsored a working group...... entitled "Research with Arctic Peoples: Unique Research Opportunities in Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders". The meeting was international in scope with investigators from Greenland, Iceland and Russia, as well as Canada and the United States. Multiple health agencies from Canada and the United States...... sent representatives. Also attending were representatives from the International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and the National Indian Health Board. The working group developed a set of ten recommendations related to research opportunities in heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders; obstacles...

  12. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  13. Aluminum Giant China Hongqiao Recorded 3.65 Billion Net Profit Last Year, Down By 30% On Y-O-Y Basis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    As bulk commodity faces winter,the performance of China Hongqiao,the world’s biggest aluminum manufacturer,also received impact from low aluminum price.According to the financial statement for 2015 published by the company on March 14,the company’s net income attributed to shareholders in 2015dropped sharply by 31.3%to 3.65 billion yuan

  14. 77 FR 15665 - Cellular Service, Including Changes in Licensing of Unserved Area; Interim Restrictions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... for every Cellular Market Area (CMA) and corresponding channel block (Block A or Block B), in two... this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nina Shafran, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau... Proposed Rulemaking I. Introduction 1. Since its inception roughly 30 years ago, the Cellular Service...

  15. How Do People Get AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? A A A en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  16. Anemia in People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Managing Cancer-related Side Effects Low Blood Counts Anemia in People With Cancer What is anemia? When you don’t have enough healthy red ... the symptoms that bother people most. What causes anemia? There are many different reasons a person with ...

  17. Young Peoples' Ideas of Infinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, John

    2001-01-01

    Considers young peoples' views of infinity prior to instruction in the methods mathematicians use in addressing the subject of infinity. Presents a partially historical account of studies examining young peoples' ideas of infinity. Four sections address potential pitfalls for research in this area and the work of Piaget, issues concerning the…

  18. Chalearn looking at people 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escalera, Sergio; Fabian, Junior; Baro, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Following previous series on Looking at People (LAP) competitions [14, 13, 11, 12, 2], in 2015 ChaLearn ran two new competitions within the field of Looking at People: (1) age estimation, and (2) cultural event recognition, both in still images. We developed a crowd-sourcing application to collect...

  19. The People Make the Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin

    1987-01-01

    Presents a framework for understanding the etiology of organizational behavior, based on theory and research from interactional psychology, vocational psychology, industrial/organizational psychology, and organizational theory. Proposes that organizations are functions of the kinds of people they contain and that the people there are functions of…

  20. People-Oriented Constitutional Amendments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    THERE was one practical aspect of the 2004 sessions of the National People's Congress and People's Political Consultative Conference that, for Beijing residents, set the mapart from previous yeats. Coaches transporting NPC deputies and CPPCC committee members meekly waited their ture at main intersections

  1. Young People and Contemporary Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeris, Helene

    2005-01-01

    In this article empirical examples are used to connect theories about young people, contemporary art forms and learning. The first part of the article introduces the new forms of consciousness which, according to the youth researchers Birgitte Simonsen and Thomas Ziehe, characterize young people of today. In the second part, the qualities of…

  2. Young people and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Young people and sexual orientation The Netherlands Institute for Social Research ¦ SCP carries out regular research on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In this report, the focus is on young people in the Netherlands. The report addresses two issues: attitud

  3. Approach focused on people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roa Ruben

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Family and community medicine assumes a new epistemological landmark that also provides the use of instruments and tools related to it. This care model permits carrying out a visit where all categories which the health-disease process is expressed are present. Family Medicine intends to combine both visions and, for such, it gifts elements to incorporate disease as an essential part of our patient's approach systematic being the main focus the approach by problems, which is nothing but that which concerns the individual, his family or the physician, or all of them, and at times there will be nuisances while at other times, there will be diseases, and mil in other instances, all of them will co-exist. It is known that the impact of a health problem on an individual affects not only himself, but also his surroundings. In turn, the environment around this individual can act as the origin or perpetuator of the crisis, or else serve to help in solving the conflict. Distinct tools serve the purpose of knowing the context in which health crisis is developed, such as: genogram, individual and family vital cycle. Every time two people communicate, the agreement or disagreement generate possible variables. In the physician-patient relationship, this is no exception. Values, beliefs, feelings, and information of each individual different and physicians not necessarily in agreement in several issues during a visit. The objective is the need to achieve a minimum of agreements so that this visit has therapeutic effectiveness, thus being if/rpm -taw to find a common territory. Relations in general involve power; care, feelings, trust and goals. The objective in this type of relationship must be obviously shared ly both and cannot be any other than that of achieving, the highest level of health to our patient. So, our specialty, considered of low complexity, becomes a highly cognitive complexity, special and there is no doubt that it is a lot easier to handle

  4. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros; Areva excellent niveau d'activite: carnet de commandes au 31/12/2008: + 21,1% a 48,2 Mds d'euros. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2008: + 10,4% a 13,2 Mds d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  5. Elderly Peoples' Perception of Young People - A Preliminary Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateusz Cybulski; Elżbieta Krajewska-Kułak; Paweł Sowa; Magda Orzechowska; Katarzyna Van Damme-Ostapowicz; Emilia Rozwadowska; Andrzej Guzowski

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Aging is becoming a more noticeable phenomenon in Poland and Europe. We analysed the perception of youth by elderly and compared attitudes of students of the University of the Third Age (SU3A) with nursing homes residents (NHR) to young people. Methods Our questionnaire was distributed to 140 people over the age of 50 (70 SU3A and 70 NHR). Results 85.0% of all respondents answered positively to the question “Do you enjoy contact with young people?”, even though their conta...

  6. Elderly Peoples' Perception of Young People - A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Cybulski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is becoming a more noticeable phenomenon in Poland and Europe. We analysed the perception of youth by elderly and compared attitudes of students of the University of the Third Age (SU3A with nursing homes residents (NHR to young people.Our questionnaire was distributed to 140 people over the age of 50 (70 SU3A and 70 NHR.85.0% of all respondents answered positively to the question "Do you enjoy contact with young people?", even though their contacts are usually limited and mostly confined to a few s a year. Vast majority of NHR (62.9% and almost half SU3A (48.6% believe that there is a need to integrate seniors and youth to achieve mutual benefits.Young people would benefit from the life experience of the elderly; the elderly could become more active in many areas of life.

  7. 2007 China Harbor Ten People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 China Harbor Ten People elected the entrepreneurs who contributed a lot to port economy and enterprises this year trough their talent management.These ten people embody their social responsibility,professional skills,creative ability,and charming personality.Bearing full confidence in China's port economy,the port entrepreneurs are brave enough to explore a brand new area,so as to promote harbor economic development.

  8. Young People with a Twist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bo Wagner; Madsen, Diana Højlund

    The report is based on group interviews with 33 young people with ethnic minority backgrounds. They have been asked about their educational and vocational wishes and also touch on a number of issues such as family, gender equality, discrimination and integration.......The report is based on group interviews with 33 young people with ethnic minority backgrounds. They have been asked about their educational and vocational wishes and also touch on a number of issues such as family, gender equality, discrimination and integration....

  9. China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China’s Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human develo...

  10. Valuing people: health visiting and people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Scott; Berry, Liz

    2006-02-01

    People with a learning disability have spent decades being excluded from mainstream society and remain almost invisible in our communities, workplaces and in family life. As a result, the health of people with a learning disability is significantly poorer than that of the general population. Despite the many reports and policy recommendations about how to improve the situation, little has been done to address the social exclusion of this group, and their health and wellbeing continue to decline. In a joint effort to challenge exclusion and address the agenda of 'Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century', Warrington Primary Care Trust and Five Boroughs Partnership NHS Trust joined forces at a practical level. Two health visitors have developed a comprehensive programme of socially inclusive health care aimed at engaging people with learning disabilities more fully in their health care and their choices in leading healthy lives. The paper discusses Access All Areas--a comprehensive programme using a public health model of health care where people with learning disabilities are being supported to make healthy choices and, often for the first time, given information in accessible formats to support those choices. Led by health visitors, staff from all agencies involved in the care and support of people with learning disabilities are being trained and engaged in order to raise the standards across organisations and prioritise the health and wellbeing of this marginalised group. Health visitors are leading locally in the implementation of both health improvement and long-term condition strategies.

  11. ICT Interface Design for Ageing People and People with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice D.; Martin, Suzanne; Stephens, Sharon; Burns, William

    Ageing population trends, rising healthcare costs and social and digital inclusion are all factors in the background to the problem of older adults interacting with technology. Approaches to address "physical accessibility" and "access to technology" issues, as well as training for existing systems are evident, yet a usability issue still prevails. The primary aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the research and literature and discuss the differing contexts in which older people and people with dementia interact with computerised systems and their associated issues.

  12. Why do People Decorate Their Bodies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    People decorate their bodies for many reasons and in different ways. Some groups of people have decorated their bodies for thousands of years. People do so to look at- tractive or to show that they belong to a certain group.

  13. Third Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations Held in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Third Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations was held in Jakarta, capital of Indonesia, from June 2 to 4. About 100 representatives from Chinese and ASEAN people-to-people friendship

  14. Naomi Shihab Nye: People! People! My Heart Cried Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliesman, Megan

    1998-01-01

    Noted poet and anthologist Naomi Shihab Nye discusses her books of poetry for young people and her work with students to help them find their own poetic voices. Nye's poetry anthologies are appropriate for elementary, middle-school, and high-school students. Fundamental themes are crossing boundaries and making connections to help young readers…

  15. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    How and why we teach An interview with Mick Nott conducted by David Sang Mick Nott teaches at Sheffield Hallam University. He is editor of School Science Review, and over the last three years he has been organizing a website, book and display for the ASE's Science Teacher Festival. Mick Nott You studied Logic with Physics as your undergraduate degree course, at Sussex, at the end of the 1960s. Wasn't this a rather unusual choice? At school, I loved chemistry, particularly physical chemistry. However, physical chemistry didn't love me when I studied it at university. I grew resentful of the demands made on me with the overcrowded morning lecture programme that was mainly a board-copying exercise and the afternoon hours of labs. I felt stifled; there didn't seem to be any space to express oneself. I wanted a course that allowed me some freedom of thought. So in the summer of 1969 I transferred to the Logic with Physics course. Alongside our 'straight' physics we studied the history of topics like atomic and quantum theory, thermodynamics, mechanics from the Greeks to the Newtonian synthesis and we also had a couple of units in the sociology of science. Amongst the set texts of our first class in the summer of 1969 was Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Now well worn with its cover repaired by sticky tape, it still rests on my bookshelves. Reading Kuhn, I understood why I had been dissatisfied with my chemistry course. If I wanted to make it in chemistry I was going to have to conform to thinking exactly like all the other chemists. That wasn't for me. What attracted you into teaching? And where did you teach? I think it was a vocation in that, from the age of 15, I could imagine myself in the role and it was a job I could 'see' myself doing. Now thinking back I suppose it was an obvious way in which a working class child could transcend class barriers. I did my postgraduate teacher training at Sussex because it was assessed by coursework and classroom competence (in the early 1970s most such courses still had written examinations). I thought it was fantastic. We spent three days a week from October to May in one school. I had one regular third-year class every week and the rest of my teaching timetable varied from term to term. It was like being a 0.3/0.4 member of staff and for that one third-year class I had to do parents' evenings, reports etc. The teachers were paid to act as tutors for the preparation of schemes of work, lessons and tutorial work and they assessed my teaching. Teachers, tutors and trainees attended seminars together. My first teaching job was at Holland Park School in London, at a time when it was famous, perhaps even infamous! It was a real baptism of fire - over 2000 pupils, tens of different first languages, a real mix of class and ethnicity, and newly introduced mixed ability teaching for the first three years. We worked very hard writing schemes of work and developing worksheets and audiovisual materials but, on reflection, I am not sure that we were that effective in developing the science curriculum. I remember using Nuffield Combined Science with the first two years and that was in danger of becoming death by a thousand worksheets. After three years I went to teach in a small private school in Madrid for a year. I was the physics department and my title of Head of Physics meant I was in charge of myself. This was highly formative as a teacher - I had nobody to ask if I didn't understand some physics. As the school was poorly equipped I learned to make apparatus and be very resourceful. There was no pupils' practical work in school science in Spain at that time and I spent a lot of time in hardware stores and medical suppliers! After Spain all of my teaching career was in 11-18 mixed comprehensives, in Cheshire and then Peterborough, and I rose to the dizzy heights of Head of Science. By the time I left the school in Peterborough in 1986 we had established the curriculum framework for broad and balanced science for all to age 16. Did your undergraduate studies influence the way you taught science? I think they made me think critically about my teaching right from the start. Although there was much that I admired in the Nuffield approach, I felt that it was unrealistic to expect pupils to discover the whole of Physics for themselves in the time available! In 1973, 'Learning by discovery' was the slogan. My first lesson on my own was with a class of 32 children and 16 brightly illuminated ripple tanks in a dim laboratory. The pupils' task was to 'discover' that v = fλ. The familiar cry, 'What's supposed to happen, Sir?' arose around the room. At the end, as I removed the crocodile clips the pupils had stuck on my jacket, I had to tell them what the result should have been. Nowadays I am convinced that science has to be taught as well as it has to be learned. I don't go along with the teacher as solely a 'facilitator' of learning and the learning environment. Schooling is an enculturation into ways of thinking and important things to know. Teachers have a responsibility to set an agenda for their pupils, e.g. what is important for pupils to learn, why is it important and how does it contribute pupils' personal and social development as well as their potential development as a scientist. You played a big role in the Secondary Science Curriculum Review (SSCR) in the 1980s. What impact did that experience have on you? The SSCR started off as a democratic experiment, trying to 'hand' science curriculum development to class teachers. I worked for the project as an advisory teacher for a year developing problem-solving as a teaching strategy in lower secondary school science. I think the SSCR was crucial to the successful launching of broad and balanced science and the political battle to establish science as a core subject. Can you still discern the influence of the SSCR in today's National Curriculum? I don't think the present science curriculum is what the SSCR envisaged. However, many projects which were partly products of SSCR have had a profound impact (for example the CLIS project Suffolk Coordinated Science and NEAB Modular Science). I welcomed the inclusion of an attainment target on the nature of science (AT17) in the first version of the National Curriculum but it soon became weakened when the Science National Curriculum was revised. However, I think that some aspects have resurfaced in the new emphasis on ideas and evidence. I was involved in the writing of the Nuffield report, Beyond 2000: Science education for the future, and I think this has had an impact at the policy level, but its suggested strategies were not 'periphery to centre' which was the slogan of the SSCR. At Sheffield Hallam University, you have been involved in initial teacher training and you have also taught on undergraduate physics courses. What are your areas of interest in teaching and research today? I am interested in the history and culture of science education: Why do we teach science in the way we do? What are the roots of today's science curriculum? Knowing what we know about the past, how can we develop things in the future? You are now organizing the Science Teacher Festival, celebrating 100 years of the ASE and its forerunners. What made you think this was worth doing? There is an old saying that if we forget our history, we will be condemned to relive it, and I think it was Marx who said that there is no point in studying your past if you are not going to use it to change the future. Looking back through past decades of School Science Review, Physics Education and other journals, you can see the same arguments arising time and again - for example, can pupils learn their science through discovery/problem-solving/investigations? what methods of assessment match our science teaching objectives? should science be taught as general/integrated/separate sciences? These arguments have been with us throughout the past century and the 'winners' and 'losers' rise and fall! I think that to be a profession, we need to recognize our heritage and tradition. At the moment I get the impression that every year is Year Zero as some 'new' initiative starts. We can learn from the past, and next time we try an idea we should take it further, research it deeper and disseminate it wider than we did before.

  16. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education STARTING OUT (81) DATA: Developing students' abilities to teach astronomy Ruth Jarman and Billy McClune PERSONALITY (82) Music, Creativity and Physics Wendy Sadler Correction: Printed copies of Physics Education contain an incorrect version of this Personality article. The PDF file here contains the correct version. The Editor and publishers apologise to Ms Sadler for the error. Further details will appear in the next issue. ON THE MAP (84) Spreading the resources: South Africa and India Charlie Milward

  17. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Exploring Mercury PhD student Mark Bentley explains how and why he got involved Mark Bentley is studying for a PhD in planetary science. He is helping to design and build instruments for a forthcoming ESA mission to explore the surface of Mercury. Mark Bentley Space has excited and inspired me for as long as I can remember; my earliest memory of this is being allowed to stay up 'really late' to watch the Space Shuttle Columbia land in 1981, at the age of five. Science in general has always interested me. Although I probably didn't recognize it as such at the time, my fascination with collecting all sorts of equipment (or as my parents called it, 'junk') and finding out what made them tick was an early demonstration of this. At school it seemed natural to take science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Maths A-levels) and then to consider University though physics was not my first thought. I was all set for the respectable career of computer science, not realizing that my space interests could lead anywhere, until I flicked through the first prospectus I received. By luck it was from Leicester University, and while computer science was offered it also had something called 'Physics with Space Science and Technology'. The rest, as they say, is history... After graduating I spent the following two years working for a UK company developing satellite simulators. But then I started thinking about doing a PhD attracted by the flexibility of directing my own research. I knew that I wanted something that involved space science and the element of discovery, but also something that looked at the engineering and technology of a space mission. The timing was fortuitous shortly after I committed myself to a PhD, the European Space Agency announced the selection of BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, as one of its 'Cornerstone' (large scale) missions. Here was a mission big on science (no spacecraft has ever orbited Mercury, let alone landed on it) and technology as well! So that takes me to where I am now in my first year at the Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute of the Open University in Milton Keynes. If everything goes according to plan, three years later I will be Dr Bentley and know a whole lot more about Mercury! So what am I now? A physicist at heart, but I guess 'planetary scientist' is more accurate... The great thing about studying the planets is that the field can be stretched to encompass just about any aspect of science you care to choose from biology, through engineering, to physics and more. Planetary science fits well with the modern 'trend' for multidisciplinary research as well as being on the leading edge of modern science, and one of the most international areas of study. In studying our solar system we aim to learn more about the processes that formed the planets and ultimately life itself. For the foreseeable future the nine major bodies and their associated moons are our only glimpse back in time to the early life of our corner of the Universe. Over the past few decades, a relatively short period of time, we have expanded our understanding of the planets by orders of magnitude. Instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope have enabled more and more detailed images of both the near and far, whilst robotic space probes have extended scientists' senses to the far corners of the solar system. The two least studied planets lie at the two extreme ends of our system. Pluto sits at the outer edges of the solar system, a small icy ball that astronomers even argue about calling a planet. Mercury, messenger of the Gods, is a relative inferno, closer to the Sun than any other body. Mercury is not an easy target for spacecraft. Tucked deep in the Sun's gravitational well, any mission must lose about 60% of its orbital energy in order to match Mercury's orbit. The only spacecraft to visit Mercury to date was Mariner 10, a NASA mission flown in the mid-70s. It had far too much energy to enter orbit and could just make several quick passes, leaving an incomplete image of only half of the planet. This, and observations made from Earth, provide almost all of our knowledge of Mercury. Earth observations, however, are hampered by the planet's proximity to the Sun, making observations possible only at dawn and dusk. A mosaic of images of Mercury from the NASA Mariner 10 spacecraft. ©NASA In the mid-80s improved radar equipment allowed high resolution mapping of surface features from the Earth. Amongst the results were two tantalising mysteries: a large dome feature, similar in some ways to shield volcanoes seen on Mars, observed on the unimaged side of the planet and complex scattering of returned radar from distinct areas around the poles, suggesting that water ice may exist in craters there. Both NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) are now planning missions to Mercury. The US team are using a newly discovered trajectory that will allow them to reach Mercury using traditional chemical propulsion, incorporating various planetary flybys so-called 'gravity assist' manoeuvres. The European team, on the other hand, has proposed a much more complex mission. In order to get to Mercury, ESA have adopted a novel technology knows as 'solar electric propulsion' (SEP). The basic principle is that electrical energy is produced using solar cells, and this is used to accelerate ions of gas, producing a continuous, if low thrust. The upshot is that the mission is much less constrained by the alignment of the planets and other trajectory concerns and can complete the journey in only two and a half years. BepiColombo, ESA's Mercury mission, will actually consist of three spacecraft! The planetary orbiter will stay close to Mercury and perform remote sensing and mapping of the surface environment. The magnetospheric orbiter, now going to be built by the Institute for Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan, will fly in a highly eccentric orbit that takes it from within a few hundred kilometres of the surface to a distance of several planetary radii. This means it will fly in and out of the magnetosphere, the magnetic 'bubble' formed by interaction of the planetary magnetic field with the solar wind. The third and final element is termed the 'MSE' the Mercury Surface Element, or in plain terms a lander, and this is where my research comes in. There is only so much that remote observation can tell us about a planet. The only true way of verifying what we are seeing is to literally go and 'dig the dirt'. The lander on BepiColombo is designed to do just that, using inflated airbags to cushion its descent to the surface. This 'soft landing' will take place in the polar regions of Mercury, where the surface temperature is moderate—between -50 and +70 °C at the sub-solar point at Mercury's closest approach to the Sun the temperature can reach over 400 °C! It is the potential for making these surface measurements that forms my PhD research. There are a whole series of fundamental questions that scientists would like to answer about Mercury. For example: why is the planet much denser than the other 'terrestrial' bodies? And how has such a small planet got a magnetic field? The answers to these questions need data from several complementary sources. The first step is to identify the science goals, then look at what measurements could be made to resolve or constrain these questions, and finally consider the physics of obtaining this data. My project focuses on the surface and sub-surface material on the planet. The surface of Mercury, like the Moon, has been shaped by the impacts upon it and this is still very much in evidence from images of the planet. Craters of many different sizes are evident over most of the surface. These impacts also break up rocks on the surface and produce a finer distribution of particles, known as regolith. The stratigraphy of this material can therefore tell us something about the change in impact environment over time. A conceptual design of the BepiColombo Mercury Surface Element (lander) ©ESA. Conceptual image of the BepiColombo spacecraft at Mercury ©ESA. As well as being interesting in its own right, the regolith also interacts with almost all other aspects of the Mercurian environment. By analysing the regolith we will be able to find out about Mercury's thin atmosphere and also (because the magnetosphere affects the amount of solar wind hitting the planet's surface) changes in the magnetosphere. Planets like the Earth and Jupiter rely on an electrically conductive ionosphere to close the current systems generated by the magnetosphere. Some researchers believe that on Mercury these currents could flow through, or very close to, the surface itself! Designing and building instruments to work in an environment like the surface of Mercury is one of the major challenges I face. Not only must they be capable of surviving extremes of temperature and vibration they must also be small enough to fit into a total lander payload mass of just 7 kg and complete their investigations within the one week expected lifetime of the MSE. In order to take measurements in more than one place, the lander must be equipped with some limited form of mobility. A 'micro-rover' will be carried and deployed after landing, a miniature tracked vehicle that will carry instruments (probably an alpha x-ray spectrometer) to specific target rocks and areas around the lander. To keep things simple the rover will be physically and electronically connected to the lander by a flexible tether. The lander will also carry a 'mole', a slender cylinder (currently being developed for the Beagle-2 Mars lander) with an internal hammering mechanism. Once pushed into the top layer of soil the mole will be able to drive itself down, pushing aside or breaking small rocks, to a depth of several metres, taking measurements as it goes. Over the past few months we have been studying some of the instruments which could be carried by the mole. Concentrating on just one of these it is easy to see how quickly you run into problems! If the MSE lands near the poles, one of the most fascinating activities would be to look for evidence of water ice. In recent years researchers looking at life on the Earth have shown that if water is present, even in the most inhospitable of environments, life often finds a way to survive. The possibility of water on any planet is therefore an exciting prospect! One possible way to look for ice either at or near the surface is to extract a sample using the mole as it penetrates the regolith, heat it at a constant rate and record the amount of energy used to maintain that rate. This technique, differential scanning calorimetry, can observe phase changes in materials and so help to identify them. The technical challenges of performing even this simplistic analysis task are quite daunting. We have to design and build a sample acquisition mechanism that can withstand launch and landing and work at extreme temperatures, heat a sample down a borehole and reject excess heat and the electronics must fit into a 2 cm diameter by 50 cm long mole. So although BepiColombo will not launch until 2009 and will not arrive at Mercury until 2012, there's more than enough work to keep me busy until then!

  18. Apprenticeship for People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Donald M.; Hughes, James H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report results from a national survey on participation of disabled people in apprenticeship. Results indicate that disabled persons comprise 2 percent of the total apprentice population. Exemplary programs and practices are described. The authors present implications and recommendations drawn from the study results. (CH)

  19. Motivating young people for education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the issue of motivation in policy and practice. The argument is that the folk high schools and the tradition of liberal education offer a learning environment where a number of psychological needs are satisfied among the young people leading to a motivation for learning whereas...

  20. Animals: Disease Risks for People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and others. The symptoms caused by these diseases vary, but may include pinpoint (or larger) blood spots on the skin and rashes, joint pain, muscle ache, fatigue and headache. Water-borne diseases People who swim in water frequented ...

  1. Evaluating IAQ effects on people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David; Tham, K. W.; Sekhar, C.

    2003-01-01

    "conclusive". From them, a small number of conclusions were drawn, and some very large gaps in our knowledge of this important area of research were identified. Taking these as the starting point, this paper formulates a strategy for evaluating IAQ effects on people. It formulates some critical hypotheses...

  2. Of people, particles and prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Penny; Greene, Anne; Mears, Matt; Spacecadet1; Green, Christian; Hunt, Devin J.; Berglyd Olsen, Veronica K.; Ilya, Komarov; Pierpont, Elaine; Gillman, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    In reply to Louise Mayor's feature article “Where people and particles collide”, about the experiences of researchers at CERN who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT), efforts to make LGBT CERN an officially recognized club, and incidents where posters advertising the club have been torn down or defaced (March pp31-36, http://ow.ly/YVP2Z).

  3. Technologies for the people: a future in the making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, D.C.

    2004-09-01

    India's post-independence policy of using science and technology for national development, and investment in research and development infrastructure resulted in success in space, atomic energy, missile development and supercomputing. Use of space technology has impacted directly or indirectly the vast majority of India's billion plus population. Developments in a number of emerging technologies in recent years hold the promise of impacting the future of ordinary Indians in significant ways, if a proper policy and enabling environment are provided. New telecom technologies - a digital rural exchange and a wireless access system - are beginning to touch the lives of common people. Development of a low-cost hand held computing device, use of hybrid telemedicine systems to extend modem healthcare to the unreached, and other innovative uses of IT at the grassroots also hold promise for the future. Biotechnology too has the potential to deliver cost-effective vaccines and drugs, but the future of GM crops is uncertain due to growing opposition. Some of these emerging technologies hold promise for future, provided a positive policy and enabling environment. (author)

  4. Millions and Billions of Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

    The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

  5. People searching for people: analysis of a people search engine log

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; Berendsen, R.; Kovachev, B.; Meij, E.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years show an increasing interest in vertical search: searching within a particular type of information. Understanding what people search for in these "verticals" gives direction to research and provides pointers for the search engines themselves. In this paper we analyze the search logs of o

  6. Stolen Identity : The Armenian People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Mihai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the factors that have shaped the Armenian identity over time, based on the main historical events and strategic actors who made their contribution to the becoming of the Armenian people and their identity. The central issue of the article is the Armenian genocide which had a major influence on the way that Armenians see themselves and the world around them, today. The study revealed that not only the genocide that happened almost a century ago, had a major impact on the Armenian identity, but also the current recognition or denial of facts by the contemporary world. In this respect, the role of the Diaspora proved priceless, because they were the ones that pressured their host countries to recognize the genocide and to support Armenia. The topic is presented form a phenomenological perspective, trying to capture the human experience in the way it was perceived by the Armenian people.

  7. Sorting People In and Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    and coding of disability at the Public Employment Service (PES). Based on interviews with staff at a rehabilitation unit in the Swedish Public Employment Service, the article analyses processes of evaluating work capacity for marginally employable people as part of the Employability Rehabilitation Programme...... for what is considered acceptable and desirable individual characteristics, hence reinforcing standards of normalcy. Moreover, the categories through which the individual moves are plastic and pliable in relation to political predicates and labour market fluctuations. In this process, to be non......The ‘employable individual’ is today a powerful normative category, saturated with assumptions about what it takes to be attractive in the labour market. What happens to people who cannot meet those expectations? For some, the way to employability and employment goes through a process of detecting...

  8. MRSA: treating people with infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nathwani, Dilip; Davey, Peter Garnet; Marwick, Charis Ann

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has a gene that makes it resistant to methicillin as well as other beta-lactam antibiotics including flucloxacillin, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. MRSA can be part of the normal body flora (colonisation), especially in the nose, but it can cause infection, especially in people with prolonged hospital admissions, with underlying disease, or after antibiotic use.About 20% of S aureus in blood cultures in England, Wales, and Northern Irela...

  9. On the Chinese People's Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Appreciation of art is not a birthright. In the prehistoric primitive society, the ancestors of the Chinese people rooted in the harsh natural environment of the Yellow River Basin and began forging their own solid characteristics as the loess and rock. Our ancestors survived in the harsh natural conditions. Pressure of keeping alive deprived of their original romantic, despite that Neolithic primitive rock art, pottery painting

  10. Performance as Promised: How the Chandra X-ray Observatory Accomplished One of Nasa's Most Challenging Missions for Billions of Dollars Less than Originally Planned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Greg; Hefner, Keith

    2004-01-01

    As the nation looks toward bold new ventures in space, the Chandra X-ray Observatory program offers an example of how billion-dollar missions can be successfully developed within tightening fiscal constraints. Chandra experienced many of challenges facing bold space programs (state-of-the-art technical requirements and budget-induced slips and restructurings), and yet the Chandra team achieved nearly all the originally envisioned performance for dramatically lower cost. This was accomplished by a combination of team- work, systems engineering, advanced technology insertion, and effective approaches for program implementation. A thorough tradeoff of science utility vs. cost led to the selection of a highly elliptical orbit with uncrewed robotic delivery, deployment, and maintenance. Progressive, focused technology demonstrations were accomplished prior to commitment of major resources to critical elements of the system design, such as the high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA). Pathfinder hardware was developed to reduce risks. A variety of schedule risk reduction measures were implemented and resulted in the X-ray calibration taking place exactly within five days of its originally planned date after after five years of development. The team worked together in an effective manner to contain requirements creep. reductions such as the ACIS-2 chip device. It is estimated that the above combination of measures achieved the avoidance of over $4B in costs, while enabling a highly successful mission.

  11. Social acceptance of handicapped people in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jargalmaa Bayarsaikhan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The social integration of people with handicaps is an important social task. Their equal participation in social life cannot only be reached by law, but the acceptance of the social environment is an essential basic condition. Experiences, attitudes and behaviours of non-handicapped people towards people with handicaps are very important. The situation of people with handicaps has been confronted with a lack of understanding prejudices and refusal up to today. This study investigates how the mongolian citizens think about handicapped people. The adults were asked about subjects like social acceptance, refusal or even depreciation of people with handicaps.

  12. How to win friends and influence people

    CERN Document Server

    Carnegie, Dale

    2010-01-01

    For more than sixty years the rock-solid, time-tested advice in this book has carried thousands of now famous people up the ladder of success in their business and personal lives. With more than fifteen million copies sold, How to Win Friends and Influence People is one of the best known motivational books in history, with proven advice for achieving success in life. You’ll learn: three fundamental techniques in handling people; six ways to make people like you; twelve ways to win people to you way of thinking; nine ways to change people without arousing resentment; and much, much more!

  13. Institutionalisation of Mediation for Dispute Resolution in the Field of Social Bankruptcy of Citizens in Russia or how to prevent losses of 300 billions rubles of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdyev Marat Aleksandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The important problem of modern Russia is poverty of about 22,1 billions citizens. because of illegal action or practice of lending money at unreasonably high rates of interest. About 4,2 billions citizens of Russian are social bankrupts. There are many obstacles for human right in court. Total budget for legal expenses may estimates over than 1,5-2 average annual income of household. Therefore author considers mediation as alternative procedure for dispute resolution between creditors and debtors. Some amendment of law desirable for institutionalization of mediation practice in this types conflicts such as mandatory mediation and so on.

  14. Democratic People`s Republic of Korea LWR project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, J.B.

    1996-07-01

    In October 1994, at Geneva, the United States and the Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) signed an Agreed Framework as a first step toward resolving international concerns about nuclear activities in the DPRK. This Agreement, when implemented, will ultimately lead to the complete dismantlement of those aspects of the DPRK`s nuclear program, including reprocessing-related facilities, that have undermined the viability of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and the stability of the Asia-Pacific region. The essence of the Agreement is that the DPRK will take near-term action to cease the activities of concern and permit some International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) verification inspection. In the future, it will dismantle its production reactors and accept full-scope IAWA safeguards. In return, the United Stated agreed to lead an international effort to supply the DPRK with light-water reactors which are less of proliferation concern than are graphite-moderated production reactors. Until the first LWR is in operation the DPRK will receive shipments of heavy oil to replace the energy lost by shutting down the production reactors.

  15. A Class Museum of the 2012 Election: "Government OF the People, BY the People, and FOR the People"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Sarah Lewis; Turner, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 elections are the perfect opportunity to help students make sense of and visualize their role in the democratic society. In this article, the authors examine the benefits of building a class museum centered on the theme: "Government of the People, for the People, and by the People." They provide steps and examples to show how to build a…

  16. Tracking people through partial occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-guo; CAI An-ni

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a novel people-tracking approach to cope with partial occlusions caused by scene objects. Instead of predicting when and where the occlusions will occur, a part-based model is used to model the pixel distribution of the target body under occlusion. The subdivided patches corresponding to a template image will be tracked independently using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. A set of voting-based rules is established for the patch-tracking result to verify if the target is indeed located at the estimated position. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Communicating with people with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James McKillop

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It can be very difficult to communicate with people with dementia. Each case requires its own unique handling. Not every scenario is covered, as many times your own judgment is what will work, best according to the circumstances. These can change from dawn to evening and from day to day. Never assume things will be the way they were the last time you communicated. Be on your guard. Be adaptable. The article will help get you started to think of your own ways to communicate.

  18. Healthy People 2020: Leading Health Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... County Data Resources Federal Prevention Initiatives Healthy People eLearning Program Planning Content Syndication Public Health 3.0 ... of 10-year, national goals and objectives for improving the health of all Americans. Healthy People 2020 ...

  19. Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives. Healthy People...

  20. Social innovation for People-Centred Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; P.K., Shajahan

    2013-01-01

    Social innovation is closely related to the people-centred development (PCD) framework of knowledge production. The discussion of PCD in this chapter particularly expands on the feature of empowerment and socio-political mobilization of people in social innovation......Social innovation is closely related to the people-centred development (PCD) framework of knowledge production. The discussion of PCD in this chapter particularly expands on the feature of empowerment and socio-political mobilization of people in social innovation...

  1. Designing For- and With- Vulnerable People

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous technology, coupled with a surge in empirical research on people that engages people with multiple challenges in their lives, is increasingly revealing the potential for HCI to enrich the lives of vulnerable people. Designing for people with vulnerabilities requires an approach to participation that is sensitive to the risks of possible stigmatization and an awareness of the challenges for participant involvement. This workshop will bring together researchers and practitioners to e...

  2. Translating and Transforming Care: People With Brain Injury and Caregivers Filling in a Disability Claim Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Alex; Moore, Helen

    2016-03-01

    This article examines how the Disability Living Allowance claim form, used in the United Kingdom to allocate £13 billion of disability benefits, translates and transforms disability and care. Twenty-two people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (n = 44) were video-recorded filling in the disability claim form. Participants disagreed on 26% of the questions, revealing two types of problems. Translation problems arose as participants struggled to provide categorical responses to ambiguous questions and were unable to report contextual variability in care needs or divergences of perception. Transformation problems arose as participants resisted the way in which the form positioned them, forcing them to conceptualize their relationship in terms of dependency and burden. The disability claim form co-opts claimants to translate care and disability into bureaucratically predefined categories, and it transforms the care relationship that it purports to document.

  3. Service for people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totty, P

    1998-01-01

    A couple of years ago a newspaper commentator wrote that even though the current era compares unfavorably in many ways to American life in the 1940s and 50s, we are better off in one way. "We are kinder to one another," she said, remarking on how far we've come in how we treat people with disabilities or non-mainstream looks and lifestyles. We may sometimes verge on a mindless political correctness in our kindness, and we may sometimes practice such kindness through clenched teeth, but all in all, she said, we are better at it than we were forty years ago. The kindness has certainly extended to new groups of dental patients. At UOP, the Special Needs Clinic of the Department of Dental Practice has become symbolic of the school's outreach to formerly underserved communities. Since its founding in 1985 as an adjunct to the department, the Special Needs Clinic has wracked up an impressive list of accomplishments: It has included disabled teens and adults among the populations that UOP routinely serves in its community dental programs; advised state agencies on how to deal with disabled adults and their dental problems (and won more than $600,000 in consultant contracts from those same agencies); produced a preventive dentistry x-raying program that is used as a video on how to teach dental hygiene to developmentally disabled people that later shocked the department when it won the equivalent of an Oscar in its field against competition on far bigger budgets.

  4. Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton H. Davis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing attention on the need to take into account the effects of global climate change. This is particularly so with respect to the increasing amount of green house gas emissions from the Untied States and Europe affecting poor peoples, especially those in developing countries. In 2003, for example, the experts of several international development agencies, including the World Bank, prepared a special report titled “Poverty and Climate Change: Reducing the Vulnerability of the Poor through Adaptation” (OECD 2003. This report followed the Eighth Session of the Conference of Parties (COP8 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC in New Delhi, India in October 2002. It showed that poverty reduction is not only one of the major challenges of the 21st century, but also that climate change is taking place in many developing countries and is increasingly affecting, in a negative fashion, both the economic conditions and the health of poor people and their communities.

  5. Health Care Access among Deaf People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Access to health care without barriers is a clearly defined right of people with disabilities as stated by the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in…

  6. Interface Design and Engagement with Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorn, D.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper examines the design process that led to an unusually successful interactive tutorial for older people. The paper describes the issues that make designing for older people different. These include differences between the designer and the target population and the difficulty that older people have in interacting with low-fidelity…

  7. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…

  8. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  9. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  10. Haw Much Sleep do Urlan People Get?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A study group from People’s University of Chinaconducted a sample survey to find out how people livingin cities spend their time. They visited 4,876 people agedfrom 15 to 75 in 40 cities at their homes and asked themto fill in questionnaires. The following is what they foundout about how much sleep urban people get.

  11. Social exclusion of the poor people

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical part is devoted to the social exclusion of poor people and its requisites. The introductory chapters explain what is the social exclusion of poor people, and what is the problem with poverty. There are also analyzed the different legal standards. The practical part is aimed at socially excluded people, their social life and their comparison.

  12. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-11

    With the goal of understanding environmental effects of a growing bioeconomy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, and U.S. Forest Service research laboratories, together with academic and industry collaborators, undertook a study to estimate environmental effects of potential biomass production scenarios in the United States, with an emphasis on agricultural and forest biomass. Potential effects investigated include changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water quality and quantity, air emissions, and biodiversity. Effects of altered land-management regimes were analyzed based on select county-level biomass-production scenarios for 2017 and 2040 taken from the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16), volume 1, which assumes that the land bases for agricultural and forestry would not change over time. The scenarios reflect constraints on biomass supply (e.g., excluded areas; implementation of management practices; and consideration of food, feed, forage, and fiber demands and exports) that intend to address sustainability concerns. Nonetheless, both beneficial and adverse environmental effects might be expected. To characterize these potential effects, this research sought to estimate where and under what modeled scenarios or conditions positive and negative environmental effects could occur nationwide. The report also includes a discussion of land-use change (LUC) (i.e., land management change) assumptions associated with the scenario transitions (but not including analysis of indirect LUC [ILUC]), analyses of climate sensitivity of feedstock productivity under a set of potential scenarios, and a qualitative environmental effects analysis of algae production under carbon dioxide (CO2) co-location scenarios. Because BT16 biomass supplies are simulated independent of a defined end use, most analyses do not include benefits from displacing fossil fuels or other

  13. Follow the money: how the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, Cynthia

    2010-08-01

    The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other highmortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts.

  14. Subsidized then scrutinized. Reform will bring billions of dollars to the industry, but it could also deliver added examination of executive pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloro, Vince; Vesely, Rebecca; Zigmond, Jessica

    2010-08-16

    With more government involvement comes more government attention. That's the lesson about executive pay healthcare CEOs could learn as the reform law and its ramifications settle into place. "It's important for the people who are scraping together the dollars to pay their health insurance premiums to know what luxurious lives these CEOs are leading. They're living in a parallel universe", says U.S. Rep. Jan Schakowsky, left.

  15. Do transgender people get old?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Sammarco Antunes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to understand transgender aging context in Brazil. Normal and abnormal were especially created by biological sciences. For being considered deviants, transgender people are not seen as human beings. They end up living in violent environments. Their life expectancy is low. Many of them do not believe to reach old age. They face a lot of prejudice and death threat. Those who get to what we call old age are considered survivals. This investigation was able to show satisfactorily their demands and needs. To be considered visible, they have to count on public policies to give them existence since their childhood. That way, we believe they will reach what we call old age with respect and dignity, already assured by theUniversal Human Rights.

  16. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.

    allergy in 10 different European languages. Conclusion: If the company behind the pineapple & coconut fruit juice had asked an allergy expert for advice or had thought about allergic people themselves during the development of their product, the tragic story probably could have been avoided. An expert......Introduction Recently a 7-year-old British boy died after drinking pineapple & coconut juice drink. The boy was allergic to milk. The juice drink contained milk, which was declared in the ingredient list as required in the labelling law. The mother to the boy did not read the ingredient list......, as she did not expect to find milk in a juice drink. The juice drink had pictures of pineapple and coconut but none of milk despite that it contained greater amounts of milk than coconut. At the moment the British authorities investigate if the company behind the juice drink has broken the law. How can...

  17. Does communication help people coordinate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have consistently demonstrated that collective performance in a variety of tasks can be significantly improved by allowing communication. We present the results of the first experiment systematically investigating the value of communication in networked consensus. The goal of all tasks in our experiments is for subjects to reach global consensus, even though nodes can only observe choices of their immediate neighbors. Unlike previous networked consensus tasks, our experiments allow subjects to communicate either with their immediate neighbors (locally) or with the entire network (globally). Moreover, we consider treatments in which essentially arbitrary messages can be sent, as well as those in which only one type of message is allowed, informing others about a node’s local state. We find that local communication adds minimal value: fraction of games solved is essentially identical to treatments with no communication. Ability to communicate globally, in contrast, offers a significant performance improvement. In addition, we find that constraining people to only exchange messages about local state is significantly better than unconstrained communication. We observe that individual behavior is qualitatively consistent across settings: people clearly react to messages they receive in all communication settings. However, we find that messages received in local communication treatments are relatively uninformative, whereas global communication offers substantial information advantage. Exploring mixed communication settings, in which only a subset of agents are global communicators, we find that a significant number of global communicators is needed for performance to approach success when everyone communicates globally. However, global communicators have a significant advantage: a small tightly connected minority of globally communicating nodes can successfully steer outcomes towards their preferences, although this can be

  18. Maximizing your return on people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Laurie; McMurrer, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Though most traditional HR performance metrics don't predict organizational performance, alternatives simply have not existed--until now. During the past ten years, researchers Laurie Bassi and Daniel McMurrer have worked to develop a system that allows executives to assess human capital management (HCM) and to use those metrics both to predict organizational performance and to guide organizations' investments in people. The new framework is based on a core set of HCM drivers that fall into five major categories: leadership practices, employee engagement, knowledge accessibility, workforce optimization, and organizational learning capacity. By employing rigorously designed surveys to score a company on the range of HCM practices across the five categories, it's possible to benchmark organizational HCM capabilities, identify HCM strengths and weaknesses, and link improvements or back-sliding in specific HCM practices with improvements or shortcomings in organizational performance. The process requires determining a "maturity" score for each practice, based on a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high). Over time, evolving maturity scores from multiple surveys can reveal progress in each of the HCM practices and help a company decide where to focus improvement efforts that will have a direct impact on performance. The authors draw from their work with American Standard, South Carolina's Beaufort County School District, and a bevy of financial firms to show how improving HCM scores led to increased sales, safety, academic test scores, and stock returns. Bassi and McMurrer urge HR departments to move beyond the usual metrics and begin using HCM measurement tools to gauge how well people are managed and developed throughout the organization. In this new role, according to the authors, HR can take on strategic responsibility and ensure that superior human capital management becomes central to the organization's culture.

  19. Lamellar magnetism and exchange bias in billion-year-old titanohematite with nanoscale ilmenite exsolution lamellae: I. Mineral and magnetic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Robinson, Peter; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Fabian, Karl; Dyar, Darby; Sklute, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    Recent high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in South Norway have revealed numerous remanent anomalies over Mesoproterozoic metamorphic rocks. Studies on the nature of the minerals that are the remanent carriers has led to discoveries of titanohematite samples with unusual magnetic properties caused by nanoscale exsolution lamellae with their related lamellar magnetism. Here we focus on a rock unit dominated by quartz-plagioclase-biotite granulite containing titanohematite grains with a strong lattice-preferred orientation parallel to regional foliation. When samples with their natural remanent magnetization (NRM), acquired nearly 1 billion years ago, are cooled to 10 K and hysteresis loops measured, these loops show bi-modal exchange bias caused by the magnetism induced within the ilmenite by antiferromagnetic coupling with the adjacent lamellar NRM. By contrast when the samples are cooled in a strong magnetic field (1.5 Tesla), this results in unimodal lamellar magnetism, and, below the TN of ilmenite it adopts a consistent negative orientation, giving rise to unimodal negative exchange bias of >500 mT. The results presented here cover the chemical and magnetic properties, Mossbauer results and transmission electron microscopy of the titanohematite and ilmenite lamellae. Initial magnetic experiments indicated the shifts found in the exchange-bias experiments were directly related to the orientation of the sample to the applied field and the initial state of the NRM. In most samples with these unusual magnetic properties, ilmenite lamellae could not be seen in an optical or a scanning electron microscope. However magnetic experiments gave proof of the presence of ilmenite, later confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Several attempts were made to identify ilmenite in TEM studies, finally successful in showing ilmenite lamellae parallel to (001) of hematite with thicknesses ˜1.2 to 1.7 nm and aspect ratios 7-13. Here we compare new TEM images and the magnetic

  20. Interaction, at Ambient Temperature and 80 °C, between Minerals and Artificial Seawaters Resembling the Present Ocean Composition and that of 4.0 Billion Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; Stabile, Antonio C.; Gomes, Frederico P.; da Costa, Antonio C. S.; Zaia, Cássia T. B. V.; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2016-10-01

    Probably one of the most important roles played by minerals in the origin of life on Earth was to pre-concentrate biomolecules from the prebiotic seas. There are other ways to pre concentrate biomolecules such as wetting/drying cycles and freezing/sublimation. However, adsorption is most important. If the pre-concentration did not occur—because of degradation of the minerals—other roles played by them such as protection against degradation, formation of polymers, or even as primitive cell walls would be seriously compromised. We studied the interaction of two artificial seawaters with kaolinite, bentonite, montmorillonite, goethite, ferrihydrite and quartz. One seawater has a major cation and anion composition similar to that of the oceans of the Earth 4.0 billion years ago (ASW 4.0 Ga). In the other, the major cations and anions are an average of the compositions of the seawaters of today (ASWT). When ASWT, which is rich in Na+ and Cl-, interacted with bentonite and montmorrilonite structural collapse occurred on the 001 plane. However, ASW 4.0 Ga, which is rich in Mg2+ and SO4 2-, did not induce this behavior. When ASW 4.0 Ga was reacted with the minerals for 24 h at room temperature and 80 °C, the release of Si and Al to the fluid was below 1 % of the amount in the minerals—meaning that dissolution of the minerals did not occur. In general, minerals adsorbed Mg2+ and K+ from the ASW 4.0 Ga and these cations could be used for the formation of polymers. Also, when the minerals were mixed with ASW 4.0 Ga at 80 °C and ASWT at room temperature or 80 °C it caused the precipitation of CaSO4•2H2O and halite, respectively. Finally, further experiments (adsorption, formation of polymers, protection of molecules against degradation, primitive cell wall formation) performed under the conditions described in this paper will probably be more representative of what happened on the prebiotic Earth.

  1. People, poverty and the Earth Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J

    1992-01-01

    UNCED is about human beings managing their affairs so that all can achieve a reasonably good life without destroying the life-supporting environment. Currently human activities are approaching an upset of environmental balance through production of greenhouse gases, depletion of the ozone layer, and reduction of natural resources. Equity is the right to a decent life for the current human population of 5.5 billion and the future 10 billion expected within the next 50 years. A minimum use of environmental space/person is required. The Earth Summit will be a broad statement of environmental policy. Agenda 21 includes 115 action programs within 40 chapters. Separate conventions will be held on climate and biodiversity. The secretariat of UNCED has been working primarily with Agenda 21. Population issues are emphasized in Chapter 5 ("Demographic Dynamics and Sustainability") of the first section in Agenda 21 on Social and Economic Dimensions. The program areas include 1) research on the links between population, the environment, and development; 2) formulation by governments of integrated national policies on environment and development, which account for demographic trends, and promotion of population literacy; and 3) implementation of local level programs to ensure access to education and information and services in order to plan families freely and responsibly. Increases in funding for the population program are anticipated to be US $9 billion by the year 2000 and about US $7 billion/year until then. The year 2000 will bring with it a doubling of urban population in developing countries. There are challenges and opportunities to expand private sector job creation, education, clean water, and family health services. In addition to managing human settlements, there is also management of fragile ecosystems, which means relieving the pressure on these lands through urban migration or relocation to richer agricultural areas. The goal for agriculture is to triple food

  2. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  3. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  4. Secrets of over-indebted people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie BILLAUDEAU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the economic and financial crisis is brought to light and it is now clear that many people are directly impacted by this phenomenon. However, a lot of situations are obviously hidden and in particular those concerning over-indebted people. These people often find that it is difficult to express the hardship they are going through and keep silent because is more comfortable for them. The media also does not tackle this burning issue because the complexity of some situations complicates the message. Therefore, a giant gap has appeared leaving over-indebted people entrapped in their secret. Starting from this hypothesis, this article will examine the results of a research conducted on the over-indebted people (survey on written press, analysis of TV broadcasts, analysis of records related to person in debts and responses of people in debts and the secrets that this phenomenon involves.

  5. Community walking in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Robyn M; Morris, Meg E; Woollacott, Marjorie H; Brauer, Sandra G

    2012-01-01

    People with Parkinson's disease often have walking difficulty, and this is likely to be exacerbated while walking in places in the community, where people are likely to face greater and more varied challenges. This study aims to understand the facilitators and the barriers to walking in the community perceived by people with Parkinson's disease. This qualitative study involved 5 focus groups (n = 34) of people with Parkinson's disease and their partners residing in metropolitan and rural regions in Queensland, Australia. Results found that people with PD reported to use internal personal strategies as facilitators to community walking, but identified primarily external factors, particularly the environmental factors as barriers. The adoption of strategies or the use of facilitators allows people with Parkinson's disease to cope so that participants often did not report disability.

  6. Whales Are Big With Little People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommers, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Presented is a discussion on why people should study whales. Background information, learning activities appropriate for different subject areas, and whale-related teaching materials are included. (DC)

  7. Responses to Change Helping People Make Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing state of many organizations is one of change. People who experience major change tend to exhibit one of four patterns of response: entrenched, overwhelmed, poser, or learner. As a leader, you need to understand the patterns of response that people express and to customize intervention strategies to help them make the transition. People can pass through a given response stage and move to one that is more effective--especially if you provide timely intervention and support. This guidebook will help you understand how people, including yourself, are responding to change and what you c

  8. Serving the Unserved and Underserved: Western Iowa Tech Community College--The First Thirty-Three Years, 1966-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Fern L.

    This study examined the historical background of Western Iowa Tech Community College (WITCC) from its inception as a postsecondary vocational-technical college located in a discarded elementary school building in Sioux City, Iowa, in 1966. This study also chronicled the transformation of WITCC to a Merged Area XII campus reaching the total…

  9. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kristen [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Stokes, Bryce [Allegheny Science & Technology, LLC, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davis, Maggie R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hellwinckel, Chad [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scott, D. Andrew [USDA Forest Service, Normal, AL (United States); Jager, Henrietta I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ha, Miae [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Baskaran, Latha Malar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kreig, Jasmine A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rau, Benjamin [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Muwamba, Augustine [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Trettin, Carl [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Panda, Sudhanshu [Univ. of North Georgia, Oakwood, GA (United States); Amatya, Devendra M. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Tollner, Ernest W. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Sun, Ge [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Zhang, Liangxia [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Duan, Kai [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Gangsheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sutton, Nathan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busch, Ingrid Karin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Donner, Deahn M. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Wigley, T. Bently [National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, Darren A. [Weyerhaeuser Company, Federal Way, WA (United States); Coleman, Andre [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pattullo, Molly [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Daly, Christopher [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Halbleib, Mike [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Negri, Cristina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonner, Ian [Monsanto Company, Twin Falls, ID (United States); Dale, Virginia H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    With the goal of understanding environmental effects of a growing bioeconomy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, and U.S. Forest Service research laboratories, together with academic and industry collaborators, undertook a study to estimate environmental effects of potential biomass production scenarios in the United States, with an emphasis on agricultural and forest biomass. Potential effects investigated include changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water quality and quantity, air emissions, and biodiversity. Effects of altered land-management regimes were analyzed based on select county-level biomass-production scenarios for 2017 and 2040 taken from the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16), volume 1, which assumes that the land bases for agricultural and forestry would not change over time. The scenarios reflect constraints on biomass supply (e.g., excluded areas; implementation of management practices; and consideration of food, feed, forage, and fiber demands and exports) that intend to address sustainability concerns. Nonetheless, both beneficial and adverse environmental effects might be expected. To characterize these potential effects, this research sought to estimate where and under what modeled scenarios or conditions positive and negative environmental effects could occur nationwide. The report also includes a discussion of land-use change (LUC) (i.e., land management change) assumptions associated with the scenario transitions (but not including analysis of indirect LUC [ILUC]), analyses of climate sensitivity of feedstock productivity under a set of potential scenarios, and a qualitative environmental effects analysis of algae production under carbon dioxide (CO2) co-location scenarios. Because BT16 biomass supplies are simulated independent of a defined end use, most analyses do not include benefits from displacing fossil fuels or

  10. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros; Areva - Progression du chiffre d'affaires du 1. trimestre 2009: + 8,5% a 3003 millions d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends.

  11. Demand for new aeroplanes in next 20 years Worth US $144 billion%未来20年中国需要飞机总值 1440亿美元

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ The 2001 Estimate of the Chinaese Market released byBoeing Company of the United States predicted that in thenext 20 years, starting this year, China′s need for civilaeroplanes would be 1,764 worth US 144 billion. By theyear 2020 China′s airlines will have more than 2, 200 aero-planes and become one of fhe largest civil aviation markets,second only to the US.

  12. 境外投资者14年从中国赚取利润2500亿美元%US$250 billion remitted from China by overseas investors in 14 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China has become an important platform for many foreign-financed enterprises' production and sales,handing them fat returns, with about US$250 billion in profits remitted by these investors out of China in 1990-2004, Chen Jinhua, who heads both China Enterprise Confederation and China Enterprise Directors Association said, at the 2005 Conference of Private Business Organisations. The event's theme was "foreign investment in China."

  13. Young People's Internet Use: Divided or Diversified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonaert, Tom; Vettenburg, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This article critically analyses research on young people's internet use. Based on a literature analysis, it examines which young people do what on the internet. These results invite a reflection on the dominant discourse on the digital divide. Within this discourse, there is a strong focus on the use of the internet for information purposes only,…

  14. Needs of people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can b

  15. Cognitive Changes among Institutionalized Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose I.; Menacho, Inmaculada; Alcalde, Concepcion; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Aguilar, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of different cognitive training procedures in elderly people was studied. Two types of methods to train cognitive and memory functions were compared. One method was based on new technologies and the other one on pencil-and-paper activities. Thirty-six elderly institutionalized people aged 68-94 were trained. Quantitative and memory…

  16. PEOPLE BORN IN AUTUMN LIVE LONGER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    People born in the autumn live longer an those born in the spring and are less likely to fall chronically ill when they are older,according to an Austrian scientist.Using census data for more than one million people in Austria,Denmark and Australia,scien-

  17. Volunteering among Young People. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet presents information on the frequency of volunteering, trends in volunteering, and the organizations for which young people volunteer, utilizing data from multiple sources. Unlike many surveys, it shows that volunteering rates among young people are generally higher than they are among adults 26 and older. Findings of the Civic and…

  18. Young People Should Have Combatant Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,quite a few people believe that combatant spirit is essential for one'ssuccess in today's competitive world.However,some young people today think nothing of this spirit which,in their opinion,is only needed in revolutionary age.Even

  19. A People's History for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Bill

    2008-01-01

    "A People's History for the Classroom" helps teachers introduce students to a more accurate, complex, and engaging understanding of U.S. history than is found in traditional textbooks and curricula. It includes a new introductory essay by veteran teacher Bill Bigelow on teaching strategies that align with Howard Zinn's "A People's…

  20. Leading People in a Chaotic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Terence J.

    1999-01-01

    Organizations are complex, socially created systems embodying people's individual and shared expectations. This view challenges administrators to become visionary leaders. Using chaos theory, leaders can open people's minds to unconventional organizational patterns. Change is implemented by studying a system's self-renewing and self-transcending…

  1. [From care to consideration of disabled people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossy, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.

  2. Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

  3. NMPAFFC’s People-to-People Friendly Exchanges with Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Nanjing Municipal People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (NMPAFFC) has carried out people-to-people friendly contacts in various forms with rich contents and scored noticeable achievements in recent years.

  4. The people and the tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, G C

    1994-08-01

    Wildlife protection activities in Ranthambhore in Rajasthan state in 1993, and conditions of overpopulation and expanded grazing were described. Project Tiger is an ambitious program begun in the 1970s to protect the habitat of the tiger in Ranthambhore National Park. Forest park protection is limited by corrupt, poorly trained staff, who are unmotivated to protect the established sanctuaries. Tiger counts declined from 45 in the 1980s to 25 in 1993. Between 1988 and 1993, the Ranthambhore Foundation has worked to change village attitudes and practices that are based on forest exploitation. The aim was to show how the park and livelihoods can coexist without destruction of the park through excess grazing, and to initiate the planting of trees in a largely arid, treeless region. Demonstrating new ways of living had to be achieved first by building trust. Thapar, an author and environmentalist, has established his own land as an example of how irrigation and fallow land can return the land to productive potential. A mix of Jersey and Holstein cattle are bred to show how nonrange-fed cattle can be produced and deliver higher milk yields than the straggly range-fed ones. A dairy cooperative has been organized in the district, and the milk productivity has increased 1000%. Several bio-gas cookers are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of dung for fuel, instead of wood from the forest. Women become aware of the advantages of shorter walks and the end of potential arrests from taking forest protected fuelwood. There is still work to be done in learning how to work with local people. One foundation program works with instilling ideas about conservation among 3500 village children. Forest Protection Societies have been organized to grow and defend their own trees. Village men are organized to help police unauthorized grazing in protected areas. Not all programs have been successful, and lax administration has been a problem. Tourism has become a problem of too many

  5. [Appropriate medication prescribing in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, H; Rambourg, P; Le Quellec, A; Ayach, L; Biboulet, P; Bismuth, M; Blain, A; Boulenger, J-P; Celton, B; Combe, B; Dauvilliers, Y; Davy, J-M; Geny, C; Hemmi, P; Hillaire-Buys, D; Jalabert, A; Jung, B; Leclercq, F; Léglise, M-S; Morel, J; Mourad, G; Ponrouch, M-P; Puisieux, F; Quantin, X; Quéré, I; Renard, E; Ribstein, J; Roch-Torreilles, I; Rolland, Y; Rosant, D; Terminet, A; Thuret, R; Villiet, M; Deshormières, N; Bourret, R; Bousquet, J; Jonquet, O; Millat, B

    2015-10-01

    Drug-induced adverse effects are one of the main avoidable causes of hospitalization in older people. Numerous lists of potentially inappropriate medications for older people have been published, as national and international guidelines for appropriate prescribing in numerous diseases and for different age categories. The present review describes the general rules for an appropriate prescribing in older people and summarizes, for the main conditions encountered in older people, medications that are too often under-prescribed, the precautions of use of the main drugs that induce adverse effects, and drugs for which the benefit to risk ratio is unfavourable in older people. All these data are assembled in educational tables designed to be printed in a practical pocket format and used in daily practice by prescribers, whether physicians, surgeons or pharmacists.

  6. My Life with the Naxi People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Naxi nationality people, with a population of 278,009, are mainly distributed throughout the Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County in Yunnan Province. A small number also live in Sichuan and Tibet. Naxi means "black people" in their native language. In the 7th century, the Naxi people created a pictograph language called Dongba and a syllabic language called Geba. The Dongba language, with more than 1,400 characters, is valued as the only well-preserved "living pictographs." The Naxi people have also kept a collectively created epic of the Creation of the World, and the earliest record of national dance, a book of Naxi Dongba dance choreography. Today the Naxi people, with their long cultural tradition, work assiduously, and their lifestyles and modes of production have developed and improved greatly.

  7. Image and Video for Hearing Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran Oya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a global overview of image- and video-processing-based methods to help the communication of hearing impaired people. Two directions of communication have to be considered: from a hearing person to a hearing impaired person and vice versa. In this paper, firstly, we describe sign language (SL and the cued speech (CS language which are two different languages used by the deaf community. Secondly, we present existing tools which employ SL and CS video processing and recognition for the automatic communication between deaf people and hearing people. Thirdly, we present the existing tools for reverse communication, from hearing people to deaf people that involve SL and CS video synthesis.

  8. Image and Video for Hearing Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Burger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a global overview of image- and video-processing-based methods to help the communication of hearing impaired people. Two directions of communication have to be considered: from a hearing person to a hearing impaired person and vice versa. In this paper, firstly, we describe sign language (SL and the cued speech (CS language which are two different languages used by the deaf community. Secondly, we present existing tools which employ SL and CS video processing and recognition for the automatic communication between deaf people and hearing people. Thirdly, we present the existing tools for reverse communication, from hearing people to deaf people that involve SL and CS video synthesis.

  9. Seventh Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Seventh Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations, with the theme of "Solidarity, Friendship, Cooperation,Development " , co-sponsored by the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO) and the Vietnam-China Friendship Association (VCFA) was held in Hanoi from August 16 to 17. The delegation of China-ASEAN Association led by President Gu Xiulian, and representatives of the people-to-people friendship organizations

  10. [Psychological barriers to professional inclusion of people with mental disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberon, S

    2014-06-01

    Mental health in the workplace today are ubiquitous and cause significant dysfunction in organizations (turnover, absenteeism, presenteeism, early retirement, long sick…). Statements of professional unfitness for depression is of particular concern. The human and financial costs associated with the support of mental disability is important, in France it is estimated to 14 billion euros. Mental disorder in the workplace also has a significant impact on the individual. If not always leads to actual inability to work, it usually causes, from the disclosure of the disorder, professional inequalities related to perceived environmental work disability. Therefore, this type of public remains largely on the sidelines of a stable occupation and all forms of recognition and undergo disqualifications and some forms of exclusion. Instead of saving, the workplace can promote relapse and even constitute a real obstacle to improving health. These exclusionary behavior result in persistent employment resistance in France and elsewhere, especially because of the prejudice of employers. These resistances persist despite legal obligations in this regard (e.g. in France: Law of 11 February 2005 on Equal Rights and Opportunities). To address the issue of sustainable professional inclusion (recruitment, integration and job preservation) of people with mental disabilities, studies are especially developed for the rehabilitation in the workplace of this public or accompanying us in their professional reintegration into protected workplaces. We propose a reflection on the adaptation of knowledge about psychological processes of hiring discrimination in the particular employment situation of people with mental disabilities in ordinary workplaces. Researches on social representations, stereotypes and prejudices applied in the workplace help to understand the negative attitudes and resistance to the hiring of people with mental disabilities despite regulations. Representations of

  11. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  12. Disaster response for people with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Suzanne; Martin, Kathy; Gardner, Jevettra Devlin

    2016-04-01

    Emergency Preparedness for people with a disability has been a steadfast activity in the state of South Carolina. In October 2015, the state experienced a natural disaster termed "The 1000 Year Flood". The disability response to the disaster was swift due to the strong collaborative network. However, the disaster did present challenges that need to be further addressed. The retelling of South Carolina's response should be informative to other state programs that provide advocacy for people with disability. Agencies and organizations that respond to disasters can learn from South Carolina's experience to ensure that the needs of people with disabilities are addressed rapidly and efficiently.

  13. Utilitarianism, poverty and development of disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier de França, Inacia Sátiro; Freitag Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the influences of human development factors in the experience of disabled people based on social scenarios of inequality. The data collected were standardized and allocated in thematic categories. The analysis was based on liberal utilitarianism. The conclusion is that there is legislation in Brazil that guarantees the disabled people's development in areas such as health, education and work. However despite the attempts of decision makers in combating discriminatory behaviors and the theory based on equity, these people still face difficulties in breaking the barrier of poverty and achieving all humans rights deserved.

  14. Improving care for people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sue

    2014-11-25

    People with learning disabilities have poorer health than the general population and experience health inequalities - partly as a result of problems with accessing health services. Health services have a duty to address health inequalities, by making reasonable adjustments to their services so they are more accessible to people with learning disabilities, but this does not always happen. Failure to make reasonable adjustments can have significant adverse effects for people with learning disabilities and their families. Nurses are well placed to implement reasonable adjustments, many of which are simple to do and can save lives.

  15. More Time Management Tips for Busy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Time Management Tips for Busy People 5a. CONTRACT...50 More Time Management Tips for Busy People Roy Wood, Ph.D.   Wood is the dean of the Defense Systems Management College at the Defense Acquisition...Management Tips for Those Who Don’t Have the Time” (Defense AT&L, November–December 2013, p. 58), that of-fered some time-saving tips for busy people

  16. Assessing and managing depression in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hywel

    Depression is the most common mental health condition in people aged 65 and over. It can have a detrimental effect on quality of life and reduce patients' ability to manage their health. Nurses caring for older people with physical health problems are in an ideal position to identify depression; this article outlines how general receive the appropriate mental health care. nurses can do so and ensure their patientsepression can occur as a result of major life changes. It affects an estimated two million people over the age of 65 in the UK and is the most common mental illness

  17. Property Law Enacted for People's Wellbeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG WENTING

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the morning of March 16,2007 the 10th National People's Congress passed the Property Law of the People's Republic of China (referred to as the Property Law below) with a majority of votes. Having gone through 13 years of deliberations and discussions, this law sets a record in China's legislation history as a single bill that has gone through the greatest number of examinations. Enactment of the law has great significance for China's economic reforms, the effort to make China a role of law country and the safeguarding of people's interests.

  18. People Recognition: A Historical/Anthropological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Using current neurological and neuropsychological literature, and the analysis of different cultural and historical conditions, people recognition is analyzed. Different “subsystems” or “modules” could be involved in individuals' recognition: living versus non-living, own species versus other species, familiar versus non-familiar, males versus females, and individual identification versus emotional identification. Not only visual, but also auditory and even olfactory information may be involved in people recognition. Visual information involved in people recognition is proposed to include not only the perception of faces, but also the perception of whole body and gait, clothes, emotional expressions, and individual marks.

  19. Exploring attitudes towards older people's sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B

    2009-07-01

    Sexuality is an important part of life, for older people as well as for others. Sexual attitudes, beliefs and lifestyles may be as diverse among older people as they are among younger age groups. But for nurses to plan care with patients in ways that take issues of sexuality into account, they need to feel more comfortable talking about sexuality with older people. This article uses case studies to help readers explore their own attitudes and those of colleagues towards sexuality in later years, and prompts discussions on what this might signify for future nursing care so that staff are better equipped to assist patients with this subject.

  20. Evacuation characteristics of visually impaired people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Evacuation characteristics for blind and visually impaired people are presented in the current study. The study was carried out in 2011 and engaged 40 participants in the age from 10 to 69 years. The participants had impairments for all of the four Danish categories for visual impairments (A......-bodied adults. It was found that people with visual impairments were able to uphold a higher walking speed descending stairs than able-bodied adults for increasing person density. The initial walking speed on horizontal planes is lower than the value suggested by the N&M-model. The horizontal mean free walking...... speed depends on the degree of vision loss. The design of the building environment is important for the ability to orientation for people with reduced sight. Walls and handrails are important for the orientation possibilities for people with visual impairments. Furthermore, obstacles placed...

  1. Older people, food and satisfaction with life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses food-related satisfaction with life of older people, identifying some of the determinants and barriers to satisfaction with food-related quality of life, and discusses possible ways of enhancing older people's quality of life in the domain of food. Despite being strongly...... associated with life, and heavily contributing to the quality of life, food has so far been neglected and not much research has been conducted into people's satisfaction with their food-related life and its relationship to overall life satisfaction. As people age, their goals and available resources in terms...... of health, social networks, income and skills change. Changes in resources can be expected to have an impact on satisfaction with life....

  2. Emergency Preparedness for People Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translate Text Size Print Emergency Preparedness Emergencies and HIV/AIDS Emergencies can take many forms. They include ... planning efforts. Emergency Resources for People Living with HIV The Federal Government offers several resources and programs ...

  3. Special Issues for People with Aplastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Donate Special Issues for People with Aplastic Anemia Because you have aplastic anemia , everyday events can ... bleeding, such as contact sports. Pregnancy and Aplastic Anemia Pregnancy is possible for women who have been ...

  4. Sex and Prevention Concerns for Positive People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with any comments or concerns. February 17, 2011 Sex and prevention concerns for positive people Facebook Twitter ... partner, and vice versa. The reality of safer sex You put yourself at risk for infections through ...

  5. Supporting people with dementia to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah, Vicki

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify the best ways of supporting people with dementia to eat. Five electronic databases were searched, with a date range from January 2004 to July 2015. Following screening of the 233 studies identified, 22 were included in the final analysis. The study interventions focused on educational programmes, environmental or routine changes, and assistance with eating, with the strongest evidence shown in the more complex educational programmes for people with dementia. The evidence suggests that staff who support people with dementia to eat should undertake face-to-face education programmes and aim to give people enough time when helping them to eat. However, cultural change may be needed to ensure individual assessments are carried out to identify those having difficulty eating, and to ensure they are afforded enough time to eat their meals.

  6. Poverty and people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a significant association between poverty and the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The available evidence suggests that this association reflects two distinct processes. First, poverty causes intellectual disabilities, an effect mediated through the association between poverty and exposure to a range of environmental and psychosocial hazards. Second, families supporting a child with intellectual disabilities and adults with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of experiencing poverty due to the financial and social impact of caring and the exclusion of people with intellectual disabilities from the workforce. It is likely that the association between poverty and intellectual disabilities accounts in part for the health and social inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disabilities and their families. Implications for policy and practice are discussed in relation to the funding of services for people with intellectual disabilities and preventative approaches to addressing the health and social inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disabilities and their families.

  7. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on emotional disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) and summarizes the main findings of a ...

  8. Psychosis and epilepsy in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax Pericall, M T; Taylor, E

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of children and young people under 19 with both epilepsy and a psychotic state (schizophrenia-like psychotic episode, organic delusional disorder, or other brief psychotic episode). In total, the clinical case notes for 17 young people with these characteristics were identified retrospectively from three different sources. Compared with a group of young people with psychosis without epilepsy, children with epilepsy and psychosis more frequently had other neuropsychological problems like learning disability and autism. Both groups had a high rate of family histories of mental illness and social disability. Contrary to the findings in adults with psychosis and epilepsy, in this group of young people, psychosis was associated neither with temporal lobe epilepsy nor with mesial temporal sclerosis. The children with psychosis and epilepsy had a variety of seizure types and structural abnormalities.

  9. Parental Influence on Young People's Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Luther B.; Call, Vaughn R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes theory and research on parental influence on young people's career development and highlights an important implication of this relationship for career counseling. The authors discuss a seminar that helps parents help their children choose careers. (CT)

  10. Lifelong inclusive education of people with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gluzman Aleksandr Vladimirovich; Boginskaya Yuliya Valerievna

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the current state of lifelong inclusive education of people with disabilities. The authors highlight the conditions of developing a lifelong education system for children and youth with disabilities.

  11. Why Do People Like to Buy Lotteries?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Nowadays,there exist all kinds of lotteries in our so-ciety,such as welfare lottery,sports lottery,computer lot-tery,and so forth.Anyone,whether men or women,theyoung or the old,may buy lottery tickets.But why doso many people like buying them?The following reasons can account for the popularity of lotteries.First of all,most people are trying their luckon lottery tickets.They have a long-cherished dream of making big money overnight.In addition,there are some people who want to make donation to public welfare bybuying lottery tickets.Besides,some people buy them just for fun.As far as I am concerned,there are some risks in buying lotteries.

  12. People-centric sensing in assistive healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    sensing devices enabling thousands new personal, social, and public sensing applications. In this paper, we discuss our vision for people-centric sensing in assistive healthcare environments and study the security challenges it brings. This highly dynamic and mobile setting presents new challenges...... follows a more passive approach and has focused on collecting and processing data using a static-topology and an application-aware infrastructure. However, with the technological advances in sensing, computation, storage, and communications, a new era is about to emerge changing the traditional view...... of sensor-based assistive environments where people are passive data consumers, with one where people carry mobile sensing elements involving large volumes of data related to everyday human activities. This evolution will be driven by people-centric sensing and will turn mobile phones into global mobile...

  13. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Care Among People with Severe Mental Illness: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangurian, Christina; Newcomer, John W; Modlin, Chelsea; Schillinger, Dean

    2016-09-01

    Close to 19 million US adults have severe mental illnesses (SMI), and they die, on average, 25 years earlier than the general population, most often from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many of the antipsychotic medications used to treat SMI contribute to CVD risk by increasing risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Based on compelling evidence, the American Diabetes Association and the American Psychiatric Association developed guidelines for metabolic screening and monitoring during use of these medications.In this manuscript, we have reviewed the evidence on diabetes and other CVD risk screening, prevalence, and management among populations with SMI. We also review differences in screening among subpopulations with SMI (e.g., racial/ethnic minorities, women, and children). We found that despite national guidelines for screening for diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, up to 70 % of people taking antipsychotics remain unscreened and untreated. Based on estimates that 20 % of the 19 million US adults with SMI have diabetes and 70 % of them are not screened; it is likely that over 2 million Americans with SMI have unidentified diabetes. Given that undiagnosed diabetes costs over $4,000 per person, this failure to identify diabetes among people with SMI represents a missed opportunity to prevent morbidity and translates to over $8 billion in annual preventable costs to our healthcare system.Given the high burden of disease and significant evidence of suboptimal medical care received by people with SMI, we propose several clinical and policy recommendations to improve diabetes and other CVD risk screening and care for this highly vulnerable population. These recommendations include reducing antipsychotic medication dose or switching antipsychotic medications, enhancing smoking cessation efforts, sharing electronic health records between physical and mental health care systems, and promoting integration of care.

  14. New Wedding Customs of the Li People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    HISTORICALLY, Hainan Island has been the land of the Li people. It was only during the Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D.25), when the centralizedgovernment established two prefectures here caned Zhuya and Dan’er, that the Han people began to come southward to this remote island. So when anthropologists study the history and local customs of Hainan, the earliest information concerns the development of the Li nationality. There is a museum which provides clues to this history, the

  15. Discussion on people-oriented outdoor advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫明月

    2016-01-01

    Along with the modern people’s living standards improve, advertisement has permeated every corner of people’s life. Advertising should be people-oriented, the final object or population. Advertising is to watch people psychology to the subconscious, to buy or to carry out certain business communication activities. It can not only help consumers assisted selection, and can bring benefit for the business.

  16. Producing the voice of socially excluded people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houborg, Esben

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the practices of outreach workers, when they try to build bridges between drug addicts and homeless people living in the streets and welfare and health care institutions. The article uses tools from discourse analysis and governmentality analysis......An investigation of the practices of outreach workers, when they try to build bridges between drug addicts and homeless people living in the streets and welfare and health care institutions. The article uses tools from discourse analysis and governmentality analysis...

  17. How Far Ahead Do People Plan?

    OpenAIRE

    John Hey; Julia Knoll

    2006-01-01

    We report on a simple experiment which enables us to infer how far people plan ahead when taking decisions in a dynamic risky context. Usually economic theory assumes that people plan right to the end of the planning horizon. We find that this is true for a little over half of the subjects in the experiment, while a little under one half seem not to plan ahead at all.

  18. The labor market for people 50+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia LUCIUS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of ageing society and its influence on shaping economy is one of the priorities in political discussions nowadays. The trend of increasing population of 50+ years old people is visible in most of the highly developed European countries. This situation induces countries with changing demographical structure to implement solutions that will extend the job activity of people in the immobile age. The best example is Germany, where the introduction of structural reforms in the labor market employment in the 55+ group increased in 10 years by 20%. Effective management of the community of older people is necessary to keep the balance in economy. Many examples of good case practices from chosen European countries point an important role of education in this process. Education is a tool that aims to support older people in functioning on the job market and increase employers’ awareness of changes and solutions that need to be implemented in their companies. Customized forms of employment are another instrument of increasing job activity of older people. They let employers adjust the time, place of work, job description and form of payment according to the employer’s and employee’s preferences. Though, the most significant instrument is reduction of unemployment benefits for people who are qualified to take job activity. In this case one of the solutions is applying temporary benefits that stimulate active job hunting. The mentioned activities, to ensure their efficiency, should be supported by adequate law regulations.

  19. LIFE AND DEATH AMONGST INDIGENOUS PEOPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Felipe Beltrão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the frequent rights violations perpetrated against indigenous peoples, which affect people and territories, compromising their lives and even their right to mourn the dead, it is imperative to understand the care and concerns of the indigenous towards life and death. Thus, we propose to analyze ethnographic narratives about the Apinayé, Ka'apor, Tapirapé, Tembé, Tenetehara, Terena and Asurini, in order to discuss the caring of people, considering the context of funerary rituals. The texts analyzed are able to reveal: (1 the existence (or not of the practice; (2 the specific contexts in which the funeral rites are (or not practiced; and (3 the meanings that the practice gain in ethnically differentiated societies. The narratives of indigenous peoples are included in order to attempt to make the peoples that nowadays find themselves accused by both the media and (reportedly pro-life organizations “be heard”. Therefore, using the classical literature we study the heritage of ritual practices, which besides confering dignity to the dead, indicate that life is the greater good among indigenous peoples.

  20. Sudden Death in Young People--Heart Problems Often Blamed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...

  1. POVERTY IN AND ABOUT THE AMERINDIOS PEOPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Oquendo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Poverty has come to be understood as the lack of income to cover basic needs. The World Bank (2002 defined it as hunger, while ECLAC (2000 within a more relative framework, he said, consists of "lack of economic and social resources that the referential society considers basic." Are indigenous peoples considered poor according to these conceptual frameworks? The episteme of the indigenous peoples is built with another language / language which will fit into these paradigms. However, work as an activity, as action is the universal difference between man and animals. The man when he works uses the language because the work itself is a language and constitutes the tool to organize and benefit from nature. The language of Amerindian peoples has been displaced by modernism. How does Amerindian peoples participate in the work if their language does not participate in the institutions of wage-labor societies? With these questions I will address the differentiality of the term poverty in and on Amerindian peoples.

  2. What kinds of people should we create?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J

    2000-01-01

    The advent of genetic engineering will give people the power to design the members of the succeeding generation, and thus will render practical the issue how such a power ought to be exercised. Here I address that issue in a general way. I point out that the aim of making future people better adapted to the modern social environment is implicitly circular, since the natures of the peoples themselves will determine the nature of the social environment. I claim that the human property the enhancement of which would do most to enrich experience is intelligence; accordingly increased intelligence should be a primary aim of genetic designers. The tendency to feel pain should be attenuated, as positive motivation is substituted for negative (to some extent). People should be designed so as to be motivated more by reason than by any non-rational drives (though rational motivation may still involve pleasure and pain). The sex drive, having outlived its usefulness, will probably be replaced by some other source of pleasure. As a side effect of these changes in people, the arts and social sciences will be transformed beyond recognition.

  3. THE ASSERTIVENESS OF PEOPLE WHO PRACTICE KARATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szark-Eckardt Miroslawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Assertiveness is the ability to express your thoughts, beliefs and opinions without the feeling of internal tension, that is why it is a desired trait of character. One of the examples of sports disciplines in which assertiveness can play a desired role is karate. One of the aims of this paper was to answer the question, whether the act of doing karate influences the level of assertiveness among people who practice it and to compare the results with the level of assertiveness declared by people who do other sports. The method applied in this paper was the diagnostics survey, while the tool was the questionnaire form based on the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. 50 students who practice karate on regular basis and 50 students who do other sports participated in the research. It is undeniable that the level of assertiveness among people who practice karate is higher in comparison to people who do other sports. Karate doers, both men and women obtained better results compared to the second group of sportsmen/women. This regularity can be observed among men, but it is more perceptible among women. As the research presents, people who attend karate trainings at least three times a week are characterized by a higher level of assertiveness in comparison to those who attend the training once a week.

  4. Internet Usage among Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karayagiz Muslu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Computers have occupied increasingly central roles in children’s world with the advance of technology. They have proved to be an ideal companion for children in developing and developed countries who spend most of their time at school or home with computers. As a measure of development and modernization, technology has made people’s lives easier and contributed positively to social well-being so far while it has also brought about some problems and threats stemming from irresponsible use of Internet. Unmonitored use of Internet may cause damages in children’s and young people’s physical, psychological, social and cognitive development. It seems imperative to assure that children and young people can benefit from computers and Internet resources effectively and productively while measures for appropriate and safe use of Internet are to be taken into serious consideration. Therefore, the government offices and institutions should lay stress upon the issue; education professionals and parents should be well-informed and regularly updated; and finally children and young people should be educated and monitored to achieve a better and efficient use of Internet. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage on physical, psychosocial and cognitive health of children and young people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 445-450

  5. People deliver eye care: managing human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Odusote

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available People deliver health. Effective health care needs an efficient and motivated health workforce, which is the totality of individuals who directly or indirectly contribute to the promotion, protection and improvement of the health of the population.Community eye health is about providing eye health care to the people as close as possible to where they live and as much as possible at a price they can afford. It promotes people-centred care rather than the traditional disease-centred eye care services. In order to provide effective and efficient eye care services, we need an adequate number of well-qualified, well-motivated and equitably distributed eye health workers (EHWs.

  6. Housing Accessibility Methodology Targeting Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina

    accessibility problems before the planning of housing intervention strategies. It is also critical that housing standards addressing accessibility intended to accommodate people with functional limitations are valid in the sense that their definitions truly support accessibility. However, there is a paucity...... reasonably question the validity of the housing standards addressing accessibility. This thesis addresses housing accessibility methodology in general and the reliability of assessment and the validity of standards targeting older people with functional limitations and a dependence on mobility devices...... in particular. The overarching aim of the thesis was to develop and explore methods applicable for improving housing accessibility assessments and to explore feasible approaches to create housing standards that truly support accessibility and accommodate older people. A main methodological contribution...

  7. Controlling young people through treatment and punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2015-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how both treatment and punishment is part of controlling young people involved in crime in the Danish welfare state. Lately there has been an increase in the use of confinement in young offenders institutions and thus a turn towards stricter punishments for crime. However......, treatment aiming at rehabilitation is still an integrated part of the system and the organization of the young offenders institutions. For the young people subjected to control both treatment and punishment are regarded as effective means of risk-control but there are also limitations and unintended results...... of exclusion and marginalization. When seeking to control young people involved in crime, the Danish social welfare state is not only social and humane but also exclusionary and at times inhumane....

  8. Food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    (living alone or living with other people). Respondents were asked questions about consumption of 55 food products. The factor analysis allowed for separating 21 food patterns. They included from 1 to 3 groups of products, intake of which was mutually dependant. Big number of separated food patterns......Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status...... and small number of products fonning joint food patterns speak in advocacy of relatively small reciprocal relationship between different food items consumed by the seniors in Poland....

  9. Evacuation of People with Visual Impairments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress

    by fire for this segment of the population is larger than for able-bodied people. It can therefore be questioned whether our buildings provide a sufficient safety level for this group of people. The aim of the PhD Study is to increase knowledge and data on evacuation characteristics of vulnerable people......Fire have always been a threat to human beings and claim lives every year. A lot is done to ensure fire safety in our buildings an structures, but fires still occur and lives are lost. In the past decades there has been a trend towards more and more complex buildings, which challenge fire safety...... engineers and the prescriptive fire safety codes. Consquently, performance based fire codes is developed and implemented in countires around the world. Performance based codes allow for use of engineering tools and calculations. Meanwhile, accessibility to the building environment have likewise gained...

  10. Metacognitive inferences from other people's memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    Three studies show that people draw metacognitive inferences about events from how well others remember the event. Given that memory fades over time, detailed accounts of distant events suggest that the event must have been particularly memorable, for example, because it was extreme. Accordingly, participants inferred that a physical assault (Study 1) or a poor restaurant experience (Studies 2-3) were more extreme when they were well remembered one year rather than one week later. These inferences influence behavioral intentions. For example, participants recommended a more severe punishment for a well-remembered distant rather than recent assault (Study 1). These metacognitive inferences are eliminated when people attribute the reporter's good memory to an irrelevant cause (e.g., photographic memory), thus undermining the informational value of memory performance (Study 3). These studies illuminate how people use lay theories of memory to learn from others' memory performance about characteristics of the world. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Teaching social skills to people with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M J; Harris, S L

    2001-10-01

    The treatment of social skills deficits remains one of the most challenging areas in meeting the needs of people with autism. Difficulties in understanding social stimuli, in initiating and responding to social bids, and in appreciating the affect that is intrinsic to social interactions can be baffling for people with autism. Researchers and practitioners of applied behavior analysis have tried a variety of strategies for teaching social skills. This article examines a range of useful procedures for teaching social skills to people with autism, including skills that are adult mediated, peer mediated, and child-with-autism mediated. The authors also consider the potential of classwide interventions in inclusive settings, pivotal response training, and the use of scripts to teach social initiations.

  12. Communication Support for People with ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beukelman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS experience a motor speech disorder, such as dysarthria, as the disease progresses. At some point, 80 to 95% of people with ALS are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. Unfortunately, once intelligibility begins to decrease, speech performance often deteriorates so rapidly that there is little time to implement an appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC intervention; therefore, appropriate timing of referral for AAC assessment and intervention continues to be a most important clinical decision-making issue. AAC acceptance and use have increased considerably during the past decade. Many people use AAC until within a few weeks of their deaths.

  13. Document recognition serving people with disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchterman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

  14. Polypharmacy and older people - the GP perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vass, M; Hendriksen, C

    2005-01-01

    and to consider different approaches when evaluating evidence of risk and benefit for the individual. Old people are facing a considerable risk of adverse drug reactions and recent initiatives, including the Continuous Medical Educational Efforts Programme, address issues of inappropriate prescribing practices......It is well known that problems with compliance rise exponentially when more that 4 drugs are prescribed. The rising use of prescription medicine forces the GP to balance the benefit of evidence group-based appropriate drug use against the problems arising when medication is given to older people...... is recommended at every encounter, and time consuming comprehensive follow-up will be demanded, 'polypharmacy consultations' surely will be built into GP contracts in the future. The authors state that a number of pharmacological regimens for older people are outperformed by non-pharmacological treatment...

  15. Euthanasia: why people want to die earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1994-09-01

    The results from two surveys in England of relatives and others who knew people in samples drawn from death certificates are reported. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. The incidence of people saying they wanted to die sooner, and of requests for euthanasia are reported. Excluding a proportion who did not wish to express a view, or did not know the answer, about a quarter of both respondents and the people who died expressed the view that an earlier death would be, or would have been, preferable. 3.6% of people in the 1990 study were said to have asked for euthanasia at some point in the last year of life. The extent to which such views were determined by the experience of pain, other distressing symptoms, dependency and social and cultural factors such as religious belief and social class is explored. The finding that dependency was important in causing the feeling that an earlier death would have been better, as well as requests for euthanasia, is related to the public debate about euthanasia, which often contains the assertion that fear of pain is a dominant factor. Pain was found to be a significant factor in death from cancer, but not as important for other causes of death. Social class, place of residence of the deceased, and strength and type of religious faith were found to be largely insignificant in influencing feelings about an earlier death and requests for euthanasia.

  16. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    2016-01-01

    in everyday life. Furthermore getting the appropriate and nutritious food will be a step in the right direction regarding prevention of malnutrition. The aim of this project is to develop a guide to increase the possibility for people with dementia to continue everyday life through participating in meal...... and/or refining their actions as they are the experts in their own life. Therefore, we have cooperated with people with dementia and professionals in several public settings in Jutland, Denmark, during the development and during tests of the guide. The guide can be used in professional settings...

  17. Managing change and people in libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Tinker

    2009-01-01

    Managing Change and People in Libraries is designed to help library staff find options and compromises to personnel and management problems associated with the constant changes faced in libraries today. This text looks at theories of management, how people and processes change the stresses faced, how to analyze problems, find directions for change to be used and learn how to change negatives into positives in the workplace. The book is designed to help readers find direction and purpose in working practice.Theories explained through real life examplesAlternatives devel

  18. Pressure ulcer prevention in frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Maree; Nugent, Linda

    2015-12-16

    Pressure ulcers are painful and cause discomfort, have a negative effect on quality of life, and are costly to treat. The incidence and severity of preventable pressure ulcers is an important indicator of quality of care; it is essential that healthcare providers monitor prevalence and incidence rates to ensure that care strategies implemented are effective. Frail older people are at increased risk of developing pressure ulcers. This article discusses the complexities of preventing pressure ulcers in frail older people and emphasises the importance of structured educational programmes that incorporate effective clinical leadership and multidisciplinary teamwork.

  19. The White Stone Worship of Qiang People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓

    2013-01-01

    The White Stone worship is an inseparable cultural part among Qiang People in the history and their daily lives. It has relationship with the God, with Qiang people’s fondness of the white color, with the fire-making, with the function of white stones as the tool and weapon for survival, and with the worship for Snow Mountain. The White Stone is the oblation in Qiang Families, the architecture—Blockhouse relating to the white stone is famous worldwide. The essay also discusses the links be⁃tween the white stone worship with Qiang people in the past and in the future

  20. The White Stone Worship of Qiang People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓

    2013-01-01

    The White Stone worship is an inseparable cultural part among Qiang People in the history and their daily lives. It has relationship with the God, with Qiang people’ s fondness of the white color, with the fire-making, with the function of white stones as the tool and weapon for survival, and with the worship for Snow Mountain. The White Stone is the oblation in Qiang Families, the architecture—Blockhouse relating to the white stone is famous worldwide. The essay also discusses the links be⁃tween the white stone worship with Qiang people in the past and in the future.

  1. Improving library services to people with disabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, Courtney

    2007-01-01

    The book takes account of the key fact that to maximize their potential, people must have lifelong access to the information and services offered through books and libraries. Whether to address concerns of an ageing population or to enable all citizens to contribute fully through meaningful education and work opportunities, more emphasis is being given to promoting library services to people who have disabilities. This book is a compendium of articles focused on serving adults with disabilities in an international setting. From this book, librarians, policy makers and constituents will underst

  2. Priority or equality for possible people?

    OpenAIRE

    Voorhoeve, Alex; Fleurbaey, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Suppose that you must make choices that may influence the well-being and the identities of the people who will exist, though not the number of people who will exist. How ought you to choose? This paper answers this question. It argues that the currency of distributive ethics in such cases is a combination of an individual’s final well-being and her expected well-being conditional on her existence. It also argues that this currency should be distributed in an egalitarian, rather than a priorit...

  3. Lectures on "One Belt,One Road" and People-to-People Diplomacy Launched in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai; Lin

    2015-01-01

    The ancient Silk Road over 2,000 years ago was a key channel for commercial and trade cooperation between China and other countries,as well as an important bonding link for people-to-people and cultural exchanges between East and the West.In order to better understand the strategic thinking behind President Xi Jinping’s plan

  4. Enhance Under standing and Cooper ation with Advantages of People-to-people Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正As an important participant in China's people-to- people diplomacy, the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) has been playing a positive role in promoting dialogue and exchanges between China and the rest of the world, particularly in letting the world understand

  5. Attitudes towards People with Disabilities--What Do People with Intellectual Disabilities Have to Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr McEvoy, Sandra; Keenan, Emer

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities have traditionally been very negative, resulting in people with intellectual disabilities being treated badly by other. This claim was explored by conducting focus groups with adults who have an intellectual disability to find out about their everyday experiences in different places and using…

  6. Second Forum on China-Latin America and Caribbean People-to-People Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The Second Forum on China-Latin American and Caribbean People -to-People Friendship,jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Latin America and Caribbean Federation of Friendship with China(LACFFC), was held in the Cuban capital Havana from October 29 to 30,2009. Over 80 representatives from 26 friendship-with-China organizations

  7. Public Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Comparison of White British & South Asian People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Sarah; Scior, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Background: National and international polices promote the acceptance, integration and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities into mainstream society. However, there is little systematic research into general population attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities, and even less research, which considers the impact of…

  8. 78 FR 21101 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    .... Thailand is economically comparable to the PRC and is a significant producer of comparable merchandise. To.... Paul Piquado, Assistant Secretary for Import Administration. Appendix I Exporter Billion Land...

  9. Conflicting sensory relationships. Encounters with allergic people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaetà, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, people employ the term 'allergy' to define various pathological conditions, although the biomedical community lacks a consensus on a definition of the term. It has become a widespread and convenient label for diverse conditions, often going beyond biomedical diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to explore how allergic people narrate their illness experiences, focusing specifically on the relationship between words, senses and bodies. This paper is based on an ethnographic study in a medium-sized north Italian city conducted from 2004 to 2008, starting in a public hospital Allergy Unit, and then developing through snowball recruitment and referral methods. Interviews were conducted with 37 allergic people, four allergologists and four nurses. Allergic people's narratives constantly drew upon two main concepts: weakness and pollution. These are interpreted as sensorial dimensions expressing a conflicting relationship with the outside environment. It is argued that in times of marked individualism and social transformations, bodily states are of fundamental importance and the mobilisation of sensory concepts is an attempt to give order and meaning to a world that is perceived as constituted by threatening aspects, polluted and out of order.

  10. Fascinating mathematical people interviews and memoirs

    CERN Document Server

    Alexanderson, Gerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Fascinating Mathematical People is a collection of informal interviews and memoirs of sixteen prominent members of the mathematical community of the twentieth century, many still active. The candid portraits collected here demonstrate that while these men and women vary widely in terms of their backgrounds, life stories, and worldviews, they all share a deep and abiding sense of wonder about mathematics.

  11. Exercise: A Guide for People on Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guidelines are for people with end-stage renal disease who are otherwise healthy (in other words, who do not have heart problems). Choosing an Exercise The first step in getting started with cardiovascular exercise is choosing the activity(ies) that will ...

  12. Education for Older People in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  13. Frail Older People as Participants in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nancye M.; Wilson, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experience of interviewing frail older people in a research project investigating hip fracture risk factors. Specific methodological strategies to maximize participation and data quality and to facilitate the interview process related to participant inclusion criteria, initial approach, questionnaire format, and…

  14. TB Testing for People Living with HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, explains why it is important for people living with HIV to be tested for TB.  Created: 7/23/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  15. HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over Language: English ...

  16. Poor People's Income to Be Increased

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Duoduo

    2005-01-01

    @@ During the period of the 11 th FiveYear Program, Chinese govern ment will be inclined to take policies to realize a balanced economic growth, equalized opportunities and social justice so as to avoid that the poor people become extremely poor and the gap between poor and wealthy become larger, according to the analysts.

  17. Poor People's Income to Be Increased

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; Duoduo

    2005-01-01

      During the period of the 11 th FiveYear Program, Chinese govern ment will be inclined to take policies to realize a balanced economic growth, equalized opportunities and social justice so as to avoid that the poor people become extremely poor and the gap between poor and wealthy become larger, according to the analysts.……

  18. People Types & Tiger Stripes. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gordon D.

    This book presents one method for identifying mind-sets, learning styles, and motivation patterns, and using the patterns in planning instruction and other helping processes, with the objective of helping people find and use their strengths to ameliorate weaknesses. The approach presented is based on Carl Jung's ideas about psychological types, as…

  19. Why Beautiful People Are More Intelligent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kovar, Jody L.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical studies demonstrate that individuals perceive physically attractive others to be more intelligent than physically unattractive others. While most researchers dismiss this perception as a ''bias'' or ''stereotype,'' we contend that individuals have this perception because beautiful people indeed "are" more intelligent. The conclusion that…

  20. Sexting and Young People: Experts' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shelley; Sanci, Lena; Temple-Smith, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Young people's "sexting"--defined by the "Macquarie Dictionary Online" (2010) as the sending and receiving of sexually explicit images via mobile phones--has become a focus of much media reporting; however, research regarding the phenomenon is in its infancy. This paper reports on the first phase of a study to understand this activity more…

  1. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  2. Gas Well Blowout Kills 243 People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ At least 243 people have been killed and scores of others poisoned in a devastating blowout at a natural gas field in Southwest China's Chongqing municipality on December 24. The accident happened at the Chuandongbei gas field in Kaixian county of Chongqing municipality.

  3. New Perspectives on People and Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    proposes that a better understanding of the bond between people and forests as integrated part of a landscape may be helpful in landscape planning, and may contribute to the discussion of changes in forest cover which has been motivated by land use changes, rural development and the global climate debate...

  4. People act normal until they start organizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Daan; Thölke, J.M.; Wetzels, RA.E.; Stroes, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    People and their relations are the hart of success of every organization. Although there are no studies that directly relate company success to the happiness of the workforce, it is common sense that communities which are over longer periods working under tension are most likely to be less productiv

  5. Young People and Migration from Contemporary Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Young Polish migrants to the UK are often portrayed as being highly educated and mobile: willing nomads who are privileged to be able to take advantage of new opportunities for travel and work abroad offered by European Union membership. However, there are also less well-educated young people who adopt migration as a livelihood strategy in…

  6. Game Theory, People Power and Philippine Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Chua, Queena N.

    2000-01-01

    Delineates two illustrative game-theoretic applications to Philippine politics: (1) People Power Revolution in the mid-1980s and (2) conflict over Spratly Islands in the mid-1990s. Uses zero-sum games to model these two events, and elementary matrix theory to determine pure strategies and locate equilibrium points. Includes recommendations for…

  7. Formal care for elderly people in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synak, B

    1989-04-01

    This paper starts by giving some brief information about the institutional care system for the elderly in Poland. The supportive network for old people is identified as being firmly based on that of the family. Social services are particularly directed to those without children and close relatives. There are many economic and socio-cultural reasons for raising the importance of institutional help - e.g. the growth of female professional activity, migration processes, the disintegration of the multi-generational family. The family contacts with old persons staying in hospitals and in nursing homes are described and the attitudes of the elderly towards institutional care are discussed in this paper. Presently old people expect financial help mainly from the state but care and help in everyday contingencies from their family (e.g. in case of illness, only 2% of old people would like to be cared for by nurses). This paper also shows some reasons for differentiating the attitudes and generational expectations. The family responsibility for elderly people reflects on the one hand the attitudes and systems of values of both the generations and shortage of institutional services on the other. Examples relating to some of the issues discussed are given in this paper.

  8. Leading and Managing People in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Tony; Middlewood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since it was first published in 1997, there have been many changes in education and, specifically, in the leadership and management of people. These changes include new research and literature, and developments in policy and practice in many countries. This new volume gives much more attention to international research and practice, as educational…

  9. Volunteering Among Young People. CIRCLE Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Volunteering rates among young people are generally higher than they are among adults 26 and older. However, measuring volunteer rates among all adults is a difficult task. In recent years, efforts at measuring volunteering have produced widely different estimates, largely because of the methods employed to measure volunteering. For example, the…

  10. Distance Education for People with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakou, Maria; Manousou, Evaggelia

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the standards of higher Distance Education, focusing on the Hellenic Open University, for people who have visual impairments, so that it becomes fully accessible and thus helps reduce social exclusion. Specifically, it aims to study the operational context of Distance Education, the possibilities that modern technology provides…

  11. Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

  12. Seri Dictionary: People and Kinship Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Mary B.; Marlett, Stephen A.

    A subset of a Seri-English bilingual dictionary (in preparation) is presented that includes terms referring to people, kinship terms, and verbs closely related to them. This version includes an English-to-Seri dictionary with 61 basic terms and variants, and a Seri dictionary with both Spanish and English glosses. It uses a practical orthography…

  13. Social Capital and Stratification of Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Behtoui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of social capital on the status attainment process of young people at the start of their careers and examines how social class, gender and ethnicity affect the accumulation of social capital and thereby labour market stratification of young people. A sample of young Swedes graduating from vocational schools and universities between 2005 and 2006, was surveyed via the telephone about their experiences acquiring jobs. Two research questions are posed: (i Which characteristics (class, gender and ethnicity affect young people's access to more social capital? (ii How is social capital rewarded in the labour market? The results show that being female, coming from the lower social classes and being a member of a stigmatized immigrant groupare associated with a substantial social capital deficit. When socioeconomic and demographic backgrounds as well as the human capital of respondents are controlled, social capital is positively associated with salary level. The results indicate that social capital is a significant factor in the stratification process of young people.

  14. Cooling water contamination - the people issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spowart, G. [Loy Yang Power, Taralgon, Vic. (Australia)

    2000-06-01

    This paper looks at the people management issues surrounding the discovery of potentially lethal organisms on an industrial site. While the discussion relates to Legionella and Naegleria fowleri at Loy Yang Power, the concepts could equally be applied to other situations where a health and safety issue may have industrial relations consequences. (orig.)

  15. A Year's Turning: Young People Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, I. V., Ed.

    This book is an anthology of unedited verse and prose written by 14- and 15-year-old students. The book is intended for teachers in training, for their tutors, and for all teachers of English. The verses are classified as undirected and directed poems about nature, places, war, the Egyptian Tomb, up and back again, and people. The prose is…

  16. New Perspectives on People and Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this book is to elucidate the role of forests as part of a landscape in the life of people. Most landscapes today are cultural landscapes that are influenced by human activity and that in turn have a profound effect on our understanding of and identification with a place. The book...

  17. Missing: Children and Young People with SEBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, John; Daniels, Harry; Macnab, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the issue of missing from and missing out on education. It argues that too little is known with regard to the characteristics of children and young people missing from schooling. It postulates that many of these pupils will have social, emotional and behavioural difficulties which are largely unrecognized and thus not…

  18. Clean People in a Clean World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Bathing is here treated as an exemplar of the widespread profligacy of prosperous people and of the continually expanding expectations for all on this overloaded planet. The author places cleanliness in a wider context, not merely of animals but of all living organisms. With this in mind, it is possible to consider, in a wider than usual manner,…

  19. When CERN goes out to meet people

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2014-01-01

    Giving lectures about high-energy physics and particle accelerators to the public is an activity that several people from CERN enjoy and pursue all around the globe. Sometimes, this happens on the moose and pony trails, as Pauline Gagnon recounts…   CERN is really a unique place and people want to hear more about what we do. With the internet, people are keeping abreast of the latest scientific developments and many crave the opportunity to meet scientists and find out more about what is going on at CERN. So do not hesitate to contact local colleges and astronomy clubs. Get yourself invited to talk about our research. Last autumn, I gave a series of public lectures all around the province of Québec (Canada) and in the Shetland Islands (Northern Scotland). Both tours took me to remote areas where I was amazed to see the public interest for lectures in physics. In Québec, one of my six stops was Chibougamau, a town of 7500 people (and probably as many moose) locat...

  20. Structural Connectivity Networks of Transgender People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Küblböck, Martin; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Although previous investigations of transsexual people have focused on regional brain alterations, evaluations on a network level, especially those structural in nature, are largely missing. Therefore, we investigated the structural connectome of 23 female-to-male (FtM) and 21 male-to-female (MtF) t

  1. The Right to Health of Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Britta; Bhushan, Anjana; Taleb, Hala Abou; Vasquez, Javier; Thomas, Rebekah

    2016-04-01

    A focus on the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (hereinafter, "the right to health") draws attention to the health needs of older people, including the most marginalized among them. Many factors that influence vulnerability or impede the enjoyment of health and access to quality services result from an inability to freely exercise these human rights. A human rights approach can help to address the legal, social, and structural barriers to good health for older persons, clarifying the legal obligations of State and non-State actors to uphold and respect these rights. However, despite growing impetus for action, this area has historically received limited attention. Drawing on practice examples from different regions, this article unpacks the meaning of the right to health and other related human rights of older people in practice, covering both health care and underlying determinants of their health. Questions of availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality are highlighted from the perspective of older people's health and well-being. The article brings together knowledge, principles, norms, and standards from the human rights law, health, and ageing arenas. By making links between these arenas, it is hoped that the article fills a gap in thinking on how to achieve the progressive realization of the right to health of older people and the effective promotion and protection of their other related human rights, which are crucial for the enjoyment of health.

  2. Critical Caring for People and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindel, Alexandra; Tolbert, Sara

    2017-01-01

    What role does caring play in environmental education? The development of caring relationships in formal school settings remains a foundational yet underexamined concept in environmental education research. This study examines the role of caring relationships between people and place in an urban high school in the United States. We draw upon…

  3. Seeing for People Who Are Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) and how it can help people who are visually challenged use their sense of sight. Suggests uses in higher education where it can be modified to individual needs; explains the language of seeing; discusses the use of virtual reality to create spatial animation; and outlines future developments. (LRW)

  4. STEM: Not for People Like Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Averil

    2016-01-01

    The UK needs more well-qualified people to enter engineering in order to maintain and develop its economy. It appears that engineering it still seen by many as the preserve of the white male. This article looks at possible reasons (often based on established prejudice among students and their families and peer groups) why, in particular, members…

  5. Delirium and older people: repositioning nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Stephen

    2006-06-01

    Aims.  To critically examine the nursing care offered to older people who have been delirious. Background.  Delirium occurs as a result of physiological imbalances resulting in an alteration in consciousness and cognitive impairment. Delirium is a prevalent and serious cognitive disorder experienced by older people. While there is a vast number of studies published utilizing quantitative methods, there remains a dearth of research relating to delirium in older people from a qualitative perspective. Design.  A qualitative research design that utilized a critical gerontological framework underpinned this study. This framework drew on aspects of postmodernism and Foucault's understanding of discourse. Methods.  Data sources included published documents on delirium, semi-structured taped interviews with people over the age of 65 years who had been delirious (as well as their clinical notes), family members, Registered Nurses and a hospital doctor. A postmodern discourse analytic approach was used to interrogate the 20 sets of data collected. Findings.  Textual analysis revealed the presence of two major discourses impacting on being an older person with delirium. These were identified as a nursing discourse of delirium and a personal discourse of delirium. A nursing discourse of delirium was largely focussed on the biomedical processes that resulted in a delirious episode. Conversely, a personal discourse of delirium highlights that there are other ways of 'knowing' about delirium through considering the narratives of older adults, and their families, when offering a nursing service to this group of people. Relevance to clinical practice.  Nursing needs to critically examine all aspects of nursing care as it applies to older people who have delirium to ensure the rhetorical claims of the profession become the reality for consumers of health services. The use of critical gerontology provides nurses with the tools to challenge the status quo and uncover the

  6. Cosmic rays and other space weather effects influenced on satellite operation, technologies, biosphere and people health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Satellite anomalies (or malfunctions), including total distortion of electronics and loose of some satellites cost for Insurance Companies billions dollars per year. During especially active periods the probability of big satellite anomalies and their loosing increased very much. Now, when a great number of civil and military satellites are continuously worked for our practice life, the problem of satellite anomalies became very important. Many years ago about half of satellite anomalies were caused by technical reasons (for example, for Russian satellites Kosmos), but with time with increasing of production quality, this part became smaller and smaller. The other part, which now is dominated, caused by different space weather effects (energetic particles of CR and generated/trapped in the magnetosphere, and so on). We consider only satellite anomalies not caused by technical reasons: the total number of such anomalies about 6000 events, and separately for high and low altitude orbit satellites (5000 and about 800 events, correspondingly for high and low altitude satellites). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and solar proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (car accidents (possible through people factor), increasing frequency of malfunctions in railway operation (possible, through induction currents), catastrophes in long-distance electric power lines and transformators, and in other ground technologies.

  7. Nostalgia and Sentimentality Among Minority Elderly People (Bulgarian Roma People and Hungarians Living in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nostalgia and sentimentality are very typical for the old age. There are some characteristics that are perceived as typical for the elderly people in the different cultures, such as being dependent, and needing long-term care. There are also some similarities between the population tendencies in Bulgaria and Romania. The simultaneously acceptance in European Union of both countries also suggests the existence of some similar attitudes towards the past among elderly minority people in both countries. The hypothesis of the study was that together with some similarities, the elderly people from both ethnic minorities in the two countries would differ cross-culturally in their sentimentality and nostalgia related to the past. Sentimentality and nostalgia in elderly minority people (26 Roma people in Bulgaria and 21 Hungarians in Romania were measured by means of a questionnaire created by Gergov & Stoyanova (2013. The results indicated that the Hungarian minority in Romania was more sentimental and nostalgic than the Roma minority in Bulgaria. More thoughts about the past reported the minority young elders than the minority oldest old. The females from the minority groups were more sentimental than the males from the minority groups. Higher sentimentality and nostalgia among elderly Hungarians could be explained by their higher conservatism and more satisfaction with the hystorical past than Roma people. Roma people living in institutions felt a sense of stability in their present and they shared some positive expectations for the future.

  8. Rehabilitacija ljudi po amputaciji: Rehabilitation of people after amputation: Rehabilitation of people after amputation:

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the level of the evidence that exists in the literature on rehabilitation of people after lower and upper limb amputation. We found that there is not much high-quality evidence available in this field of rehabilitation.

  9. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like); Carnet de commandes au 31 decembre 2007: 39,8 milliards d'euros, en progression de 55% par rapport a fin 2006. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2007: 11,9 milliards d'euros, en progression de 9,8% (+10,4% en donnees comparables)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End

  10. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Dunai Dunai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  11. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-20

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  12. Corporeality in the communication of young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornélia Jakubíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study describes communication of young people with the emphasis on its content dedicated to corporeality and determines a content-based classification of topics from a normative perspective: what topics are regular, intimate, or tabooed; participants; and gender differences. The study is divided into parts, which thematically describe: starting points, research, sample; communication content and topics; participants in communication; gender differences; factors of communication and the language of communication. The study is elaborated on the basis of information coming from professional literature and field research conducted by semi-structured interviews with university students and university educated people – 15 women and 15 men in age 22–28 (year of birth 1987–1993 coming from an urban environment in Slovakia.

  13. Increased mortality among people with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. AIMS......: To assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. METHOD: We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years....... The risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28-1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20-2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had...

  14. Staging casual conversations for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Zaneta; Müller, Nicole

    2014-11-01

    Social isolation is a key concern for individuals with dementia in long-term care. A possible solution is to promote social interaction between residents. A first step toward facilitating positive relationships between residents with dementia is to understand the mechanisms behind their interactions with each other, and also how their relationships with each other are built through such interactions. Drawing on casual conversations between residents in a special care unit for dementia, this paper uses systemic functional linguistics to examine how people with dementia use language to enact and construct their role-relations with each other. Results suggest people with dementia are able and willing conversationalists. However, factors such as the extent of communication breakdown and compatibility of the interlocutors may influence whether positive relations develop or not. Casual conversation is suggested to be a promising activity to encourage positive interpersonal processes between individuals with dementia in residential care.

  15. Young people's participation in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    regarding physical activity. 469 students participated in the survey. It is carried out through the online program SurveyXact. The data is processed in SPSS, and subsequently discussed. The primary results reveal that spare time jobs have a large impact on young people’s participation in physical activity......; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... of young people today. This means that participation in physical activity cannot be discussed independently, but must always be viewed within the context of the lives of young people today....

  16. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively. PMID:28117703

  17. Understanding and managing medication in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Dagan O; Baker, Emma H

    2013-10-01

    Ageing alters drug handling by the body (pharmacokinetics) and response to medications (pharmacodynamics). Multiple comorbidities increase the risk of adverse drug reactions and medication burden, with increased potential for drug interactions. Elderly people are seldom included in clinical trials, so underestimation of benefits and overestimation of risk may lead to under-treatment. Cognitive and functional changes associated with ageing may make it difficult for elderly people to adhere to treatment regimens. In this review, we consider these issues, with particular reference to drugs prescribed for gynaecology patients (the 'gynaecology formulary'). It will focus on key areas of gynaecological practice, including prescribing anticholinergic drugs, hormone treatments and anticancer drugs, and perioperative issues relating to anaesthesia, analgesia and anticoagulation. Implications of common comorbidities, including osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, for prescribing in gynaecological patients will also be considered.

  18. Behavioral finance: Finance with normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Statman

    2014-06-01

    Behavioral finance substitutes normal people for the rational people in standard finance. It substitutes behavioral portfolio theory for mean-variance portfolio theory, and behavioral asset pricing model for the CAPM and other models where expected returns are determined only by risk. Behavioral finance also distinguishes rational markets from hard-to-beat markets in the discussion of efficient markets, a distinction that is often blurred in standard finance, and it examines why so many investors believe that it is easy to beat the market. Moreover, behavioral finance expands the domain of finance beyond portfolios, asset pricing, and market efficiency and is set to continue that expansion while adhering to the scientific rigor introduced by standard finance.

  19. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  20. Sexuality among People with Physical Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgul Elbozan Cumurcu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical disability is termed as disturbance or defect which impede or eliminate human body’s ability by disturbing human structure and shape. Physical disability may occur due to neonatal, natal or postnatal causes. People with physical disability have some natural needs as everyone. They are known to have difficulties in many areas of life. In society, sexual lives of these individuals are treated as an unknown and ignored issue, and moreover it has been assumed that they have no such needs. Disabled patients experience many troubles in their life domains including sexuality. This article provides information about physical disability and sexuality, and difficulties with which disabled people faces in their sexual life and overviews literature on this topic.

  1. Sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Braga Rodrigues Cardoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the experience of sexuality and other everyday life aspects for people with intestinal ostomy. Methods: qualitative, descriptive study with ten participants of the Specialized Reference Unit who gave interviews with inductive content analysis. Results: the established themes were Physical, emotional and socio-cultural changes, Changes in the exercise of sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy and Importance of the interdisciplinary support of the new sexuality. These changes are linked to body image, the self-esteem and interpersonal relationships with the partner, family and friends, going beyond the visible with the emergence of fear, rejection, difficulty with new relationships, body shame, embarrassment by the collector equipment, fear of the sexual act causes damage to the stoma and difficult to talk about the condition. Conclusion: the ostomy condition requires adaptation process, requiring trained interdisciplinary team in physiological and psychosocial problems resulting from surgical and therapeutic adjuvant treatment, which hinder the sexuality of these individuals.

  2. Improving the oral health of older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    changing burden of chronic diseases in old age. Chronic disease and most oral diseases share common risk factors. Globally, poor oral health amongst older people has been particularly evident in high levels of tooth loss, dental caries experience, and the prevalence rates of periodontal disease, xerostomia...... and oral precancer/cancer. The negative impact of poor oral conditions on the quality of life of older adults is an important public health issue, which must be addressed by policy-makers. The means for strengthening oral health programme implementation are available; the major challenge is therefore...... to translate knowledge into action programmes for the oral health of older people. The World Health Organization recommends that countries adopt certain strategies for improving the oral health of the elderly. National health authorities should develop policies and measurable goals and targets for oral health...

  3. Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations Held in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>With the theme of "Opportunities and Challenges of China-ASEAN Friendly Cooperation", the Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations organized by the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association was held in Bangkok August 18 and 19. A delegation of China-ASEAN Association led by its president Gu Xiulian joined about 200 representatives from friendship-with-China organizations in 10 ASEAN countries.

  4. Priorities for children and young people - opportunities and challenges for children and young people's nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fiona

    2016-05-09

    Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population.

  5. A Deployed People-to-People Recommender System in Online Dating

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Online dating is a prime application area for recommender systems, as users face an abundance of choice, must act on limited information, and are participating in a competitive matching market. This article reports on the successful deployment of a people-to-people recommender system on a large commercial online dating site. The deployment was the result of thorough evaluation and an online trial of a number of methods, including profile-based, collaborative filtering and hybrid algorithms. R...

  6. Pharmacological treatment of depression in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Stephen; Byrne, Andrew; Wattis, John

    2006-01-01

    In the light of recent National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Committee for the Safety of Medicines (CSM) guidance we discuss the importance of the diagnosis of depression in old age and review pharmacological interventions. An introductory section is followed by sections on each of the main antidepressant groups. This briefly describes their pharmacology and reviews research done specifically relevant to older people. Finally practical clinical applications are discussed.

  7. Structural Connectivity Networks of Transgender People

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Küblböck, Martin; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Although previous investigations of transsexual people have focused on regional brain alterations, evaluations on a network level, especially those structural in nature, are largely missing. Therefore, we investigated the structural connectome of 23 female-to-male (FtM) and 21 male-to-female (MtF) transgender patients before hormone therapy as compared with 25 female and 25 male healthy controls. Graph theoretical analysis of whole-brain probabilistic tractography networks (adjusted for diffe...

  8. Structural Connectivity Networks of Transgender People

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Küblböck, Martin; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    Although previous investigations of transsexual people have focused on regional brain alterations, evaluations on a network level, especially those structural in nature, are largely missing. Therefore, we investigated the structural connectome of 23 female-to-male (FtM) and 21 male-to-female (MtF) transgender patients before hormone therapy as compared with 25 female and 25 male healthy controls. Graph theoretical analysis of whole-brain probabilistic tractography networks (adjusted for diffe...

  9. Therapeutic Architecture: Housing for People with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Elizabeth Ann

    2005-01-01

    An environment strongly influences the behavior of individuals with dementia. A well designed physical environment can maintain and enhance the ability to function and improve quality of life. My thesis uses a residential environment for people suffering from dementia as the basis for therapeutic intervention. Understanding the physical and psychological effects of architecture on a person with dementia is an important tool in slowing the progression and effects of the disease. The compet...

  10. Public Gains: A stadium for the people

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaskiw, Joseph Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The stadium, in its purest form, is a structure that holds tiered seating arrangements built for mass viewing of sports, competitions, and public events. However, over the years, it has become much more than that. The stadium provides the spiritual need of community, allowing individuals to connect to others by sharing common beliefs and goals. This allows the stadium to become a source of civic pride to the people it serves. This combination of purpose and pride makes the stadium one o...

  11. Young people's anticipation regarding education and job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Tilde Mette; Lundby, Astrid Arbjerg

    struggle in the decision making process because they see educational and vocational choices as definitive and therefore are afraid to take a ‘wrong’ turn. They seem to think of their educational pathway as linear with no room for detours. This can appear paradoxical on a labour market described as both...... of the reason why young people choose gymnasium instead of vocational education. In the paper we discuss the foundation we outline of young people’s anticipation regarding education and job....

  12. The People's Show: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Francis

    1996-01-01

    The 1990s heralded a new form of museum exhibition: "The People's Show." A light-hearted celebration of popular culture, the concept has had phenomenal success throughout the United Kingdom. Beneath the humour, however, are more complex and radical agendas relating to cultural rights. The paper explores the issues associated with the rise and possible wane of this museum-based popular cultural phenomenon.

  13. Empowering our young people out of gangs

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sudirman

    2013-01-01

    We have recently witnessed violent acts by numerous members of motorcycle gangs in several big cities in Indonesia such as Bandung, Pekanbaru and Makassar. They have been involved in aggressive behavior, including vandalism, rape and assaults. Frequently, they display this violence publicly and inevitably cause fear and panic among ordinary people. The media widely report these destructive acts and this inevitably triggers public debate and raises important questions as to who these youn...

  14. Art therapy for people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Terlević, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The first part of my thesis presents theoretical introduction where I introduce art therapy. There are introduced the basic aims, purposes, members included in the process, phases of the process, forms of execution and interpretation of the art product. The theoretical part also contain the presentation of people with intellectual disability, classification and causes of intellectual disabilities. The aim of this thesis was to establish the influence of art therapy on persons with intellectu...

  15. Illness narratives of people who are homeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Håkanson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony. The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.

  16. Charity Work of People Sentenced to Imprisonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Sokołowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current socio-economic situation of the country, it is difficult to provide work for all citizens, and especially those who have fallen in conflict with the law. In terms of social interest, convicted people are placed last in the hierarchy of people needing work. Therefore, it is necessary to remind the significance and place of work in social rehabilitation interactions towards convicted persons. An alternative to the lack of employment in the penitentiary system may be charity work, the importance and value of which is so marginalized in supplementing social rehabilitation interactions. The impact of charity work is multifaceted, because it concerns not only convicted persons, but dependent mainly on the social factor. Society also needs humanization in order to understand the process of social rehabilitation of socially maladjusted people, and above all, should be included in it. The social rehabilitation of convicted persons outside the prison depends first of all on the involvement of the penitentiary institutions themselves in cooperation with the local community

  17. FUTURO REMOTO 2015: researchers meet people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Maddalena; Fedele, Alessandro; Esposito, Roberta; Torello, Vincenzo; Nave, Rosella; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Russo, Massimo; Alessio, Giuliana; Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Belviso, Pasquale; Carandente, Antonio; De Cesare, Walter; Sansivero, Fabio; Siniscalchi, Valeria; Borgstrom, Sven; Milano, Girolamo; Pasquale Ricciardi, Giovanni; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    As participant of the 29th Edition of the cultural initiative "Futuro Remoto 2015", the INGV section of Naples Osservatorio Vesuviano has realized a temporary exhibition aimed to build bridges between the scientific community and the public. The event, a festival of art, culture, science and technology, has taken place on October 15th - 19th 2015, in Naples, Italy, in the city center, and was organized by "Città della Scienza", the science center of the city of Naples, belonging to the ECSITE netwok.. The total number of visitors was about 130.000 people. It was a free and open access event, funded by public institutions. Sharing their scientific expertise with the public, in the "Terra" ("Earth") stand the INGV-OV researchers have shown, with interactive labs, how progress in technology and research develope and allow a better understanding of the dynamic processes and of the evolution of our planet. Popularizing science, when widely accessible to the people, make the knowledge not remaining confined to an elite, being efficiently spread in society, with deep implications in the social role of researchers. Practical activities and labs, dialogues and interaction with researchers of INGV-OV have allowed young and adult public, schools, students, experts or simply curious people to deepen burning issues in an area exposed to high seismic and volcanic risk.

  18. The experience of people with oculocutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmuso B.J. Pooe- Monyemore

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the experiences of people with oculocutaneous albinism in South Africa. Oculocutaneous albinism is an inherited disorder characterised by the defective production of melanin, with little or no pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes. This condition is found globally, with a high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and in clusters in South America. People with this condition are often stigmatised and discriminated against owing to myths and superstitions held by the public about the condition. To date no studies have explored the psychosocial aspects of oculocutaneous albinism. A qualitative study was conducted in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2007 where a purposive sample of 15 members of the black population with oculocutaneous albinism participated in in-depth individualphenomenological interviews. One central question was posed to facilitate the interviews: Could you please share your experience as a person with albinism? Data from the interviews were analysed using Collaizi’s qualitative data analysis method and three main themesemerged: (1 perceptions of the internal environment, for example the self; (2 experiences in the external environment, for example family and community; and (3 the need for selfdevelopment and growth based on their experiences. Recommendations are made to enhance the self-concept of and promote a sense of belonging, self-development and growth in people with oculocutaneous albinism.

  19. Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Pritchard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that disabled teachers are in such short supply as to be invisible even amongst minority teachers from already vastly marginalised populations. This is not simply because discriminatory practices are embedded within employment policies of educational systems, but deeply held socio-cultural attitudes also prevent disabled people accessing and attaining basic and later, higher levels of academic achievement. The central argument here is a simple one; disabled people as teachers offer a unique knowledge standpoint, challenge the animosity of dominant cultural beliefs around disability as analogous with passivity or non-achieving, and provide a source of resistance, solace and resolution for students they teach. Disabled people as educators enact exemplary pedagogic justice and socially inclusive practice. The aim of this paper is to explore the benefits to students and places of higher education alike of embracing both the person and the role of the teacher with disability as culturally relevant educators. Keywords: minority teachers, marginality, disability, cultural relevance, higher education

  20. From CERN people to the world

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Created by filmmaker Liz Mermin, a new YouTube series puts the spotlight on CERN people. This set of short films offers new insight into the daily lives of CERN physicists.   The new online video series, CERN people, takes you behind the headlines of some of the biggest physics breakthroughs of our time, capturing the invention and discovery in the lives of CERN’s scientists. “CERN offered a fascinating blend of people from so many different backgrounds combined with exciting and groundbreaking physics,” says filmmaker Liz Mermin. “So, my aim was to show the real-life characters – the ones that stay up all night analysing data and tweaking the code for the experiments – and communicate their passion for particle physics.” The films give a first-hand experience of what it’s like day-to-day at CERN by showing the ups and downs of working at the frontier of modern science. For the participants, it was an excellent opport...

  1. Do People “Pop Out”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Katja M.; Vuong, Quoc C.; Thornton, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    The human body is a highly familiar and socially very important object. Does this mean that the human body has a special status with respect to visual attention? In the current paper we tested whether people in natural scenes attract attention and “pop out” or, alternatively, are at least searched for more efficiently than targets of another category (machines). Observers in our study searched a visual array for dynamic or static scenes containing humans amidst scenes containing machines and vice versa. The arrays consisted of 2, 4, 6 or 8 scenes arranged in a circular array, with targets being present or absent. Search times increased with set size for dynamic and static human and machine targets, arguing against pop out. However, search for human targets was more efficient than for machine targets as indicated by shallower search slopes for human targets. Eye tracking further revealed that observers made more first fixations to human than to machine targets and that their on-target fixation durations were shorter for human compared to machine targets. In summary, our results suggest that searching for people in natural scenes is more efficient than searching for other categories even though people do not pop out. PMID:26441221

  2. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter.

  3. Climate Change: A Future of Less Water and More people - Strategies for a Water Constrained World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahai, D.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the fact that the Earth is warming is indisputable. The evidence of climate change is already all around us, with the occurence of ever more intense weather events, droughts, heat waves, floods and sea level rise. Predictions of greater calamities in the future without swift action must be taken seriously. However, while international summits have focused on means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these are largely strategies of containment, not of cure. Even if emissions were to cease today, the current effects of climate change would remain with us for millenia. This is clear from the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The world must not only tackle the causes of global warming; it must adapt to the damage already done. This need is most acute where water supply is concerned. The world already faces daunting chalenges. According to United Nations' reports, even today 1.8 million children under 5 die from water related diseases every year; 900 million people lack access to safe drinking water; and 2.6 billion go without basic sanitation. In the developing world, 90% of sewage is discharged to water bodies without adequate treatment contributing to "dead zones". Population increases will make matters worse (an addition of around 3 billion people by 2050 is expected) and climate change will compound the crisis. It is forecast that, as the Earth warms, deserts will expand and droughts will intensify causing demographic shifts even as the world's population burgeons. We are already seeing different regions react to water shortages. Many countries are pursuing seawater desalination. However, seawater desalination has numerous drawbacks; it remains the most expensive of water treatment options and the most energy intensive. Some societies may have no choice but to turn to the sea; others should look to other alternatives first. Such frontrunners could include: (1) enhanced conservation, utilizing public education programs, price

  4. Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F; Ono, Shuhei

    2006-01-01

    Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2 Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55–85 °C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9 Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3–2.4 Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 or CH4, or both. Solar luminosity was 20–25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O2 at approximately 2.4 Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH4, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis. PMID:16754607

  5. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    guides readers through the various lines of scientific evidence, considers some of the wrong turns and dead ends along the way, and highlights the scientists and researchers who have made key discoveries in the field. Showing how Earth's atmosphere developed over time, Oxygen takes readers...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...

  6. Government promises billions for highways / Steven Paulikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulikas, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Läti transpordiministeerium avaldas riigi teedevõrgu arengukava järgmiseks 25 aastaks, mille kohaselt investeeritakse maanteede ja raudteede ehitusse kuni 18 miljardit litti. Leedu transpordiettevõtjate hinnangul ei ole uued suuremahulised projektid majandusarengu seisukohalt vajalikud

  7. The Comparison between Conceived Stress and Personality traits, in People Suffering from Migraine and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Peymannia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Migraine is a common familial disease and is diagnosed with recurring throbbing headache. Investigation of biological and psychological factors in the initiation and aggravation of migraine headaches have shown that there is a relationship between the psychological factors, personality, and migraine headache. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the conceived stress and Personality traits between ill persons suffering from Migraine and healthy people. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which involves a sample including 30 migrainours and 30 healthy people. The migraine-suffering participants were chosen among the people who referred to specialized clinic of migraine in Ardabil in the first half of 2012. The study participants filled the Eysenck's personality questionnaire and Kohen' s Perceived stress scale. Descriptive statistics as well as MANOVA were utilized to analyze the research data. Results: The results showed that migraine-suffering participants conceived the stress negatively (P<0.01, F=11 compared to healthy participants. Moreover, migrainours scored significantly higher in regard to Neuroticism score compared to healthy people (P<0.05, F=5.91. Also, there was a significant difference between migrainours and healthy people in their extroversion score (P<0.05, F=6.57. Conclusion: According to the study findings, it appears that migraine patients are more vulnerable to the neurotic disease. Therefore, considering the psychological and personality characteristics may impact on the prognosis of disease.

  8. How do people live in the Anthropocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Libby

    2016-04-01

    While geologists have focused their efforts on which changes in the strata might constitute a functional shift out of the present epoch, environmental humanities scholars, museums and creative artists have taken up the Anthropocene as a concept raising new moral and practical dilemmas. A central concern is with how people adapt and live creatively in a world that is functioning beyond the physical planetary boundaries defined by the Holocene. This paper will provide an overview of the lively scholarly and popular debates on the question of what it means, ethically, to be human in an Age of Humans. Major questions include the question of who are 'we' in the Anthropocene, and how the conditions of the putative new epoch will affect 'more-than-human-others'. Creative and justice activist responses to the Anthropocene typically distinguish among humans, focusing not on the causes, but rather on concerns of the people on the receiving end of global change (for example, the Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) group of 39+8). Some are concerned about the collateral effects of technological 'fixes' for energy transformations and climate, and others about economic shifts and market-based incentives. As a historian of ideas, I explore the multiple paths by which people have come to the Anthropocene concept, and the uses to which it has already been put, even before a final decision is made on its formal status. The Anthropocene already arouses anxiety about 'the future'. One big idea that is shared across activists and scholars (and not just those in the humanities) is the question of enabling hopeful responses. A diversity of creative projects for living in the Anthropocene, which can contribute to coping with the stress of accelerating global change, is essential to this.

  9. Revealing myths about people, energy and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.; Moezzi, M.

    2000-05-01

    In this essay we take a closer look at some energy myths, focusing on the ways energy professionals and the public alike, talk, write and teach about how energy affects the way in which we design, operate, retrofit and inhabit buildings. What myths about people, energy and buildings are current today? Who tells these myths and why do we believe them? How do myths affect our behavior? Myths are a way of understanding the world we live in. They may represent incomplete understanding, or be based on premises that are scientifically not valid, but they help us understand and explain how the world works, and we shape our behavior accordingly.

  10. Managing agitated behaviour in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Camille

    2012-09-01

    Older people diagnosed with dementia can have complex needs, especially when they exhibit agitated behaviour. Patients with agitated behaviour challenge the delivery of health care. Often the behaviour is a symptom of unmet needs in this population (Dewing 2010). It is important for nurses to understand the underlying causes and apply evidence-based interventions in their nursing practice to promote health, safety and the highest quality of life possible. This article defines and classifies agitated behaviours, discusses implications for their management and then presents evidence-based interventions nurses can use. The interventions are categorised according to each of the five senses.

  11. Young people, drinking and social class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    that in order to fully understand differences in the drinking and partying practices of young people, such practices must be related to the youngsters' general life and values, especially aspects such as rule-setting and school culture. Moreover, such practices including drinking attitudes are used by young...... of self-realisation, mostly seems to be a mainstream practice. For mainstream breakers unbounded intoxication practices can be observed and analysed as part of a counterculture. The study draws on five months of fieldwork and 24 qualitative focus-group interviews with pupils attending ninth grade (14...

  12. Heart diseases and strokes in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the relevance of the problem associated with the diagnosis and treatment of stroke in young patients aged 15-45 years. It considers the major causes of acute cerebrovascular accidents in young people, including pregnant women. Diseases, such patent foramen ovale, mitral valve prolapse, infective endocarditis, and postpartum cardiomyopathy, are described in detail. The basic principles of the diagnosis and therapy of ischemic stroke at a young age are given. The mainstay of therapy for acute ischemic stroke is stated to include two procedures: reperfusion and neuronal protection.

  13. Social position and young people's health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian; Morrow, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    to Coleman and Putnam. In this theoretical article, we will unpack Bourdieu's use of social capital, and will suggest that his general sociology has different questions, concepts and perspectives to the questions addressed in the work of Coleman and Putnam. Social capital in the work of Bourdieu needs......, and as such needs to elaborate political constructions of the object. Our starting point for this paper arises from our experiences of empirical social research with young people in Denmark and England that attempted to explore ‘social capital' in relation to health....

  14. RFID Makes Common People an Uncommon Store

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark; Roberti

    2010-01-01

    The Mexican retailer is using RFID to enhance the customer experience,and to provide supplierswith better inventory data. Dec.13,2010-Common People,an independent conceptstore that opened last month in Mexico City,is employing radiofrequency identification technology to enhance an already uncom-mon customer experience,as well as improve the management ofinventory."When we came up with the idea for a concept store,we knewwe wanted to bring in not just the most interesting products,but

  15. People Programmed to Sniff Out Cheaters: Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alison; McCook; 梁熙悦

    2002-01-01

    People appear to have an innate ability to determine when someone is cheatingthem out of a deal(交易;买卖),US researchers suggest。 【评析】全文的主题句,一句话就把全文的中心思想“拎”了出来。句中的动词determine的含义值得注意:to establish or ascertain(确定)definitely,as afterconsideration,investigation,or calculation/确定;在考虑、调查或计算之后,决定

  16. Automatic Estimation of Movement Statistics of People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    the notion that people need not be detected and tracked perfectly in order to derive useful movement statistics for a particular scene. Tracklets will suffice. To this end we build a tracking framework based on a HoG detector and an appearance-based particle filter. The detector is optimized by learning...... a scene model allowing for a speedup of the process together with a significantly reduced false positive rate. The developed system is applied in two different scenarios where it is shown that useful statistics can indeed be extracted....

  17. Simulating People Moving in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, M.; Bjørn, Erik; Sandberg, M.

    A displacement ventilation system works better the more uni-directional the air flow through the ventilated room is: from floor to ceiling. Thus, from an air quality point of view, there should be as little vertical mixing of the room air as possible. It is therefore comprehensible that physical...... activity in the room -like peoples movements -in previous studies has been shown to influence the effectiveness of the ventilation. In this study we have compared results from previous tests, where a cylindrical person simulator was used, to results obtained when using a person simulator of more human...

  18. Happy-People-Pills for All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    It is argued that we have a moral duty to create, and make available, advanced pharmacological agents to boost the happiness of those in the normal, i.e., the non-depressed, range of happiness. Happiness, conceived as a propensity to positive moods, is a quantitative trait with a sizeable genetic component. One means to boost the happiness of those in the normal range is to test the efficacy of antidepressants for enhancement. A second possibility is to model new pharmacologicals based on the genetics of the happiest amongst us, that is, the hyperthymic. The suggestion, in other words, is to “reverse engineer” the hyperthymic: to investigate what makes the hyperthymic genetically and physiologically different and then put what they have into pill form. To the ‘Brave New World’ objection, that there is more to wellbeing than happiness and that taking happy-people-pills will require the sacrifice of these other aspects of wellbeing, it is countered that contemporary social science research supports the view that happiness promotes achievement in the ‘higher’ endeavors of humanity, including work, love and virtue. In other words, happiness promotes acquisition of traits valued by perfectionists. Those born with genes for hyperthymia, on average, tend to be doubly blessed: they are happier and achieve more than the rest of the population. Happy-people-pills are a means to allow everyone else to share in this good

  19. Providing comfort and support to older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggle, Nick

    2012-10-01

    This article reports on a scheme run by Age UK at Hillingdon Hospital, Middlesex, to help support emergency department (ED) staff with the care of older people. The A&E support-worker team assists patients with non-clinical activities, such as going to the toilet, eating meals and finding out care-related information. The support-worker scheme has been running for nine years and its success has prompted Age UK to consider expanding it nationally. It comes at a time when there is a growing focus on the care Solder patients receive in hospitals.

  20. Effective computer training for people with disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Farbeh-Tabrizi

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of computer courses at Methodist City Action computer school for students with psychological and physical disabilities and discusses the motivation behind developing these courses and the original research and development which led to their establishment. It also outlines methods of delivery and the impact of these courses on the students\\' quality of life, independence, social inclusion, literacy, numeracy and employment status. This research was carried out by using available literature found from local libraries and Internet, interviews and classroom observations, and concludes that there is an apparent lack of participation in tertiary education from people with disabilities in New Zealand.

  1. Sunscreen Keeps People Out In Dangerous Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maggie; Fox; 陈鸣煜

    1999-01-01

    本文最吸引读者、最值得回味的是标题。其含义和主题句一致,彼此呼应。但是,标题更简洁、更精彩,它是一句具有拟人色彩的非人称主语句(ImpersonalSubject Sentence)。标题是否可译为:防晒露将人们置于“毒日”之下! 防晒霜的作用本来是 shield people from the sun’s burning rays。 然而,为什么 people who use sunscreen have higher rates of skin cancer andalso develop more moles(痣). which can become cancerous(致癌的)? 值得好好研究!原来,原因之一是防晒霜使用者的微妙的心理在起作用: …people feel a false sense of security when they use sunscreen. 另一个原因是:本来只能使用4次的一瓶防晒霜,不少人却使用了整整一个夏季。自然, 防晒霜就没有能够发挥其作用。为此,作者出语诙谐: Sunscreen should be something on your weekly or monthly grocery list. 文章的末句是: People should be warned to avoid the sun,period, and told sunscreen is foruse when they have to be out,she added. 其中出现的period不是名词,而是感叹词。它常用于美国口语,意思是:就是这么回事。用于叙述事实或看法后表示强调。另如: I could have prevented them,and I didn’t.Period. 我本可以拦住?

  2. Clinical Trials: Information and Options for People with Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Clinical Trials: Information and Options for People with Mood Disorders What are clinical trials? Clinical trials are research studies involving people, which ...

  3. Heart Disease Kicks in Earlier for Obese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164003.html Heart Disease Kicks in Earlier for Obese People Study found ... News) -- Overweight and obese people tend to develop heart disease at an earlier age, living with chronic illness ...

  4. Bilingual People May Have an Edge Against Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Bilingual People May Have an Edge Against Alzheimer's Study found they did better on memory tests ... more languages appear to weather the ravages of Alzheimer's disease better than people who have only mastered ...

  5. Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NHPP): Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (Summary) How did Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) occur in people treated with pituitary human growth hormone (hGH)? From 1963 to 1985, the National Hormone ...

  6. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  7. How Older People Can Head Off Dangerous Drug Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161150.html How Older People Can Head Off Dangerous Drug Interactions Taking multiple ... serious drug interactions are a daily threat to older people who take multiple medications and supplements, according to ...

  8. For People with Mental Health Woes, Pets Can Be Invaluable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162469.html For People With Mental Health Woes, Pets Can Be Invaluable 6 out of 10 patients ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Cats, dogs, birds and other pets can help people manage their mental disorders, a ...

  9. Accessible Article: Involving People with Learning Disabilities in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  10. Review of occupational therapy for people with chronic pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robinson, Katie

    2011-04-01

    Chronic pain is a significant health-care problem. This review aims to critically analyse occupational therapy services for people with chronic pain and identify significant factors influencing the future development of occupational therapy services for people with chronic pain.

  11. Mental health issues and discrimination among older LGBTI people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinney, Jean; Dow, Briony; Maude, Phillip; Purchase, Rachel; Whyte, Carolyn; Barrett, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    LGBT is an acronym used to describe people from diverse sexual orientation or gender identity, people that are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. LGBT people do not constitute a single group nor does each individual "group" constitute a homogeneous unity. However, as higher rates of depression and/or anxiety have been observed in older LGBT people, compared to their heterosexual counterparts (Guasp, 2011) there is a need to raise the profile of mental health issues amongst these groups. The additional letter I is also often included in the acronym LGBTI as intersex people are often included as another gender diverse group. However, there is very little research that includes intersex people and none on older intersex people's mental health so this editorial is restricted to consideration of older LGBT people.

  12. People-Oriented Jobs May Help Lower Alzheimer's Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160050.html People-Oriented Jobs May Help Lower Alzheimer's Risk Activities ... News) -- Brain-challenging jobs -- especially ones focused on people -- may help shield a person's mind against the ...

  13. Imaging Study Confirms Brain Differences in People with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Imaging Study Confirms Brain Differences in People With ADHD Attention-deficit/hyperactivity should be considered a brain ... Researchers who pinpointed brain differences in people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) say their findings show the condition should ...

  14. Are People With Whiplash-Associated Neck Pain Different from People With Nonspecific Neck Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anstey, Ricci; Kongsted, Alice; Kamper, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study with cross sectional and longitudinal analyses. Background The clinical importance of a history of whiplash associated disorder (WAD) in people with neck pain remains uncertain. Objective To compare people with WAD to people with non......-specific neck pain, in terms of their baseline characteristics, and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Methods Consecutive patients with neck pain presenting to a secondary care spine centre answered a comprehensive self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients were classified...... into either WAD or non-specific neck pain groups. We compared the outcomes of baseline characteristics of the 2 groups, as well as pain intensity and activity limitation at 6 and 12-month follow-up. Results 2578 participants were included in the study. Of these 488 (19%) were classified as having WAD...

  15. An FPGA-Based People Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Clark

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an FPGA-based system for detecting people from video. The system is designed to use JPEG-compressed frames from a network camera. Unlike previous approaches that use techniques such as background subtraction and motion detection, we use a machine-learning-based approach to train an accurate detector. We address the hardware design challenges involved in implementing such a detector, along with JPEG decompression, on an FPGA. We also present an algorithm that efficiently combines JPEG decompression with the detection process. This algorithm carries out the inverse DCT step of JPEG decompression only partially. Therefore, it is computationally more efficient and simpler to implement, and it takes up less space on the chip than the full inverse DCT algorithm. The system is demonstrated on an automated video surveillance application and the performance of both hardware and software implementations is analyzed. The results show that the system can detect people accurately at a rate of about 2.5 frames per second on a Virtex-II 2V1000 using a MicroBlaze processor running at 75 MHz, communicating with dedicated hardware over FSL links.

  16. New Vaccines for the World's Poorest People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The 2000 Millennium Development Goals helped stimulate the development of life-saving childhood vaccines for pneumococcal and rotavirus infections while greatly expanding coverage of existing vaccines. However, there remains an urgent need to develop new vaccines for HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, as well as for respiratory syncytial virus and those chronic and debilitating (mostly parasitic) infections known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The NTDs represent the most common diseases of people living in extreme poverty and are the subject of this review. The development of NTD vaccines, including those for hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, is being led by nonprofit product development partnerships (PDPs) working in consortia of academic and industrial partners, including vaccine manufacturers in developing countries. NTD vaccines face unique challenges with respect to their product development and manufacture, as well as their preclinical and clinical testing. We emphasize global efforts to accelerate the development of NTD vaccines and some of the hurdles to ensuring their availability to the world's poorest people.

  17. Different People, Different Views on Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yuanlun; He Nan

    2010-01-01

    History can be divided into various segments based on the various .developing stages. We call these segments eras. The era issue has been raised to discuss time and time again, which is often associated with the major transition of political system, economic system and ideology in world life, and sometimes also linked with a number of far-reaching historical events. In the recent 15-20 years, we have many important issues that prompt people to rethink of the era issues, like the East and West economic restructuring, the collapse of the former Soviet Union, the war in Iraq and the former Yugoslavia, the "9 -11" event and the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as all aspects of major global changes resulting from the process of globalization. It should be pointed out that in the West's political, academic and business circle, there are very few articles totally devoted to the clef'tuition of era; most of people only mention the word "era" or such kind of expression here and there in their political speeches or writings.

  18. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland.

  19. Infinite possibility: clowning with elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Selena Clare

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, there has been aplentitude of research into the health benefits of humor and laughter for healthy, sick, or depressed adults and children as well as for senior citizens. Medical research supports our human instinct that people who smile and laugh are happy, whereas those who are inexpressive are usually not happy. Research shows that humor stimulus results in mirth, which elicits a primarily emotional response with psychological efects, and laughter, which elicits a physical response with physiological effects. The many physiological benefits of laughter in older adults have been clearly demonstrated. Yet much of the medical research is based on experiments using funny videos and cartoons for humor sessions. I argue that "clowning around" with elderly people brings greater benefits than laughter alone. These benefits are clearly evident, though they may not be scientifically measurable: When the game is rooted in the patient's own imagination, thereby giving agency to a powerless individual it is many times more personal and transformative. In this article, I focus on my experiences with older adults while working with Clowns Without Borders and Risaterapia as well as on my own relationship with my grandfather. I provide a framework for why humanitarian clowning and the principles behind it can be incredibly well suited for working with the elderly.

  20. Do people with schizophrenia lack emotional intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sara; Kettler, Lisa; Burton, Cassandra; Galletly, Cherrie

    2012-01-01

    Social cognition is a domain of cognitive function that includes the ability to understand and manage social interactions. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been identified as a component of social cognition and is defined as the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions. Neurocognitive impairments are known to be associated with poorer social function in people with schizophrenia, but less is known about the relationships between EI, neurocognition, and social function. The current study assessed EI using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) in 20 people with schizophrenia and 20 controls. The schizophrenia group had significantly lower scores on all measures of EI and demonstrated poorer neurocognition and social functioning than controls. The difference between schizophrenia and control groups was greatest for the Understanding Emotions Branch of the MSCEIT. The neurocognition score and total EI score accounted for 18.3% of the variance in social function in the control group and 9.1% of the variance in social function in the schizophrenia group. Our results suggest that a total EI score is not a useful predictor of overall social function and it may be more clinically useful to develop an individual profile of social cognitive abilities, including EI, to form a remediation program.

  1. Do People with Schizophrenia Lack Emotional Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is a domain of cognitive function that includes the ability to understand and manage social interactions. Emotional intelligence (EI has been identified as a component of social cognition and is defined as the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions. Neurocognitive impairments are known to be associated with poorer social function in people with schizophrenia, but less is known about the relationships between EI, neurocognition, and social function. The current study assessed EI using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT in 20 people with schizophrenia and 20 controls. The schizophrenia group had significantly lower scores on all measures of EI and demonstrated poorer neurocognition and social functioning than controls. The difference between schizophrenia and control groups was greatest for the Understanding Emotions Branch of the MSCEIT. The neurocognition score and total EI score accounted for 18.3% of the variance in social function in the control group and 9.1% of the variance in social function in the schizophrenia group. Our results suggest that a total EI score is not a useful predictor of overall social function and it may be more clinically useful to develop an individual profile of social cognitive abilities, including EI, to form a remediation program.

  2. Blood-Borne Infections in Tattooed People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Shahri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Tattoos are associated with blood-borne infections that result from viruses such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV, the hepatitis C virus (HCV, and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. This association is equally evident among people without major risk factors and among those with major risk factors like injected drug users (IDUs. Objectives In this study we evaluated all tattooed patients admitted to our hospital (the Boo-Ali hospital in southeastern Iran between February 2006 to January 2015. Patients and Methods The patients enrolled in our study were admitted to infectious disease wards for different illnesses (e. g., Pneumonia, Sepsis, Tuberculosis, etc..We only studied the patients who agreed to be included in our study. When we found at least one tattooed area, regardless of its size, we took a blood sample and tested it for the presence of HIV, HBV, and HCV. Results Among the 63 patients with tattoos (21% female, 79% male, age range:16 to 79-years-old, four patients (6.3% tested positive for HBsAg and PCR-HBV, seven patients (11% tested positive for HCV, and five (7.9% tested positive for HIV. The last group consisted in IDUs and all five had several tattooed areas on their bodies. Conclusions Upon our results, tattooed people even with a small size of tattoo on the body are more at risk for HCV, HBV, and HIV infection.

  3. Obese people=Animals? Investigating the implicit “animalization” of obese people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating a dehumanization perspective with the literature on stereotyping of obesity, this paper investigated whether obese people are implicitly categorized as animals rather than humans. Sixty participants were asked to complete an Implicit Association Test in which they had to associate images of thin and obese faces with animal or human characteristics. As predicted, people were more likely to categorize images of obese faces as animal-like and this tendency was more acute amongst thinner participants. Implications of our results for future on research on dehumanization and negative stereotyping of obesity are discussed.

  4. Supportive Housing in Foster Care: The Views of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…

  5. Resisting Participation: Critiquing Participatory Research Methodologies with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Participatory methodologies are increasingly employed in research with young people. These practices stem from a desire to reduce problematic distributions of power in research and to construct knowledge with young people rather than for them. This paper examines research conducted with a small group of young people experiencing exclusion from…

  6. The interplay between gait and cognitive function in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van

    2007-01-01

    In the next 10 years the number of Dutch people aged 65 and over will increase with 650,000 to 3.0 million people. The prevalence of multiple and often interacting problems in elderly people is high and have many adverse effects on health and quality of life. However, most research and guidelines ar

  7. Financial situation of people living with HIV in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, W; Dreezen, C; Borleffs, J; Dijkgraaf, M; Borchert, M; De Graeve, D; Hemmer, R; Fleerackers, Y; Colebunders, R

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the financial situation of people living with HIV in Europe. Two surveys using an anonymous questionnaire were organized in Europe among people living with HIV, the first in 1996-97 and the second in 1998-99. One thousand one hundred and sixty-one people from the 199

  8. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.574 Support for the Cuban People. (a) Specific licenses....560(c) and other transactions that are intended to provide support for the Cuban people including,...

  9. Civic-Mindedness, Patriotism, and the Upbringing of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriliuk, V. V.; Malenkov, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of the position of "young people" as a subject of social partnership during the period of the transformation of Russian society can be characterized by the relationship of young people with work, politics, education, and the state. The authors surveys of young people during the 1990s in the Tiumen Region provide evidence of…

  10. Sixth Sense: The Disabled Children and Young People's Participation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    The Disabled Children and Young Peoples Participation Project (DCYPPP) was established by Barnardos (Northern Ireland) in 2002 to explore ways of involving children and young people with disabilities in decision-making processes within Children's Services Planning of the Health and Social Services Board. Over 200 young people have participated in…

  11. India's People, Country, and Great Religions: Two Instructional Learning Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Largo Ann

    Divided into two parts, this slide narration covers India's history, people, religions, geography, and architecture. The first part, "Introduction: Country, People, and History," covers the general history of India and its people. The history is presented through: (1) the architecture, including the Palace of Winds, the Amber Fort, the Taj Mahal,…

  12. The Activity of Older People at the Third Generation University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kruszewski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the needs of older people as well as manifestations of their activity. Third Generation Universities, which are being created around the world, make it possible to actualize the needs of older people. Through the example of the Society in Plotsk, the author examines the activity of older people attending a Third Generation University.

  13. Acceptability for French People of Physician-Assisted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frileux, Stephanie; Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz; Antonini, Sophie; Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul Clay

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to understand better how people judge the acceptability of physician-assisted suicide (PAS). We found that, for people in France of all ages and for elderly people with life-threatening illnesses, acceptability is an additive combination of the number of requests for PAS, the patient's age, the amount of physical suffering, and the…

  14. Exploring Young People's Beliefs and Images about Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. M.; Robinson, N. G.; Young, R. McD.; Anderson, P. J.; Hyde, M. K.; Greenbank, S.; Keane, J.; Rolfe, T.; Vardon, P.; Baskerville, D.

    2008-01-01

    To understand young people's low levels of sun protection behaviour, 145 young people (aged 12 to 20 years) were recruited from Queensland, to participate in a one-hour focus group where they discussed issues related to sun protection and images of tanned and non-tanned people. Responses were content analysed to identify common sun protection…

  15. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…

  16. NDRC Attaches Great Importance to National Development and People's Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NDRC President Ma Kai's Answer to the Reporters

    2007-01-01

    @@ Issues concerning national development and people's lives are always regarded as the most importance at the People's Congress. At this year's People's Congress, a series of issues, including GDP growth, investment of fixed assets, real estate prices, energy saving and reduction of polluting emission, energy consumption, etc., have attracted extensive attention.

  17. From Ambivalence to Activism: Young People's Environmental Views and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Do young people really take a particular interest in environmental issues, or are they apathetic? This paper considers what young people really think about the environment by drawing together and reviewing attitudinal polling and other research into young people's views. It seeks to challenge simplistic assumptions, and instead acknowledges the…

  18. Telerehabilitation for people with low vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing

    2016-01-01

    Background Low vision affects over 300 million people worldwide and can compromise both activities of daily living and quality of life. Rehabilitative training and vision assistive equipment (VAE) may help, but some visually impaired people have limited resources to attend in-person visits at rehabilitation clinics. These people may be able to overcome barriers to care through remote, Internet-based consultation (i.e., telerehabilitation). Objectives To compare the effects of telerehabilitation with face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) vision rehabilitation services for improving vision-related quality of life and reading speed in people with visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, abandonment rates for visual assistive equipment devices, and patient satisfaction ratings. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015 Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1980 to June 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2015), PubMed (1980 to June 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any language restriction or study design filter in the electronic searches; however, we restricted the searches from 1980 onwards because the Internet was not introduced to the public until 1982. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 June 2015. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in which participants were diagnosed with low vision and were undergoing low vision rehabilitation using an Internet, web-based technology compared with an approach based on in-person consultations. Data collection and analysis Two

  19. To reactivate or not to reactivate: nature and varied behavior of structural inheritance in the Proterozoic basement of the Eastern Colorado mineral belt over 1.7 billion years of earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan Saul; Ridley, John; Wessel, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    The eastern central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has long been a region of geologic interest because of Laramide-age hydrothermal polymetallic vein-related ores. The region is characterized by a well-exposed array of geologic structures associated with ductile and brittle deformation, which record crustal strain over 1.7 billion years of continental growth and evolution. The mineralized areas lie along a broad linear zone termed the Colorado Mineral Belt. This lineament has commonly been interpreted as following a fundamental boundary, such as a suture zone, in the North American Proterozoic crust that acted as a persistent zone of weakness localizing the emplacement of magmas and associated hydrothermal fluid flow. However, the details on the controls of the location, orientation, kinematics, density, permeability, and relative strength of various geological structures and their specific relationships to mineral deposit formation are not related to Proterozoic ancestry in a simple manner. The objectives of this field trip are to show key localities typical of the various types of structures present, show recently compiled and new data, offer alternative conceptual models, and foster dialogue. Topics to be discussed include: (1) structural history of the eastern Front Range; (2) characteristics, kinematics, orientations, and age of ductile and brittle structures and how they may or may not relate to one another and mineral deposit permeability; and (3) characteristics, localization, and evolution of the metal and non–metal-bearing hydrothermal systems in the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt.

  20. Tolerance for uncertainty in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHRYSTYNA KACHMARYK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study. The aim of the paper is a comparison of tolerance to uncertainty in two groups of elderly: the students of the University of the Third Age (UTA and older people who are not enrolled but help to educate grandchildren. A relation to uncertainty was shown to influence on decision making strategy of elderly that indicates on importance of the researches. Methods. To obtain the objectives of the paper the following methods were used: 1 Personal change readiness survey (PCRS adapted by Nickolay Bazhanov and Galina Bardiyer; 2 Tolerance Ambiguity Scale (TAS adapted by Galina Soldatova; 3 Freiburg personality inventory (FPI and 4 The questionnaire of self-relation by Vladimir Stolin and Sergej Panteleev. 40 socially involved elderly people were investigated according the above methods, 20 from UTA and 20 who are not studied and served as control group. Results. It was shown that relations of tolerance to uncertainty in the study group of students of the University of the Third Age substantially differ from relations of tolerance to uncertainty in group of older people who do not learn. The majority of students of the University of the Third Age have an inherent low tolerance for uncertainty, which is associated with an increase in expression personality traits and characteristics in self-relation. The group of the elderly who are not enrolled increasingly shows tolerance of uncertainty, focusing on the social and trusting relationship to meet the needs of communication, and the ability to manage their own emotions and desires than a group of Third Age university students. Conclusions. The results of experimental research of the third age university student’s peculiarities of the tolerance to uncertainty were outlined. It was found that decision making in the ambiguity situations concerning social interaction is well developed in elderly who do not study. The students of the University of Third Age have greater needs in

  1. Project Jump: Young People's Perspectives on a Sexual Health Drama Project for Hard to Reach Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Judy; Salmon, Debra; Mages, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the qualitative process findings from an evaluation of Project Jump--a sexual health drama project for hard to reach young people. Project Jump aimed to enable young people to consider their sexual behaviour and its impact and consequence on other people and themselves. The research aimed to capture the experiences and…

  2. People Who Led to Me: Linked Writing using Adrienne Kennedy's "People Who Led to My Plays."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee Ann

    1997-01-01

    Develops a college-level writing assignment using Adrienne Kennedy's autobiography, a multisectioned list poem. Discusses why the personal list poem is appealing and how lists--a simple but generative form--work well for students. States that students wrote a succession of paragraphs about people in their lives who had influenced them. Gives…

  3. Being a Deaf Role Model: Deaf People's Experiences of Working with Families and Deaf Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…

  4. Cultural Beliefs regarding People with Disabilities in Namibia: Implications for the Inclusion of People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haihambo, Cynthy; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Namibia is a southern African country with national level policies promoting community inclusion and inclusive education. Despite these policies, people with disabilities are often excluded from schools and community life. This study explores the nuanced cultural beliefs about the causes of disability in Namibia, and the impacts of such beliefs on…

  5. Interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities among lay people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewooruttun, Leila; Scior, Katrina

    2014-12-01

    Despite policies aimed at ensuring equal rights and maximising respect and social inclusion for people with intellectual disabilities, in their daily lives many continue to face negative attitudes and discrimination within society. Misconceptions about what it means to have an intellectual disability and about the capabilities of people with intellectual disabilities appear widespread, and may contribute to prejudice and discrimination. This review provides a summary and evaluation of empirical interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and targeting negative attitudes towards this population among lay people of working age. An electronic search using PsycINFO, Web of Science and PubMed identified 22 English language studies published between 1990 and early 2014 that reported a specific intervention with a lay population sample. The majority of studies reported promising outcomes, particularly those aimed at increasing knowledge of intellectual disability through education. Support for the positive influence of contact with people with intellectual disabilities was demonstrated across several interventions. Interventions delivered at least partly by individuals with intellectual disabilities, and educational interventions appear to hold the most promise. The evidence is limited though by the weaknesses of measurement tools employed.

  6. Young people, parents and radical right voting. The case of the Swiss People's Party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly found that young people tend to adopt the political party choice of their parents. However, far less is known about the applicability of this theory when investigating radical right support. Using the Swiss Household panel data (1999e2007), this study empirically identifies the relati

  7. Violence against people with disability in England and Wales: findings from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Khalifeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent World Report on Disability highlighted violence as a leading cause of morbidity among disabled people. However, we know little about the extent to which people with disability experience different violence types, and associated health/economic costs. The recent introduction of disability measures into the England&Wales victimization survey provided an opportunity to address this gap. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of the 2009/10 British Crime Survey (BCS, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 44,398 adults living in residential households in England&Wales. Using multivariate logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of being a victim of past-year violence (physical/sexual domestic or non-domestic violence in people with disability compared to those without, after adjusting for socio-demographics, behavioural and area confounders. 1256/44398(2.4% participants had one or more disabilities including mental illness ('mental illness' and 7781(13.9% had one or more disabilities excluding mental illness ('non-mental disability'. Compared with the non-disabled, those with mental illness had adjusted relative odds (aOR of 3.0(95% confidence interval (CI 2.3-3.8 and those with non-mental disability had aOR of 1.8(95% CI: 1.5-2.2 of being a victim of past-year violence (with similar relative odds for domestic and non-domestic violence. Disabled victims were more likely to suffer mental ill health as a result of violence than non-disabled victims. The proportion of violence that could be attributed to the independent effect of disability in the general population was 7.5%(CI 5.7-9.3%, at an estimated cost of £1.51 billion. The main study limitation is the exclusion of institutionalised people with disability. CONCLUSIONS: People with disability are at increased risk of being victims of domestic and non-domestic violence, and of suffering mental ill health when victimized. The related public health and

  8. Redistricting and the Will of the People

    CERN Document Server

    Mattingly, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a non-partisan probability distribution on congressional redistricting of North Carolina which emphasizes the equal partition of the population and the compactness of districts. When random districts are drawn and the results of the 2012 election were re-tabulated under the drawn districtings, we find that an average of 7.6 democratic representatives are elected. 95% of the randomly sampled redistrictings produced between 6 and 9 Democrats. Both of these facts are in stark contrast with the 4 Democrats elected in the 2012 elections with the same vote counts. This brings into serious question the idea that such elections represent the "will of the people." It underlines the ability of redistricting to undermine the democratic process, while on the face allowing democracy to proceed.

  9. Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates Warm and Cold People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ryan L; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2013-02-01

    Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas warm individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between warm and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning.

  10. PTSD in older bereaved people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2010-01-01

      Late life bereavement has been associated with psychological problems, mainly depression. A few studies indicated that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was an important issue to investigate in late life bereavement reactions. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of PTSD in recently...... subsequently assessed two months post-bereavement. They were compared with a control group of 276 married elderly people. The prevalence of PTSD and depression were measured through a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that 16% of the bereaved and 4% of the control group had a PTSD diagnosis (ES=.35...... as in general samples of bereaved persons. Furthermore, the prevalence of PTSD in the first months after bereavement was more elevated than the level of depression. This makes PTSD an important factor when studying late life bereavement reactions....

  11. Genomic view on the peopling of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Rakesh; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2012-10-01

    India is known for its vast human diversity, consisting of more than four and a half thousand anthropologically well-defined populations. Each population differs in terms of language, culture, physical features and, most importantly, genetic architecture. The size of populations varies from a few hundred to millions. Based on the social structure, Indians are classified into various caste, tribe and religious groups. These social classifications are very rigid and have remained undisturbed by emerging urbanisation and cultural changes. The variable social customs, strict endogamy marriage practices, long-term isolation and evolutionary forces have added immensely to the diversification of the Indian populations. These factors have also led to these populations acquiring a set of Indian-specific genetic variations responsible for various diseases in India. Interestingly, most of these variations are absent outside the Indian subcontinent. Thus, this review is focused on the peopling of India, the caste system, marriage practice and the resulting health and forensic implications.

  12. Investigating how everyday people experience security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg

    In this paper I propose a method for analyzing everyday people's experiences with IT-security. I furthermore report how I applied the method. The proposal is motivated by work of other researchers and their efforts to get beyond secure behavior, and to get an insight in secure or insecure...... experiences that everyday users of technology encounter. The background for introducing this method is a project under the heading of IT Security for Citizens, which bridges between research competencies in HCI and security. In this project we develop methods and concepts to analyze digital signature systems...... and security sensible systems in a broad sense, from the point of view of contemporary CHI. The project includes literature studies of usable security, as well as empirical investigations and design work. This paper reports on my method to target user experiences of and with security technology....

  13. Inclusive Educative Technologies, for people with disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenique, AM; Graffigna, JP; Pérez, E.; López, N.; Piccinini, D.; Fernández, H.; Garcés, A.

    2016-04-01

    The conventional educational environment imposes barriers to education for people with disabilities, limiting their rights, which is a non-discriminative education. In turn, hampers their access to other rights and creates huge obstacles to realize their potential and participate effectively in their communities. In this sense Assistive Technology provides alternative solutions, in order to compensate for a lost or diminished ability. Thus the necessary assistance is provided to perform tasks, including those related to education, improving the inclusion. In this paper some researches had been made in the Gabinete de TecnologiaMedica, in the Facultad de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional de San Juan in order to solve this problem. The researchers are classified by type of disability; sensory (visual and auditory) or motor. They have been designed, developed and experienced through various prototypes that have given satisfactory results. It had been published in national and international congresses of high relevance.

  14. Religion is the Opium of the People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    Marx is notorious for his claim that religion is the opium of the people and thus become famous as one of modern thought's most uncompromising critics of religion. In this article I look deeper into the philosophical connotations of Marx's opium metaphor by presenting and discussing other prominent...... thinkers' employment of similar metaphors. Thus, the article follows the trail of opium imagery in connection with different approaches to the criticism of religion. This leads to a discussion of the influence on Marx by G.W.F. Hegel, Bruno Bauer, Moses Hess, Ludwig Feuerbach and emphasizes the influence...... of Heinrich Heine and Immanuel Kant. The ensuing analysis of Marx's opium metaphor establishes thatMarx's thinking in A Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction is at a cross road. His dependence on German philosophy in 1843 is highlighted as the contextual background for...

  15. KT gets even closer to CERN people

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    For several years, the Knowledge Transfer (KT) group has been helping CERN people to disseminate their results, know-how and technologies to new fields of application. This may be anything from working with a school, hospital or a company through a licence or collaboration agreement, to securing CERN’s intellectual property rights or even starting a company. In order to maximise the impact of CERN’s work and to provide a service adapted to its users’ needs, the KT group has launched a survey.   Assessing the needs and wishes of the CERN personnel with regard to knowledge transfer activities: this is the goal of the survey that the KT group has launched this week. “Science and engineering are key disciplines in tackling the fundamental challenges facing the planet, such as energy, security, climate change, the sustainability of natural resources and economic resilience,” says Thierry Lagrange, head of the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer...

  16. Suicide in elderly people: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2010-08-01

    A literature review was carried out focusing on the main factors associated with suicidal ideation, attempts and completed suicide in elders. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SciELO and Biblioteca Virtual em Violência e Saúde da BIREME (BIREME's Violence and Health Virtual Library), referring to the period from 1980 to 2008. Fifty-two references were selected and analyzed. They showed a strong relationship among suicide ideation, attempt and completion in elderly individuals, which results from the interaction of complex physical, mental, neurobiological and social factors. Suicide associated with depression in the elderly can be prevented, provided the person is properly treated. In Brazil, it is necessary to invest in research, given the persistent increase in suicide rates among aged people, especially among males.

  17. Religion is the Opium of the People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    of Heinrich Heine and Immanuel Kant. The ensuing analysis of Marx's opium metaphor establishes thatMarx's thinking in A Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction is at a cross road. His dependence on German philosophy in 1843 is highlighted as the contextual background for......Marx is notorious for his claim that religion is the opium of the people and thus become famous as one of modern thought's most uncompromising critics of religion. In this article I look deeper into the philosophical connotations of Marx's opium metaphor by presenting and discussing other prominent...... thinkers' employment of similar metaphors. Thus, the article follows the trail of opium imagery in connection with different approaches to the criticism of religion. This leads to a discussion of the influence on Marx by G.W.F. Hegel, Bruno Bauer, Moses Hess, Ludwig Feuerbach and emphasizes the influence...

  18. Older People's Mobility: Segments, Factors, Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu

    2015-01-01

    demographic, health-related, or transport-related factors. This paper reviews these studies and compares the segments of older people that different studies have identified. First, as a result of a systematic comparison, we identified four generic segments: (1) an active car-oriented segment; (2) a car......The expanding older population is increasingly diverse with regard to, for example, age, income, location, and health. Within transport research, this diversity has recently been addressed in studies that segment the older population into homogeneous groups based on combinations of various......-dependent segment, restricted in mobility; (3) a mobile multimodal segment; (4) and a segment depending on public transport and other services. Second, we examined the single factors used in the reviewed segmentation studies, with focus on whether there is evidence in the literature for the factors’ effect on older...

  19. People management as indicator of business excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haffer, Rafal; Kristensen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to show the importance of people management as a key indicator of business excellence based on four research projects, conducted on the samples of Polish (in the years 2004-2005 and 2006-2007) and Danish companies (in 1999 and 2005). Design/methodology/approach – EFQM...... it possible to compare developing Polish and developed Danish companies in their initiatives aiming at business excellence. Findings – The results indicate significant negligence in the management of human resources as one of the initiatives towards business excellence of Polish enterprises before Poland...... Excellence Model indicators were used as the evaluation criteria for the studies. The data were next estimated as a structural equation model by partial least squares using SmartPLS software. That estimation was conducted on the model of the Danish Business Excellence Index methodology. Presented data make...

  20. Carotenoids and health in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna J; Lyner, Natalie; McKinley, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    As the proportion of older people increases, so will chronic disease incidence and the proportion of the population living with disability. Therefore, new approaches to maintain health for as long as possible in this age group are required. Carotenoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds found predominantly in fruit and vegetables that have been proposed to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Such properties may impact on the risk diseases which predominate in older people, and also ageing-related physiological changes. Working out the effect of carotenoid intake versus fruit and vegetable intake is difficult, and the strong correlation between individual carotenoid intakes also complicates any attempt to examine individual carotenoid health effects. Similarly, research to determine whether carotenoids consumed as supplements have similar benefits to increased dietary intake through whole foods, is still required. However, reviewing the recent evidence suggests that carotenoid intake and status are relatively consistently associated with reduced CVD risk, although β-carotene supplementation does not reduce CVD risk and increases lung cancer risk. Increased lycopene intake may reduce prostate cancer progression, with a potential role for carotenoids at other cancer sites. Lutein and zeaxanthin have a plausible role in the maintenance of eye health, whilst an association between carotenoid intake and cognitive and physical health appears possible, although research is limited to date. Given this accruing evidence base to support a specific role for certain carotenoids and ageing, current dietary advice to consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables would appear prudent, and efforts maintained to encourage increased intake.