WorldWideScience

Sample records for bileptons see-saw type

  1. Discriminating neutrino mass models using Type-II see-saw formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Nimal Singh; Mahadev Patagiri; Mrinal Kumar Das

    2006-02-01

    An attempt has been made to discriminate theoretically the three possible patterns of neutrino mass models,viz., degenerate, inverted hierarchical and normal hierachical models, within the framework of Type-II see-saw formula. From detailed numerical analysis we are able to arrive at a conclusion that the inverted hierarchical model with the same CP phase (referred to as Type [IIA]), appears to be most favourable to survive in nature (and hence most stable), with the normal hierarchical model (Type [III]) and inverted hierarchical model with opposite CP phase (Type [IIB]), follow next. The degenerate models (Types [IA,IB,IC]) are found to be most unstable. The neutrino mass matrices which are obtained using the usual canonical see-saw formula (Type I), and which also give almost good predictions of neutrino masses and mixings consistent with the latest neutrino oscillation data, are re-examined in the presence of the left-handed Higgs triplet within the framework of non-canonical see-saw formula (Type II). We then estimate a parameter (the so-called discriminator) which may represent the minimum degree of suppression of the extra term arising from the presence of left-handed Higgs triplet, so as to restore the good predictions on neutrino masses and mixings already acquired in Type-I see-saw model. The neutrino mass model is said to be favourable and hence stable when its canonical see-saw term dominates over the non-canonical (perturbative) term, and this condition is used here as a criterion for discriminating neutrino mass models.

  2. Neutrino Masses at LHC: Minimal Lepton Flavour Violation in Type-III See-saw

    CERN Document Server

    Eboli, O J P; Gonzalez-Garcia, M C

    2011-01-01

    We study the signatures of minimal lepton flavour violation in a simple Type-III see--saw model in which the flavour scale is given by the new fermion triplet mass and it can be naturally light enough to be produced at the LHC. In this model the flavour structure of the couplings of the triplet fermions to the Standard Model leptons can be reconstructed from the neutrino mass matrix and the smallness of the neutrino mass is associated with a tiny violation of total lepton number. Characteristic signatures of this model include suppressed lepton number violation decays of the triplet fermions, absence of displaced vertices in their decays and predictable lepton flavour composition of the states produced in their decays. We study the observability of these signals in the processes $pp\\rightarrow 3\\ell + 2j +\\Sla{E_T}$ and $pp\\rightarrow 2\\ell + 4j$ with $\\ell =e$ or $\\mu$ taking into account the present low energy data on neutrino physics and the corresponding Standard Model backgrounds. Our results indicate th...

  3. See-Saw Jeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Charlotte D.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the following case: Pete Wilmington, Vice President of Sales for See-Saw Jeans for Kids, has wrapped up a deal with Wal-Mart to carry See-Saw Jeans for Kids in all Wal-Mart stores on a trial basis for the next year. See-Saw Jeans for Kids is a clothing manufacturer with sales of $41 million, but the Wal-Mart account has the…

  4. SO(10)-Inspired See-Saw Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Abud, M.; Buccella, F.

    2000-01-01

    We determine the nu_{R} Majorana mass matrix from the experimental data on neutrino oscillations in the framework of a see-saw SO(10) model, where we impose the condition (M^R)_{33} = 0 to avoid too large fine-tunings in the see-saw formula. We find a class of solutions with the two lowest neutrino masses almost degenerate and the scale of the matrix elements of M^R in the range 10^{11} -10^{12} GeV in agreement with Pati-Salam intermediate symmetry. We find also solutions with smaller neutri...

  5. SO(10)-Inspired See-Saw Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Abud, M

    2001-01-01

    We determine the nu_{R} Majorana mass matrix from the experimental data on neutrino oscillations in the framework of a see-saw SO(10) model, where we impose the condition (M^R)_{33} = 0 to avoid too large fine-tunings in the see-saw formula. We find a class of solutions with the two lowest neutrino masses almost degenerate and the scale of the matrix elements of M^R in the range 10^{11} -10^{12} GeV in agreement with Pati-Salam intermediate symmetry. We find also solutions with smaller neutrino masses, for which the scale of M_R depends on the solution to the "solar neutrino problem" and on the value of the component of \

  6. Radiative see-saw formula in nonsupersymmetric (10) with dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mina K Parida

    2012-11-01

    In (10), the type-I and type-II see-saw scales ≥ 1012 GeV are far away from being probed by direct experimental tests. In the absence of supersymmetry, we show how experimentally verifiable radiative see-saw formula of Ma type is realized in non-SUSY (10) while fulfilling the twin objectives: precision gauge coupling unification and dark matter. This model is expected to have a dramatic impact on neutrino physics, dark matter and all fermion masses and mixings.

  7. An Unorthodox Alternative for Right-handed Neutrinos: Left-handed See-Saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new left-handed see-saw mechanism is constructed, implying both the smallness of active-neutrino masses and decoupling of heavy passive neutrinos, similarly to the situation in the case of conventional see-saw. But now, in place of the conventional right-handed neutrinos, the left-handed sterile neutrinos play the role of heavy passive neutrinos, the right-handed neutrinos and right-handed sterile neutrinos being absent. Here, the left-handed sterile neutrinos are different from charge conjugates of conventional right-handed neutrinos because their lepton numbers differ. In this case, the neutrino mass term is necessarily of pure Majorana type. (author)

  8. Invariant see-saw models and sequential dominance

    CERN Document Server

    King, S F

    2006-01-01

    We propose an invariant see-saw (ISS) approach to model building, based on the observation that see-saw models of neutrino mass and mixing fall into basis invariant classes labelled by the Casas-Ibarra $R$-matrix, which we prove to be invariant not only under basis transformations but also non-unitary right-handed neutrino transformations $S$. According to the ISS approach, given any see-saw model in some particular basis one may determine the invariant $R$ matrix and hence the invariant class to which that model belongs. The formulation of see-saw models in terms of invariant classes puts them on a firmer theoretical footing, and allows different see-saw models in the same class to be related more easily, while their relation to the $R$-matrix makes them more easily identifiable in phenomenological studies. We also present an ISS mass formula which may be useful in model building. To illustrate the ISS approach we show that sequential dominance (SD) models form basis invariant classes in which the $R$-matrix...

  9. A see-saw scenario of an $A_4$ flavour symmetric standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Dinh Nguyen; Văn, Phi Quang; Vân, Nguyen Thi Hông

    2016-01-01

    A see-saw scenario for an $A_4$ flavour symmetric standard model is presented. As before, the see-saw mechanism can be realized in several models of different types depending on different ways of neutrino mass generation corresponding to the introduction of new fields with different symmetry structures. In the present paper, a general desription of all these see-saw types is made with a more detailed investigation on type-I models. As within the original see-saw mechanism, the symmetry structure of the standard model fields decides the number and the symmetry structure of the new fields. In a model considered here, the scalar sector consists of three standard-model-Higgs-like iso-doublets ($SU_L(2)$-doublets) forming an $A_4$ triplet. The latter is a superposition of three mass-eigen states, one of which could be identified with the recently discovered Higgs boson. A possible relation to the still-deliberated 750 GeV diphoton resonance at the 13 TeV LHC collisions is also discussed. In the lepton sector, the ...

  10. Naturalness in see-saw mechanism and Bogoliubov transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The see-saw mechanism is customarily regarded as the ratio of two masses leading to the tiny neutrino mass. We propose an alternative perspective on the see-saw, according to which the small neutrino mass is given as a difference of two large fermion masses of the order of the grand unification scale, and thus hitherto unrecognized fine tuning. This alternative view is motivated by the use of an analogue of Bogoliubov transformation to describe Majorana neutrinos in the Lagrangian defining the see-saw mechanism, which is analogous to the Lagrangian of the BCS theory. The naturalness issue of the neutrino mass thus becomes related to that of the Higgs mass in the Standard Model.

  11. Conformal neutrinos: An alternative to the see-saw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze a scenario where the right-handed neutrinos make part of a strongly coupled conformal field theory and acquire an anomalous dimension γ1/2 giving rise to an inverse see-saw mechanism. In this case light sterile neutrinos do appear and neutrino oscillation experiments are able to probe our model.

  12. An A4-based see-saw model for realistic neutrino mass and mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Pramanick, Soumita

    2015-01-01

    We present an $A4$-based model where neutrino masses arise from a combination of see-saw mechanisms. The model is motivated by several small mixing and mass parameters indicated by the data. These are $\\theta_{13}$, the solar mass splitting, and the small deviation of $\\theta_{23}$ from maximal mixing (= $\\pi/4$). We take the above as indications that at some level the small quantities are well-approximated by zero. In particular the mixing angles, to a zero order, should be either 0 or $\\pi/4$. Accordingly, in this model the Type-II see-saw dominates and generates the larger atmospheric mass splitting and sets $\\theta_{23} = \\pi/4$. The other mixing angles are vanishing as is the solar splitting. We show how the $A4$ assignment for the lepton doublets leads to this form. We also specify the $A4$ properties of the right-handed neutrinos which result in a smaller Type-I see-saw contribution that acts as a perturbation and shifts the angles $\\theta_{12}$ and $\\theta_{13}$ into the correct range and the desired ...

  13. The see-saw mechanism: Neutrino mixing, leptogenesis and lepton flavour violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Werner Rodejohann

    2009-01-01

    The see-saw mechanism to generate small neutrino masses is reviewed. After summarizing our current knowledge about the low energy neutrino mass matrix, we consider reconstructing the see-saw mechanism. Indirect tests of see-saw are leptogenesis and lepton flavour violation in supersymmetric scenarios, which together with neutrino mass and mixing define the framework of see-saw phenomenology. Several examples are given, both phenomenological and GUT-related.

  14. Proposal for generalised Supersymmetry Les Houches Accord for see-saw models and PDG numbering scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, L; Chowdhury, D; Hirsch, M; Khalil, S; Moretti, S; O'Leary, B; Porod, W; Staub, F

    2012-01-01

    The SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA) 2 extended the first SLHA to include various generalisations of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) as well as its simplest next-to-minimal version. Here, we propose further extensions to it, to include the most general and well-established see-saw descriptions (types I/II/III, inverse, and linear) in both an effective and a simple gauged extension of the MSSM framework. In addition, we generalise the PDG numbering scheme to reflect the properties of the particles.

  15. Constraints and tests of the TeV scale see-saw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The type I see-saw mechanism requires the existence of right-handed neutrinos with a Majorana mass much larger than the Dirac neutrino mass. Nevertheless, the right-handed neutrino mass scale is completely unknown and can range between 0 and the Planck mass. In this talk we discuss the constraints on the scenario where the right-handed neutrino mass lies at the TeV scale, motivated by the possibility of testing the mechanism of neutrino mass generation at the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Quark see-saw, Higgs mass and vacuum stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Mohapatra; Yongchao Zhangi

    2016-02-01

    The issue of vacuum stability of standard model (SM) is discussed by embedding it within the TeV scale left–right quark see-saw model. The Higgs potential in this case has only two coupling parameters (1, 2) and two mass parameters. There are only two physical neutral Higgs bosons (ℎ, ), the lighter one being identified with the 126 GeV Higgs boson. We explore the range of values for (1, 2) for which the vacuum is stable for all values of the Higgs fields till 1016 GeV. Combining with the further requirement that the scalar self-couplings remain perturbative till 1016 GeV, we findan upper and lower limit on the second Higgs () mass to be within the range: 0.4 ≤ (MH/vR) ≤ 0.7, where vR is the parity breaking scale andthe masses of heavy vector-like top, bottom and partner fermions (3, 3, 3) have an upper bound ≤vR. These predictions can be tested at LHC and future higher energy colliders.

  17. Minimal predictive see-saw model with normal neutrino mass hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    King, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    We consider the type I see-saw model with two right-handed neutrinos and a normal neutrino mass hierarchy and impose a zero coupling between the right-handed neutrino mainly responsible for the atmospheric neutrino mass and the electron neutrino. We derive a master formula which relates see-saw input parameters in a one to one correspondence with physical neutrino observables. Using the master formula we search for simple ratios of couplings consistent with current data on neutrino mass and lepton mixing. We discover a minimal predictive example in which the right-handed neutrino mainly responsible for the atmospheric neutrino mass has couplings to (nu_e, nu_mu, nu_tau) proportional to (0,1,1) and the right-handed neutrino mainly responsible for the solar neutrino mass has couplings to (nu_e, nu_mu, nu_tau) proportional to (1,1,3) or (1,3,1), with a relative phase eta = -/+ pi/3, providing the link between leptogenesis and CP violation in neutrino oscillation experiments. We show how these patterns of couplin...

  18. Bi-large Neutrino Mixing See-Saw Mass Matrix with Texture Zeros and Leptogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO Wei; HE Xiao-Gang; LI Xue-Qian

    2006-01-01

    We study constraints on neutrino properties for a class of bi-large mixing See-Saw mass matrices with texture zeros and with the related Dirac neutrino mass matrix to be proportional to a diagonal matrix of the form diag(e, 1, 1). Texture zeros may occur in the light (class a)) or in the heavy (class b)) neutrino mass matrices. Each of these two classes has 5 different forms which can produce non-trivial three generation mixing with at least one texture zero. We find that two types of texture zero mass matrices in both class a and class b can be consistent with present data on neutrino masses and mixing. None of the neutrinos can have zero masses and the lightest of the light neutrinos has a mass larger than about 0.046 eV for class a and 0.0027 eV for class b. In these models although the CKM CP violating phase vanishes, the non-zero Majorana phases can exist and can play an important role in producing the observed baryon asymmetry in our universe through leptogenesis mechanism. The requirement of producing the observed baryon asymmetry can further distinguish different models and also restrict the See-Saw scale to be in the range of 1012 ~ 1015GeV. We also discuss RG effects on V13.

  19. Observable $N-\\bar{N}$ oscillation, high-scale see-saw and origin of matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Mohapatra

    2006-11-01

    See-saw mechanism has been a dominant paradigm in the discussion of neutrino masses. We discuss how this idea can be tested via a baryon number violating process such as $N-\\bar{N}$ oscillation. Since the expected see-saw scale is high and the $N-\\bar{N}$ amplitude goes like $M_{R}^{-5}$, one might think that this process is not observable in realistic see-saw models for neutrino masses. In this talk I show that in supersymmetric models, the above conclusion is circumvented leading to an enhanced and observable rate for $N-\\bar{N}$ oscillation. I also discuss a new mechanism for baryogenesis in generic models for neutron-anti-neutron oscillation.

  20. Low Energy Signatures of the TeV Scale See-Saw Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Ibarra, A; Petcov, S T

    2011-01-01

    We study a type I see-saw scenario where the right-handed (RH) neutrinos, responsible for the light neutrino mass generation, lie at the electroweak scale. Under certain conditions, the strength of the charged and neutral current weak interactions of the Standard Model particles with the heavy RH neutrinos can be large enough to allow their production at the LHC, opening also the possibility of observing other low energy signatures of the new physics in the electroweak precision observables as well as in searches for rare leptonic decays or neutrinoless double beta decay. We argue that in this scenario the flavour structure of the neutrino Yukawa couplings is essentially determined by the low energy neutrino parameters, leading to fairly strong correlations among the new phenomena. In particular, we show that the present bound on the $\\mu \\to e +\\gamma$ decay rate makes very difficult the observation of the heavy RH neutrinos at the LHC or the observation of deviations from the Standard Model predictions in t...

  1. The see-saw mechanism, neutrino Yukawa couplings, LFV decays li → lj + γ and leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LFV charged lepton decays μ → e+γ, τ → e+γand τ → μ+γ and thermal leptogenesis are analysed in the MSSM with see-saw mechanism of neutrino mass generation and soft SUSY breaking with universal boundary conditions. The case of hierarchical heavy Majorana neutrino mass spectrum, M1 2 3, is investigated. Leptogenesis requires M1 > or approx. 109 GeV. Considering the natural range of values of the heaviest right- handed Majorana neutrino mass, M3 > or approx. 5 x 1013 GeV, and assuming that the soft SUSY breaking universal gaugino and/or scalar masses have values in the range of few x 100 GeV, we derive the combined constraints, which the existing stringent upper limit on the μ → e+γ decay rate and the requirement of successful thermal leptogenesis impose on the neutrino Yukawa couplings, heavy Majorana neutrino masses and SUSY parameters. Results for the three possible types of light neutrino mass spectrum - normal and inverted hierarchical and quasi-degenerate - are obtained. (author)

  2. Talspeak Curve: An Illustration Of A See-Saw Effect In Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superbly balanced thermodynamic struggle for metal ion coordination by aqueous aminopolycarboxylate reagent, DTPA, and non-aqueous organophosphorous phase transfer reagent, HDEHP, affords the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides under the umbrella of the Talspeak liquid-liquid distribution process. This thermodynamic relationship has been linked to an analogous 'see-saw' behavior, where the balance is distorted when either of the key complexing players is subject to adverse conditions that interfere with their optimal operation. The thermodynamic balance is tipped in favor of HDEHP whenever increased acidity of the aqueous solution out-competes the metal ion complexation by aqueous complexing agent. Also enhanced steric crowding may switch-off efficient coordination of the metal ion. When HDEHP is depolymerized due to the presence of aliphatic alcohol in the organic phase its phase transferring power is diminished. Such complication paves way for DTPA to establish its dominance on the distribution of trivalent metal ions in the 2-phase system. The illustrated sensitivity of the thermodynamic balance between DTPA and HDEHP in Talspeak-type systems may serve as informative tool when studying less-predictable realms of Talspeak chemistry.

  3. Neutrino Oscillation Parameters in a Six-channel Reduced Rank See-Saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that it is possible to find parameters in a rank one see-saw model which give a reasonable representation of atmospheric neutrino data and of the LSND result. Solar neutrino data will require a complete description of the matter effect in the six channel space

  4. Light composite scalar boson from a see-saw mechanism in two-scale TC models

    OpenAIRE

    Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Natale, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility of a light composite scalar boson arising from mass mixing between a relatively light and heavy scalar singlets in a see-saw mechanism expected to occur in two-scale Technicolor (TC) models. A light composite scalar boson can be generated when the TC theory features two technifermions species in different representations, $R_1$ and $R_2$, under a single technicolor gauge group, with characteristic scales $\\Lambda_1$ and $\\Lambda_2$. We determine the final composite...

  5. Exotic see-saw mechanism for neutrini and leptogenesis in a Pati-Salam model

    CERN Document Server

    Addazi, Andrea; Ricciardi, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    We discuss non-perturbative corrections to the neutrino sector, in the context of a D-brane Pati-Salam-like model, that can be obtained as a simple alternative to $SO(10)$ GUT's in theories with open and unoriented strings. In such D-brane models, exotic stringy instantons can correct the right-handed neutrino mass matrix in a calculable way, thus affecting mass hierarchies and modifying the see-saw mechanism to what we name exotic see-saw. For a wide range of parameters, a compact spectrum of right-handed neutrino masses can occur that gives rise to a predictive scenario for low energy observables. This model also provides a viable mechanism for Baryon Asymmetry in the Universe (BAU) through leptogenesis. Finally, a Majorana mass for the neutron is naturally predicted in the model, leading to potentially testable neutron-antineutron oscillations. Combined measurements in neutrino and neutron-antineutron sectors could provide precious informations on physics at the quantum gravity scale.

  6. See-saw neutrino masses and large mixing angles in the vortex background on a sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Frère, Jean-Marie; Ling, Fu-Sin

    2010-01-01

    In the vortex background on a sphere, a single 6-dimensional fermion family gives rise to 3 zero-modes in the 4-dimensional point of view, which may explain the replication of families in the Standard Model. Previously, it had been shown that realistic hierarchical mass and mixing patterns can be reproduced for the quarks and the charged leptons. Here, we show that the addition of a single heavy 6-dimensional field that is gauge singlet, unbound to the vortex, and embedded with a bulk Majorana mass enables to generate 4D Majorana masses for the light neutrinos through the see-saw mechanism. The scheme is very predictive. The hierarchical structure of the fermion zero-modes leads automatically to an inverted pseudo-Dirac mass pattern, and always predicts one maximal angle in the neutrino see-saw matrix. It is possible to obtain a second large mixing angle from either the charged lepton or the neutrino sector, and we demonstrate that this model can fit all observed data in neutrino oscillations experiments. Als...

  7. Exotic see-saw mechanism for neutrinos and leptogenesis in a Pati-Salam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addazi, Andrea; Bianchi, Massimo; Ricciardi, Giulia

    2016-02-01

    We discuss non-perturbative corrections to the neutrino sector, in the context of a D-brane Pati-Salam-like model, that can be obtained as a simple alternative to SO(10) GUT's in theories with open and unoriented strings. In such D-brane models, exotic stringy instantons can correct the right-handed neutrino mass matrix in a calculable way, thus affecting mass hierarchies and modifying the see-saw mechanism to what we name exotic see-saw. For a wide range of parameters, a compact spectrum of right-handed neutrino masses can occur that gives rise to a predictive scenario for low energy observables. This model also provides a viable mechanism for Baryon Asymmetry in the Universe (BAU) through leptogenesis. Finally, a Majorana mass for the neutron is naturally predicted in the model, leading to potentially testable neutron-antineutron oscillations. Combined measurements in neutrino and neutron-antineutron sectors could provide precious informations on physics at the quantum gravity scale.

  8. SUSY see-saw and NMSO(10)GUT inflation after BICEP2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ila Garg

    2016-02-01

    Supersymmetric see-saw slow roll inflection point inflation occurs along a MSSM -flat direction associated with gauge invariant combination of Higgs, slepton and right-handed sneutrino at a scale set by the right-handed neutrino mass c ∼ 106−1013 GeV. The tensor to scalar perturbation ratio ∼ 10−3 can be achieved in this scenario. However, this scenario faced difficulty in being embedded in the realistic new minimal supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theory (NMSO(10)GUT). The recent discovery of B-mode polarization by BICEP2, changes the prospects of NMSO(10)GUT inflation. Inflection point models become strongly disfavoured, as the trilinear coupling of SUSY see-saw inflation potential gets suppressed relative to the mass parameter favoured by BICEP2. Large values of ≈ 0.2 can be achieved with super-Planck scale inflaton values and mass scales of inflaton ≥1013 GeV. In NMSO(10)GUT, this can be made possible with an admixture of heavy Higgs doublet fields, i.e., other than MSSM Higgs field, which are present and have masses of order GUT scale.

  9. Prospects of experimentally reachable beyond Standard Model physics in inverse see-saw motivated SO(10) GUT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Lal Awasthi

    2016-02-01

    The grand unification theories based on SO(10) gauge group have been at the centre of attraction to beyond Standard Model phenomenology. The SO(10) gauge symmetry may pass through several intermediate symmetries before breaking to Standard Model. Therefore some higher symmetries may occur at the experimentally reachable scales. This feature flourishes easily in non-supersymmetric models compared to supersymmetric ones. We find that certain breaking chains give tremendous predictions for the physics being explored at various particle physics experiments. Explanation to neutrino masses through TeV scale inverse see-saw is the driving theme of the models studied.

  10. Constraints on the rare tau decays from μ → eγ in the supersymmetric see-saw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now a firmly established fact that all family lepton numbers are violated in Nature. In this paper we discuss the implications of this observation for future searches for rare tau decays in the supersymmetric see-saw model. Using the two loop renormalization group evolution of the soft terms and the Yukawa couplings we show that there exists a lower bound on the rate of the rare process μ→eγ of the form BR(μ→eγ)>or similar C x BR(τ→μγ)BR(τ→eγ), where C is a constant that depends on supersymmetric parameters. Our only assumption is the absence of cancellations among the high-energy see-saw parameters. We also discuss the implications of this bound for future searches for rare tau decays. In particular, for large regions of the mSUGRA parameter space, we show that present B-factories could discover either τ→μγ or τ→eγ, but not both. (orig.)

  11. Constructing the large mixing angle MNS matrix in see-saw models with right-handed neutrino dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen F.

    2002-09-01

    Recent SNO results strongly favour the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solar solution. We argue that there are only two technically natural low energy neutrino mass matrix structures consistent with the LMA MSW solution, corresponding to either a hierarchy or an inverted hierarchy with pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. We construct the MNS matrix to leading order in the small angle θ13 including the neutrino and charged lepton mixing angles and phases, the latter playing a crucial rôle for allowing the inverted hierarchy case to be consistent with the LMA MSW solution. We then consider the see-saw mechanism with right-handed neutrino dominance and show how the successful neutrino mass matrix structures may be constructed with no tuning and with small radiative corrections, leading to a full, partial or inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. In each case we derive approximate analytic relations between the input see-saw parameters and the resulting neutrino masses, mixing angles and phases, which will provide a useful guide for unified model building. For the hierarchical cases the LMA MSW solution gives a soft lower bound |Ue3| gtrsim 0.1, just below the current CHOOZ limit. Both hierarchical and inverted hierarchical cases predict small ββ0ν with |mee| ~ 0.007 eV within the sensitivity of future proposals such as GENIUS. Successful leptogenesis is possible if the dominant right-handed neutrino is the heaviest one, but the leptogenesis phase is unrelated to the MNS phases.

  12. Constraints on the rare tau decays from μ→eγ in the supersymmetric see-saw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now a firmly established fact that all family lepton numbers are violated in Nature. In this paper we discuss the implications of this observation for future searches for rare tau decays in the supersymmetric see-saw model. Using the two loop renormalization group evolution of the soft terms and the Yukawa couplings we show that there exists a lower bound on the rate of the rare process μ→eγ of the form BR(μ→eγ) ∼> C x BR(τ→μγ)BR(τ→eγ), where C is a constant that depends on supersymmetric parameters. Our only assumption is the absence of cancellations among the high-energy see-saw parameters. We also discuss the implications of this bound for future searches for rare tau decays. In particular, for large regions of the mSUGRA parameter space, we show that present B-factories could discover either τ→μγ or τ→eγ, but not both

  13. A solar variability driven monsoon see-saw: switching relationships of the Holocene East Asian-Australian summer monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Deniz; Ozken, Ibrahim; McRobie, Fiona; Stemler, Thomas; Marwan, Norbert; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Kurths, Juergen

    2016-04-01

    The East Asian-Indonesian-Australian monsoon is the predominant low latitude monsoon system, providing a major global scale heat source. Here we apply newly developed non-linear time series techniques on speleothem climate proxies, from eastern China and northwestern Australia and establish relationships between the two summer monsoon regimes over the last ˜9000 years. We identify significant variations in monsoonal activity, both dry and wet phases, at millennial to multi-centennial time scales and demonstrate for the first time the existence of a see-saw antiphase relationship between the two regional monsoon systems. Our analysis attributes this inter-hemispheric linkage to the solar variability that is effecting both monsoon systems.

  14. TALSPEAK CURVE: AN ILLUSTRATION OF A SEE-SAW EFFECT IN SEPARATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Zalupski; Leigh Martin

    2010-11-01

    A superbly balanced thermodynamic struggle for metal ion coordination by aqueous aminopolycarboxylate reagent, DTPA, and non-aqueous organophosphorous phase transfer reagent, HDEHP, affords the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides under the umbrella of the Talspeak liquid-liquid distribution process. This thermodynamic relationship has been linked to an analogous “see-saw” behavior, where the balance is distorted when either of the key complexing players is subject to adverse conditions that interfere with their optimal operation. The thermodynamic balance is tipped in favour of HDEHP whenever increased acidity of the aqueous solution out-competes the metal ion complexation by aqueous complexing agent. Also enhanced steric crowding may switch-off efficient coordination of the metal ion. When HDEHP is depolymerised due to the presence of aliphatic alcohol in the organic phase its phase transferring power is diminished. Such complication paves way for DTPA to establish its dominance on the distribution of trivalent metal ions in the 2-phase system. The illustrated sensitivity of the thermodynamic balance between DTPA and HDEHP in Talspeak-type systems may serve as informative tool when studying less-predictable realms of Talspeak chemistry.

  15. Constructing the large mixing angle MNS matrix in see-saw models with right-handed neutrino dominance

    CERN Document Server

    King, S F

    2002-01-01

    Recent SNO results strongly favour the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solar solution. We argue that there are only two technically natural low energy neutrino mass matrix structures consistent with the LMA MSW solution, corresponding to either a hierarchy or an inverted hierarchy with pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. We first present a model-independent analysis in which we diagonalise each of these two mass matrix structures to leading order in $\\theta_{13}$ and extract the neutrino masses, mixing angles and phases. In this analysis we express the MNS matrix to leading order in the small angle $\\theta_{13}$ including the neutrino {\\em and} charged lepton mixing angles and phases, the latter playing a crucial r\\^{o}le for allowing the inverted hierarchy solution to be consistent with the LMA MSW solution. We then consider the see-saw mechanism with right-handed neutrino dominance and show how the successful neutrino mass matrix structures may be constructed with no tuning and with small radiative corrections, leading to...

  16. First results on Bilepton production based on LHC collision data and predictions for Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Nepomuceno, Andre; Eccard, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The LHC potential for discovering doubly-charged vector bileptons is investigated considering the measurable process $p p$ $\\rightarrow$ $\\mu^{\\mp}\\mu^{\\mp}\\mu^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm} X$. The study is performed assuming different bilepton and leptoquark masses. The process cross-section is calculated at leading-order using the \\textsc{Calchep} package. Combining the calculation with the latest ATLAS experiment results at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, bounds on bilepton masses based on LHC data are derived for the first time. The results exclude bileptons masses in the range of 200 GeV to 500 GeV at 95\\% C.L., depending on the leptoquark mass. Moreover, minimal LHC integrated luminosities needed for discovering and for setting limits on bilepton masses are obtained for 13 TeV center-of-mass energy. Simulated events are passed through a fast parametric detector simulation using the Delphes package.

  17. See Saw Inflation / Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Smoot, George F

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by BICEP2 results that imply gravitational waves are produced when the universe has an expansion energy of about $Mc^2 \\approx 10^{14}$ GeV and that a natural extension to the Standard Model of Particle physics is a right-handed neutrino that would or could be at $m_{\

  18. A strong control of the South American SeeSaw on the intra-seasonal variability of the isotopic composition of precipitation in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimeux, Françoise; Tremoy, Guillaume; Risi, Camille; Gallaire, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Water stable isotopes (δ) in tropical regions are a valuable tool to study both convective processes and climate variability provided that local and remote controls on δ are well known. Here, we examine the intra-seasonal variability of the event-based isotopic composition of precipitation (δD Zongo) in the Bolivian Andes (Zongo valley, 16°20'S-67°47'W) from September 1st, 1999 to August 31st, 2000. We show that the local amount effect is a very poor parameter to explain δD Zongo. We thus explore the property of water isotopes to integrate both temporal and spatial convective activities. We first show that the local convective activity averaged over the 7-8 days preceding the rainy event is an important control on δD Zongo during the rainy season (~ 40% of the δD Zongo variability is captured). This could be explained by the progressive depletion of local water vapor by unsaturated downdrafts of convective systems. The exploration of remote convective controls on δD Zongo shows a strong influence of the South American SeeSaw (SASS) which is the first climate mode controlling the precipitation variability in tropical South America during austral summer. Our study clearly evidences that temporal and spatial controls are not fully independent as the 7-day averaged convection in the Zongo valley responds to the SASS. Our results are finally used to evaluate a water isotope enabled atmospheric general circulation model (LMDZ-iso), using the stretched grid functionality to run zoomed simulations over the entire South American continent (15°N-55°S; 30°-85°W). We find that zoomed simulations capture the intra-seasonal isotopic variation and its controls, though with an overestimated local sensitivity, and confirm the role of a remote control on δ according to a SASS-like dipolar structure.

  19. Charge quantization in the largest leptoquark-bilepton chiral electroweak scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Pisano, F

    1998-01-01

    The uniqueness of the hypercharge assignments in the three fermion families leptoquark-bilepton $SU(3)_C \\times SU(4)_L \\times U(1)_N$ model is established. Although the gauge group contains an explicit U(1) factor, freedom from triangle anomalies combined with the requirement of nonvanishing charged fermion masses uniquely fix the electric charges of all fermions independently of the neutrinos being massless or not. The electric-charge quantization, family replication, and the existence of t...

  20. Review of the minimal SU(3)C x SU(3)L x U(1)N model and production of single charged bilepton in e- γcollisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the production of new gauge bosons of lepton number two (bileptons) in the minimal 3-3-1 models in high energy e- γ collisions. If mass of the bileptons is in a range of 300 GeV the reaction will give observable cross-sections in the future colliders. (Author)

  1. Lepton number conservation, long-lived quarks and superweak bileptonic decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Howard Frampton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the upcoming LHC Run 2, at s∼13 TeV, it is suggested to seek unusually charged (Q=−4/3 and +5/3 quarks with mass MQ∼3 TeV which carry lepton number (L=+2 and −2 respectively and decay superweakly to a bilepton Y with mass MY∼2.5 TeV and a usual quark. These long-lived decays will have displaced decay vertices and produce a striking final state in pp which contains two separated jets together with two pairs of correlated like-sign charged leptons. Such a process was inaccessible energetically in LHC Run 1 with s∼8 TeV. The simplest theoretical explanation is the 331-model which has new physics necessarily below 4 TeV and which explains the existence of three families by anomaly cancellation.

  2. Review of the minimal SU(3) sub C x SU(3) sub L x U(1) sub N model and production of single charged bilepton in e sup - gamma collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang Ngoc Long; Dinh Phan Khoi

    2003-01-01

    We consider the production of new gauge bosons of lepton number two (bileptons) in the minimal 3-3-1 models in high energy e sup - gamma collisions. If mass of the bileptons is in a range of 300 GeV the reaction will give observable cross-sections in the future colliders. (Author)

  3. SEE SAW BASED REGENERATIVE POWER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Tribhuwan Singh; Shahzad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Research related to electrical vehicles is gaining importance due to the energy crisis. Using regenerative braking when braking, improves the efficiency of an electric vehicle as it recovers energy that could go to waste if mechanical brakes were used. A novel regenerative braking system for neighborhood electric vehicles was designed, prototyped and tested. The proposed system utilizes a seesaw system to capture energy whereas the conventional systems regenerate to the batteries. The user ha...

  4. SEE SAW CREATED RECREATING POWER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Singh*, Saha Ali

    2016-01-01

    Research related to electrical vehicles is gaining importance due to the energy crisis. Using regenerative braking when braking, improves the efficiency of an electric vehicle as it recovers energy that could go to waste if mechanical brakes were used. A novel regenerative braking system for neighborhood electric vehicles was designed, prototyped and tested. The proposed system utilizes a seesaw system to capture energy whereas the conventional systems regenerate to the batteries. The user ha...

  5. SUL(3)xUX(1)-invariant description of the bilepton contribution to the WWV vertex in the minimal 331 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the one-loop sensitivity of the WWV (V=γ,Z) vertex to the new massive gauge bosons predicted by the minimal SUL(3)xUX(1) model, which have unusual couplings to the standard model (SM) gauge bosons. A gauge-fixing procedure covariant under the SUL(2)xUY(1) group was introduced for these new gauge bosons (dubbed bileptons) in order to generate gauge-invariant Green functions. The similarities between this procedure and the unconventional quantization scheme of the background field method are discussed. It is found that, for relatively light bileptons, with a mass ranging from 2mW to 6mW, the radiative corrections to the form factors associated with the WWV vertex can be of the same order of magnitude than the SM one. In the case of heavier bileptons, their contribution is smaller by about one and 2 orders of magnitude than their SM counterpart

  6. See Saw Inflation / Dark Matter / Dark Energy / Baryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Smoot, George F.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by BICEP2 results that imply gravitational waves are produced when the universe has an expansion energy of about $Mc^2 \\approx 10^{14}$ GeV and that a natural extension to the Standard Model of Particle physics is a right-handed neutrino that would or could be at $m_{\

  7. Conformal Neutrinos an Alternative to the See-saw Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    von Gersdorff, Gero

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a scenario where the right-handed neutrinos make part of a strongly coupled conformal field theory and acquire an anomalous dimension 1/2<\\gamma<1 at a large scale \\Lambda. Their Yukawa couplings to the Higgs become irrelevant at the fixed point and are suppressed at low scales giving rise naturally to a small (sub-meV) Dirac neutrino mass which breaks the conformal invariance. Similarly the Majorana mass operator becomes irrelevant at the fixed point (not perturbing the conformal theory) and gives rise to a tiny Majorana mass at the scale of conformal breaking. However the effective Majorana mass can be sizable enough at the scale of neutrinoless double \\beta-decay experiments to provide positive signals. We also derive an upper bound on \\gamma from loop-induced flavor changing neutral currents. Finally neutrino Yukawa couplings can be sizable at electroweak scales and therefore the invisible decay of the Higgs in the neutrino channel can be comparable to the c\\bar c and \\tau\\bar\\tau modes a...

  8. Gauge See-saw: a mechanism for a light gauge boson

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hye-Sung

    2016-01-01

    There has been rapidly growing interest in the past decade in a new gauge boson which is considerably lighter than the standard model Z boson. A well-known example of this kind is the so-called dark photon, and it is actively searched for in various experiments nowadays. It would be puzzling to have a new gauge boson which is neither massless nor electroweak scale, but possesses a rather small yet nonzero mass. We present a mechanism that can provide a light gauge boson as a result of a mass matrix diagonalization.

  9. Lepton parameters in the see-saw model extended by one extra Higgs doublet

    CERN Document Server

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the radiative generation of lepton masses and mixing angles in the Standard Model extended by one right-handed neutrino and one extra Higgs doublet. We assume approximate rank-1 Yukawa couplings at a high energy scale and we calculate the one loop corrected charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices at the low energy scale. We find that quantum effects generate, for typical high energy parameters, a hierarchy between the muon and the tau mass, a hierarchy between the solar and the atmospheric mass splittings, and a pattern of leptonic mixing angles in qualitative agreement with experiments.

  10. See-Saw scale discrete dark matter and two-zero texture Majorana neutrino mass matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Lamprea, J M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a scenario where the stability of dark matter and the phenomenology of neutrinos are related by the spontaneous breaking of a non-Abelian flavor symmetry. In this scenario the breaking is done at the seesaw scale, in such a way that what remains of the flavor symmetry is a Z2 symmetry, which stabilizes the dark matter. We have proposed two models based on this idea, for which we have calculated their neutrino mass matrices achieving two-zero texture in both cases. Accordingly, we have updated this two-zero texture phenomenology finding an interesting correlation between the reactor mixing angle and the sum of the light neutrino masses. We also have a correlation between the lightest neutrino mass and the neutrinoless double beta decay effective mass, obtaining a lower bound for the effective mass within the region of the nearly future experimental sensitivities.

  11. Sterile neutrino in a minimal three-generation see-saw model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajoy Brahmachari; Sandhya Choubey; Rabindra N Mohapatra

    2003-02-01

    We investigate symmetries in Dirac and Majorana mass matrices of neutrinos in a three-generation scenario. We show that if we invoke e + - × 2R symmetry, one combination of right-handed neutrino states remains massless which can be interpreted as a sterile neutrino. Next we consider a (2) × (1)Y × (1)R gauge model and show how higher-dimensional operators can induce mixing between left- and right-handed states which explains solar, atmospheric and LSND experimental results.

  12. μ → eγ decay versus the μ → eee bound and lepton flavor violating processes in supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even tiny lepton flavor violation (LFV) due to some New Physics is able to alter the conditions inside a collapsing supernova core and probably to facilitate the explosion. LFV emerges naturally in a see-saw type-II model of neutrino mass generation. Experimentally, the LFV beyond the Standard Model is constrained by rare lepton decay searches. In particular, strong bounds are imposed on the μ → eee branching ratio and on the μ-e conversion in muonic gold. Currently, the μ→eγ is under investigation in the MEG experiment that aims at a dramatic increase in sensitivity in the next three years. We seek a see-saw type-II LFV pattern that fits all the experimental constraints, leads to Br(μ →eγ) ≳ Br(μμ →eee), and ensures a rate of LFV processes in supernova high enough to modify the supernova physics. These requirements are sufficient to eliminate almost all freedom in the model. In particular, they lead to the prediction 0.4 × 10−12 ≲ Br(μ → eγ) ≲ 6 × 10−12, which will be testable by MEG in the nearest future. The considered scenario also constrains the neutrino mass-mixing pattern and provides lower and upper bounds on τ-lepton LFV decays. We also briefly discuss a model with a single bilepton in which the μ → eee decay is absent at the tree level.

  13. See-sawing between work and home: Shift-working mothers’ perceptions on work/family balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huhtala, Eija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent public discourse and studies are filled with issues related to work/family balance. Shift work concretely affects family life considerably already starting from the schedule the family has to follow because of one or both parents’ work shifts. The purpose of this study is to contribute by dissecting shift worker-mothers’ perceptions on the balance between shift work and family life. This research was a qualitative study where eight shift-working mothers were interviewed. This phenomenon is studied through the following research questions: 1. what kinds of experiences shift-working mothers have on motherhood; 2. What kinds of experiences shift-working mothers have on their work; and 3. What factors do they bring out concerning the family/work balance? As a conclusion, a typology that illustrates shift working mothers’ perceptions on the success of work/family balance in their life will be introduced.

  14. See-sawing between work and home: Shift-working mothers’ perceptions on work/family balance

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtala, Eija; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2012-01-01

    Recent public discourse and studies are filled with issues related to work/family balance. Shift work concretely affects family life considerably already starting from the schedule the family has to follow because of one or both parents’ work shifts. The purpose of this study is to contribute by dissecting shift worker-mothers’ perceptions on the balance between shift work and family life. This research was a qualitative study where eight shift-working mothers were interviewed. This phenomeno...

  15. Sea level variations in the tropical Pacific Ocean during two types of recent El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Ting; Du, Ling; Zhang, Shou-Wen; Huang, Peng-Fei

    2013-09-01

    Sea level variations in the tropical Pacific Ocean (TPO) exhibit the prominent periods of 30 and 52 months on interannual timescale, and the interannual variance illustrates the geographical distribution over the 1993-2010 period. The quasi-biennial amplitude is comparable to the seasonal variation in the east off the Philippine coast (EOP). The Central Pacific El Niño (CP El Niño) events have occurred frequently and comparably in the satellite altimetry era compared with the Eastern Pacific El Niño (EP El Niño), and the sea level varies closely related to the two types of El Niño events. A see-saw mode of sea level is dominant during the EP El Niño event, but a “shuttle” pattern towers mainly in the central equatorial Pacific during the CP El Niño events. The oceanic and atmospheric processes interpret the sea level evolution during the CP El Niño and the EP El Niño events. Sea level variations in the EOP are impacted by the local and remote responses of atmospheric wind fields. The remote effect caused by the westward Rossby wave dominates in the atmospheric contribution which is nearly twice the magnitude of the local Ekman pumping effect. The local wind contributes to sea level evolution primarily in the beginning of the El Niño events. The remote process of the Rossby wave persists in 35% of the three CP El Niño phases, while the predicted skill distribution, about 43-53%, maps geographical variability in the EP El Niño event.

  16. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  17. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  18. Neutrino mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. F.

    2004-02-01

    This is a review article about neutrino mass models, particularly see-saw models involving three active neutrinos that are capable of describing both the atmospheric neutrino oscillation data and the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solar solution, which is now uniquely specified by recent data. We briefly review the current experimental status, show how to parametrize and construct the neutrino mixing matrix, and present the leading order neutrino Majorana mass matrices. We then introduce the see-saw mechanism and discuss a natural application of it to current data using the sequential dominance mechanism, which we compare with an early proposal for obtaining LMAs. We show how both the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model may be extended to incorporate the see-saw mechanism and show how the latter case leads to the expectation of lepton flavour violation. The see-saw mechanism motivates models with additional symmetries such as unification and family symmetry models, and we tabulate some possible models before focusing on two particular examples based on SO(10) grand unification and either U(1) or SU(3) family symmetry as specific examples. This review contains extensive appendices that include techniques for analytically diagonalizing different types of mass matrices involving two LMAs and one small mixing angle, to leading order in the small mixing angle.

  19. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only if...... it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....

  20. Inductive types in homotopy type theory

    OpenAIRE

    Awodey, Steve; Gambino, Nicola; Sojakova, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Homotopy type theory is an interpretation of Martin-L\\"of's constructive type theory into abstract homotopy theory. There results a link between constructive mathematics and algebraic topology, providing topological semantics for intensional systems of type theory as well as a computational approach to algebraic topology via type theory-based proof assistants such as Coq. The present work investigates inductive types in this setting. Modified rules for inductive types, including types of well...

  1. New texture-zero models for lepton mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Lavoura, L

    2015-01-01

    I systematically consider, in the context of the type-I see-saw mechanism, all the predictive cases in which both the Dirac mass matrix connecting the left-handed neutrinos to the right-handed neutrinos, and the Majorana mass matrix of the latter neutrinos, feature texture zeros, while the mass matrix of the charged leptons is diagonal. I have found a few cases which had not been discussed in the literature previously.

  2. Double Higgs boson production in the models with isotriplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godunov, S. I., E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru; Vysotsky, M. I., E-mail: vysotsky@itep.ru; Zhemchugov, E. V., E-mail: zhemchugov@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The enhancement of double Higgs boson production in the extensions of the Standard Model with extra isotriplets is studied. It is found that in see-saw type II model decays of new heavy Higgs can contribute to the double Higgs production cross section as much as Standard Model channels. In Georgi–Machacek model the cross section can be much larger since the custodial symmetry is preserved and the strongest limitation on triplet parameters is removed.

  3. Leptogenesis and Yukawa textures

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Micheal S.; Brahmachari, Biswajoy

    1999-01-01

    We study a set of textures giving rise to correct masses and mixings of the charged fermions in the context of leptogenesis. The Dirac neutrino texture pattern is assumed to be identical with the up quark texture. The heavy Majonana neutrino mass matrix is obtained by inverting the type-I see-saw formula and using the neutrino masses and mixings required by the solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments as input. After making the feasibility study of the generated lepton asymmetry...

  4. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald; Birkedal, Lars; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular......, type based, way. Clock quantifiers are used for controlled elimination of the later modality and for encoding coinductive types using guarded recursive types. Key to the development of gDTT are novel type and term formers involving what we call delayed substitutions’. These generalise the applicative...... functor rules for the later modality considered in earlier work, and are crucial for programming and proving with dependent types. We show soundness of the type theory with respect to a denotational model....

  5. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  6. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  7. Basilar-Type Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Basilar-Type Migraine Print Email Basilar-Type Migraine ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Basilar-Type Migraine Key Points: A migraine-type defined by the ...

  8. On non-unitary lepton mixing and neutrino mass observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three observables related to neutrino mass, namely the kinematic mass in direct searches, the effective mass in neutrino-less double beta decay, and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology. In the limit of exactly degenerate neutrinos there are very simple relations between those observables, and we calculate corrections due to non-zero mass splitting. We discuss how the possible non-unitarity of the lepton mixing matrix may modify these relations and find in particular that corrections due to non-unitarity can exceed the corrections due to mass splitting. We furthermore investigate constraints from neutrino-less double beta decay on mass and mixing parameters of heavy neutrinos in the type I see-saw mechanism. There are constraints from assuming that heavy neutrinos are exchanged, and constraints from assuming light neutrino exchange, which arise from an exact see-saw relation. The latter has its origin in the unitarity violation arising in see-saw scenarios. We illustrate that the limits from the latter approach are much stronger. The drastic impact of the new limit on inverse neutrino-less double beta decay (e-e-→W-W-) is studied. We furthermore discuss neutrino mixing in case there is one or more light sterile neutrinos. Neutrino oscillation probabilities for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments are considered, and the analogy to general non-unitarity phenomenology, such as zero-distance effects, is pointed out.

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ... Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ...

  10. Type Inference with Inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    Type inference can be phrased as constraint-solving over types. We consider an implicitly typed language equipped with recursive types, multiple inheritance, 1st order parametric polymorphism, and assignments. Type correctness is expressed as satisfiability of a possibly infinite collection of (m...... can be solved by means of nondeterministic finite automata; unusually, the two problems have different complexities: polynomial vs. exponential time....

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type ... To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. Living W/ Diabetes: It's Women's Health Month - 2016- ...

  13. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning with...... coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  14. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual; Sulzmann, Martin

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; and...

  15. SU(3)c x SU(3)L x U(1)X gauge symmetry from SU(4)PS x SU(4)L+R

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Sutapa; Dixit, Aparna

    2004-01-01

    We present a 3-3-1 model as a subgroup of SU(4)PS X SU(4)L+R gauge symmetry with symmetry-breaking pattern SU(4)->SU(3) X U(1) for both SU(4) groups. A Pleitez-Frampton type of 3C-3L-1X model is obtained with charged heavy leptons and SU(3)L gauge bosons (B-L= 0) which are not bileptons. The neutral gauge bosons include gamma,Z,Z'and a fourth Z" which decouples from rest but couples to ordinary fermions. The two-body decay rates for Z' are presented along with their mixings and interactions.

  16. Types of intersections.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    There are many types of intersections in the Netherlands. In an inherently safe road traffic system, however, the number of intersection types needs to be limited, depending on the road types that intersect. The desired types of intersections do not always correspond with the recommendations in the design manuals. The conflicts and the differences in mass and speed determine that may occur determine which type of intersections is required. Where conflicts are unavoidable, it is important to l...

  17. Compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Building on Wouter Swierstra's Data types à la carte, we present a comprehensive Haskell library of compositional data types suitable for practical applications. In this framework, data types and functions on them can be defined in a modular fashion. We extend the existing work by implementing a......-cut fusion style deforestation which yields considerable speedups. We demonstrate our framework in the setting of compiler construction, and moreover, we compare compositional data types with generic programming techniques and show that both are comparable in run-time performance and expressivity while our...... approach allows for stricter types. We substantiate this conclusion by lifting compositional data types to mutually recursive data types and generalised algebraic data types. Lastly, we compare the run-time performance of our techniques with traditional implementations over algebraic data types. The...

  18. Multiparty Symmetric Sum Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes with the......This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than others. Type ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ... glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose ...

  2. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation- ...

  5. Types of Hemolytic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Hemolytic Anemia There are many types of hemolytic anemia. The ... the condition, but you develop it. Inherited Hemolytic Anemias With inherited hemolytic anemias, one or more of ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes ... Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non- ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home ... W/ Diabetes: Need Type 2 Tips? - 2016-04-consumer-guide.html Living W/ Diabetes Need Type 2 ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the test. Know where you stand. More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ... 1? - 2016-08-type-1.html Living w/ Diabetes Is Someone You Love New to Type 1? ...

  9. Types of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy is the use of medicine to treat cancer. Chemotherapy kills cancer cells. It may be used to ... people are treated with a single type of chemotherapy. But often, people get more than one type ...

  10. Types of Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about this condition, see Inflammatory Breast Cancer . Paget disease of the nipple This type of breast cancer ... carcinoma (this is a type of metaplastic carcinoma) Medullary carcinoma Mucinous (or colloid) carcinoma Papillary carcinoma Tubular ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sign up for Tour de Cure! More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ... 1? - 2016-08-type-1.html Living w/ Diabetes Is Someone You Love New to Type 1? ...

  12. Types of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000910.htm Types of chemotherapy To use the sharing features on this page, ... or on cancer cells. How Doctors Choose Your Chemotherapy The type and dose of chemotherapy your doctor ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About ... more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today for trusted info, recipes & more! More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ... 1? - 2016-08-type-1.html Living w/ Diabetes Is Someone You Love New to Type 1? ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type ... Someone You Love New to Type 1? Even kids can learn to manage for a long, healthy ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your ... of going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for ...

  18. Topologies on types: connections

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Xiong, Siyang

    2008-01-01

    For different purposes, economists may use different topologies on types. We char- acterize the relationship among these various topologies. First, we show that for any general types, convergence in the uniform-weak topology implies convergence in both the strategic topology and the uniform strategic topology. Second, we explicitly con- struct a type which is not the limit of any finite types under the uniform strategic topology, showing that the uniform strategic topology is strictly fi ner ...

  19. Examining Office Type Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Rolfö, Linda; Eklund, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Office types and their environmental features influence performance and job satisfaction. Yet employees’ opinions are seldom considered when choosing office type. This paper suggests a method that investigates employees’ office type preferences and motives behind the preferences. The method proved to be quick and simple and provided a flow of current to preferred office type. A majority preferred the quiet cell office for its privacy while the open office was considered having a noisy and dis...

  20. Osteogenesis imperfecta type V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Frank; Moffatt, Pierre; Cheung, Moira;

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V is an autosomal dominant bone fragility disorder that we had described a decade ago. Recent research has shown that OI type V is caused by a recurrent c.-14C>T mutation in IFITM5. In the present study, we assessed all patients diagnosed with OI type V at our in...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose ... Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- Donate Today - 2016- ...

  2. Diabetes, Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Riazi, Afsane; Bradley, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the role of psychological stress in Type 1 diabetes. Studies relating to stress and Type 1 diabetes onset and control, as well as the evidence relating to stress management training in people with Type 1 diabetes are discussed.

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... ensureArray(data.submitSurveyResponse.errors); $.each(surveyErrors, function () { if (this.errorField) { $('input[name="' + this.errorField + '"]').closest('.form-group') . ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type ... Find Us On Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes ...

  5. Diabetes Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- Donate Today - 2016-08-donation-en.html Donate Today Diabetes touches ... Chat Closed engagement en -- Need Type 2 Tips? - 2016-08-lwt2d-en.html Need Type 2 Tips? ...

  7. Multiparty Symmetric Sum Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Nielsen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs. Processes using the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient implementation of a prototypical tool for CPGs which automatically translates the original CPG specifications from a representation called the Process Matrix to symmetric sum types, type checks programs and executes them.

  8. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended......Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs is...... mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser...

  9. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    In Java, explicit casts are ubiquitous since they bridge the gap between compile-time and runtime type safety. Since casts potentially throw a ClassCastException, many programmers use a defensive programming style of guarded casts. In this programming style casts are protected by a preceding...... conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented in...... a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  10. Mastering TypeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Rozentals, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a JavaScript developer aiming to learn TypeScript, or an experienced TypeScript developer wanting to take your skills to the next level, this book is for you. From basic to advanced language constructs, test-driven development, and object-oriented techniques, you will learn how to get the most out of the TypeScript language.

  11. Super Greedy Type Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Entao; Temlyakov, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    We study greedy-type algorithms such that at a greedy step we pick several dictionary elements contrary to a single dictionary element in standard greedy-type algorithms. We call such greedy algorithms {\\it super greedy algorithms}. The idea of picking several elements at a greedy step of the algorithm is not new. Recently, we observed the following new phenomenon. For incoherent dictionaries these new type of algorithms (super greedy algorithms) provide the same (in the sense of order) upper...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How Grant Money ...

  13. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction; a...... residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  14. Type II universal spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  15. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  16. Types of Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » Blood Transfusion » Types of Blood Transfusions Explore Blood Transfusion What Is... ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Blood Transfusions Blood is transfused either as whole blood ( ...

  17. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  18. Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Haemophilus Influenzae type b Page Content Article Body If you’re like many parents, you may have been unfamiliar with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections until your pediatrician recommended a vaccine ...

  19. Diabetes Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if you don’t need medications at first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ...

  1. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M;

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  2. Giftedness and Psychological Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, John

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the psychological types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), of 966 students at a public residential magnet high school for academically talented students with other gifted and traditional high school students found both magnet school students and gifted students showed a particular MBTI distribution. (DB)

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2383) Give by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ... 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. ...

  4. Types Of Christian Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christian tourism is asub-type of tourism where pilgrims travel alone or in group as missionaries orpilgrims or to spend their free time to recollect; it attracts a large numberof travellers. Christian tourism can be practiced by religious young people,missionaries, participants to religious convents, amateurs of religiouscruises, religious camps, visitors of religious attractions, religiousadventurers. Christian tourism can be considered a sub-type of religioustourism because of the large number of people involved in this type of tourismworldwide. Christian tourism as a sub-category of religious tourism coversthree main sub-types: traditional pilgrimage practiced by most world religions,missionary travel to different areas in the world, and confessional voyage. Thestructure of hospitality industry is common to all types of tourism but, fortraditional pilgrimage, there must be special places for the pilgrims to sleep,eat and pray, because they belong, in most cases, to the medium-income touristcategory.

  5. Liquid lithium control type LMFBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a liquid lithium control type LMFBR type reactor, a fuel exchange device passing through the center of a stationary lid and capable of reaching a predetermined position of the reactor core is disposed. A control mechanism having a case in parallel with a reactor core shaft and a shrinkable sealed cylinder in the case is disposed in the outer circumferential region of the reactor core, and a tank for liquid lithium is connected to the sealed cylinder, and the pressure in the case is controlled by supplying or discharging coolants. Coolants in the reactor container are sucked and injected into the case. The sealed cylinder is shortened axially to attain balance of the pressure between the inner side and the outer side of the cylinder, and a portion of the liquid lithium is pulled out and recycled to a tank. Neutron absorbers rise by so much, to attain the same condition as in the case that control rods are drawn out. The pressure in the case can be optionally determined by a control device, and axial dimension of the sealed cylinder can be determined optionally. Then, a rotational plug for loading a fuel exchange device and control rod drives are not necessary to extremely simplify the structure of reactor upper structures. (N.H.)

  6. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturstudiet har vi arbeidet oss frem for å ...

  7. Type-II Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2016-01-01

    I will talk on our new theory on baryogenesis through type-II leptogenesis which is different from the well-known type-I leptogenesis. I will comment on the Jarlskog phases, $\\delta_{\\rm CKM}$ and $\\delta_{\\rm PMNS}$, in the CKM and PMNS matrices. In the type-II leptogenesis, the PMNS phase is used for Sakharov's condition on the global quantum number generation in the Universe. For this to be effective, the SU(2)$\\times$U(1) gauge symmetry must be broken during the leptogenesis epoch.

  8. Parametric Compositional Data Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we have illustrated the benefits that compositional data types (CDTs) offer for implementing languages and in general for dealing with abstract syntax trees (ASTs). Based on Swierstra's data types \\'a la carte, CDTs are implemented as a Haskell library that enables the definition...... of recursive data types and functions on them in a modular and extendable fashion. Although CDTs provide a powerful tool for analysing and manipulating ASTs, they lack a convenient representation of variable binders. In this paper we remedy this deficiency by combining the framework of CDTs with Chlipala...

  9. Type 2 diabetes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models......, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in vivo and should, thus, be sufficient to demonstrate preclinical proof of concept of a TRP antagonist in type 2 diabetes in rodents. The experiments are suggestions and could be replaced or supplemented by others....

  10. P-type ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Michael G; Nissen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    P-type ATPases form a large superfamily of cation and lipid pumps. They are remarkably simple with only a single catalytic subunit and carry out large domain motions during transport. The atomic structure of P-type ATPases in different conformations, together with ample mutagenesis evidence, has provided detailed insights into the pumping mechanism by these biological nanomachines. Phylogenetically, P-type ATPases are divided into five subfamilies, P1-P5. These subfamilies differ with respect to transported ligands and the way they are regulated. PMID:21351879

  11. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ... Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes ... CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At ... 1995-2016. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our Terms ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Drive ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success ... Congress The Cost of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent ...

  19. Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in an injection to get the best blood glucose control. Other types of insulin should never be mixed. ... disease, or yeast infections (in women). Keeping your blood sugar under good control can help prevent these conditions. Talk with your ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research ...

  1. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  2. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure. Drug treatments are different for the two types. Systolic failure: The left ventricle loses its ability to contract normally. The heart can't pump with enough force to push enough blood into circulation. Diastolic failure ( ...

  3. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Volunteer Center American Diabetes ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Diabetes Camp Learning at ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ... seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know ... Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do- ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Stop Diabetes Awareness Programs Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians ... others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tour de Cure event near you. More from diabetes.org Learn More: Special Book Promotion: Behind the ... Tips? - 2016-04-consumer-guide.html Living W/ Diabetes Need Type 2 Tips? Enroll in our free ...

  12. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  14. Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  15. Types of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Types of Diabetes Learn about Diabetes You can learn how to take care of ... to take care of your diabetes. What is diabetes? Diabetes is when your blood glucose, also called ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Call to Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cost of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How Grant Money is ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk ... Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Join Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical ... Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  3. Are You Still Typing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Irene; Yoder, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    Discusses word processing and desktop publishing and offers suggestions for creating documents that look more professional, including proportional type size, spacing, the use of punctuation marks, italics, tabs and margins, and paragraph styles. (LRW)

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Stop Diabetes Awareness Programs Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and ... others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ... going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success Stories Drive ... cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and better ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Diabetes Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Apply for Camp ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... prediabetes, and no one is excused. Take the test. Know where you stand. More from diabetes.org ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Earl Jones. Take the Quiz Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. Living W/ Diabetes: ... Call to Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donate en -- Donate Today - 2016-08-donation-en.html Donate Today Diabetes touches everyone, and finding a ... urgent. Donate We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Need Type ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. Living W/ Diabetes: It's Women's Health Month - 2016- ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find your leading role for type 2 diabetes management. Living W/ Diabetes: It's Women's Health Month - 2016- ... With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... quick recipes and healthy tips on Recipes for Healthy Living. More from diabetes.org Learn More: Special Book ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... time Give monthly Give in honor Give in memory Donate Now Why Give? Nearly 30 million battle ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ... 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Generation of Brilliant Researchers Our Research Foundation Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical ... Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy Living Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  4. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts of...... attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  5. Dentin dysplasia type I

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Aarti; Gupta, Sangesh; Yuwanati, Monal Bhaurao; Mhaske, Shubhangi

    2013-01-01

    Dentin dysplasia type I is a rare hereditary disturbance of dentin formation characterised clinically by nearly normal appearing crowns and hypermobility of teeth that affects one in every 100 000 individuals and manifests in both primary and permanent dentitions. Radiographic analysis shows obliteration of all pulp chambers, short, blunted, and malformed roots, and periapical radiolucencies of non-carious teeth. This paper presents three cases demonstrating classic features of type I dentin ...

  6. Neurofibromatosis type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Asthagiri, Ashok R.; Parry, Dilys M.; Butman, John A; Kim, H. Jeffrey; Tsilou, Ekaterini T.; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lonser, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an autosomal-dominant multiple neoplasia syndrome that results from mutations in the NF2 tumour suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q. It has a frequency of one in 25 000 livebirths and nearly 100% penetrance by 60 years of age. Half of patients inherit a germline mutation from an affected parent and the remainder acquire a de novo mutation for neurofibromatosis type 2. Patients develop nervous system tumours (schwannomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, astrocytomas...

  7. Types Of Christian Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Petroman

    2015-01-01

    Christian tourism is asub-type of tourism where pilgrims travel alone or in group as missionaries orpilgrims or to spend their free time to recollect; it attracts a large numberof travellers. Christian tourism can be practiced by religious young people,missionaries, participants to religious convents, amateurs of religiouscruises, religious camps, visitors of religious attractions, religiousadventurers. Christian tourism can be considered a sub-type of religioustourism because of the large nu...

  8. Congenital fiber type disproportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissiedu, Juliana; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Type I muscle fiber atrophy in childhood can be encountered in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is one such condition which presents as a nonprogressive muscle weakness. The diagnosis is often made after excluding other differential diagnostic considerations. We present a 2-year-9-month-old full term boy who presented at 2 months with an inability to turn his head to the right. Over the next couple of years, he showed signs of muscle weakness, broad based gait and a positive Gower's sign. He had normal levels of creatine kinase and normal electromyography. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis showed a marked variation in muscle fiber type. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-ase stains highlighted a marked type I muscle atrophy with rare scattered atrophic type II muscle fibers. No abnormalities were observed on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or cytochrome oxidase stained sections. Ragged red fibers were not present on the trichrome stain. Abnormalities of glycogen or lipid deposition were not observed on the periodic acid-Schiff or Oil-Red-O stains. Immunostaining for muscular dystrophy associated proteins showed normal staining. Ultrastructural examination showed a normal arrangement of myofilaments, and a normal number and morphology for mitochondria. A diagnosis of CFTD was made after excluding other causes of type I atrophy including congenital myopathy. The lack of specific clinical and genetic disorder associated with CFTD suggests that it is a spectrum of a disease process and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:26526626

  9. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  10. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  11. Standardized molecular typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F M; Lischewski, A; Harmsen, D; Hacker, J

    1999-01-01

    Molecular typing methods are useful tools in molecular mycology. The results of these biotyping procedures may help to identify pathogenic strains in order to detect sources of nosocomial infection and for the investigation of epidemiological relationships. With respect to the facultative pathogen, Candida albicans, various methods such as pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), DNA fingerprinting methods and hybridization with repetitive DNA elements have been described as useful tools in molecular epidemiology. The previously described hybridization method with the Candida albicans specific CARE-2 probe and subsequent rehybridization with a molecular size marker is a standardized reproducible typing method for comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. In a larger epidemiological study conducted at the University Hospital of Würzburg analysing clinical C. albicans isolates, we were able to describe relationships between sequential patient isolates. These findings demonstrate that standardized molecular typing methods are a powerful tool in molecular mycology studies. PMID:10865907

  12. Types of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation is based on the following areas: Types of Nuclear Reactors, coolant, moderator, neutron spectrum, fuel type, pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor pressurized heavy water (PHWR), gas-cooled reactor, RBMK , Nuclear Electricity Generation,Challenges in Nuclear Technology Deployment,EPR, APR1400, A P 1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER-1000, A PWR, VVER 1200, Boiling Water Reactor, A BWR, A BWR -II, ESBUR, Ke ren, AREVA, Heavy Water Reactor, Candu 6, Acr-1000, HWR, Bw, Iris, CAREM NuCcale, Smart, KLT-HOS, Westinghouse small modular Reactor, Gas Cooled Reactors, PBMR.

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  15. Chemistry of Blood Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  16. Type IV collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type IV collagen is a highly specialized form of collagen found only in basement membranes. It is one of the major components of all basement membranes together with the glycoproteins laminin, nidogen, entactin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Basement membranes are ubiquitous, thin, sheetlike structures found frequently under epithelial and endothelial cell linings but also surrounding many cell types such as muscle, nerve, and fat. They function as a selective filtration barrier for macromolecules, for example, in the kidney, blood--brain barrier, and placenta, but also separate extracellular matrix from epithelial or endothelial cell layers as in gut, skin, cornea, lung, and blood vessels. Indications that basement membranes contained a collagen came from X-ray studies of intact basement membranes as early as 1951. Later, hydroxyproline and then hydroxylysine were detected in amino acid compositions of whole basement membranes. Because of the insolubility of basement membrane components, attempts were made to solubilize the collagen using Pronase, a method that had proved useful for type I collagen. The material that was isolated and characterized was clearly different from the other interstitial collagens known at that time, i.e., α1(I), α1(II), and α1(III). Basement membrane collagen was therefore designated type IV collagen

  17. Making Type Inference Practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Oxhøj, Nicholas; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    We present the implementation of a type inference algorithm for untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. The algorithm significantly improves our previous one, presented at OOPSLA'91, since it can handle collection classes, such as List, in a useful way. Abo...... for object-oriented languages practical....

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can’t make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  20. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif;

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...

  1. Simply—typed Underdeterminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EwenDenney

    1998-01-01

    An extension of the simply-typed lambda calculus with constructs for expressing a notion called underdeterminism is studied.This allows us to interpret notions of stud and skeleton used in top-down program development.We axionatise a simple notion of program refinement,and give a semantics,for which the calculus is proved sound and complete.

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to ... normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking ... Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation-en.html Diabetes Must ...

  4. Types of OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... function, increase peak bone mass, and develop muscle strength. Physical therapy, early intervention programs, and as much exercise ... and function, increase peak bone mass and muscle strength, and employ as much exercise and physical activity as possible. Type IV: People with OI ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals ... and every 23 seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  6. TWO TYPES OF EDUCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫子辰

    2015-01-01

    <正>The education has a significant impact not only on individuals but also on the nation.There are two types of education,one is student-central,and the other keeps a watchful eye on the marks.Which one is better on earth?The following is my viewpoint.

  7. A Hilbert type inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Handley

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we obtain a new inequality of Hilbert type for a finite number of nonnegative sequences of real numbers from which we can recover as a special case an inequality due to Pachpatte. We also obtain an integral variant of the inequality.

  8. TypeScript essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nance, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces the TypeScript language and its features to anyone looking to develop rich web applications. Whether you are new to web development or are an experienced engineer with strong JavaScript skills, this book will get you writing code quickly. A basic understanding of JavaScript and its language features are necessary for this book.

  9. Zeros in the magic neutrino mass matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Gautam, Radha Raman

    2016-01-01

    We study the phenomenological implications of the presence of two zeros in a magic neutrino mass matrix. We find that only two such patterns of the neutrino mass matrix are experimentally acceptable. We express all the neutrino observables as functions of one unknown phase $\\phi$ and two known parameters $\\Delta m^{2}_{12}$, $r=\\Delta m^{2}_{12}/\\Delta m^{2}_{23}$. In particular, we find $\\sin^2 \\theta_{13}=(2/3)r/(1+r)$. We also present a mass model for the allowed textures based upon the group $A_{4}$ using type I+II see-saw mechanism.

  10. A Simple Motivated Completion of the Standard Model below the Planck Scale: Axions and Right-Handed Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We study a simple Standard Model (SM) extension, which includes three families of right-handed neutrinos with generic non-trivial flavor structure and an economic implementation of the invisible axion idea. We find that in some regions of the parameter space this model accounts for all experimentally confirmed pieces of evidence for physics beyond the SM: it explains neutrino masses (via the type-I see-saw mechanism), dark matter, baryon asymmetry (through leptogenesis), solve the strong CP problem and has a stable electroweak vacuum. The last property allows us to identify the Higgs field with the inflaton.

  11. A simple motivated completion of the standard model below the Planck scale: Axions and right-handed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a simple Standard Model (SM) extension, which includes three families of right-handed neutrinos with generic non-trivial flavor structure and an economic implementation of the invisible axion idea. We find that in some regions of the parameter space this model accounts for all experimentally confirmed pieces of evidence for physics beyond the SM: it explains neutrino masses (via the type-I see-saw mechanism), dark matter, baryon asymmetry (through leptogenesis), solves the strong CP problem and has a stable electroweak vacuum. The last property may allow us to identify the Higgs field with the inflaton

  12. Natural leptogenesis and neutrino masses with two Higgs doublets

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Jackson D.; Foot, Robert; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    The minimal Type I see-saw model cannot explain the observed neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via hierarchical thermal leptogenesis without ceding naturalness. We show that this conclusion can be avoided by adding a second Higgs doublet with $\\tan\\beta\\gtrsim 4$. The models considered naturally accommodate a SM-like Higgs boson, and predict TeV-scale scalar states and low- to intermediate-scale hierarchical leptogenesis with $10^3\\text{ GeV}\\lesssim M_{N_1}\\lesssim 10^...

  13. Natural leptogenesis and neutrino masses with two Higgs doublets

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Jackson D; Volkas, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The minimal Type I see-saw model cannot explain the observed neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the universe via hierarchical thermal leptogenesis without ceding naturalness. We show that this conclusion can be avoided by adding a second Higgs doublet with $\\tan\\beta\\gtrsim 4$. The models considered naturally accommodate a SM-like Higgs boson, and predict TeV-scale scalar states and low- to intermediate-scale hierarchical leptogenesis with $10^3\\text{ GeV}\\lesssim M_{N_1}\\lesssim 10^8\\text{ GeV}$.

  14. Quark-lepton flavor democracy and the non-existence of the fourth generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetic, G

    1995-01-01

    In the Standard Model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal Standard Model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high ``transition'' energy and assume the usual see-saw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically ruled out.

  15. Quark-Lepton Flavor Democracy and the Non-Existence of the Fourth Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetic, G.; Kim, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    In the Standard Model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal Standard Model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high ``transition'' energy and assume the usual see-saw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically rul...

  16. Models of neutrino masses and baryogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utpal Sarkar

    2000-01-01

    Majorana masses of the neutrino implies lepton number violation and is intimately related to the lepton asymmetry of the universe, which gets related to the baryon asymmetry of the universe in the presence of the sphalerons during the electroweak phase transition. Assuming that the baryon asymmetry of the universe is generated before the electroweak phase transition, it is possible to discriminate different classes of models of neutrino masses. While see-saw mechanism and the triplet Higgs mechanism are preferred, the Zee-type radiative models and theR-parity breaking models requires additional inputs to generate baryon asymmetry of the universe during the electroweak phase transition.

  17. Modular Session Types for Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Simon J; Ravara, António; Vasconcelos, Vasco Thudichum

    2012-01-01

    Session types allow communication protocols to be specified type-theoretically so that protocol implementations can be verified by static type checking. We extend previous work on session types for distributed object-oriented languages in three ways. (1) We attach a session type to a class definition, to specify the possible sequences of method calls. (2) We allow a session type implementation to be modularized, i.e. partitioned into separately-callable methods. (3) We treat session-typed communication channels as objects, integrating their session types with the session types of classes. The result is an elegant unification of communication channels and their session types, distributed OO programming, and a form of typestate supporting non-uniform objects, i.e. objects that dynamically change the set of available methods. We define syntax, operational semantics, a sound type system, and a sound and complete type checking algorithm for a small distributed OO language with structural subtyping. Static typing g...

  18. All types naive and canny

    OpenAIRE

    HEIFETZ , Aviad; Kets, Willemien

    2012-01-01

    This paper constructs a type space that contains all types with a finite depth of reasoning, as well as all types with an infinite depth of reasoning - in particular those types for whom finite-depth types are conceivable, or think that infnite-depth types are conceivable in the mind of other players, etcetera. We prove that this type space is uni- versal with respect to the class of type spaces that include types with a finite or infinite depth of reasoning. In particular, we show that it co...

  19. Human adenovirus type identification

    OpenAIRE

    Banik U; Adhikary AK

    2015-01-01

    Urmila Banik,1 Arun Kumar Adhikary21Unit of Pathology, 2Unit of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah, MalaysiaThe published paper in your journal entitling “Human adenovirus type 8 epidemic keratoconjunctivitis with large corneal epithelial full-layer detachment: an endemic outbreak with uncommon manifestations” has come into our attention.1 The article provides interesting clinical presentation of corneal epithelial layer detachment among 25%...

  20. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning ar...... benchmarks. Finally, possibilities for further research are indicated. In the appendix, decidability of the satisfiability of formulas is proved via a technique known from monadic First Order Logic....

  1. TYPES OF SHARES

    OpenAIRE

    TĂNASE Alin-Eliodor; Traian-Ovidiu CALOTĂ

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on equity instruments. There are presented the characteristics of ordinary and preference shares. There are described the types and characteristics of preference shares such as:cumulative preference shares, participating preference shares,convertible preference shares, callable preference shares and redeemable preference shares. Treasury shares are also described. The accounting records are based on IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation. There are presented the condi...

  2. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  3. Novel Bracing Type Against Seismic Loading: KX Type

    OpenAIRE

    Kutuk, M.; Gov, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a new bracing system is proposed which is named as KX type. Element removal method is used to obtain this new bracing. KX type optimized bracing is compared with V, and K type bracings under seismic loading. Maximum deformation value is used as performance indicator to compare effectiveness of V, K, and proposed KX type bracings to resist seismic loads. The proposed KX type bracing, yielded 99.72%, 93% and 88% reduced deformation with respect to unbraced, K type, and V type bra...

  4. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Trydal, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Hvert år får rundt 300 barn og 600 voksne diabetes mellitus type 1, og til sammen har rundt 28 000 personer denne sykdommen i Norge i dag. Det er en kronisk metabolsk sykdom, med en absolutt insulinmangel. Gjennom litteratur og forskning er det vist, at for å forebygge senkomplikasjoner, trenger pasienten informasjon, undervisning og praktisk veiledning når det gjelder medisinering, kosthold og fysisk aktivitet, og motivering til å mestre sykdommen. I praksis vil sykepleier spille en aktiv ro...

  5. Mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christine; Schaffer, Julie V

    2008-01-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with numerous lentigines and multiple cafe-au-lait macules on both sides of the face, neck, and trunk as well as on the proximal area of the upper extremities and in the axillae. The pigmented lesions had a Blaschko-linear distribution on the upper trunk and were limited to the left side of the abdomen, with a sharp demarcation at the midline. Multiple, cutaneous neurofibromas were found on the trunk, and ophthalmologic examination showed a Lisch nodule in the left iris. The clinical findings and their widespread but segmental distribution were consistent with a diagnosis of mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1. PMID:18627742

  6. Square Source Type Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  7. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  8. Invariant types in NIP theories

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We study invariant types in NIP theories. Amongst other things: we prove a definable version of the (p,q)-theorem in theories of small or medium directionality; we construct a canonical retraction from the space of M-invariant types to that of M-finitely satisfiable types; we show some amalgamation results for invariant types and list a number of open questions.

  9. Type 1 narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with unintentional sleep attacks and cataplexy. The disorder is caused by a loss of hypocretinergic neurons in the brain. The specific loss of these neurons in narcolepsy is thought to result from an autoimmune...... attack, and this is supported by evidence of both environmental and genetic factors pointing toward an involvement of the immune system. However, definitive proof of an autoimmune etiology is still missing. Several different immune-mediated disorders targeting neurons are known, and many of these are...... believed to be caused by autoreactive CD8(+) T cells. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on CD8(+) T cell-mediated neuronal damage on the basis of our understanding of other autoimmune disorders and experimental studies. We identify major histocompatibility complex class I presentation of...

  10. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L;

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type and...... number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  11. Pragmatic phenomenological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith

    2015-12-01

    We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework. PMID:26196088

  12. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...

  13. Type Inference for Bimorphic Recursion

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsuta, Makoto; 10.4204/EPTCS.54.8

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes bimorphic recursion, which is restricted polymorphic recursion such that every recursive call in the body of a function definition has the same type. Bimorphic recursion allows us to assign two different types to a recursively defined function: one is for its recursive calls and the other is for its calls outside its definition. Bimorphic recursion in this paper can be nested. This paper shows bimorphic recursion has principal types and decidable type inference. Hence bimorphic recursion gives us flexible typing for recursion with decidable type inference. This paper also shows that its typability becomes undecidable because of nesting of recursions when one removes the instantiation property from the bimorphic recursion.

  14. BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a coolant circulation in BWR type reactors, since the mixed stream of steam fluid undergoes a great resistance, the pressure loss due to the flow rate distribution when the coolants flow from the upper plenum into the stand pipe is increased upon passing stand pipe. Also in the spontaneous recycling reactor, pressure loss is still left upon passing the swirling blade of a gas-liquid separator. In view of the above, a plurality of vertical members each having a lower end opened to a gas-liquid two phase boundary and an upper end directly suspended from a steam dryer to the gas-liquid separator. The liquid droplets from the 2-phase boundary heated in the reactor core and formed into a mixed gas-liquid 2-phase stream is directed in the vertical direction accompanied with the steam. The liquid droplets spontaneously fallen by gravity from greater ones successively and the droplets in the steam abutted against the vertical member are fallen as a liquid membrane. Thus, the gas-liquid separation is conducted, the dry steam is directly flown into the steam dryer, thereby capable of providing a gas-liquid separator having gas-liquid separation performance with lower loss than usual. (N.H.)

  15. Natural convection type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a natural convection type nuclear reactor, recycling flow rate of coolants is increased and the amount of entrained bubbles are increased as the driving force is increased, so that bubbles are not separated completely even if a stagnation region is disposed. Then, a space opened only at the upper portion is disposed at the outer circumference of the upper end of a riser for storing overflown coolants temporarily. The flow of coolants incorporating steam bubbles uprising in the riser turns into the horizontal direction at the upper end of the riser wall and flows into the coolant reservoir. In the coolant reservoir, since the momentum of the coolants is lost and the flow is stagnated, the bubbles are easily released to the upper space. Coolants, after releasing the bubbles, further overflow and descend in the downcomer. Then, the bubbles can be separated undergoing no influence of the driving force caused as the sum of the uprising force in the riser and the water head pressure in the downcomer, to prevent increase of carry under due to increase of the driving force. (N.H.)

  16. BWR type nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of an emergency core cooling system while suppressing the flow out of coolants upon rapture accidents in a coolant recycling device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: Recirculation pumps are located at a position higher than the reactor core in a pressure vessel, and the lower plenum is bisected vertically by a partition plate. Further, a gas-liquid separator is surrounded with a wall and the water level at the outer side of the wall is made higher than the water level in the inside of the wall. In this structure, coolants are introduced from the upper chamber in the lower plenum into the reactor core, and the steams generated in the reactor core are separated in the gas-liquid separator, whereby the separated liquid is introduced as coolants by way of the inner chamber into the lower chamber of the lower plenum and further sent by way of the outer chamber into the reactor core. Consequently, idle rotation of the recycling pumps due to the flow-in of saturated water is prevented and loss of coolants in the reactor core can also be prevented upon raptures in the pipeway and the driving section of the pump connected to the pressure vessel and in the bottom of the pressure vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides an FBR type reactor in which the combustion of reactor core fuels is controlled by reflectors, and the position of a reflector driving device can be controlled even during shut down of the reactor. Namely, the reflector driving device is attracted to the outer wall surface of a reactor core barrel by electromagnetic attraction force. An inertia body is disposed vertically movably to the upper portion of the reflector driving device. Magnetic repulsive coils generate instantaneous magnetic repulsive force between the inertia body and the reflector driving device. With such a constitution, the reflector driving device can be driven by using magnetic repulsion of the electromagnetic repulsive coils and inertia of the inertia body. As a result, not only the reflectors can be elevated at an ultraslow speed during normal reactor operation, but also fine position adjustment for the reflector driving device, as well as fine position adjustment of the reflectors required upon restart of the reactor can be conducted by lowering the reflector driving device during shut down of the reactor. (I.S.)

  18. Miniaturized stirling type cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a cryogenic Stirling type cooler system, an axially extending casing, a compressor unit located within the casing and including a crankshaft extending transversely of the casing axis, an expander and expander connecting rod arranged co-axially in and with the casing the casing including a cover having an axis in coaxial relation with the crankshaft, the casing and cover forming a sealed housing for the compressor unit and crankshaft. The cover consists of a cup-shaped non-magnetic partition, a drive for the compressor unit comprising a D.C. brushless motor including a stator, a rotor and driving electronics. The rotor located within the cover in the sealed housing and coupled directly to the crankshaft, the crankshaft connected to the expander and compressor connecting rods, the stator located outwardly of an encircling the cover in co-axial relation with the rotor. The drive electronics located outwardly of the casing, whereby the rotor is located within the sealed housing in driving engagement with the crankshaft while the stator is located outside the sealed housing for driving the rotor so that the rotor supplies rotational movement to the crankshaft which is converted by the crankshaft cam for driving the expander and compressor connecting rod

  19. Neurofibromatosis Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Kasiri Ghahi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 is an inherited disease which is mainly characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas and meningiomas.  Incidence of the disease is about 1 in 60,000. Affected individuals inevitably develop schwannomas, typically affecting both auditory-vestibular nerve which lead in hearing loss and deafness. The majority of patients present with hearing loss, which is usually unilateral at onset and may be accompanied or preceded by tinnitus. Vestibular schwannomas may also cause dizziness or imbalance as a first symptom. Nausea, vomiting or true vertigo are rare symptoms, except in late-stage disease. NF II is caused by a defect in the gene that normally gives rise to a product called Merlin or Schwannomin, located on chromosome 22. Diagnosis is based on clinical and neuroimaging studies. Presymptomatic genetic testing is an integral part of the management of NF2 families. Prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is possible.

  20. Neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D G R

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene NF2 on chromosome 22. Around 1 in 33000 people are born with an NF2 mutation although more than one-third of the 60% of de novo cases are not conceived with the mutation but this develops later in embryogenesis (mosaics). NF2 has a substantial effect on life expectancy and individuals with a constitutional truncating mutation have the worst prognosis. The vast majority of people with NF2 will develop bilateral vestibular schwannomas with many developing schwannomas on other cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves. Cranial and spinal meningiomas and intraspinal low grade indolent ependymomas are the other major tumor features. Cutaneous features can be subtle with only 70% having evidence of intracutaneous plaque-like schwannomas or subcutaneous lesions on peripheral nerves. Café-au-lait patches are more frequent than in the general population but in only around 1% will meet NIH criteria for NF1. PMID:26564072

  1. Natural convection type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a natural convection type nuclear reactor, a reactor core is disposed such that the top of the reactor core is always situated in a flooded position even if pipelines connected to the pressure vessel are ruptured and the level at the inside of the reactor vessel is reduced due to flashing. Further, a lower dry well situated below the pressure vessel is disposed such that it is in communication with a through hole to a pressure suppression chamber situated therearound and the reactor core is situated at the level lower than that of the through hole. If pipelines connected to the pressure vessel are ruptured to cause loss of water, although the water level is lowered after the end of the flashing, the reactor core is always flooded till the operation of a pressure accummulation water injection system to prevent the top of the reactor core even from temporary exposure. Further, injected water is discharged to the outside of the pressure vessel, transferred to the lower dry well, and flows through the through hole to the pressure control chamber and cools the surface of the reactor pressure vessel from the outside. Accordingly, the reactor core is cooled to surely and efficiently remove the after-heat. (N.H.)

  2. Pressure tube type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, a pressure tube type reactor has a problem in that the evaluation for the reactor core performance is complicate and no sufficient consideration is made for the economical property, to increase the size of a calandria tank and make the cost expensive. Then, in the present invention, the inner diameter of a pressure tube is set to greater than 50% of the lattice gap in a square lattice like arrangement, and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 20% of the lattice gap. Further, the inner diameter of the pressure tube is set to greater than 40% and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 30% of the lattice gap in a triangle lattice arrangement. Then, heavy water-to-fuel volume ratio can be determined appropriately and the value for the coolant void coefficient is made more negative side, to improve the self controllability inherent to the reactor. In particular, when 72 to 90 fuel rods are arranged per one pressure tube, the power density per one fuel rod is can be increased by about twice. Accordingly, the number of the pressure tubes can be reduced about to one-half, thereby enabling to remarkably decrease the diameter of the reactor core and to reduce the size of the calandria, which is economical. (N.H.)

  3. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Organ Type and Waiting Time Most candidates, except those with living donors, wait ... organ needed How does organ type affect waiting times? Heart Allocation Physicians assign a status code to ...

  4. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  5. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  6. Computing effects for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans

    We show that type and effect inference is possible for a type and  effect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent  types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general  account of how effects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they...

  7. Neutrino masses in superstring derived standard-like models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new scenario in class of superstring derived standard-like models that explains the suppression of the left-handed neutrino masses. Due to nonrenormalizable terms and the breaking of the U(1)Z' symmetry a generalized see-saw mechanism take place. Contrary to the traditional see-saw mechanism in Grand Unified Theories, the see-saw scale and the right-handed neutrino mass scale are suppressed relative to the U(1)Z' breaking scale. (authors)

  8. Some Characteristic Quantities Associated with Homogeneous -Type and -Type Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Yeol Je

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several characteristic quantities associated with homogeneous -type and -type functions are introduced and studied in this paper. Further, the concepts of -property and -property for a couple of functions are introduced and some quantities for a pair of homogeneous functions having -property and -property are obtained, respectively. As an application, a bound for the solution of the homogeneous complementarity problem with a -type function is derived.

  9. Type System in Programming Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧; 林东; 等

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming language,This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language.It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the occurrence of execution error during the running of programs.So,it can be said that,on the one hand.type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language;on the other hand,it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language.In this paper,some basic concepts of type system are discussed first.And then,the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language-SClean's type system is given in details,It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  10. Type System in Programming Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui; ZHANG Xingyuan; LIN Dong; XIE Xiren

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming lan guage. This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language. It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the oc currence of execution error during the running of programs. So, it can be said that, on the one hand, type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language; on the other hand, it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language. In this paper, some basic concepts of type system are discussed first. And then, the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language - SClean's type system is given in details. It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  11. Types for BioAmbients

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  12. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  13. Clostridium perfringens Type C Enterotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Niilo, Leo

    1988-01-01

    Forms of enteric disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type C are critically reviewed with emphasis on practical aspects and recent research findings. Available data indicate that more animal species may be fatally infected by type C of this organism than by any other type of C. perfringens. Fatal cases have been recorded in pigs, cattle, sheep, horses and humans. Newborn animals are typically the most susceptible, possibly related to aspects of bacterial colonization, intestinal digestiv...

  14. Efficient Auctions and Interdependent Types

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Bergemann; Stephen Morris; Satoru Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    We consider the efficient allocation of a single good with interdependent values in a quasi-linear environment. We present an approach to modelling interdependent preferences distinguishing between "payoff types" and "belief types" and report a characterization of when the efficient allocation can be partially Bayesian implemented on a finite type space. The characterization can be used to unify a number of sufficient conditions for efficient partial implementation in this classical auction s...

  15. Inductive types in constructive languages

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Peter Johan de

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation deals with constructive languages: languages for the formal expression of mathematical constructions. The concept of construction does not only encompass computations, as expressed in programming languages,but also propositions and proofs, as expressed in a mathematical logic, and in particular the construction of structured mathematical objects like sequences and trees. Types may be conceived of as classes of such objects, and inductive types are types whose objects are gen...

  16. Type-II Weyl Semimetals

    OpenAIRE

    Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Fermions in nature come in several types: Dirac, Majorana and Weyl are theoretically thought to form a complete list. Even though Majorana and Weyl fermions have for decades remained experimentally elusive, condensed matter has recently emerged as fertile ground for their discovery as low energy excitations of realistic materials. Here we show the existence of yet another particle - a new type of Weyl fermion - that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new type of We...

  17. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op-timizing......We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op...

  18. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  19. Equations of the mixed type

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsadze, A V

    1963-01-01

    Equations of the Mixed Type compiles a series of lectures on certain fundamental questions in the theory of equations of mixed type. This book investigates the series of problems concerning linear partial differential equations of the second order in two variables, and possessing the property that the type of the equation changes either on the boundary of or inside the considered domain. Topics covered include general remarks on linear partial differential equations of mixed type; study of the solutions of second order hyperbolic equations with initial conditions given along the lines of parab

  20. A Type System for Tom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Kirchner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extending a given language with new dedicated features is a general and quite used approach to make the programming language more adapted to problems. Being closer to the application, this leads to less programming flaws and easier maintenance. But of course one would still like to perform program analysis on these kinds of extended languages, in particular type checking and inference. In this case one has to make the typing of the extended features compatible with the ones in the starting language. The Tom programming language is a typical example of such a situation as it consists of an extension of Java that adds pattern matching, more particularly associative pattern matching, and reduction strategies. This paper presents a type system with subtyping for Tom, that is compatible with Java's type system, and that performs both type checking and type inference. We propose an algorithm that checks if all patterns of a Tom program are well-typed. In addition, we propose an algorithm based on equality and subtyping constraints that infers types of variables occurring in a pattern. Both algorithms are exemplified and the proposed type system is showed to be sound and complete.

  1. Safety Analysis versus Type Inference with Partial Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Safety analysis is an algorithm for determining if a term in an untyped lambda calculus with constants is safe, i.e., if it does not cause an error during evaluation. This ambition is also shared by algorithms for type inference. Safety analysis and type inference are based on rather different...... perspectives, however. Safety analysis is global in that it can only analyze a complete program. In contrast, type inference is local in that it can analyze pieces of a program in isolation. In this paper we prove that safety analysis is sound, relative to both a strict and a lazy operational semantics. We...... also prove that safety analysis accepts strictly more safe lambda terms than does type inference for simple types. The latter result demonstrates that global program analysis can be more precise than local ones....

  2. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...

  3. Interpretations of Recursive Type Definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1992-01-01

    A system of hierarchical imperative types is extended to allow infinite values. The general structure of value assignments to types in the context of a hierarchy is considered, and it is shown that both a minimal and a maximal value assignment exist. We give two different characterizations of int...

  4. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  5. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of...

  6. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  7. Types for DSP Assembler Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken

    2006-01-01

    of a block of memory, thus enabling type checking of programs that directly manage and reuse memory. I show that both the baseline type system and the extended type system can be used to give type annotations to handwritten DSP assembler code, and that these annotations precisely and succinctly......In this dissertation I present my thesis: A high-level type system is a good aid for developing signal processing programs in handwritten Digital Signal Processor (DSP) assembler code. The problem behind the thesis is that it if often necessary to programing software for embedded systems in...... assembler language. However, programming in assembler causes numerous problems, such as memory corruption, for instance. To test the thesis I define a model assembler language called Featherweight DSP which captures some of the essential features of a real custom DSP used in the industrial partner's digital...

  8. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...... found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting...

  9. Drug Evaluations: Type I vs. Type II Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Intriligator, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Drug testing in the United States is currently biased toward the minimization of "Type I" error, that is, toward minimizing the chance of approving drugs that are unsafe or ineffective. This regulatory focus of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ignores the potential for committing the alternative "Type II" error, that is, the error of not approving drugs that are, in fact, safe and effective. Such Type II errors can result in the loss of significant benefits to society when the sale of d...

  10. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  11. Groundwater types in Southeast Srem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorić Enike

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The region of Southeast Srem is rich in ground waters, which is of great significance to agricultural production. The objective of this paper was to designate the zones of different groundwater types from the aspect of recharge, based on the analysis of groundwater regimes in the study area. A very complex groundwater regime in Southeast Srem, which depends on a great number of natural and some anthropogenic factors, makes it difficult to designate clearly the zones of the three main types of groundwater regime. Still, the boundaries of the zones of groundwater regime types were defined based on the results of correlation analysis of the basic factors affecting the groundwater regime. Zone I includes the climatic type of groundwater. Its fluctuation corresponds to the vertical factors of water balance (precipitation and evaporation and it is not affected by the river water level. This zone extends North and East of the line Putinci, Golubinci, Stara Pazova, Batajnica, Dobanovci, mainly in the area of the loess plateau. Within the zone, groundwater is at a relatively great depth. Only exceptionally, in the valleys, it appears almost on the surface. Zone II includes the climatic-hydrological groundwater type, which is the transition between the climatic type and the hydrological type. The fluctuation of groundwater regime is affected both by the effect of vertical balance factors, and by the effect of watercourses. Climatic-hydrological groundwater type covers the central and the lowest part of the study area and the South part of the middle terrace. Zone III is classified as the hydrological groundwater type and it covers the riparian areas along the Sava and the Danube. The aquifer is hydraulically connected with the river Sava.

  12. Types and Forms of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For the study of tourism, the most suitable method from the geographic point of view is typify it, because it allows the delimitation oftourist areas. Tourist areas are characterized by a specific type of travel or by a reunion of some types that may vary dynamically over time. Thetypes of tourism result mainly from the different motivations of the journey, i.e. the purpose of doing. Each type of tourism is distinguished by suchspecific purpose and it is specific to those regions where fixed purpose can be achieved by the existence of some specific facilities.

  13. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  14. The simply typed rewriting calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea, Horatiu; Kirchner, Claude

    2000-01-01

    The rewriting calculus is a rule construction and application framework. As such it embeds in a uniform way term rewriting and lambda-calculus. Since rule application is an explicit object of the calculus, it allows us also to handle the set of results explicitly. We present a simply typed version of the rewriting calculus. With a good choice of the type system, we show that the calculus is type preserving and terminating, i.e. verifies the subject reduction and strong normalization properties.

  15. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions and...... algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...

  16. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007429.htm Diabetes type 2 - meal planning To use the sharing features on this page, ... foods have carbohydrates. This will help with meal planning so that you can keep your blood sugar ...

  17. Definitions and Types of Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Definitions and Types of Pain Defining Pain Pain is a perception that signals the individual that tissue damage has ... in the body that are involved in the perception of pain are called "nociception." Basic and clinical research during ...

  18. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  19. Type analysis mining induced tremors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buben, Jiří; Vencovský, Miloš; Klos, Pavel

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 2000, 16 (118) (2000), s. 33-43. ISSN 1211-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : rockburst * cross correlation * type analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  20. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  1. Diabetes Type 2 Prevention Tips

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is a compilation of easy tips to prevent type 2 diabetes. They were compiled from several documents produced by the National Diabetes Education Program...

  2. Types and qualities of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Ton; Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the general importance of the concepts of type and quality of knowledge for theory, research and practice in the field of learning and instruction. Declarative and procedural knowledge as popular examples; Characteristics; Levels.

  3. Minimal type II seesaw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a minimal type II seesaw model by introducing only one right-handed neutrino besides the SU(2)L triplet Higgs to the standard model. In the usual type II seesaw models with several right-handed neutrinos, the contributions of the right-handed neutrinos and the triplet Higgs to the CP asymmetry, which stems from the decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino, are proportional to their respective contributions to the light neutrino mass matrix. However, in our minimal type II seesaw model, this CP asymmetry is just given by the one-loop vertex correction involving the triplet Higgs, even though the contribution of the triplet Higgs does not dominate the light neutrino masses. For illustration, the Fritzsch-type lepton mass matrices are considered

  4. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for an organ due to the shortage of donor organs. Because each candidate's situation is unique, waiting times ... distance between donor and recipient size of the donor organ in relation to the recipient type of organ ...

  5. Osteoarthropathy in mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS type II, Hunter syndrome) is a rare (~ 1/1500.000), X-linked inherited disorder (affects boys) due to deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate sulfatase (Xq.28). The complex clinical picture includes osteoarthropathy with a tendency to flexion stiffness and disability. In our country, the specific diagnosis and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), are recently available in the Center for Genetic Pathology Cluj. Objectives Assessment of clinical...

  6. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    2002-01-01

    Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hype...

  7. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  8. Computational semantics in type theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Aarne

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show how Montague-style grammars can be completely formalized and thereby declaratively implemented by using the Grammatical Framework GF. The implementation covers the fundamental operations of Montague’s PTQ model: the construction of analysis trees, the linearization of trees into strings, and the interpretation of trees as logical formulas. Moreover, a parsing algorithm is derived from the grammar. Given that GF is a constructive type theory with dependent types, the te...

  9. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...... moment distributions are of special interest in areas like demography and economics, and we calculate explicit formulas for the Lorenz curve and Gini index used in these disciplines....

  10. Mucolipidosis Type IV: an Update

    OpenAIRE

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyo; Gustafson, Ann Marie; Sidransky, Ellen; Goldin, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a neurodevelopmental as well as neurodegenerative disorder with severe psychomotor developmental delay, progressive visual impairment, and achlorydria. It is characterized by the presence of lysosomal inclusions in many cell types in patients. MLIV is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in MCOLN1, which encodes for mucolipin-1, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel family. Although approximately 70-80% of patients iden...

  11. Hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Amiel, S A; Dixon, T.; Mann, R.; Jameson, K

    2008-01-01

    The primary cause of hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes is diabetes medication—in particular, those which raise insulin levels independently of blood glucose, such as sulphonylureas (SUs) and exogenous insulin. The risk of hypoglycaemia is increased in older patients, those with longer diabetes duration, lesser insulin reserve and perhaps in the drive for strict glycaemic control. Differing definitions, data collection methods, drug type/regimen and patient populations make comparing rates of h...

  12. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  13. Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Diabetes Statistics Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset diabetes, ... for some, taking aspirin daily. Can type 2 diabetes be delayed or prevented? Yes. The results of ...

  14. Pomegranate and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleem; Swedan, Samer; Alguraan, Ziyad

    2013-05-01

    Over the last decade, various studies have linked pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn), a fruit native to the Middle East, with type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment. This review focuses on current laboratory and clinical research related to the effects of pomegranate fractions (peels, flowers, and seeds) and some of their active components on biochemical and metabolic variables associated with the pathologic markers of type 2 diabetes. This review systematically presents findings from cell culture and animal studies as well as clinical human research. One key mechanism by which pomegranate fractions affect the type 2 diabetic condition is by reducing oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. This reduction may occur by directly neutralizing the generated reactive oxygen species, increasing certain antioxidant enzyme activities, inducing metal chelation activity, reducing resistin formation, and inhibiting or activating certain transcriptional factors, such as nuclear factor κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased significantly by punicic acid, methanolic seed extract, and pomegranate peel extract. Known compounds in pomegranate, such as punicalagin and ellagic, gallic, oleanolic, ursolic, and uallic acids, have been identified as having anti-diabetic actions. Furthermore, the juice sugar fraction was found to have unique antioxidant polyphenols (tannins and anthocyanins), which could be beneficial to control conditions in type 2 diabetes. These findings provide evidence for the anti-diabetic activity of pomegranate fruit; however, before pomegranate or any of its extracts can be medically recommended for the management of type 2 diabetes, controlled, clinical studies, are needed. PMID:23684435

  15. Ionization box type radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ionization box for monitoring radiation rays, a first amplification circuit of a multi-stage amplification circuit employing a MOS type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a second amplification circuit employing a junction type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a first change-over switch for switching ionization current depending on input signals, a second change-over switch for switching output signals, and a signal level discrimination circuit are constituted integrally. When radiation dose rate is low, the ionization current is inputted to the first amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal and, when the radiation dose rate is increased to higher than a predetermined value, the ionization current is inputted to the second amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal. That is, monitoring accuracy is high when the ionization current is low since the MOS type FET of high input impedance is used. If the ionization current is higher than a predetermined value, there is no worry that the detection becomes impossible since the junction type FET having less worry of causing characteristic change due to high radiation dose rate is used. Accordingly, ionization box type monitor at a high monitoring reliability can be obtained. (N.H.)

  16. Different collagen types define two types of idiopathic epiretinal membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzenberger, Michaela; Junglas, Benjamin; Framme, Carsten; Helbig, Horst; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R.; Hillenkamp, Jost

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To identify differences in extracellular matrix contents between idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IEM) of cellophane macular reflex (CMRM) or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMFM) type. Methods and results: IEM were analyzed by light and quantitative transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Substantial differences between CMRM and PMFM were observed regarding the nature of extracellular fibrils. In CMRM, the fibrils were thin with...

  17. On Simulating Type Ia Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type Ia supernovae are bright stellar explosions distinguished by standardizable light curves that allow for their use as distance indicators for cosmological studies. Despite their highly successful use in this capacity, the progenitors of these events are incompletely understood. We describe simulating type Ia supernovae in the paradigm of a thermonuclear runaway occurring in a massive white dwarf star. We describe the multi-scale physical processes that realistic models must incorporate and the numerical models for these that we employ. In particular, we describe a flame-capturing scheme that addresses the problem of turbulent thermonuclear combustion on unresolved scales. We present the results of our study of the systematics of type Ia supernovae including trends in brightness following from properties of the host galaxy that agree with observations. We also present performance results from simulations on leadership-class architectures.

  18. Clostridium perfringens Type C Enterotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niilo, L

    1988-08-01

    Forms of enteric disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type C are critically reviewed with emphasis on practical aspects and recent research findings. Available data indicate that more animal species may be fatally infected by type C of this organism than by any other type of C. perfringens. Fatal cases have been recorded in pigs, cattle, sheep, horses and humans. Newborn animals are typically the most susceptible, possibly related to aspects of bacterial colonization, intestinal digestive functions, and to some other, unexplained, factors. Both beta toxin and the bacterial cells are required to initiate pathogenesis at the tips of jejunal villi, and subsequent massive adherence of these cells to necrotic mucosa is a characteristic feature. Although major lesions occur in the intestine, death is due to toxemia. The disease can be effectively controlled by vaccination of the dam. Epizootiology of this disease is a possible area for further studies. PMID:17423103

  19. Quantization via Linear homotopy types

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, Urs

    2014-01-01

    In the foundational logical framework of homotopy-type theory we discuss a natural formalization of secondary integral transforms in stable geometric homotopy theory. We observe that this yields a process of non-perturbative cohomological quantization of local pre-quantum field theory; and show that quantum anomaly cancellation amounts to realizing this as the boundary of a field theory that is given by genuine (primary) integral transforms, hence by linear polynomial functors. Recalling that traditional linear logic has semantics in symmetric monoidal categories and serves to formalize quantum mechanics, what we consider is its refinement to linear homotopy-type theory with semantics in stable infinity-categories of bundles of stable homotopy types (generalized cohomology theories) formalizing Lagrangian quantum field theory, following Nuiten and closely related to recent work by Haugseng and Hopkins-Lurie. For the reader interested in technical problems of quantization we provide non-perturbative quantizati...

  20. Glucagon and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel;

    2014-01-01

    In normal physiology, glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis via its regulatory effect on hepatic glucose production. Patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from fasting and postprandial hyperglucagonemia, which stimulate hepatic glucose...... production and, thus, contribute to the hyperglycemia characterizing these patients. Although this has been known for years, research focusing on alpha cell (patho)physiology has historically been dwarfed by research on beta cells and insulin. Today the mechanisms behind type 2 diabetic hyperglucagonemia...... or antagonization of the glucagon receptor constitutes potentially effective treatment strategies for patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we focus on the regulation of glucagon secretion by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP. Furthermore, potential advantages and limitations...

  1. Type idéal

    OpenAIRE

    Paugam, Serge

    2014-01-01

    L’usage de types idéaux constitue pour Max Weber une démarche sociologique fondamentale. Le type idéal est pour lui un moyen de comprendre le sens que les individus donnent à leurs expériences vécues, ce qui conduit à mettre ces dernières en relation avec l’organisation de la société à un moment historique de son évolution. Définir un type idéal ne signifie pas repérer sa forme majoritaire d’un point de vue statistique, mais discerner à partir des formes historiques des sociétés contemporaine...

  2. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluyanov, Alexey; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, Andrei

    The Dirac equation of quantum field theory gives rise to massless Weyl fermions that respect Lorentz invariance. In condensed matter these fermions are realized as low energy excitations in Weyl semimetals. In these materials a topologically protected linear crossing of two bands, called a Weyl point, occurs at the Fermi level resulting in a point-like Fermi surface. Lorentz invariance, however, can be violated in condensed matter, and here we generalize the Dirac equation accordingly to obtain a fundamentally new kind of Weyl fermions. In particular, we report on a novel type of Weyl semimetal, with a new type of Weyl point that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets. This node, although still a protected crossing, has an open, not point-like, Fermi surface, resulting in physical properties very different from that of standard Weyl points. We show that an established material, WTe2, is an example of this novel type of topological semimetals.

  3. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase-type dist......In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase......-type distributions. We construct representations for moment distributions based on a general matrix-exponential distribution which turns out to be a generalization of the moment distributions based on exponential distributions. For moment distributions based on phase{type distributions we find an appropriate...

  4. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  5. NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE I: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Neurofibromatosis (NF is a term that has been applied to a variety of related syndromes, characterized by neuro ectodermal tumors arising within multiple organs and autosomal-dominant inheritance. Neurofibromatosis type I(NF-1, known as well as Recklinghausen’s disease, we have presented a case report of 10 year old boy with complain of scalp swelling on right postero-lateral aspect of scalp with multiple flat, hypo pigmented macule on back, neck. On radiology work up including MRI there were multiple plexiform neuroibromas, multiple non-neoplastic hamartomatous lesion suggestive of neurofibromatosis type.

  6. Novel type-I compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue that there are two distinct classes of type I compactification to four dimensions on any space. These two classes are distinguished in a mysterious way by the presence (or absence) of a discrete 6-form potential. In simple examples, duality suggests that the new class of compactifications have reduced numbers of moduli. We also point out analogous discrete choices in M, F and type II compactifications, including some with G2 holonomy. These choices often result in spaces with frozen singularities. (author)

  7. Discrete Hilbert-Type Inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Bicheng

    2011-01-01

    Discrete Hilbert-type inequalities including Hilbert's inequality are important in mathematical analysis and its applications. In 1998, the author presented an extension of Hilbert's integral inequality with an independent parameter. In 2004, some new extensions of Hilbert's inequality were presented by introducing two pairs of conjugate exponents and additional independent parameters. Since then, a number of new discrete Hilbert-type inequalities have arisen. In this book, the author explains how to use the way of weight coefficients and introduce specific parameters to build new discrete Hil

  8. Models for Type I supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two rather disjoint scenarios for Type I supernovae are presented. One is based upon mass accretion by a white dwarf in a binary system. The second involves a star having some 8 to 10 times the mass of the sun which may or may not be a solitary star. Despite the apparent dissimilarities in the models it may be that each occurs to some extent in nature for they both share the possibility of producing substantial quantities of 56Ni and explosions in stars devoid of hydrogen envelopes. These are believed to be two properties that must be shared by any viable Type I model

  9. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects. PMID:24222606

  10. Outcome in tyrosinaemia type II.

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, D G; Kirk, J. M.; Laing, S C

    1991-01-01

    Tyrosinaemia type II was diagnosed in a boy with failure to thrive and in his sister on neonatal screening. On diet the outcome, at 12 and 10 years respectively, has been excellent in respect of oculocutaneous sequelae, growth, and psychomotor development, contrasting with the generally unfavourable outcome in most reported cases.

  11. High conversion burner type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis -NPS 2 Type

    OpenAIRE

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2004-01-01

    A case of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis or EHK) with some unusual features is described. It was diagnosed in a 6 month old girl with no family history of either EHK or focal lesions suggestive of mosaicism. The girl probably had EHK type NPS-2; but non-involvement of face and lack of foul body odor set the case apart.

  13. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Aug 26,2016 Many medications known ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  14. Magnesium and type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario; Barbagallo; Ligia; J; Dominguez

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with both extracellular and intracellular magnesium(Mg) deficits. A chronic latent Mg deficit or an overt clinical hypomagnesemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with poorly controlled glycemic profiles. Insulinand glucose are important regulators of Mg metabolism. Intracellular Mg plays a key role in regulating insulin action, insulin-mediated-glucose-uptake and vascular tone. Reduced intracellular Mg concentrations result in a defective tyrosine-kinase activity, postreceptorial impairment in insulin action and worsening of insulin resistance in diabetic patients. A low Mg intake and an increased Mg urinary loss appear the most important mechanisms that may favor Mg depletion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Low dietary Mg intake has been related to the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Benefits of Mg supplementation on metabolic profiles in diabetic patients have been found in most, but not all clinical studies and larger prospective studies are needed to support the potential role of dietary Mg supplementation as a possible public health strategy in diabetes risk. The aim of this review is to revise current evidence on the mechanisms of Mg deficiency in diabetes and on the possible role of Mg supplementation in the prevention and management of the disease.

  15. Type Inference of Turbo Pascal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Ole Ildsgaard; Schwartzbach, Michael I; Askari, Hosein

    1995-01-01

    Type inference is generally thought of as being an exclusive property of the functional programming paradigm. We argue that such a feature may be of significant benefit for also standard imperative languages. We present a working tool (available by WWW) providing these benefits for a full version...

  16. Invariant Classification of Gait Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method of classifying human gait in an invariant manner based on silhouette comparison. A database of artificially generated silhouettes is created representing the three main types of gait, i.e. walking, jogging, and running. Silhouettes generated from different camera angles...

  17. Gaussian Fibonacci Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become important tools in solving integrable system, Hamiltonian structure, and integral equations. In this paper, we prove that Gaussian Fibonacci circulant type matrices are invertible matrices for n>2 and give the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices. Furthermore, the upper bounds for the spread on Gaussian Fibonacci circulant and left circulant matrices are presented, respectively.

  18. Contextuality in Generalized Klyachko-type, Bell-type, and Leggett-Garg-type Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal theory of contextuality for a set of random variables grouped into different subsets (contexts) corresponding to different, mutually incompatible conditions. Within each context the random variables are jointly distributed, but across different contexts they are stochastically unrelated. The theory of contextuality is based on the analysis of the extent to which some of these random variables can be viewed as preserving their identity across different contexts when one considers all possible joint distributions imposed on the entire set of the random variables. We illustrate the theory on three systems of traditional interest in quantum physics (and also in non-physical, e.g., behavioral studies). These are systems of the Klyachko-type, Bell-type, and Leggett-Garg-type. Listed in this order, each of them is formally a special case of the previous one. For each of them we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for contextuality while allowing for experimental errors and contextual biase...

  19. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level....... In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind...... power plant (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individual wind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model...

  20. [Hypophysitis : Types and differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeger, W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammatory findings in the pituitary glands account for approximately 1 % of operations in the sellar region. Primary inflammation (e.g. lymphocytic and idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis) have to be differentiated from secondary types (e.g. concomittant inflammation with Rathke's cleft cysts, craniopharyngiomas and germinomas) and involvement of the pituitary in generalized inflammation (IgG4-related disease, sarcoidosis and septicopyemia). Langerhans cell histiocytosis also has to be considered for the differential diagnostics. Lymphocytic hypophysitis shows lymphocytic infiltrations of varying density, predominantly of the T‑cell type. Granulomatous hypophysitis has the features of sarcoidosis and can only be diagnosed by exclusion of generalized sarcoidosis. Secondary hypophysitis has a mixed cell infiltration, especially by histiocytic infiltration and predominantly originates from ruptures or bleeding from Rathke's cleft cysts. The frequently very sparse remnants of cyst epithelium should be confirmed by pankeratin immunostaining. PMID:27103256

  1. Three types of Counterfactual History

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Pessoa Junior

    2015-01-01

    The paper starts out by presenting the approach to the history of science based on causal models, discussing the postulation of counterfactual histories of science. Three different types of counterfactual analyses may be done in the historical sciences, all of which have the benefit of hindsight. Economic history and history of technology are characterized by their reasonable predictability; history of science and mathematics by their objectivity; and the third class, which includes “virtual ...

  2. Dementia of frontal lobe type.

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, D; Snowden, J S; Northen, B; GOULDING, P.

    1988-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with presenile dementia due to primary cerebral atrophy do not have Alzheimer's disease. One form of non-Alzheimer dementia may be designated as dementia of frontal lobe type (DFT), on the basis of a characteristic neuropsychological picture suggestive of frontal lobe disorder, confirmed by findings on single photon emission tomography. The case histories of seven patients exemplify the disorder: a presentation of social misconduct and personality change, ...

  3. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina;

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  4. Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis -NPS 2 Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis or EHK with some unusual features is described. It was diagnosed in a 6 month old girl with no family history of either EHK or focal lesions suggestive of mosaicism. The girl probably had EHK type NPS-2; but non-involvement of face and lack of foul body odor set the case apart.

  5. Types of Leader in Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Aurelian Bârgău

    2015-01-01

    Besides leading theories of people in one way or another from different angles reveal the types of leaders who can meet in business management literature contains classifications of management styles, which take into account different criteria or viewpoints. The word “leadership‟ has been used in various aspects of human endeavor such as politics, businesses, academics, social works, etc. Previous views about leadership show it as personal ability. The individual leader traits dep...

  6. NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE I: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Neha,; Poonam; Baberwal; Hemant

    2014-01-01

    : Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a term that has been applied to a variety of related syndromes, characterized by neuro ectodermal tumors arising within multiple organs and autosomal-dominant inheritance. Neurofibromatosis type I(NF-1), known as well as Recklinghausen’s disease, we have presented a case report of 10 year old boy with complain of scalp swelling on right postero-lateral aspect of scalp with multiple flat, hypo pigmented macule on back, neck. On radiology work up ...

  7. Imatinib in neurofibromatosis type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Stephanie; De Souza, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old man with a 10-year history of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) and minimal hearing in his left ear, presented with rapidly progressive disease and risk of total hearing loss. He was started on imatinib and achieved stable disease for 4 months, after which the drug was ceased due to toxicity. He was then treated with bevacizumab for 8 months with a best response of stable disease.

  8. Type Feedback for Bytecode Interpreters

    OpenAIRE

    Haupt, Michael; Hirschfeld, Robert; Denker, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This position paper proposes the exploitation of type feedback mechanisms, or more precisely, polymorphic inline caches, for purely interpreting implementations of object-oriented programming languages. Using Squeak's virtual machine as an example, polymorphic inline caches are discussed as an alternative to global caching. An implementation proposal for polymorphic inline caches in the Squeak virtual machine is presented, and possible future applications for online optimization are outlined.

  9. Type Ia Supernovae: Spectroscopic Surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, David

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations have extended the range of diversity among spectra of Type Ia supernovae. I briefly discuss SN Ia explosion models in the spectroscopic context, the observed diversity, and some recent results from direct analysis with the Synow code for one normal and two peculiar SNe Ia. Relating the observational manifestations of diversity to their physical causes is looking like an ever more challenging problem.

  10. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid insufficiency. After a few days of hospitalization she was treated with Aciclovir and later with Ganciclovir. An open pulmonary biopsy revealed an interstitial inflammation, localized in the alveolar walls. Some pulmonary arteries had widened walls and focal hyaline degeneration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the nuclei had herpes simplex virus type 2 in many endothelial cells (including vessels with widened walls, macrophages in the alveolar septa and pneumocytes. There was clinical improvement after treatment for herpes. We concluded that as a consequence of herpes infection, endothelial involvement and interstitial inflammation supervene, with thickening of vascular walls and partial obliteration of the vessel lumen. A direct consequence of these changes in pulmonary vasculature was pulmonary hypertension followed by heart failure.

  11. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft2. Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H2S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  12. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type VI mucopolysaccharidosis type VI Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), also known as Maroteaux- ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type II mucopolysaccharidosis type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type IV mucopolysaccharidosis type IV Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPS IV), also known as Morquio ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type III mucopolysaccharidosis type III Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), also known as Sanfilippo ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type VII mucopolysaccharidosis type VII Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), also known as Sly syndrome, is ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type I mucopolysaccharidosis type I Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a condition that affects many ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions glutaric acidemia type I glutaric acidemia type I Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Glutaric acidemia type I is an inherited disorder in which the body ...

  19. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. People ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for making a protein that forms type II collagen. This type of collagen is found mostly in the clear gel that ... is present in the nose and external ears. Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones ...

  1. A new type of spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia - Algerian type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new, dominantly inherited, severe form of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia in five members of an Algerian family is reported. Another child, not investigated, was also probably affected. The disease is characterised by a unique clinical and radiological set of features: dwarfism, genu valgum deformity, progressive kypho-scoliosis, wrist deformity, myopia and severe metaphyseal dysplasia, with moderate spinal changes and minimal changes in the hands and feet. In view of the geographical localisation of the disorder and the anatomical distribution we propose the name Algerian type of spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia. (orig.)

  2. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...... notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants....

  3. Recent Concepts of Ovarian Carcinogenesis: Type I and Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT. With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the “tubal peritoneal junction” (TPJ, undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells.

  4. PARENTING AND TYPE ONE DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhead, Sarah Louise

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers parental psychological well-being and the acceptability of parenting support for those who have an adolescent with type one diabetes (T1D). Within the literature it is acknowledged that T1D diagnosis and management can have an effect on all family members. Furthermore poor parental well-being can impact negatively on adolescent well-being. It is therefore important to understand parental well-being in the context of adolescent T1D. Paper one presents a literature review ...

  5. Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia, wormian bone type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, J M; Hall, C M; García-Miñaur, S; Delgado, A

    1998-05-18

    We report on a 4-year-old boy with craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia (CMDD), wormian bone type. Component manifestations include a large head with prominent forehead, skull changes showing multiple wormian bones, wide long tubular bones without the usual metaphyseal flare, wide and short tubular bones without the normal diaphyseal constriction, and wide ribs and clavicles. In addition to these findings, the propositus, his brother, his father, and a paternal aunt all have parietal protuberances, which seem not related to CMDD. Parental consanguineity supports the autosomal recessive transmission of the condition. PMID:9605592

  6. Type 2-diabetes i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2012-01-01

    Our vision is that the opportunistic screening system will be improved in order to find patients with occult type 2 diabetes (T2D), since an early treatment based on a correct phenotyping is the goal. Individual goals for HbA1c, blood pressure and lipids must be set up, and the number of drugs us...... must fit with the patient's phenotype to avoid polypharmacy. A new flow chart for the organisation of T2D has been formulated giving the general practitioners the role as co-ordinators....

  7. Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis - Prevention???

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Muralidhara Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multi-faceted, including, autoimmunity, genetics and environment. Autoimmunity directed against pancreatic islet cells results in slowly progressive selective beta-cell destruction ("Primary autoimmune insulitis", culminating over years in clinically manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Circulating serum autoantibodies directed against the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans (Islet cell autoantibodies - ICAb are an important hallmark of this disease. Assays for islet cell autoantibodies have facilitated the investigation and understanding of several facets in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Their applications have extended into clinical practice and have opened new avenues for early preclinical prediction and preventive prophylaxis in IDDM/type 1 DM. Recently, surprisingly, differences in insulin content between T1DM islets, as well as, ′patchy′ or ′lobular′ destruction of islets have been described. These unique pathobiological phenomena, suggest that beta cell destruction may not always be inexorable and inevitably complete/total, and thus raise hopes for possible therapeutic interruption of beta cell autoimmunity - destruction and cure of type 1 diabetes. "Recurrent or secondary autoimmune insulitis" refers to the rapid reappearance of islet cell autoantibodies post pancreas transplant, and selective islet beta cell destruction in the grafted pancreas [never forgetting or "anamnestic" beta cell destructive memory], in the absence of any graft pancreas rejection [monozygotic twin to twin transplantation]. The one definite environmental factor is congenital rubella, because of which a subset of children subsequently develop type 1 diabetes. The putative predisposing factors are viruses, gluten and cow′s milk. The putative protective factors include gut flora, helminths, viral infections, and Vitamin D. Prevention of T1DM can include: Primary prevention strategies

  8. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Pant; Sanjay Oli

    2003-03-01

    By making use of Letelier’s form of energy–momentum tensor for a cloud of stringdust we present some classes of solutions of general relativistic field equations which describe cosmological string-dust models in Bianchi type I space-time. Some of the classes of models obey Takabayashi’s equation of state whereas a class of models exhibits inflation in the initial stage. Two of the classes presented here have Kasner’s space-time as past asymptote.

  9. Mobile Balkans: Temporality, types, trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasteva Anna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to scrutunize the Balkan migration phenomenon, highlightening the alloy between continuity and discontinuity in the explanation of migrations; the former expressed in the trends, the latter - in breakthroughs, ruptures, changes. Four periods are articulated and characterized through the major trends. The typology of Balkan migrations identifies ten types, classified in three larger categories. The article distinguishes and compares the national migration models and draws a panoramic picture of the major trends during the last quarter of a century.

  10. Nuclear Zpif-Type Plots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Yu-Gang

    2000-01-01

    Isospin dependent classical molecular dynamics model is used to investigate the nuclear disassembly of 129Xe.Zpif-type plot in the field of linguistics is tested for the rank-classified cluster arrangement from this nuclear disassembly. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list is exactly inverse to its rank, I.e. There exists Zpif's law at the point of the liquid gas phase transition. This novel criterion can be used to diagnose the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically

  11. Nuclear Zpif-type plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isospin dependent classical molecular dynamics model is used to investigate the nuclear disassembly of 129Xe. Zpif-type plot in the field of linguistics is tested for the rank-classified cluster arrangement from this nuclear disassembly. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list is exactly inverse to its rank, i.e. there exists Zpif's law at the point of the liquid gas phase transition. This novel criterion can be used to diagnose the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically

  12. Neuroimaging in lissencephaly type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT scan's of 22 patients with lissencephaly type I, a severe development disorder of the cerebral cortex, were studied. In 6 patients a magnetic resonance (MR) scan was also performed. The CT and MR scans of the lissencephaly patients were compared to a control group consisting of 49 patients with a normal CT or MR scan. In lissencephaly the cortical thickness was always larger than 10 mm, as compared to less than 7 mm in the normal situation. In lissencephaly the WSF/DSF index (width/depth of the sylvian fissure) was always larger than 0.29, while in the normal situation less than 0.25. (orig.)

  13. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstone deposits represent a large part of the world's uranium deposits, and are particularly common in the United States of America. Orebodies of this type tend to exhibit many of the following features: (1) tabular or roll shape; (2) cross-bedded grey or green sandstone host rock, generally of Silurian or younger age; (3) a certain minimum thickness of sandstone; (4) mudstone interbedded with the sandstone; and (5) abundant organic matter and pyrite. The orebodies contain mainly uraninite and coffinite, with carnotite and other secondary minerals, and are commonly clustered along mineral trends. (author)

  14. Thematic networks and text types

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Dans cet article, la question de l’organisation textuelle est abordée par l’analyse de la progression thématique. Nous nous proposons d’étudier à quel degré les différents types de progression thématique établis dans un texte sont liés à la question de son genre textuel, s’agissant en l’occurrence d’un article de recherche scientifique et d’un article de vulgarisation. Nous considérons également certaines orientations didactiques issues de cette étude.

  15. Simple algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Over a field F of arbitrary characteristic, we define the associative and the Lie algebras of Weyl type on the same vector space A[D]=A[D] from any pair of a commutative associative algebra A with an identity element and the polynomial algebra [D] of a commutative derivation subalgebra D of A. We prove that A[D], as a Lie algebra (modulo its center) or as an associative algebra, is simple if and only if A is D-simple and A[D] acts faithfully on A. Thus we obtain a lot of simple algebras.

  16. Types of Leader in Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Aurelian Bârgău

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Besides leading theories of people in one way or another from different angles reveal the types of leaders who can meet in business management literature contains classifications of management styles, which take into account different criteria or viewpoints. The word “leadership‟ has been used in various aspects of human endeavor such as politics, businesses, academics, social works, etc. Previous views about leadership show it as personal ability. The individual leader traits depend not only on personal abilities and his characteristics, but in special on the characteristics of the situation and environment in which he finds himself. People could become members of an organization in other to achieve certain personal objectives, the extent to which they are active members depends on how they are convinced that their membership will enable them to achieve their predetermined objectives. The leader will support an organization if he believes that through it his personal objectives and goals could be met otherwise the person’s interest will decline. The type leader or style of leading in an organization is one of the factors that play significant role in enhancing or retarding the interest and commitment of the individuals in the organization.

  17. [Specific types of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, S; Hartmann, A; Knüchel-Clarke, R; Gaisa, N T

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer shows rare variants and special subtypes with diverse prognostic importance and therefore may necessitate different therapeutic approaches. For pathologists it is important to histologically diagnose and specify such variants. Nested variants of urothelial carcinoma with inconspicuous, well-formed tumor cell nests present with an aggressive course. The plasmacytoid variant, which morphologically resembles plasma cells is associated with a shorter survival time and a high frequency of peritoneal metastasis. Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma with small papillary tumor cell islands within artificial tissue retraction spaces and frequent lymphovascular invasion also has a poor prognosis. Other important rare differential variants listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification are microcystic, lymphoepithelioma-like, sarcomatoid, giant cell and undifferentiated urothelial carcinomas. Additionally, there are three special types of bladder cancer: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder. These tumors are characterized by pure squamous cell or glandular differentiation and are sometimes less responsive to adjuvant (chemo)therapy. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder mimics the neuroendocrine features of its pulmonary counterpart, shows an aggressive course but is sensitive to (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy. The morphology and histology of the most important variants and special types are discussed in this review. PMID:26782034

  18. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  19. Semantics and types of cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Bolser, Don; Davenport, Paul; Fontana, Giovanni; Morice, Alyn; Widdicombe, John

    2010-01-01

    The panel considered the different types of cough in terms of basic mechanisms and clinical manifestations; both experimentally and clinically cough could occur in single efforts and as ‘bouts’ or ‘epochs’. There were different definitions of cough but, provided the definition used was clear, this did not seem to be a major concern. The methods available for determining the nature or type of clinical cough were discussed, in particular automated cough counting in the clinic and more sophisticated methods available in the laboratory. With regard to semantics, there has been great variation in the names used; this applies to nervous sensors for cough, to cough reflexes and epochs, to clinical names for cough, and to cough sounds. Some simplification and uniformity of nomenclature seemed desirable although, provided the use of a name was clear, little confusion probably existed. The panel felt that the cough nomenclature would evolve with time and would prove to be useful for investigators, clinicians and coughers. PMID:19136069

  20. Fixed type incore instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a fixed type incore instrumentation system for use in BWR type reactor. A sensitivity ratio of an axially disposed gamma thermometer detection portions is determined based on output signals when the heater incorporated in the gamma thermometer generates heat or when it does not generate heat, and the ratio of gamma heat generation amount of the detection portions is determined based on the above-mentioned sensitivity ratio. The absolute value of the gamma heat generation amount is determine so as to agree with radial components of the power distribution of the reactor core obtained using a physical model of the reactor core, and also determined so as to correspond to the output distribution just after disposing neutron detectors. It is monitored whether the change of the sensitivity ratio of the gamma thermometer detection portions is uniform for detection portions in axial direction or it is increased only in a certain detection portion to judge failure of incorporated heater or that of sensors. The detection portion as a standard of the sensitivity ratio is adapted to have the maximum output signal in the axial direction so as to minimize the error of output signals. (N.H.)

  1. Mix bed type desalting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a condensate desalting device of a BWR type reactor capable of preventing degradation of ion exchange resins by water containing oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide thereby keeping reactor water at high purity. Namely, a mixed bed type desalting device comprises a desalting tower for removing impurities in water by ion exchange resins and a regeneration device for cleaning/regenerating the ion exchange resins. Means for loading iron cruds into water is disposed in the desalting tower. With such a constitution, oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide react with the iron cruds thereby enabling to suppress oxidative reaction during ion exchange. Since passage or cleaning/regeneration of water is conducted while loading the iron cruds between ion exchange resin particles and on the surface layer of an ion exchange resin layer by using the above-mentioned reaction, degradation of ion exchange performance of the ion exchange resins by hydrogen peroxide can be prevented upon condensate cleaning operation or resin cleaning/regeneration. As a result, degradation of quality of reactor water can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  2. 7 CFR 51.2853 - One type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One type. 51.2853 Section 51.2853 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Onions (Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2853 One type. One type means that the onions are within the same general color category. Metric...

  3. A Simple Solution to Type Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  5. 47 CFR 22.357 - Emission types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission types. 22.357 Section 22.357... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.357 Emission types. Any authorized station in the Public Mobile Services may transmit emissions of any type(s) that comply with the...

  6. Internet search. Types of search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Kralina, Anna Sergeevna

    2010-01-01

    For effective search in the Internet it is necessary to know: what types of search machines exist. First form a machine with classified lists of resources. The second type consists of machines that use queries about the resource. The third type of search machines consists of machines-catalogs. The fourth type is represented by meta-machines.

  7. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  8. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of...

  9. Standardization of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively investigated due to their great homogeneity and high luminosity, which make it possible to use them as standardizable candles for the determination of cosmological parameters. In 2011, the physics Nobel prize was awarded ‘for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.’ This is a pedagogical article, aimed at those starting their study of that subject, in which we dwell on some topics related to the analysis of SNe Ia and their use in luminosity distance estimators. Here, we investigate their spectral properties and light curve standardization, paying careful attention to the fundamental quantities directly related to the SNe Ia observables. Finally, we describe our own step-by-step implementation of a classical light curve fitter, the stretch, applying it to real data from the Carnegie Supernova Project. (paper)

  10. [Insulitis in type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    In't Veld, P; Klöppel, G

    2016-05-01

    Insulitis is considered to be the key morphological lesion of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) for which the diagnostic criteria were recently defined. From the immunophenotype of the lymphocytic infiltration, its frequency and extent during the course of T1DM and the presence of autoantibodies against beta cell proteins, it has been deduced that T1DM is a chronic autoimmune disease leading to gradual destruction of the insulin-producing cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, profound insulin deficiency and chronic hyperglycemia. This review article presents the morphological findings that support this hypothesis and addresses questions that need to be answered in order to further clarify the pathogenesis and to develop specific treatment options. PMID:27126249

  11. Standardization of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Reis, Ribamar R R; Siffert, Beatriz B

    2014-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively investigated due to its great homogeneity and high luminosity, which make it possible to use them as standardizable candles for the determination of cosmological parameters. In 2011, the physics Nobel prize was awarded for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae. This is a pedagogical article, aimed at those starting their study of that subject, in which we dwell on some topics related to the analysis of SNe Ia and their use in luminosity distance estimators. Here we investigate their spectral properties and light curve standardization, paying careful attention to the fundamental quantities directly related to the SNe Ia observables. Finally, we describe our own step-by-step implementation of a classical light curve fi?tter, the stretch, applying it to real data from the Carnegie Supernova Project.

  12. Neuroimaging in lissencephaly type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijk-van Andel, J.E. de (Westeinde Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology); Knaap, M.S. van der (Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Child Neurology); Valk, J. (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam Hospital (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology); Arts, W.F.M. (Westeinde Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Child Neurology Juliana Children' s Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands))

    1991-06-01

    The CT scan's of 22 patients with lissencephaly type I, a severe development disorder of the cerebral cortex, were studied. In 6 patients a magnetic resonance (MR) scan was also performed. The CT and MR scans of the lissencephaly patients were compared to a control group consisting of 49 patients with a normal CT or MR scan. In lissencephaly the cortical thickness was always larger than 10 mm, as compared to less than 7 mm in the normal situation. In lissencephaly the WSF/DSF index (width/depth of the sylvian fissure) was always larger than 0.29, while in the normal situation less than 0.25. (orig.).

  13. Complex Regional Pain Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael Joseph; Barnett, Peter Leslie John

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is increasingly recognized in the pediatric population. Owing to the nature of presentation with pain, many of these children present to the emergency setting at different stages of the syndrome with or without numerous prior interactions with health professionals. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) is a clinical syndrome characterized by amplified musculoskeletal limb pain that is out of proportion to the history and physical findings, or pain due to non-noxious stimuli (allodynia/hyperalgesia), and accompanied by one or more signs of autonomic dysfunction. Differential diagnosis may include significant trauma (eg, fractures), inflammatory conditions, malignancies, and systemic illness. The diagnosis is clinical. The treatment goals for CRPS1 are restoration of function and relief of pain. Education, physical, and occupational therapy with psychotherapy and defined goals of achievement with reward are the mainstay of treatment for this population. Most children with CRPS1 will have a favorable outcome. PMID:26928099

  14. Student selection and preference types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskey, N J

    1982-02-01

    The use of paper and pencil tests for the selection of candidates and to identify individual differences should be approached cautiously because the interpretations of the tests can be very subjective. Although personal preferences do tend to become more stable as we grow older, they may vary from one day to the next. No one is an absolute extrovert or introvert; we all have tendencies toward one or the other depending on the particular situation and the mitigating circumstances. The preference type indicator is not recommended for use in selecting candidates for entrance into a nurse anesthesia program; but, rather, to make members of the department aware of the similarities and differences among people. It is helpful in making individuals aware of the other person's preferences. It is also useful in making them aware of the need to examine their own areas of weakness and to improve them before attempting to change someone else. PMID:7072461

  15. Livermore pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) has served a dual purpose since 1958--as an instrument for fundamental research and as a tool for measurement and calibration. Our early efforts centered on neutron-diffraction, fission, and capture gamma-ray studies. During the 1960's it was used for extensive calibration work associated with radiochemical and physical measurements on nuclear-explosive tests. Since 1970 the principal applications have been for trace-element measurements and radiation-damage studies. Today's research program is dominated by radiochemical studies of the shorter-lived fission products and by research on the mechanisms of radiation damage. Trace-element measurement for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program is the major measurement application today

  16. Two types of psychological hedonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, Justin

    2016-04-01

    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or "I-hedonism") holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or "R-hedonism") holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person's cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I'll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and that it coheres well with the neuroscientist Anthony Dickinson's theory about the evolutionary function of hedonic states, the "hedonic interface theory." Finally, I'll defend R-hedonism from potential objections. PMID:26614552

  17. Progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Natures of progenitors of type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) have not yet been clarified. There has been long and intensive discussion on whether the so-called single degenerate (SD) scenario or the double degenerate (DD) scenario, or anything else, could explain a major population of SNe Ia, but the conclusion has not yet been reached. With rapidly increasing observational data and new theoretical ideas, the field of studying the SN Ia progenitors has been quickly developing, and various new insights have been obtained in recent years. This article aims at providing a summary of the current situation regarding the SN Ia progenitors, both in theory and observations. It seems difficult to explain the emerging diversity seen in observations of SNe Ia by a single population, and we emphasize that it is important to clarify links between different progenitor scenarios and different sub-classes of SNe Ia.

  18. Urologic laser types and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalin, Ricardo A; Phillips, Courtney K; Clayman, Ralph V; Landman, Jaime

    2008-11-01

    Though the primary role of lasers in urology has always been in the treatment of urolithiasis, there are several other indications for their use. There are many different types of lasers currently available, each with unique properties conducive to treating certain disorders. As such, it is critical that today's urologist understands each laser's characteristics in order to optimize patient selection and treatment. The lasers which are primarily used in urologic applications include the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser; the Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG); the Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP) laser and the Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser. This review focuses on the unique characteristics of each of these lasers as well as the instrumentation needed utilize and deploy these tools in the urinary tract. PMID:19140577

  19. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  20. Type Checking with XML Schema in XACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    ACT is an extension of Java for making type-safe XML transformations. Unlike other approaches, XACT provides a programming model based on XML templates and XPath together with a type checker based on data-flow analysis. We show how to extend the data-flow analysis technique used in the XACT system...... to support XML Schema as type formalism. The technique is able to model advanced features, such as type derivations and overloaded local element declarations, and also datatypes of attribute values and character data. Moreover, we introduce optional type annotations to improve modularity of the type...

  1. Glycosaminoglycans and mucopolysaccharidosis type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena; Kloska, Anna; Malinowska, Marcelina; Piotrowska, Ewa; Banecka-Majkutewicz, Zyta; Banecki, Bogdan; Wegrzyn, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disease in which heparan sulfate is accumulated in lysosomes, as well as outside of cells, as the primary storage material. This disease is a complex of four conditions caused by dysfunctions of one of genes coding for lysosomal enzymes involved in degradation of heparan sulfate: SGSH (coding for heparan N-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIIA, NAGLU (coding for alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase) - causing MPS IIIB, HGSNAT (coding for acetyl CoA alpha-glucosaminide acetyltransferase) - causing MPS IIIC), and GNS (coding for N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase) - causing MPS IIID. The primary storage is responsible for some disease symptoms, but other arise as a result of secondary storage, including glycosphingolipids, and subsequent processes, like oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Central nervous system is predominantly affected in all subtypes of MPS III. Heparan sulfate and its derivatives are the most commonly used biomarkers for diagnosis and prediction procedures. Currently, there is no therapy for Sanfilippo syndrome, however, clinical trials are ongoing for enzyme replacement therapy, gene therapy and substrate reduction therapy (particularly gene expression-targeted isoflavone therapy). PMID:27100513

  2. Rotational-type magnetic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a magnetic field sensor suitable to continuous measurement for magnetic fields at places where installation of semiconductor-type magnetic field sensors is difficult because of high temperature and presence of radiation, for example, the inside of a vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device. One or more rotatable coils, a power source for supplying current to the coils and a means for measuring voltage induced by the coils are disposed to measure magnetic fields for a long period of time. Since intensity of magnetic fields is measured while rotating coils using the electromagnetic force caused by the magnetic fields to be measured, driving devices for the rotational movement such as air pipelines and a motor for driving coils are no more necessary, thereby enabling to simplify the structure of the sensor. In addition, measurement for steady magnetic fields can be conducted at high temperature, in strong magnetic fields or under radiation where an ordinary motor does not function. (N.H.)

  3. Movable coil type magnetic drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In movable coil type magnetic drives suitable to reactor control element drives, if it is intended to increase the retaining force thereof, there has been a problem that the size of the device is increased. Then in electromagnetic coils surrounding a plunger mounted to a driving shaft, auxiliary annular poles are disposed to each of inner ends of poles at both ends of the coils so as to cover almost of the surface on the side of the plunger. As a result, the magnetic bonding force between the electromagnetic coils and the plunger is enhanced, and the retaining force for the driving shaft can be increased by a small sized device without increasing current supplied to the electromagnetic coils and the number of the electromagnetic coils. The present invention is not limited to reactor control element drives, but it can be applied to various kinds of fields such as a driving device for moving materials in contactless manner, for example, in a case of removing drum cans containing radioactive materials or harmful materials. (N.H.)

  4. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Thakker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet and anterior pituitary tumors. Some patients may also develop carcinoid tumors, adrenocortical tumors, facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, and lipomas. MEN1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder, due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, which encodes a 610 amino acid protein, menin. Thus, the finding of MEN1 in a patient has important implications for family members because first-degree relatives have a 50% risk of developing the disease and can often be identified by MEN1 mutational analysis. Patients with MEN1 have a decreased life-expectancy and the outcomes of current treatments, which are generally similar to that for the respective tumors occurring in non-MEN1 patients, are not as successful because of multiple tumors, which may be larger, more aggressive, and resistant to treatment, and the concurrence of metastases. The prognosis for MEN1 patients might be improved by pre-symptomatic tumor detection and undertaking treatment specific for MEN1-tumors. Thus, it is recommended that MEN1 patients and their families should be cared for by multi-disciplinary teams comprising relevant specialists with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with endocrine tumors.

  5. Type Ia Supernova Carbon Footprints

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, R C; Aragon, C; Antilogus, P; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Rubin, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C; Brown, P J; Milne, P A

    2011-01-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of 5 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 d relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II 6580 absorption "notches" in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the 5 SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibits high-velocity (v > 20,000 km/s) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broad band light curve/color behavior: Three of the 5 have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors, and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal-to-noise and phase, we ...

  6. Natural convection type BWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a natural convection type BWR reactor, a mixed stream of steams and water undergo a great flow resistance. In particular, pressure loss upon passing from an upper plenum to a stand pipe and pressure loss upon passing through rotational blades are great. Then, a steam dryer comprising laminated dome-like perforated plates and a drain pipe for flowing down separated water to a downcomer are disposed above a riser. The coolants heated in the reactor core are boiled, uprise in the riser as a gas-liquid two phase flow containing voids, release steams containing droplets from the surface of the gas-liquid two phase, flow into the steam dryer comprising the perforated plates and are separated into a gas and a liquid. The dried steams flow to a turbine passing through a main steam pipe and the condensated droplets flow down through the drain pipe and the downcomer to the lower portion of the reactor core. In this way, the conventional gas-liquid separator can be saved without lowering the quality of steam drying to reduce the pressure loss and to improve the operation performance. (N.H.)

  7. Rijke-type thermoacoustic oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoacoustic instability can appear in any thermal device when the unsteady heat transfer is favourably coupled with the fluctuations of acoustic pressure. In this paper, we present a project type of physical measuring and modelling task; the aim of our project is to help our students increase their knowledge of thermoacoustics. Our paper proposes several experiments and describes some tools' setups that are easy to obtain and work with. Free software is offered to analyse the signals with a personal computer. In this paper, the basis of standing wave theory and the tie between thermodynamics and acoustical oscillations are also discussed; some devices and technical applications of thermoacoustic oscillations are presented. The objective of this paper is to present the theory of frequency shifting of thermoacoustic oscillations as well. The frequencies of the acoustic modes in the excited state are of interest for practical purposes; the differences between the calculated and the measured values of these frequencies are shown. The behaviour of the properties of the exited modes shows the complexity of the real thermoacoustic systems; the mathematical modelling intended to simulate the effect of frequency shifting is observed in tests. We think that these experiments can be implemented in physics courses on thermodynamics for graduates or specialized courses for undergraduates.

  8. Rijke-type thermoacoustic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tamas

    2011-03-01

    Thermoacoustic instability can appear in any thermal device when the unsteady heat transfer is favourably coupled with the fluctuations of acoustic pressure. In this paper, we present a project type of physical measuring and modelling task; the aim of our project is to help our students increase their knowledge of thermoacoustics. Our paper proposes several experiments and describes some tools' setups that are easy to obtain and work with. Free software is offered to analyse the signals with a personal computer. In this paper, the basis of standing wave theory and the tie between thermodynamics and acoustical oscillations are also discussed; some devices and technical applications of thermoacoustic oscillations are presented. The objective of this paper is to present the theory of frequency shifting of thermoacoustic oscillations as well. The frequencies of the acoustic modes in the excited state are of interest for practical purposes; the differences between the calculated and the measured values of these frequencies are shown. The behaviour of the properties of the exited modes shows the complexity of the real thermoacoustic systems; the mathematical modelling intended to simulate the effect of frequency shifting is observed in tests. We think that these experiments can be implemented in physics courses on thermodynamics for graduates or specialized courses for undergraduates.

  9. Coriolis-type mass flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass flowmeter of the Coriolis type is described comprising: A. a single turn flow loop formed by a pipe having a pair of arcuate legs the loop is supported on a frame whereby the loop is free to vibrate at its natural resonance frequency; B. a self-sufficient electromagnetic ballistic vibrator mounted on the loop at the vertex. The vibrator has a mass that oscillates to cause the loop to vibrate at its resonance frequency; C. means to feed a fluid to be metered through the vibrating loop to cause the loop to undergo tortional oscillation as a function of mass flow: D. a pair of strain gauges mounted on the respective legs of the loop whereby in the absence of flow, the gauges yield equal signals and during flow they yield signals of different magnitude as a function of mass flow; E. means to apply the signals from the gauges to a differential amplifier whose output is substantially proportional to the mass flow rate; and F. means responsive to the differential amplifier output to provide a mass flow rate reading

  10. Type 1 diabetes associated autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Hansen, Martin P

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The economic costs are considerable given the cardiovascular complications and co-morbidities that it may entail. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The pathogenesis of T1D is complex and multifactorial and involves a genetic susceptibility that predisposes to abnormal immune responses in the presence of ill-defined environmental insults to the pancreatic islets. Genetic background may affect the risk for autoimmune disease and patients with T1D exhibit an increased risk of other autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune thyroid disease, Addison's disease, autoimmune gastritis, coeliac disease and vitiligo. Approximately 20%-25% of patients with T1D have thyroid antibodies, and up to 50% of such patients progress to clinical autoimmune thyroid disease. Approximately 0.5% of diabetic patients have concomitant Addison's disease and 4% have coeliac disease. The prevalence of autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia is 5% to 10% and 2.6% to 4%, respectively. Early detection of antibodies and latent organ-specific dysfunction is advocated to alert physicians to take appropriate action in order to prevent full-blown disease. Patients and family members should be educated to be able to recognize signs and symptoms of underlying disease. PMID:26903475

  11. BERGMAN TYPE PROJECTIONS ON Lp SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kehe Zhu

    2005-01-01

    The paper is a survey on the action of Bergman type projections on various Lp spaces. The focus is on three types of holomorphic function spaces: weighted Bergman spaces, the Bloch space, and diagonal Besov spaces.

  12. A Pilot Study of Personality Type Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee

    1980-01-01

    Used the Myers Briggs Type Indicator to measure personality type changes in three developmentally disabled adolescents before and after token economy treatment was conducted in a half-way house. (Author/DB)

  13. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type 2 Diabetes? be treated promptly because elevated blood sugars can Also called adult onset or non-insulin dependent diabet , es damage the kidneys, heart, and eyes; and predispose type 2 diabetes is a chronic ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: neurofibromatosis type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type 2 are called vestibular schwannomas or acoustic neuromas. These growths develop along the nerve that carries ... Testing Registry: Neurofibromatosis, type 2 MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Acoustic Neuroma MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Neurofibromatosis 2 Neurofibromatosis Clinic, Massachusetts General ...

  15. Influenza Type A Viruses and Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Influenza Type A Viruses Language: English Español Recommend ...

  16. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  17. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > Type 1 ... in learning to live with the disease. About Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  18. Type 2 diabetes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000328.htm Type 2 diabetes - self-care To use the sharing features on ... seeing a diabetes educator. Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes You may not have any symptoms. If you ...

  19. Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > Type 2 ... in learning to live with the disease. About Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  20. What Are the Types of Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are the types of muscular dystrophy? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Content There are more than 30 forms of muscular dystrophy (MD), with information on the primary types included ...

  1. Type Soundness in the Dart Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strocco, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Many mainstream programming languages are dynamically typed. This allows for rapid software development and programming flexibility because it gives programmers the freedom to use powerful programming patterns that are not allowed in statically typed programming languages. Nevertheless......, this freedom does not come without drawbacks: static bugs detection, IDE support, and compiler optimization techniques are harder to implement. In the last decades, the research literature and mainstream programming languages have been aiming to reach a trade-off between statically typed and dynamically typed...... languages. We investigate the trade-off, focusing on the area of optional typing, which allows programmers to choose when to use static type checking in parts of pro- grams. Our primary focus is Dart, an optionally typed programming language with a type system that is unsound by design. What makes Dart...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions SCA2 spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 ( SCA2 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions SCA3 spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 ( SCA3 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions SCA6 spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 ( SCA6 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions SCA1 spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 ( SCA1 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  6. Type 2 Diabetes and TZDs (Thiazolidinediones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ... Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ...

  7. Sacrifical sites, types and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örnulv Vorren

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written and said about Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. There is, however, considerably less documentation of concrete cultural elements in scholarly descriptions. These investigations are considered important not only because they aim to provide documentation that can be used for studies of Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. They also provide material that can throw light on the function of the holy places in a social context through analysis of their origin, their connections with certain families and persons, their associations with the siidas, their location within the areas where the Saamis from these siidas gained their livelihood, etc. The materials collected about the sacrificial sites also play an important role in studying the course of events leading up to the differentiation of Saami hunting and gathering culture. A question that has frequently arisen in the course of this work is with what powers or deities the different sacrificial sites were associated. This is naturally connected with their origin and their form. This, in turn, is reflected in the traditions and legends recounted concerning them. It is also reflected in their location in the physical environment and in the kinds of offerings that have been found. In the materials so far collected it is possible to distinguish between about eight different types of sacrificial site and holy mountain or fell according to their form and location: holy fells, rock formations, stone boulders, holes, cracks in fells, springs, lakes, ring-shaped sacrificial sites. Missionaries were urged to destroy the offering sites.

  8. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzi Ettore

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions is recommended.

  9. Convection in Type 2 supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.S.

    1993-10-15

    Results are presented here from several two dimensional numerical calculations of events in Type II supernovae. A new 2-D hydrodynamics and neutrino transport code has been used to compute the effect on the supernova explosion mechanism of convection between the neutrinosphere and the shock. This convection is referred to as exterior convection to distinguish it from convection beneath the neutrinosphere. The model equations and initial and boundary conditions are presented along with the simulation results. The 2-D code was used to compute an exterior convective velocity to compare with the convective model of the Mayle and Wilson 1-D code. Results are presented from several runs with varying sizes of initial perturbation, as well as a case with no initial perturbation but including the effects of rotation. The M&W code does not produce an explosion using the 2-D convective velocity. Exterior convection enhances the outward propagation of the shock, but not enough to ensure a successful explosion. Analytic estimates of the growth rate of the neutron finger instability axe presented. It is shown that this instability can occur beneath the neutrinosphere of the proto-neutron star in a supernova explosion with a growth time of {approximately} 3 microseconds. The behavior of the high entropy bubble that forms between the shock and the neutrinosphere in one dimensional calculations of supernova is investigated. It has been speculated that this bubble is a site for {gamma}-process generation of heavy elements. Two dimensional calculations are presented of the time evolution of the hot bubble and the surrounding stellar material. Unlike one dimensional calculations, the 2D code fails to achieve high entropies in the bubble. When run in a spherically symmetric mode the 2-D code reaches entropies of {approximately} 200. When convection is allowed, the bubble reaches {approximately} 60 then the bubble begins to move upward into the cooler, denser material above it.

  10. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CARBON FOOTPRINTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II λ6580 absorption 'notches' in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s–1) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22+10–6% of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as –5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II λ6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a 'carbon blobs' hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  11. Excitonic molecules in type-II superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Katayama, S.; Ando, T.

    1998-01-01

    Excitonic molecules in GaAs/AlAs type-II superlattices are numerically investigated. In spite of large difference of electronic structures between type-II and type-I superlattices, variational calculations show that the configuration of particles is similar to that in type-I superlattices. This is because the layer width is smaller than the extent of excitonic wavefunctions in the direction parallel to the layers in the present superlattices.

  12. Brand Objects for Nominal Typing (Artifact)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones,Timothy; Homer, Michael; Noble, James

    2015-01-01

    In Brand Objects for Nominal Typing, we describe an implementation of a branding system for both runtime and static types. This artifact provides the extended form of Hopper, an interpreter for the Grace programming language, and extra modules which define both the dynamic objects and the modular static type checker. The extra modules extend the existing structural type checker in the provided version of Hopper, and are capable of statically checking code which interacts with statically deter...

  13. Algebras of quasi-quaternion type

    OpenAIRE

    Ladkani, Sefi

    2014-01-01

    We define algebras of quasi-quaternion type, which are symmetric algebras of tame representation type whose stable module category has certain structure similar to that of the algebras of quaternion type introduced by Erdmann. We observe that symmetric tame algebras that are also 2-CY-tilted are of quasi-quaternion type. We present a combinatorial construction of such algebras by introducing the notion of triangulation quivers. The class of algebras that we get contains Erdmann's algebras of ...

  14. Diabetes: glycaemic control in type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Bala; Taub, Nick; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is now seen as a progressive disorder of glucose metabolism; it affects about 5% of the population worldwide, over 85% of whom have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia (the metabolic syndrome), which are powerful predictors of CVD.Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which glucose levels rise over time, with or without treatment and irrespective of the type of treatment given. This rise may lead to microvascular an...

  15. IL-10 dependent suppression of type 1, type 2 and type 17 cytokines in active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathella Pavan Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although Type 1 cytokine responses are considered protective in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, their role as well as those of Type 2, 17 and immunoregulatory cytokines in tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL and latent tuberculosis (LTB have not been well studied. AIM AND METHODS: To identify cytokine responses associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, TB lymphadenitits and latent TB, we examined mycobacterial antigen-specific immune responses of PTB, TBL and LTB individuals. More specifically, we examined ESAT-6 and CFP-10 induced Type 1, Type 2 and Type 17 cytokine production and their regulation using multiplex ELISA. RESULTS: PTB individuals exhibited a significantly lower baseline as well as antigen-specific production of Type 1 (IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2; Type 2 (IL-4 and Type 17 (IL-17A and IL-17F cytokines in comparison to both TBL and LTB individuals. TBL individuals exhibited significantly lower antigen-specific IFNγ responses alone in comparison to LTB individuals. Although, IL-10 levels were not significantly higher, neutralization of IL-10 during antigen stimulation resulted in significantly enhanced production of IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-17A in PTB individuals, indicating that IL-10 mediates (at least partially the suppression of cytokine responses in PTB. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary TB is characterized by an IL-10 dependent antigen-specific suppression of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 17 cytokines, reflecting an important association of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of active TB.

  16. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Ara, Ignacio; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn W; Larsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    control subjects, were performed. A fasting blood sample was obtained and plasma insulin and glucose determined. A muscle biopsy was obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis, and fiber-type ceramide content was determined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Insulin sensitivity estimated by Quicki......This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese, and...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...

  17. 7 CFR 51.483 - One type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One type. 51.483 Section 51.483 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.483 One type. One type means that the cantaloups...

  18. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... builds up in your blood. The rest of your body is starved of energy. What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is the most ... healthy recipes. Get active. Getting active can lower your risk of type ... See what counts as aerobic activity. Try this sample walking ...

  19. 32 CFR 806b.37 - Exemption types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption types. 806b.37 Section 806b.37 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Privacy Act Exemptions § 806b.37 Exemption types. There are two types of exemptions permitted by...

  20. Binary progenitor models of type IIb supernovae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claeys, J.S.W.A.; de Mink, S.E.; Pols, O.R.; Eldridge, J.J.; Baes, M.

    2011-01-01

    Massive stars that lose their hydrogen-rich envelope down to a few tenths of a solar mass explode as extended type IIb supernovae, an intriguing subtype that links the hydrogen-rich type II supernovae with the hydrogen-poor type Ib and Ic. The progenitors may be very massive single stars that lose t

  1. MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION TYPE 2. MYTH OR REALITY?

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Zhelnov; N. V. Dyatlov; L. I. Dvoretsky

    2016-01-01

    According to The Third Definition of Myocardial Infarction there are five types of myocardial infarction depending on pathogenesis. This review provides actual data about myocardial infarction type 2 mechanism including diagnosis management, epidemiological characteristic and patient prognosis. Previously published data shows discordant information about myocardial infarction type 2 frequency, treatment and diagnostic options. Our clinical observation illustrates these severities in diagnosis...

  2. Cosmology with type-Ia supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Miquel, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    I review the use of type-Ia supernovae (SNe) for cosmological studies. After briefly recalling the main features of type-Ia SNe that lead to their use as cosmological probes, I briefly describe current and planned type-Ia SNe surveys, with special emphasis on their physics reach in the presence of systematic uncertainties, which will be dominant in nearly all cases.

  3. Type Ⅱ codes over finite rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUGHERTY; Steven; T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we generalize the concept of Type Ⅱ codes to arbitrary finite rings. We focus on Type Ⅱ codes over finite chain rings and use the Chinese Remainder Theorem on these codes to study Type Ⅱ codes over principal ideal rings.

  4. Brauer algebra of type F4

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shoumin

    2012-01-01

    We present an algebra related to the Coxeter group of type F4 which can be viewed as the Brauer algebra of type F4 and is obtained as a subalgebra of the Brauer algebra of type E6. We also describe some properties of this algebra.

  5. Screening for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelgau, M M; Narayan, K M; Herman, W H

    2000-10-01

    Definitive studies of the effectiveness of screening for type 2 diabetes are currently not available. RCTs would be the best means to assess effectiveness, but several barriers prevent these studies from being conducted. Prospective observational studies may characterize some of the benefits of screening by creating screened and unscreened groups for comparison. The availability of better data systems and health services research techniques will facilitate such comparisons. Unfortunately, the interpretation of the results of such studies is extremely problematic. Several screening tests have been evaluated. Risk assessment questionnaires have generally performed poorly as stand-alone tests. Screening with biochemical tests performs better. Venous and capillary glucose measurements may perform more favorably than urinary glucose or HbA(1c) measurements, and measuring postprandial glucose levels may have advantages over measuring fasting levels. However, performance of all screening tests is dependent on the cutoff point selected. Unfortunately, there are no well-defined and validated cutoff points to define positive tests. A two-stage screening test strategy may assist with a more efficient use of resources, although such approaches have not been rigorously tested. The optimal interval for screening is unknown. Even though periodic, targeted, and opportunistic screening within the existing health care system seems to offer the greatest yield and likelihood of appropriate follow-up and treatment, much of the reported experience with screening appears to be episodic poorly targeted community screening outside of the existing health care system. Statistical models have helped to answer some of the key questions concerning areas in which there is lack of empirical data. Current models need to be refined with new clinical and epidemiological information, such as the UKPDS results (200). In addition, future models need to include better information on the natural history

  6. Kirillov--Reshetikhin crystals for nonexceptional types

    OpenAIRE

    Fourier, Ghislain; Okado, Masato; Schilling, Anne

    2008-01-01

    We provide combinatorial models for all Kirillov--Reshetikhin crystals of nonexceptional type, which were recently shown to exist. For types D_n^(1), B_n^(1), A_{2n-1}^(2) we rely on a previous construction using the Dynkin diagram automorphism which interchanges nodes 0 and 1. For type C_n^(1) we use a Dynkin diagram folding and for types A_{2n}^(2), D_{n+1}^(2) a similarity construction. We also show that for types C_n^(1) and D_{n+1}^(2) the analog of the Dynkin diagram automorphism exists...

  7. Floer type cohomology on cosymplectic manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Seung; Chai, Young Do

    2015-05-01

    We investigate a Floer type cohomology on cosymplectic manifolds M. To do this, we study a symplectic type action functional on the universal covering space of the loop space of contractible loops in M and the moduli space of gradient flow lines of the functional. The cochain complex induced by the critical points of the functional produces Floer type cohomology of M which is naturally isomorphic to a quantum type cohomology of M. We have an Arnold type theorem for Hamiltonian cosymplectomorphisms on compact semipositive cosymplectic manifolds. As an example, we consider the product of a Calabi-Yau 3-fold and the unit circle.

  8. Human muscle fiber type-specific insulin signaling: Impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Kristensen, Dorte Enggaard; Vind, Birgitte F; Baba, Otto; Nøhr, Jane; Højlund, Kurt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    /or metabolic enzymes. Pools of type I and II fibers were prepared from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscles from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Type I fibers compared to type II fibers have higher protein levels of the insulin receptor, GLUT4...... insulin adjusted for protein level were not different between fiber types. Independently of fiber type, insulin signaling was similar (TBC1D1, GS and PDH-E1α) or decreased (Akt and TBC1D4) in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared to lean and obese subjects. We conclude that human type I...

  9. Differences in emotional distress among inpatients with type 1, obese type 2, and non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Yoshiko; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Okauchi, Yukiyoshi; Sudo, Yoshiko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Omote, Yayoko; Imagawa, Akihisa; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in emotional distress among three groups of inpatients with type 1, obese type 2, and non-obese type 2 diabetes during hospitalization. Methods The 42 participating inpatients were divided into three groups: type 1 diabetes (n=11), obese type 2 diabetes [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2); n=24], and non-obese type 2 diabetes (BMI emotional distress in the patients with diabetes, was performed at admission and discharge. Results The total PAID score was similar and tended to improve during hospitalization in all three groups, although there were differences among the groups in the scores of particular questions. At admission, the score of the question "worrying about low blood sugar reactions?" was significantly different among the three groups and highest in the patients with type 1 diabetes. At discharge, the score of "not accepting diabetes?" was significantly different among the three groups and highest in the patients with non-obese type 2 diabetes, while that of "feeling unsatisfied with your diabetes physician?" was significantly different among the three groups and highest in the patients with obese type 2 diabetes. The score of "feelings of deprivation regarding food and meals?" significantly worsened in the patients with obese type 2 diabetes during hospitalization compared with the patients in with non-obese type 2 diabetes. Conclusion The characteristics of emotional distress during hospitalization varied among the patients with the three types of diabetes, thus emphasizing the importance of tailoring support according to the type of diabetes. PMID:26466689

  10. Fourth generation type reactors - Synthesis note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six types of reactors have been studied: High or very high temperature helium cooled type reactors, fast neutrons sodium cooled type reactors, fast neutrons gas cooled type reactors, fast neutrons lead or lead-bismuth cooled type reactors, supercritical water type reactors, molten salt type reactors. For the high or very high temperature type reactors the questions of safety and radiation protection have been tackled through the fuel, the neutronics, the materials, the passive systems, safety and reliability of associated industrial processes, risks in relation with graphite, fire and explosion risks linked to hydrogen production; about the fast neutron sodium cooled type reactors the principal questions of safety are tackled through the specific risks linked to the metallic fuel, the neutronic effects in case of loss of coolant said sodium 'vacuum effect', risk of core meltdown, risks linked to sodium, passive systems, ability of structures inspection; concerning the fast neutron gas cooled type reactors, the questions of safety and radiation protection are the aspects linked to the reactor and the aspects linked to the fuel fabrication, this last question has been tackled for each reactor type. A part has been devoted to the production and the management of waste in the case of deployment of a fourth generation reactors park. (N.C.)

  11. n-Linear Algebra of type II

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2009-01-01

    This book is a continuation of the book n-linear algebra of type I and its applications. Most of the properties that could not be derived or defined for n-linear algebra of type I is made possible in this new structure: n-linear algebra of type II which is introduced in this book. In case of n-linear algebra of type II we are in a position to define linear functionals which is one of the marked difference between the n-vector spaces of type I and II. However all the applications mentioned in n-linear algebras of type I can be appropriately extended to n-linear algebras of type II. Another use of n-linear algebra (n-vector spaces) of type II is that when this structure is used in coding theory we can have different types of codes built over different finite fields whereas this is not possible in the case of n-vector spaces of type I. Finally in the case of n-vector spaces of type II, we can obtain n-eigen values from distinct fields; hence, the n-characteristic polynomials formed in them are in distinct differ...

  12. Comparing the Host Galaxies of Type Ia, Type II, and Type Ibc Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Dennefeld, M.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Hammer, F.; Deng, L. C.; Flores, H.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.

    2014-08-01

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D n (4000), Hδ A , stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D n (4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D n (4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (~0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  13. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters Dn(4000), HδA, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low Dn(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high Dn(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  14. A Kantorovich-Stancu Type Generalization of Szasz Operators including Brenke Type Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Aktaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Kantorovich-Stancu type modification of a generalization of Szasz operators defined by means of the Brenke type polynomials and obtain approximation properties of these operators. Also, we give a Voronovskaya type theorem for Kantorovich-Stancu type operators including Gould-Hopper polynomials.

  15. Analysis of the Influence of Type of Diabetes Mellitus on the Development and Type of Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Halilovic, Emina Alimanovic; Ljaljevic, Sanida; Alimanovic, Ilda; Mavija, Milka; Oros, Ana; Nisic, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Main the goal of the research is to analyze the occurrence of glaucoma in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM type 1) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM type 2). Patients and methods: The study involved 140 patients, 34 with DM type 1 and 106 with DM type2. In relation to the type of glaucoma to the patients are divided into two groups: Primary and Secondary glaucoma. According to the stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients were analyzed in three groups: non-proliferative, prepr...

  16. Odontoma and Analysis of 57 different types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghaei-e- Naeini F

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Odontoma is an odontogenic lesion with epithelial and mesenchymal origin and is composed"nof differentiated dental parts. Than because of abnormal organization of mature tissues. It seems that it is"na hamartoma rather than real tumor. Odontoma is seen in two types of compound & complex."nOut of 57 studied cases, 31 cases (54.2% were of complex type; 12 cases (21 % were compound & 8"ncases were of cystic. The age of incidence ranged from 5.5 to 68 years. The mean age in complex"nodontoma was 27 years & compound type was 19 years. There was no significant difference regarding the"nsex in the complex type. In compound odontoma women were affected 2 times more than means."nComplex type are found in mandibular posterior era ereas more and compound type in anterior regions .In"nthis studied found 12 cases impaction teeth.

  17. Evolving A-Type Artificial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Ewan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate Turing's notion of an A-type artificial neural network. We study a refinement of Turing's original idea, motivated by work of Teuscher, Bull, Preen and Copeland. Our A-types can process binary data by accepting and outputting sequences of binary vectors; hence we can associate a function to an A-type, and we say the A-type {\\em represents} the function. There are two modes of data processing: clamped and sequential. We describe an evolutionary algorithm, involving graph-theoretic manipulations of A-types, which searches for A-types representing a given function. The algorithm uses both mutation and crossover operators. We implemented the algorithm and applied it to three benchmark tasks. We found that the algorithm performed much better than a random search. For two out of the three tasks, the algorithm with crossover performed better than a mutation-only version.

  18. Type Ibn Supernovae: Not a Single Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, Dale Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Type Ibn supernovae are a small yet diverse class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material. However, unlike the more common Type IIn supernovae, whose interaction with hydrogen-rich circumstellar material has been shown to generate a wide variety of light curve shapes, we find that light curves of Type Ibn supernovae are more homogeneous and faster evolving. Spectroscopically, we find that Type Ibn supernovae divide cleanly into two classes, only one of which resembles the archetypal Type Ibn SN 2006jc. We explore various photometric and spectroscopic parameter spaces in order to characterize these two classes. We consider the possibility that not all objects classified as Type Ibn have the same physical origin.

  19. Bilateral type emphysematous pyelonephritis: imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a serious infectious disease that occurs more frequently in diabetic patients. Radiological studies are indispensable for distinguishing between the two types since each is associated with a markedly different prognosis. We present a case of bilateral EPN diagnosed as type I on the basis of computed tomography findings, differentiating it from type II EPN, taking into account the prognostic value of this distinction. Type I EPN is characterized by the destruction of the renal parenchyma, a mottled or linear gas pattern and the absence of renal and perirenal fluid collection. Type II EPN is characterized by a loculated or bubbly gas pattern, the existence of fluid collection and less marked renal destruction. Type I is more aggressive and is associated with high rate of mortality. (Author) 7 refs

  20. Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    structural manner, because virtual classes are closely tied to nominal typing. This paper adds new insight about the dichotomy between these two approaches; it illustrates how virtual constraints and type refinements, as recently introduced in gbeta and Scala, enable structural treatment of virtual types......This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families...... of classes whose relationships are preserved in derived families. Conversely, while class families can be specified using a large number of F-bounded type parameters, this approach is complex and fragile; and it is difficult to use traditional virtual classes to specify object composition in a...

  1. Mixed Type Masturbation : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tezcan, Dr. A. Ertan; Namlı, Dr. Mustafa; Semerciöz, Dr. Atilla

    1997-01-01

    Rarely epilepsy and masturbation may coexist. ^s mixed type masturbation, a clinical presentation requiries two different treatments at the same time, it has been stated that while diagnosing, one should be attentive. In this article, a 4-year-old girl with mixed type of masturbation was presented and, diagnosis and treatment have been discussed. [Journal of Turgut Özal Medical Center 1997;4(3):306-307] Key words: Masturbation, epilepsy, mixed type

  2. Types in Logic and Mathematics before 1940

    OpenAIRE

    Kamareddine, Fairouz; Laan, Twan; Nederpelt, Rob

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we study the prehistory of type theory up to 1910 and its development between Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematica ([71], 1910-1912) and Church's simply typed $\\lambda$-calculus of 1940. We first argue that the concept of types has always been present in mathematics, though nobody was incorporating them explicitly as such, before the end of the 19th century. Then we proceed by describing how the logical paradoxes entered the formal systems of Frege, Cantor and Peano ...

  3. Immediate-Type Hypersensitivity to Succinylated Corticosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Annett Isabel; Raewer, Helen-Caroline; Sieber, Wolfgang; Przybilla, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite their frequent use, systemic corticosteroids have rarely elicited immediate-type reactions. Objective: We report two male patients, aged 26 and 70 years, respectively, with severe immediate-type hypersensitivity secondary to the administration of corticosteroids esterified with succinate. Methods: Skin tests, basophil activation tests and challenge tests were performed for diagnostic evaluation. Results: In both patients, immediate-type skin test reactions were found to me...

  4. Pathogenesis of Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Imagawa, Akihisa; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2006-01-01

    Fulminant type 1 diabetes is a new subtype of type 1 diabetes. The term was established in 2000. It is a syndrome characterized by a markedly rapid and almost complete destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Several lines of evidence suggest that both genetic factors, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA), and environmental factors, such as viral infection, contribute to the development of this disease. It is also suggested that autoimmune processes contribute less critically to fulminant type 1 d...

  5. 47 CFR 95.631 - Emission types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission types. 95.631 Section 95.631... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.631 Emission types. (a) A GMRS transmitter must transmit only emission types A1D, F1D, G1D, H1D, J1D, R1D, A3E, F3E, G3E, H3E, J3E or R3E. A...

  6. Age of onset and type of leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors that influence leukaemia type are complex and differ for various leukaemogenic agents. Some leukaemogens increase the age-related risk of specific leukaemia, whereas other induce several or a single leukaemia type without age correlation. In most situations, age has no influence on leukaemia type. Consequently, other factors may explain the pronounced age-related differences seen for ''spontaneously'' occurring leukaemias in human beings. (author)

  7. New Paradigms in Type 2 Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Pulendran, Bali; Artis, David

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half of the world’s population harbors helminth infections or suffers from allergic disorders. A common feature of this population is the so-called “type 2 immune response,” which confers protection against helminths, but also promotes pathologic responses associated with allergic inflammation. However, the mechanisms that initiate and control type 2 responses remain enigmatic. Recent advances have revealed a role for the innate immune system in orchestrating type 2 responses against a...

  8. Molecular genetics of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Luosheng, Li

    2002-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a common and chronic disease caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a well-established genetic model of type 2 diabetes. Since several aspects of the pathophysiology of diabetes are shared between human and GK rats, we used this model to perform the first genome-wide scan for quantitative trait locus (QTL) of type 2 diabetes. A genetic linkage map with 530 microsatellite markers was constructed in ...

  9. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  10. Are Thinking Styles and Personality Types Related?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, LF

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between thinking styles and personality types is investigated within the contexts of Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and Holland's theory of personality types. A total of 600 university students from Hong Kong responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) and the Short-version Self-directed Search (SVSDS) that was specially designed for the present study. A major finding of this study is that thinking styles and personality types overlap to a degree. A seconda...

  11. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... Service Establishments ârecognizedâ As Retail âin the Particular Industryâ § 779.329 Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the...

  12. A Case of Hypothyroidism and Type 2 Diabetes Associated with Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia and Eruptive Xanthomas

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeong Rang; Jung, Tae Sik; Jung, Jung Hwa; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Me Ae; Park, Ki-Jong; Kim, Deok Ryong; Chang, Se-Ho; Chung, Soon Il; Hahm, Jong Ryeal

    2005-01-01

    Primary hypothyroidism and type 2 diabetes are both typically associated with the increased level of triglycerides. To date, there have been only a few case reports of type 2 diabetes patients with both type V hyperlipoproteinemia and eruptive xanthomas, but there have been no reports of hypothyroidism patients associated with eruptive xanthomas. We report here on a case of a 48-yr old female patient who was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and primary hypothyroidism associated with both type V...

  13. Characterization of a NIMONIC TYPE super alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of strength and thermofluence of a NIMONIC type super alloy under thermal treatment was determined. The relationship between microstructure, phases and precipitates was also studied. (author)

  14. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Sharma, Rajan; Neupane, Dinesh;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Nepal can help in planning for health services and recognising risk factors. This review aims to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, to summarise the findings, and to explore...... populations was 8.1% (95% CI: 7.3-8.9%) and 1.0% (95% CI: 0.7-1.3%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is, to our knowledge, the first study to systematically evaluate the literature of prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Nepal. Results showed that type 2 diabetes is currently a high-burden disease in Nepal...

  15. Association of Sasang Constitutional Type with Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Choi, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique Korean traditional medicine that classifies human beings as four distinct types named Sasang constitutional types (SCTs), based on physiologic, physical, and psychological traits. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that specific constitutional types are associated with chronic diseases, but no study has investigated the relationship between SCTs and sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association in a large population-based study. Data from 1,204 participants who completed questionnaires for life style, anthropometric evaluation, and biochemical analysis were analyzed. Classification of the SCTs was done using an integrated diagnostic method. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height(2) less than one standard deviation below the gender-specific normal mean of a younger group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess whole body composition. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 8.6% in the Tae-eum (TE) type, 44.7% in the So-eum (SE) type, and 20.7% in the So-yang (SY) type. Multivariate analysis revealed that the SE and SY types had 9.22 (5.06-16.81; P sarcopenia compared to the TE type, respectively. Our results show that the SE and SY types are significantly associated with increased prevalence of sarcopenia. PMID:26649062

  16. Types of Cost in Inductive Concept Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Peter D.

    2002-01-01

    Inductive concept learning is the task of learning to assign cases to a discrete set of classes. In real-world applications of concept learning, there are many different types of cost involved. The majority of the machine learning literature ignores all types of cost (unless accuracy is interpreted as a type of cost measure). A few papers have investigated the cost of misclassification errors. Very few papers have examined the many other types of cost. In this paper, we attempt to create a ta...

  17. Explicit Substitutions for Contextual Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Andreas; 10.4204/EPTCS.34.3

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an explicit substitution calculus which distinguishes between ordinary bound variables and meta-variables. Its typing discipline is derived from contextual modal type theory. We first present a dependently typed lambda calculus with explicit substitutions for ordinary variables and explicit meta-substitutions for meta-variables. We then present a weak head normalization procedure which performs both substitutions lazily and in a single pass thereby combining substitution walks for the two different classes of variables. Finally, we describe a bidirectional type checking algorithm which uses weak head normalization and prove soundness.

  18. Improving IPV6 Addressing Types and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available IPv6 protocol is the next candidate protocol after IPv4 protocolthatused foralong time. For this protocoltheaddressing types and address sizeare discussedto list some modifications that could improve itsperformancethrough the internet. Atthe same time, we prove that multicast addressing type is the mostimportant addressing type since it can mimic any other addressing type. Finally,a short studyis developedin order to reduce the current IPv6 address size to haveless overhead in the basic header packet, thisreductionomitsabout 40% of the over all basic IPv6 basic packet overhead.

  19. Clostridium perfringens isolate typing by multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Ahsani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen that provokes numerous different diseases. This bacterium is classified into five different types, each of which capable of causing a different disease. There are various methods for the bacterial identification, many are labor-intensive, time-consuming, expensive and also present low sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this research was to identify the different types of C. perfringens using PCR molecular method. In this study, 130 sheep-dung samples were randomly collected from areas around the city of Kerman, southeastern Iran. After processing and culturing of samples, the produced colonies were morphologically studied, gram stain test was also carried out and the genera of these bacteria were identified through biochemical tests. DNA extracted from isolated bacteria for genotyping was tested by multiplex PCR with specific primers. Based on length of synthesized fragments by PCR, toxin types and bacterial strains were detected. C. perfringens isolated types were divided as follows: 17.39% type A, 21.74% type B, 34.78% type C and 26.09% type D. It should be emphasized that, up to the present moment, C. perfringens type A has not been reported in Iran.

  20. Osteogenesis imperfecta type V, spot diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The first case of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V in the Polish literature is reported. Case Report: Skeletal survey of an 8 year old girl with a history of multiple fractures and bilateral dislocation of radial heads was received for consultation. Conclusions: Generalised osteoporosis with multiple fractures, periosteal thickening and bilateral dislocation of the radial heads are characteristic signs of osteogenesis imperfecta Type V. The Nosology and Classification of Genetic Skeletal Disorders 2006 Revision classified Osteogenesis Imperfecta into 8 major types. Type V is recognizable on the basis of skeletal survey alone. (author)

  1. Working with Spatio-Temporal Data Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, A.

    2012-07-01

    Several aspects of spatiotemporal databases have been explored in past decades, ranging from basic data structure to query processing and indexing. But today, operational temporal GIS does not exist. The key impediments have been the complexity of integrating space and time and the lack of standards. OpenGIS standards for simple feature access (spatial type) do exist, but unlike the spatial type, standards for spatiotemporal data type do not exist. This paper explores a new approach to modeling space and time to provide the basis for implementing a temporal GIS. This approach is based on the concept of data types in databases. A data type provides constructors, accessors, and operators. Most commercial and open source databases provide data types to deal with the spatial component of a GIS, called spatial type. Oracle Spatial, DB2 Spatial Extender and Informix Spatial DataBlade, ST_Geometry for PostgreSQL and Oracle from Esri, PostGIS for PostgreSQL, etc., are some examples. This new spatiotemporal data type is called spatiotemporal type (STT). This STT is implemented in PostgreSQL, an open source relational database management system. The STT is an extension of Esri's ST_Geometry type for PostgreSQL, in which each spatial object has a life span. Constructors, accessors, and relational functions are provided to create STT and support spatial, spatiotemporal, and temporal queries. Some functions are extended based on OpenGIS standards for the spatial type. Examples are provided to demonstrate the application of these functions. The paper concludes with limitations and challenges of implementing STT.

  2. Intensional type theory with guarded recursive types qua fixed points on universes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars

    2013-01-01

    points of guarded recursive functions. Guarded recursive types can be formed simply by taking fixed points of guarded recursive functions on the universe of types. Moreover, we present a general model construction for constructing models of the intensional type theory with guarded recursive functions and...... types. When applied to the groupoid model of intensional type theory with the universe of small discrete groupoids, the construction gives a model of guarded recursion for which there is a one-to-one correspondence between fixed points of functions on the universe of types and fixed points of (suitable......Guarded recursive functions and types are useful for giving semantics to advanced programming languages and for higher-order programming with infinite data types, such as streams, e.g., for modeling reactive systems. We propose an extension of intensional type theory with rules for forming fixed...

  3. A Type System for Parallel Components

    OpenAIRE

    de Carvalho-Junior, Francisco Heron; Lins, Rafael Dueire

    2009-01-01

    The # component model was proposed to improve the practice of parallel programming. This paper introduces a type system for # programming systems, aiming to lift the abstraction and safety of programming for parallel computing architectures by introducing a notion of abstract component based on universal and existential bounded quantification. Issues about the implementation of such type system in HPE, a # programming system, are also discussed.

  4. Compactly Supported Curvelet-Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann; Nielsen, Morten

    curvelet-type systems with a prescribed nature such as compact support in direct space. The method consists of using the machinery of almost diagonal matrices to show that a system of curvelet molecules which is sufficiently close to curvelets constitutes a frame for curvelet-type spaces. Such a system of...

  5. Multilocus Sequence Typing Tool for Cyclospora cayetanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaqiong; Roellig, Dawn M.; Li, Na; Tang, Kevin; Frace, Michael; Ortega, Ynes; Arrowood, Michael J.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Wang, Lin; Moss, Delynn M.; Zhang, Longxian; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Because the lack of typing tools for Cyclospora cayetanensis has hampered outbreak investigations, we sequenced its genome and developed a genotyping tool. We observed 2 to 10 geographically segregated sequence types at each of 5 selected loci. This new tool could be useful for case linkage and infection/contamination source tracking. PMID:27433881

  6. Psoriasis Tied to Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't prove that psoriasis causes type 2 diabetes or obesity or vice versa, Lonnberg added. However, the study ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Obesity Psoriasis Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  7. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms and...

  8. Some Properties of Type I' String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, John H.

    1999-01-01

    The T-dual formulation of Type I superstring theory, sometimes called Type I' theory, has a number of interesting features. Here we review some of them including the role of D0-branes and D8-branes in controlling possible gauge symmetry enhancement.

  9. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  10. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's a Booger? Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > For Kids > Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Print A A A Text Size What's in ... diabetes (say: dye-uh-BEE-tees). What is it? Let's find out. What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is ...

  11. Autonomous Duffing-Holmes Type Chaotic Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševičius, A.; Bumelienė, S.; Kirvaitis, R.; Mykolaitis, G.; Tamaševičiūtė, E.; Lindberg, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and built a novel Duffing type autonomous 3rd-order chaotic oscillator. In comparison with the common non-autonomous DuffingHolmes type oscillator the autonomous circuit has an internal positive feedback loop instead of an external periodic drive source. In addition, it is...

  12. WEIGHTED APPROXIMATION ON SZASZ-TYPE OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Guo

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we use weighted modules ω2φλ (f,t)w to study the pointwise approximation on Szász-type operators, and obtain the direct and converse theorem, as well as characterizations of the pointwise approxi- mation of Jacobi-weighted Szász-type operators.

  13. Expansion Postponement for Normalising Pure Type Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Poll, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Expansion Postponement is a tantalisingly simple conjecture about Pure Type Systems, which has so far resisted all attempts to prove it for any interesting class of systems. We prove the property for all normalising Pure Type Systems, and discuss the connection with typechecking.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JM, Mayer-Davis EJ. Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2010 Sep;39(3):481-97. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2010.05.011. Review. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed ... G. Insights into type 1 diabetes provided by genetic analyses. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes ...

  15. Some Types of Recurrence in Finsler geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Soleiman, A

    2016-01-01

    The pullback approach to global Finsler geometry is adopted. Three classes of recurrence in Finsler geometry are introduced and investigated: simple recurrence, Ricci recurrence and concircular recurrence. Each of these classes consists of four types of recurrence. The interrelationships between the different types of recurrence are studied. The generalized concircular recurrence, as a new concept, is singled out.

  16. Three Types of Network Complexity Pyramid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong; LIU; Qiang

    2012-01-01

    <正>Exploring the complexity and diversity of complex networks have been very challenging issues in network science and engineering. Among them exploring the network complexity pyramids (NCP) are one of important expressions in network complexity. So far as we have proposed the three types of the network complexity pyramid (NCP). The first type of NCP is the network model complexity pyramid with

  17. Molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi.

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, F.; Llovet, T.; Echeita, M. A.; Coll, P.; Aladueña, A; Usera, M A; Prats, G

    1996-01-01

    The efficiencies of different tests for epidemiological markers--phage typing, ribotyping, IS200 typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)--were evaluated for strains from sporadic cases of typhoid fever and a well-defined outbreak. Ribotyping and PFGE proved to be the most discriminating. Both detected two different patterns among outbreak-associated strains.

  18. Gender, Psychological Type and Conflict Style Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Paula S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveys experienced managers regarding gender, psychological type, and conflict style preference. Finds that males are "thinkers," and females are "feelers." Cautions that while results indicated psychological type may be a better indicator of conflict style preference than is gender, neither factor accounted for a substantial amount of variance.…

  19. Family Correlates of Children's Type A Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.

    This study examined the relation of parenting style and parents' personality to children's Type A behavior pattern. Teachers rated 38 second- through fifth-grade children on the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH), which was used to measure children's Type A behavior. Two subscale scores, leadership-competitiveness and impatience-aggression,…

  20. Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...

  1. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity mech...

  2. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and in

  3. Neutrino Masses in Superstring Derived Standard--like Models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Halyo, Edi

    1993-01-01

    We propose a new scenario in a class of superstring derived standard--like models that explains the suppression of the left--handed neutrino masses. Due to nonrenormalizable terms and the breaking of the $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ symmetry a generalized see--saw mechanism takes place. Contrary to the traditional see--saw mechanism in GUTs, the see--saw scale and the right--handed neutrino mass scale are suppressed relative to the $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ breaking scale.

  4. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  5. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion

  6. Mortality rate in type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007. The prognostic impact of this universal definition, with particular focus on type 2 myocardial infarction, has not been studied prospectively in unselected hospital patients. METHODS: During a 1-year period......, all hospitalized patients having cardiac troponin I measured were considered. The diagnosis of a myocardial infarction was according to the universal definition, and specified criteria were used in the classification of type 2 myocardial infarction. Follow-up was at least 1 year, with mortality as the...... 2 myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction is high, reaching approximately 50% after 2 years. Further descriptive and survival studies are needed to improve the scientific evidence on which treatment of type 2 myocardial infarction is based....

  7. Mitochondrial oxidative function and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Boushel, Robert; Dela, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    discussed. Several studies show reduced activity of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetics. The reductions are independent of muscle fiber type, and are accompanied by visual evidence of damaged mitochondria. In most studies, the reduced oxidative enzyme activity is explained by decreases...... in mitochondrial content; thus, evidence of a functional impairment in mitochondria in type 2 diabetes is not convincing. These impairments in oxidative function and mitochondrial morphology could reflect the sedentary lifestyle of the diabetic subjects, and the influence of physical activity on...... insulin stimulation. The decreased basal ATP production does not affect overall lipid or glucose oxidation, and no studies linking changes in oxidative activity and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes have been published. It is concluded that evidence of a functional impairment in mitochondria in type...

  8. Luminescence dynamics in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices near the type-I to type-II crossover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Kalt, H.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1996-01-01

    We report on a study of the time-resolved luminescence of type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices near the type-I to type-II crossover. In spite of the slight type-II band alignment, the luminescence is dominated by the type-I transition. This is due to the inhomogeneous broadening of the type-I transiti...

  9. The prenatal environment and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stene, L C; Gale, E A M

    2013-09-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental factors are involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes, but the nature and timing of the interactions are poorly understood. The intrauterine environment is known to play a role in the later development of type 2 diabetes, and this review considers a possible role in type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes is rare in those diagnosed before 6 months of age, but endogenous autoantibodies predictive of future type 1 diabetes may be detectable by 6-12 months of age, suggesting that environmental factors may operate before this age in some cases. Indirect evidence of a protective effect for the intrauterine environment comes from the observation that mothers with type 1 diabetes are less likely than affected fathers to transmit diabetes to their offspring, although the precise role (if any) is unclear. The risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes increases with maternal age at delivery, and with high birthweight, but these associations are weak and heterogeneous, and these factors are unlikely to be directly causally related to type 1 diabetes. No firm conclusion can be drawn from studies of maternal enteroviral infection or from various nutritional exposures. The birth process itself may play a role, as suggested by the slightly increased risk in children born by Caesarean section; lack of contact with maternal bacteria is one suggested mechanism. In sum, there is circumstantial evidence, but no proof of principle, that maternal or intrauterine conditions may modulate genetic risk of type 1 diabetes. The disease process culminating in type 1 diabetes typically begins in early life, but it is not clear whether the trail begins before or after birth. PMID:23657800

  10. Cardiac involvement of progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type, Limb-girdle type and Fukuyama type) evaluated by radionuclide method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tl-201 SPECT and Tc-99m-Human serum albumin (HSA) multigated radionuclide ventriculography were performed on 11 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type 2, Fukuyama type 2, Limb-girdle type 7) to evaluate myocardial involvement. Hypoperfusion was detected in 8 patients on Tl-201 SPECT. Decreases in both systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEF) and diastolic function (peak filling rate; PFR) were also seen in these patients. A high incidence of myocardial involvement of these kinds of progressive muscular dystrophy was suggested. (author)

  11. Determinants of preclinical atherosclerosis are different in type 1 and type 2 diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piťhová, P; Štechová, K; Piťha, J; Lánská, V; Kvapil, M

    2016-06-20

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 ranks among the strongest predictors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) while the association of type 1 diabetes with CVD is more complex. We studied differences between type 1 and 2 diabetic women regarding association of cardiovascular risk factors with preclinical atherosclerosis expressed as intima-media thickness of common carotid (IMT CCA) and femoral arteries (IMT CFA) measured by high resolution ultrasound. Women with type 1 (n=203) and type 2 diabetes (n=123) were examined with regard to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. In type 1 diabetic women strong association between IMT CCA and body mass index, waist circumference, and total body fat was found in contrast to type 2 diabetic women. In type 2 diabetic women strong association between IMT CCA and fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and atherogenic index of plasma (log TG/HDL cholesterol) was observed in contrast to type 1 diabetic women. In type 1 diabetic women, IMT CFA was associated with body fat in contrast to type 2 diabetic women. Preclinical atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetic women was strongly associated with factors reflecting body fat and its distribution, while in type 2 diabetic women preclinical atherosclerosis was associated with markers reflecting glucose and lipid metabolic disorders. PMID:26447509

  12. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  13. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, José Luis; Redondo, Natalia; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J; Cantos, Arthur L

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%), moderate (27.8%) and high (7.1%). This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types. PMID:25329828

  14. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  15. PSO type-reduction method for geometric interval type-2 fuzzy logic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xian-zhang; GAO Yi-bo; ZENG Jun-fang; YANG Yi-ping

    2008-01-01

    In a special case of type-2 fuzzy logic systems (FLS), i.e. geometric interval type-2 fuzzy logic sys-tems (GIT-2FLS), the crisp output is obtained by computing the geometric center of footprint of uncertainty (FOU) without type-reduction, but the defuzzifying method acts against the corner concepts of type-2 fuzzy sets in some cases. In this paper, a PSO type-reduction method for GIT-2FLS based on the particle swarm optimiza-tion (PSO) algorithm is presented. With the PSO type-reduction, the inference principle of geometric interval FLS operating on the continuous domain is consistent with that of traditional interval type-2 FLS operating on the discrete domain. With comparative experiments, it is proved that the PSO type-reduction exhibits good perform-ance, and is a satisfactory complement for the theory of GIT-2FLS.

  16. Type inference, principal typings, and let-polymorphism for first-class mixin modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makholm, Henning; Wells, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    A mixin module is a programming abstraction that simultaneously generalizes lambda-abstractions, records, and mutually recursive definitions. Although various mixin module type systems have been developed, no one has investigated principal typings or developed type inference for first-class mixin...... modules, nor has anyone added Milner's let-polymorphism to such a system. This paper proves that typability is NP-complete for the naive approach followed by previous mixin module type systems. Because a lambda-calculus extended with record concatenation is a simple restriction of our mixin module...... calculus, we also prove the folk belief that typability is NP-complete for the naive early type systems for record concatenation. To allow feasible type inference, we present Martini, a new system of simple types for mixin modules with principal typings. Martini is conceptually simple, with no subtyping...

  17. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  18. Jump-type Fleming-Viot processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraba, Seiji

    2000-01-01

    In 1991 Perkins [7] showed that the normalized critical binary branching process is a time inhomogeneous Fleming-Viot process. In the present paper we extend this result to jump-type branching processes and we show that the normalized jump-type branching processes are in a new class of probability measure-valued processes which will be called `jump-type Fleming-Viot processes'. Furthermore we also show that by using these processes it is possible to introduce another new class ...

  19. Efficient Session Type Guided Distributed Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, K. C.; Nagaraj, Karthik; Ziarek, Lukasz; Eugster, Patrick

    Recently, there has been much interest in multi-party session types (MPSTs) as a means of rigorously specifying protocols for interaction among multiple distributed participants. By capturing distributed interaction as series of typed interactions, MPSTs allow for the static verification of compliance of corresponding distributed object programs. We observe that explicit control flow information manifested by MPST opens intriguing avenues also for performance enhancements. In this paper, we present a session type assisted performance enhancement framework for distributed object interaction in Java. Experimental evaluation within our distributed runtime infrastructure illustrates the costs and benefits of our composable enhancement strategies.

  20. Alternative types of roundabouts an informational guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tollazzi, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a history of roundabouts, an introduction to their design, calculations of their capacity and traffic-safety features. It describes the key features of standard roundabouts and their limitations. Alternative types of roundabouts are a fairly recent development and have only been implemented in a few countries to date. The book illustrates a broad variety of these recent alternative types of roundabouts, as well as proposed types still in the development phase, explaining for each the specific needs it meets, its advantages and drawbacks. In closing, the book offers an outlook on the role of roundabouts in future street traffic.