Sample records for bilayer environments small

  1. Intercalation of small hydrophobic molecules in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worcester, D.L.; Hamacher, K.; Kaiser, H.; Kulasekere, R.; Torbet, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)


    Partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into lipid bilayers containing cholesterol has been studied using the 2XC diffractometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Locations of the compounds were determined by Fourier difference methods with data from both deuterated and undeuterated compounds introduced into the bilayers from the vapor phase. Data fitting procedures were developed for determining how well the compounds were localized. The compounds were found to be localized in a narrow region at the center of the hydrophobic layer, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the molecules in the plane of the bilayer.

  2. Predicting proton titration in cationic micelle and bilayer environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Brian H.; Shen, Jana K. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States); Eike, David M.; Murch, Bruce P.; Koenig, Peter H. [Computational Chemistry, Modeling and Simulation GCO, Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201 (United States)


    Knowledge of the protonation behavior of pH-sensitive molecules in micelles and bilayers has significant implications in consumer product development and biomedical applications. However, the calculation of pK{sub a}’s in such environments proves challenging using traditional structure-based calculations. Here we apply all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics with explicit ions and titratable water to calculate the pK{sub a} of a fatty acid molecule in a micelle of dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride and liquid as well as gel-phase bilayers of diethyl ester dimethylammonium chloride. Interestingly, the pK{sub a} of the fatty acid in the gel bilayer is 5.4, 0.4 units lower than that in the analogous liquid bilayer or micelle, despite the fact that the protonated carboxylic group is significantly more desolvated in the gel bilayer. This work illustrates the capability of all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics in capturing the delicate balance in the free energies of desolvation and Coulombic interactions. It also shows the importance of the explicit treatment of ions in sampling the protonation states. The ability to model dynamics of pH-responsive substrates in a bilayer environment is useful for improving fabric care products as well as our understanding of the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  3. Structural Effects of Small Molecules on Phospholipid Bilayers Investigated by Molecular Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B W; Sum, A K; Vattulainen, I; Patra, M; Karttunen, M; Lee, Bryan W; Faller, Roland; Sum, Amadeu K; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Patra, Michael; Karttunen, Mikko


    We summarize and compare recent Molecular Dynamics simulations on the interactions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers in the liquid crystalline phase with a number of small molecules including trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose, alcohols, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The sugar molecules tend to stabilize the structure of the bilayer as they bridge adjacent lipid headgroups. They do not strongly change the structure of the bilayer. Alcohols and DMSO destabilize the bilayer as they increase its area per molecule in the bilayer plane and decrease the order parameter. Alcohols have a stronger detrimental effect than DMSO. The observables which we compare are the area per molecule in the plane of the bilayer, the membrane thickness, and the NMR order parameter of DPPC hydrocarbon tails. The area per molecule and the order parameter are very well correlated whereas the bilayer thickness is not necessarily correlated with them.

  4. Bimodal Distribution and Fluorescence Response of Environment-Sensitive Probes in Lipid Bilayers


    Klymchenko, Andrey S; Duportail, Guy; Demchenko, Alexander P.; Mély, Yves


    A remarkable heterogeneity is often observed in the spectroscopic properties of environment-sensitive fluorescence probes in phospholipid bilayers. To explain its origin, we provided a detailed investigation of the fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of 4′-dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone (probe F) in bilayer vesicles with the variations of fatty acid composition, polar heads, temperature, and cholesterol content. Probe F, due to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer, exhibits t...

  5. Power losses in bilayer inverted small molecule organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Cong


    Inverted bilayer organic solar cells using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as a donor and C60 as an acceptor with the structure: glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/ZnO/C60/CuPc/MoO3/Al, in which the zinc oxide (ZnO) was deposited by atomic layer deposition, are compared with a conventional device: glass/ITO/CuPc/C60/bathocuproine/Al. These inverted and conventional devices give short circuit currents of 3.7 and 4.8 mA/cm 2, respectively. However, the inverted device gives a reduced photoresponse from the CuPc donor compared to that of the conventional device. Optical field models show that the arrangement of organic layers in the inverted devices leads to lower absorption of long wavelengths by the CuPc donor; the low energy portion of the spectrum is concentrated near the metal oxide electrode in both devices. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Bilayer lipid membranes supported on Teflon filters: a functional environment for ion channels. (United States)

    Phung, Thai; Zhang, Yanli; Dunlop, James; Dalziel, Julie


    Many ion channel proteins have binding sites for toxins and pharmaceutical drugs and therefore have much promise as the sensing entity in high throughput technologies and biosensor devices. Measurement of ionic conductance changes through ion channels requires a robust biological membrane with sufficient longevity for practical applications. The conventional planar BLM is 100-300 μm in diameter and typically contains fewer than a dozen channels whereas pharmaceutical screening methods in cells use current recordings for many ion channels. We present a new, simple method for the fabrication of a disposable porous-supported bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) ion channel biosensor using hydrated Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) filter material (pore size 5 μm, filter diameter=1 mm). The lipid layer was monitored for its thickness and mechanical stability by electrical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed membrane capacitances of 1.8±0.2 nF and membrane resistances of 25.9±4.1 GΩ, indicating the formation of lipid bilayers. The current level increased upon addition of the pore-forming peptide gramicidin. Following addition of liposomes containing voltage-gated sodium channels, small macroscopic sodium currents (1-80 pA) could be recorded. By preloading the porous Teflon with sodium channel proteoliposomes, prior to BLM formation, currents of 1-10 nA could be recorded in the presence of the activator veratridine that increased with time, and were inhibited by tetrodotoxin. A lack of rectification suggests that the channels incorporated in both orientations. This work demonstrates that PTFE filters can support BLMs that provide an environment in which ion channels can maintain their functional activity relevant for applications in drug discovery, toxin detection, and odour sensing.

  7. Small molecule interactions with lipid bilayers: a molecular dynamics study of chlorhexidine (United States)

    van Oosten, Brad; Marquardt, Drew; Sternin, Edward; Harroun, Thad


    Chlorhexidine presents an interesting modelling challenge with a hydrophobic hexane connecting two biguanides (arginine analogues) and two aromatic rings. We conducted molecular dynamic simulations using the GROMACS simulation software to reproduce the experimental environment of chlorhexidine in a 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer to produce atomic-level information. We constructed an all-atom force field of chlorhexidine from the CHARMM36 force field using well established parameters of certain amino acids. Partial charges were treated differently, which were calculated using GAUSSIAN software. We will compare and contrast the results of our model to that of our neutron scattering experiments previously done in our lab.

  8. Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Y; Imai, M [Department of Physics, Ochanomizu University, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Urakami, N [Department of Physics and Information Sciences, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Taniguchi, T, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8510 (Japan)


    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively without steric modification of lipids as in fluorescence probe techniques. First the SANS profile of protonated SUVs at a film contrast condition showed that SUVs have a spherical shape with an inner radius of 190 A and a bilayer thickness of 40 A. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at a contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The characteristic profile was described well by a spherical bilayer model. The fitting revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet. Thus the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model.

  9. Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique (United States)

    Sakuma, Y.; Urakami, N.; Taniguchi, T.; Imai, M.


    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively without steric modification of lipids as in fluorescence probe techniques. First the SANS profile of protonated SUVs at a film contrast condition showed that SUVs have a spherical shape with an inner radius of 190 Å and a bilayer thickness of 40 Å. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at a contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The characteristic profile was described well by a spherical bilayer model. The fitting revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet. Thus the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model.

  10. Small angle X-ray scattering and 31P NMR studies on the phase behavior of phospholipid bilayered mixed micelles (United States)

    Bolze, Jörg; Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Nagao, Takashi; Norisada, Kazushi; Saitô, Hazime; Naito, Akira


    The phase behavior of lipid bilayered micelles (`bicelles') (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine, DMPC/dihexanoyl-phosphatidyl-choline, DHPC 2.6/1) has been studied by small angle X-ray scattering and 31P NMR. Below 3% w/v the bilayers are arranged in tightly packed stacks. At intermediate concentrations single units are observed, whereas at 24% w/v and higher, weak stacking occurs again. The DMPC/DHPC ratio in the bicelles strongly increases at low concentration, which is correlated with an increase in the bicelle size and stacking. The increase of the order parameter in a magnetic field is related to the stack formation. Below 297 K there is no stacking at any concentration and no magnetic alignment.

  11. Sampling errors in free energy simulations of small molecules in lipid bilayers. (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Pomès, Régis


    Free energy simulations are a powerful tool for evaluating the interactions of molecular solutes with lipid bilayers as mimetics of cellular membranes. However, these simulations are frequently hindered by systematic sampling errors. This review highlights recent progress in computing free energy profiles for inserting molecular solutes into lipid bilayers. Particular emphasis is placed on a systematic analysis of the free energy profiles, identifying the sources of sampling errors that reduce computational efficiency, and highlighting methodological advances that may alleviate sampling deficiencies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg.

  12. Small-angle neutron scattering from multilamellar lipid bilayers: Theory, model, and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmich, Jesper; Mortensen, Kell; Ipsen, John Hjorth;


    of temperature for the lamellar repeat distance, the hydrophobic bilayer thickness, as well as the thickness of the aqueous and polar head group region. In addition to these geometric parameters the analysis permits determination of molecular cross-sectional area, number of interlamellar water molecules, as well...

  13. Probing the Structure of the Mechanosensitive Channel of Small Conductance in Lipid Bilayers with Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (United States)

    Ward, Richard; Pliotas, Christos; Branigan, Emma; Hacker, Christian; Rasmussen, Akiko; Hagelueken, Gregor; Booth, Ian R.; Miller, Samantha; Lucocq, John; Naismith, James H.; Schiemann, Olav


    Mechanosensitive channel proteins are important safety valves against osmotic shock in bacteria, and are involved in sensing touch and sound waves in higher organisms. The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) has been extensively studied. Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR or DEER) of detergent-solubilized protein confirms that as seen in the crystal structure, the outer ring of transmembrane helices do not pack against the pore-forming helices, creating an apparent void. The relevance of this void to the functional form of MscS in the bilayer is the subject of debate. Here, we report PELDOR measurements of MscS reconstituted into two lipid bilayer systems: nanodiscs and bicelles. The distance measurements from multiple mutants derived from the PELDOR data are consistent with the detergent-solution arrangement of the protein. We conclude, therefore, that the relative positioning of the transmembrane helices is preserved in mimics of the cell bilayer, and that the apparent voids are not an artifact of detergent solution but a property of the protein that will have to be accounted for in any molecular mechanism of gating. PMID:24559986

  14. Measurement of the glucose permeation rate across phospholipid bilayers using small unilamellar vesicles. Effect of membrane composition and temperature. (United States)

    Bresseleers, G J; Goderis, H L; Tobback, P P


    Small unilamellar vesicles were used to measure the permeability of saturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers to glucose. The presented method circumvents most of the common restriction of classical permeability experiments. Increasing the fatty acid chain length of the lipids reduced the permeation rate significantly. Raising the temperature above that of the lipid phase transition drastically increased membrane permeability. Arrhenius plots demonstrated the activation energy to be independent of membrane composition and the phase-state of the lipids. The permeation process is discussed in terms of a constant energy to disrupt all hydrogen bonds between permeant and aqueous solvent prior to penetrating the membrane. The magnitude of the permeability coefficient is partly determined by a unfavourable change in entropy of activation on crossing the water/lipid interface. All results indicate that the penetration of the dehydrated permeant into the hydrophobic barrier is the rate-limiting step in the permeation of glucose.

  15. Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins. (United States)

    Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A


    Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane

  16. Graduate Education in a Small Business Environment (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Longmier, B.; Giambusso, M.


    This paper reports on the issues that confront a professor when supervising graduate students and postdocs whose research work is done on site at a small business. The advantages include relative freedom from having to write proposals; the excitement of working on topics that have clear, direct uses; more extensive engineering support than many students get; and hands on day to day mentoring from the rest of the team. Students get direct instruction in technology transfer and small business processes. The disadvantages include isolation from the rest of the students in your Department and campus life, physical isolation from resources such as the seminar program, library, health center, and other student services. In addition, students who need "introduction to research" practicum instruction in electronics and computer skills will not do well. Finally, care must be taken to avoid including proprietary data in the core argument of the work.

  17. Polymerized phospholipid bilayers as permanent coatings for small amine separations using mixed aqueous/organic capillary zone electrophoresis. (United States)

    Pei, Lei; Lucy, Charles A


    Phospholipid bilayer (SPB) coatings have been used in capillary electrophoresis to reduce the nonspecific adsorption between the capillary wall and cationic analytes. This paper describes the use of the polymerizable lipid 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Diyne PC) as a permanent capillary coating. A supported phospholipid bilayer was formed on the capillary walls and polymerization was performed in situ using ultraviolet irradiation. The polymerization reaction was monitored by UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The EOF of the polymerized Diyne PC coating was moderately suppressed (2.0×10(-4)cm(2)/Vs) compared to a non-polymerized Diyne PC bilayer (0.3×10(-4)cm(2)/Vs), but the stability was improved significantly. Separations of benzylamine, veratrylamine, phenylethylamine and tolyethylamine using a poly Diyne PC coated capillary yielded efficiency of 220,000-370,000 plates/m and peak asymmetry factor 0.48-1.18. Specifically, the poly(Diyne PC) coating provided improved separation resolution in NACE due to the reduced surface adsorption.

  18. Small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering study on the bilayer structure of synthetic and bovine heart cardiolipins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi [Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8510 (Japan); Hayakawa, Tomohiro [Life Science Laboratory, Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Ito, Kazuki; Takata, Masaki [Structural Materials Science Laboratory, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kobayashi, Toshihide, E-mail: [Lipid Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)


    Cardiolipin (CL) is a membrane phospholipid containing four fatty acid chains. CL plays an important role in energy transformation in mitochondria. The disorder of CL biosynthesis is involved in a genetic disease, Barth syndrome. Alteration of fatty acid composition of CLs has been found in Barth syndrome patients, i.e., the decrease of unsaturated fatty acid chains. In this study, we investigated how the degree of saturation alters the structure of CL bilayers by using X-ray scattering. Bovine heart CL and two synthetic CLs were compared. Fatty acid compositions of these three CLs have different saturation. Small-angle X-ray scattering data showed that the decrease of the number of double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid chains causes to thicken the CL bilayers. In addition, wide-angle X-ray scattering data suggested that the decrease reduces the degree of disorder of the hydrophobic region in a liquid crystalline phase. These results may be related to the dysfunction of mitochondria in Barth syndrome.

  19. Effect of the preparation procedure on the morphology of thin TiO₂ films and their device performance in small-molecule bilayer hybrid solar cells. (United States)

    Unger, Eva L; Spadavecchia, Francesca; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Palmgren, Pål; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Hagfeldt, Anders; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit


    Flat titanium dioxide films, to be used as the acceptor layer in bilayer hybrid solar cell devices, were prepared by spray-pyrolysis and by spin-casting. Both preparation methods resulted in anatase titania films with similar optical and electronic properties but considerably different film morphologies. Spray pyrolysis resulted in dense TiO₂ films grown onto and affected by the surface roughness of the underlying conducting glass substrates. The spin-casting preparation procedure resulted in nanoporous titania films. Hybrid solar cell devices with varying layer thickness of the small-molecule semiconducting dye TDCV-TPA were investigated. Devices built with spray-pyrolyzed titania substrates yielded conversion efficiencies up to 0.47%. Spin-cast titania substrates exhibited short circuits for thin dye layer thickness. For thicker dye layers the performance of these devices was up to 0.6% due to the higher interfacial area for charge separation of these nanoporous TiO₂ substrates.

  20. Slowly switching between environments facilitates reverse evolution in small populations. (United States)

    Tan, Longzhi; Gore, Jeff


    Natural populations must constantly adapt to ever-changing environmental conditions. A particularly interesting question is whether such adaptations can be reversed by returning the population to an ancestral environment. Such evolutionary reversals have been observed in both natural and laboratory populations. However, the factors that determine the reversibility of evolution are still under debate. The time scales of environmental change vary over a wide range, but little is known about how the rate of environmental change influences the reversibility of evolution. Here, we demonstrate computationally that slowly switching between environments increases the reversibility of evolution for small populations that are subject to only modest clonal interference. For small populations, slow switching reduces the mean number of mutations acquired in a new environment and also increases the probability of reverse evolution at each of these "genetic distances." As the population size increases, slow switching no longer reduces the genetic distance, thus decreasing the evolutionary reversibility. We confirm this effect using both a phenomenological model of clonal interference and also a Wright-Fisher stochastic simulation that incorporates genetic diversity. Our results suggest that the rate of environmental change is a key determinant of the reversibility of evolution, and provides testable hypotheses for experimental evolution.

  1. Pseudocritical Behavior and Unbinding of Phospholipid Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmich, Jesper; Mortensen, Kell; Ipsen, John Hjorth;


    The temperature dependence of the small-angle neutron scattering from fully hydrated multilamellar phospholipid bilayers near the main phase transition is analyzed by means of a simple geometric model which yields both the lamellar repeat distance as well as the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K


    The performance of several commercially available portable radiation spectrometers containing small NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors has been studied at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These hand-held radioisotope identifiers are used by field personnel to detect and identify the illegal transport of uranium as a deterrent to undeclared nuclear proliferation or nuclear terrorism. The detection of uranium in a variety of chemical forms and isotopic enrichments presents some unique challenges in the maritime environment. This study was conducted using a variety of shielded and unshielded uranium sources in a simulated maritime environment. The results include estimates of the detection sensitivity for various isotopic enrichments and configurations using the manufacturer's spectral analysis firmware. More sophisticated methods for analyzing the spectra off-line are also evaluated to determine the detection limits and enrichment sensitivities from the field measurements.

  3. Optimization of poly(L-lactic acid)/segmented polyurethane electrospinning process for the production of bilayered small-diameter nanofibrous tubular structures. (United States)

    Montini Ballarin, F; Caracciolo, P C; Blotta, E; Ballarin, V L; Abraham, G A


    The present study is focused on the electrospinning process as a versatile technique to obtain nanofibrous tubular structures for potential applications in vascular tissue engineering. A bilayered scaffolding structure composed of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)/bioresorbable segmented polyurethane (SPEU) blends for small-diameter (5mm) vascular bypass grafts was obtained by multilayering electrospinning. Polymer blend ratios were chosen to mimic the media and adventitia layers. The influence of the different electrospinning parameters into the fiber formation, fiber morphology and fiber mean diameter for PLLA, SPEU and two PLLA/SPEU blends were studied. Flat and two-parallel plate collectors were used to analyze the effect of the electrostatic field on the PLLA nanofiber alignment in the rotating mandrel. Membrane topography resulted in random or aligned nanofibrous structures depending on the auxiliary collector setup used. Finally, composition, surface hydrophilicity, thermal properties and morphology of nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized and discussed. Since the development of tissue engineered microvascular prostheses is still a challenge, the prepared scaffolding tubular structures are promising candidates for vascular tissue engineering.

  4. Scratch and wear behaviour of plasma sprayed nano ceramics bilayer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-13 wt%TiO{sub 2}/hydroxyapatite coated on medical grade titanium substrates in SBF environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanivelu, R.; Ruban Kumar, A., E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite was synthesized by sol–gel route. • Bilayer (AT13/HAP) coating improves wear resistance of CP-Ti implant surface. • The microhardness values of bilayer coating surface were increased 4 times compared to uncoated sample surface. - Abstract: Among the various coating techniques, plasma spray coating is an efficient technique to protect the metal surface from the various surface problems like wear and corrosion. The aim of this present work is to design and produce a bilayer coating on the non- toxic commercially pure titanium (denoted as CP-Ti) implant substrate in order to improve the biocompatibility and surface properties. To achieve that, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-13 wt%TiO{sub 2} (AT13) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were coated on CP-Ti implant substrate using plasma spray coating technique. Further, the coated substrates were subjected to various characterization techniques. The crystallite size of coated HAP and its morphological studies were carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The wear test on the bilayer (AT13/HAP) coated CP-Ti implant surface was conducted using ball-on-disc tester under SBF environment at 37 °C, in order to determine the wear rate and the coefficient of friction. The adhesion strength of the bilayer coated surface was evaluated by micro scratch tester under the ramp load conditions with load range of 14–20 N. The above said studies were repeated on the single layer coated HAP and AT13 implant surfaces. The results reveal that the bilayer (AT13/HAP) coated CP-Ti surface has the improved wear rate, coefficient of friction in compared to single layer coated HAP and AT13 surfaces.

  5. Small RNA transcriptomes of mangroves evolve adaptively in extreme environments. (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Lin, Xingqin; Xie, Munan; Wang, Yushuai; Shen, Xu; Liufu, Zhongqi; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua; Tang, Tian


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are key players in plant stress responses. Here, we present the sRNA transcriptomes of mangroves Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel. Comparative computational analyses and target predictions revealed that mangroves exhibit distinct sRNA regulatory networks that differ from those of glycophytes. A total of 32 known and three novel miRNA families were identified. Conserved and mangrove-specific miRNA targets were predicted; the latter were widely involved in stress responses. The known miRNAs showed differential expression between the mangroves and glycophytes, reminiscent of the adaptive stress-responsive changes in Arabidopsis. B. gymnorrhiza possessed highly abundant but less conserved TAS3 trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) in addition to tasiR-ARFs, with expanded potential targets. Our results indicate that the evolutionary alteration of sRNA expression levels and the rewiring of sRNA-regulatory networks are important mechanisms underlying stress adaptation. We also identified sRNAs that are involved in salt and/or drought tolerance and nutrient homeostasis as possible contributors to mangrove success in stressful environments.

  6. Biotechnology Applications of Tethered Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Jackman


    Full Text Available The importance of cell membranes in biological systems has prompted the development of model membrane platforms that recapitulate fundamental aspects of membrane biology, especially the lipid bilayer environment. Tethered lipid bilayers represent one of the most promising classes of model membranes and are based on the immobilization of a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support that enables characterization by a wide range of surface-sensitive analytical techniques. Moreover, as the result of molecular engineering inspired by biology, tethered bilayers are increasingly able to mimic fundamental properties of natural cell membranes, including fluidity, electrical sealing and hosting transmembrane proteins. At the same time, new methods have been employed to improve the durability of tethered bilayers, with shelf-lives now reaching the order of weeks and months. Taken together, the capabilities of tethered lipid bilayers have opened the door to biotechnology applications in healthcare, environmental monitoring and energy storage. In this review, several examples of such applications are presented. Beyond the particulars of each example, the focus of this review is on the emerging design and characterization strategies that made these applications possible. By drawing connections between these strategies and promising research results, future opportunities for tethered lipid bilayers within the biotechnology field are discussed.

  7. Corruption, the Rusiness Environment, and Small Business Growth in India


    Honorati, Maddalena; Mengistae, Taye


    This paper estimates a dynamic business growth equation on a sample of small-scale manufacturers. The results suggest that excessive labor regulation, power shortages, and problems of access to finance are significant influences on industrial growth in India. The expected annual sales growth rate of an enterprise is lower where labor regulation is greater, power shortages are more severe, ...

  8. Corruption, Business Environment, and Small Business Fixed Investment in India


    Honorati, Maddalena; Mengistae, Taye


    This paper estimates a structural dynamic business investment equation and an error correction model of fixed assets growth on a sample of predominantly small and mid-size manufacturers in India. The results suggest that excessive labor regulation, power shortages, and problems of access to finance are all significant factors in industrial growth in the country. The estimated effects of la...

  9. Bias induced modulation of electrical and thermal conductivity and heat capacity of BN and BN/graphene bilayers (United States)

    Chegel, Raad


    By using the tight binding approximation and Green function method, the electronic structure, density of state, electrical conductivity, heat capacity of BN and BN/graphene bilayers are investigated. The AA-, AB1- and AB2- BN/graphene bilayers have small gap unlike to BN bilayers which are wide band gap semiconductors. Unlike to BN bilayer, the energy gap of graphene/BN bilayers increases with external field. The magnitude of the change in the band gap of BN bilayers is much higher than the graphene/BN bilayers. Near absolute zero, the σ(T) is zero for BN bilayers and it increases with temperature until reaches maximum value then decreases. The BN/graphene bilayers have larger electrical conductivity larger than BN bilayers. For both bilayers, the specific heat capacity has a Schottky anomaly.

  10. Corruption, the business environment, and small business growth in India


    Honorati, Maddalena; Mengistae, Taye


    This paper estimates a dynamic business growth equation on a sample of small-scale manufacturers. The results suggest that excessive labor regulation, power shortages, and problems of access to finance are significant influences on industrial growth in India. The expected annual sales growth rate of an enterprise is lower where labor regulation is greater, power shortages are more severe, and cash flow constraints are stronger. The effects of each of the three factors on business growth seem ...

  11. Studying Large and Small Scale Environments of Ultraviolet Luminous Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Basu-Zych, Antara R; Heinis, Sebastien; Overzier, Roderik; Heckman, Tim; Zamojski, Michel; Ilbert, Olivier; Koekemoer, Anton M; Barlow, Tom A; Bianchi, Luciana; Conrow, Tim; Donas, Jose; Forster, Karl G; Friedman, Peter G; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Martin, D Christopher; Milliard, Bruno; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Salim, R Michael Rich Samir; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd A; Szalay, A S; Wyder, Ted K; Yi, Sukyoung


    Studying the environments of 0.4 =1.0, which is unable to constrain the halo mass for this sample. However, we find that UVLGs form close (separation < 30 kpc) pairs with the ALL sample, but do not frequently form pairs with LRGs. A rare subset of UVLGs, those with the highest FUV surface brightnesses, are believed to be local analogs of high redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) and are called Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs). LBGs and LBAs share similar characteristics (i.e., color, size, surface brightness, specific star formation rates, metallicities, and dust content). Recent HST images of z~0.2 LBAs show disturbed morphologies, signs of mergers and interactions. UVLGs may be influenced by interactions with other galaxies and we discuss this result in terms of other high star-forming, merging systems.

  12. Does the reconstitution of RC-LH1 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050 into a phospholipid bilayer yield the optimum environment for optical spectroscopy? (United States)

    Böhm, Paul S; Kunz, Ralf; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Köhler, Jürgen


    We have investigated reaction-center light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) complexes from Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) acidophila in detergent buffer solution and reconstituted into a phospholipid bilayer and compared the results with the outcome of an earlier study conducted on RC-LH1 immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The aim of this study was to test whether the immobilization of the complexes in a PVA matrix might lead to a deterioration of the proteins and thereby limit the accessible information that can be obtained from optical spectroscopy. It has been found that the complexes dissolved in a detergent buffer solution are subject to fast spectral dynamics preventing any meaningful application of single-molecule spectroscopy. In contrast, for the bilayer samples it is revealed that the reconstitution process results in a significantly larger fraction of broken complexes with respect to the preparation of the complexes in a PVA film. Moreover, we find that for the intact complexes the statistics of the key spectral features, such as the spectral separations of the bands and the mutual orientation of their transition-dipole moments, show no variation dependent on using either a bilayer or PVA as a matrix. Given the additional effort involved in the reconstitution process, the lower amount of intact RC-LH1 complexes and, concerning the decisive spectral details, the identical results with respect to embedding the complexes in a PVA matrix, we come to the conclusion that the immobilization of these proteins in a PVA matrix is a good choice for conducting low-temperature experiments on individual light-harvesting complexes.

  13. Systematic Analysis on the Environment of Innovative Small and Medium Enterprises (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Shi, Zhuqing

    Environment has great influence on the growth of Innovative SMEs(small and medium enterprises), and Such enterprises has special requirements to growth environment. The ecological factors of Innovative SMEs growth environment include policy and law, social culture, finance, science and technology, market, service, and nature which get together with interactive and interrelated. Innovative SMEs depend on the environment; at the same time react to the environment, so as to achieve sustained innovation and healthy growth in the process of interaction with ecological environment.

  14. Small substrate transport and mechanism of a molybdate ATP binding cassette transporter in a lipid environment. (United States)

    Rice, Austin J; Harrison, Alistair; Alvarez, Frances J D; Davidson, Amy L; Pinkett, Heather W


    Embedded in the plasma membrane of all bacteria, ATP binding cassette (ABC) importers facilitate the uptake of several vital nutrients and cofactors. The ABC transporter, MolBC-A, imports molybdate by passing substrate from the binding protein MolA to a membrane-spanning translocation pathway of MolB. To understand the mechanism of transport in the biological membrane as a whole, the effects of the lipid bilayer on transport needed to be addressed. Continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance and in vivo molybdate uptake studies were used to test the impact of the lipid environment on the mechanism and function of MolBC-A. Working with the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, we found that MolBC-A functions as a low affinity molybdate transporter in its native environment. In periods of high extracellular molybdate concentration, H. influenzae makes use of parallel molybdate transport systems (MolBC-A and ModBC-A) to take up a greater amount of molybdate than a strain with ModBC-A alone. In addition, the movement of the translocation pathway in response to nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in a lipid environment is conserved when compared with in-detergent analysis. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that a lipid environment restricts the flexibility of the MolBC translocation pathway. By combining continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and substrate uptake studies, we reveal details of molybdate transport and the logistics of uptake systems that employ multiple transporters for the same substrate, offering insight into the mechanisms of nutrient uptake in bacteria.

  15. Use of small mammals for bioindication of influence of heavy metals emissions on the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyj


    Full Text Available Microelements level in common small mammals from biogeocoenoses situated at different distances from the technogenic emission source was studied. The microelements concentrations were determined in the studied biotopes. Small mammals can be used as bioindicators of the natural environment contamination of industrial wastes.

  16. Confinement of charge carriers in bilayer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.


    In this thesis we investigate the fundamental properties of electronic transport in bilayer graphene. We do this by confining electrons to narrow constrictions and small islands. Our key result is the fabrication and measurement of nanoscale devices that permit confinement with electric fields in b

  17. What kind of knowledge do small companies need to improve their working environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Hasle, Peter


    Background One of the main obstacles identified for small companies´ improvement of the working environment is lack of knowledge. Aim To discuss what kind of knowledge is required by small companies if they are to be able to improve their working environment and the pros and cons of different kinds...... with providing different kinds of knowledge will be discussed from a theoretical point of view. This question will be further scrutinized in the project SESAME, which aims at developing strategies to improve the working environment in SME:s....

  18. Asymmetric heat transfer from nanoparticles in lipid bilayers (United States)

    Potdar, Dipti; Sammalkorpi, Maria


    Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the heat transfer properties of lipid bilayer - gold nanoparticle systems in which the nanoparticle acts as a heat source. The focus is on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers and thiolated alcohol and alkyl functionalized nanoparticles as prototype hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanoparticles. We find hydrophilic nanoparticles which are partly in contact with the surrounding water environment are more efficient in transferring heat to the system than hydrophobic ones which reside surrounded by the membrane. This is because of the hydrogen bonding capability of the hydroxy pentanethiol and the more efficient heat conductivity through water than the lipid bilayer. Additionally, we find the heat conductance is strongly asymmetric and has a discontinuity between the bilayer leaflets. In total, the findings provide understanding on heat transport from localized heat sources in lipid bilayers and could bear significance, e.g., in engineering and controlling photoactivated triggering of liposomal systems.

  19. Monolayer curvature stabilizes nanoscale raft domains in mixed lipid bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Meinhardt, Sebastian; Schmid, Friederike


    According to the lipid raft hypothesis, biological lipid membranes are laterally heterogeneous and filled with nanoscale ordered "raft" domains, which are believed to play an important role for the organization of proteins in membranes. However, the mechanisms stabilizing such small rafts are not clear, and even their existence is sometimes questioned. Here we report the observation of raft-like structures in a coarse-grained molecular model for multicomponent lipid bilayers. On small scales, our membranes demix into a liquid ordered (lo) and a liquid disordered (ld) phase. On large scales, phase separation is suppressed and gives way to a microemulsion-type state that contains nanometer size lo domains in a ld environment. Furthermore, we introduce a mechanism that generates rafts of finite size by a coupling between monolayer curvature and local composition. We show that mismatch between the spontaneous curvatures of monolayers in the lo and ld phase induces elastic interactions, which reduce the line tensi...

  20. Exploring Pd adsorption, diffusion, permeation, and nucleation on bilayer SiO2/Ru as a function of hydroxylation and precursor environment: From UHV to catalyst preparation (United States)

    Pomp, Sascha; Kaden, William E.; Sterrer, Martin; Freund, Hans-Joachim


    The hydroxylation-dependent permeability of bilayer SiO2 supported on Ru(0001) was investigated by XPS and TDS studies in a temperature range of 100 K to 600 K. For this, the thermal behavior of Pd evaporated at 100 K, which results in surface and sub-surface (Ru-supported) binding arrangements, was examined relative to the extent of pre-hydroxylation. Samples containing only defect-mediated hydroxyls showed no effect on Pd diffusion through the film at low temperature. If, instead, the concentration of strongly bound hydroxyl groups and associated weakly bound water molecules was enriched by an electron-assisted hydroxylation procedure, the probability for Pd diffusion through the film is decreased via a pore-blocking mechanism. Above room temperature, all samples showed similar behavior, reflective of particle nucleation above the film and eventual agglomeration with any metal atoms initially binding beneath the film. When depositing Pd onto the same SiO2/Ru model support via adsorption of [Pd(NH3)4]Cl2 from alkaline (pH 12) precursor solution, we observe notably different adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The resultant Pd adsorption complexes follow established decomposition pathways to produce model catalyst systems compatible with those created exclusively within UHV despite lacking the ability to penetrate the film due to the increased size of the initial Pd precursor groups.

  1. Increased concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus sp. in small animals exposed to aerospace environments (United States)

    Guthrie, R. K.


    The effects of increased concentrations of PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS in the total bacterial flora of small animals exposed to simulated spacecraft environments were evaluated. Tests to detect changes in infectivity, effects of antibiotic treatments, immune responses to bacterial antigens, and effectiveness of immune responses in the experimental environment were conducted. The most significant results appear to be the differences in immune responses at simulated altitudes and the production of infection in the presence of a specific antibody.

  2. Extension of the GLYCAM06 Biomolecular Force Field to Lipids, Lipid Bilayers and Glycolipids. (United States)

    Tessier, Matthew B; Demarco, Mari L; Yongye, Austin B; Woods, Robert J


    GLYCAM06 is a generalisable biomolecular force field that is extendible to diverse molecular classes in the spirit of a small-molecule force field. Here we report parameters for lipids, lipid bilayers and glycolipids for use with GLYCAM06. Only three lipid-specific atom types have been introduced, in keeping with the general philosophy of transferable parameter development. Bond stretching, angle bending, and torsional force constants were derived by fitting to quantum mechanical data for a collection of minimal molecular fragments and related small molecules. Partial atomic charges were computed by fitting to ensemble-averaged quantum-computed molecular electrostatic potentials.In addition to reproducing quantum mechanical internal rotational energies and experimental valence geometries for an array of small molecules, condensed-phase simulations employing the new parameters are shown to reproduce the bulk physical properties of a DMPC lipid bilayer. The new parameters allow for molecular dynamics simulations of complex systems containing lipids, lipid bilayers, glycolipids, and carbohydrates, using an internally consistent force field. By combining the AMBER parameters for proteins with the GLYCAM06 parameters, it is also possible to simulate protein-lipid complexes and proteins in biologically relevant membrane-like environments.

  3. Multiscale Modeling of supported bilayers (United States)

    Faller, Roland; Xing, Chenyue; Hoopes, Matthew I.


    Supported Lipid Bilayers are an abundant research platform for understanding the behavior of real cell membranes as they allow for additional mechanical stability. We studied systematically the changes that a support induces on a phospholipid bilayer using coarse-grained molecular modeling on different levels. We characterize the density and pressure profiles as well as the density imbalance inflicted on the membrane by the support. We also determine the diffusion coefficients and characterize the influence of different corrugations of the support. We then determine the free energy of transfer of phospholipids between the proximal and distal leaflet of a supported membrane using the coarse-grained Martini model. It turns out that there is at equilibrium about a 2-3% higher density in the proximal leaflet. These results are in favorable agreement with recent data obtained by very large scale modeling using a water free model where flip-flop can be observed directly. We compare results of the free energy of transfer obtained by pulling the lipid across the membrane in different ways. There are small quantitative differences but the overall picture is consistent. We are additionally characterizing the intermediate states which determine the barrier height and therefore the rate of translocation.

  4. How can context affect what strategies are effective in improving the working environment in small companies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Hasle, Peter


    working environment in small asbestos stripping companies and cleaning companies. Another example shows how integration with other areas such as the importance to avoid not only exposure to flour dust in bakeries but also to avoid spreading of flour dust in order to avoid the growth of bugs in bakeries...

  5. Deviations from reversible dynamics in a qubit-oscillator system coupled to a very small environment

    CERN Document Server

    Vidiella-Barranco, A


    In this contribution it is considered a simple and solvable model consisting of a qubit in interaction with an oscillator exposed to a very small "environment" (a second qubit). An isolated qubit-oscillator system having the oscillator initially in one of its energy eigenstates exhibits Rabi oscillations, an evidence of coherent quantum behaviour. It is shown here in which way the coupling to a small "environment" disrupts such regular behaviour, leading to a quasi-periodic dynamics for the qubit linear entropy. In particular, it is found that the linear entropy is very sensitive to the amount of mixedness of the "environment". For completeness, fluctuations in the oscillator energy are also taken into account.

  6. Electronic properties of asymmetrically doped twisted graphene bilayers (United States)

    Trambly de Laissardière, Guy; Namarvar, Omid Faizy; Mayou, Didier; Magaud, Laurence


    Rotated graphene bilayers form an exotic class of nanomaterials with fascinating electronic properties governed by the rotation angle θ . For large rotation angles, the electron eigenstates are restricted to one layer and the bilayer behaves like two decoupled graphene layers. At intermediate angles, Dirac cones are preserved but with a lower velocity and van Hove singularities are induced at energies where the two Dirac cones intersect. At very small angles, eigenstates become localized in peculiar moiré zones. We analyze here the effect of an asymmetric doping for a series of commensurate rotated bilayers on the basis of tight-binding calculations of their band dispersions, density of states, participation ratio, and diffusive properties. While a small doping level preserves the θ dependence of the rotated bilayer electronic structure, larger doping induces a further reduction of the band velocity in the same way as a further reduction of the rotation angle.

  7. A generic model for lipid monolayers, bilayers, and membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, F; Lenz, O; West, B


    We describe a simple coarse-grained model which is suited to study lipid layers and their phase transitions. Lipids are modeled by short semiflexible chains of beads with a solvophilic head and a solvophobic tail component. They are forced to self-assemble into bilayers by a computationally cheap `phantom solvent' environment. The model reproduces the most important phases and phase transitions of monolayers and bilayers. Technical issues such as Monte Carlo parallelization schemes are briefly discussed.

  8. Capillary wrinkling of thin bilayer polymeric sheets (United States)

    Chang, Jooyoung; Menon, Narayanan; Russell, Thomas

    We have investigated capillary force induced wrinkling on a floated polymeric bilayer thin sheet. The origin of the wrinkle pattern is compressional hoop stress caused by the capillary force of a water droplet placed on the floated polymeric thin sheet afore investigated. Herein, we study the effect of the differences of surface energy arising from the hydrophobicity of Polystyrene (PS Mw: 97 K, Contact Angle: 88 º) and the hydrophilicity of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA Mw: 99K, Contact Angle: 68 º) on two sides of a bilayer film. We measure the number and the length of the wrinkles by broadly varying the range of thicknesses of top (9 nm to 550 nm) and bottom layer (25 nm to 330 nm). At the same, there is only a small contrast in mechanical properties of the two layers (PS E = 3.4 GPa, and PMMA E = 3 GPa). The number of the wrinkles is not strongly affected by the composition (PS(Top)/PMMA(Bottom) or PMMA(Top)/PS(Bottom)) and the thickness of each and overall bilayer system. However, the length of the wrinkle is governed by the contact angle of the drop on the top layer of bilayer system. We also compare this to the wrinkle pattern obtained in monolayer systems over a wide range of thickness from PS and PMMA (7 nm to 1 μm). W.M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Structure of twisted and buckled bilayer graphene (United States)

    Jain, Sandeep K.; Juričić, Vladimir; Barkema, Gerard T.


    We study the atomic structure of twisted bilayer graphene, with very small mismatch angles (θ ∼ {0.28}0), a topic of intense recent interest. We use simulations, in which we combine a recently presented semi-empirical potential for single-layer graphene, with a new term for out-of-plane deformations, (Jain et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 9646) and an often-used interlayer potential (Kolmogorov et al 2005 Phys. Rev. B 71 235415). This combination of potentials is computationally cheap but accurate and precise at the same time, allowing us to study very large samples, which is necessary to reach very small mismatch angles in periodic samples. By performing large scale atomistic simulations, we show that the vortices appearing in the Moiré pattern in the twisted bilayer graphene samples converge to a constant size in the thermodynamic limit. Furthermore, the well known sinusoidal behavior of energy no longer persists once the misorientation angle becomes very small (θ \\lt {1}0). We also show that there is a significant buckling after the relaxation in the samples, with the buckling height proportional to the system size. These structural properties have direct consequences on the electronic and optical properties of bilayer graphene.

  10. The use of virtual ground to control transmembrane voltages and measure bilayer currents in serial arrays of droplet interface bilayers (United States)

    Sarles, Stephen A.


    The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) is a simple technique for constructing a stable lipid bilayer at the interface of two lipid-encased water droplets submerged in oil. Networks of DIBs formed by connecting more than two droplets constitute a new form of modular biomolecular smart material, where the transduction properties of a single lipid bilayer can affect the actions performed at other interface bilayers in the network via diffusion through the aqueous environments of shared droplet connections. The passive electrical properties of a lipid bilayer and the arrangement of droplets that determine the paths for transport in the network require specific electrical control to stimulate and interrogate each bilayer. Here, we explore the use of virtual ground for electrodes inserted into specific droplets in the network and employ a multichannel patch clamp amplifier to characterize bilayer formation and ion-channel activity in a serial DIB array. Analysis of serial connections of DIBs is discussed to understand how assigning electrode connections to the measurement device can be used to measure activity across all lipid membranes within a network. Serial arrays of DIBs are assembled using the regulated attachment method within a multi-compartment flexible substrate, and wire-type electrodes inserted into each droplet compartment of the substrate enable the application of voltage and measurement of current in each droplet in the array.

  11. The average direct current offset values for small digital audio recorders in an acoustically consistent environment. (United States)

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S


    In this research project, nine small digital audio recorders were tested using five sets of 30-min recordings at all available recording modes, with consistent audio material, identical source and microphone locations, and identical acoustic environments. The averaged direct current (DC) offset values and standard deviations were measured for 30-sec and 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 15-, and 30-min segments. The research found an inverse association between segment lengths and the standard deviation values and that lengths beyond 30 min may not meaningfully reduce the standard deviation values. This research supports previous studies indicating that measured averaged DC offsets should only be used for exclusionary purposes in authenticity analyses and exhibit consistent values when the general acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations were held constant. Measured average DC offset values from exemplar recorders may not be directly comparable to those of submitted digital audio recordings without exactly duplicating the acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations.

  12. Nanoparticle-lipid bilayer interactions studied with lipid bilayer arrays (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Smith, Tyler; Schmidt, Jacob J.


    The widespread environmental presence and commercial use of nanoparticles have raised significant health concerns as a result of many in vitro and in vivo assays indicating toxicity of a wide range of nanoparticle species. Many of these assays have identified the ability of nanoparticles to damage cell membranes. These interactions can be studied in detail using artificial lipid bilayers, which can provide insight into the nature of the particle-membrane interaction through variation of membrane and solution properties not possible with cell-based assays. However, the scope of these studies can be limited because of the low throughput characteristic of lipid bilayer platforms. We have recently described an easy to use, parallel lipid bilayer platform which we have used to electrically investigate the activity of 60 nm diameter amine and carboxyl modified polystyrene nanoparticles (NH2-NP and COOH-NP) with over 1000 lipid bilayers while varying lipid composition, bilayer charge, ionic strength, pH, voltage, serum, particle concentration, and particle charge. Our results confirm recent studies finding activity of NH2-NP but not COOH-NP. Detailed analysis shows that NH2-NP formed pores 0.3-2.3 nm in radius, dependent on bilayer and solution composition. These interactions appear to be electrostatic, as they are regulated by NH2-NP surface charge, solution ionic strength, and bilayer charge. The ability to rapidly measure a large number of nanoparticle and membrane parameters indicates strong potential of this bilayer array platform for additional nanoparticle bilayer studies.The widespread environmental presence and commercial use of nanoparticles have raised significant health concerns as a result of many in vitro and in vivo assays indicating toxicity of a wide range of nanoparticle species. Many of these assays have identified the ability of nanoparticles to damage cell membranes. These interactions can be studied in detail using artificial lipid bilayers, which

  13. Molecular Dynamics of Lipid Bilayers (United States)


    The aim of this work is to study, by molecular dynamics simulations, the properties of lipid bilayers. We have applied the vectorizable, angle-dependent force/potential algorithms to treat angle bending and torsion. Keywords: Molecular dynamics , Lipid bilayers.

  14. The Influence of the Business Environment on Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel Brașoveanu


    Full Text Available The Small and Medium Enterprise sector in Romania has been significantly affected by the global recession in the years 2008-2009; currently it is making efforts to revive it, thanks to important role it occupies in the economy of any country. SMEs raise wide debates, especially on fiscal measures. In Romania, SMEs represent 99.7% of all businesses, generating two-thirds of jobs in the business and half of gross value added. This paper focuses on the development of SMEs and hence on business environment in Romania. The purpose of this paper is to present the influence which regulations and evolution of businesses environment have on the SME sector.

  15. SENVM: Server Environment Monitoring and Controlling System for a Small Data Center Using Wireless Sensor Network

    CERN Document Server

    Choochaisri, Supasate; Jenjaturong, Saran; Intanagonwiwat, Chalermek; Ratanamahatana, Chotirat Ann


    In recent years, efficient energy utilization becomes an essential requirement for data centers, especially in data centers of world-leading companies, where "Green Data Center" defines a new term for an environment-concerned data center. Solutions to change existing a data center to the green one may vary. In the big company, high-cost approaches including re-planning server rooms, changing air-conditioners, buying low-powered servers, and equipping sophisticating environmental control equipments are possible, but not for small to medium enterprises (SMEs) and academic sectors which have limited budget. In this paper, we propose a novel system, SENVM, used to monitor and control air temperature in a server room to be in appropriate condition, not too cold, where very unnecessary cooling leads to unnecessary extra electricity expenses, and also inefficient in energy utilization. With implementing on an emerging technology, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Green Data Center is feasible to every small data center...

  16. Detecting small-scale genotype-environment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations. (United States)

    McLeod, K A; Scascitelli, M; Vellend, M


    Studies of genotype × environment interactions (G × E) and local adaptation provide critical tests of natural selection's ability to counter opposing forces such as gene flow. Such studies may be greatly facilitated in asexual species, given the possibility for experimental replication at the level of true genotypes (rather than populations) and the possibility of using molecular markers to assess genotype-environment associations in the field (neither of which is possible for most sexual species). Here, we tested for G × E in asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) by subjecting six genotypes to experimental drought, mown and benign (control) conditions and subsequently using microsatellites to assess genotype-environment associations in the field. We found strong G × E, with genotypes that performed poorly under benign conditions showing the highest performance under stressful conditions (drought or mown). Our six focal genotypes comprise > 80% of plants in local populations. The most common genotype in the field showed its highest relative performance under mown conditions (the most common habitat in our study area), and almost all plants of this genotype in the field were found growing in mowed lawns. Genotypes performing best under benign experimental conditions were found most frequently in unmown conditions in the field. These results are strongly indicative of local adaptation at a very small scale, with unmown microsites of only a few square metres typically embedded within larger mown lawns. By studying an asexual species, we were able to map genotypes with known ecological characteristics to environments with high spatial precision.

  17. Lindane Suppresses the Lipid-bilayer Permeability in Main Transition Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Jørgensen, Kent; Mouritsen, Ole G.


    %) of lindane. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to measure the passive permeability of unilamellar DMPC bilayers to Co2+ ions. The data show that lindane seals the bilayer for Co2+ penetration and that this effect increases with increasing lindane concentration. The results are discussed in relation...... to the effects on the permeability of other small molecules, e.g., anesthetics....

  18. Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Wrenn, Stephen M. Dicker, Eleanor F. Small, Nily R. Dan, Michał Mleczko, Georg Schmitz, Peter A. Lewin


    Full Text Available This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol (PEG - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented

  19. Laurdan fluorescence senses mechanical strain in the lipid bilayer membrane. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Liang; Frangos, John A; Chachisvilis, Mirianas


    The precise molecular mechanisms by which cells transduce a mechanical stimulus into an intracellular biochemical response have not yet been established. Here, we show for the first time that the fluorescence emission of an environment-sensitive membrane probe Laurdan is modulated by mechanical strain of the lipid bilayer membrane. We have measured fluorescence emission of Laurdan in phospholipid vesicles of 30, 50, and 100 nm diameter to show that osmotically induced membrane tension leads to an increase in polarity (hydration depth) of the phospholipid bilayer interior. Our data indicate that the general polarization of Laurdan emission is linearly dependent on membrane tension. We also show that higher membrane curvature leads to higher hydration levels. We anticipate that the proposed method will facilitate future studies of mechanically induced changes in physical properties of lipid bilayer environment both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Reinforcement Learning with Autonomous Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Cluttered Environments (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Cross, Charles; Montague, Gilbert; Motter, Mark; Neilan, James; Qualls, Garry; Rothhaar, Paul; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette


    We present ongoing work in the Autonomy Incubator at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) exploring the efficacy of a data set aggregation approach to reinforcement learning for small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) flight in dense and cluttered environments with reactive obstacle avoidance. The goal is to learn an autonomous flight model using training experiences from a human piloting a sUAV around static obstacles. The training approach uses video data from a forward-facing camera that records the human pilot's flight. Various computer vision based features are extracted from the video relating to edge and gradient information. The recorded human-controlled inputs are used to train an autonomous control model that correlates the extracted feature vector to a yaw command. As part of the reinforcement learning approach, the autonomous control model is iteratively updated with feedback from a human agent who corrects undesired model output. This data driven approach to autonomous obstacle avoidance is explored for simulated forest environments furthering autonomous flight under the tree canopy research. This enables flight in previously inaccessible environments which are of interest to NASA researchers in Earth and Atmospheric sciences.

  1. Lipid bilayers on nano-templates (United States)

    Noy, Aleksandr; Artyukhin, Alexander B.; Bakajin, Olgica; Stoeve, Pieter


    A lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising a nanotube or nanowire and a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire. One embodiment provides a method of fabricating a lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising the steps of providing a nanotube or nanowire and forming a lipid bilayer around the polymer cushion. One embodiment provides a protein pore in the lipid bilayer. In one embodiment the protein pore is sensitive to specific agents

  2. Tracking small mountainous river derived terrestrial organic carbon across the active margin marine environment (United States)

    Childress, L. B.; Blair, N. E.; Orpin, A. R.


    Active margins are particularly efficient in the burial of organic carbon due to the close proximity of highland sources to marine sediment sinks and high sediment transport rates. Compared with passive margins, active margins are dominated by small mountainous river systems, and play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. Small mountainous rivers drain only approximately 20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems where riverine organic carbon is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, small mountainous river dominated systems are highly effective in the burial and preservation of organic carbon due to the rapid and episodic delivery of organic carbon sourced from vegetation, soil, and rock. To investigate the erosion, transport, and burial of organic carbon in active margin small mountainous river systems we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River, and adjacent marine depositional environment, is a system of interest due to a large sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Previous studies have considered the biogeochemistry of the watershed and tracked the transport of terrestrially derived sediment and organics to the continental shelf and slope by biogeochemical proxies including stable carbon isotopes, lignin phenols, n-alkanes, and n-fatty acids. In this work we expand the spatial extent of investigation to include deep sea sediments of the Hikurangi Trough. Located in approximately 3000 m water depth 120 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, the Hikurangi Trough is the southern extension of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction system. Piston core sediments collected by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, NZ) in the Hikurangi Trough indicate the presence of terrestrially derived material (lignin phenols), and suggest a continuum of deposition, resuspension, and transport across the margin

  3. Label-free detection of small-molecule binding to a GPCR in the membrane environment. (United States)

    Heym, Roland G; Hornberger, Wilfried B; Lakics, Viktor; Terstappen, Georg C


    Evaluation of drug-target interaction kinetics is becoming increasingly important during the drug-discovery process to investigate selectivity of a drug and predict in vivo target occupancy. To date, it remains challenging to obtain kinetic information for interactions between G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and small-molecule ligands in a label-free manner. Often GPCRs need to be solubilized or even stabilized by mutations which can be difficult and is time consuming. In addition, it is often unclear if the native conformation of the receptors is sustained. In this study, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) technologies have been used to detect ligand binding to the GPCR chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) expressed in lipoparticles. We first evaluated different strategies to immobilize CXCR4-expressing lipoparticles. The highest small-molecule binding signal in SPR and SAW was achieved with a matrix-free carboxymethylated sensor chip coated with wheat germ agglutinin for lipoparticle capturing. Next, the binding kinetics of the anti-CXCR4 antibody 12G5 raised against a conformational epitope (k(on)=1.83×10(6)M(-1)s(-1), k(off)=2.79×10(-4) s(-1)) and the small molecule AMD3100 (k(on)=5.46×10(5)M(-1)s(-1), k(off)=1.01×10(-2)s(-1)) were assessed by SAW. Our kinetic and affinity data are consistent with previously published radioligand-binding experiments using cells and label-free experiments with solubilized CXCR4. This is the first study demonstrating label-free kinetic characterization of small-molecule binding to a GPCR in the membrane environment. The presented method holds the potential to greatly facilitate label-free assay development for GPRCs that can be expressed at high levels in lipoparticles.

  4. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott


    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  5. Precision measurement of the half-life of $^{109}$In in large and small lattice environments

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to undertake high precision measurements of the half-life of $^{109}$In in large and small lattice environments to study the effect of compression on the electron capture nuclear decay rate. Such studies are of general interest having implications in many areas ranging from astrophysics to geophysics. At present, very little data is available on the change of electron capture decay rate under compression and the available data seems to indicate that the observed increase of the electron capture decay rate under compression is much greater than the predictions of the best available density functional calculations as obtained from TB-LMTO or WIEN2K codes. The proposed experiment should generate more data thus clarifying the experimental situation.

  6. Behavioral Adjustments by a Small Neotropical Primate (Callithrix jacchus in a Semiarid Caatinga Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Castellón De la Fuente


    Full Text Available We provide the first information on the behavior of a small primate (Callithrix jacchus inhabiting a semiarid Caatinga environment in northeastern Brazil. We observed behavioral variations in response to temperature fluctuation throughout the day. Due to the high temperatures, low precipitation, and resource scarcity in the Caatinga, as well as the lack of physiological adaptations (e.g., a highly concentrated urine and a carotid rete to cool down the brain of these primates, we expected that the common marmosets would exhibit behavioral adjustments, such as a prolonged resting period or the use of a large home range. During the six-month period, we collected 246 hours of behavioral data of two groups (10 individuals of Callithrix jacchus. Most of the observed behavioral patterns were influenced by temperature fluctuation. Animals rested longer and reduced other activities, such as foraging, when temperatures were higher. Both study groups exploited home ranges of 2.21–3.26 ha, which is within the range described for common marmosets inhabiting the Atlantic Forest. Our findings confirm that common marmosets inhabiting the Caatinga adjust their behavioral patterns to cope with the high temperatures that characterize this environment and highlight their ability to survive across a wide range of different environmental conditions.

  7. Capitalizing on Community: the Small College Environment and the Development of Researchers (United States)

    Stoneking, M. R.


    Liberal arts colleges constitute an important source of and training ground for future scientists. At Lawrence University, we take advantage of our small college environment to prepare physics students for research careers by complementing content acquisition with skill development and project experience distributed throughout the curriculum and with co-curricular elements that are tied to our close-knit supportive physics community. Small classes and frequent contact between physics majors and faculty members offer opportunities for regular and detailed feedback on the development of research relevant skills such as laboratory record-keeping, data analysis, electronic circuit design, computational programming, experimental design and modification, and scientific communication. Part of our approach is to balance collaborative group work on small projects (such as Arduino-based electronics projects and optical design challenges) with independent work (on, for example, advanced laboratory experimental extensions and senior capstone projects). Communal spaces and specialized facilities (experimental and computational) and active on-campus research programs attract eager students to the program, establish a community-based atmosphere, provide unique opportunities for the development of research aptitude, and offer opportunities for genuine contribution to a research program. Recently, we have also been encouraging innovativetendencies in physics majors through intentional efforts to develop personal characteristics, encouraging students to become more tolerant of ambiguity, risk-taking, initiative-seeking, and articulate. Indicators of the success of our approach include the roughly ten physics majors who graduate each year and our program's high ranking among institutions whose graduates go on to receive the Ph.D. in physics. Work supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  8. Plasmons in metallic monolayer and bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten; Thygesen, Kristian S.


    We study the collective electronic excitations in metallic single-layer and bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) using time dependent density functional theory in the random phase approximation. For very small momentum transfers (below q≈0.02 Å−1), the plasmon dispersion follows the √q...

  9. [Small-scale, homelike care environments for people with dementia: effects on residents, family caregivers and nursing staff]. (United States)

    Verbeek, H; Zwakhalen, S M G; van Rossum, E; Kempen, G I J M; Hamers, J P H


    Institutional dementia care is increasingly directed towards small-scale and homelike care environments, in The Netherlands as well as abroad. In these facilities, a small number of residents, usually six to eight, live together, and normal daily household activities and social participation are emphasized. In a quasi-experimental study, we studied the effects of small-scale, homelike care environments on residents (n = 259), family caregivers (n = 206) and nursing staff (n = 305). We compared two types of institutional nursing care during a 1 year period (baseline assessment and follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months): (28) small-scale, homelike care environments and (21) psychogeriatric wards in traditional nursing homes. A matching procedure was applied to increase comparability of residents at baseline regarding functional status and cognition. This study was unable to demonstrate convincing overall effects of small-scale, homelike care facilities. On our primary outcome measures, such as quality of life and behaviour of residents and job satisfaction and motivation of nursing staff, no differences were found with traditional nursing homes. We conclude that small-scale, homelike care environments are not necessarily a better care environment than regular nursing homes and other types of living arrangements should be considered carefully. This provides opportunities for residents and their family caregivers to make a choice which care facility suits their wishes and beliefs best.

  10. Phospholipid bilayer formation at a bare Si surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutberlet, T.; Steitz, R.; Fragneto, G.;


    Neutron reflectivity was applied to monitor in situ the adsorption of small unilamellar phospholipid vesicles on a solid bare hydrophilic Si interface. The obtained reflectivity curves are consistent with the rupture and fusion model for the adsorption of phosphatidylcholine vesicles to solid...... interfaces. The results show details of the adsorbed bilayer system at ångström resolution and indicate the presence of a thin ∼6 Å thick water leaflet that separates the bilayer from the Si surface. The resolved structural details provide the basis for further investigation of processes such as adsorption...

  11. Prediction of superconductivity in Li-intercalated bilayer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G. Q. [Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xing, Z. W., E-mail: [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xing, D. Y. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    It is shown that bilayer phosphorene can be transformed from a direct-gap semiconductor to a BCS superconductor by intercalating Li atoms. For the Li-intercalated bilayer phosphorene, we find that the electron occupation of Li-derived band is small and superconductivity is intrinsic. With increasing the intercalation of Li atoms, both increased metallicity and strong electron-phonon coupling are favorable for the enhancement of superconductivity. The obtained electron-phonon coupling λ can be larger than 1 and the superconducting temperature T{sub c} can be increased up to 16.5 K, suggesting that phosphorene may be a good candidate for a nanoscale superconductor.

  12. Electro-absorption of silicene and bilayer graphene quantum dots (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Hazem; Talaat, Mohamed H.; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Portnoi, M. E.; Saroka, V. A.


    We study numerically the optical properties of low-buckled silicene and AB-stacked bilayer graphene quantum dots subjected to an external electric field, which is normal to their surface. Within the tight-binding model, the optical absorption is calculated for quantum dots, of triangular and hexagonal shapes, with zigzag and armchair edge terminations. We show that in triangular silicene clusters with zigzag edges a rich and widely tunable infrared absorption peak structure originates from transitions involving zero energy states. The edge of absorption in silicene quantum dots undergoes red shift in the external electric field for triangular clusters, whereas blue shift takes place for hexagonal ones. In small clusters of bilayer graphene with zigzag edges the edge of absorption undergoes blue/red shift for triangular/hexagonal geometry. In armchair clusters of silicene blue shift of the absorption edge takes place for both cluster shapes, while red shift is inherent for both shapes of the bilayer graphene quantum dots.

  13. Entropy Analyses of Droplet Combustion in Convective Environment with Small Reynolds Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaobin; ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Xuejun


    This paper analyzes the entropy generation rate of simple pure droplet combustion in a temperature-elevated air convective environment based on the solutions of flow,and heat and mass transfer between the two phases.The flow-field calculations are carried out by solving the respective conservation equations for each phase,accounting for the droplet deformation with the axisymmetric model.The effects of the temperature,velocity and oxygen fraction of the free stream air on the total entropy generation rate in the process of the droplet combustion are investigated.Special attention is given to analyze the quantitative effects of droplet deformation.The results reveal that the entropy generation rate due to chemical reaction occupies a large fraction of the total entropy generated,as a result of the large areas covered by the flame.Although,the magnitude of the entropy generation rate per volume due to heat transfer and combined mass and heat transfer has a magnitude of one order greater than that due to chemical reaction,they cover a very limited area,leading to a small fraction of the total entropy generated.The entropy generation rate due to mass transfer is negligible.High temperature and high velocity of the free stream are advantageous to increase the exergy efficiency in the range of small Reynolds number (<1) from the viewpoint of the second-law analysis over the droplet lifetime.The effect of droplet deformation on the total entropy generation is the modest.

  14. [System design of small intellectualized ultrasound hyperthermia instrument in the LabVIEW environment]. (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Bai, Jingfeng; Chen, Yazhu


    Small-scale intellectualized medical instrument has attracted great attention in the field of biomedical engineering, and LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) provides a convenient environment for this application due to its inherent advantages. The principle and system structure of the hyperthermia instrument are presented. Type T thermocouples are employed as thermotransducers, whose amplifier consists of two stages, providing built-in ice point compensation and thus improving work stability over temperature. Control signals produced by specially designed circuit drive the programmable counter/timer 8254 chip to generate PWM (Pulse width modulation) wave, which is used as ultrasound radiation energy control signal. Subroutine design topics such as inner-tissue real time feedback temperature control algorithm, water temperature control in the ultrasound applicator are also described. In the cancer tissue temperature control subroutine, the authors exert new improvments to PID (Proportional Integral Differential) algorithm according to the specific demands of the system and achieve strict temperature control to the target tissue region. The system design and PID algorithm improvement have experimentally proved to be reliable and excellent, meeting the requirements of the hyperthermia system.

  15. Good Practices Preceding the Implementation of the System of Management of Environment, on Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Atanase


    Full Text Available The current and future economic context compel to ample reconsiderations related to the volume and content of the demarches carried out by organisations, in order to face the competition sharper and sharper and the more and more numerous rigors, among which the issue of environment is more than imperative. The good practices in environment management become more and more necessary and, fortunately, are supplied more and more often by organisations in SMEs category, which encounter highly valuable solutions in this context charged with convictions. This work features an exemplary performance of a small organisation that managed to settle an informal system of management of environment, built up with much rigour, involvement, respect for society and environment. The objectives of authors consist in offering good practices to business environment, from SMEs category, means of approaching in the analysis of environment practices and emphasizing the imperatives in this area of action, for organisations. The method of research included the consulting of some lists of specialised works, documentary study in the sites of the organisations from SMEs category and of the organisations in the field, adopting some established models of analysis (FMEA - Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, singularised application of method to the data concerning an organisation from German space. The results of authors’ demarche were materialised in both theoretical and practical considerations, presumptively useful for the specialists in the field of environment management, university environment and business environment.

  16. Structure and homogeneity of pseudo-physiological phospholipid bilayers and their deposition characteristics on carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayers. (United States)

    Mechler, Adam; Praporski, Slavica; Piantavigna, Stefania; Heaton, Steven M; Hall, Kristopher N; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Martin, Lisandra L


    Supported phospholipid bilayers are frequently used to establish a pseudo-physiological environment required for the study of protein function or the design of enzyme-based biosensors and biocatalytic reactors. These membranes are deposited from bilayer vesicles (liposomes) that rupture and fuse into a planar membrane upon adhesion to a surface. However, the morphology and homogeneity of the resulting layer is affected by the characteristics of the precursor liposome suspension and the substrate. Here we show that two distinct liposome populations contribute to membrane formation--equilibrium liposomes and small unilamellar vesicles. Liposome deposition onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayers resulted in planar mono- and multilayer, vesicular and composite membranes, as a function of liposome size and composition. Quartz crystal microbalance data provided estimates for layer thicknesses and sheer moduli and were used for classification of the final structure. Finally, atomic force microscopy data illustrated the inherently inhomogeneous and dynamic nature of these membranes.

  17. Lipid-Bilayer Dynamics Probed by a Carbon Dot-Phospholipid Conjugate. (United States)

    Nandi, Sukhendu; Malishev, Ravit; Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Jopp, Jürgen; Jelinek, Raz


    Elucidating the dynamic properties of membranes is important for understanding fundamental cellular processes and for shedding light on the interactions of proteins, drugs, and viruses with the cell surface. Dynamic studies of lipid bilayers have been constrained, however, by the relatively small number of pertinent molecular probes and the limited physicochemical properties of the probes. We show that a lipid conjugate comprised of a fluorescent carbon dot (C-dot) covalently attached to a phospholipid constitutes a versatile and effective vehicle for studying bilayer dynamics. The C-dot-modified phospholipids readily incorporated within biomimetic membranes, including solid-supported bilayers and small and giant vesicles, and inserted into actual cellular membranes. We employed the C-dot-phospholipid probe to elucidate the effects of polymyxin-B (a cytolytic peptide), valproic acid (a lipophilic drug), and amyloid-β (a peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease) upon bilayer fluidity and lipid dynamics through the application of various biophysical techniques.

  18. Inducing morphological changes in lipid bilayer membranes with microfabricated substrates (United States)

    Liu, Fangjie; Collins, Liam F.; Ashkar, Rana; Heberle, Frederick A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Collier, C. Patrick


    Lateral organization of lipids and proteins into distinct domains and anchoring to a cytoskeleton are two important strategies employed by biological membranes to carry out many cellular functions. However, these interactions are difficult to emulate with model systems. Here we use the physical architecture of substrates consisting of arrays of micropillars to systematically control the behavior of supported lipid bilayers - an important step in engineering model lipid membrane systems with well-defined functionalities. Competition between attractive interactions of supported lipid bilayers with the underlying substrate versus the energy cost associated with membrane bending at pillar edges can be systematically investigated as functions of pillar height and pitch, chemical functionalization of the microstructured substrate, and the type of unilamellar vesicles used for assembling the supported bilayer. Confocal fluorescent imaging and AFM measurements highlight correlations that exist between topological and mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and lateral lipid mobility in these confined environments. This study provides a baseline for future investigations into lipid domain reorganization on structured solid surfaces and scaffolds for cell growth.

  19. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara


    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  20. Business Incubators – Favorable Environment for Small and Medium Enterprises Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia MORARU


    Full Text Available The biggest problem for many small and medium enterprises (SMEs is not the idea or the product provided and neither its customers, but their needs. High prices of production and office space are critical to the survival of a small business. Incubators come as a response to the needs of small and medium enterprises in key steps of a business, such as initiation and market penetration. An incubator aims to have a positive effect on the economic health of an area, of a community.

  1. Interaction of polymer-coated silicon nanocrystals with lipid bilayers and surfactant interfaces (United States)

    Elbaradei, Ahmed; Brown, Samuel L.; Miller, Joseph B.; May, Sylvio; Hobbie, Erik K.


    We use photoluminescence (PL) microscopy to measure the interaction between polyethylene-glycol-coated (PEGylated) silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) and two model surfaces: lipid bilayers and surfactant interfaces. By characterizing the photostability, transport, and size-dependent emission of the PEGylated nanocrystal clusters, we demonstrate the retention of red PL suitable for detection and tracking with minimal blueshift after a year in an aqueous environment. The predominant interaction measured for both interfaces is short-range repulsion, consistent with the ideal behavior anticipated for PEGylated phospholipid coatings. However, we also observe unanticipated attractive behavior in a small number of scenarios for both interfaces. We attribute this anomaly to defective PEG coverage on a subset of the clusters, suggesting a possible strategy for enhancing cellular uptake by controlling the homogeneity of the PEG corona. In both scenarios, the shape of the apparent potential is modeled through the free or bound diffusion of the clusters near the confining interface.

  2. Chain elongation of diacylphosphatidylcholine induces fully bilayer interdigitation under atmospheric pressure. (United States)

    Goto, Masaki; Wilk, Agnieszka; Kazama, Akira; Chodankar, Shirish; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Matsuki, Hitoshi


    The phase transitions of dibehenoylphosphatidylcholine (C22PC) bilayer membrane were observed by differential scanning calorimetry under atmospheric pressure and light-transmittance measurements under high pressure. The constructed temperature-pressure phase diagram suggests that the gel phase at low temperatures is the interdigitated gel phase. To confirm the phase state, we performed small-angle neutron scattering and fluorescence measurements using a polarity-sensitive probe Prodan for the C22PC bilayer membrane under atmospheric pressure. The peaks obtained in both measurements clearly showed the characteristic patterns of the fully interdigitated gel phase. Taking into account of previous studies on the gel phase for long-chain PC bilayers under atmospheric pressure and our studies on the pressure-induced bilayer interdigitaion of diacyl-PCs, it turned out that the interdigitation of diacyl-PC bilayer membranes occurs when the carbon number of acyl chain reaches at least 22. The present study revealed that the interdigitation of PC bilayer membranes occurs not only by weakening the attractive force of polar head groups but also by strengthening the cohesive force of acyl chains. When dominating the force of acyl chains, the interdigitation can be induced even in a diacyl-PC bilayer membrane by only hydration under atmospheric pressure.

  3. Role of substrate induced electron-phonon interactions in biased graphitic bilayers (United States)

    Davenport, A. R.; Hague, J. P.


    Bilayers of graphitic materials have potential applications in field effect transistors (FETs). A potential difference applied between certain ionic bilayers made from insulating graphitic materials such as BN, ZnO and AlN could reduce gap sizes, turning them into useful semiconductors. On the other hand, opening of a small semiconducting gap occurs in graphene bilayers under applied field. The aim here is to investigate to what extent substrate induced electron-phonon interactions (EPIs) modify this gap change. We examine EPIs in several lattice configurations of graphitic bilayers, using a perturbative approach. The typical effect of EPIs on the ionic bilayers is an undesirable gap widening. The size of this gap change varies considerably with lattice structure and the magnitude of the bias. When bias is larger than the non-interacting gap size, EPIs have the smallest effect on the bandgap, especially in configurations with A{{A}\\prime} and AB structures. Thus careful selection of substrate, lattice configuration and bias strength to minimise the effects of EPIs could be important for optimising the properties of electronic devices. We use parameters related to BN in this article. In practice, the results presented here are broadly applicable to other graphitic bilayers, and are likely to be qualitatively similar in metal dichalcogenide bilayers such as MoS2, which are already of high interest for their use in FETs.

  4. Investigating Hydrophilic Pores in Model Lipid Bilayers Using Molecular Simulations: Correlating Bilayer Properties with Pore-Formation Thermodynamics. (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Patel, Sandeep


    Cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides show a remarkable ability to translocate across physiological membranes. Along with factors such as electric-potential-induced perturbations of membrane structure and surface tension effects, experiments invoke porelike membrane configurations during the solute transfer process into vesicles and cells. The initiation and formation of pores are associated with a nontrivial free-energy cost, thus necessitating a consideration of the factors associated with pore formation and the attendant free energies. Because of experimental and modeling challenges related to the long time scales of the translocation process, we use umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations with a lipid-density-based order parameter to investigate membrane-pore-formation free energy employing Martini coarse-grained models. We investigate structure and thermodynamic features of the pore in 18 lipids spanning a range of headgroups, charge states, acyl chain lengths, and saturation. We probe the dependence of pore-formation barriers on the area per lipid, lipid bilayer thickness, and membrane bending rigidities in three different lipid classes. The pore-formation free energy in pure bilayers and peptide translocating scenarios are significantly coupled with bilayer thickness. Thicker bilayers require more reversible work to create pores. The pore-formation free energy is higher in peptide-lipid systems than in peptide-free lipid systems due to penalties to maintain the solvation of charged hydrophilic solutes within the membrane environment.

  5. Virtual Environments and Interactive Tools to communicate Medical Culture in small museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Scucces


    Full Text Available EnVirtual Environment technologies are becoming increasingly important, carving out place in several sectors like training, learning, entertainment or industry, thanks to their adaptability for different contexts.In the Cultural Heritage field, they have been mostly used to reconstruct and represent lost archaeological patrimony, or to create virtual tours of ancient cities and sites. However, these technologies have now also entered museums and cultural institutions, contributing in changing the concept itself of Museum as institution and its relation with the public, supporting an approach more centered on engagement and participatory experiences.This is particularly true in the case of topics commonly intended as “specialistic”, difficult to approach and understand for general public, such as those related to scientific, anatomical and medical collections. The use of VEs and, in general, also of simpler but carefully designed ICT tools (such as institutional websites can become an important tool to raise awareness and knowledge about these matters.In the present work we describe our experience, focused on a small Anatomy Museum of the University of Pisa, in which we have conducted a study on visitors, and consequently developed asset of interactive tools, aiming at increasing engagement and improving the educational experience, attempting at reducing the gap between the general public and the communication of scientific and medical topics.ItLe nuove tecnologie di Ambienti Virtuali stanno acquisendo una importanza sempre crescente, conquistandosi un posto in ambiti quali training, istruzione, eduntainment e settori industriali, grazie alla loro adattabilità ai vari contesti. Nel campo dei Beni Culturali sono state spesso impiegate nella ricostruzione e rappresentazione del patrimonio archeologico perduto o nella creazione di tour virtuali di antichi siti e città. Attualmente, queste tecnologie hanno fatto il loro ingresso nei musei e


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tebloyeva


    Full Text Available Small business resources’ involvement in the economic process and creation of favorable conditions for its operation will promote dynamics increase and social orientation of economic development both in Russia and its regions, and republics in particular.

  7. Pedot and PPy Conducting Polymer Bilayer and Trilayer Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainudeen, Umer Lebbe; Careem, Mohamed Abdul; Skaarup, Steen


    Actuators based on conducting polymers are attracting increasing interest due to their desirable features such as large mechanical stress generated, sufficient maximum strain values, high reversibility, good safety properties and the possibility of precise control using small voltages. Many...... attempts have been made to improve the actuator performance. We report electromechanical measurements on actuators of bilayer and trilayer free standing films prepared with polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conducting polymers. Both types of conducting polymer are pre...

  8. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B Ramsey

    Full Text Available Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05; MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all.

  9. A Model of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning In Pharmacy Education: Teaching in the Clinical Environment


    Jeerisuda Khumsikiew; Sisira Donsamak; Manit Saeteaw


    Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy students in the clinical environment that facilitated by pharmacy instructors. A PBL model was implemented in 1-day periods each wee...

  10. Horizontal Bilayer for Electrical and Optical Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Honigmann


    Full Text Available Artificial bilayer containing reconstituted ion channels, transporters and pumps serve as a well-defined model system for electrophysiological investigations of membrane protein structure–function relationship. Appropriately constructed microchips containing horizontally oriented bilayers with easy solution access to both sides provide, in addition, the possibility to investigate these model bilayer membranes and the membrane proteins therein with high resolution fluorescence techniques up to the single-molecule level. Here, we describe a bilayer microchip system in which long-term stable horizontal free-standing and hydrogel-supported bilayers can be formed and demonstrate its prospects particularly for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and high resolution fluorescence microscopy in probing the physicochemical properties like phase behavior of the bilayer-forming lipids, as well as in functional studies of membrane proteins.

  11. Simulation studies of protein-induced bilayer deformations, and lipid-induced protein tilting, on a mesoscopic model for lipid bilayers with embedded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturoli, M.; Smit, B.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena


    for positive values of mismatch; a dependence on the protein size appears as well. In the case of large model proteins experiencing extreme mismatch conditions, in the region next to the so-called lipid annulus, there appears an undershooting ( or overshooting) region where the bilayer hydrophobic thickness...... a small size, the main mechanism to compensate for a large hydrophobic mismatch is the tilt, whereas large proteins react to negative mismatch by causing an increase of the hydrophobic thickness of the nearby bilayer. Furthermore, for the case of small, peptidelike proteins, we found the same type...

  12. Aeroelastic measurements and simulations of a small wind turbine operating in the built environment (United States)

    Evans, S. P.; Bradney, D. R.; Clausen, P. D.


    Small wind turbines, when compared to large commercial scale wind turbines, often lag behind with respect to research investment, technological development, and experimental verification of design standards. In this study we assess the simplified load equations outlined in IEC 61400.2-2013 for use in determining fatigue loading of small wind turbine blades. We compare these calculated loads to fatigue damage cycles from both measured in-service operation, and aeroelastic modelling of a small 5 kW Aerogenesis wind turbine. Damage cycle ranges and corresponding stress ratios show good agreement when comparing both aeroelastic simulations and operational measurements. Loads calculated from simplified load equations were shown to significantly overpredict load ranges while underpredicting the occurrence of damage cycles per minute of operation by 89%. Due to the difficulty in measuring and acquiring operational loading, we recommend the use of aeroelastic modelling as a method of mitigating the over-conservative simplified load equation for fatigue loading.

  13. Development of Participative Management System in Learning Environment Management for Small Sized Primary Schools (United States)

    Hernthaisong, Prasertsak; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Wisetrinthong, Kanjana


    The research aimed to: 1) study the factors of a participative management system in learning environment management, 2) study the current situation, desirable outcomes, and further needs for developing a participative management system in learning management, 3) develop a working participative management system, and 4) assess the system's…

  14. From Paper to Praxis: Advancing the Discipline in a Small College Environment. (United States)

    Mueller, Alfred G., II; Crisp, Delmas S., Jr.


    Presents the application of curriculum revision at Wesleyan College, a small single-gender nationally-recognized liberal arts college in central Georgia. Reexamines the communication major in terms of its scope and function on campus. Discusses problems encountered in the curriculum revision process. Submits this account to serve both as a guide…

  15. SENVM: Server Environment Monitoring and Controlling System for a Small Data Center Using Wireless Sensor Network


    Choochaisri, Supasate; Niennattrakul, Vit; Jenjaturong, Saran; Intanagonwiwat, Chalermek; Ratanamahatana, Chotirat Ann


    In recent years, efficient energy utilization becomes an essential requirement for data centers, especially in data centers of world-leading companies, where "Green Data Center" defines a new term for an environment-concerned data center. Solutions to change existing a data center to the green one may vary. In the big company, high-cost approaches including re-planning server rooms, changing air-conditioners, buying low-powered servers, and equipping sophisticating environmental control equip...

  16. Coral Reef environment reconstruction using small drones, new generation photogrammetry algorithms and satellite imagery (United States)

    Elisa, Casella; Rovere, Alessio; Harris, Daniel; Parravicini, Valeriano


    Surveys based on Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), together with new-generation Structure from Motion (SfM) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) reconstruction algorithms have been employed to reconstruct the shallow bathymetry of the inner lagoon of a coral reef in Moorea, French Polinesia. This technique has already been used with a high rate of success on coastal environments (e.g. sandy beaches and rocky shorelines) reaching accuracy of the final Digital Elevation Model in the order of few centimeters. The application of such techniques to reconstruct shallow underwater environments is, though, still little reported. We then used the bathymetric dataset obtained from aerial pictures as ground-truth for relative bathymetry obtained from satellite imagery (WorldView-2) of a larger area within the same study site. The first results of our work suggest that RPAS coupled with SfM and MVS algorithms can be used to reconstruct shallow water environments with favorable weather conditions, and can be employed to ground-truth to satellite imagery.

  17. A collaborative working environment for small group meetings in Second Life. (United States)

    da Silva, Cintia Rc; Garcia, Ana Cristina B


    This paper presents the SLMeetingRoom, a virtual reality online environment to support group meetings of geographically dispersed participants. A prototype was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach using the Second Life platform. Ten additional components had to be added to Second Life environment to support group work essential activities such as participants' communication, tasks' and participants' coordination, participants' collaboration and work evolution's perception. Empirical studies, both pilot and experiment, were developed comparing four different meeting settings: face-to-face, videoconference, stand Second Life and SLMeetingRoom. The study involved graduate students enrolled in the Interface and Multimedia discipline at the Fluminense Federal University (UFF) in Brazil. Results indicated that groups working within SLMeetingRoom environment presented similar results as face-to-face meeting as far as sense of presence is concerned and with low cognitive effort. Task completion and degree of participation were not affected by the meeting set up. It was concluded that Second Life, in conjunction with the SLMeetingRoom components, is a good tool for holding synchronous remote meetings and coexists with other electronic meeting technologies.

  18. Characterization of small mammal populations inhabiting the B-C cribs environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, J.D.; Rogers, L.E.


    The purpose of this study was to document the current status of small mammal populations inhibiting the 200 Area plateau near the B-C Crib management area and to compare them with populations inhabiting a protected (control) area within the confines of the Hanford ALE Reserve. Sampling sessions were conducted over two field seasons (1974 and 1975). A total of five species was detected within intensive study areas. These included the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), sagebrush vole (Lagurus curtatus), and western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis). These species are probably representative of those found throughout the area at this particular elevation. Townsends ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) also occurs in this area but did not occur on the sampling plots during the study duration. The pocket mouse was the only species present in sufficient numbers to permit a detailed analysis of population parameters. A discussion concerning the role small mammals play in mineral cycling and energy transfer processes is included along with a diagram depicting food web interrelationships for consumers inhabiting the 200 Area plateau region. Estimates of small mammal density and biomass provided in this document are needed for an overall understanding of the role biota play in the transfer of waste nuclides.

  19. Particle-based simulations of bilayer membranes: self-assembly, structural analysis, and shock-wave damage (United States)

    Steinhauser, Martin O.; Schindler, Tanja


    We report on the results of particle-based, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous environment where the membrane structures at equilibrium are subsequently exposed to strong shock waves, and their damage is analyzed. The lipid molecules self-assemble from unbiased random initial configurations to form stable bilayer membranes, including closed vesicles. During self-assembly of lipid molecules, we observe several stages of clustering, starting with many small clusters of lipids, gradually merging together to finally form one single bilayer membrane. We find that the clustering of lipids sensitively depends on the hydrophobic interaction h_c of the lipid tails in our model and on temperature T of the system. The self-assembled bilayer membranes are quantitatively analyzed at equilibrium with respect to their degree of order and their local structure. We also show that—by analyzing the membrane fluctuations and using a linearized theory— we obtain area compression moduli K_A and bending stiffnesses κ _B for our bilayer membranes which are within the experimental range of in vivo and in vitro measurements of biological membranes. We also discuss the density profile and the pair correlation function of our model membranes at equilibrium which has not been done in previous studies of particle-based membrane models. Furthermore, we present a detailed phase diagram of our lipid model that exhibits a sol-gel transition between quasi-solid and fluid domains, and domains where no self-assembly of lipids occurs. In addition, we present in the phase diagram the conditions for temperature T and hydrophobicity h_c of the lipid tails of our model to form closed vesicles. The stable bilayer membranes obtained at equilibrium are then subjected to strong shock waves in a shock tube setup, and we investigate the damage in the membranes due to their interaction with shock waves. Here, we find a transition from self

  20. Particle-based simulations of bilayer membranes: self-assembly, structural analysis, and shock-wave damage (United States)

    Steinhauser, Martin O.; Schindler, Tanja


    We report on the results of particle-based, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous environment where the membrane structures at equilibrium are subsequently exposed to strong shock waves, and their damage is analyzed. The lipid molecules self-assemble from unbiased random initial configurations to form stable bilayer membranes, including closed vesicles. During self-assembly of lipid molecules, we observe several stages of clustering, starting with many small clusters of lipids, gradually merging together to finally form one single bilayer membrane. We find that the clustering of lipids sensitively depends on the hydrophobic interaction h_c of the lipid tails in our model and on temperature T of the system. The self-assembled bilayer membranes are quantitatively analyzed at equilibrium with respect to their degree of order and their local structure. We also show that—by analyzing the membrane fluctuations and using a linearized theory— we obtain area compression moduli K_A and bending stiffnesses κ_B for our bilayer membranes which are within the experimental range of in vivo and in vitro measurements of biological membranes. We also discuss the density profile and the pair correlation function of our model membranes at equilibrium which has not been done in previous studies of particle-based membrane models. Furthermore, we present a detailed phase diagram of our lipid model that exhibits a sol-gel transition between quasi-solid and fluid domains, and domains where no self-assembly of lipids occurs. In addition, we present in the phase diagram the conditions for temperature T and hydrophobicity h_c of the lipid tails of our model to form closed vesicles. The stable bilayer membranes obtained at equilibrium are then subjected to strong shock waves in a shock tube setup, and we investigate the damage in the membranes due to their interaction with shock waves. Here, we find a transition from self

  1. First-principles modeling hydrogenation of bilayered boron nitride (United States)

    Jing, Wang; Peng, Zhang; Xiang-Mei, Duan


    We have investigated the structural and electronic characteristics of hydrogenated boron-nitride bilayer (H-BNBN-H) using first-principles calculations. The results show that hydrogenation can significantly reduce the energy gap of the BN-BN into the visible-light region. Interestingly, the electric field induced by the interface dipoles helps to promote the formation of well-separated electron-hole pairs, as demonstrated by the charge distribution of the VBM and CBM. Moreover, the applied bias voltage on the vertical direction of the bilayer could modulate the band gap, resulting in transition from semiconductor to metal. We conclude that H-BNBN-H could improve the solar energy conversion efficiency, which may provide a new way for tuning the electronic devices to meet different environments and demands. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574167).

  2. Bilayer thickness mismatch controls domain size in biomimetic membranes (United States)

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Petruzielo, Robin S.; Pan, Jianjun; Drazba, Paul; Kučerka, Norbert; Standaert, Robert F.; Feigenson, Gerald W.; Katsara, John


    In order to promote functionality, cells may alter the spatial organization of membrane lipids and proteins, including separation of liquid phases into distinct domains. In model membranes, domain size and morphology depend strongly on composition and temperature, but the physicochemical mechanisms controlling them are poorly understood. Theoretical work suggests a role for interfacial energy at domain boundaries, which may be driven in part by thickness mismatch between a domain and its surrounding bilayer. However, no direct evidence linking thickness mismatch to domain size in free-standing bilayers has been reported. We describe the use of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) to detect domains in simplified lipid-only models that mimic the composition of plasma membrane. We find that domain size is controlled by the degree of acyl chain unsaturation of low-melting temperature lipids, and that this size transition is correlated to changes in the thickness mismatch between coexisting liquid phases.

  3. Elliptical structure of phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs encapsulated by scaffold proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar-Gislinge, Nicholas; Simonsen, Jens Bæk; Mortensen, Kell


    -angle neutron scattering in combination with variable-temperature studies of synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering on nanodiscs in solution, we show that the fundamental nanodisc unit, consisting of a lipid bilayer surrounded by amphiphilic scaffold proteins, possesses intrinsically an elliptical shape....... The temperature dependence of the curvature of the nanodiscs prepared with two different phospholipid types (DLPC and POPC) shows that it is the scaffold protein that determines the overall elliptical shape and that the nanodiscs become more circular with increasing temperature. Our data also show...... that the hydrophobic bilayer thickness is, to a large extent, dictated by the scaffolding protein and adjusted to minimize the hydrophobic mismatch between protein and phospholipid. Our conclusions result from a new comprehensive and molecular-based model of the nanodisc structure and the use of this to analyze...

  4. Superdiffusion in supported lipid bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Campagnola, Grace; Schroder, Bryce W; Peersen, Olve B; Krapf, Diego


    We study the diffusion of membrane-targeting C2 domains using single-molecule tracking in supported lipid bilayers. The ensemble-averaged mean square displacement (MSD) exhibits superdiffusive behavior. However, the time-averaged MSD of individual trajectories is found to be linear with respect to lag time, as in Brownian diffusion. These observations are explained in terms of bulk excursions that introduce jumps with a heavy-tail distribution. Our experimental results are shown to agree with analytical models of bulk-mediated diffusion and with numerical simulations.

  5. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh


    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...... gravity field, Earth magnetic field and eclipse. The structure and facilities within the toolbox are described and exemplified using a student satellite case (AAUSAT-II). The validity of developed models is confirmed by comparing the simulation results with the realistic data obtained from the Danish...... Ørsted satellite....

  6. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...... gravity field, Earth magnetic field and eclipse. The structure and facilities within the toolbox are described and exemplified using a student satellite case (AAUSAT-II). The validity of developed models is confirmed by comparing the simulation results with the realistic data obtained from the Danish...... Ørsted satellite....

  7. HJ-1A And HJ-1B Small Satellite Constellation For Environment And Disaster Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Zhaoguang


    @@ HJ-1A and HJ-1B small satellites were launched atop a LM-2C/SMA on September 6, 2008 from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center. The satellites began to transmit back images from September 8 and the constellation formed on October 13. After 5 months of orbit testing and operationevaluation, China's first optical satelliteconstellation passed its performancereview and was delivered to the Ministryof Civil Affairs and the Ministry ofEnvironmental Protection by ChinaAerospace Science and Technology Corporation and China Satellite Launch6 Tracking Control General.

  8. A Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology SATellite (FASTSAT) and the Small Satellite Market Development Environment (United States)

    Boudreaux, Mark; Montgomery, Edward; Cacas, Joseph


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administr ation at Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center in Huntsville Alabama USA, are jointly developing a new class of science and technology mission small satellites. The Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology SATell ite (FASTSAT) was designed and developed using a new collaborative and best practices approach. The FASTSAT development, along with the new class of low cost vehicles currently being developed, would allow performance of 30 kg payload mass missions for a cost of less than 10 million US dollars.

  9. HI in NGC 5433 and its Environment: High-Latitude Emission in a Small Galaxy Group

    CERN Document Server

    Spekkens, K; Saikia, D J


    We present HI synthesis maps of the edge-on starburst NGC 5433 and its environment, obtained with the VLA in its C and D configurations. The observations and spectral model residuals of the main disc emission in NGC 5433 reveal 3 extraplanar features. We associate 2 of these features with coherent extraplanar extensions across multiple spectral channels in our data, including a complete loop in position-velocity space. Interpreting the latter as an expanding shell we derive a corresponding input energy of 2 x 10^54 ergs, comparable to that for the largest supershells found in the Galaxy and those in other edge-on systems. NGC 5433 is in a richer environment than previously thought. We confirm that KUG 1359+326 is a physical companion to NGC 5433 and find two new faint companions, both with Minnesota Automated Plate Scanner identifications, that we label SIS-1 and SIS-2. Including the more distant IC 4357, NGC 5433 is the dominant member of a group of at least 5 galaxies, spanning over 750 kpc in a filamentary...

  10. Last glacial maximum environments in northwestern Patagonia revealed by fossil small mammals (United States)

    Tammone, Mauro N.; Hajduk, Adan; Arias, Pablo; Teta, Pablo; Lacey, Eileen A.; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.


    Comparisons of historical and modern assemblages of mammals can yield important insights into patterns and processes of environmental change. Here, we present the first analyses of small mammal assemblages present in northern Patagonia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Using remains obtained from owl pellets excavated from an archeological cave site (Arroyo Corral I, levels VII-V, carbon dates of 22,400-21,530 cal yr BP), we generate estimates of the minimum number of individuals for all species detected; these estimates, in turn are used to determine relative species abundances. Comparisons of these data with similar analyses of small mammal remains obtained from a second archeological site (ACoII, levels IV-V, carbon dates of 10,010-9220 cal yr BP) as well as from modern owl pellets reveal pronounced changes in relative species abundance since the LGM. In particular, Euneomys chinchilloides and Ctenomys sociabilis - the predominant species during the LGM - declined markedly, suggesting a change from open, bare habitat punctuated by patches of wet meadows and shrubs to the more densely vegetated mosaic of ecotone habitats found in this region today. These data provide important new insights into the environmental changes that have occurred in northern Patagonia over the last 20,000 years.

  11. Beyond simple small-angle X-ray scattering: developments in online complementary techniques and sample environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Bras


    Full Text Available Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS are standard tools in materials research. The simultaneous measurement of SAXS and WAXS data in time-resolved studies has gained popularity due to the complementary information obtained. Furthermore, the combination of these data with non X-ray based techniques, via either simultaneous or independent measurements, has advanced understanding of the driving forces that lead to the structures and morphologies of materials, which in turn give rise to their properties. The simultaneous measurement of different data regimes and types, using either X-rays or neutrons, and the desire to control parameters that initiate and control structural changes have led to greater demands on sample environments. Examples of developments in technique combinations and sample environment design are discussed, together with a brief speculation about promising future developments.

  12. Optimizing the triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the MLZ for small samples and complex sample environment conditions (United States)

    Utschick, C.; Skoulatos, M.; Schneidewind, A.; Böni, P.


    The cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the neutron source FRM II has been serving an international user community studying condensed matter physics problems. We report on a new setup, improving the signal-to-noise ratio for small samples and pressure cell setups. Analytical and numerical Monte Carlo methods are used for the optimization of elliptic and parabolic focusing guides. They are placed between the monochromator and sample positions, and the flux at the sample is compared to the one achieved by standard monochromator focusing techniques. A 25 times smaller spot size is achieved, associated with a factor of 2 increased intensity, within the same divergence limits, ± 2 ° . This optional neutron focusing guide shall establish a top-class spectrometer for studying novel exotic properties of matter in combination with more stringent sample environment conditions such as extreme pressures associated with small sample sizes.

  13. Planar bilayer membranes from photoactivable phospholipids. (United States)

    Borle, F; Sänger, M; Sigrist, H


    Planar bilayer membranes formed from photoactivable phospholipids have been characterized by low frequency voltametry. Cyclic voltametric measurements were applied for simultaneous registration of planar membrane conductivity and capacitance. The procedure has been utilized to characterize the formation and stability of planar bilayer membranes. Bilayer membranes were formed from N'-(1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethyl)-N-((m-3- trifluoromethyldiazirine)phenyl)thiourea (C14-PED), a head-group photosensitive phospholipid. In situ photoactivation of C14-PED at wavelengths greater than or equal to 320 nm altered neither the mean conductivity nor the capacitance of the bilayer. Ionophore (valinomycin) and ion channel (gramicidin) activities were not impaired upon photoactivation. In contrast, bilayer membranes formed from 1,2-bis(hexadeca-2,4-dienoyl)-sn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (C16-DENPC) revealed short life times. In situ photopolymerization of the diene fatty acids significantly increased the membrane conductivity or led to membrane rupture.

  14. Application of the modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas in complex environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav


    In this paper, application of a modified Wheeler cap method for the radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas is presented. It is shown that the limitations on the cavity dimension can be overcome and thus measurement in a large cavity is possible. The cavity loss...... is investigated, and a modified radiation efficiency formula that includes the cavity loss is introduced. Moreover, a modification of the technique is proposed that involves the antenna working complex environment inside the Wheeler Cap and thus makes possible measurement of an antenna close to a hand or head...

  15. Localization of a small change in a multiple scattering environment without modeling of the actual medium. (United States)

    Rakotonarivo, S T; Walker, S C; Kuperman, W A; Roux, P


    A method to actively localize a small perturbation in a multiple scattering medium using a collection of remote acoustic sensors is presented. The approach requires only minimal modeling and no knowledge of the scatterer distribution and properties of the scattering medium and the perturbation. The medium is ensonified before and after a perturbation is introduced. The coherent difference between the measured signals then reveals all field components that have interacted with the perturbation. A simple single scatter filter (that ignores the presence of the medium scatterers) is matched to the earliest change of the coherent difference to localize the perturbation. Using a multi-source/receiver laboratory setup in air, the technique has been successfully tested with experimental data at frequencies varying from 30 to 60 kHz (wavelength ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm) for cm-scale scatterers in a scattering medium with a size two to five times bigger than its transport mean free path.

  16. Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis. (United States)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Somorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong


    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO(2)-Pt and Pt-SiO(2), can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO(2)-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H(2), which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO(2) interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts.

  17. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong


    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts

  18. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Peptide (pHLIP) insertion and folding in a lipid bilayer (United States)

    Andreev, Oleg; Karabadzhak, Alexander; Weerakkody, Dhammika; Markin, Vladislav; Engelman, Donald; Reshetnyak, Yana


    We study spontaneous insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer of moderately polar membrane peptide pHLIP - pH Low Insertion Peptide. pHLIP has three major states: soluble in water or bound to the surface of a lipid bilayer as an unstructured monomer, and inserted across the bilayer as a monomeric α-helix. We used fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry to calculate the transition energies between states. The free energy of binding to a surface of lipid bilayer is about -7 kcal/mol and the free energy of insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer at low pH is nearly -2 kcal/mol. We performed stopped-flow fluorescence and CD measurements to elucidate molecular mechanism of pHLIP insertion and folding within a lipid bilayer and to calculate the activation energy of formation of transmembrane helix. pHLIP also has utility as an agent to target diseased tissues and translocate molecules through the membrane into the cytoplasm of cells in environments with elevated levels of extracellular acidity, as in cancer and inflammation. We plan to discuss a number of related kinetics and thermodynamic parameters from our measurements.

  19. Formation of individual protein channels in lipid bilayers suspended in nanopores. (United States)

    Studer, André; Han, Xiaojun; Winkler, Fritz K; Tiefenauer, Louis X


    Free-standing lipid bilayers are formed in regularly arranged nanopores of 200, 400 and 800 nm in a 300 nm thin hydrophobic silicon nitride membrane separating two fluid compartments. The extraordinary stability of the lipid bilayers allows us to monitor channel formation of the model peptide melittin and alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. We observed that melittin channel formation is voltage-dependent and transient, whereas transmembrane heptameric alpha-hemolysin channels in nano-BLMs persist for hours. The onset of alpha-hemolysin-mediated conduction depends on the applied protein concentration and strongly on the diameter of the nanopores. Heptameric channel formation from adsorbed alpha-hemolysin monomers needs more time in bilayers suspended in 200 nm pores compared to bilayers in pores of 400 and 800 nm diameters. Diffusion of sodium ions across alpha-hemolysin channels present in a sufficiently high number in the bilayers was quantitatively and specifically determined using ion selective electrodes. The results demonstrate that relatively small variations of nano-dimensions have a tremendous effect on observable dynamic biomolecular processes. Such nanopore chips are potentially useful as supports for stable lipid bilayers to establish functional assays of membrane proteins needed in basic research and drug discovery.

  20. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  1. Small Vocabulary Recognition Using Surface Electromyography in an Acoustically Harsh Environment (United States)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Jorgensen, Charles


    This paper presents results of electromyographic-based (EMG-based) speech recognition on a small vocabulary of 15 English words. The work was motivated in part by a desire to mitigate the effects of high acoustic noise on speech intelligibility in communication systems used by first responders. Both an off-line and a real-time system were constructed. Data were collected from a single male subject wearing a fireghter's self-contained breathing apparatus. A single channel of EMG data was used, collected via surface sensors at a rate of 104 samples/s. The signal processing core consisted of an activity detector, a feature extractor, and a neural network classifier. In the off-line phase, 150 examples of each word were collected from the subject. Generalization testing, conducted using bootstrapping, produced an overall average correct classification rate on the 15 words of 74%, with a 95% confidence interval of [71%, 77%]. Once the classifier was trained, the subject used the real-time system to communicate and to control a robotic device. The real-time system was tested with the subject exposed to an ambient noise level of approximately 95 decibels.

  2. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance characterization of anisotropies and relaxation in exchange-biased IrMn/CoFe bilayers (United States)

    Beik Mohammadi, Jamileh; Jones, Joshua Michael; Paul, Soumalya; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Mewes, Claudia K. A.; Mewes, Tim; Kaiser, Christian


    The magnetization dynamics of exchange-biased IrMn/CoFe bilayers have been investigated using broadband and in-plane angle-dependent ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The interface energy of the exchange bias effect in these bilayers exceeds values previously reported for metallic antiferromagnets. A strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a small in-plane uniaxial anisotropy are also observed in these films. The magnetization relaxation of the bilayers has a strong unidirectional contribution, which is in part caused by two-magnon scattering. However, a detailed analysis of in-plane angle- and thickness-dependent linewidth data strongly suggests the presence of a previously undescribed unidirectional relaxation mechanism.

  3. Role of Molecular Flexibility and Colloidal Descriptions of Proteins in Crowded Environments from Small-Angle Scattering. (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica; Clark, Nicholas J; Watson, Max C; Krueger, Susan; McAuley, Arnold; Curtis, Joseph E


    Small-angle scattering is a powerful technique to study molecular conformation and interactions of proteins in solution and in amorphous solids. We have investigated the role of multiple protein configurations in the interaction parameters derived from small-angle scattering for proteins in concentrated solutions. In order to account for the wide configurational space sampled by proteins, we generate ensembles of atomistic structures for lysozyme and monoclonal antibodies, representing globular and flexible proteins, respectively. While recent work has argued that a colloidal approach is inadequate to model proteins, because of the large configurational space that they sample in solution, we find a range of length scales where colloidal models can be used to describe solution scattering data while simultaneously accounting for structural flexibility. We provide insights to determine the length scales where isotropic colloidal models can be used, and find smoothly varying sets of interaction parameters that encompass ensembles of structures. This approach may play an important role in the definition of long-range interactions in coarse-grained models of flexible proteins with experimental scattering constraints. Additionally, we apply the decoupling approximation to ensembles of lysozyme structures with atomistic detail and observe remarkably different results when using geometric solids, such as ellipsoids. The insights from this study provide guidelines for the analysis of small-angle scattering profiles of proteins in crowded environments.

  4. A Big Bang or small bangs? Effects of biotic environment on hatching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MANCA


    Full Text Available The beginning and end of diapause are two important transition points in cladoceran life history. The influence of environmental variables on the dynamics of these processes still deserves attention, especially as concerns the role of biotic factors. In this paper we focus on emergence from diapause, testing (1 whether ephippia of Daphnia obtusa Kurz can assess the presence in the water of typical planktivorous fish or ostracods, and (2 whether such an assessment results in changes in hatching strategy. Total number of hatchlings from D. obtusa ephippial eggs did not differ between the control and the treatments in which the presence of fish or ostracods could be detected (ANOVA, P = 0.884. However, hatching dynamics were different: most of the eggs hatched synchronously at day 4 (83.3% of the total hatchlings number in the control, while only a low proportion of eggs hatched on day 4 in the fish (38.3%, and ostracod treatments (24.0% of the total. Mean hatching time was longer, and variability larger, in the treatments than in the control; differences resulted statistically significant (ANOVA, P = 0.005. With respect to the control, representing a simple microcosm controlled by abiotic variables only, the treatments may be regarded as relatively complex environments, in which Daphnia is also exposed to biotic cues. Under these more complex conditions, the same number of hatchlings is obtained through different hatching dynamics. In the treatments, the first hatchlings appeared later and the hatching rate was more variable than in the control. These observations confirm previously observed patterns from laboratory experiments which tested the effect of competition and fluctuating environmental conditions (light:dark, temperature regimes on D. obtusa reproductive and demographic parameters. They are also in agreement with recently obtained evidence concerning the importance of biotic cues for hatching of ephippial eggs. Overall, the evidence

  5. Bilayer Thickness Mismatch Controls Domain Size in Model Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Petruzielo, Robin S [ORNL; Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University; Katsaras, John [ORNL


    The observation of lateral phase separation in lipid bilayers has received considerable attention, especially in connection to lipid raft phenomena in cells. It is widely accepted that rafts play a central role in cellular processes, notably signal transduction. While micrometer-sized domains are observed with some model membrane mixtures, rafts much smaller than 100 nm beyond the reach of optical microscopy are now thought to exist, both in vitro and in vivo. We have used small-angle neutron scattering, a probe free technique, to measure the size of nanoscopic membrane domains in unilamellar vesicles with unprecedented accuracy. These experiments were performed using a four-component model system containing fixed proportions of cholesterol and the saturated phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), mixed with varying amounts of the unsaturated phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoylsn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). We find that liquid domain size increases with the extent of acyl chain unsaturation (DOPC:POPC ratio). Furthermore, we find a direct correlation between domain size and the mismatch in bilayer thickness of the coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, suggesting a dominant role for line tension in controlling domain size. While this result is expected from line tension theories, we provide the first experimental verification in free-floating bilayers. Importantly, we also find that changes in bilayer thickness, which accompany changes in the degree of lipid chain unsaturation, are entirely confined to the disordered phase. Together, these results suggest how the size of functional domains in homeothermic cells may be regulated through changes in lipid composition.

  6. Monolithic multiscale bilayer inverse opal electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications. (United States)

    Lee, Jung Woo; Moon, Jun Hyuk


    Multilayer structures in which the layers are both electrically and physically connected are critical to be used as high-performance electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We present the first multiscale bilayer inverse opal (IO) structures for application as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A bilayer of a mesoscopic IO layer (70 nm pore diameter) and a top macroporous IO layer (215 nm and 250 nm pore diameters) was fabricated as the high-specific-area electrode and the light-harvesting enhancing layer, respectively. The mesoscopic IO layer exhibits a dye-adsorption density, which is approximately 4 times greater than that of the macroporous IO structure because of its small pore size. The macroporous IO layer exhibits a photonic bandgap reflection in the visible-light wavelength range. We incorporated the bilayer IO electrodes into DSCs and compared the effects of the pore sizes of the macroporous layers on the photocurrent densities of the DSCs. We observed that the bilayer IO electrode DSCs that contained a 250 nm IO layer exhibited photocurrent densities greater than those of 215 nm IO DSCs. This enhanced photocurrent density was achieved because the photonic bandgap (PBG) reflection wavelength matches the wavelength range in which the N719 dye has a small light-absorption coefficient. The fabrication of this structurally homogeneous IO bilayer allows a strong contact between the layers, and the resulting bilayer, therefore, exhibits a high photovoltaic performance. We believe that this bilayer structure provides an alternative approach to the development of optimized electrode structures for various devices.

  7. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov;


    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  8. Spin dynamics of bilayer manganites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapan Chatterji


    The results of inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering investigations on the 40% hole-doped quasi-2D bilayer manganites La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 have been reviewed. The complete set of exchange interactions have been determined on the basis of a localized Heisenberg model. However, the spin wave dispersion in La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 shows softening close to the zone boundary and are also heavily damped especially close to the zone boundary and deviate from that expected for a simple Heisenberg model. A minimal double exchange model including quantum corrections can reproduce these effects qualitatively but falls short of quantitative agreement.

  9. Absorption and fluorescence of PRODAN in phospholipid bilayers: a combined quantum mechanics and classical molecular dynamics study. (United States)

    Cwiklik, Lukasz; Aquino, Adelia J A; Vazdar, Mario; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Pittner, Jiří; Hof, Martin; Lischka, Hans


    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of PRODAN (6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene) were studied by means of the time-dependent density functional theory and the algebraic diagrammatic construction method. The influence of environment, a phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer and water, was taken into account employing a combination of quantum chemical calculations with empirical force-field molecular dynamics simulations. Additionally, experimental absorption and emission spectra of PRODAN were measured in cyclohexane, water, and lipid vesicles. Both planar and twisted configurations of the first excited state of PRODAN were taken into account. The twisted structure is stabilized in both water and a lipid bilayer, and should be considered as an emitting state in polar environments. Orientation of the excited dye in the lipid bilayer significantly depends on configuration. In the bilayer, the fluorescence spectrum can be regarded as a combination of emission from both planar and twisted structures.

  10. Fragmented state of lipid bilayers in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helfrich, W.; Thimmel, J.; Klösgen, Beate Maria


    The bilayers of some typical biological membrane lipids such as PC and DGDG disintegrate in a large excess of water to form an optically invisible dispersive bilayer phase. `Dark bodies' can be reversibly precipitated from it by raising the temperature. The dispersive phase probably consists...... of `knotted sticks', i.e. very thin nodular tubes of bilayer. After reviewing pertinent experimental and theoretical work we report on the discovery of a lower consolute point near room temperature in DGDG/water systems. Its existence shows that the dispersive phase and the dark bodies belong to the same...

  11. Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene (United States)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.


    The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.

  12. Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Kahraman, Osman; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A


    Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology al...

  13. Hydrophobic silver nanoparticles trapped in lipid bilayers: Size distribution, bilayer phase behavior, and optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bothun Geoffrey D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid-based dispersion of nanoparticles provides a biologically inspired route to designing therapeutic agents and a means of reducing nanoparticle toxicity. Little is currently known on how the presence of nanoparticles influences lipid vesicle stability and bilayer phase behavior. In this work, the formation of aqueous lipid/nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs consisting of hydrophobic silver-decanethiol particles (5.7 ± 1.8 nm embedded within 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC bilayers is demonstrated as a function of the DPPC/Ag nanoparticle (AgNP ratio. The effect of nanoparticle loading on the size distribution, bilayer phase behavior, and bilayer fluidity is determined. Concomitantly, the effect of bilayer incorporation on the optical properties of the AgNPs is also examined. Results The dispersions were stable at 50°C where the bilayers existed in a liquid crystalline state, but phase separated at 25°C where the bilayers were in a gel state, consistent with vesicle aggregation below the lipid melting temperature. Formation of bilayer-embedded nanoparticles was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence anisotropy, where increasing nanoparticle concentration suppressed the lipid pretransition temperature, reduced the melting temperature, and disrupted gel phase bilayers. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR wavelength of the embedded nanoparticles was independent of the bilayer phase; however, the SPR absorbance was dependent on vesicle aggregation. Conclusion These results suggest that lipid bilayers can distort to accommodate large hydrophobic nanoparticles, relative to the thickness of the bilayer, and may provide insight into nanoparticle/biomembrane interactions and the design of multifunctional liposomal carriers.

  14. Physical processes and landforms on beaches in short fetch environments in estuaries, small lakes and reservoirs: A review (United States)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.


    This review is intended to identify differences between beaches in short-fetch environments and beaches on exposed coasts, while also distinguishing between the different subcategories of fetch-limited beaches. Subcategories are discussed largely in terms of estuaries, lakes and reservoirs. The term fetch-limited refers to basins that are small enough that distance rather than wind duration is always a limitation to wave generation. Attention is focused on basins where fetch distances are wind-induced currents, tidal currents and ice to be relatively more effective than on exposed beaches. Shoreline orientations differ greatly over short distances, causing great differences in exposure to dominant winds and isolating beach segments. Limited longshore sediment exchanges result in beach sediments that closely resemble local source materials. The absence of high-energy waves causes beaches and bar forms to be smaller, and the absence of swell waves following storms and the relatively calm conditions reduces the speed of recovery of post-storm profiles and the cyclic nature of beach response. The beaches are often fronted by flat shallow platforms that undergo little morphologic change and help dissipate waves at low water levels. The narrow beaches are poor sources of sediment for wind-blown sand and dunes are small or frequently absent. The narrow beaches and reduced wave energies allow upland vegetation and algae and seagrass to grow close to the active foreshore. This vegetation, the wrack deposited on the beach, and driftwood logs are better able to resist the low-energy waves and are more effective in resisting beach change. Erosion rates of 2-3 m yr- 1 are common in some estuaries and can be > 7 m yr- 1. Rates of up to 1.5 m yr- 1 can occur in small lakes and reservoirs. Shore parallel protection structures are common and have greater survivability in low-energy environments than high-energy environments; they are cheaper to build; and they have been implemented

  15. Why are most aquatic plants widely distributed? Dispersal, clonal growth and small-scale heterogeneity in a stressful environment (United States)

    Santamaría, Luis


    Non-marine aquatic vascular plants generally show broad distributional ranges. Climatic factors seem to have limited effects on their distributions, besides the determination of major disjunctions (tropical-temperate-subarctic). Dispersal should have been frequent enough to assure the quick colonisation of extensive areas following glacial retreat, but dispersal limitation is still apparent in areas separated by geographic barriers. Aquatic vascular plants also show limited taxonomic differentiation and low within-species genetic variation. Variation within populations is particularly low, but variation among populations seems to be relatively high, mainly due to the persistence of long-lived clones. Ecotypic differentiation is often related to factors that constrain clonal reproduction (salinity and ephemeral inundation). Inland aquatic habitats are heterogeneous environments, but this heterogeneity largely occurs at relatively small scales (within waterbodies and among neighbouring ones). They also represent a stressful environment for plants, characterised by low carbon availability, shaded conditions, sediment anoxia, mechanical damage by currents and waves, significant restrictions to sexual reproduction, and sometimes also osmotic stress and limited nutrient supply. I propose that the generality of broad distributions and low differentiation among the inland aquatic flora is best explained by a combination of: (1) selection for stress-tolerant taxa with broad tolerance ranges. (2) The selective advantages provided by clonal growth and multiplication, which increases plant tolerance to stress, genet survivorship and population viability. (3) Long-distance dispersal of sexual propagules and high local dispersal of asexual clones. (4) The generality of broad plastic responses, promoted by the combination of clonal growth, high local dispersal, small-scale spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability.

  16. Saliency detection and model-based tracking: a two part vision system for small robot navigation in forested environment (United States)

    Roberts, Richard; Ta, Duy-Nguyen; Straub, Julian; Ok, Kyel; Dellaert, Frank


    Towards the goal of fast, vision-based autonomous flight, localization, and map building to support local planning and control in unstructured outdoor environments, we present a method for incrementally building a map of salient tree trunks while simultaneously estimating the trajectory of a quadrotor flying through a forest. We make significant progress in a class of visual perception methods that produce low-dimensional, geometric information that is ideal for planning and navigation on aerial robots, while directing computational resources using motion saliency, which selects objects that are important to navigation and planning. By low-dimensional geometric information, we mean coarse geometric primitives, which for the purposes of motion planning and navigation are suitable proxies for real-world objects. Additionally, we develop a method for summarizing past image measurements that avoids expensive computations on a history of images while maintaining the key non-linearities that make full map and trajectory smoothing possible. We demonstrate results with data from a small, commercially-available quad-rotor flying in a challenging, forested environment.

  17. Analysis of Thermal Environment over a Small-Scale Landscape in a Densely Built-Up Asian Megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younha Kim


    Full Text Available Many studies have found that larger parks might be needed to counteract the Urban Heat Island effects typical in densely populated Asian megacities. However, it is not easy to establish large parks to serve as urban cool islands in Asian megacities, where little space exists for large urban neighborhood parks. Officials in these cities would rather use small areas by replacing heat-absorbing artificial land cover with natural cover. The main objective of this study was to understand the cooling effect of changes in land cover on surface and air temperatures in urban micro-scale environments for supporting sustainable green-space planning and policy in densely built-up areas. This was achieved using measurements at different heights (ground surface, 0.1 m, and 1.5 m for five land cover types (LCTs and modeling with the micro-scale climate model ENVI-met. At all vertical measuring points, the average temperature over the entire measurement period had the same hot-to-cold order: asphalt > soil > grass > water > forest. However, the value dramatically decreased as the measuring points became higher. The intensity of hot and cool spots showed the highest value at surface by 18.2 °C, and declined with the height, showing 4.1 °C at 0.1 m and 3.1 °C at 1.5 m. The modeling results indicated that the well-known diurnal variation in surface insolation also occurred in our small domain, among the various LCTs. Based on these findings, providing small-scale green infrastructure in densely built-up areas could be an effective way to improve urban micro-scale thermal conditions.

  18. Dynamic Morphologies of Microscale Droplet Interface Bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mruetusatorn, Prachya [ORNL; Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Sarles, Stephen A [ORNL; Venkatesan, Guru [The University of Tennessee; Hayes, Douglas G [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL


    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) are a powerful platform for studying the dynamics of synthetic cellular membranes; however, very little has been done to exploit the unique dynamical features of DIBs. Here, we generate microscale droplet interface bilayers ( DIBs) by bringing together femtoliter-volume water droplets in a microfluidic oil channel, and characterize morphological changes of the DIBs as the droplets shrink due to evaporation. By varying the initial conditions of the system, we identify three distinct classes of dynamic morphology. (1) Buckling and Fission: When forming DIBs using the lipid-out method (lipids in oil phase), lipids in the shrinking monolayers continually pair together and slide into the bilayer to conserve their mass. As the bilayer continues to grow, it becomes confined, buckles, and eventually fissions one or more vesicles. (2) Uniform Shrinking: When using the lipid-in method (lipids in water phase) to form DIBs, lipids uniformly transfer from the monolayers and bilayer into vesicles contained inside the water droplets. (3) Stretching and Unzipping: Finally, when the droplets are pinned to the wall(s) of the microfluidic channel, the droplets become stretched during evaporation, culminating in the unzipping of the bilayer and droplet separation. These findings offer a better understanding of the dynamics of coupled lipid interfaces.

  19. Theory of phase equilibria and critical mixing points in binary lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Jens; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Mouritsen, Ole G.


    that a phase transition in a strict thermodynamic sense may be absent in some of the short-chain one-component Lipid bilayers, but a transition can be induced when small amounts of another species are mixed in, leading to a closed phase separation loop with critical points. The physical mechanism of inducing...

  20. Increased adhesion between neutral lipid bilayers: interbilayer bridges formed by tannic acid. (United States)

    Simon, S A; Disalvo, E A; Gawrisch, K; Borovyagin, V; Toone, E; Schiffman, S S; Needham, D; McIntosh, T J


    Tannic acid (TA) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound that aggregates membranes and neutral phosolipid vesicles and precipitates many proteins. This study analyzes TA binding to lipid membranes and the ensuing aggregation. The optical density of dispersions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles increased upon the addition of TA and electron micrographs showed that TA caused the vesicles to aggregate and form stacks of tightly packed disks. Solution calorimetry showed that TA bound to PC bilayers with a molar binding enthalpy of -8.3 kcal/mol and zeta potential measurements revealed that TA imparted a small negative charge to PC vesicles. Monolayer studies showed that TA bound to PC with a dissociation constant of 1.5 microM and reduced the dipole potential by up to 250 mV. Both the increase in optical density and decrease in dipole potential produced by TA could be reversed by the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone, a compound that chelates TA by providing H-bond acceptor groups. NMR, micropipette aspiration, and x-ray diffraction experiments showed that TA incorporated into liquid crystalline PC membranes, increasing the area per lipid molecule and decreasing the bilayer thickness by 2 to 4%. 2H-NMR quadrupole splitting measurements also showed that TA associated with a PC molecule for times much less than 10(-4) s. In gel phase bilayers, TA caused the hydrocarbon chains from apposing monolayers to fully interdigitate. X-ray diffraction measurements of both gel and liquid crystalline dispersions showed that TA, at a critical concentration of about 1 mM, reduced the fluid spacing between adjacent bilayers by 8-10 A. These data place severe constraints on how TA can pack between adjacent bilayers and cause vesicles to adhere. We conclude that TA promotes vesicle aggregation by reducing the fluid spacing between bilayers by the formation of transient interbilayer bridges by inserting its digallic acid residues into the interfacial regions of adjacent bilayers

  1. A portable lipid bilayer system for environmental sensing with a transmembrane protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Kawano

    Full Text Available This paper describes a portable measurement system for current signals of an ion channel that is composed of a planar lipid bilayer. A stable and reproducible lipid bilayer is formed in outdoor environments by using a droplet contact method with a micropipette. Using this system, we demonstrated that the single-channel recording of a transmembrane protein (alpha-hemolysin was achieved in the field at a high-altitude (∼3623 m. This system would be broadly applicable for obtaining environmental measurements using membrane proteins as a highly sensitive sensor.

  2. RKKY interaction in bilayer graphene (United States)

    Mohammadi, Yawar; Moradian, Rostam


    We study the RKKY interaction between two magnetic impurities located on the same layer (intralayer case) or on different layers (interlayer case) in undoped bilayer graphene (BLG) in the four-bands model, by directly calculating the Green functions in the eigenvalues and eigenvectors representation. Our results show that both intra- and interlayer RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same (opposite) sublattice are always ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic). Furthermore we find unusual long-distance decay of the RKKY interaction in BLG. The intralyer RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same sublattice, J AnAn(R) and J BnBn(R), decay closely as 1 /R6 and 1 /R2 at large impurity distances respectively, but when they are located on opposite sublattices the RKKY interactions exhibit 1 /R4 decays approximately. In the interlayer case, the RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same sublattice show a decay close to 1 /R4 at large impurity distances, but if two magnetic impurities be on opposite sublattices the RKKY interactions, J A1B2(R) and J B1A2(R), decay closely as 1 /R6 and 1 /R2 respectively. Both intra- and interlayer RKKY interactions have anisotropic oscillatory factors which for intralayer case is equal to that for single layer graphene (SLG). Our results at weak and strong interlayer coupling limits reduce to the RKKY interaction of SLG and that of BLG in the two-bands approximation respectively.

  3. Feeling the hidden mechanical forces in lipid bilayer is an original sense. (United States)

    Anishkin, Andriy; Loukin, Stephen H; Teng, Jinfeng; Kung, Ching


    Life's origin entails enclosing a compartment to hoard material, energy, and information. The envelope necessarily comprises amphipaths, such as prebiotic fatty acids, to partition the two aqueous domains. The self-assembled lipid bilayer comes with a set of properties including its strong anisotropic internal forces that are chemically or physically malleable. Added bilayer stretch can alter force vectors on embedded proteins to effect conformational change. The force-from-lipid principle was demonstrated 25 y ago when stretches opened purified Escherichia coli MscL channels reconstituted into artificial bilayers. This reductionistic exercise has rigorously been recapitulated recently with two vertebrate mechanosensitive K(+) channels (TREK1 and TRAAK). Membrane stretches have also been known to activate various voltage-, ligand-, or Ca(2+)-gated channels. Careful analyses showed that Kv, the canonical voltage-gated channel, is in fact exquisitely sensitive even to very small tension. In an unexpected context, the canonical transient-receptor-potential channels in the Drosophila eye, long presumed to open by ligand binding, is apparently opened by membrane force due to PIP2 hydrolysis-induced changes in bilayer strain. Being the intimate medium, lipids govern membrane proteins by physics as well as chemistry. This principle should not be a surprise because it parallels water's paramount role in the structure and function of soluble proteins. Today, overt or covert mechanical forces govern cell biological processes and produce sensations. At the genesis, a bilayer's response to osmotic force is likely among the first senses to deal with the capricious primordial sea.

  4. Quantum Yield Measurements of Fluorophores in Lipid Bilayers Using a Plasmonic Nanocavity. (United States)

    Schneider, Falk; Ruhlandt, Daja; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg; Chizhik, Alexey I


    Precise knowledge of the quantum yield is important for many fluorescence-spectroscopic techniques, for example, for Förster resonance energy transfer. However, to measure it for emitters in a complex environment and at low concentrations is far from being trivial. Using a plasmonic nanocavity, we measure the absolute quantum yield value of lipid-conjugated dyes incorporated into a supported lipid bilayer. We show that for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules the quantum yield of dyes inside the lipid bilayer strongly differs from its value in aqueous solution. This finding is of particular importance for all fluorescence-spectroscopic studies involving lipid bilayers, such as protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions in membranes or direct fluorescence-spectroscopic measurements of membrane physical properties.

  5. Hydration process of multi-stacked phospholipid bilayers to form giant vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hishida, M; Yamada, N L; Yoshikawa, K


    A hydration process of multi-stacked phospholipid bilayers to form giant vesicles was investigated by means of time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering. It is found that the hydration of lipids in the liquid-crystalline phase proceeds with two stages: In the early stage until about 150 s after the hydration, lipid bilayers on a solid substrate swell about 20 % and arrive at a quasi-stable state. In the late stage, after several hundreds seconds, lipid bilayers gradually peel off from the stack. On the other hand, in case of a lipid in the gel phase, only the early stage is observed. These behaviors correspond to the ability of the giant vesicle formation depending on the lipid phases. The kinetics of the peeling-off process is discussed in terms of the Kramers' formulas by considering the effect of the unbinding transition.

  6. Dynamics, Surface Electrostatics and Phase Properties of Nanoscale Curved Lipid Bilayers (United States)

    Koolivand, Amir

    Surface electrostatic potential of a lipid bilayer governs many vital functions of living cells. Several classes of proteins are known of exhibiting strong binding preferences to curved lipid bilayer surfaces. In this project we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of a recently introduced phospholipid (IMTSL-PTE) bearing a pH-sensitive nitroxide covalently attached to the lipid head group to measure the surface electrostatics of the lipid membrane and nanopore-confined lipid bilayers as a function of the bilayer curvature. The pKa of the ionizable group of this lipid-based spin probe is reporting on the bilayer surface electrostatics potential by changes in the EPR spectra. Specifically, both rotational dynamics and magnetic parameters of the nitroxide are affected by the probe protonation. Effect of curvature on the surface electrostatic potential and dynamics of lipid bilayer was studied for POPG and DMPG unilamellar vesicles (ULVs). It was found that the magnitude of the negative surface electrostatic potential increased upon decrease in the vesicle diameter for the bilayers in the fluid phase; however, no significant changes were observed for DMPG ULVs in a gel phase. We speculate that biologically relevant fluid bilayer phase allows for a larger variability in the lipid packing density in the lipid polar head group region than a more ordered gel phase and it is likely that the lipid flip-flop is responsible for pH equilibration of IMTSL-PTE. The kinetic EPR study of nitroxide reduction showed that the rate of flip-flop is in the order of 10-5 s-1. The flip-flop rate constant increases when vesicle size deceases. Oxygen permeability measured by X-ban EPR decreases in higher curved vesicles---an observation that is consistent with a tighter packing in smaller vesicles. Partitioning of a small nitroxide molecule TEMPO into ULVs was measured by X-band (9 GHz) and W-band (95 GHz) EPR spectroscopy. The partitioning coefficient of this probe in the lipid

  7. Examples of Small-scale Urban Area. Experiment Energy Leap Built Environment; Voorbeeldenboek Kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. Experiment Energiesprong Gebouwde Omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Dutch government considers the transition process to be necessary and stimulates investments in energy innovations in the built environment. This innovation effort is the programme 'Energy Leap' (Energiesprong), which is being carried out by the Steering Group Experimental Housing (SEV) on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (BZK). The programme is derived from the Innovation Agenda for Energy in the Built Environment. The examples in this book are intended to inspire (potential) participants in the Experiment Energy Leap for Small-scale Urban Areas. The examples focus explicitly on the reduction of CO2 emissions in urban areas, and thus, in addition to CO2 reduction on a building level, the aspects of energy supply, (local) energy production and the energy infrastructure [Dutch] Het SEV-programma Energiesprong (SEV is Stuurgroep Experimenten Volkshuisvesting) beoogt een substantiele bijdrage te leveren aan de condities waaronder de energietransitie effectief tot stand kan komen. In dit basisplan wordt uiteengezet hoe de markt daartoe moet kunnen komen en welke activiteiten daarvoor worden ondersteund, opgezet en/of uitgevoerd vanuit Energiesprong. Het SEV-programma Energiesprong wordt in opdracht van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK) uitgevoerd. Het programma is afgeleid van de Innovatie Agenda energie Gebouwde Omgeving. Dit voorbeeldenboek dient ter inspiratie van (potentiele) deelnemers aan het Experiment Energiesprong kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. De voorbeelden richten zich expliciet op de CO2-reductie van binnenstedelijke gebieden en daarmee, naast de CO2-reductie op woning- en gebouwniveau, op de aspecten energievoorziening, (locale) energieopwekking en energie-infrastructuur.

  8. Contrasting patterns in the small-scale heterogeneity of human helminth infections in urban and rural environments in Brazil. (United States)

    Brooker, Simon; Alexander, Neal; Geiger, Stefan; Moyeed, Rana A; Stander, Julian; Fleming, Fiona; Hotez, Peter J; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey


    Marked heterogeneity exists in the patterns of parasitic infection between individuals, households and communities. Analysis of parasite distributions within populations is complicated by the fact that parasite distributions are highly aggregated and few studies have explicitly incorporated this distribution when investigating small-scale spatial heterogeneities. This study aimed to quantify the small-scale (within- and between-household) heterogeneity of helminth infection in an area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with rural and urban sectors. Parasitological data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,249 individuals aged 0-86 years from 242 households were analysed. Within-household clustering of infection was assessed using random effect logistic regression models and between-household spatial heterogeneity was assessed using a Bayesian negative binomial spatial model. The overall prevalence of hookworm (Necator americanus) was 66.9%, the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni was 44.9% and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 48.8%. Statistical analysis indicated significant (within) household and (between household) spatial clustering of hookworm in both rural and urban areas and of S. mansoni in rural areas. There was no evidence of either household or spatial clustering of S. mansoni in urban areas. The spatial correlation of S. mansoni was estimated to reduce by half over a distance of 700 m in the rural area. Rural hookworm had a much smaller half-distance (28 m) and urban hookworm showed an even smaller half-distance (12 m). We suggest that such species-specific differences in patterns of infection by environment are primarily due to variation in exposure and parasite life cycle, although host genetic factors cannot be ruled out.

  9. Bilayer vesicles of amphiphilic cyclodextrins: host membranes that recognize guest molecules. (United States)

    Falvey, Patrick; Lim, Choon Woo; Darcy, Raphael; Revermann, Tobias; Karst, Uwe; Giesbers, Marcel; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Lazar, Adina; Coleman, Anthony W; Reinhoudt, David N; Ravoo, Bart Jan


    A family of amphiphilic cyclodextrins (6, 7) has been prepared through 6-S-alkylation (alkyl=n-dodecyl and n-hexadecyl) of the primary side and 2-O-PEGylation of the secondary side of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins (PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)). These cyclodextrins form nonionic bilayer vesicles in aqueous solution. The bilayer vesicles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, dye encapsulation, and capillary electrophoresis. The molecular packing of the amphiphilic cyclodextrins was investigated by using small-angle X-ray diffraction of bilayers deposited on glass and pressure-area isotherms obtained from Langmuir monolayers on the air-water interface. The bilayer thickness is dependent on the chain length, whereas the average molecular surface area scales with the cyclodextrin ring size. The alkyl chains of the cyclodextrins in the bilayer are deeply interdigitated. Molecular recognition of a hydrophobic anion (adamantane carboxylate) by the cyclodextrin vesicles was investigated by using capillary electrophoresis, thereby exploiting the increase in electrophoretic mobility that occurs when the hydrophobic anions bind to the nonionic cyclodextrin vesicles. It was found that in spite of the presence of oligo(ethylene glycol) substituents, the beta-cyclodextrin vesicles retain their characteristic affinity for adamantane carboxylate (association constant K(a)=7.1 x 10(3) M(-1)), whereas gamma-cyclodextrin vesicles have less affinity (K(a)=3.2 x 10(3) M(-1)), and alpha-cyclodextrin or non-cyclodextrin, nonionic vesicles have very little affinity (K(a) approximately 100 M(-1)). Specific binding of the adamantane carboxylate to beta-cyclodextrin vesicles was also evident in competition experiments with beta-cyclodextrin in solution. Hence, the cyclodextrin vesicles can function as host bilayer membranes that recognize small guest molecules by specific noncovalent interaction.

  10. Influence of dietary fiber on luminal environment and morphology in the small and large intestine of sows. (United States)

    Serena, A; Hedemann, M S; Bach Knudsen, K E


    In this study, the effect of feeding different types and amounts of dietary fiber (DF) on luminal environment and morphology in the small and large intestine of sows was studied. Three diets, a low-fiber diet (LF) and 2 high-fiber diets (high fiber 1, HF1, and high fiber 2, HF2) were used. Diet LF (DF, 17%; soluble DF 4.6%) was based on wheat and barley, whereas the 2 high-fiber diets (HF1: DF, 43%; soluble DF, 11.0%; and HF2: DF, 45%; soluble DF, 7.6%) were based on wheat and barley supplemented with different coproducts from the vegetable food and agroindustry (HF1 and HF2: sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, and pectin residue; HF2: brewers spent grain, seed residue, and pea hull). The diets were fed for a 4-wk period to 12 sows (4 receiving each diet). Thereafter, the sows were killed 4 h postfeeding, and digesta and tissue samples were collected from various parts of the small and large intestine. The carbohydrates in the LF diet were well digested in the small intestine, resulting in less digesta in all segments of the intestinal tract. The fermentation of nonstarch polysaccharides in the large intestine was affected by the chemical composition and physicochemical properties. The digesta from pigs fed the LF diet provided low levels of fermentable carbohydrates that were depleted in proximal colon, whereas for pigs fed the 2 high-DF diets, the digesta was depleted of fermentable carbohydrates at more distal locations of the colon. The consequence was an increased retention time, greater DM percentage, decreased amount of material, and a decreased tissue weight after feeding the LF diet compared with the HF diets. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids was consistent with the fermentability of carbohydrates in the large intestine, but there was no effect of the dietary composition on the molar short-chain fatty acid proportions. It was further shown that feeding the diet providing the greatest amount of fermentable carbohydrates (diet HF1, which was high in

  11. Piezoelectricity in asymmetrically strained bilayer graphene (United States)

    Van der Donck, M.; De Beule, C.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.; Van Duppen, B.


    We study the electronic properties of commensurate faulted bilayer graphene by diagonalizing the one-particle Hamiltonian of the bilayer system in a complete basis of Bloch states of the individual graphene layers. Our novel approach is very general and can be easily extended to any commensurate graphene-based heterostructure. Here, we consider three cases: (i) twisted bilayer graphene, (ii) bilayer graphene where triaxial stress is applied to one layer and (iii) bilayer graphene where uniaxial stress is applied to one layer. We show that the resulting superstructures can be divided into distinct classes, depending on the twist angle or the magnitude of the induced strain. The different classes are distinguished from each other by the interlayer coupling mechanism, resulting in fundamentally different low-energy physics. For the cases of triaxial and uniaxial stress, the individual graphene layers tend to decouple and we find significant charge transfer between the layers. In addition, this piezoelectric effect can be tuned by applying a perpendicular electric field. Finally, we show how our approach can be generalized to multilayer systems.

  12. Effects of fabrication on the mechanics, microstructure and micromechanical environment of small intestinal submucosa scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering. (United States)

    Sánchez-Palencia, Diana M; D'Amore, Antonio; González-Mancera, Andrés; Wagner, William R; Briceño, Juan C


    In small intestinal submucosa scaffolds for functional tissue engineering, the impact of scaffold fabrication parameters on success rate may be related to the mechanotransductory properties of the final microstructural organization of collagen fibers. We hypothesized that two fabrication parameters, 1) preservation (P) or removal (R) of a dense collagen layer present in SIS and 2) SIS in a final dehydrated (D) or hydrated (H) state, have an effect on scaffold void area, microstructural anisotropy (fiber alignment) and mechanical anisotropy (global mechanical compliance). We further integrated our experimental measurements in a constitutive model to explore final effects on the micromechanical environment inside the scaffold volume. Our results indicated that PH scaffolds might exhibit recurrent and large force fluctuations between layers (up to 195 pN), while fluctuations in RH scaffolds might be larger (up to 256 pN) but not as recurrent. In contrast, both PD and RD groups were estimated to produce scarcer and smaller fluctuations (not larger than 50 pN). We concluded that the hydration parameter strongly affects the micromechanics of SIS and that an adequate choice of fabrication parameters, assisted by the herein developed method, might leverage the use of SIS for functional tissue engineering applications, where forces at the cellular level are of concern in the guidance of new tissue formation.

  13. Internal structure and current evolution of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in alpine permafrost environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste eBosson


    Full Text Available This contribution explores the internal structure of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in permafrost environments and their current dynamical responses to short-term climatic variations. Three systems were investigated with electrical resistivity tomography and dGPS monitoring over a 3-year period. Five distinct sectors are highlighted in each system: firn and bare-ice glacier, debris-covered glacier, heavily debris-covered glacier of low activity, rock glacier and ice-free debris. Decimetric to metric movements, related to ice ablation, internal deformation and basal sliding affect the glacial zones, which are mainly active in summer. Conversely, surface lowering is close to zero (-0.04 m yr-1 in the rock glaciers. Here, a constant and slow internal deformation was observed (c. 0.2 m yr-1. Thus, these systems are affected by both direct and high magnitude responses and delayed and attenuated responses to climatic variations. This differential evolution appears mainly controlled by (1 the proportion of ice, debris and the presence of water in the ground, and (2 the thickness of the superficial debris layer.

  14. Magnetoacoustic resonance in magnetoelectric bilayers (United States)

    Filippov, D. A.; Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Srinivasan, G.


    Layered composites of ferrite and ferroelectric single crystal thin films are of interest for studies on magnetoelectric interactions [1,2]. Such interactions result in unique and novel effects that are absent in single phase materials. For example, in a single crystal composite it is possible to control the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) parameters for the ferrite by means of hypersonic oscillations induced in the ferroelectric phase. The absorption of acoustic oscillations by the ferrite results in variation in FMR line shape and power absorbed. One anticipates resonance absorption of elastic waves when the frequency of elastic waves coincides with the precession frequency of magnetization vector. This work is concerned with the nature of FMR under the influence of acoustic oscillations with the same frequency as FMR. Bilayers of ferrite and piezoelectric single crystals are considered. Hypersonic waves induced in the piezoelectric phase transmit acoustic power into ferrite due to mechanical connectivity between the phases. That transmission depends strongly on interface coupling [3]. We estimate the resulting variations in ferromagnetic resonance line shape. Estimates of magnetoelectric effect at magnetoacoustic resonance are also given. In addition, dependence of absorption of acoustic power on sample dimensions and compliances, electric and magnetic susceptibilities, piezoelectric and magnetostriction coefficients is discussed. The theory provided here is important for an understanding of interface coupling and the nature of magnetoelastic interactions in the composites. 1. M. I. Bichurin and V. M. Petrov, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 58, 2277 (1988) [Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 1389 (1988)]. 2. M.I. Bichurin, I. A. Kornev, V. M. Petrov, A. S. Tatarenko, Yu. V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan. Phys. Rev. B 64, 094409 (2001). 3. M. I. Bichurin, V. M. Petrov, and G. Srinivasan, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7681 (2002). This work was supported by grants from the Russian Ministry of Education (

  15. Possible mechanism of adhesion in a mica supported phospholipid bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertsin, Alexander, E-mail: [Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Organo-Element Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str. 28, 117991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Grunze, Michael [Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von- Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    Phospholipid bilayers supported on hydrophilic solids like silica and mica play a substantial role in fundamental studies and technological applications of phospholipid membranes. In both cases the molecular mechanism of adhesion between the bilayer and the support is of primary interest. Since the possibilities of experimental methods in this specific area are rather limited, the methods of computer simulation acquire great importance. In this paper we use the grand canonical Monte Carlo technique and an atomistic force field to simulate the behavior of a mica supported phospholipid bilayer in pure water as a function of the distance between the bilayer and the support. The simulation reveals a possible adhesion mechanism, where the adhesion is due to individual lipid molecules that protrude from the bilayer and form widely spaced links with the support. Simultaneously, the bilayer remains separated from the bilayer by a thin water interlayer which maintains the bilayer fluidity.

  16. Ionic motion in PEDOT and PPy conducting polymer bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainudeen, Umer L.; Skaarup, Steen


    Conducting polymer bilayers with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polypyrrole (PPy), each containing dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) as immobile dopant species, were synthesized galvanostatically. The electrochemical behaviour of the bilayers was investigated using cyclic voltammetry...

  17. Design of Asymmetric Peptide Bilayer Membranes. (United States)

    Li, Sha; Mehta, Anil K; Sidorov, Anton N; Orlando, Thomas M; Jiang, Zhigang; Anthony, Neil R; Lynn, David G


    Energetic insights emerging from the structural characterization of peptide cross-β assemblies have enabled the design and construction of robust asymmetric bilayer peptide membranes. Two peptides differing only in their N-terminal residue, phosphotyrosine vs lysine, coassemble as stacks of antiparallel β-sheets with precisely patterned charged lattices stabilizing the bilayer leaflet interface. Either homogeneous or mixed leaflet composition is possible, and both create nanotubes with dense negative external and positive internal solvent exposed surfaces. Cross-seeding peptide solutions with a preassembled peptide nanotube seed leads to domains of different leaflet architecture within single nanotubes. Architectural control over these cross-β assemblies, both across the bilayer membrane and along the nanotube length, provides access to highly ordered asymmetric membranes for the further construction of functional mesoscale assemblies.

  18. Capacitance Variation of Electrolyte-Gated Bilayer Graphene Based Transistors


    Hediyeh Karimi; Rubiyah Yusof; Mohammad Taghi Ahmadi; Mehdi Saeidmanesh; Meisam Rahmani; Elnaz Akbari; Wong King Kiat


    Quantum capacitance of electrolyte-gated bilayer graphene field-effect transistors is investigated in this paper. Bilayer graphene has received huge attention due to the fact that an energy gap could be opened by chemical doping or by applying external perpendicular electric field. So, this extraordinary property can be exploited to use bilayer graphene as a channel in electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors. The quantum capacitance of bi-layer graphene with an equivalent circuit is presen...

  19. Lipid Bilayer Composition Affects Transmembrane Protein Orientation and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie D. Hickey


    Full Text Available Sperm membranes change in structure and composition upon ejaculation to undergo capacitation, a molecular transformation which enables spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction and be capable of fertilization. Changes to the membrane environment including lipid composition, specifically lipid microdomains, may be responsible for enabling capacitation. To study the effect of lipid environment on proteins, liposomes were created using lipids extracted from bull sperm membranes, with or without a protein (Na+ K+-ATPase or -amylase. Protein incorporation, function, and orientation were determined. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET confirmed protein inclusion in the lipid bilayer, and protein function was confirmed using a colourometric assay of phosphate production from ATP cleavage. In the native lipid liposomes, ATPase was oriented with the subunit facing the outer leaflet, while changing the lipid composition to 50% native lipids and 50% exogenous lipids significantly altered this orientation of Na+ K+-ATPase within the membranes.

  20. Supported lipid bilayers as templates to design manganese oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Maheshkumar; B Sreedhar; B U Nair; A Dhathathreyan


    This work reports on the preparation of nanoclusters of manganese oxide using biotemplating techniques. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) on quartz using cationic lipid [Dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DOMA)] and mixed systems with neutral phospholipids dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) have been used as templates to synthesize these nanoparticles in a waterbased medium at room temperature. The Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show manganese oxide nanostructures that are composed of crystals or small clusters in the size range of 20-50 nm in diameter. Small angle XRD showed that template removal through calcining process results in nanostructures of the manganese oxide in sizes from 30 to 50 nm. Using these organized assemblies it is possible to control the nano and mesoscopic morphologies of particles and both rod-like and spherical particles can be synthesized.

  1. Confocal Raman Microscopy of Hybrid-Supported Phospholipid Bilayers within Individual C18-Functionalized Chromatographic Particles. (United States)

    Kitt, Jay P; Harris, Joel M


    Measuring lipid-membrane partitioning of small molecules is critical to predicting bioavailability and investigating molecule-membrane interactions. A stable model membrane for such studies has been developed through assembly of a phospholipid monolayer on n-alkane-modified surfaces. These hybrid bilayers have recently been generated within n-alkyl-chain (C18)-modified porous silica and used in chromatographic retention studies of small molecules. Despite their successful application, determining the structure of hybrid bilayers within chromatographic silica is challenging because they reside at buried interfaces within the porous structure. In this work, we employ confocal Raman microscopy to investigate the formation and temperature-dependent structure of hybrid-phospholipid bilayers in C18-modified, porous-silica chromatographic particles. Porous silica provides sufficient surface area within a confocal probe volume centered in an individual particle to readily measure, with Raman microscopy, the formation of an ordered hybrid bilayer of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) with the surface C18 chains. The DMPC surface density was quantified from the relative Raman scattering intensities of C18 and phospholipid acyl chains and found to be ∼40% of a DMPC vesicle membrane. By monitoring Raman spectra acquired versus temperature, the bilayer main phase transition was observed to be broadened and shifted to higher temperature compared to a DMPC vesicle, in agreement with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results. Raman scattering of deuterated phospholipid was resolved from protonated C18 chain scattering, showing that the lipid acyl and C18 chains melt simultaneously in a single phase transition. The surface density of lipid in the hybrid bilayer, the ordering of both C18 and lipid acyl chains upon bilayer formation, and decoupling of C18 methylene C-H vibrations by deuterated lipid acyl chains all suggest an interdigitated acyl chain

  2. Temperature effect on plasmons in bilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Digish K., E-mail:; Sharma, A. C. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002, Gujarat (India); Ashraf, S. S. Z. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ambavale, S. K. [Vishwakarma Government Engineering College Chandkheda, Ahmedabad-382424, Gujarat (India)


    We have theoretically investigated the plasmon dispersion and damping rate of doped bilayer graphene (BLG) at finite temperatures within the random phase approximation. Our computed results on plasmon dispersion show that plasmon frequency enhances with increasing temperatures in contrast to single layer graphene where it is suppressed. This can be attributed to the fact that the dynamic response of the electron gas or screening in bilayer graphene is different from that of single layer graphene. Further the temperature effect on damping rate is also discussed.

  3. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)


    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  4. A Model of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning In Pharmacy Education: Teaching in the Clinical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerisuda Khumsikiew


    Full Text Available Problem-based Learning (PBL is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy students in the clinical environment that facilitated by pharmacy instructors. A PBL model was implemented in 1-day periods each week in total of 15 weeks at clinical practice sites. PBL activities consisted of providing pharmaceutical care service, collecting patients based clinical data, evaluation therapeutic regimens, developing SOAP note, peer feedback and case wrap-up sessions. In data collection, 36 students who had participated model completed a 17-items questionnaire using 5- point Likert scale (Cronbach's Alpha is 0.96 about their pharmacy student competencies at before and after finished course. They also completed 11-items questionnaire using 5-point Likert scale (Cronbach's Alpha is 0.87 about their satisfaction. Data of pharmacy student competencies and satisfaction were analyzed by paired sample t-test and descriptive statistics in respectively. From the result of this study indicated that pharmacy student's competencies have been increased through PBL course and also statistical significant (P < 0.05 have found in every items mainly in clinical skills regarding apply didactic knowledge to direct patients care activities such as identifying, prioritization, solving therapy-drug related problem as well as clinical communication with patients or other members of interdisciplinary team. Moreover, in the part of satisfaction found that all of questions were scored range from high to highest level of mean score and most of modes were 4. Overall concluded that the PBL model enhances pharmacy student competencies and students were satisfied with PBL course.

  5. Lipid-assisted formation and dispersion of aqueous and bilayer-embedded nano-C60. (United States)

    Chen, Yanjing; Bothun, Geoffrey D


    Lipid assemblies provide a biocompatible approach for preparing aqueous nanoparticles. In this work, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was used to assist in the formation and dispersion of C(60) and nano-C(60) aggregates using a modified reverse phase evaporation (REV) method. This method led to the rapid formation of aqueous nano-C(60) at DPPC/C(60) molar ratios from 500:1 to 100:1 (12-38 nm; verified by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy), which were present in the bulk phase and encapsulated within vesicles. In addition to forming nanoparticles, C(60) was trapped within the vesicle bilayer and led to a reduction in the lipid melting temperature. Solvent extraction was used to isolate nano-C(60) from the lipids and bilayer-embedded C(60). Our results suggest that bilayer-embedded C(60) was present as molecular C(60) and as small amorphous nano-C(60) (2.3 +/- 0.4 nm), which clustered in the aqueous phase after the lipids were extracted. In addition to developing a new technique for nano-C(60) formation, our results suggest that the lipid bilayer may be used as a hydrophobic region for dispersing and assembling small nano-C(60).

  6. Membrane Protein Mobility and Orientation Preserved in Supported Bilayers Created Directly from Cell Plasma Membrane Blebs. (United States)

    Richards, Mark J; Hsia, Chih-Yun; Singh, Rohit R; Haider, Huma; Kumpf, Julia; Kawate, Toshimitsu; Daniel, Susan


    Membrane protein interactions with lipids are crucial for their native biological behavior, yet traditional characterization methods are often carried out on purified protein in the absence of lipids. We present a simple method to transfer membrane proteins expressed in mammalian cells to an assay-friendly, cushioned, supported lipid bilayer platform using cell blebs as an intermediate. Cell blebs, expressing either GPI-linked yellow fluorescent proteins or neon-green fused transmembrane P2X2 receptors, were induced to rupture on glass surfaces using PEGylated lipid vesicles, which resulted in planar supported membranes with over 50% mobility for multipass transmembrane proteins and over 90% for GPI-linked proteins. Fluorescent proteins were tracked, and their diffusion in supported bilayers characterized, using single molecule tracking and moment scaling spectrum (MSS) analysis. Diffusion was characterized for individual proteins as either free or confined, revealing details of the local lipid membrane heterogeneity surrounding the protein. A particularly useful result of our bilayer formation process is the protein orientation in the supported planar bilayer. For both the GPI-linked and transmembrane proteins used here, an enzymatic assay revealed that protein orientation in the planar bilayer results in the extracellular domains facing toward the bulk, and that the dominant mode of bleb rupture is via the "parachute" mechanism. Mobility, orientation, and preservation of the native lipid environment of the proteins using cell blebs offers advantages over proteoliposome reconstitution or disrupted cell membrane preparations, which necessarily result in significant scrambling of protein orientation and typically immobilized membrane proteins in SLBs. The bleb-based bilayer platform presented here is an important step toward integrating membrane proteomic studies on chip, especially for future studies aimed at understanding fundamental effects of lipid interactions

  7. Tailored sequential drug release from bilayered calcium sulfate composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana, Bryan R.; Puleo, David A., E-mail:


    The current standard for treating infected bony defects, such as those caused by periodontal disease, requires multiple time-consuming steps and often multiple procedures to fight the infection and recover lost tissue. Releasing an antibiotic followed by an osteogenic agent from a synthetic bone graft substitute could allow for a streamlined treatment, reducing the need for multiple surgeries and thereby shortening recovery time. Tailorable bilayered calcium sulfate (CS) bone graft substitutes were developed with the ability to sequentially release multiple therapeutic agents. Bilayered composite samples having a shell and core geometry were fabricated with varying amounts (1 or 10 wt.%) of metronidazole-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles embedded in the shell and simvastatin directly loaded into either the shell, core, or both. Microcomputed tomography showed the overall layered geometry as well as the uniform distribution of PLGA within the shells. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the amount of PLGA particles (i.e., 1 vs. 10 wt.%) had a small but significant effect on the erosion rate (3% vs. 3.4%/d). Mechanical testing determined that introducing a layered geometry had a significant effect on the compressive strength, with an average reduction of 35%, but properties were comparable to those of mandibular trabecular bone. Sustained release of simvastatin directly loaded into CS demonstrated that changing the shell to core volume ratio dictates the duration of drug release from each layer. When loaded together in the shell or in separate layers, sequential release of metronidazole and simvastatin was achieved. By introducing a tunable, layered geometry capable of releasing multiple drugs, CS-based bone graft substitutes could be tailored in order to help streamline the multiple steps needed to regenerate tissue in infected defects. - Highlights: • Bilayered CS composites were fabricated as potential bone graft substitutes. • The shell

  8. Surface and interfacial creases in a bilayer tubular soft tissue (United States)

    Razavi, Mir Jalil; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao


    Surface and interfacial creases induced by biological growth are common types of instability in soft biological tissues. This study focuses on the criteria for the onset of surface and interfacial creases as well as their morphological evolution in a growing bilayer soft tube within a confined environment. Critical growth ratios for triggering surface and interfacial creases are investigated both analytically and numerically. Analytical interpretations provide preliminary insights into critical stretches and growth ratios for the onset of instability and formation of both surface and interfacial creases. However, the analytical approach cannot predict the evolution pattern of the model after instability; therefore nonlinear finite element simulations are carried out to replicate the poststability morphological patterns of the structure. Analytical and computational simulation results demonstrate that the initial geometry, growth ratio, and shear modulus ratio of the layers are the most influential factors to control surface and interfacial crease formation in this soft tubular bilayer. The competition between the stretch ratios in the free and interfacial surfaces is one of the key driving factors to determine the location of the first crease initiation. These findings may provide some fundamental understanding in the growth modeling of tubular biological tissues such as esophagi and airways as well as offering useful clues into normal and pathological functions of these tissues.

  9. Nanostructured antireflective bilayers: Optical design and preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrich, Ádám [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Nagy, Norbert [Research Centre for Natural Sciences (MTA TTK), Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nyári, Mária; Albert, Emőke; Zámbó, Dániel [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Hórvölgyi, Zoltán, E-mail: [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)


    We show different methods for tailoring and fabrication of various cost-effective antireflective nanocoatings on transparent and non-transparent substrates. The main purpose was to prepare coatings with decreased reflectance in the full visible wavelength range using simple wet layer deposition techniques. Structure of coatings was designed by optical simulations applying simplified calculations. The refractive index of substrates was also considered for the calculations. The advantageous optical properties were achieved by bilayered structures combining compact and porous sol–gel derived oxide layers and nanoparticulate films. The bilayered structures enhance the flexibility of design by not only the selection of the layer thicknesses but also by different ways of adjusting the effective refractive index of the layers. Furthermore, chemical stability of the coatings was also investigated. The optical and structural properties of prepared films and bilayered coatings were studied by UV–vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The transmittance of coated glass substrates was above 97.5%, while the reflectance of coated silicon substrates was below 4% between 450 nm and 900 nm. - Highlights: • Designed antireflective bilayered coatings on glass and silicon. • Simple, colloid chemical approaches to preparation. • Favorable optical properties by combining compact and porous oxide layers. • Different ways for adjusting the effective refractive index. • Strong chemical resistance against acidic effects.

  10. Reversible Polarization Rotation in Epitaxial Ferroelectric Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangqing; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Hsin-Hui


    large-scale polarization rotation switching (≈60 μC cm−2) and an effective d 33 response 500% (≈250 pm V−1) larger than the PZT-R layer alone. Furthermore, this enhancement is stable for more than 107 electrical switching cycles. These bilayers present a simple and highly controllable means to design...

  11. Localized plasmons in bilayer graphene nanodisks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Weihua; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger


    We study localized plasmonic excitations in bilayer graphene (BLG) nanodisks, comparing AA-stacked and AB-stacked BLG and contrasting the results to the case of two monolayers without electronic hybridization. The electrodynamic response of the BLG electron gas is described in terms of a spatially...

  12. Bilayer Tablet via Microsphere: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyushkumar Vinubhai Gundaraniya


    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to develop bilayer tablets containing sustained release microspheres as one layer and immediate release as another layer. The proposed dosage form is intended to decrease the dosing frequency and the combined administration of an anti-diabetic agent. Several pharmaceutical companies are currently developing bi-layer tablets, for a variety of reasons: patent extension, therapeutic, marketing to name a few. To reduce capital investment, quite often existing but modified tablet presses are used to develop and produce such tablets. One such approach is using microspheres as carriers for drugs also known as micro particles. It is the reliable means to deliver the drug to the target site with specificity, if modified, and to maintain the desired concentration at the site of interest. Microspheres received much attention not only for prolonged release, but also for targeting of anti-diabetic drugs. Bilayer tablet via microsphere is new era for the successful development of controlled release formulation along with various features to provide a way of successful drug delivery system. Especially when in addition high production output is required. An attempt has been made in this review article to introduce the society to the current technological developments in bilayer and floating drug delivery system.

  13. Electronic properties of a biased graphene bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Eduardo V; Lopes dos Santos, J M B [CFP and Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias Universidade do Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Novoselov, K S; Morozov, S V; Geim, A K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Peres, N M R [Centre of Physics and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, P-4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Nilsson, Johan; Castro Neto, A H [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Guinea, F [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)


    We study, within the tight-binding approximation, the electronic properties of a graphene bilayer in the presence of an external electric field applied perpendicular to the system-a biased bilayer. The effect of the perpendicular electric field is included through a parallel plate capacitor model, with screening correction at the Hartree level. The full tight-binding description is compared with its four-band and two-band continuum approximations, and the four-band model is shown to always be a suitable approximation for the conditions realized in experiments. The model is applied to real biased bilayer devices, made out of either SiC or exfoliated graphene, and good agreement with experimental results is found, indicating that the model is capturing the key ingredients, and that a finite gap is effectively being controlled externally. Analysis of experimental results regarding the electrical noise and cyclotron resonance further suggests that the model can be seen as a good starting point for understanding the electronic properties of graphene bilayer. Also, we study the effect of electron-hole asymmetry terms, such as the second-nearest-neighbour hopping energies t' (in-plane) and {gamma}{sub 4} (inter-layer), and the on-site energy {Delta}.

  14. Electronic properties of a biased graphene bilayer. (United States)

    Castro, Eduardo V; Novoselov, K S; Morozov, S V; Peres, N M R; Lopes dos Santos, J M B; Nilsson, Johan; Guinea, F; Geim, A K; Castro Neto, A H


    We study, within the tight-binding approximation, the electronic properties of a graphene bilayer in the presence of an external electric field applied perpendicular to the system-a biased bilayer. The effect of the perpendicular electric field is included through a parallel plate capacitor model, with screening correction at the Hartree level. The full tight-binding description is compared with its four-band and two-band continuum approximations, and the four-band model is shown to always be a suitable approximation for the conditions realized in experiments. The model is applied to real biased bilayer devices, made out of either SiC or exfoliated graphene, and good agreement with experimental results is found, indicating that the model is capturing the key ingredients, and that a finite gap is effectively being controlled externally. Analysis of experimental results regarding the electrical noise and cyclotron resonance further suggests that the model can be seen as a good starting point for understanding the electronic properties of graphene bilayer. Also, we study the effect of electron-hole asymmetry terms, such as the second-nearest-neighbour hopping energies t' (in-plane) and γ(4) (inter-layer), and the on-site energy Δ.

  15. Topological transformation of a surfactant bilayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, T.D.; Olsson, U.; Mortensen, K.


    Surfactant lamellar phases are often complicated by the formation of multilamellar (onions) under shear, which can originate simply by shaking the sample. A systematic study has been performed on the C10E3-D2O system in which different bilayer structures under a steady shear flow were investigated...

  16. Electronic properties of graphene-based bilayer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, A.V., E-mail: [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Sboychakov, A.O. [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rakhmanov, A.L. [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, Moscow, 127055 (Russian Federation); Nori, Franco, E-mail: [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)


    This article reviews the theoretical and experimental work related to the electronic properties of bilayer graphene systems. Three types of bilayer stackings are discussed: the AA, AB, and twisted bilayer graphene. This review covers single-electron properties, effects of static electric and magnetic fields, bilayer-based mesoscopic systems, spin–orbit coupling, dc transport and optical response, as well as spontaneous symmetry violation and other interaction effects. The selection of the material aims to introduce the reader to the most commonly studied topics of theoretical and experimental research in bilayer graphene.

  17. Electronic properties of graphene-based bilayer systems (United States)

    Rozhkov, A. V.; Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.; Nori, Franco


    This article reviews the theoretical and experimental work related to the electronic properties of bilayer graphene systems. Three types of bilayer stackings are discussed: the AA, AB, and twisted bilayer graphene. This review covers single-electron properties, effects of static electric and magnetic fields, bilayer-based mesoscopic systems, spin-orbit coupling, dc transport and optical response, as well as spontaneous symmetry violation and other interaction effects. The selection of the material aims to introduce the reader to the most commonly studied topics of theoretical and experimental research in bilayer graphene.

  18. In situ atomic force microscope imaging of supported lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad; Ipsen, John Hjorth


    In situ AFM images of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) hydrolysis of mica-supported one- and two-component lipid bilayers are presented. For one-component DPPC bilayers an enhanced enzymatic activity is observed towards preexisting defects in the bilayer. Phase separation is observed in two......-component DMPC-DSPC bilayers and a remarkable enhanced hydrolytic activity of the PLA/sub 2/-enzyme for the DMPC-rich phase is seen. Furthermore, in a supported double bilayer system a characteristic ripple structure, most likely related to the formation of the P/sub beta /-ripple phase is observed....

  19. Measuring Small-Group Environments: A Validity Study of Scores from the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and the Group Environment Scale (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.; Junco, Reynol


    This concurrent validity study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment scores was conducted with the Group Environment Scale. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of 191 college students' responses suggested two factors that accounted for 51% of the variance. The factor-analytic results and concurrent validity coefficients…

  20. Dibenzo[f,h]thieno[3,4-b] quinoxaline-fullerene heterojunction bilayer solar cells with complementary spectrum coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekuda, Dhananjaya [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei (China); Huang, Jen-Shien [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University (China); Velusamy, Marappan; Lin, Jiann T. [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei (China); Chu, Chih-Wei [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei (China); Department of Photonics, National Chio-Tung University, Hsinchu 30013 (China)


    In the present article, potential of a bilayer organic solar cell has been investigated. We utilize newly synthesized small molecules, namely dibenzo[f,h]thieno[3,4-b]quinoxaline as electron donors for solar cells in heterojunction bilayer configuration. These small molecules with a narrow absorption band in the range 400-450 nm provide a complementary spectrum for the fullerene C{sub 70}, thereby leading to an overall power conversion efficiency of 2.6{+-}0.2% under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} incident radiation. Thermal annealing seems to impact the charge separation at the donor-acceptor interface, which eventually affects device performance. This work demonstrates that carefully optimized bilayer devices are comparable to the bulk heterojunction counterparts. (author)

  1. Describing an Environment for a Self-Sustaining Technology Transfer Service in a Small Research Budget University: A Case Study (United States)

    Nieb, Sharon Lynn


    This single-site qualitative study sought to identify the characteristics that contribute to the self sustainability of technology transfer services at universities with small research budgets through a case study analysis of a small research budget university that has been operating a financially self-sustainable technology transfer service for…

  2. Fluorescent molecular probes based on excited state prototropism in lipid bilayer membrane (United States)

    Mohapatra, Monalisa; Mishra, Ashok K.


    Excited state prototropism (ESPT) is observed in molecules having one or more ionizable protons, whose proton transfer efficiency is different in ground and excited states. The interaction of various ESPT molecules like naphthols and intramolecular ESPT (ESIPT) molecules like hydroxyflavones etc. with different microheterogeneous media have been studied in detail and excited state prototropism as a probe concept has been gaining ground. The fluorescence of different prototropic forms of such molecules, on partitioning to an organized medium like lipid bilayer membrane, often show sensitive response to the local environment with respect to the local structure, physical properties and dynamics. Our recent work using 1-naphthol as an ESPT fluorescent molecular probe has shown that the incorporation of monomeric bile salt molecules into lipid bilayer membranes composed from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, a lung surfactant) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), in solid gel and liquid crystalline phases, induce appreciable wetting of the bilayer up to the hydrocarbon core region, even at very low (fisetin, an ESIPT molecule having antioxidant properties, in lipid bilayer membrane has been sensitively monitored from its intrinsic fluorescence behaviour.

  3. D IR Line Shapes for Determining the Structure of a Peptide in a Bilayer (United States)

    Woys, Ann Marie; Lin, Y. S.; Skinner, J. S.; Zanni, M. T.; Reddy, A. S.; de Pablo, J. J.


    Structure of the antimicrobial peptide, ovispirin, on a lipid bilayer was determined using 2D IR spectroscopy and spectra calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. Ovispirin is an 18 residue amphipathic peptide that binds parallel to the membrane in a mostly alpha helical conformation. 15 of the 18 residues were ^1^3C^1^8O isotopically labeled on the backbone to isolate the amide I vibration at each position. 2D IR spectra were collected for each labeled peptide in 3:1 POPC/POPG vesicles, and peak width along the diagonal was measured. The diagonal line width is sensitive to the vibrator's electrostatic environment, which varies through the bilayer. We observe an oscillatory line width spanning 10 to 24 cm-1 and with a period of nearly 3.6 residues. To further investigate the position of ovispirin in a bilayer, molecular dynamics simulations determined the peptide depth to be just below the lipid headgroups. The trajectory of ovispirin at this depth was used to calculate 2D IR spectra, from which the diagonal line width is measured. Both experimental and simulated line widths are similar in periodicity and suggest a kink in the peptide backbone and the tilt in the bilayer. A. Woys, Y. S. Lin, A. S. Reddy, W. Xiong, J. J. de Pablo, J. S. Skinner, and M. T. Zanni, JACS 132, 2832-2838 (2010).

  4. Gas adsorption, energetics and electronic properties of boron- and nitrogen-doped bilayer graphenes (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yoshitaka; Saito, Susumu


    We study stabilities and electronic properties of several environmental polluting or toxic gas molecules (CO, CO2, NO, and NO2) adsorbed on B and N atoms in bilayer graphene using first-principles electronic-structure calculations. We find that NO and NO2 molecules can be bound chemically on B-doped bilayer graphene with large adsorption energies, while CO and CO2 molecules are not adsorbed chemically on B-doped one. In the case of the N-doped graphene, all four gases do not bind with chemical bonds but adsorb rather physically with small adsorption energies at long distances between gases and graphene. The adsorptions of NO and NO2 molecules on B-doped bilayer graphene induce the acceptor states above the Fermi energy, and we also find that the charge transfer takes place when the NO and the NO2 molecules are adsorbed. Thereby, the B-doped bilayer graphene is expected to be useful for NO and NO2 gas sensor materials.

  5. A Bilayer Resource Model for Cloud Manufacturing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linan Zhu


    Full Text Available Cloud Manufacturing and Cloud Service is currently one of the main directions of development in the manufacturing industry. Under the Cloud Manufacturing environment, the characteristics of publishing, updating, searching, and accessing manufacturing resources are massive, complex, heterogeneous, and so forth. A bilayer manufacturing resource model with separation of Cloud End and Cloud Manufacturing Platform is proposed in this paper. In Cloud End, manufacturing resources are divided into single resource and complex resource, and a basic data model of manufacturing resources oriented to enterprise interior is established to store the physical characteristics. In Cloud Manufacturing Platform, a resource service attribute model oriented to actual users is established to store the service characteristics. This model is described in detail and realized with stateful Web Service Description Language (WSDL document. An example is provided for illustrating the implementation of the concept.

  6. Bilayer fractal structure with multiband left-handed characteristics. (United States)

    Du, Qiujiao; Liu, Jinsong; Yang, Hongwu; Yi, Xunong


    We present a bilayer fractal structure for the realization of multiband left-handed metamaterial at terahertz frequencies. The structure is composed of metallic H-fractal pairs separated by a dielectric layer. The electromagnetic properties of periodic H-fractal pairs have been investigated by numerical simulation. The period in the propagation direction is extremely small as compared to the wavelength at the operational frequency. Under the electromagnetic wave normal incidence, the material exhibits negative refraction simultaneously around the frequencies of 0.10 and 0.15 THz for parallel polarization, and around the frequencies of 0.19 and 0.38 THz for perpendicular polarization. The design provides a left-handed metamaterial suitable for multiband and compact devices at terahertz frequencies.

  7. Multiscale Modeling of Supported Lipid Bilayers (United States)

    Hoopes, Matthew I.; Xing, Chenyue; Faller, Roland

    Cell membranes consist of a multitude of lipid molecules that serve as a framework for the even greater variety of membrane associated proteins [1-4]. As this highly complex (nonequilibrium) system cannot easily be understood and studied in a controlled way, a wide variety of model systems have been devised to understand the dynamics, structure, and thermodynamics in biological membranes. One such model system is a supported lipid bilayer (SLB), a two-dimensional membrane suspended on a surface. SLBs have been realized to be manageable experimentally while reproducing many of the key features of real biological membranes [5,6]. One of the main advantages of supported bilayers is the physical stability due to the solid support that enables a wide range of surface characterization techniques not available to free or unsupported membranes. As SLBs maintain some of the crucial structural and dynamic properties of biological membranes, they provide an important bridge to natural systems. In order to mimic cell membranes reliably, certain structural and dynamic features have to be reliably reproduced in the artificially constructed lipid bilayers. SLBs should display lateral mobility as in living cells, because many membrane activities involve transport, recruitment, or assembly of specific components. It is also critical for membranes to exhibit the correct thermodynamic phase, namely, a fluid lipid bilayer, to respond to environmental stress such as temperature and pressure changes [7]. There are several ways to fabricate supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) on planar substrates. One can use vesicle fusion on solid substrates [5,8-10] as well as Langmuir-Blodgett deposition [11,12]. Proteoliposome adsorption and subsequent membrane formation on a mica surface was first demonstrated by Brian and McConnell [13]. Because of its simplicity and reproducibility, this is one of the most common approaches to prepare supported membranes. A diverse range of different solid substrates

  8. A tethered bilayer sensor containing alamethicin channels and its detection of amiloride based inhibitors. (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Burns, Christopher J; Osman, Peter D J; Cornell, Bruce A


    Alamethicin, a small transmembrane peptide, inserts into a tethered bilayer membrane (tBLM) to form ion channels, which we have investigated using electrical impedance spectroscopy. The number of channels formed is dependent on the incubation time, concentration of the alamethicin and the application of DC voltage. The properties of the ion channels when formed in tethered bilayers are similar to those for such channels assembled into black lipid membranes (BLMs). Furthermore, amiloride and certain analogs can inhibit the channel pores, formed in the tBLMs. The potency and concentration of the inhibitors can be determined by measuring the change of impedance. Our work illustrates the possibility of using a synthetic tBLM for the study of small peptide voltage dependent ion channels. A potential application of such a device is as a screening tool in drug discovery processes.

  9. How small accounting firms can compete in an environment in which the big four are getting bigger


    Moncure, Mary


    This paper sets out to determine how small accounting firms can compete in the United States in the early 21st century. The first chapter identifies the central goal of the paper: namely, to use existing literature and market data to define a business strategy for Ross & Moncure, Inc., a small accounting firm in the metropolitan Washington area. The second chapter is a literature review, and in it the author finds that large accounting firms are advantaged in terms of reputation, ...

  10. Refined OPLS All-Atom Force Field for Saturated Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers at Full Hydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciejewski, A.; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M.; Cramariuc, O.


    . In the present study, we determined the parameters for torsion angles in the phosphatidylcholine and glycerol moieties and in the acyl chains, as well the partial atomic charges. In these calculations, we used three methods: (1) Hartree-Fock (HF), (2) second order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and (3...... one was found to be able to satisfactorily reproduce experimental data for the lipid bilayer. The successful DPPC model was obtained from MP2 calculations in an implicit polar environment (PCM)....

  11. Fluctuations in lipid bilayers: Are they understood?

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, Friederike


    We review recent computer simulation studies of undulating lipid bilayers. Theoretical interpretations of such fluctuating membranes are most commonly based on generalized Helfrich-type elastic models, with additional contributions of local "protrusions" and/or density fluctuations. Such models provide an excellent basis for describing the fluctuations of tensionless bilayers in the fluid phase at a quantitative level. However, this description is found to fail for membranes in the gel phase and for membranes subject to high tensions. The fluctuations of tilted gel membranes show a signature of the modulated ripple structure, which is a nearby phase observed in the pretransition regime between the fluid and tilted gel state. This complicates a quantitative analysis on mesoscopic length scales. In the case of fluid membranes under tension, the large-wavelength fluctuation modes are found to be significantly softer than predicted by theory. In the latter context, we also address the general problem of the relat...

  12. Stokesian jellyfish: Viscous locomotion of bilayer vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Arthur A; Lauga, Eric


    Motivated by recent advances in vesicle engineering, we consider theoretically the locomotion of shape-changing bilayer vesicles at low Reynolds number. By modulating their volume and membrane composition, the vesicles can be made to change shape quasi-statically in thermal equilibrium. When the control parameters are tuned appropriately to yield periodic shape changes which are not time-reversible, the result is a net swimming motion over one cycle of shape deformation. For two classical vesicle models (spontaneous curvature and bilayer coupling), we determine numerically the sequence of vesicle shapes through an enthalpy minimization, as well as the fluid-body interactions by solving a boundary integral formulation of the Stokes equations. For both models, net locomotion can be obtained either by continuously modulating fore-aft asymmetric vesicle shapes, or by crossing a continuous shape-transition region and alternating between fore-aft asymmetric and fore-aft symmetric shapes. The obtained hydrodynamic e...

  13. Electric Octupole Order in Bilayer Rashba System (United States)

    Hitomi, Takanori; Yanase, Youichi


    The odd-parity multipole is an emergent degree of freedom, leading to spontaneous inversion symmetry breaking. The odd-parity multipole order may occur by forming staggered even-parity multipoles in a unit cell. We focus on a locally noncentrosymmetric bilayer Rashba system, and study an odd-parity electric octupole order caused by the antiferro stacking of local electric quadrupoles. Analyzing the forward scattering model, we show that the electric octupole order is stabilized by a layer-dependent Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The roles of the spin-orbit coupling are clarified on the basis of the analytic formula of multipole susceptibility. The spin texture allowed in the D2d point group symmetry and its magnetic response are revealed. Furthermore, we show that the parity-breaking quantum critical point appears in the magnetic field. The possible realization of the electric octupole order in bilayer high-Tc cuprate superconductors is discussed.

  14. Ion beam mixing isotopic metal bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, C.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Kenny, M.J. [CSIRO, Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics


    In order to obtain an insight into the mechanisms of ion-solid interactions, bilayer targets can be prepared from two different isotopes. A mixing study SIMS is to be carried out using specially grown monocrystalline bilayers of {sup 58}Ni / {sup 60}Ni. An important aspect of the work is the preparation of high quality single-crystal thin films. The Ni layers will be grown on the (110) surface of pure Ni and verified for crystallinity using Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering channelling analysis. The Pd bilayers will be grown on a Pd (100) surface. RHEED will be used to confirm the two-dimensional crystallinity of the surface before and after deposition of each layer, and channelling used to confirm bulk film crystallinity. Single crystal substrates are currently being prepared. Analysis of the Ni (110) surface using RHEED at 9 kV shows a streak spacing which corresponds to a lattice spacing of 2.47 {+-} 0.09 Angstroms. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Self-folding graphene-polymer bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Tao [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Yoon, ChangKyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Jin, Qianru [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Li, Mingen [Department of Physics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Liu, Zewen [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gracias, David H., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)


    In order to incorporate the extraordinary intrinsic thermal, electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene with three dimensional (3D) flexible substrates, we introduce a solvent-driven self-folding approach using graphene-polymer bilayers. A polymer (SU-8) film was spin coated atop chemically vapor deposited graphene films on wafer substrates and graphene-polymer bilayers were patterned with or without metal electrodes using photolithography, thin film deposition, and etching. After patterning, the bilayers were released from the substrates and they self-folded to form fully integrated, curved, and folded structures. In contrast to planar graphene sensors on rigid substrates, we assembled curved and folded sensors that are flexible and they feature smaller form factors due to their 3D geometry and large surface areas due to their multiple rolled architectures. We believe that this approach could be used to assemble a range of high performance 3D electronic and optical devices of relevance to sensing, diagnostics, wearables, and energy harvesting.

  16. Self-folding graphene-polymer bilayers (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Yoon, ChangKyu; Jin, Qianru; Li, Mingen; Liu, Zewen; Gracias, David H.


    In order to incorporate the extraordinary intrinsic thermal, electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene with three dimensional (3D) flexible substrates, we introduce a solvent-driven self-folding approach using graphene-polymer bilayers. A polymer (SU-8) film was spin coated atop chemically vapor deposited graphene films on wafer substrates and graphene-polymer bilayers were patterned with or without metal electrodes using photolithography, thin film deposition, and etching. After patterning, the bilayers were released from the substrates and they self-folded to form fully integrated, curved, and folded structures. In contrast to planar graphene sensors on rigid substrates, we assembled curved and folded sensors that are flexible and they feature smaller form factors due to their 3D geometry and large surface areas due to their multiple rolled architectures. We believe that this approach could be used to assemble a range of high performance 3D electronic and optical devices of relevance to sensing, diagnostics, wearables, and energy harvesting.

  17. Method of fabricating lipid bilayer membranes on solid supports (United States)

    Cho, Nam-Joon (Inventor); Frank, Curtis W. (Inventor); Glenn, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cheong, Kwang Ho (Inventor)


    The present invention provides a method of producing a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support. With this method, a solution of lipid vesicles is first deposited on the solid support. Next, the lipid vesicles are destabilized by adding an amphipathic peptide solution to the lipid vesicle solution. This destabilization leads to production of a planar lipid bilayer on the solid support. The present invention also provides a supported planar lipid bilayer, where the planar lipid bilayer is made of naturally occurring lipids and the solid support is made of unmodified gold or titanium oxide. Preferably, the supported planar lipid bilayer is continuous. The planar lipid bilayer may be made of any naturally occurring lipid or mixture of lipids, including, but not limited to phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinsitol, cardiolipin, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin.

  18. Molecular dynamics modelling of EGCG clusters on ceramide bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Jingjie; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, 138632 (Singapore)


    A novel method of atomistic modelling and characterization of both pure ceramide and mixed lipid bilayers is being developed, using only the General Amber ForceField. Lipid bilayers modelled as pure ceramides adopt hexagonal packing after equilibration, and the area per lipid and bilayer thickness are consistent with previously reported theoretical results. Mixed lipid bilayers are modelled as a combination of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. This model is shown to be stable after equilibration. Green tea extract, also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is introduced as a spherical cluster on the surface of the mixed lipid bilayer. It is demonstrated that the cluster is able to bind to the bilayers as a cluster without diffusing into the surrounding water.

  19. General model of phospholipid bilayers in fluid phase within the single chain mean field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A. [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Pogodin, Sergey [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia, ICIQ, Av. Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)


    Coarse-grained model for saturated phospholipids: 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and unsaturated phospholipids: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is introduced within the single chain mean field theory. A single set of parameters adjusted for DMPC bilayers gives an adequate description of equilibrium and mechanical properties of a range of saturated lipid molecules that differ only in length of their hydrophobic tails and unsaturated (POPC, DOPC) phospholipids which have double bonds in the tails. A double bond is modeled with a fixed angle of 120°, while the rest of the parameters are kept the same as saturated lipids. The thickness of the bilayer and its hydrophobic core, the compressibility, and the equilibrium area per lipid correspond to experimentally measured values for each lipid, changing linearly with the length of the tail. The model for unsaturated phospholipids also fetches main thermodynamical properties of the bilayers. This model is used for an accurate estimation of the free energies of the compressed or stretched bilayers in stacks or multilayers and gives reasonable estimates for free energies. The proposed model may further be used for studies of mixtures of lipids, small molecule inclusions, interactions of bilayers with embedded proteins.

  20. Density imbalances and free energy of lipid transfer in supported lipid bilayers (United States)

    Xing, Chenyue; Faller, Roland


    Supported lipid bilayers are an abundant research platform for understanding the behavior of real cell membranes as they allow for additional mechanical stability and at the same time have a fundamental structure approximating cell membranes. However, in computer simulations these systems have been studied only rarely up to now. An important property, which cannot be easily determined by molecular dynamics or experiments, is the unsymmetrical density profiles of bilayer leaflets (density imbalance) inflicted on the membrane by the support. This imbalance in the leaflets composition has consequences for membrane structure and phase behavior, and therefore we need to understand it in detail. The free energy can be used to determine the equilibrium structure of a given system. We employ an umbrella sampling approach to obtain the free energy of a lipid crossing the membrane (i.e., lipid flip-flop) as a function of bilayer composition and hence the equilibrium composition of the supported bilayers. In this paper, we use a variant of the coarse-grained Martini model. The results of the free energy calculation lead to a 5% higher density in the proximal leaflet. Recent data obtained by large scale modeling using a water free model suggested that the proximal leaflet had 3.2% more lipids than the distal leaflet [Hoopes et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 175102 (2008)]. Our findings are in line with these results. We compare results of the free energy of transport obtained by pulling the lipid across the membrane in different ways. There are small quantitative differences, but the overall picture is consistent. We additionally characterize the intermediate states, which determine the barrier height and therefore the rate of translocation. Calculations on unsupported bilayers are used to validate the approach and to determine the barrier to flip-flop in a free membrane.

  1. Adsorption of α-synuclein to supported lipid bilayers: positioning and role of electrostatics. (United States)

    Hellstrand, Erik; Grey, Marie; Ainalem, Marie-Louise; Ankner, John; Forsyth, V Trevor; Fragneto, Giovanna; Haertlein, Michael; Dauvergne, Marie-Therese; Nilsson, Hanna; Brundin, Patrik; Linse, Sara; Nylander, Tommy; Sparr, Emma


    An amyloid form of the protein α-synuclein is the major component of the intraneuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which are the neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). α-Synuclein is known to associate with anionic lipid membranes, and interactions between aggregating α-synuclein and cellular membranes are thought to be important for PD pathology. We have studied the molecular determinants for adsorption of monomeric α-synuclein to planar model lipid membranes composed of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine alone or in a mixture with anionic phosphatidylserine (relevant for plasma membranes) or anionic cardiolipin (relevant for mitochondrial membranes). We studied the adsorption of the protein to supported bilayers, the position of the protein within and outside the bilayer, and structural changes in the model membranes using two complementary techniques-quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and neutron reflectometry. We found that the interaction and adsorbed conformation depend on membrane charge, protein charge, and electrostatic screening. The results imply that α-synuclein adsorbs in the headgroup region of anionic lipid bilayers with extensions into the bulk but does not penetrate deeply into or across the hydrophobic acyl chain region. The adsorption to anionic bilayers leads to a small perturbation of the acyl chain packing that is independent of anionic headgroup identity. We also explored the effect of changing the area per headgroup in the lipid bilayer by comparing model systems with different degrees of acyl chain saturation. An increase in area per lipid headgroup leads to an increase in the level of α-synuclein adsorption with a reduced water content in the acyl chain layer. In conclusion, the association of α-synuclein to membranes and its adsorbed conformation are of electrostatic origin, combined with van der Waals interactions, but with a very weak correlation to the molecular structure of the anionic


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Thin film CoPt/Co bilayers have been prepared as a model system to investigate the relationship between microstructure and exchange coupling in two-phase hard/soft composite magnets. CoPt films, with a thickness of 25 nm, were sputter-deposited from a nearly equiatomic alloy target onto oxidized Si wafers. The films were subsequently annealed at 700 C and fully transformed from the FCC phase to the magnetically hard, ordered L1{sub 0} phase. The coercivity of the films increased rapidly with annealing time until it reached a plateau at approximately 9.5 kOe. Fully-ordered CoPt films were then used as substrates for deposition of Co layers, with thicknesses in the range of 2.8--225 nm, in order to produce the hard/soft composite bilayers. As predicted by theory, the magnetic coherency between the soft Co phase and the hard, ordered CoPt phase decreased as the thickness of the soft phase increased. This decrease in coupling was clearly seen in the magnetic hysteresis loops of the bilayers. At small thicknesses of Co (a few nanometers), the shape of the loop was one of a uniform material showing no indication of the presence of two phases with extremely different coercivities. At larger Co thicknesses, constricted loops, i.e., ones showing the presence of a mixture of two ferromagnetic phases of different hardnesses, were obtained. The magnetic exchange present in the bilayer samples was qualitatively analyzed using magnetic recoil curves and the dependence of exchange coupling on the soft phase dimension in the bilayer hard/soft composite magnet films is discussed.

  3. Equilibrium insertion of nanoscale objects into phospholipid bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Pogodin, Sergey


    Certain membrane proteins, peptides, nanoparticles and nanotubes have rigid structure and fixed shape. They are often viewed as spheres and cylinders with certain surface properties. Single Chain Mean Field theory is used to model the equilibrium insertion of nanoscale spheres and rods into the phospholipid bilayer. The equilibrium structures and the resulting free energies of the nano-objects in the bilayer allow to distinguish different orientations in the bilayer and estimate the energy barrier of insertion.

  4. Stress responsiveness and anxiety-like behavior: The early social environment differentially shapes stability over time in a small rodent. (United States)

    Sangenstedt, Susanne; Jaljuli, Iman; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia


    The early social environment can profoundly affect behavioral and physiological phenotypes. We investigated how male wild cavy offspring, whose mothers had either lived in a stable (SE) or an unstable social environment (UE) during pregnancy and lactation, differed in their anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. At two different time points in life, we tested the offspring's anxiety-like behavior in a dark-light test and their endocrine reaction to challenge in a cortisol reactivity test. Furthermore, we analyzed whether individual traits remained stable over time. There was no effect of the early social environment on anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. However, at an individual level, anxiety-like behavior was stable over time in UE- but not in SE-sons. Stress responsiveness, in turn, was rather inconsistent in UE-sons and temporally stable in SE-sons. Conclusively, we showed for the first time that the early social environment differentially shapes the stability of behavioral and endocrine traits. At first glance, these results may be surprising, but they can be explained by the different functions anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness have.

  5. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, S.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))


    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. A Model of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education: Teaching in the Clinical Environment (United States)

    Khumsikiew, Jeerisuda; Donsamak, Sisira; Saeteaw, Manit


    Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy…

  7. Low-cost small scale processing technologies for production applications in various environments-Mass produced factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramsiepe, C.; Sievers, S.; Seifert, T.; Stefanidis, G.D.; Vlachos, D.G.; Schnitzer, H.; Muster, B.; Brunner, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.; Schembecker, G.


    The requirements for chemical and food production technologies will change in the future as a result of shorter time to market and increasing market volatility. Especially the rising use of renewable resources will require the implementation of flexible and fast to install small-scale production tec

  8. Pair interaction of bilayer-coated nanoscopic particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi-Yi


    The pair interaction between bilayer membrane-coated nanosized particles has been explored by using the self-consistent field (SCF) theory. The bilayer membranes are composed of amphiphilic polymers. For different system parameters, the pair-interaction free energies are obtained. Particular emphasis is placcd on the analysis of a sequence of structural transformations of bilayers on spherical particles, which occur during their approaching processes. For different head fractions of amphiphilcs, the asymmetrical morphologies between bilayers on two particles and the inverted micellar intermediates have been found in the membrane fusion pathway. These results can benefit the fabrication of vesicles as encapsulation vectors for drug and gene delivery.

  9. Faraday rotation in bilayer graphene-based integrated microcavity. (United States)

    Da, Hai-Xia; Yan, Xiao-Hong


    Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene has rich ground states with various broken symmetries, allowing the existence of magneto-optical (MO) effects even in the absence of an external magnetic field. Here we report controllable Faraday rotation (FR) of bilayer graphene induced by electrostatic gate voltage, whose value is 10 times smaller than the case of single layer graphene with a magnetic field. A proposed bilayer graphene-based microcavity configuration enables the enhanced FR angle due to the large localized electromagnetic field. Our results offer unique opportunities to apply bilayer graphene for MO devices.

  10. Small for gestational age and exposure to particulate air pollution in the early-life environment of twins. (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Derom, Catherine; Gielen, Marij; Winckelmans, Ellen; Fierens, Frans; Vlietinck, Robert; Zeegers, Maurice P; Nawrot, Tim S


    Several studies in singletons have shown that maternal exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with restricted fetal growth. About half of twins have low birth weight compared with six percent in singletons. So far, no studies have investigated maternal air pollution exposure in association with birth weight and small for gestational age in twins. We examined 4760 twins of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Survey (2002-2013), to study the association between in utero exposure to air pollution with birth weight and small for gestational age. Maternal particulate air pollution (PM10) and nitric dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated using a spatial temporal interpolation method over various time windows during pregnancy. In the total group of twins, we observed that higher PM10 and NO2 exposure during the third trimester was significantly associated with a lower birth weight and higher risk of small for gestational age. However, the association was driven by moderate to late preterm twins (32-36 weeks of gestation). In these twins born between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation, birth weight decreased by 40.2g (95% CI: -69.0 to -11.3; p=0.006) and by 27.3g (95% CI: -52.9 to -1.7; p=0.04) in association for each 10µg/m³ increment in PM10 and NO2 concentration during the third trimester. The corresponding odds ratio for small for gestational age were 1.68 (95% CI: 1.27-2.33; p=0.0003) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.18-1.95; p=0.001) for PM10 or NO2, respectively. No associations between air pollution and birth weight or small for gestational age were observed among term born twins. Finally, in all twins, we found that for each 10µg/m³ increase in PM10 during the last month of pregnancy the within-pair birth weight difference increased by 19.6g (95% CI: 3.7-35.4; p=0.02). Assuming causality, an achievement of a 10µg/m³ decrease of particulate air pollution may account for a reduction by 40% in small for gestational age, in twins born moderate to late preterm.

  11. Among friends: the role of academic-preparedness diversity in individual performance within a small-group STEM learning environment (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Van Winkle, Zachary; Pazos, Pilar


    In this study, we investigate the relationship between academic-preparedness diversity within small learning groups and individual academic performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) university courses. We further examine whether academic-preparedness diversity impacts academically more- and less-prepared students differently. We use data from 5367 university students nested within 1141 science, engineering, and mathematics learning groups and use a regression analysis to estimate the effect of group diversity, measured in two ways, on course performance. Our results indicate that academic-preparedness diversity is generally associated with positive learning outcomes, that academically less-prepared students derive greater benefit, and that less-prepared students fare best when they are not alone in a group of highly prepared students. Implications for teaching and small-group facilitation are addressed.

  12. Small-footprint, waveform-resolving lidar estimation of submerged and sub-canopy topography in coastal environments (United States)

    Nayegandhi, A.; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.


    The experimental advanced airborne research lidar (EAARL) is an airborne lidar instrument designed to map near-shore submerged topography and adjacent land elevations simultaneously. This study evaluated data acquired by the EAARL system in February 2003 and March 2004 along the margins of Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, to map bare-earth elevations under a variety of vegetation types and submerged topography in shallow, turbid water conditions. A spatial filtering algorithm, known as the iterative random consensus filter (IRCF), was used to extract ground elevations from a point cloud of processed last-surface EAARL returns. Filtered data were compared with acoustic and field measurements acquired in shallow submerged (0-2.5 m water depth) and sub-canopy environments. Root mean square elevation errors (RMSEs) ranged from 10-14 cm for submerged topography to 16-20 cm for sub-canopy topography under a variety of vegetation communities. The effect of lidar sampling angles and global positioning system (GPS) satellite configuration on accuracy was investigated. Results show high RMSEs for data acquired during periods of poor satellite configuration and at large sampling angles along the edges of the lidar scan. The results presented in this study confirm the cross-environment capability of a green-wavelength, waveform-resolving lidar system, making it an ideal tool for mapping coastal environments.

  13. Microfluidic anodization of aluminum films for the fabrication of nanoporous lipid bilayer support structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydeep Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Solid state nanoporous membranes show great potential as support structures for biointerfaces. In this paper, we present a technique for fabricating nanoporous alumina membranes under constant-flow conditions in a microfluidic environment. This approach allows the direct integration of the fabrication process into a microfluidic setup for performing biological experiments without the need to transfer the brittle nanoporous material. We demonstrate this technique by using the same microfluidic system for membrane fabrication and subsequent liposome fusion onto the nanoporous support structure. The resulting bilayer formation is monitored by impedance spectroscopy across the nanoporous alumina membrane in real-time. Our approach offers a simple and efficient methodology to investigate the activity of transmembrane proteins or ion diffusion across membrane bilayers.

  14. Microfluidic anodization of aluminum films for the fabrication of nanoporous lipid bilayer support structures. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jaydeep; Kisner, Alexandre; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wolfrum, Bernhard


    Solid state nanoporous membranes show great potential as support structures for biointerfaces. In this paper, we present a technique for fabricating nanoporous alumina membranes under constant-flow conditions in a microfluidic environment. This approach allows the direct integration of the fabrication process into a microfluidic setup for performing biological experiments without the need to transfer the brittle nanoporous material. We demonstrate this technique by using the same microfluidic system for membrane fabrication and subsequent liposome fusion onto the nanoporous support structure. The resulting bilayer formation is monitored by impedance spectroscopy across the nanoporous alumina membrane in real-time. Our approach offers a simple and efficient methodology to investigate the activity of transmembrane proteins or ion diffusion across membrane bilayers.

  15. Decoupled electron and phonon transports in hexagonal boron nitride-silicene bilayer heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yongqing; Pei, Qing-Xiang, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zhang, Gang, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)


    Calculations based on the density functional theory and empirical molecular dynamics are performed to investigate interlayer interaction, electronic structure and thermal transport of a bilayer heterostructure consisting of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In this heterostructure, the two layers are found to interact weakly via a non-covalent binding. As a result, the Dirac cone of silicene is preserved with the Dirac cone point being located exactly at the Fermi level, and only a small amount of electrons are transferred from h-BN to silicene, suggesting that silicene dominates the electronic transport. Molecular dynamics calculation results demonstrate that the heat current along h-BN is six times of that along silicene, suggesting that h-BN dominates the thermal transport. This decoupled role of h-BN and silicene in thermal and electronic transport suggests that the BN-silicene bilayer heterostructure is promising for thermoelectric applications.

  16. Theory of unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance in heavy-metal/ferromagnetic-metal bilayers (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni


    Recent experiments have revealed nonlinear features of the magnetoresistance in metallic bilayers consisting of a heavy metal (HM) and a ferromagnetic metal (FM). A small change in the longitudinal resistance of the bilayer has been observed when reversing the direction of either the applied in-plane current or the magnetization. We attribute such nonlinear transport behavior to the spin-polarization dependence of the electron mobility in the FM layer acting in concert with the spin accumulation induced in that layer by the spin Hall current originating in the bulk of the HM layer. An explicit expression for the nonlinear magnetoresistance is derived based on a simple drift-diffusion model, which shows that the nonlinear magnetoresistance appears at the first order of the spin Hall angle, and changes sign when the current is reversed, in agreement with the experimental observations. We also discuss possible ways to control sign of the nonlinear magnetoresistance and to enhance the magnitude of the effect.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of the interactions of medicinal plant extracts and drugs with lipid bilayer membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopec, Wojciech; Telenius, Jelena; Khandelia, Himanshu


    Several small drugs and medicinal plant extracts, such as the Indian spice extract curcumin, have a wide range of useful pharmacological properties that cannot be ascribed to binding to a single protein target alone. The lipid bilayer membrane is thought to mediate the effects of many...... studies of the interactions of drugs and plant extracts are therefore of interest. Molecular dynamics simulations, which can access time and length scales that are not simultaneously accessible by other experimental methods, are often used to obtain quantitative molecular and thermodynamic descriptions...... such molecules directly via perturbation of the plasma membrane structure and dynamics, or indirectly by modulating transmembrane protein conformational equilibria. Furthermore, for bioavailability, drugs must interact with and eventually permeate the lipid bilayer barrier on the surface of cells. Biophysical...

  18. Parallel between the “small reform” law procedure and the arbitration procedure. Practical influences on business environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar HÎNCU


    Full Text Available The financial blockings determined by the economical crisis in the last years bounded the business environment, through pressures on the legislature and regulations of own associative institutions (commerce chambers, to claim practical measures leading to more rapid and less expensive completion of commercial litigations. Within the period 2010-2011, these were carried out by adopting the Law 202/2010 and by the New Rules of Arbitral Procedure of International Commercial Arbitration Court of CCIR. The changes of the arbitration norms aim at the simplification of the procedure, but the essential ones – the possibility to attack with action in annulment the conclusions for arbitration adjourn or the agreement of some temporary measures leading to hastening the causes resolutions, are inapplicable, because they are not linked to rigid stipulations of the new CPC. The changes of Law 202/2010 aim at reducing the litigations resolutions (summoning procedure, term changing, causes postponing. Also, the possibility of cassation with sending to rejudgement is limited. The changes in the interest of the business environment consist of introduction the mediation, as previous procedure. The normative act specifies adjourning the prescription term during mediation, the right of the judge to fine the parties not present at mediation, after accepting it.

  19. Small-scale effects on the free vibrational behavior of embedded viscoelastic double-nanoplate-systems under thermal environment (United States)

    Hosseini, M.; Jamalpoor, A.; Bahreman, M.


    The present paper deals with the theoretical investigation of small-scale effect on the thermo-mechanical vibration of double viscoelastic nanoplate-system made of functionally graded materials (FGMs). The small scale effect is taken into consideration via Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. It is considered that a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic layer connects two parallel viscoelastic nano-plates that surrounded by a Pasternak elastic foundation. The material properties in the thickness direction vary according to power low distribution. On the basis of nonlocal elasticity theory and employing Hamilton's principle, the exact solution for complex natural frequencies of a double nanoplate-system is determined for two types of vibrations, out-of-phase and in-phase. The detailed manner of deriving equations based on Navier method are presented and numerical studies are carried out to illustrate the influence of structural damping of the nanoplates, damping coefficient of viscoelastic medium, nonlocal parameter, higher wave numbers, aspect ratio, temperature change and other factors on the behavior of double nanoplate-system. Results from the analytical solution reveal that the temperature raising decreases the natural frequencies.

  20. An Improved Shock Factor to Evaluate the Shock Environment of Small-Sized Structures Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Shock factor is conventionally used to assess the effect of an underwater explosion on a target. The dimensions of some structures are much smaller than the wavelength of incident wave induced by the underwater explosion. The conventional shock factor may be excessively severe for small-sized structures because it neglects the effect of scattering; so it is necessary to study the shock factor for small objects. The coupled mode method is applied to study the scattering field surrounding the cylindrical shells. A nonlinear relation differential is derived from the impact received by the cylindrical shells and the ratio between the diameters of the shells and the wavelength of the incident wave. An improved shock factor is developed based on the fitted curve, considering the scattering effect caused by the diameters of the submerged cylindrical shells. A set of numerical simulations are carried out to validate the accuracy of the proposed approach. The results show that the cylindrical shells and spherical shells under different conditions, but with the same shock factor, have almost the same shock responses.

  1. Vortex dynamics in ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplak, M.Z.; Adamus, Z. [Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys, PL-02668 Warsaw, (Poland); Konczykowski, M. [CEA, DSM, DRECAM, Lab Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS-UMR 7642, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Zhu, L.Y.; Chien, C.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys and Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    The dependence of vortex dynamics on the geometry of magnetic domain pattern is studied in the superconducting/ferromagnetic bilayers, in which niobium is a superconductor, and Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy serves as a ferromagnetic layer. Magnetic domain patterns with different density of domains per surface area and different domain size, w, are obtained for Co/Pt with different thickness of Pt. The dense patterns of domains with the size comparable to the magnetic penetration depth (w {>=} {lambda}) produce large vortex pinning and smooth vortex penetration, while less dense patterns with larger domains (w {>=}{>=} {lambda}) enhance pinning less effectively and result in flux jumps during flux motion. (authors)

  2. Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Joseph S., E-mail:; Querlioz, Damien [Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); Fadel, Eric R. [Department of Materials Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wessels, Bruce W. [Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Sahakian, Alan V. [Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)


    A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.

  3. Giant magnetoresistance in bilayer graphene nanoflakes (United States)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah; Farekiyan, Marzieh


    Coherent spin transport through bilayer graphene (BLG) nanoflakes sandwiched between two electrodes made of single-layer zigzag graphene nanoribbon was investigated by means of Landauer-Buttiker formalism. Application of a magnetic field only on BLG structure as a channel produces a perfect spin polarization in a large energy region. Moreover, the conductance could be strongly modulated by magnetization of the zigzag edge of AB-stacked BLG, and the junction, entirely made of carbon, produces a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) up to 100%. Intestinally, GMR and spin polarization could be tuned by varying BLG width and length. Generally, MR in a AB-stacked BLG strongly increases (decreases) with length (width).

  4. Twisted CFT and bilayer Quantum Hall systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cristofano, G; Naddeo, A


    We identify the impurity interactions of the recently proposed CFT description of a bilayer Quantum Hall system at filling nu =m/(pm+2) in Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679. Such a CFT is obtained by m-reduction on the one layer system, with a resulting pairing symmetry and presence of quasi-holes. For the m=2 case boundary terms are shown to describe an impurity interaction which allows for a localized tunnel of the Kondo problem type. The presence of an anomalous fixed point is evidenced at finite coupling which is unstable with respect to unbalance and flows to a vacuum state with no quasi-holes.

  5. Rich Polymorphic Behavior of Wigner Bilayers (United States)

    Antlanger, Moritz; Kahl, Gerhard; Mazars, Martial; Šamaj, Ladislav; Trizac, Emmanuel


    Self-assembly into target structures is an efficient material design strategy. Combining analytical calculations and computational techniques of evolutionary and Monte Carlo types, we report about a remarkable structural variability of Wigner bilayer ground states, when charges are confined between parallel charged plates. Changing the interlayer separation, or the plate charge asymmetry, a cascade of ordered patterns emerges. At variance with the symmetric case phenomenology, the competition between commensurability features and charge neutralization leads to long range attraction, appearance of macroscopic charges, exotic phases, and nonconventional phase transitions with distinct critical indices, offering the possibility of a subtle, but precise and convenient control over patterns.

  6. Theoretical studies of lipid bilayer electroporation using molecular dynamics simulations (United States)

    Levine, Zachary Alan

    Computer simulations of physical, chemical, and biological systems have improved tremendously over the past five decades. From simple studies of liquid argon in the 1960s to fully atomistic simulations of entire viruses in the past few years, recent advances in high-performance computing have continuously enabled simulations to bridge the gap between scientific theory and experiment. Molecular dynamics simulations in particular have allowed for the direct observation of spatial and temporal events which are at present inaccessible to experiments. For this dissertation I employ all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the transient, electric field-induced poration (or electroporation) of phospholipid bilayers at MV/m electric fields. Phospholipid bilayers are the dominant constituents of cell membranes and act as both a barrier and gatekeeper to the cell interior. This makes their structural integrity and susceptibility to external perturbations an important topic for study, especially as the density of electromagnetic radiation in our environment is increasing steadily. The primary goal of this dissertation is to understand the specific physical and biological mechanisms which facilitate electroporation, and to connect our simulated observations to experiments with live cells and to continuum models which seek to describe the underlying biological processes of electroporation. In Chapter 1 I begin with a brief introduction to phospholipids and phospholipid bilayers, followed by an extensive overview of electroporation and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The following chapters will then focus on peer-reviewed and published work we performed, or on existing projects which are currently being prepared for submission. Chapter 2 looks at how external electric fields affect both oxidized and unoxidized lipid bilayers as a function of oxidation concentration and oxidized lipid type. Oxidative damage to cell membranes represents a physiologically relevant

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with zoonotic parasitic infections in small ruminants in the Greek temperate environment. (United States)

    Kantzoura, Vaia; Diakou, Anastasia; Kouam, Marc K; Feidas, Haralambos; Theodoropoulou, Helen; Theodoropoulos, Georgios


    A cross-sectional serological study was carried out to screen the sheep and goat population of Thessaly, Greece for evidence of infection with Toxoplasma, Toxocara, Leishmania, and Echinococcus and to determine the risk factors related to herd characteristics, herd management practices, farmer status, and the bioclimatic variables associated with these zoonotic parasitic infections. A total of 540 sheep and goat serum samples were examined. The seroprevalence of infection in all examined animals was 24.5% for Toxoplasma, 32% for Toxocara, 0% for Leishmania and 85.9% for Echinococcus. The final logistic regression model showed that the species of small ruminant, herd size, anthelmintic treatment, class of anthelmintic treatment, grazing with other herds, educational level of farmer, elevation of farm location, and generalized land cover were associated with Toxoplasma gondii infections, while the species of small ruminant, farm type, anthelmintic treatment, class of anthelmintic treatment, rotation of grazing, age of farmer, elevation of farm location, and generalized land cover were associated with Toxocara canis infections. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 102 (28.3%) of 360 sheep and in 30 (16.8%) of 179 goats. Animals in small flocks (150-300 animals) had an approximately 0.42-fold lower risk of having positive cases of T. gondii among animals compared with large flocks (>300 animals). Antibodies to T. canis were found in 155 (42.9%) of 361 sheep and 18 (10.1%) of 179 goats. The later finding constitutes the first report of seropositive goats to Toxocara. The risk of positivity for T. canis was 7.71-fold higher in sheep than in goats. Geographically, animals from plain areas had 2.9 and 2.01-fold higher risk of having positive cases of T. gondii and T. canis respectively. The significant bioclimatic variables (pbioclimatic variables (p<0.05) associated with occurrence locations of T. canis infection were related to lower temperature and higher

  8. The effects of globotriaosylceramide tail saturation level on bilayer phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezeshkian, Weria; Chaban, Vitaly V; Johannes, Ludger


    of the Gb3 concentration and its acyl chain saturation on the phase behaviour of a mixed bilayer of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine and Gb3. The simulation results show that: (1) the Gb3 acyl chains (longer tails) from one leaflet interdigitate into the opposing leaflet and lead to significant bilayer...

  9. Cholesterol orientation and tilt modulus in DMPC bilayers


    Khelashvili, George; Pabst, Georg; Harries, Daniel


    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of hydrated bilayers containing mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and Cholesterol at various ratios, to study the effect of cholesterol concentration on its orientation, and to characterize the link between cholesterol tilt and overall phospholipid membrane organization. The simulations show a substantial probability for cholesterol molecules to transiently orient perpendicular to the bilayer normal, and suggest that cholesterol...

  10. Alpha-tocopherol inhibits pore formation in the oxidized bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Boonnoy, Phansiri; Wong-ekkabut, Jirasak


    In biological membranes, alpha-tocopherols ({\\alpha}-toc; vitamin E) protect polyunsaturated lipids from free radicals. Although the interactions of {\\alpha}-toc with non-oxidized lipid bilayers have been studied, their on oxidized bilayers remain unknown. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of oxidized lipid bilayers were performed with varying concentrations of {\\alpha}-toc. Bilayers with 1-palmitoyl-2-lauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PLPC) lipids and its aldehyde derivatives at 1:1 ratio were studied. Our simulations show that oxidized lipids self-assemble into aggregates with a water pore rapidly developing across the lipid bilayer. The free energy of transporting an {\\alpha}-toc molecule in a lipid bilayer suggests that {\\alpha}-tocs can passively adsorb into the bilayer. When {\\alpha}-toc molecules were present at low concentrations in bilayers containing oxidized lipids, the formation of water pores was slowed down. At high {\\alpha}-toc concentra-tions, no pores were observ...

  11. Presence, distribution, and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a small animal teaching hospital: a year-long active surveillance targeting dogs and their environment. (United States)

    van Balen, Joany; Kelley, Christina; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, Jonathan; Wittum, Thomas E; Hoet, Armando E


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to be present in small animal veterinary clinical environments. However, a better understanding of the ecology and dynamics of MRSA in these environments is necessary for the development of effective infectious disease prevention and control programs. To achieve this goal, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance program was established at The Ohio State University (OSU) Veterinary Medical Center to describe the spatial and molecular epidemiology of this bacterium in the small animal hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, and dendrogram analysis were used to characterize and analyze the 81 environmental and 37 canine-origin MRSA isolates obtained during monthly sampling events. Overall, 13.5% of surfaces were contaminated with MRSA at 1 or more sampling times throughout the year. The majority of the environmental and canine isolates were SCCmec type II (93.8% and 86.5%, respectively) and USA100 (90.1% and 86.5%, respectively). By PFGE analysis, these isolates were found to be closely related, which reflects a low diversity of MRSA strains circulating in the hospital. For 5 consecutive months, 1 unique pulsotype was the most prevalent across the medical services and was recovered from a variety of surfaces and hospital locations. Carts/gurneys, doors, and examination tables/floors were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. Some surfaces maintained the same pulsotypes for 3 consecutive months. Molecular analysis found that incoming MRSA-positive dogs were capable of introducing a new pulsotype into the hospital environment during the surveillance period. Our results suggest that once a MRSA strain is introduced into the hospital environment, it can be maintained and spread for extended periods of time. These findings can aid in the development of biosecurity and biocontainment protocols aimed at

  12. Environment Carrying Capacity in Developing Innovation Center of Micro Small Medium Enterprises (MSME in Kabupaten Pandeglang, Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The study aims to determine environmental carrying capacity strategies for developing MSMEs Innovation Center. The study research using quantitative descriptive method and instruments questionnaire given to stakeholders and government related to sheep and goats in the Juhut village, Pandeglang. Data collected was processed premises scoring and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method used software of expert choice 11. The results showed that the Carrying Capacity levels of MSME was in the quite category, while aspect of facilitation as the highest proportions and the lowest was access to information. Innovation Center of MSME strategies are through the efforts increased Environment Carrying Capacity’s variables of Innovation Center of MSME are still lacking or not meet the standards through synergy efforts by Ministry of Research of Technology and Higher Education, Provincial Government. Of Banten, district/municipal government, Institute for Agricultural Technology of Banten, and universities.

  13. The Conduciveness of the South African Economic Environment and Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Pierré BRUWER


    Full Text Available Since the early 1980s Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs have been regarded as the driving forces of both developing and developed economies around the world. In a South African dispensation, SMMEs are responsible for adding imperative socio-economic value to the country, particularly in terms of eradicating poverty and diminishing unemployment levels. By doing so, these business entities are believed to contribute at least 50% to the national Gross Domestic Product. Albeit the aforementioned, previous research studies report that up to 75% of South African SMMEs fail after being in existence for only 42 months. Though the latter dispensation has been blamed on many economic factors, over the years the sustainability of South African SMMEs has not improved to a great extent. In order to provide insight on the latter dispensation, this literature review paper was conducted to ultimately formulate two hypotheses for further empirical testing.

  14. Regulation of sodium channel function by bilayer elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbaek, Jens A; Birn, Pia; Hansen, Anker J


    be a general mechanism regulating membrane protein function, we examined whether voltage-dependent skeletal-muscle sodium channels, expressed in HEK293 cells, are regulated by bilayer elasticity, as monitored using gramicidin A (gA) channels. Nonphysiological amphiphiles (beta-octyl-glucoside, Genapol X-100......, Triton X-100, and reduced Triton X-100) that make lipid bilayers less "stiff", as measured using gA channels, shift the voltage dependence of sodium channel inactivation toward more hyperpolarized potentials. At low amphiphile concentration, the magnitude of the shift is linearly correlated to the change...... in gA channel lifetime. Cholesterol-depletion, which also reduces bilayer stiffness, causes a similar shift in sodium channel inactivation. These results provide strong support for the notion that bilayer-protein hydrophobic coupling allows the bilayer elastic properties to regulate membrane protein...

  15. Thermotropic and Barotropic Phase Behavior of Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutake Tamai


    Full Text Available Bilayers formed by phospholipids are frequently used as model biological membranes in various life science studies. A characteristic feature of phospholipid bilayers is to undergo a structural change called a phase transition in response to environmental changes of their surroundings. In this review, we focus our attention on phase transitions of some major phospholipids contained in biological membranes, phosphatidylcholines (PCs, depending on temperature and pressure. Bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, which is the most representative lipid in model membrane studies, will first be explained. Then, the bilayer phase behavior of various kinds of PCs with different molecular structures is revealed from the temperature–pressure phase diagrams, and the difference in phase stability among these PC bilayers is discussed in connection with the molecular structure of the PC molecules. Furthermore, the solvent effect on the phase behavior is also described briefly.

  16. Coulomb drag and tunneling studies in quantum Hall bilayers (United States)

    Nandi, Debaleena

    The bilayer quantum Hall state at total filling factor νT=1, where the total electron density matches the degeneracy of the lowest Landau level, is a prominent example of Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons. A macroscopically ordered state is realized where an electron in one layer is tightly bound to a "hole" in the other layer. If exciton transport were the only bulk transportmechanism, a current driven in one layer would spontaneously generate a current of equal magnitude and opposite sign in the other layer. The Corbino Coulomb drag measurements presented in this thesis demonstrate precisely this phenomenon. Excitonic superfluidity has been long sought in the νT=1 state. The tunneling between the two electron gas layers exihibit a dc Josephson-like effect. A simple model of an over-damped voltage biased Josephson junction is in reasonable agreement with the observed tunneling I -- V. At small tunneling biases, it exhibits a tunneling "supercurrent". The dissipation is carefully studied in this tunneling "supercurrent" and found to remain small but finite.

  17. Theoretical study on stability of hybrid bilayers (United States)

    Silva, Thiago S.; de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Azevedo, Sèrgio


    Motivated by the recent experimental realization of the hybrid nanostructure of graphene and boron nitride (h-BN) sheet, and studies of gap modulation by strain, we use first principles calculations based on density functional theory to investigate the effects of strain in hybrid bilayers composed of two monolayers of graphene with a nanodomain of {{B}3}{{N}3}. The calculations were made with two different approximations for the functional exchange-correlation, GGA and VDW-DF. We investigate the modification in the electronic structure and structural properties of various configurations of the hybrid bilayers. Among the configurations, those with Bernal stacking are found to be more stable when compared to the others. Studies of the compressive strain influence were made only in the structure that has been shown to be the most stable. We have found that the two approximations used in the calculations exhibit the same results for the electronic properties of all structures. The opening of the energy gap due to strain was possible in the calculations by using the GGA approximation, but the same does not happen in the calculations using the VDW-DF approximation. Our analysis shows that the VDW-DF approximation is better suited for studies involving surfaces.

  18. Theory of skyrmions in bilayer systems (United States)

    Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto


    Skyrmion is an emergent particle consisting of many spins in magnets, and has many nontrivial features such as (i) nano-scale size, (ii) topological stability, (iii) gyrodynamics, and (iv) highly efficient spin transfer torque, which make skyrmions the promising candidate for the magnetic devices. Earlier works were focusing on the bulk or thin film of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) magnets, while recent advances are focusing on the skyrmions induced by the interfaces. Therefore, the superstructures naturally leads to the interacting skyrmions on different interfaces, which has unique dynamics compared with those on the same interface. Here we theoretically study the two skyrmions on bilayer systems employing micromagnetic simulations as well as the analysis based on Thiele equation, revealing the reaction between them such as the collision and bound state formation. The dynamics depends sensitively on the sign of DM interactions, i.e., helicities, and skyrmion numbers of two skyrmions, which can be well described by Thiele equation. Furthermore, we have found the colossal spin-transfer-torque effect of bound skyrmion pair on antiferromagnetically coupled bilayer systems.

  19. Combining Diffusion NMR and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Enables Precise Measurements of Polymer Chain Compression in a Crowded Environment (United States)

    Palit, Swomitra; He, Lilin; Hamilton, William A.; Yethiraj, Arun; Yethiraj, Anand


    The effect of particles on the behavior of polymers in solution is important in a number of important phenomena such as the effect of "crowding" proteins in cells, colloid-polymer mixtures, and nanoparticle "fillers" in polymer solutions and melts. In this Letter, we study the effect of spherical inert nanoparticles (which we refer to as "crowders") on the diffusion coefficient and radius of gyration of polymers in solution using pulsed-field-gradient NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), respectively. The diffusion coefficients exhibit a plateau below a characteristic polymer concentration, which we identify as the overlap threshold concentration c⋆. Above c⋆, in a crossover region between the dilute and semidilute regimes, the (long-time) self-diffusion coefficients are found, universally, to decrease exponentially with polymer concentration at all crowder packing fractions, consistent with a structural basis for the long-time dynamics. The radius of gyration obtained from SANS in the crossover regime changes linearly with an increase in polymer concentration, and must be extrapolated to c⋆ in order to obtain the radius of gyration of an individual polymer chain. When the polymer radius of gyration and crowder size are comparable, the polymer size is very weakly affected by the presence of crowders, consistent with recent computer simulations. There is significant chain compression, however, when the crowder size is much smaller than the polymer radius gyration.

  20. 1993 triggered lighnting test program: Environments within 20 meters of the lighting channel and small area temporary protection concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.J.; Schnetzer, G.H.


    Vertical electric fields, azimuthal magnetic fields, and earth step potentials at ground level have been measured at 10 and 20 meters from the base of triggered lightning flashes. For incident stroke peak currents in the range of 4.4 to 29 kA, vertical electric field change amplitudes as high as 210 kV/m were observed at 10 m, with rise times of the order of a few microseconds. Magnetic fields were found to follow Ampere`s law closely at both 10 and 20 m. Earth step potentials measured over a 0.5-m radial distance at the 10-m and 20m stations were linear with and had the same waveforms as the stroke currents. The step voltages exhibited a l/r distance dependence between the two measurement distances. A model that incorporates the presence of a thin surface layer, due to rain water saturation, of much higher conductivity than the bulk of the underlying earth is proposed to explain the observed behavior. Tests were also carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of several concepts for protecting a small exposed object, such as a piece of ordnance at the site of a transportation accident, from either a direct strike or from the indirect effects of electromagnetic fields produced by a nearby lightning flash to ground. Photographs of the occurrence of significant radial filamentary arcing along the surface of the ground from the strike points were acquired. This type of arcing, with a maximum radial extent of at least 20 m, was observed on six of seven of triggered flashes and on all strokes of 15-kA peak amplitude or higher.

  1. Characteristics of fishing operations, environment and life history contributing to small cetacean bycatch in the northeast Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Brown

    restrictions alone may not be sufficient to eradicate bycatch in areas where driftnets and small cetaceans co-occur.

  2. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Moser


    Full Text Available The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researched. This study aimed to analyze the annual growth and drought tolerance of two common urban tree species, namely small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. (T. cordata and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. (R. pseudoacacia, in two cities in southern Germany in relation to their urban growing conditions. Marked growth reductions during drought periods and subsequent fast recovery were found for R. pseudoacacia, whereas T. cordata exhibited continued reduced growth after a drought event, although these results were highly specific to the analyzed city. We further show that individual tree characteristics and environmental conditions significantly influence the growth of urban trees. Canopy openness and other aspects of the surrounding environment (water supply and open surface area of the tree pit, tree size, and tree species significantly affect urban tree growth and can modify the ability of trees to tolerate the drought stress in urban areas. Sustainable tree planting of well adapted tree species to their urban environment ensures healthy trees providing ecosystem services for a high quality of life in cities.

  3. Formation of supported lipid bilayers containing phase-segregated domains and their interaction with gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melby, Eric S.; Mensch, Arielle C.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Murphy, Catherine J.; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.


    The cell membrane represents an important biological interface that nanoparticles may encounter after being released into the environment. Interaction of nanoparticles with cellular membranes may alter membrane structure and function, lead to their uptake into cells, and elicit adverse biological responses. Supported lipid bilayers have proven to be valuable ex vivo models for biological membranes, allowing investigation of their mechanisms of interaction with nanoparticles with a degree of control impossible in living cells. To date, the majority of research on nanoparticle interaction with supported lipid bilayers has employed membranes composed of single or binary mixtures of phospholipids. Cellular membranes contain a wide variety of lipids and exhibit lateral organization. Ordered membrane domains enriched in specific membrane components are referred to as lipid rafts and have not been explored with respect to their interaction with nanoparticles. Here we develop model lipid raft-containing membranes amenable to investigation by a variety of surface-sensitive analytical techniques and demonstrate that lipid rafts influence the extent of nanoparticle attachment to model membranes. We determined conditions that allow reliable formation of bilayers containing rafts enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol and confirmed their morphology by structured illumination and atomic force microscopies. We demonstrate that lipid rafts increase attachment of cationic gold nanoparticles to model membranes under near physiological ionic strength conditions (0.1 M NaCl) at pH 7.4. We anticipate that these results will serve as the foundation for and motivate further study of nanoparticle interaction with compositionally varied lipid rafts.

  4. Constant-pH MD Simulations of DMPA/DMPC Lipid Bilayers. (United States)

    Santos, Hugo A F; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Teixeira, Vitor H; Baptista, António M; Machuqueiro, Miguel


    Current constant-pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) simulations provide a proper treatment of pH effects on the structure and dynamics of soluble biomolecules like peptides and proteins. However, addressing such effects on lipid membrane assemblies has remained problematic until now, despite the important role played by lipid ionization at physiological pH in a plethora of biological processes. Modeling (de)protonation events in these systems requires a proper consideration of the physicochemical features of the membrane environment, including a sound treatment of solution ions. Here, we apply our recent CpHMD-L method to the study of pH effects on a 25% DMPA/DMPC bilayer membrane model, closely reproducing the correct lipid phases of this system, namely, gel-fluid coexistence at pH 4 and a fluid phase at pH 7. A significant transition is observed for the membrane ionization and mechanical properties at physiological pH, providing a molecular basis for the well-established role of phosphatidic acid (PA) as a key player in the regulation of many cellular events. Also, as reported experimentally, we observed pH-induced PA-PA lipid aggregation at acidic pH. By including the titration of anionic phospholipids, the current methodology makes possible to simulate lipid bilayers with increased realism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first simulation study dealing with a continuous phospholipid bilayer with pH titration of all constituent lipids.

  5. Interfacing 2D and 3D Topological Insulators: Bi(111) Bilayer on Bi2Te3 (United States)

    Hirahara, Toru; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Yamada, Manabu; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi; Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Blügel, Stefan; Hasegawa, Shuji


    Topological insulators (TI) are insulating materials but have metallic edge states that carry spin currents and are robust against nonmagnetic impurities [1]. While there have been a large number of reports on three-dimensional (3D) TI, only few works have been done in terms of two-dimensional (2D) TI. In the present paper, we report the successful formation of bilayer Bi, which was theoretically predicted to be a 2D TI [2]. We deposited bilayer Bi on a 3D TI Bi2Te3, which the lattice mismatch is very small. From angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements and ab initio calculations, the electronic structure of the system can be understood as an overlap of the band dispersions of bilayer Bi and Bi2Te3. Our results show that the Dirac cone is actually robust against nonmagnetic perturbations and imply a unique situation where the topologically protected one- and two-dimensional edge states are coexisting at the surface [3]. [0pt] [1] M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).[0pt] [2] S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 236805 (2006).[0pt] [3] T. Hirahara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 166801 (2011).

  6. Interplay between intrinsic and stacking-fault magnetic domains in bi-layered manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M.A; Burkhardt, Mark H.; Sarkar, S.; Ohldag, H.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Scholl, A.; Young, A.T.; Doran, A.; Dessau, D.S.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J.F.; Durr, H.A.; Stohr, J.


    We present a low temperature X-ray photoemission electron microscopy study of the bi-layered manganite compound La{sub 1.2}Sr{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (BL-LSMO) to investigate the influence of stacking faults, which are structurally and magnetically different from the bi-layered host. In BL-LSMO small magnetic moment persists to T* = 300K, well above the Curie temperature of 120K (T{sub C}). Our magnetic images show that 3D stacking faults are responsible for the T* transition. Furthermore, close to the T{sub C}, stacking faults are well coupled to the bi-layered host with latter magnetic domains controlling the spin direction of the stacking faults. Contrary to recent reports, we find that stacking faults do not seed magnetic domains in the host via an exchange spring mechanism and the intrinsic T{sub C} of the BL-LSMO is not lower than 120K.

  7. Membrane order parameters for interdigitated lipid bilayers measured via polarized total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Ngo, An T; Jakubek, Zygmunt J; Lu, Zhengfang; Joós, Béla; Morris, Catherine E; Johnston, Linda J


    Incorporating ethanol in lipid membranes leads to changes in bilayer structure, including the formation of an interdigitated phase. We have used polarized total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy (pTIRFM) to measure the order parameter for Texas Red DHPE incorporated in the ethanol-induced interdigitated phase (LβI) formed from ternary lipid mixtures comprising dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and egg sphingomyelin or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. These lipid mixtures have 3 co-existing phases in the presence of ethanol: liquid-ordered, liquid-disordered and LβI. pTIRFM using Texas Red DHPE shows a reversal in fluorescence contrast between the LβI phase and the surrounding disordered phase with changes in the polarization angle. The contrast reversal is due to changes in the orientation of the dye, and provides a rapid method to identify the LβI phase. The measured order parameters for the LβI phase are consistent with a highly ordered membrane environment, similar to a gel phase. An acyl-chain labeled BODIPY-FL-PC was also tested for pTIRFM studies of ethanol-treated bilayers; however, this probe is less useful since the order parameters of the interdigitated phase are consistent with orientations that are close to random, either due to local membrane disorder or to a mixture of extended and looping conformations in which the fluorophore is localized in the polar headgroup region of the bilayer. In summary, we demonstrate that order parameter measurements via pTIRFM using Texas Red-DHPE can rapidly identify the interdigitated phase in supported bilayers. We anticipate that this technique will aid further research in the effects of alcohols and other additives on membranes.

  8. Combinatorics of giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins. (United States)

    Hanin, L G; Vinogradov, S N


    The paper discusses combinatorial and probabilistic models allowing to characterize various aspects of spacial symmetry and structural heterogeneity of the giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins (HBL Hb). Linker-dodecamer configurations of HBL are described for two and four linker types (occurring in the two most studied HBL Hb of Arenicola and Lumbricus, respectively), and the most probable configurations are found. It is shown that, for HBL with marked dodecamers, the number of 'normal-marked' pairs of dodecamers in homological position follows a binomial distribution. The group of symmetries of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is identified with the dihedral group D6. Under natural symmetry assumptions, the total dipole moment of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is shown to be zero. Biological implications of the mathematical findings are discussed.

  9. Interaction of neurotransmitters with a phospholipid bilayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Werge, Mikkel; Elf-Lind, Maria Northved


    We have performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations to study the interactions between the neurotransmitters (NTs) γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), glycine (GLY), acetylcholine (ACH) and glutamate (GLU) as well as the amidated/acetylated γ-aminobutyrate (GABAneu) and the osmolyte molecule glycerol...... in the vicinity of the lipid glycerol backbone. The most important interaction of NTs with the bilayer is the charged amino group of NTs with the lipid phosphate group.......We have performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations to study the interactions between the neurotransmitters (NTs) γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), glycine (GLY), acetylcholine (ACH) and glutamate (GLU) as well as the amidated/acetylated γ-aminobutyrate (GABAneu) and the osmolyte molecule glycerol...

  10. Space charge and screening in bilayer graphene (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.; Abrams, Daniel L.


    Undoped bilayer graphene is a two-dimensional semimetal with a low-energy excitation spectrum that is parabolic in the momentum. As a result, the screening of an arbitrary external charge Ze is accompanied by a reconstruction of the ground state: valence band electrons (for Z  >  0) are promoted to form a space charge around the charge while the holes leave the physical picture. The outcome is a flat neutral object resembling the regular atom except that for Z\\gg 1 it is described by a strictly linear Thomas-Fermi theory. This theory also predicts that the bilayer’s static dielectric constant is the same as that of a two-dimensional electron gas in the long-wavelength limit.

  11. Oxygen diffusion in bilayer polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Zebger, Ingo; Tofte, Jannik Pentti;


    Experiments to quantify oxygen diffusion have been performed on polymer samples in which a film of poly(ethylene-co-norbornene) was cast onto a film of polystyrene which, in turn, was cast onto an oxygen-impermeable substrate. In the technique employed, the time evolution of oxygen transport...... through the film of poly(ethylene-co-norbornene) and into the polystyrene film was monitored using the phosphorescence of singlet oxygen as a spectroscopic probe. To analyze the data, it was necessary to solve Fick's second law of diffusion for both polymer films. Tractable analytical and numerical...... solutions were obtained for the problem. Moreover, the numerical solution is sufficiently general that it can be used to simulate oxygen concentration profiles in films consisting of more than two layers. Data obtained from the bilayer films yield a diffusion coefficient for oxygen in poly...

  12. Multiscale molecular modeling of tertiary supported lipid bilayers (United States)

    Ranz, Holden T.; Faller, Roland


    Ternary lipid bilayer systems assembled from mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and cholesterol have been studied using coarse-grained molecular dynamics at biologically relevant temperatures (280 K to 310 K), which are between the chain melting temperatures of the pure lipid component. Free lipid bilayers were simulated using the MARTINI model (Stage I) and a variant with water-water interactions reduced to 76% (Stage II). The latter was subsequently used for preparing supported lipid bilayer simulations (Stage III). Clustering of like lipids was observed, but the simulation timescale did not yield larger phaseseparated domains.

  13. Charge detection in a bilayer graphene quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fringes, Stefan; Norda, Caroline; Dauber, Jan; Engels, Stephan [JARA-FIT and II, Institute of Physics B, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Volk, Christian; Terres, Bernat; Stampfer, Christoph [JARA-FIT and II, Institute of Physics B, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8/9), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Trellenkamp, Stefan [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8/9), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)


    We show measurements on a bilayer graphene quantum dot (QD) with an integrated charge detector. The focus lies on enabling charge detection with a 30 nm wide bilayer graphene nanoribbon located approximately 35 nm next to a bilayer graphene QD with an island diameter of about 100 nm. Local resonances in the nanoribbon can be successfully used to detect individual charging events in the dot even in regimes where the QD Coulomb peaks cannot be measured by conventional techniques. False color atomic force microscope image of the investigated device. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Spin Hall magnetoresistance in antiferromagnet/normal metal bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien


    We investigate the emergence of spin Hall magnetoresistance in a magnetic bilayer composed of a normal metal adjacent to an antiferromagnet. Based on a recently derived drift diffusion equation, we show that the resistance of the bilayer depends on the relative angle between the direction transverse to the current flow and the Néel order parameter. While this effect presents striking similarities with the spin Hall magnetoresistance recently reported in ferromagnetic bilayers, its physical origin is attributed to the anisotropic spin relaxation of itinerant spins in the antiferromagnet.

  15. Modeling liquid crystal bilayer structures with minimal surfaces. (United States)

    Enlow, J D; Enlow, R L; McGrath, K M; Tate, M W


    This paper describes a new convenient and accurate method of calculating x-ray diffraction integrated intensities from detailed cubic bilayer structures. The method is employed to investigate the structure of a particular surfactant system (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide in a solution of oil and heavy water), for which single-crystal experimental data have recently been collected. The diffracted peak intensities correlate well with theoretical structures based on mathematical minimal surfaces. Optimized electron density profiles of the bilayer are presented, providing new insight into key features of the bilayer structure.

  16. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, Matthew T. [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology (United States); Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Wagner, Gerhard [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon [Université de Lyon, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (CNRS, ENS Lyon, UCB Lyon 1) (France); Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States)


    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for {sup 13}C line widths and <0.5 ppm {sup 15}N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the

  17. Electron-phonon scattering and in-plane electric conductivity in twisted bilayer graphene (United States)

    Ray, N.; Fleischmann, M.; Weckbecker, D.; Sharma, S.; Pankratov, O.; Shallcross, S.


    We have surveyed the in-plane transport properties of the graphene twist bilayer using (i) a low-energy effective Hamiltonian for the underlying electronic structure, (ii) an isotropic elastic phonon model, and (iii) the linear Boltzmann equation for elastic electron-phonon scattering. We find that transport in the twist bilayer is profoundly sensitive to the rotation angle of the constituent layers. Similar to the electronic structure of the twist bilayer, the transport is qualitatively different in three distinct angle regimes. At large angles (θ >≈10∘ ) and at temperatures below an interlayer Bloch-Grüneisen temperature of ≈10 K, the conductivity is independent of the twist angle, i.e., the layers are fully decoupled. Above this temperature the layers, even though decoupled in the ground state, are recoupled by electron-phonon scattering and the transport is different both from single-layer graphene as well as the Bernal bilayer. In the small-angle regime θ <≈2∘ , the conductivity drops by two orders of magnitude and develops a rich energy dependence, reflecting the complexity of the underlying topological changes (Lifshitz transitions) of the Fermi surface. At intermediate angles, the conductivity decreases continuously as the twist angle is reduced, while the energy dependence of the conductivity presents two sharp transitions, that occur at specific angle-dependent energies, and that may be related to (i) the well-studied van Hove singularity of the twist bilayer and (ii) a Lifshitz transition that occurs when trigonally placed electron pockets decorate the strongly warped Dirac cone. Interestingly, we find that, while the electron-phonon scattering is dominated by layer symmetric flexural phonons in the small-angle limit, at large angles, in contrast, it is the layer antisymmetric flexural mode that is most important. We examine the role of a layer perpendicular electric field finding that it affects the conductivity strongly at low temperatures

  18. Pressure effects on the equilibrium configurations of bilayer lipid membranes (United States)

    DeVita, Raffaella; Stewart, Iain W.; Leo, Donald J.


    Planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) are currently employed to construct many bio-inspired material systems and structures. In order to characterize the pressure effects on the equilibrium configurations of these biological membranes, a novel continuum model is proposed. The BLM is assumed to be a two-layer smectic A liquid crystal. The mean orientation of the amphiphilic molecules comprising the membrane is postulated to be perpendicular to the layers and each layer is idealized as a two-dimensional liquid. Moreover, the BLM is modeled as a simply supported plate undergoing small deformations. It is subjected to a pressure load that acts perpendicularly to the layers. The equilibrium equations and boundary conditions are derived from the bulk elastic energy for smectic A liquid crystals as described by de Gennes and Prost (1993 The Physics of Liquid Crystals 2nd edn (Oxford Science Publications)) by using variational methods. The resulting fourth-order linear partial differential equation is solved by employing cylindrical functions and the series solution is proved to be convergent. The solution is numerically computed for values of the model parameters that are reported in the literature. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleagues, Professors Kevin P Granata and Liviu Librescv, who lost their lives during the sensless tragedy on 16 April, 2007 at Virginia Tech.

  19. Hydrophobic thickness, lipid surface area and polar region hydration in monounsaturated diacylphosphatidylcholine bilayers: SANS study of effects of cholesterol and beta-sitosterol in unilamellar vesicles. (United States)

    Gallová, J; Uhríková, D; Kucerka, N; Teixeira, J; Balgavý, P


    The influence of a mammalian sterol cholesterol and a plant sterol beta-sitosterol on the structural parameters and hydration of bilayers in unilamellar vesicles made of monounsaturated diacylphosphatidylcholines (diCn:1PC, n=14-22 is the even number of acyl chain carbons) was studied at 30 degrees C using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Recently published advanced model of lipid bilayer as a three-strip structure was used with a triangular shape of polar head group probability distribution (Kucerka et al., Models to analyze small-angle neutron scattering from unilamellar lipid vesicles, Physical Review E 69 (2004) Art. No. 051903). It was found that 33 mol% of both sterols increased the thickness of diCn:1PC bilayers with n=18-22 similarly. beta-sitosterol increased the thickness of diC14:1PC and diC16:1PC bilayers a little more than cholesterol. Both sterols increased the surface area per unit cell by cca 12 A(2) and the number of water molecules located in the head group region by cca 4 molecules, irrespective to the acyl chain length of diCn:1PC. The structural difference in the side chain between cholesterol and beta-sitosterol plays a negligible role in influencing the structural parameters of bilayers studied.

  20. Aggregation of Aß(25-35 on DOPC and DOPC/DHA bilayers: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Sublimi Saponetti

    Full Text Available β amyloid peptide plays an important role in both the manifestation and progression of Alzheimer disease. It has a tendency to aggregate, forming low-molecular weight soluble oligomers, higher-molecular weight protofibrillar oligomers and insoluble fibrils. The relative importance of these single oligomeric-polymeric species, in relation to the morbidity of the disease, is currently being debated. Here we present an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM study of Aβ(25-35 aggregation on hydrophobic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC and DOPC/docosahexaenoic 22∶6 acid (DHA lipid bilayers. Aβ(25-35 is the smallest fragment retaining the biological activity of the full-length peptide, whereas DOPC and DOPC/DHA lipid bilayers were selected as models of cell-membrane environments characterized by different fluidity. Our results provide evidence that in hydrophobic DOPC and DOPC/DHA lipid bilayers, Aβ(25-35 forms layered aggregates composed of mainly annular structures. The mutual interaction between annular structures and lipid surfaces end-results into a membrane solubilization. The presence of DHA as a membrane-fluidizing agent is essential to protect the membrane from damage caused by interactions with peptide aggregates; to reduces the bilayer defects where the delipidation process starts.

  1. Rational Design of ZnO:H/ZnO Bilayer Structure for High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors. (United States)

    Abliz, Ablat; Huang, Chun-Wei; Wang, Jingli; Xu, Lei; Liao, Lei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Wu, Wen-Wei; Fan, Zhiyong; Jiang, Changzhong; Li, Jinchai; Guo, Shishang; Liu, Chuansheng; Guo, Tailiang


    The intriguing properties of zinc oxide-based semiconductors are being extensively studied as they are attractive alternatives to current silicon-based semiconductors for applications in transparent and flexible electronics. Although they have promising properties, significant improvements on performance and electrical reliability of ZnO-based thin film transistors (TFTs) should be achieved before they can be applied widely in practical applications. This work demonstrates a rational and elegant design of TFT, composed of poly crystalline ZnO:H/ZnO bilayer structure without using other metal elements for doping. The field-effect mobility and gate bias stability of the bilayer structured devices have been improved. In this device structure, the hydrogenated ultrathin ZnO:H active layer (∼3 nm) could provide suitable carrier concentration and decrease the interface trap density, while thick pure-ZnO layer could control channel conductance. Based on this novel structure, a high field-effect mobility of 42.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a high on/off current ratio of 10(8) and a small subthreshold swing of 0.13 V dec(-1) have been achieved. Additionally, the bias stress stability of the bilayer structured devices is enhanced compared to the simple single channel layer ZnO device. These results suggest that the bilayer ZnO:H/ZnO TFTs have a great potential for low-cost thin-film electronics.

  2. Simulated microgravity impacts the plant plasmalemma lipid bilayer (United States)

    Nedukha, Olena; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Vorobyeva, Tamara; Grakhov, Volodimir; Klimenko, Elena; Zhupanov, Ivan; Jadko, Sergiy

    Biological membranes, especially the plasmalemma, and their properties and functions can be considered one of the most sensitive indicators of gravity interaction or alteration of gravity, respectively. Studies on the molecular basis of cellular signal perception and transduction are very important in order to understand signal responses at the cellular and organism level. The plasmalemma lipid bilayer is the boundary between the cell internal and external environment and mediates communication between them. Therefore, we studied the content and composition of lipids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and microviscosity in the plasmalemma isolated from pea seedling roots and epicotyls grown in the stationary conditions and under slow horizontal clinorotation. In addition, lipid peroxidation intensity of intact roots was also identified. The plasmalemma fraction was isolated by the two-phase aquatic-polymer system optimized for pea using a centrifuge Optima L-90K. Lipid bilayer components were determined by using highly effective liquid chromatography with a system Angilent 1100 (Germany). Spontaneous chemiluminescence intensity was measured with a chemiluminometer ChLMTS-01. The obtained data showed that plasmalemma investigated parameters are sensitive to clinorotation, namely: increasing or decreasing the different lipids content, among which, phospho- and glycolipids were dominated, as well as changes in the content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and sterols. A degree of plasmalemma sensitivity to clinorotation was higher for the root plasmalemma than epicocotyl ones. This distinguish may be naturally explained by the differences in the structure, cell types, growth, and specific functions of a root and an epicotyl, those are the most complicated in roots. An index of unsaturation under clinorotation was similar to that in the stationary conditions as a result of the certain balance between changes in the content of saturated and

  3. Assessment of the Effects of Cold Work on Crack Initiation in a Light Water Environment Using the Small-Punch Test (United States)

    Isselin, Jerome; Kai, Akira; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Shoji, Tetsuo


    Work hardening induced by manufacturing processes has important consequences for the resistance to the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of low-carbon stainless steel in high-temperature water conditions. It is of great importance to understand the mechanisms and the factors promoting environmentally assisted cracking in such environments. In this study, the effect of work hardening on 316L austenitic stainless steel was studied using a small-punch SCC test facility applied to miniaturized specimens. Tests were performed in a boiling water reactor (BWR) environment with trapezoidal loading. After the tests, the fracture faces and the surfaces of the samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Focused ion beam (FIB) etching was used to prepare samples for the SEM observations. Identification of the oxide was done using a Raman spectroscope and comparison of the data to reference spectra. The results showed the unfavorable effect of cold rolling against crack initiation. The oxide composition is affected by work hardening. Hence, the ferrous oxide formation is promoted by Fe diffusion caused by the dislocation density increase associated with an active strain during the test.


    Chotinun, Suwit; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Unger, Fred; Tadee, Pakpoom; Patchanee, Prapas


    Salmonella is a major food-borne pathogen worldwide, including Thai- land, and poultry meat plays a role as a vehicle for the spread of the disease from animals to humans. The prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella isolated from 41 small scale poultry slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined during July 2011 through May 2012. Salmonella's prevalence in live poultry, car- casses, waste water, and soil around processing plants were 3.2%, 7.3%, 22.0% and 29.0%, respectively. Eighteen different serotypes were identified, the most common being Corvallis (15.2%), followed by Rissen (13.9%), Hadar (12.7%), Enteritidis (10.1%), [I. 4,5,12:i:-] (8.8%), Stanley (8.8%), and Weltevreden (8.8%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 68.4% of the Salmonella spp were resistant to at least one antimicrobial while 50.6% showed multiple drug resis- tance (MDR). Specifically, 44.3% of Salmonella were resistant to nalidixic acid, followed by streptomycin (41.8%), ampicillin (34.2%), tetracycline (34.2%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20.3%). Salmonella contamination was found in processing lines, carcasses, and in the environment around the processing sta- tions. These findings indicate that improving hygiene management in small scale poultry slaughterhouses as well as prudent use of antimicrobial drugs is urgently needed if Salmonella contamination is to be reduced.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskaya T. P.


    Full Text Available This article describes the opportunities and prospects for the deployment of decision support system for the adequacy of the level of lending to small agricultural enterprises in the cloud environment. It reveals the shortcomings in the existing automation of small businesses, and therefore the necessity of developing a system to enable managers to quickly and correctly calculate the amount of required loan funds. The developed system has the ability to work remotely due to the lack of binding the user to a specific personal computer. It is implemented through the development of a DSS using cloud computing, in which computer resources are provided to the Internet users in the form of "online service". The article describes the architecture of popular models and cloud Webapplications; after that, it was concluded to use the Saas model with Multi-Tenant-mode support in the model development. The study provides an overview of the DSS functioning in the cloud. It has noted the main features of the software implementation of the system relating to the use of cloud technologies. We have calculated the cost of placing an application in the cloud via the online cost calculator called Microsoft Azure. We have also performed a preliminary assessment of the payback period of the project implementation of DSS. It is concluded, that this technology would be competitive at the software market

  6. Tethered and Polymer Supported Bilayer Lipid Membranes: Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Andersson


    Full Text Available Solid supported bilayer lipid membranes are model systems to mimic natural cell membranes in order to understand structural and functional properties of such systems. The use of a model system allows for the use of a wide variety of analytical tools including atomic force microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, neutron reflectometry, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Among the large number of different types of model membranes polymer-supported and tethered lipid bilayers have been shown to be versatile and useful systems. Both systems consist of a lipid bilayer, which is de-coupled from an underlying support by a spacer cushion. Both systems will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the effect that the spacer moiety has on the bilayer properties.

  7. Pairing of cholesterol with oxidized phospholipid species in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Loubet, Bastien; Olzynska, Agnieszka


    We claim that (1) cholesterol protects bilayers from disruption caused by lipid oxidation by sequestering conical shaped oxidized lipid species such as 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PZPC) away from phospholipid, because cholesterol and the oxidized lipid have complementary...... shapes and (2) mixtures of cholesterol and oxidized lipids can self-assemble into bilayers much like lysolipid–cholesterol mixtures. The evidence for bilayer protection comes from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Unimodal size distributions of extruded...... vesicles (LUVETs) made up of a mixture of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and PZPC containing high amounts of PZPC are only obtained when cholesterol is present in high concentrations. In simulations, bilayers containing high amounts of PZPC become porous, unless cholesterol is also present...

  8. Lipid peroxidation and water penetration in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elena; Megli, Francesco Maria; Khandelia, Himanshu


    changes in the acyl chain order in the sub-polar region and at the methyl-terminal induced by lipid peroxidation were detected by X-band EPR. Concomitantly, the polarity and proticity of the membrane bilayer in those regions were investigated at W band in frozen samples. Analysis of the g(xx) and A......(zz) parameters revealed that OHPLPC, but mostly HpPLPC, induced a measurable increase in polarity and H-bonding propensity in the central region of the bilayer. Molecular dynamics simulation performed on 16-DSA in the PLPC-HpPLPC bilayer revealed that water molecules are statistically favored with respect...... to the hydroperoxide groups to interact with the nitroxide at the methyl-terminal, confirming that the H-bonds experimentally observed are due to increased water penetration in the bilayer. The EPR and MD data on model membranes demonstrate that cell membrane damage by oxidative stress cause alteration of water...

  9. Sub-wavelength antenna enhanced bilayer graphene tunable photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin; Howell, Stephen W.; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul; Ohta, Taisuke


    The integration of bilayer graphene with an absorption enhancing sub-wavelength antenna provides an infrared photodetector capable of real-time spectral tuning without filters at nanosecond timescales.

  10. Capacitance Variation of Electrolyte-Gated Bilayer Graphene Based Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediyeh Karimi


    Full Text Available Quantum capacitance of electrolyte-gated bilayer graphene field-effect transistors is investigated in this paper. Bilayer graphene has received huge attention due to the fact that an energy gap could be opened by chemical doping or by applying external perpendicular electric field. So, this extraordinary property can be exploited to use bilayer graphene as a channel in electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors. The quantum capacitance of bi-layer graphene with an equivalent circuit is presented, and also based on the analytical model a numerical solution is reported. We begin by modeling the DOS, followed by carrier concentration as a function V in degenerate and nondegenerate regimes. To further confirm this viewpoint, the presented analytical model is compared with experimental data, and acceptable agreement is reported.

  11. Bilayer properties of hydroxytyrosol- and tyrosol-phosphatidylcholine lipids (United States)

    Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are the phytochemicals abundantly found in olive oil. Transphosphatidylation of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol with dioleoylphosphocholine resulted in phospholipids with antioxidant properties. The ability of these phyto-phospholipids to form liposomes and supported bilayers w...

  12. Ion dynamics in cationic lipid bilayer systems in saline solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miettinen, Markus S; Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo


    mixture of cationic dimyristoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DMTAP) and zwitterionic (neutral) dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we address the effects of bilayer composition (cationic to zwitterionic lipid fraction) and of NaCl electrolyte...

  13. Total approach is a must for small and medium enterprises to attain sustainable working conditions and environment, with special reference to Bali, Indonesia. (United States)

    Manuaba, Adnyana


    Attention and assistance to enhance the role of small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) by the government is more emphasized due to the success of SMEs in earning significant amount of foreign currency when Indonesia had to face economical crisis in 1997. This policy has been highly recognized again since the bombing tragedy in 2002; with the excellent evidence to show how important SMEs is in helping and maintaining the economic development of Bali. But in the implementation the assistance needs to be remanaged again in a more proper and appropriate way to attain the ultimate goals. The three economic potentials, agriculture in broad sense, tourism and SMEs (cottage industry included), must be developed in harmony, interdependence, support and complementary each other, if possible as synergist to obtain sustainable development of Bali. While assistance to SMEs must be done in a more coordinated way among the government technical offices, universities, NGOs, banking, and other social community institutions. By doing so, there would be no duplication or gap, nor creation of new disadvantageous problems. It could be in form of ergonomics, occupational health and safety impacts and problems in particular, and in adverse working conditions and environment in general. Therefore it is a must at this moment to carry out total approach in helping SMEs, by integrating the effort to improve their working conditions and environment, built-in within the effort to enhance SMEs'quality of life through economic assistance. In this process a total approach through SHIP approach and Appropriate Technology intervention must be done wisely and timely. By so doing, SMEs'sustainable working conditions and environment shall be attained.

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Glycosphingolipids in Lipid Bilayers: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Y. Patel


    Full Text Available Glycolipids are important constituents of biological membranes, and understanding their structure and dynamics in lipid bilayers provides insights into their physiological and pathological roles. Experimental techniques have provided details into their behavior at model and biological membranes; however, computer simulations are needed to gain atomic level insights. This paper summarizes the insights obtained from MD simulations into the conformational and orientational dynamics of glycosphingolipids and their exposure, hydration, and hydrogen-bonding interactions in membrane environment. The organization of glycosphingolipids in raft-like membranes and their modulation of lipid membrane structure are also reviewed.

  15. Interfacial exchange coupling induced anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance in epitaxial γ'-Fe₄N/CoN bilayers. (United States)

    Li, Zirun; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Zhang, Xixiang


    Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) of the facing-target reactively sputtered epitaxial γ'-Fe4N/CoN bilayers is investigated. The phase shift and rectangular-like AMR appears at low temperatures, which can be ascribed to the interfacial exchange coupling. The phase shift comes from the exchange bias (EB) that makes the magnetization lag behind a small field. When the γ'-Fe4N thickness increases, the rectangular-like AMR appears. The rectangular-like AMR should be from the combined contributions including the EB-induced unidirectional anisotropy, intrinsic AMR of γ'-Fe4N layer and interfacial spin scattering.

  16. Superlattice-Induced Insulating States and Valley-Protected Orbits in Twisted Bilayer Graphene (United States)

    Cao, Y.; Luo, J. Y.; Fatemi, V.; Fang, S.; Sanchez-Yamagishi, J. D.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kaxiras, E.; Jarillo-Herrero, P.


    Twisted bilayer graphene (TBLG) is one of the simplest van der Waals heterostructures, yet it yields a complex electronic system with intricate interplay between moiré physics and interlayer hybridization effects. We report on electronic transport measurements of high mobility small angle TBLG devices showing clear evidence for insulating states at the superlattice band edges, with thermal activation gaps several times larger than theoretically predicted. Moreover, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and tight binding calculations reveal that the band structure consists of two intersecting Fermi contours whose crossing points are effectively unhybridized. We attribute this to exponentially suppressed interlayer hopping amplitudes for momentum transfers larger than the moiré wave vector.

  17. Molecular Dynamics of a Water-Lipid Bilayer Interface (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Pohorille, Andrew


    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of a glycerol 1-monooleate bilayer in water. The total length of analyzed trajectories is 5ns. The calculated width of the bilayer agrees well with the experimentally measured value. The interior of the membrane is in a highly disordered fluid state. Atomic density profile, orientational and conformational distribution functions, and order parameters indicate that disorder increases toward the center of the bilayer. Analysis of out-of-plane thermal fluctuations of the bilayer surfaces occurring at the time scale of the present calculations reveals that the distribution of modes agrees with predictions of the capillary wave model. Fluctuations of both bilayer surfaces are uncorrelated, yielding Gaussian distribution of instantaneous widths of the membrane. Fluctuations of the width produce transient thinning defects in the bilayer which occasionally span almost half of the membrane. The leading mechanism of these fluctuations is the orientational and conformational motion of head groups rather than vertical motion of the whole molecules. Water considerably penetrates the head group region of the bilayer but not its hydrocarbon core. The total net excess dipole moment of the interfacial water points toward the aqueous phase, but the water polarization profile is non-monotonic. Both water and head groups significantly contribute to the surface potential across the interface. The calculated sign of the surface potential is in agreement with that from experimental measurements, but the value is markedly overestimated. The structural and electrical properties of the water-bilayer system are discussed in relation to membrane functions, in particular transport of ions and nonelectrolytes across membranes.

  18. Gates controlled parallel-coupled bilayer graphene double quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lin-Jun; Wei, Da; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Chang, A M


    Here we report the fabrication and quantum transport measurements of gates controlled parallel-coupled bilayer graphene double quantum dot. It is shown that the interdot coupling strength of the parallel double dots can be effectively tuned from weak to strong regime by both the in-plane plunger gates and back gate. All the relevant energy scales and parameters of the bilayer graphene parallel-coupled double dot can be extracted from the honeycomb charge stability diagrams revealed through the transport measurements.

  19. Molecular doping and band-gap opening of bilayer graphene.


    Samuels, AJ; Carey, JD


    The ability to induce an energy band gap in bilayer graphene is an important development in graphene science and opens up potential applications in electronics and photonics. Here we report the emergence of permanent electronic and optical band gaps in bilayer graphene upon adsorption of π electron containing molecules. Adsorption of n- or p-type dopant molecules on one layer results in an asymmetric charge distribution between the top and bottom layers and in the formation of an energy gap. ...

  20. Tunable Fermi surface topology and Lifshitz transition in bilayer graphene


    Varlet, Anastasia; Mucha-Kruczyński, Marcin; Bischoff, Dominik; Simonet, Pauline; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Fal'ko, Vladimir; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus


    Bilayer graphene is a highly tunable material: not only can one tune the Fermi energy using standard gates, as in single-layer graphene, but the band structure can also be modified by external perturbations such as transverse electric fields or strain. We review the theoretical basics of the band structure of bilayer graphene and study the evolution of the band structure under the influence of these two external parameters. We highlight their key role concerning the ease to experimentally pro...

  1. Small Variations in Early-Life Environment Can Affect Coping Behaviour in Response to Foraging Challenge in the Three-Spined Stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rohaa Langenhof

    Full Text Available An increasing concern in the face of human expansion throughout natural habitats is whether animal populations can respond adaptively when confronted with challenges like environmental change and novelty. Behavioural flexibility is an important factor in estimating the adaptive potential of both individuals and populations, and predicting the degree to which they can cope with change.This study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus is an empiric illustration of the degree of behavioural variation that can emerge between semi-natural systems within only a single generation. Wild-caught adult sticklebacks (P, N = 400 were randomly distributed in equal densities over 20 standardized semi-natural environments (ponds, and one year later offspring (F1, N = 652 were presented with repeated behavioural assays. Individuals were challenged to reach a food source through a novel transparent obstacle, during which exploration, activity, foraging, sociability and wall-biting behaviours were recorded through video observation. We found that coping responses of individuals from the first generation to this unfamiliar foraging challenge were related to even relatively small, naturally diversified variation in developmental environment. All measured behaviours were correlated with each other. Especially exploration, sociability and wall-biting were found to differ significantly between ponds. These differences could not be explained by stickleback density or the turbidity of the water.Our findings show that a differences in early-life environment appear to affect stickleback feeding behaviour later in life; b this is the case even when the environmental differences are only small, within natural parameters and diversified gradually; and c effects are present despite semi-natural conditions that fluctuate during the year. Therefore, in behaviourally plastic animals like the stickleback, the adaptive response to human-induced habitat disturbance

  2. Mechanism of unassisted ion transport across membrane bilayers (United States)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.


    To establish how charged species move from water to the nonpolar membrane interior and to determine the energetic and structural effects accompanying this process, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the transport of Na+ and Cl- across a lipid bilayer located between two water lamellae. The total length of molecular dynamics trajectories generated for each ion was 10 ns. Our simulations demonstrate that permeation of ions into the membrane is accompanied by the formation of deep, asymmetric thinning defects in the bilayer, whereby polar lipid head groups and water penetrate the nonpolar membrane interior. Once the ion crosses the midplane of the bilayer the deformation "switches sides"; the initial defect slowly relaxes, and a defect forms in the outgoing side of the bilayer. As a result, the ion remains well solvated during the process; the total number of oxygen atoms from water and lipid head groups in the first solvation shell remains constant. A similar membrane deformation is formed when the ion is instantaneously inserted into the interior of the bilayer. The formation of defects considerably lowers the free energy barrier to transfer of the ion across the bilayer and, consequently, increases the permeabilities of the membrane to ions, compared to the rigid, planar structure, by approximately 14 orders of magnitude. Our results have implications for drug delivery using liposomes and peptide insertion into membranes.

  3. PI3 kinase enzymology on fluid lipid bilayers. (United States)

    Dutta, Debjit; Pulsipher, Abigail; Luo, Wei; Yousaf, Muhammad N


    We report the use of fluid lipid bilayer membrane as a model platform to study the influence of the bilayer microenvironment and composition on the enzymology in membrane. As a model system we determined the enzyme kinetics on membranes for the transformation of bilayers containing phosphoinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) to phosphoinositol(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) by the enzyme phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) using radiolabeled ATP. The activity of the enzyme was monitored as a function of the radioactivity incorporated within the bilayer. The transformation of PI(4,5)P2 to PI(3,4,5)P3 was determined using a mass strip assay. The fluidity of the bilayer was confirmed by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. Kinetic simulations were performed based on Langmuir adsorption and Michaelis-Menton kinetics equations to generate the rate constants for the enzymatic reaction. The effect of cholesterol on the enzyme kinetics was studied by doping the bilayer with 1% cholesterol. This leads to significant reduction in reaction rate due to change in membrane microenvironment. This strategy provides a method to study the enzymology of various kinases and phosphatases occurring at the membrane and also how these reactions are affected by the membrane composition and surface microenvironment.

  4. Different oxidized phospholipid molecules unequally affect bilayer packing. (United States)

    Megli, Francesco M; Russo, Luciana


    The aim of this study was to gain more detailed knowledge about the effect of the presence of defined oxidized phospholipid molecules in phospholipid bilayers. After chromatographic and mass spectrometry analysis, the previously used product of the Fenton reaction with unsaturated lecithins proved to consist of a plethora of oxidatively modified lecithins, useless either for the detailed study of the effects brought about in the bilayer or as the source of defined oxidized phospholipid molecules. The latter, particularly 2-(omega-carboxyacyl)- and 2-(n-hydroperoxyacyl)-lecithins, can be more conveniently prepared by chemical or enzymatic synthesis rather than by chemical or physical oxidation. The effect of those molecules and of commercially available 12-hydroxy-stearic and dodecanedioic acid was studied in planar supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) by use of EPR spectrometry. The SPBs also contained 2-(5-doxylstearoyl)-lecithin as the spin probe, and the EPR spectral anisotropy loss, indicative of bilayer disordering, was measured as a function of the molar percentage of oxidized lipid. Most oxidized lipid molecules examined in this study were able to induce bilayer disordering, while hydroperoxyl group-bearing acyl chains appeared to be much less effective. It is concluded that the effects of different oxidized phospholipids on phospholipid bilayer structure cannot be generalized, as happens with batch-oxidized phospholipids, and that the use of defined oxidized phospholipid molecular species for membrane oxidative stress guarantees a more reliable and detailed response.

  5. Thermodynamic study of benzocaine insertion into different lipid bilayers (United States)

    Cascales, J. J. López; Costa, S. D. Oliveira; Porasso, R. D.


    Despite the general consensus concerning the role played by sodium channels in the molecular mechanism of local anesthetics, the potency of anaesthetic drugs also seems to be related with their solubility in lipid bilayers. In this respect, this work represents a thermodynamic study of benzocaine insertion into lipid bilayers of different compositions by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Thus, the free energy profiles associated with benzocaine insertion into symmetric lipid bilayers composed of different proportions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine were studied. From the simulation results, a maximum in the free energy (ΔG) profile was measured in the region of the lipid/solution interface. This free energy barrier appears to be very much dependent on the lipid composition of the membrane. On the other hand, the minimum free energy (ΔG) within the bilayer remained almost independent of the lipid composition of the bilayer. By repeating the study at different temperatures, it was seen how the spontaneity of benzocaine insertion into the lipid bilayer is due to an increase in the entropy associated with the process.

  6. Robustly Engineering Thermal Conductivity of Bilayer Graphene by Interlayer Bonding. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yufei; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming


    Graphene and its bilayer structure are the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. Their realistic applications in emerging nanoelectronics usually call for thermal transport manipulation in a controllable and precise manner. In this paper we systematically studied the effect of interlayer covalent bonding, in particular different interlay bonding arrangement, on the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that, the thermal conductivity of randomly bonded bilayer graphene decreases monotonically with the increase of interlayer bonding density, however, for the regularly bonded bilayer graphene structure the thermal conductivity possesses unexpectedly non-monotonic dependence on the interlayer bonding density. The results suggest that the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene depends not only on the interlayer bonding density, but also on the detailed topological configuration of the interlayer bonding. The underlying mechanism for this abnormal phenomenon is identified by means of phonon spectral energy density, participation ratio and mode weight factor analysis. The large tunability of thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene through rational interlayer bonding arrangement paves the way to achieve other desired properties for potential nanoelectronics applications involving graphene layers.

  7. Microporous device for local electric recordings on model lipid bilayers (United States)

    Kaufeld, Theresa; Steinem, Claudia; Schmidt, Christoph F.


    A powerful approach for characterizing lipid membranes and embedded proteins is the reconstitution of model lipid bilayers. The extreme fragility of 5 nm thick bilayers is a challenge for device design and requires a trade off of stability against accessibility. We here present a microporous lab-on-chip device that allows us to form stable, solvent-free lipid bilayers from giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) in a geometry that provides a unique set of access possibilities. The device is constructed around a micro-fabricated silicon chip with clusters of 1 µm-diameter pores and provides optical access to the lipid bilayers for high-NA epifluorescence imaging. At the same time, solvent exchange is possible on both sides of the lipid bilayer. Complete coverage can be achieved with GUVs, so that voltages can be applied across the lipid bilayer and single-channel currents can be measured using external or integrated silver/silver chloride electrodes. We describe the micro-fabrication by standard cleanroom techniques and the characterization of the device by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. In proof-of-concept experiments we demonstrate that the device is capable of low-noise, single-ion-channel recordings. Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/b000000x/

  8. Monitoring the organizational environment in small businesses: case studies in the metalworking sector and technology-based companies in the central region of the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernando Musetti


    Full Text Available This study aims to describe how small businesses monitor competitive environments as an initial step toward the formulation of business strategies. In today’s increasingly volatile and uncertain competitive climate, it is essential to know and monitor the competitive environment in which an organization operates, as a way to reduce uncertainty and ensure long-term survival. Do small enterprises known for their lack of financial resources and qualified personnel fail to monitor their environment? Do they not use the “best practices” used by big enterprises and widely disseminated through academic studies? Such issues led the research. In this article the research method used case studies, in which four owner-managers were interviewed. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the Content Analyze Method. The results show that the main General Environment variables are Economic and Legal-political, and the main Specific Environment variables are competitors, costumers and substitute products.

  9. Condensation energy of the superconducting bilayer cuprates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govind; Ajay; S K Joshi


    In the present work, we report the interplay of single particle and Cooper pair tunnelings on the superconducting state of layered high-c cuprate superconductors. For this we have considered a model Hamiltonian incorporating the intra-planar interactions and the contributions arising due to the coupling between the planes. The interplanar interactions include the single particle tunneling as well as the Josephson tunneling of Cooper pairs between the two layers. The expression of the out-of-plane correlation parameter which describes the hopping of a particle from one layer to another layer in the superconducting state is obtained within a Bardeen–Cooper–Schriefer (BCS) formalism using the Green’s function technique. This correlation is found to be sensitive to the various parameter of the model Hamiltonian. We have calculated the out-of-plane contribution to the superconducting condensation energy. The calculated values of condensation energy are in agreement with those obtained from the specific heat and the -axis penetration depth measurements on bilayer cuprates.

  10. Raman modes in transferred bilayer CVD graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niilisk Ahti


    Full Text Available A systematic experimental Raman spectroscopic study of twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG domains localized inside wide-area single layer graphene (SLG produced by low-pressure CVD on Cu foil and transferred onto SiO2/Si substrate has been performed. According to the Raman characterization the tBLG domains had a great variety of twisting angles θ between the bottom and top graphene layers (6° < θ < 25°. The twisting angle θ was estimated from the spectral position of the rotating R and R' modes in the Raman spectrum.Under G band resonance conditions the breathing mode ZO' with a frequency of 95- 97 cm−1 was detected, and a breathing mode ZO was found in the spectra between 804 cm−1 and 836 cm−1, its position depending on the twisting angle θ. An almost linear relationship was found between the frequencies ωZO and ωR. Also a few other spectral peculiarities were found, e.g. a high-energy excitation of the G band resonance, the 2G overtone appearing at 3170-3180 cm−1 by the G band resonance, revealing a linear dispersion of 80 cm−1/eV of the 2D band in tBLG

  11. The Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (S4MC): Probing the Physical State of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Low-Metallicity Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Sandstrom, Karin M; Bot, Caroline; Draine, B T; Ingalls, James G; Israel, Frank P; Jackson, James M; Leroy, Adam K; Li, Aigen; Rubio, Mónica; Simon, Joshua D; Smith, J D T; Stanimirović, Snežana; Tielens, A G G M; van Loon, Jacco Th


    We present results of mid-infrared spectroscopic mapping observations of six star-forming regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S4MC). We detect the mid-IR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in all of the mapped regions, greatly increasing the range of environments where PAHs have been spectroscopically detected in the SMC. We investigate the variations of the mid-IR bands in each region and compare our results to studies of the PAH bands in the SINGS sample and in a sample of low-metallicity starburst galaxies. PAH emission in the SMC is characterized by low ratios of the 6-9 micron features relative to the 11.3 micron feature and weak 8.6 and 17.0 micron features. Interpreting these band ratios in the light of laboratory and theoretical studies, we find that PAHs in the SMC tend to be smaller and less ionized than those in higher metallicity galaxies. Based on studies of PAH destruction, we argue that a size distribution shifted towards sm...

  12. Impacts of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM on Environment and Human Health of Gorontalo Utara Regency, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayu Indriati Arifin


    Full Text Available Mercury concentrations in the environment (river sediments and fish and in the hair of artisanal gold miners and inhabitants of the Gorontalo Utara Regency were determined in order to understand the status of contamination, sources and their impacts on human health. Mercury concentrations in the sediments along the Wubudu and Anggrek rivers are already above the tolerable level declared safe by the World Health Organization (WHO. Meanwhile, commonly consumed fish, such as snapper, have mercury levels above the threshold limit (0.5 μg/g. The mean mercury concentrations in the hair of a group of inhabitants from Anggrek and Sumalata are higher than those in hair from control group (the inhabitants of Monano, Tolinggula and Kwandang. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of female inhabitants is higher than that in the hair of male inhabitants in each group. Neurological examinations were performed on 44 participants of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM miners and inhabitants of Anggrek and Sumalata. From the 12 investigated symptoms, four common symptoms were already observed among the participants, namely, bluish gums, Babinski reflex, labial reflex and tremor.

  13. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas M., E-mail:; Patton, Bruce W.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Murphy, Brian D.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.


    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical.

  14. Droplet immobilization within a polymeric organogel improves lipid bilayer durability and portability. (United States)

    Venkatesan, Guru A; Sarles, Stephen A


    The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) is a promising technique for assembling lipid membrane-based materials and devices using water droplets in oil, but it has largely been limited to laboratory environments due to its liquid construction. With a vision to transform this lab-based technique into a more-durable embodiment, we investigate the use of a polymer-based organogel to encapsulate DIBs within a more-solid material matrix to improve their handling and portability. Specifically, a temperature-sensitive organogel formed from hexadecane and poly[styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene] (SEBS) triblock copolymer is used to replace the liquid solvent that surrounds the lipid-coated droplets to establish a novel liquid-in-gel DIB system. Through specific capacitance measurements and single-channel recordings of the pore forming peptide alamethicin, we verify that the structural and functional membrane properties are retained when DIBs are assembled within SEBS organogel. In addition, we demonstrate that organogel encapsulation offers improved handling of droplets and yields DIBs with a near 3× higher bilayer durability, as quantified by the lateral acceleration required to rupture the membrane, compared to liquid-in-liquid DIBs in oil. This encapsulated DIB system provides a barrier against contamination from the environment and offers a new material platform for supporting multilayered DIB-based devices as well as other digital microfluidic systems that feature water droplets in oil.

  15. Engineering a bilayered hydrogel to control ASC differentiation. (United States)

    Natesan, Shanmugasundaram; Zamora, David O; Suggs, Laura J; Christy, Robert J


    Natural polymers over the years have gained more importance because of their host biocompatibility and ability to interact with cells in vitro and in vivo. An area of research that holds promise in regenerative medicine is the combinatorial use of novel biomaterials and stem cells. A fundamental strategy in the field of tissue engineering is the use of three-dimensional scaffold (e.g., decellularized extracellular matrix, hydrogels, micro/nano particles) for directing cell function. This technology has evolved from the discovery that cells need a substrate upon which they can adhere, proliferate, and express their differentiated cellular phenotype and function. More recently, it has also been determined that cells not only use these substrates for adherence, but also interact and take cues from the matrix substrate (e.g., extracellular matrix, ECM). Therefore, the cells and scaffolds have a reciprocal connection that serves to control tissue development, organization, and ultimate function. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal, non-hematopoetic stem cells present in adipose tissue that can exhibit multi-lineage differentiation and serve as a readily available source of cells (i.e. pre-vascular endothelia and pericytes). Our hypothesis is that adipose-derived stem cells can be directed toward differing phenotypes simultaneously by simply co-culturing them in bilayered matrices. Our laboratory is focused on dermal wound healing. To this end, we created a single composite matrix from the natural biomaterials, fibrin, collagen, and chitosan that can mimic the characteristics and functions of a dermal-specific wound healing ECM environment.

  16. Protein-lipid interactions in bilayer membranes: a lattice model. (United States)

    Pink, D A; Chapman, D


    A lattice model has been developed to study the effects of intrinsic membrane proteins upon the thermodynamic properties of a lipid bilayer membrane. We assume that only nearest-neighbor van der Waals and steric interactions are important and that the polar group interactions can be represented by effective pressure-area terms. Phase diagrams, the temperature T(0), which locates the gel-fluid melting, the transition enthalpy, and correlations were calculated by mean field and cluster approximations. Average lipid chain areas and chain areas when the lipid is in a given protein environment were obtained. Proteins that have a "smooth" homogeneous surface ("cholesterol-like") and those that have inhomogeneous surfaces or that bind lipids specifically were considered. We find that T(0) can vary depending upon the interactions and that another peak can appear upon the shoulder of the main peak which reflects the melting of a eutectic mixture. The transition enthalpy decreases generally, as was found before, but when a second peak appears departures from this behavior reflect aspects of the eutectic mixture. We find that proteins have significant nonzero probabilities for being adjacent to one another so that no unbroken "annulus" of lipid necessarily exists around a protein. If T(0) does not increase much, or decreases, with increasing c, then lipids adjacent to a protein cannot all be all-trans on the time scale (10(-7) sec) of our system. Around a protein the lipid correlation depth is about one lipid layer, and this increases with c. Possible consequences of ignoring changes in polar group interactions due to clustering of proteins are discussed.

  17. Pattern Formation in Dewetting Nanoparticle/Polymer Bilayers (United States)

    Esker, Alan; Paul, Rituparna; Karabiyik, Ufuk; Swift, Michael; Hottle, John


    Comprised of inorganic cores and flexible organic coronae with 1 -- 2 nm diameter monodisperse sizes, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) are ideal model nanofillers. Our discovery that one POSS derivative, trisilanolphenyl-POSS (TPP), can form Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on hydrophobic substrates, allows us to create thin film bilayers of precisely controlled thickness and architecture. Work with poly(t-butylacrylate) (PtBA)/TPP bilayers reveals a two-step dewetting mechanism in which the upper TPP layer dewets first, followed by the formation of isolated holes with intricate, fractal, nanofiller aggregates. Like the PtBA/TPP bilayers, polystyrene (PS)/TPP bilayers also undergo a two-step dewetting mechanism. However, the upper TPP layer initially forms cracks that may arise from mismatches in thermal expansion coefficients. These cracks then serve as nucleation sites for complete dewetting of the entire bilayer. Understanding the rich diversity of surface patterns that can be formed from relatively simple processes is a key feature of this work.

  18. 论新信息环境下中小型图书馆信息资源建设%Discussion on Information Resources Construction of Small and Medium-sized Libraries in the New Information Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    论述了新信息环境下中小型图书馆信息资源建设的定位,探讨了新信息环境下中小型图书馆信息资源建设的有效对策.%This paper discusses the positioning of information resources construction of small and medium-sized libraries in the new information environment, and probes into some effective countermeasures for small and medium-sized libraries to carry out the information resources construction in new information environment.

  19. On the applicability of the two-band model to describe transport across n-p junctions in bilayer graphene (United States)

    Poole, C. J.


    We extend the low-energy effective two-band Hamiltonian for electrons in bilayer graphene (McCann and Fal'ko (2006) [1]) to include a spatially dependent electrostatic potential. We find that this Hamiltonian contains additional terms, as compared to the one used earlier in the analysis of electronic transport in n-p junctions in bilayers (Katsnelson and Novoselov (2006) [3]). However, for potential steps |u|<γ1 (where γ1 is the interlayer coupling), the corrections to the transmission probability due to such terms are small. For the angle-dependent transmission T(θ) we find T(θ)≅sin2(2θ)-(2u/3γ1)sin(4θ)sin(θ), which slightly increases the Fano factor: F≅0.241 for u=40 meV.

  20. Ionizable Nitroxides for Studying Local Electrostatic Properties of Lipid Bilayers and Protein Systems by EPR (United States)

    Voinov, Maxim A.; Smirnov, Alex I.


    Electrostatic interactions are known to play one of the major roles in the myriad of biochemical and biophysical processes. In this Chapter we describe biophysical methods to probe local electrostatic potentials of proteins and lipid bilayer systems that is based on an observation of reversible protonation of nitroxides by EPR. Two types of the electrostatic probes are discussed. The first one includes methanethiosulfonate derivatives of protonatable nitroxides that could be used for highly specific covalent modification of the cysteine’s sulfhydryl groups. Such spin labels are very similar in magnetic parameters and chemical properties to conventional MTSL making them suitable for studying local electrostatic properties of protein-lipid interfaces. The second type of EPR probes is designed as spin-labeled phospholipids having a protonatable nitroxide tethered to the polar head group. The probes of both types report on their ionization state through changes in magnetic parameters and a degree of rotational averaging, thus, allowing one to determine the electrostatic contribution to the interfacial pKa of the nitroxide, and, therefore, determining the local electrostatic potential. Due to their small molecular volume these probes cause a minimal perturbation to the protein or lipid system while covalent attachment secure the position of the reporter nitroxides. Experimental procedures to characterize and calibrate these probes by EPR and also the methods to analyze the EPR spectra by least-squares simulations are also outlined. The ionizable nitroxide labels and the nitroxide-labeled phospholipids described so far cover an exceptionally wide pH range from ca. 2.5 to 7.0 pH units making them suitable to study a broad range of biophysical phenomena especially at the negatively charged lipid bilayer surfaces. The rationale for selecting proper electrostatically neutral interface for calibrating such probes and example of studying surface potential of lipid bilayer is

  1. What is the difference between a supported and a free lipid bilayer? (United States)

    Faller, Roland


    Supported Lipid Bilayers are an abundant research platform for understanding the behavior of real cell membranes as they allow for additional mechanical stability and enable characterization techniques not reachable otherwise. However, in computer simulations these systems have been studied only rarely up to now. Here we present a systematic study of the changes that a support inflicts on a phospholipid bilayer using coarse-grained molecular modeling. We characterize the density and pressure profiles as well as the density imbalance induced by the support. It turns out that the changes in pressure profile are strong enough that protein function should be impacted leading to a previously neglected mechanism of transmembrane protein malfunction in supported bilayers. We also determine the diffusion coefficients and characterize the influence of different corrugations of the support. We then determine the free energy of transfer of phospholipids between the proximal (close to the surface) and distal leaflet of a supported membrane using the coarse-grained Martini model. It turns out that there is at equilibrium about a 2-3% higher density in the proximal leaflet. These results are in favorable agreement with recent data obtained by very large scale modeling using a water free model where flip-flop can be observed directly. We compare results of the free energy of transfer obtained by pulling the lipid across the membrane in different ways. There are small quantitative differences but the overall picture is consistent. We are additionally characterizing the intermediate states which determine the barrier height and therefore the rate of translocation. Simulations in atomistic detail are performed for selected systems in order to confirm the findings.

  2. Lipid bilayer microarray for parallel recording of transmembrane ion currents. (United States)

    Le Pioufle, Bruno; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shoji


    This paper describes a multiwell biochip for simultaneous parallel recording of ion current through transmembrane pores reconstituted in planar lipid bilayer arrays. Use of a thin poly(p-xylylene) (parylene) film having micrometer-sized apertures (phi=15-50 microm, t=20 microm) led to formation of highly stable bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) for incorporation of transmembrane pores; thus, a large number of BLMs could be arrayed without any skillful technique. We optically confirmed the simultaneous formation of BLMs in a 5x5 matrix, and in our durability test, the BLM lasted more than 15 h. Simultaneous parallel recording of alamethicin and gramicidin transmembrane pores in multiple contiguous recording sites demonstrated the feasibility of high-throughput screening of transmembrane ion currents in artificial lipid bilayers.

  3. Manipulating interface states in monolayer-bilayer graphene planar junctions (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun


    We report on transport properties of monolayer-bilayer graphene planar junctions in a magnetic field. Due to its unique geometry, the edge and interface states can be independently manipulated by either interlayer potential or Zeeman field, and the conductance exhibits interesting quantized behaviors. In the hybrid graphene junction, the quantum Hall (QH) conductance is no longer antisymmetric with respect to the charge neutrality point. When the Zeeman field is considered, a quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase is found in the monolayer region while the weak-QSH phase stays in the bilayer region. In the presence of both interlayer potential and Zeeman field, the bilayer region hosts a QSH phase, whereas the monolayer region is still in a QH phase, leading to a spin-polarized current in the interface. In particular, the QSH phase remains robust against the disorder.

  4. Bilayer Deformation, Pores, and Micellation Induced by Oxidized Lipids. (United States)

    Boonnoy, Phansiri; Jarerattanachat, Viwan; Karttunen, Mikko; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak


    The influence of different oxidized lipids on lipid bilayers was investigated with 16 individual 1 μs atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Binary mixtures of lipid bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) and its peroxide and aldehyde products were performed at different concentrations. In addition, an asymmetrical short chain lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PDPC), was used to compare the effects of polar/apolar groups in the lipid tail on lipid bilayer. Although water defects occurred with both aldehyde and peroxide lipids, full pore formation was observed only for aldehyde lipids. At medium concentrations the pores were stable. At higher concentrations, however, the pores became unstable and micellation occurred. Data analysis shows that aldehyde lipids' propensity for pore formation is due to their shorter and highly mobile tail. The highly polar peroxide lipids are stabilized by strong hydrogen bonds with interfacial water.

  5. Equilibrium Configurations of Lipid Bilayer Membranes and Carbon Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iva(i)lo M.Mladenov; Peter A.Djondjorov; Mariana Ts.Hadzhilazova; Vassil M.Vassilev


    The present article concerns the continuum modelling of the mechanical behaviour and equilibrium shapes of two types of nano-scale objects:fluid lipid bilayer membranes and carbon nanostructures.A unified continuum model is used to handle four different case studies.Two of them consist in representing in analytic form cylindrical and axisymmetric equilibrium configurations of single-wall carbon nanotubes and fluid lipid bilayer membranes subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure.The third one is concerned with determination of possible shapes of junctions between a single-wall carbon nanotube and a fiat graphene sheet or another single-wall carbon nanotube.The last one deals with the mechanical behaviour of closed fluid lipid bilayer membranes (vesicles) adhering onto a fiat homogeneous rigid substrate subjected to micro-injection and uniform hydrostatic pressure.

  6. Neutron diffraction studies of amphipathic helices in phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, J.P.; Gilchrist, P.J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Duff, K.C. [Univ. of Edinburgh Medical School (United Kingdom); Saxena, A.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)


    The structural feature which is thought to facilitate the interaction of many peptides with phospholipid bilayers is the ability to fold into an amphipathic helix. In most cases the exact location and orientation of this helix with respect to the membrane is not known, and may vary with factors such as pH and phospholipid content of the bilayer. The growing interest in this area is stimulated by indications that similar interactions can contribute to the binding of certain hormones to their cell-surface receptors. We have been using the techniques of neutron diffraction from stacked phospholipid bilayers in an attempt to investigate this phenomenon with a number of membrane-active peptides. Here we report some of our findings with three of these: the bee venom melittin; the hormone calcitonin; and a synthetic peptide representing the ion channel fragment of influenza A M2 protein.

  7. Curvatronics with bilayer graphene in an effective $4D$ spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Cariglia, M; Perali, A


    We show that in AB stacked bilayer graphene low energy excitations around the semimetallic points are described by massless, four dimensional Dirac fermions. There is an effective reconstruction of the 4 dimensional spacetime, including in particular the dimension perpendicular to the sheet, that arises dynamically from the physical graphene sheet and the interactions experienced by the carriers. The effective spacetime is the Eisenhart-Duval lift of the dynamics experienced by Galilei invariant L\\'evy-Leblond spin $\\frac{1}{2}$ particles near the Dirac points. We find that changing the intrinsic curvature of the bilayer sheet induces a change in the energy level of the electronic bands, switching from a conducting regime for negative curvature to an insulating one when curvature is positive. In particular, curving graphene bilayers allows opening or closing the energy gap between conduction and valence bands, a key effect for electronic devices. Thus using curvature as a tunable parameter opens the way for t...

  8. Molecular-dynamics simulation of a ceramide bilayer (United States)

    Pandit, Sagar A.; Scott, H. Larry


    Ceramide is the simplest lipid in the biologically important class of glycosphingolipids. Ceramide is an important signaling molecule and a major component of the strateum corneum layer in the skin. In order to begin to understand the biophysical properties of ceramide, we have carried out a molecular-dynamics simulation of a hydrated 16:0 ceramide lipid bilayer at 368K (5° above the main phase transition). In this paper we describe the simulation and present the resulting properties of the bilayer. We compare the properties of the simulated ceramide bilayer to an earlier simulation of 18:0 sphingomyelin, and we discuss the results as they relate to experimental data for ceramide and other sphingolipids. The most significant differences arise at the lipid/water interface, where the lack of a large ceramide polar group leads to a different electron density and a different electrostatic potential but, surprisingly, not a different overall "dipole potential," when ceramide is compared to sphingomyelin.

  9. Meron-Pair Excitations in Bilayer Quantum Hall System (United States)

    Moon, Kyungsun

    Bilayer two-dimensional electron gas systems can form unusual broken symmetry states with spontaneous inter-layer phase coherence at certain filling factors. At total filling factor νT = 1, the lowest energy charged excitation of the system is theoretically suggested to be a linearly-confined meron-pair, which is topologically identical to a single skyrmion. We will review how this remarkable excitation arises and can help unravel various experimental results demonstrated in bilayer quantum Hall system. In order to detect the linearly-confined meron-pair excitation directly, we propose a gated bilayer Hall bar experiment, where the magnitude and orientation of magnetic field B‖ applied parallel to the 2D plane can be controlled. We demonstrate a strong angle-dependent transport due to the anisotropic nature of linearly-confined meron-pairs and discuss how it would be manifested in experiment.

  10. Development of Fast Error Compensation Algorithm for Integrated Inertial-Satellite Navigation System of Small-size Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fomichev


    Full Text Available In accordance with the structural features of small-size unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and considering the feasibility of this project, the article studies an integrated inertial-satellite navigation system (INS. The INS algorithm development is based on the method of indirect filtration and principle of loosely coupled combination of output data on UAV positions and velocity. Data on position and velocity are provided from the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and satellite navigation system (GPS. A difference between the output flows of measuring data on position and velocity provided from the SINS and GPS is used to evaluate SINS errors by means of the basic algorithm of Kalman filtering. Then the outputs of SINS are revised. The INS possesses the following advantages: a simpler mathematical model of Kalman filtering, high reliability, two independently operating navigation systems, and high redundancy of available navigation information.But in case of loosely coupled scheme, INS can meet the challenge of high precision and reliability of navigation only when the SINS and GPS operating conditions are normal all the time. The proposed INS is used with UAV moving in complex environment due to obstacles available, severe natural climatic conditions, etc. This case expects that it is impossible for UAV to receive successful GPS-signals frequently. In order to solve this problem, was developed an algorithm for rapid compensation for errors of INS information, which could effectively solve the problem of failure of the navigation system in case there are no GPS-signals .Since it is almost impossible to obtain the data of the real trajectory in practice, in the course of simulation in accordance with the kinematic model of the UAV and the complex environment of the terrain, the flight path generator is used to produce the flight path. The errors of positions and velocities are considered as an indicator of the INS effectiveness. The results

  11. Experimental and theoretical evidence for bilayer-by-bilayer surface melting of crystalline ice (United States)

    Sánchez, M. Alejandra; Kling, Tanja; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; van Zadel, Marc-Jan; Mezger, Markus; Jochum, Mara N.; Cyran, Jenée D.; Smit, Wilbert J.; Bakker, Huib J.; Shultz, Mary Jane; Morita, Akihiro; Donadio, Davide; Nagata, Yuki; Bonn, Mischa; Backus, Ellen H. G.


    On the surface of water ice, a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) has been extensively reported at temperatures below its bulk melting point at 273 K. Approaching the bulk melting temperature from below, the thickness of the QLL is known to increase. To elucidate the precise temperature variation of the QLL, and its nature, we investigate the surface melting of hexagonal ice by combining noncontact, surface-specific vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and spectra calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. Using SFG, we probe the outermost water layers of distinct single crystalline ice faces at different temperatures. For the basal face, a stepwise, sudden weakening of the hydrogen-bonded structure of the outermost water layers occurs at 257 K. The spectral calculations from the molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the experimental findings; this allows us to interpret our experimental findings in terms of a stepwise change from one to two molten bilayers at the transition temperature. PMID:27956637

  12. Energy output estimation for a small wind turbine positioned on a rooftop in the urban environment with and without a duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, C.


    Nowadays, wind turbines in general, but also urban wind turbines attained acceptance to a certain extend. Conceptual designs and some examples in reality exist, where small-scale wind turbines have been implemented close to buildings or even integrated in the building structure. This work is aiming to estimate how much energy a wind turbine could produce in the built environment, depending on its integration and configuration. On the basis of measurements taken on the rooftop of H.C. Orsted Institut in Copenhagen, which is located in an urban area, a comparison of fictive free standing turbines with ducted turbines of the same type was carried out. First, a prevailing wind energy direction was detected with rough mean velocity and frequency calculations. Next, a duct was aligned with the direction, where the highest energy potential was found. Further calculations were conducted with more detailed wind velocity distributions, depending on the wind direction sectors. The duct's wind velocity amplification capability was set to 14%, while a total opening angle of 30. was assumed to be accessible from both sides. With the simplifying assumptions and the uncertainties at the location of measurement, the free standing turbines had an energy potential of 300kWh/m2/a for the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and for the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) 180kWh/m2/a. For the ducted turbines an energy output of 180kWh/m2/a was found for the HAWT configuration, while the VAWT configuration reached an output of 110kWh/m2/a. The available wind had an energy potential of 730kWh/m2/a. Evaluating these results it seems a free standing turbine is preferable, when only considering the power output, whereas the ducted version comprises properties, which are important considering the requirements needed in the inhabited area such as safety and noise issues. (Author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Karin M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Universite de Strasbourg, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Draine, B. T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ingalls, James G. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Israel, Frank P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Jackson, James M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Li, Aigen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65213 (United States); Rubio, Monica [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Smith, J. D. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43603 (United States); Stanimirovic, Snezana [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI 53703 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)


    We present results of mid-infrared spectroscopic mapping observations of six star-forming regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S{sup 4}MC). We detect the mid-IR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in all of the mapped regions, greatly increasing the range of environments where PAHs have been spectroscopically detected in the SMC. We investigate the variations of the mid-IR bands in each region and compare our results to studies of the PAH bands in the SINGS sample and in a sample of low-metallicity starburst galaxies. PAH emission in the SMC is characterized by low ratios of the 6-9 {mu}m features relative to the 11.3 {mu}m feature and weak 8.6 and 17.0 {mu}m features. Interpreting these band ratios in the light of laboratory and theoretical studies, we find that PAHs in the SMC tend to be smaller and less ionized than those in higher metallicity galaxies. Based on studies of PAH destruction, we argue that a size distribution shifted toward smaller PAHs cannot be the result of processing in the interstellar medium, but instead reflects differences in the formation of PAHs at low metallicity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our observations for our understanding of the PAH life-cycle in low-metallicity galaxies-namely that the observed deficit of PAHs may be a consequence of PAHs forming with smaller average sizes and therefore being more susceptible to destruction under typical interstellar medium conditions.

  14. Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Gd bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, W. J.


    Non-monotonic dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on temperature and magnetization, including a sign change, was observed in Fe/Gd bilayers. To understand the intriguing observations, we fabricated the Fe/Gd bilayers and single layers of Fe and Gd simultaneously. The temperature and field dependences of longitudinal resistivity, Hall resistivity and magnetization in these films have also been carefully measured. The analysis of these data reveals that these intriguing features are due to the opposite signs of Hall resistivity/or spin polarization and different Curie temperatures of Fe and Gd single-layer films. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2010

  15. Bilayer polymer/oxide coating for electroluminescent organic semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana

    Organic materials have been given much attention due to their intriguing properties that can be tailored via synthetic chemistry for specific applications combined with their low price and fairly straight-forward large-scale synthesis. Para-hexaphenylene (p6P) nanofibers emit polarized light...... of the fibers with oxygen. We have developed a bilayer coating that does not change significantly the p6P spectrum but strongly reduces bleaching. This bilayer coating consists of a first layer of a stable polymer (PMMA) on top of the organic nanofibers as a protecting layer for avoiding modifications of the p6...

  16. Displacement sensor based on an amorphous bilayer including a magnetostrictive component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnen, L. E-mail:; Svec, P.; Pfuetzner, H.; Duhaj, P


    The present study concerns a novel type of bilayer material for displacement sensors based on the detection of curvature changes through the magnetoelastic effect. For increased bilayer stability, attempts were made to use a double-nozzle melt spinning technique (DNT) for direct flow-cast of bilayers. Compared to an agglutination technique, DNT yielded much lower sensitivity but improved long-term stability.

  17. Cationic Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and Dioleoyloxytrimethylammonium Propane Lipid Bilayers: Atomistic Insight for Structure and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, W.; Gurtovenko, A. A.; Vattulainen, I.


    of 0.4, that is, at lower TAP fractions compared with saturated PC/TAP bilayers. Adding unsaturated DOTAP lipids into DMPC bilayers was found to promote lipid chain interdigitation and to fluidize lipid bilayers, as seen through enhanced lateral lipid diffusion. The speed-up in lateral diffusion...

  18. Linking lipid architecture to bilayer structure and mechanics using self-consistent field modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pera, H.; Kleijn, J. M.; Leermakers, F. A. M., E-mail: [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Colloid Science, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 6, 6307 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)


    To understand how lipid architecture determines the lipid bilayer structure and its mechanics, we implement a molecularly detailed model that uses the self-consistent field theory. This numerical model accurately predicts parameters such as Helfrichs mean and Gaussian bending modulus k{sub c} and k{sup ¯} and the preferred monolayer curvature J{sub 0}{sup m}, and also delivers structural membrane properties like the core thickness, and head group position and orientation. We studied how these mechanical parameters vary with system variations, such as lipid tail length, membrane composition, and those parameters that control the lipid tail and head group solvent quality. For the membrane composition, negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol (PG) or zwitterionic, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and -ethanolamine (PE) lipids were used. In line with experimental findings, we find that the values of k{sub c} and the area compression modulus k{sub A} are always positive. They respond similarly to parameters that affect the core thickness, but differently to parameters that affect the head group properties. We found that the trends for k{sup ¯} and J{sub 0}{sup m} can be rationalised by the concept of Israelachivili's surfactant packing parameter, and that both k{sup ¯} and J{sub 0}{sup m} change sign with relevant parameter changes. Although typically k{sup ¯}<0, membranes can form stable cubic phases when the Gaussian bending modulus becomes positive, which occurs with membranes composed of PC lipids with long tails. Similarly, negative monolayer curvatures appear when a small head group such as PE is combined with long lipid tails, which hints towards the stability of inverse hexagonal phases at the cost of the bilayer topology. To prevent the destabilisation of bilayers, PG lipids can be mixed into these PC or PE lipid membranes. Progressive loading of bilayers with PG lipids lead to highly charged membranes, resulting in J{sub 0}{sup m}≫0, especially at low ionic

  19. [Study on the Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on DPPC Bilayers by Using Thermo-Raman Spectrum and DSC]. (United States)

    Hui, Ge; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jing-zhou; Zhou, Tie-li; Wang, Si-ming; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bing


    concentration of ginsenoside Rb1, the pre-transition temperature of DPPC bilayers dropped immediately with small amount of the Rb1 drug when the containtion was only 5 mol% and the whole system has been destructed at the same time, the main phase transition peak showed as a new little shoulder seam, however, both pre- and main transition peak disappeared completely until the drug concentration increased to 20 mol%, the phase transition temperature of DPPC has been reduced significantly, and the fluidity of bilayers has been increased. Both experiments indicated that the strong effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on DPPC.

  20. Electronic band structure effects in monolayer, bilayer, and hybrid graphene structures (United States)

    Puls, Conor

    electronic structure are highly sensitive to tunnel bias-induced charging in these devices, an effect that is traditionally neglected in other materials. However, careful consideration of both these effects and non-ideal tunneling processes allows extraction of valuable information from the tunneling spectra. We compare the tunable insulating state to our transport studies of bi-layer graphene-based FETs with similar dielectric environments. This work, as well as our work on top-gated monolayer-based devices, identifies the integration of graphene and a gate dielectric as being the next great challenge towards the realization of graphene-based electronics. We also report the discovery of anomalous quantum oscillations in magnetotransport measurements of monolayer and bilayer graphene hybrids. In these graphene hybrid structures, the Fermi levels of either portion lock at their interface, and the greatly different energy scales of emergent Landau levels support strong charge imbalance. The nature the interface states are yet to be clarified. Finally, we extend the techniques of device fabrication and measurement to exfoliated flakes of a layered material, Ca3Ru2O 7. This strongly correlated electronic system hosts a variety of exotic phenomena at low temperatures, which have been suggested to result from complex d-orbital interactions. We compare transport measurements of flakes to previous studies in bulk crystals, and explore the effects of tuning charge carrier density using an ionic liquid gate to induce densities several orders of magnitude greater than is possible with conventional dielectrics.

  1. Neutron reflectivity studies of single lipid bilayers supported on planar substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, S.; Orts, W.J.; Berk, N.F.; Majkrzak, C.F. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Koenig, B.W. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)


    Neutron reflectivity was used to probe the structure of single phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers adsorbed onto a planar silicon surface in an aqueous environment. Fluctuations in the neutron scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the silicon/water interface were determined for different lipids as a function of the hydrocarbon chain length. The lipids were studied in both the gel and liquid crystalline phases by monitoring changes in the specularly-reflected neutron intensity as a function of temperature. Contrast variation of the neutron scattering length density was applied to both the lipid and the solvent. Scattering length density profiles were determined using both model-independent and model-dependent fitting methods. During the reflectivity measurements, a novel experimental set-up was implemented to decrease the incoherent background scattering due to the solvent. Thus, the reflectivity was measured to Q {approx} 0.3{Angstrom}{sup -1}, covering up to seven orders of magnitude in reflected intensity, for PC bilayers in D{sub 2}O and silicon-matched (38% D{sub 2}O/62% H{sub 2}O) water. The kinetics of lipid adsorption at the silicon/water interface were also explored by observing changes in the reflectivity at low Q values under silicon-matched water conditions.

  2. Biomimetic, ultrathin and elastic hydrogels regulate human neutrophil extravasation across endothelial-pericyte bilayers (United States)

    Lauridsen, Holly M.


    The vascular basement membrane—a thin, elastic layer of extracellular matrix separating and encasing vascular cells—provides biological and mechanical cues to endothelial cells, pericytes, and migrating leukocytes. In contrast, experimental scaffolds typically used to replicate basement membranes are stiff and bio-inert. Here, we present thin, porated polyethylene glycol hydrogels to replicate human vascular basement membranes. Like commercial transwells, our hydrogels are approximately 10μm thick, but like basement membranes, the hydrogels presented here are elastic (E: 50-80kPa) and contain a dense network of small pores. Moreover, the inclusion of bioactive domains introduces receptor-mediated biochemical signaling. We compare elastic hydrogels to common culture substrates (E: >2GPa) for human endothelial cell and pericyte monolayers and bilayers to replicate postcapillary venules in vitro. Our data demonstrate that substrate elasticity facilitates differences in vascular phenotype, supporting expression of vascular markers that are increasingly replicative of venules. Endothelial cells differentially express vascular markers, like EphB4, and leukocyte adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1, with decreased mechanical stiffness. With porated PEG hydrogels we demonstrate the ability to evaluate and observe leukocyte recruitment across endothelial cell and pericyte monolayers and bilayers, reporting that basement membrane scaffolds can significantly alter the rate of vascular migration in experimental systems. Overall, this study demonstrates the creation and utility of a new and accessible method to recapture the mechanical and biological complexity of human basement membranes in vitro. PMID:28234918

  3. The effect of tail-length mismatch in binary DMPC/DSPC lipid bilayers (United States)

    Ashkar, Rana; Nagao, Michihiro; Butler, Paul


    Bilayer heterogeneity has been long hypothesized to drive raft formation and promote complex functionality in lipid membranes. The highly dynamic nature of the membrane however is thought to play a critical role in this delicate balance between structure and performance. To probe the effect of lateral heterogeneity on membrane dynamics, we investigate the thermal response of unilamellar-vesicle systems of mixed dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) with DMPC/DSPC ratios of 50/50 and 70/30. Both lipids experience a transition from an ordered gel phase, with stiff stretched tails, to a melted fluid phase, with more coiled flexible tails, as they are heated through their melting temperature, Tm(DMPC) ~ 21 °C and Tm(DSPC) ~ 51 °C. The distinct Tm's of the two lipids provide a broad gel-fluid phase with a significant mismatch (~ 20 Å) between the tail-lengths of the DMPC and DSPC molecules. The structural properties of the vesicles were determined by small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering and the collective lipid dynamics in the bilayer were investigated by neutron spin-echo (NSE) spectroscopy on selectively deuterated samples. The NSE results indicate a slowdown of thickness fluctuations in the gel-fluid coexistence phase and an intriguingly strong enhancement in the thickness fluctuation amplitude for T >Tm(DSPC) compared to our previous work on single component vesicles.

  4. Bilayer Structure and Lipid Dynamics in a Model Stratum Corneum with Oleic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopes, Matthew I.; Noro, Massimo G.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Faller, Roland


    The stratum corneum is the uppermost layer of the skin and acts as a barrier to keep out contaminants and retain moisture. Understanding the molecular structure and behavior of this layer will provide guidance for optimizing its biological function. In this study we use a model mixture comprised of equimolar portions of ceramide NS (24:0), lignoceric acid, and cholesterol to model the effect of the addition of small amounts of oleic acid to the bilayer at 300 and 340 K. Five systems at each temperature have been simulated with concentrations between 0 and 0.1 mol % oleic acid. Our major finding is that subdiffusive behavior over the 200 ns time scale is evident in systems at 340 K, with cholesterol diffusion being enhanced with increased oleic acid. Importantly, cholesterol and other species diffuse faster when radial densities indicate nearest neighbors include more cholesterol. We also find that, with the addition of oleic acid, the bilayer midplane and interfacial densities are reduced and there is a 3% decrease in total thickness occurring mostly near the hydrophilic interface at 300 K with reduced overall density at 340 K. Increased interdigitation occurs independent of oleic acid with a temperature increase. Slight ordering of the long non-hydroxy fatty acid of the ceramide occurs near the hydrophilic interface as a function of the oleic acid concentration, but no significant impact on hydrogen bonding is seen in the chosen oleic acid concentrations.

  5. Lateral organization, bilayer asymmetry, and inter-leaflet coupling of biological membranes. (United States)

    Nickels, Jonathan D; Smith, Jeremy C; Cheng, Xiaolin


    Understanding of cell membrane organization has evolved significantly from the classic fluid mosaic model. It is now recognized that biological membranes are highly organized structures, with differences in lipid compositions between inner and outer leaflets and in lateral structures within the bilayer plane, known as lipid rafts. These organizing principles are important for protein localization and function as well as cellular signaling. However, the mechanisms and biophysical basis of lipid raft formation, structure, dynamics and function are not clearly understood. One key question, which we focus on in this review, is how lateral organization and leaflet compositional asymmetry are coupled. Detailed information elucidating this question has been sparse because of the small size and transient nature of rafts and the experimental challenges in constructing asymmetric bilayers. Resolving this mystery will require advances in both experimentation and modeling. We discuss here the preparation of model systems along with experimental and computational approaches that have been applied in efforts to address this key question in membrane biology. We seek to place recent and future advances in experimental and computational techniques in context, providing insight into in-plane and transverse organization of biological membranes.

  6. Defect-induced magnon scattering mechanisms in exchange-coupled bilayers (United States)

    Gallardo, R. A.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Landeros, P.


    The influence of two-magnon scattering mechanisms, which may be activated by different sorts of defects, is theoretically studied in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic exchange-biased bilayers. The spin-wave based model considers the influence of geometrical defects in the ferromagnetic (FM) layer as well as small domains in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) sub-lattice of the FM/AFM interface in such a way that both kinds of defects are randomly distributed over their respective surfaces. The in-plane angular dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth allows detection of the relevant influence of such defects in the relaxation mechanisms, where the role of the exchange-bias field is clearly identified. Typical experimental findings, such as quadratic dependence of the linewidth with the exchange-bias field and the in-plane angular dependence, are well explained within the proposed model. This lends confidence in the model's utility and leads to a better understanding of the role of the magnon-magnon scattering in the magnetization dynamics of exchange-coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic bilayers.

  7. Process Characterization of 32nm Semi Analytical Bilayer Graphene-based MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Faizah Z.A.


    Full Text Available This paper presents an inclusive study and analysis of graphene-based MOSFET device at 32nm gate length. The analysis was based on top-gated structure which utilized Hafnium Dioxide (HfO2 dielectrics and metal gate. The same conventional process flows of a transistor were applied except the deposition of bilayer graphene as a channel. The analytical expression of the channel potential includes all relevant physics of bilayer graphene and by assuming that this device displays an ideal ohmic contact and functioned at a ballistic transport. Based on the designed transistor, the on-state current (ION for both GNMOS and GPMOS shows a promising performance where the value is 982.857uA/um and 99.501uA/um respectively. The devices also possess a very small leakage current (IOFF of 0.289578nA/um for GNMOS and 0.130034nA/um for GPMOS as compared to the conventional SiO2/Poly-Si and high-k metal gate transistors. However, the devices suffer an inappropriate subthreshold swing (SS and high value of drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL.

  8. Relaxation dynamics of a compressible bilayer vesicle containing highly viscous fluid. (United States)

    Sachin Krishnan, T V; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki


    We study the relaxation dynamics of a compressible bilayer vesicle with an asymmetry in the viscosity of the inner and outer fluid medium. First we explore the stability of the vesicle free energy which includes a coupling between the membrane curvature and the local density difference between the two monolayers. Two types of instabilities are identified: a small wavelength instability and a larger wavelength instability. Considering the bulk fluid viscosity and the inter-monolayer friction as the dissipation sources, we next employ Onsager's variational principle to derive the coupled equations both for the membrane and the bulk fluid. The three relaxation modes are coupled to each other due to the bilayer and the spherical structure of the vesicle. Most importantly, a higher fluid viscosity inside the vesicle shifts the crossover mode between the bending and the slipping to a larger value. As the vesicle parameters approach the unstable regions, the relaxation dynamics is dramatically slowed down, and the corresponding mode structure changes significantly. In some limiting cases, our general result reduces to the previously obtained relaxation rates.

  9. Super-Sensitive and Robust Biosensors from Supported Polymer Bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Walter F. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Biological organisms are potentially the most sensitive and selective biological detection systems known, yet we are currently severely limited in our ability to exploit biological interactions in sensory devices, due in part to the limited stability of biological systems and derived materials. This proposal addresses an important aspect of integrating biological sensory materials in a solid state device. If successful, such technology could enable entirely new classes of robust biosensors that could be miniaturized and deployed in the field. The critical aims of the proposed work were 1) the calibration of a more versatile approach to measuring pH, 2) the use of this method to monitor pH changes caused by the light-induced pumping of protons across vesicles with bacteriorhodopsin integrated into the membranes (either polymer or lipid); 3) the preparation of bilayer assemblies on platinum surfaces; 4) the enhanced detection of lightinduced pH changes driven by bR-loaded supported bilayers. I have developed a methodology that may enable that at interfaces and developed a methodology to characterize the functionality of bilayer membranes with reconstituted membrane proteins. The integrity of the supported bilayer films however must be optimized prior to the full realization of the work originally envisioned in the original proposal. Nevertheless, the work performed on this project and the encouraging results it has produced has demonstrated that these goals are challenging yet within reach.

  10. Berry phase and pseudospin winding number in bilayer graphene (United States)

    Park, Cheol-Hwan; Marzari, Nicola


    In 2006, two seminal studies on the novel quantum Hall effect of bilayer graphene [K. S. Novoselov et al., Nat. Phys. 2, 177 (2006); E. McCann and V. I. Fal'ko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 086805 (2006)] appeared. Those papers claim that a non-trivial Berry phase of 2π in bilayer graphene is responsible for the novel quantum Hall effect described. Since then, it has become widely accepted by people working on the novel physics of graphene nanostructures that bilayer graphene has a non-trivial Berry phase of 2π (different from 0, as for conventional two-dimensional electron gas). In this talk, we show that (i) the relevant Berry phase for bilayer graphene is the same as that for a conventional two-dimensional electron gas and especially that (ii) what is actually obtained in the quantum Hall measurements is not the absolute value of the Berry phase of graphene multilayers but the pseudospin winding number. The results of our study ask for a re-interpretation of the numerous works related to the Berry phase in graphene multilayers.

  11. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes (United States)

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.


    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

  12. Forming lipid bilayer membrane arrays on micropatterned polyelectrolyte film surfaces. (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xuejing; Qi, Guodong; Han, Xiaojun


    A novel method of forming lipid bilayer membrane arrays on micropatterned polyelectrolyte film surfaces is introduced. Polyelectrolyte films were fabricated by the layer-by-layer technique on a silicon oxide surface modified with a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) monolayer. The surface pK(a) value of the APTES monolayer was determined by cyclic voltammetry to be approximately 5.61, on the basis of which a pH value of 2.0 was chosen for layer-by-layer assembly. Micropatterned polyelectrolyte films were obtained by deep-UV (254 nm) photolysis though a mask. Absorbed fluorescent latex beads were used to visualize the patterned surfaces. Lipid bilayer arrays were fabricated on the micropatterned surfaces by immersing the patterned substrates into a solution containing egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies yielded a lateral diffusion coefficient for probe molecules of 1.31±0.17 μm(2) s(-1) in the bilayer region, and migration of the lipid NBD PE in bilayer lipid membrane arrays was observed in an electric field.

  13. Single lipid bilayer deposition on polymer surfaces using bicelles. (United States)

    Saleem, Qasim; Zhang, Zhenfu; Petretic, Amy; Gradinaru, Claudiu C; Macdonald, Peter M


    A lipid bilayer was deposited on a 3 μm diameter polystyrene (PS) bead via hydrophobic anchoring of bicelles containing oxyamine-bearing cholesteric moieties reacting with the aldehyde functionalized bead surface. Discoidal bicelles were formed by mixing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC), dimyristoyltrimethylammonium propane (DMTAP), and the oxyamine-terminated cholesterol derivative, cholest-5-en-3β-oxy-oct-3,6-oxa-an-8-oxyamine (CHOLOA), in the molar ratio DMPC/DHCP/DMTAP/CHOLOA (1/0.5/0.01/0.05) in water. Upon exposure to aldehyde-bearing PS beads, a stable single lipid bilayer coating rapidly formed at the bead surface. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that the deposited lipids fused into an encapsulating lipid bilayer. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed that the short chain lipid DHPC was entirely absent from the PS adherent lipid coating. Fluorescence quenching measurements proved that the coating was a single lipid bilayer. The bicelle coating method is thus simple and robust, can be modified to include membrane-associated species, and can be adapted to coat any number of different surfaces.

  14. Electronic transport of bilayer graphene with asymmetry line defects (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Ya-Jie; Chen, Chan; Liang, Ying; Kou, Su-Peng


    In this paper, we study the quantum properties of a bilayer graphene with (asymmetry) line defects. The localized states are found around the line defects. Thus, the line defects on one certain layer of the bilayer graphene can lead to an electric transport channel. By adding a bias potential along the direction of the line defects, we calculate the electric conductivity of bilayer graphene with line defects using the Landauer-Büttiker theory, and show that the channel affects the electric conductivity remarkably by comparing the results with those in a perfect bilayer graphene. This one-dimensional line electric channel has the potential to be applied in nanotechnology engineering. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11504285, and 11404090), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, the Scientific Research Program Fund of the Shaanxi Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 15JK1363), and the Young Talent Fund of University Association for Science and Technology in Shaanxi Province, China.

  15. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei;


    . Furthermore, the model is validated using densification results from sintering of bi-layered tubular ceramic oxygen membrane based on porous MgO and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-d layers. Model input parameters, such as the shrinkage kinetics and viscous parameters are obtained experimentally using optical dilatometry...

  16. Indole Localization in an Explicit Bilayer Revealed via Molecular Dynamics (United States)

    Norman, Kristen


    It is well known that the amino-acid tryptophan is particularly stable in the interfacial region of biological membranes, and this preference is a property of the tryptophan side-chain. Analogues of this side-chain, such as indole, strongly localize in the interfacial region, especially near the glycerol moiety of the lipids in the bilayer. Using molecular dynamics calculations, we determine the potential of mean force (PMF) for indoles in the bilayer. We compare the calculated PMF for indole with that of benzene to show that exclusion from the center of the lipid bilayer does not occur in all aromatics, but is strong in indoles. We find three minima in the PMF. Indole is most stabilized near the glycerol moiety. A weaker binding location is found near the choline groups of the lipid molecules. An even weaker binding side is found near the center of the lipid hydrocarbon core. Comparisions between uncharged, weakly charged, and highly charged indoles demonstrate that the exclusion is caused by the charge distribution on the indole rather than the ``lipo-phobic'' effect. High temperature simulations are used to determine the relative contribution of enthalpy and entropy to indole localization. The orientation of indole is found to be largely charge independent and is a strong function of depth within the bilayer. We find good agreement between simulated SCD order parameters for indole and experimentally determined order parameters.

  17. Electronic and optical studies of pulse laser deposited ZnO/NiO bilayer film (United States)

    Baraskar, P.; Dar, T. A.; Choudhary, R. J.; Sen, P. K.; Sen, P.


    We report the structural, optical and electronic properties of polycrystalline ZnO and NiO thin films and amorphous ZnO/NiO bilayer film, prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique. Despite of the presence of both Zn and Ni in +2 state in the bilayer film, the grown bilayer shows no reflections (in XRD) corresponding to ZnO or NiO. The difference in crystal structure of ZnO and NiO leads to the strain in the grown bilayer film. An increase in the band gap has been observed in bilayer film which can be attributed to the amorphous nature of the structure.

  18. Efficient tunable generic model for self-assembling fluid bilayer membranes (United States)

    Deserno, Markus


    We present a new model for the simulation of generic lipid bilayers in the mesoscopic regime (between a few nanometers and many tens of nanometers), which is very robust, versatile, and extremely efficient, since it avoids the need for an embedding solvent. Based entirely on simple pair potentials, it features a wide region of unassisted self assembly into fluid bilayers without the need for careful parameter tuning. The resulting membranes display the correct continuum elastic behavior with bending constants in the experimentally relevant range. It can be readily used to study events like bilayer fusion, bilayer melting, lipid mixtures, rafts, and protein-bilayer interactions.

  19. [Study on the types and water pollution driving forces of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China based on the analysis of water environment]. (United States)

    Jiao, Shi-Xing; Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Chen, Chang-Chun; Teng, Juan


    According to the major pollution sources of urban water environment, 10 indexes such as industrial sewage quantity were closen to establish evaluation indexes system about the types and influencing factors of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China. Case studies of 16 typical and medium-small-sized cities were taken in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Combined with SPSS 11.0 cluster analysis results, city types were divided in reference to the values of water resources comprehensive pollution indexes and economical development indexes. The driving forces about city water environment pollution were studied by principal component analysis method. The result indicates that the 16 cities belong to two categories and four sub-categories, which are rich economy as well as light pollution of water environment and poor economy as well as heavy pollution of water environment. The influencing factors of water environment pollution are in sequence of industrial water pollution, agricultural no-point source pollution and urban domestic water pollution. The main factors of water environment pollution influenced I category cities, II as well as IV category cities and III category cities are industrial water pollution, urban domestic pollution and agricultural no-point source pollution respectively.

  20. Normal mode gating motions of a ligand-gated ion channel persist in a fully hydrated lipid bilayer model. (United States)

    Bertaccini, Edward J; Trudell, James R; Lindahl, Erik


    We have previously used molecular modeling and normal-mode analyses combined with experimental data to visualize a plausible model of a transmembrane ligand-gated ion channel. We also postulated how the gating motion of the channel may be affected by the presence of various ligands, especially anesthetics. As is typical for normal-mode analyses, those studies were performed in vacuo to reduce the computational complexity of the problem. While such calculations constitute an efficient way to model the large scale structural flexibility of transmembrane proteins, they can be criticized for neglecting the effects of an explicit phospholipid bilayer or hydrated environment. Here, we show the successful calculation of normal-mode motions for our model of a glycine α-1 receptor, now suspended in a fully hydrated lipid bilayer. Despite the almost uniform atomic density, the introduction of water and lipid does not grossly distort the overall gating motion. Normal-mode analysis revealed that even a fully immersed glycine α-1 receptor continues to demonstrate an iris-like channel gating motion as a low-frequency, high-amplitude natural harmonic vibration consistent with channel gating. Furthermore, the introduction of periodic boundary conditions allows the examination of simultaneous harmonic vibrations of lipid in synchrony with the protein gating motions that are compatible with reasonable lipid bilayer perturbations. While these perturbations tend to influence the overall protein motion, this work provides continued support for the iris-like motion model that characterizes gating within the family of ligand-gated ion channels.

  1. Effects of imidazolium-based ionic surfactants on the size and dynamics of phosphatidylcholine bilayers with saturated and unsaturated chains. (United States)

    Lee, Hwankyu


    Imidazolium-based ionic surfactants of different sizes were simulated with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers. Regardless of the phospholipid type, larger surfactants at higher concentrations more significantly insert into the bilayer and increase the bilayer-surface size, in agreement with experiments and previous simulations. Insertion of surfactants only slightly decreases the bilayer thickness, as also observed in experiments. Although the surfactant insertion and its effect on the bilayer size and thickness are similar in different types of bilayers, the volume fractions of surfactants in the bilayer are higher for DMPC bilayers than for POPC and DOPC bilayers. In particular, ionic surfactants with four hydrocarbons yield their volume fractions of 4.6% and 8.7%, respectively, in POPC and DMPC bilayers, in quantitative agreement with experimental values of ∼5% and ∼10%. Also, the inserted surfactants increase the lateral diffusivity of the bilayer, which depends on the bilayer type. These findings indicate that although the surfactant insertion does not depend on the bilayer type, the effects of surfactants on the volume fraction and bilayer dynamics occur more significantly in the DMPC bilayer because of the smaller area per lipid and shorter saturated tails, which helps explain the experimental observations regarding different volume fractions of surfactants in POPC and DMPC bilayers.

  2. Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Olijve, Luuk L. C. [Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed {sup 1}H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5–10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in

  3. Evaporation-Induced Buckling and Fission of Microscale Droplet Interface Bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Mruetusatorn, Prachya [ORNL; Sarles, Stephen A [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL


    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) are a robust platform for studying synthetic cellular membranes; however, to date no DIBs have been produced at cellular length scales. Here, we create microscale droplet interface bilayers ( DIBs) at the interface between aqueous femtoliter-volume droplets within an oil-filled microfluidic channel. The uniquely large area-to-volume ratio of the droplets results in strong evaporation effects, causing the system to transition through three distinct regimes. First, the two adjacent droplets shrink into the shape of a single spherical droplet, where an augmented lipid bilayer partitions two hemi-spherical volumes. In the second regime, the combined effects of the shrinking monolayers and growing bilayer force the confined bilayer to buckle to conserve its mass. Finally, at a bending moment corresponding to a critical shear stress, the buckling bilayer fissions a vesicle to regulate its shape and stress. The DIBs produced here enable evaporation-induced bilayer dynamics reminiscent of endo- and exocytosis in cells.

  4. Lipid bilayer regulation of membrane protein function: gramicidin channels as molecular force probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August; Collingwood, S.A.; Ingolfsson, H.I.;


    Membrane protein function is regulated by the host lipid bilayer composition. This regulation may depend on specific chemical interactions between proteins and individual molecules in the bilayer, as well as on non-specific interactions between proteins and the bilayer behaving as a physical entity...... with collective physical properties (e.g. thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature or elastic moduli). Studies in physico-chemical model systems have demonstrated that changes in bilayer physical properties can regulate membrane protein function by altering the energetic cost of the bilayer deformation associated...... physical properties. This advance is because of the introduction of new tools for studying lipid bilayer regulation of protein function. The present review provides an introduction to the regulation of membrane protein function by the bilayer physical properties. We further describe the use of gramicidin...

  5. Enhanced resistive switching and multilevel behavior in bilayered HfAlO/HfAlO{sub x} structures for non-volatile memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faita, F. L., E-mail: [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, J. P. B., E-mail: [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, M.; Gomes, M. J. M. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)


    In this work, hafnium aluminum oxide (HfAlO) thin films were deposited by ion beam sputtering deposition technique on Si substrate. The presence of oxygen vacancies in the HfAlO{sub x} layer deposited in oxygen deficient environment is evidenced from the photoluminescence spectra. Furthermore, HfAlO(oxygen rich)/HfAlO{sub x}(oxygen poor) bilayer structures exhibit multilevel resistive switching (RS), and the switching ratio becomes more prominent with increasing the HfAlO layer thickness. The bilayer structure with HfAlO/HfAlO{sub x} thickness of 30/40 nm displays the enhanced multilevel resistive switching characteristics, where the high resistance state/intermediate resistance state (IRS) and IRS/low resistance state resistance ratios are ≈10{sup 2} and ≈5 × 10{sup 5}, respectively. The switching mechanisms in the bilayer structures were investigated by the temperature dependence of the three resistance states. This study revealed that the multilevel RS is attributed to the coupling of ionic conduction and the metallic conduction, being the first associated to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments related to oxygen vacancies and the second with the formation of a metallic filament. Moreover, the bilayer structures exhibit good endurance and stability in time.

  6. Quantitative analysis of the proximity effect in Nb/ Co60 Fe40 , Nb/Ni , and Nb/ Cu40 Ni60 bilayers (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Kwon, Jun Hyung; Char, K.; Doh, Hyeonjin; Choi, Han-Yong


    We have studied the behavior of the superconducting critical temperature Tc in Nb/Co60Fe40 , Nb/Ni , and Nb/Cu40Ni60 bilayers as a function of the thickness of each ferromagnetic metal layer. The Tc ’s of three sets of bilayers exhibit nonmonotonic behavior as a function of each ferromagnetic metal thickness. Employing the quantitative analysis based on Usadel formalism of the effect of the exchange energy, we observed that the Tc behavior of Nb/Co60Fe40 bilayers is in good agreement with the theoretical values over the entire range of the data. On the other hand, the Tc ’s of Nb/Ni and Nb/Cu40Ni60 bilayers show a higher value in the small thickness regime than the theoretical prediction obtained from the calculation, which matches the dip position and the saturation value of Tc in the large thickness limit. This discrepancy is probably due to the weakened magnetic properties of Ni and Cu40Ni60 when they are thin. We discuss the values of our fitting parameters and their implication for the validity of the current Usadel formalism of the effect of the exchange energy.

  7. Probing Dynamics at Interfaces: Molecular Motions in Lipid Bilayers studied by Neutron Backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rheinstädter, M C; Salditt, T; Rheinst\\"adter, Maikel C.; Seydel, Tilo; Salditt, Tim


    Lipid membranes in a physiological context cannot be understood without taking into account their mobile environment. Here, we report on a high energy-resolution neutron backscattering study to investigate slow motions on nanosecond time scales in highly oriented solid supported phospholipid bilayers of the model system DMPC -d54 (deuterated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshatidylcholine). This technique allows discriminating the Q-dependent onset of mobility and provides a benchmark test regarding the feasibility of dynamical neutron scattering investigations on these sample systems. Apart from freezing of the lipid acyl-chains, we could observe a second freezing temperature that we attribute to the hydration water in between the membrane stacks. The freezing is lowered several degrees as compared to (heavy) bulk water.

  8. Undulation instability in a bilayer lipid membrane due to electric field interaction with lipid dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bingham, Richard J; Smye, Stephen W


    Bilayer lipid membranes [BLMs] are an essential component of all biological systems, forming a functional barrier for cells and organelles from the surrounding environment. The lipid molecules that form membranes contain both permanent and induced dipoles, and an electric field can induce the formation of pores when the transverse field is sufficiently strong (electroporation). Here, a phenomenological free energy is constructed to model the response of a BLM to a transverse static electric field. The model contains a continuum description of the membrane dipoles and a coupling between the headgroup dipoles and the membrane tilt. The membrane is found to become unstable through buckling modes, which are weakly coupled to thickness fluctuations in the membrane. The thickness fluctuations, along with the increase in interfacial area produced by membrane buckling, increase the probability of localized membrane breakdown, which may lead to pore formation. The instability is found to depend strongly on the strengt...

  9. The valley filter efficiency of monolayer graphene and bilayer graphene line defect model (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-guang; Zhou, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Hua; Sun, Qing-Feng


    In addition to electron charge and spin, novel materials host another degree of freedom, the valley. For a junction composed of valley filter sandwiched by two normal terminals, we focus on the valley efficiency under disorder with two valley filter models based on monolayer and bilayer graphene. Applying the transfer matrix method, valley resolved transmission coefficients are obtained. We find that: (i) under weak disorder, when the line defect length is over about 15 {nm}, it functions as a perfect channel (quantized conductance) and valley filter (totally polarized); (ii) in the diffusive regime, combination effects of backscattering and bulk states assisted intervalley transmission enhance the conductance and suppress the valley polarization; (iii) for very long line defect, though the conductance is small, polarization is indifferent to length. Under perpendicular magnetics field, the characters of charge and valley transport are only slightly affected. Finally we discuss the efficiency of transport valley polarized current in a hybrid system.

  10. Performance of two commercial rapid methods for sampling and detection of Listeria in small-scale cheese producing and salmon processing environments. (United States)

    Schirmer, Bjørn C T; Langsrud, Solveig; Møretrø, Trond; Hagtvedt, Therese; Heir, Even


    Two commercially available all-in-one swab rapid detection systems for Listeria spp. (InSite Listeria Test and Path-Chek hygiene Listeria) were tested for performance in cheese production environments and salmon processing facilities. Sampling was conducted both on clean surfaces and during production. A total of 338 samples were taken using the swabs (175 in cheese environments, 163 in salmon environments). Conventional sampling using sterile cloths and standardized qualitative detection of Listeria spp. according to NMKL method no. 136 was performed in parallel from 64 sampling sites in the salmon processing facilities and 40 sampling sites in the cheese production facilities. Results showed that both rapid swab tests detected Listeria spp.; however, they returned significant amounts of false positives. Presence of Listeria spp. was indicated in 47% and 41% of all swabs in the cheese and salmon environments, respectively. Enrichment followed by selective plating and Listeria specific PCR confirmed none of the 82 presumptive positive swabs from the cheese environment and 16 of 67 presumptive positive swabs from the salmon environments, respectively. Further analysis showed that several other bacteria, including Enterococcus spp. and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, were the source of false positive swab results. From salmon processing facilities, using cloth sampling and standard analyses, 22% Listeria positive sampling sites were confirmed compared to 9% and 11% positives obtained using InSite or Path-Chek detection systems. From the cheese production environments, no Listeria positive sites were confirmed using either swab or cloth sampling. In conclusion, the use of these rapid detection methods was not suited in the selected environments due to large numbers of false positives, caused by the background flora.

  11. Aqueous solutions at the interface with phospholipid bilayers. (United States)

    Berkowitz, Max L; Vácha, Robert


    In a sense, life is defined by membranes, because they delineate the barrier between the living cell and its surroundings. Membranes are also essential for regulating the machinery of life throughout many interfaces within the cell's interior. A large number of experimental, computational, and theoretical studies have demonstrated how the properties of water and ionic aqueous solutions change due to the vicinity of membranes and, in turn, how the properties of membranes depend on the presence of aqueous solutions. Consequently, understanding the character of aqueous solutions at their interface with biological membranes is critical to research progress on many fronts. The importance of incorporating a molecular-level description of water into the study of biomembrane surfaces was demonstrated by an examination of the interaction between phospholipid bilayers that can serve as model biological membranes. The results showed that, in addition to well-known forces, such as van der Waals and screened Coulomb, one has to consider a repulsion force due to the removal of water between surfaces. It was also known that physicochemical properties of biological membranes are strongly influenced by the specific character of the ions in the surrounding aqueous solutions because of the observation that different anions produce different effects on muscle twitch tension. In this Account, we describe the interaction of pure water, and also of aqueous ionic solutions, with model membranes. We show that a symbiosis of experimental and computational work over the past few years has resulted in substantial progress in the field. We now better understand the origin of the hydration force, the structural properties of water at the interface with phospholipid bilayers, and the influence of phospholipid headgroups on the dynamics of water. We also improved our knowledge of the ion-specific effect, which is observed at the interface of the phospholipid bilayer and aqueous solution, and its

  12. Interfacial Exchange Coupling Induced Anomalous Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in Epitaxial γ′-Fe 4 N/CoN Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zirun


    Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) of the facing-target reactively sputtered epitaxial γ′-Fe4N/CoN bilayers is investigated. The phase shift and rectangular-like AMR appears at low temperatures, which can be ascribed to the interfacial exchange coupling. The phase shift comes from the exchange bias (EB) that makes the magnetization lag behind a small field. When the γ′-Fe4N thickness increases, the rectangular-like AMR appears. The rectangular-like AMR should be from the combined contributions including the EB-induced unidirectional anisotropy, intrinsic AMR of γ′-Fe4N layer and interfacial spin scattering.

  13. The roles of bulk and interfacial molecular orientations in determining the performance of organic bilayer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy O.


    Molecular orientation plays a significant role in determining the performance of small molecule solar cells. Key photovoltaic processes in these cells are strongly dependent on how the molecules are oriented in the active layer. We isolate contributions arising from the bulk molecular orientations vs. those from interfacial orientations in ZnPc/C60 bilayer systems and we probe these contributions by comparing device pairs in which only the bulk or the interface differ. By controlling the orientation in the bulk the current can be strongly modulated, whereas controlling the interfacial molecular orientation and degree of intermixing mediate the voltage.

  14. Training Effect and Hysteretic Behaviour of Angular Dependence of Exchange Bias in Co/IrMn Bilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; DU Jun; BAI Xiao-Jun; YOU Biao; ZHANG Wei; HU An


    @@ The training effect and the hysteresis behaviour of the angular dependence of exchange bias are extensively investigated upon the variation of the IrMn layer thickness tIrMn in a series of Co/IrMn bilayers. When tIrMn is very small, both of them are negligible. Then they increase very sharply with increasing tIrMn and then reach maxima at almost the same value of tIrMn. Finally they both decrease when tIrMn is further increased. The similar variation trends suggest that these phenomena arise from irreversible change of antiferromagnet spin orientations, according to the thermal activation model.

  15. Amphiphile regulation of ion channel function by changes in the bilayer spring constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August; Koeppe, R.E.; Andersen, Oluf Sten


    Many drugs are amphiphiles that, in addition to binding to a particular target protein, adsorb to cell membrane lipid bilayers and alter intrinsic bilayer physical properties (e. g., bilayer thickness, monolayer curvature, and elastic moduli). Such changes can modulate membrane protein function b......-dependent sodium channels in living cells. The use of gA channels as molecular force probes provides a tool for quantitative, predictive studies of bilayer-mediated regulation of membrane protein function by amphiphiles....... by altering the energetic cost (Delta G(bilayer)) of bilayer deformations associated with protein conformational changes that involve the protein-bilayer interface. But amphiphiles have complex effects on the physical properties of lipid bilayers, meaning that the net change in Delta G(bilayer) cannot...... be predicted from measurements of isolated changes in such properties. Thus, the bilayer contribution to the promiscuous regulation of membrane proteins by drugs and other amphiphiles remains unknown. To overcome this problem, we use gramicidin A (gA) channels as molecular force probes to measure the net...

  16. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng


    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  17. The Mechanical Aspects of Formation and Application of PDMS Bilayers Rolled into a Cylindrical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Kang


    Full Text Available A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS film with its surface being oxidized by a plasma treatment or a UV-ozone (UVO treatment, that is, a bilayer made of PDMS and its oxidized surface layer, is known to roll into a cylindrical structure upon exposure to the chloroform vapor due to the mismatch in the swelling ratio between PDMS and the oxidized layer by the chloroform vapor. Here we analyzed the formation of the rolled bilayer with the mechanical aspects: how the mismatch in the swelling ratio of the bilayer induces rolling of the bilayer, why any form of trigger that breaks the symmetry in the in-plane stress level is needed to roll the bilayer uniaxially, why the rolled bilayer does not unroll in the dry state when there is no more mismatch in the swelling ratio, and how the measured curvature of rolled bilayer matches well with the prediction by the theory. Moreover, for the use of the rolled bilayer as the channel of the microfluidic device, we examined whether the rolled bilayer deforms or unrolls by the flow of the aqueous solution that exerts the circumferential stress on the rolled bilayer.

  18. A Molecular Dynamics Study of the Structural and Dynamical Properties of Putative Arsenic Substituted Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Juwita


    Full Text Available Cell membranes are composed mainly of phospholipids which are in turn, composed of five major chemical elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. Recent studies have suggested the possibility of sustaining life if the phosphorus is substituted by arsenic. Although this issue is still controversial, it is of interest to investigate the properties of arsenated-lipid bilayers to evaluate this possibility. In this study, we simulated arsenated-lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-arsenocholine (POAC, lipid bilayers using all-atom molecular dynamics to understand basic structural and dynamical properties, in particular, the differences from analogous 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, (POPC lipid bilayers. Our simulations showed that POAC lipid bilayers have distinct structural and dynamical properties from those of native POPC lipid bilayers. Relative to POPC lipid bilayers, POAC lipid bilayers have a more compact structure with smaller lateral areas and greater order. The compact structure of POAC lipid bilayers is due to the fact that more inter-lipid salt bridges are formed with arsenate-choline compared to the phosphate-choline of POPC lipid bilayers. These inter-lipid salt bridges bind POAC lipids together and also slow down the head group rotation and lateral diffusion of POAC lipids. Thus, it would be anticipated that POAC and POPC lipid bilayers would have different biological implications.

  19. Dynamics and stability of lipid bilayers modulated by thermosensitive polypeptides, cholesterols, and PEGylated lipids. (United States)

    Lee, Hwankyu; Kim, Hyun Ryoung; Park, Jae Chan


    Lipid bilayers, which consist of dipalmitoylglycerophosphocholines (DPPCs), PEGylated lipids, cholesterols, and elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs; [VPGVG]3) at different molar ratios, were simulated. Simulations were carried out for 2 μs using the coarse-grained (CG) model that had captured the experimentally observed phase behavior of PEGylated lipids and lateral diffusivity of DPPC bilayers. Starting with the initial position of ELPs on the bilayer surface, ELPs insert into the hydrophobic region of the bilayer because of their interaction with lipid tails, consistent with previous all-atom simulations. Lateral diffusion coefficients of DPPCs significantly increase in the bilayer composed of more ELPs and less cholesterols, showing their opposite effects on the bilayer dynamics. In particular, ELPs modulate the dynamics and phase for the disordered liquid bilayer, but not for the ordered gel bilayer, indicating that ELPs can destabilize only the disordered bilayer. In the ordered bilayer, ELP chains tend to have a spherical shape and slowly diffuse, while they are extended and diffuse faster in the disordered bilayer, indicating the effect of the bilayer phase on the conformation and diffusivity of ELPs. These findings explain the experimental observation that the ELP-conjugated liposomes are stable at 310 K (ordered phase) but become unstable and release the encapsulated drugs at 315 K (disordered phase), which suggests the effects of ELPs and cholesterols. Since the cholesterol-stabilized bilayer can be destabilized by the extended shaped ELPs only in the disordered phase (not in the ordered phase), the inclusion of cholesterols is required to safely shield drugs at 310 K as well as allow ELPs to disrupt lipids and destabilize the liposomes at 315 K.

  20. A large scale molecular dynamics calculation of a lipid bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Susumu [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    Long time molecular dynamics simulations for the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer in the liquid crystal phase could successfully be performed in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble using the Nose-Parrinello-Rahman extended system method. Three independent 2 ns calculations show excellent convergence to the same equilibrium state of the system in about 0.5 ns. Various structural properties such a atomic distribution, order parameter, gauche fraction in the alkyl chains, and bent structure of the head group and sn-2 chain were satisfactorily reproduced. Dynamic quantities such as trans-gauche transition were qualitatively in good correspondence the experiment. The calculations presented a microscopic picture of the whole molecular conformations, including the finding that there is not a collective tilt in bilayer. Some interesting dynamical observations concerning large structural fluctuations and pendulum motion of the alkyl chains were also made. (author)

  1. Polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin increases its insertion into lipid bilayers. (United States)

    Kegel, Kimberly B; Schewkunow, Vitali; Sapp, Ellen; Masso, Nicholas; Wanker, Erich E; DiFiglia, Marian; Goldmann, Wolfgang H


    An expanded polyglutamine (Q) tract (>37Q) in huntingtin (htt) causes Huntington disease. Htt associates with membranes and polyglutamine expansion in htt may alter membrane function in Huntington disease through a mechanism that is not known. Here we used differential scanning calorimetry to examine the effects of polyQ expansion in htt on its insertion into lipid bilayers. We prepared synthetic lipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine and tested interactions of htt amino acids 1-89 with 20Q, 32Q or 53Q with the vesicles. GST-htt1-89 with 53Q inserted into synthetic lipid vesicles significantly more than GST-htt1-89 with 20Q or 32Q. We speculate that by inserting more into cell membranes, mutant huntingtin could increase disorder within the lipid bilayer and thereby disturb cellular membrane function.

  2. Phase-separation transitions in asymmetric lipid bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Shimobayashi, Shunsuke F; Taniguchi, Takashi


    Morphological transitions of phase separation associated with the asymmetry of lipid composition were investigated using micrometer-sized vesicles of lipid bilayers made from a lipid mixture. The complete macro-phase-separated morphology undergoes a transition to a micro-phase-separation-like morphology via a lorate morphology as a metastable state. The transition leads to the emergence of monodisperse nanosized domains through repeated domain scission events. Moreover, we have numerically confirmed the transitions using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model describing phase separation and the bending elastic membrane, which is quantitatively consistent with experimental results by fixing one free parameter. Our findings suggest that the local spontaneous curvature due to the asymmetric composition plays an essential role in the thermodynamic stabilization of micro-phase separation in lipid bilayers.

  3. Formation of droplet interface bilayers in a Teflon tube. (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond; Feuerborn, Alexander; Cook, Peter R


    Droplet-interface bilayers (DIBs) have applications in disciplines ranging from biology to computing. We present a method for forming them manually using a Teflon tube attached to a syringe pump; this method is simple enough it should be accessible to those without expertise in microfluidics. It exploits the properties of interfaces between three immiscible liquids, and uses fluid flow through the tube to pack together drops coated with lipid monolayers to create bilayers at points of contact. It is used to create functional nanopores in DIBs composed of phosphocholine using the protein α-hemolysin (αHL), to demonstrate osmotically-driven mass transfer of fluid across surfactant-based DIBs, and to create arrays of DIBs. The approach is scalable, and thousands of DIBs can be prepared using a robot in one hour; therefore, it is feasible to use it for high throughput applications.

  4. Formation of droplet interface bilayers in a Teflon tube (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond; Feuerborn, Alexander; Cook, Peter R.


    Droplet-interface bilayers (DIBs) have applications in disciplines ranging from biology to computing. We present a method for forming them manually using a Teflon tube attached to a syringe pump; this method is simple enough it should be accessible to those without expertise in microfluidics. It exploits the properties of interfaces between three immiscible liquids, and uses fluid flow through the tube to pack together drops coated with lipid monolayers to create bilayers at points of contact. It is used to create functional nanopores in DIBs composed of phosphocholine using the protein α-hemolysin (αHL), to demonstrate osmotically-driven mass transfer of fluid across surfactant-based DIBs, and to create arrays of DIBs. The approach is scalable, and thousands of DIBs can be prepared using a robot in one hour; therefore, it is feasible to use it for high throughput applications. PMID:27681313

  5. Model for magnetostrictive performance in soft/hard coupled bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianjun, Li, E-mail: [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Beibei, Duan; Minglun, Li [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)


    A model is set up to investigate the magnetostrictive performance and spin response in soft/hard magnetostrictive coupled bilayers. Direct coupling between soft ferromagnet and hard TbFe{sub 2} at the interface is assumed. The magnetostriction results from the rotation of ferromagnetic vector and TbFe{sub 2} vectors from the easy axis driven by applied magnetic field. Dependence of magnetostriction on TbFe{sub 2} layer thickness and interfacial exchange interaction is studied. The simulated results reveal the compromise between interfacial exchange interaction and anisotropy of TbFe{sub 2} hard layer. - Highlights: • A model for magnetostrictive performance in soft/hard coupled bilayers. • Simulated magnetostriction loop and corresponding spin response. • Competition and compromise between interfacial interaction and TbFe{sub 2} anisotropy. • Dependence of saturated magnetostriction on different parameters.

  6. Dipolar bilayer with antiparallel polarization: A self-bound liquid (United States)

    Hebenstreit, Martin; Rader, Michael; Zillich, Robert E.


    Dipolar bilayers with antiparallel polarization, i.e., opposite polarization in the two layers, exhibit liquidlike rather than gaslike behavior. In particular, even without external pressure, a self-bound liquid droplet of constant density will form. We investigate the symmetric case of two identical layers, corresponding to a two-component Bose system with equal partial densities. The zero-temperature equation of state E (ρ )/N , where ρ is the total density, has a minimum, with an equilibrium density that can be adjusted by the distance d between the layers (decreasing with increasing d ). The attraction necessary for a self-bound liquid comes from the interlayer dipole-dipole interaction that leads to a mediated intralayer attraction. We investigate the regime of negative pressure towards the spinodal instability, where the bilayer is unstable against infinitesimal fluctuations of the total density, confirmed by calculations of the speed of sound of total density fluctuations.

  7. Asymmetric bilayer graphene nanoribbon MOSFETs for analog and digital electronics (United States)

    Dinarvand, A.; Ahmadi, V.; Darvish, Gh.


    In this paper, a new structure was proposed for bilayer graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistor (BGNFET) mainly to enhance the electrical characteristics in analog and digital applications. The proposed device uses two metallic gates on the top and bottom of a bilayer graphene nanoribbon, which is surrounded by SiO2 and connected to heavily doped source/drain contacts. Electrical properties of the proposed device were explored using fully self-consistent solution of Poisson and Schrödinger equations based on the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. Significant improvements in the electrical behavior was seen in the simulation results for gates asymmetrically biased. The comparison with graphene nanoribbon FET showed that the proposed structure benefited from higher intrinsic voltage gain and cut-off frequency and improved switching characteristics such as delay and Ion/Ioff ratio.

  8. Bilayer graphene: physics and application outlook in photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hugen


    Full Text Available Layered materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichacogenides and black phosphorus have attracted lots of attention recently. They are emerging novel materials in electronics and photonics, with tremendous potential in revolutionizing the traditional electronics and photonics industry. Marrying layered material to the nanophotonics is being proved fruitful. With the recent emphasis and development of metasurfaces in nanophotonics, atomically thin materials can find their unique position and strength in this field. In this article, I will focus on one specific two dimensional material: bilayer graphene. Basic physics will be reviewed, such as band-gap opening, electron-phonon interaction, phonon-plasmon interaction and Fano resonances in the optical response. Moreover, I will review the application of bilayer graphene as a sensitive and fast photodetector. An outlook will be given in the final part of the paper.

  9. Formation of droplet interface bilayers in a Teflon tube (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond; Feuerborn, Alexander; Cook, Peter R.


    Droplet-interface bilayers (DIBs) have applications in disciplines ranging from biology to computing. We present a method for forming them manually using a Teflon tube attached to a syringe pump; this method is simple enough it should be accessible to those without expertise in microfluidics. It exploits the properties of interfaces between three immiscible liquids, and uses fluid flow through the tube to pack together drops coated with lipid monolayers to create bilayers at points of contact. It is used to create functional nanopores in DIBs composed of phosphocholine using the protein α-hemolysin (αHL), to demonstrate osmotically-driven mass transfer of fluid across surfactant-based DIBs, and to create arrays of DIBs. The approach is scalable, and thousands of DIBs can be prepared using a robot in one hour; therefore, it is feasible to use it for high throughput applications.

  10. Fluid motion and solute distribution around sinking aggregates I : Small-scale fluxes and heterogeneity of nutrients in the pelagic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Ploug, H.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro


    and oxygen-concentration fields in the vicinity of both artificial and natural oxygen-consuming aggregates that are suspended in a flow compare well with model predictions, thus suggesting that our set-up is suitable for making biological rate measurements. The sinking aggregate leaves a long slender plume......Marine snow aggregates are sites of elevated biological activity. This activity depends on the exchange of solutes (O- 2, CO2, mineral nutrients, dissolved organic material, etc.) between the aggregate and the environment and causes heterogeneity in the distribution of dissolved substances...... the importance of a correct flow environment when making biological rate-measurements on aggregates (e.g., oxygen consumption/production, growth rates of bacteria and phytoplankton) because both solute fluxes and internal solute concentrations depend strongly on the flow environment. Observations of flow...

  11. Coherence and Optical Emission from Bilayer Exciton Condensates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Snoke


    Full Text Available Experiments aimed at demonstrating Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons in two types of experiments with bilayer structures (coupled quantum wells are reviewed, with an emphasis on the basic effects. Bose-Einstein condensation implies the existence of a macroscopic coherence, also known as off-diagonal long-range order, and proposed tests and past claims for coherence in these excitonic systems are discussed.

  12. Reversal of exchange bias in nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Prados, C; Hernando, A; Montone, A


    The sign of the exchange bias in field cooled nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic bilayers (Co-O and Ni-O/permalloy) is reversed at temperatures approaching the antiferromagnetic (AFM) blocking temperature. A similar phenomenon is observed after magnetic training processes at similar temperatures. These effects can be explained assuming that the boundaries of nanocrystalline grains in AFM layers exhibit lower transition temperatures than grain cores.

  13. Molecular doping and band-gap opening of bilayer graphene. (United States)

    Samuels, Alexander J; Carey, J David


    The ability to induce an energy band gap in bilayer graphene is an important development in graphene science and opens up potential applications in electronics and photonics. Here we report the emergence of permanent electronic and optical band gaps in bilayer graphene upon adsorption of π electron containing molecules. Adsorption of n- or p-type dopant molecules on one layer results in an asymmetric charge distribution between the top and bottom layers and in the formation of an energy gap. The resultant band gap scales linearly with induced carrier density though a slight asymmetry is found between n-type dopants, where the band gap varies as 47 meV/10(13) cm(-2), and p-type dopants where it varies as 40 meV/10(13) cm(-2). Decamethylcobaltocene (DMC, n-type) and 3,6-difluoro-2,5,7,7,8,8-hexacyano-quinodimethane (F2-HCNQ, p-type) are found to be the best molecules at inducing the largest electronic band gaps up to 0.15 eV. Optical adsorption transitions in the 2.8-4 μm region of the spectrum can result between states that are not Pauli blocked. Comparison is made between the band gaps calculated from adsorbate-induced electric fields and from average displacement fields found in dual gate bilayer graphene devices. A key advantage of using molecular adsorption with π electron containing molecules is that the high binding energy can induce a permanent band gap and open up possible uses of bilayer graphene in mid-infrared photonic or electronic device applications.

  14. A defect mediated lamellar to isotropic transition of amphiphile bilayers


    Pal, Antara; Pabst, Georg; Raghunathan, V. A.


    We report the observation of a novel isotropic phase of amphiphile bilayers in a mixed system consisting of the ionic surfactant, sodium docecylsulphate (SDS), and the organic salt p-toludine hydrochloride (PTHC). This system forms a collapsed lamellar ($L_\\alpha$) phase over a wide range of water content, which transforms into an isotropic phase on heating. This transition is not observed in samples without excess water, where the $L_\\alpha$ phase is stable at higher temperatures. Our observ...

  15. Optimizing non-Pb radiation shielding materials using bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Mainegra-Hing, E.; Shen, H. [Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Building M-35, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa K1A 0R6 (Canada)


    Purpose: The objective of this study was to demonstrate that the weight of non-Pb radiation shielding materials can be minimized by structuring the material as a bilayer composed of different metal-powder-embedded elastomer layers. Methods: Measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations were performed to study the attenuation properties of several non-Pb metal bilayers over the x-ray energy range 30-150 keV. Metals for the layers were chosen on the basis of low cost, nontoxicity, and complementary photoelectric absorption characteristics. The EGSnrc user code cavity.cpp was used to calculate the resultant x-ray fluence spectra after attenuation by these metal layers. Air kerma attenuation was measured using commercially manufactured metal/elastomer test layers. These layers were irradiated using the primary standard calibration beams at the Institute for National Measurement Standards in Ottawa, Canada utilizing the six x-ray beam qualities recommended in the German Standard DIN 6857. Both the measurements and the calculations were designed to approximate surface irradiation as well as penetrating radiation at 10 mm depth in soft tissue. The MC modeling point and the position of the measurement detector for surface irradiation were both directly against the downstream face of the attenuating material, as recommended in DIN 6857. Results: The low-Z upstream/high-Z downstream ordering of the metal bilayers provided substantially more attenuation than the reverse order. Optimal percentages of each metal in each bilayer were determined for each x-ray radiation beam quality. Conclusions: Depending on the x-ray quality, appropriate choices of two complementary metal-embedded elastomer layers can decrease the weight of radiation shielding garments by up to 25% compared to Pb-based elastomer garments while providing equivalent attenuation.

  16. Bending elastic moduli of lipid bilayers : modulation by solutes


    Duwe, H.P.; Kaes, J.; Sackmann, E.


    We present high precision measurements of the bending elastic moduli for bilayers of a variety of different lipids and of modifications of the flexural rigidity by solutes. The measurements are based on the Fourier analysis of thermally excited membrane undulations (vesicle shape fluctuations) using a recently developed dynamic image processing method. Measurements of the bending modulus as a function of the undulation wave vector provide information on the limitation of the excitations by th...

  17. Self-assembling bilayers of palladiumthiolates in organic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P John Thomas; A Lavanya; V Sabareesh; G U Kulkarni


    Alkylthiolates of palladium forming a homologous series (butyl to octadecyl) have been prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction and STM. The thiolates adopt an unusual bilayered lamellar structure, whose thickness is governed by the length of the alkyl chain. These mesophases melt in the temperature range, 60° to 100°C, with the melting point increasing linearly with the thiol chain length. There is evidence to suggest that the alkyl chains are orientationally disordered especially prior to melting.

  18. Comment on "Raman spectra of misoriented bilayer graphene"


    Ni, Zhenhua; Wang, Yingying; Yu, Ting; You, Yumeng; Shen, Zexiang


    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. B 78, 113407 (2008)], Poncharal et al. studied the Raman spectra of misoriented bilayer graphene. They found that the blueshift of 2D band of misoriented graphene relative to that of single layer graphene shows a strong dependence on the excitation laser energy. The blueshift increases with decreasing excitation energy. This finding contradicts our explanation of reduction of Fermi velocity of folded/misoriented graphene [Ni et al. Phys. Rev. B 77, 235403 (2008)]...

  19. Influence of silybin on biophysical properties of phospholipid bilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga WESO(L)OWSKA; Krystyna MICHALAK; Barbara (L)ANIA-PIETRZAK; Micha(l) KU(Z)D(Z)A(L); Kamila STA(N)CZAK; Daniela MOSI(A)DZ; Piotr DOBRYSZYCKI; Andrzej O(Z)YHAR; Ma(l)gorzata KOMOROWSKA; Andrzej B HENDRICH


    Aim: Silybin (silibinin)is major biologically active flavonolignan extracted from milk thistle (Sylibum marianum). Its biological activities include hepato-protection, anticancer properties, and antioxidant- and membrane-stabilizing functions. Al-though membranes are postulated to be one of the cellular targets for silybin, little is known about its interaction with phospholipid bilayers. Methods: In the present work, the interactions of silybin with phosphatidylcholine bilayers were studied in detail using fluorescence spectroscopy, microcalorimetry and electron spin resonance techniques. Results: The results showed that silybin interacted with the surface of lipid bilayers. It affected the generalized polarization of the fluores-cent probe Prodan, while not influencing the more deeplylocated Laurdan. Silybin lowered the main phospholipid phase transition temperature as judged by microcalorimetry, and caused the immobilization of spin probe Tempo-palmitate located on the surface of membranes. The mobility of spin probes 5-and 16-doxylstearic acid was not affected by silybin. Silybin-induced quenching of 1,6-diphe-nyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence indicated that some flavonoid molecules parti-tioned into the hydrophobic region of membranes, which did not change signifi-cantly the biophysical properties of the deeper membrane regions. Conclusion: Such a behavior of silybin in membranes is in accordance with its postulated biological functions and neglectable side effects of therapies using silybin.

  20. Thermoelectric Power in Bilayer Graphene Device with Ionic Liquid Gating. (United States)

    Chien, Yung-Yu; Yuan, Hongtao; Wang, Chang-Ran; Lee, Wei-Li


    The quest for materials showing large thermoelectric power has long been one of the important subjects in material science and technology. Such materials have great potential for thermoelectric cooling and also high figure of merit ZT thermoelectric applications. We have fabricated bilayer graphene devices with ionic-liquid gating in order to tune its band gap via application of a perpendicular electric field on a bilayer graphene. By keeping the Fermi level at charge neutral point during the cool-down, we found that the charge puddles effect can be greatly reduced and thus largely improve the transport properties at low T in graphene-based devices using ionic liquid gating. At (Vig, Vbg) = (-1 V, +23 V), a band gap of about 36.6 ± 3 meV forms, and a nearly 40% enhancement of thermoelectric power at T = 120 K is clearly observed. Our works demonstrate the feasibility of band gap tuning in a bilayer graphene using ionic liquid gating. We also remark on the significant influence of the charge puddles effect in ionic-liquid-based devices.

  1. Photon-assisted transport in bilayer graphene flakes (United States)

    Zambrano, D.; Rosales, L.; Latgé, A.; Pacheco, M.; Orellana, P. A.


    The electronic conductance of graphene-based bilayer flake systems reveals different quantum interference effects, such as Fabry-Pérot resonances and sharp Fano antiresonances on account of competing electronic paths through the device. These properties may be exploited to obtain spin-polarized currents when the same nanostructure is deposited above a ferromagnetic insulator. Here, we study how the spin-dependent conductance is affected when a time-dependent gate potential is applied to the bilayer flake. Following a Tien-Gordon formalism, we explore how to modulate the transport properties of such systems via appropriate choices of the ac-field gate parameters. The presence of an oscillating field opens the possibility of tuning the original antiresonances for a large set of field parameters. We show that interference patterns can be partially or fully removed by the time-dependent gate voltage. The results are reflected in the corresponding weighted spin polarization, which can reach maximum values for a given spin component. We found that differential conductance maps as functions of bias and gate potentials show interference patterns for different ac-field parameter configurations. The proposed bilayer graphene flake systems may be used as a frequency detector in the THz range.

  2. Optical rectification at visible frequency in biased bilayer graphene (United States)

    Hipolito, F.; Pereira, Vitor M.


    The second order response of the electrical current to an electromagnetic field is analyzed within the framework of non-equilibrium many-body perturbation theory for the case of a two-dimensional electronic system such as graphene and its bilayer. The absence of inversion symmetry in a biased graphene bilayer allows a finite DC response in second order to an AC electromagnetic wave. The induced DC current is evaluated for biased bilayer at finite temperature, and its tunability is analyzed as a function of electron density, which can be experimentally varied by means of a global gate voltage applied to the sample. Both intrinsic and photon drag microscopic processes are considered, as they contribute on similar footing to the photocurrent in general. However, the dependencies of these two contributions on the polarization state of the incident light are different, which allows the manipulation of the relative contribution of intrinsic versus photon drag contributions by tuning the experimental parameters. For example, the photocurrent emerging from circularly polarized light stems entirely from photon drag, as the circular photogalvanic effect is forbidden by the C3 rotation symmetry of the honeycomb lattice.

  3. Amphotericin B induced interdigitation of apolipoprotein stabilized nanodisk bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T; Weers, P M; Sulchek, T; Hoeprich, P D; Ryan, R O


    Amphotericin B nanodisks (AMB-ND) are ternary complexes of AMB, phospholipid (PL) and apolipoprotein organized as discrete nanometer scale disk-shaped bilayers. In gel filtration chromatography experiments, empty ND lacking AMB elute as a single population of particles with a molecular weight in the range of 200 kDa. AMB-ND formulated at a 4:1 PL:AMB weight ratio, separated into two peaks. Peak 1 eluted at the position of control ND lacking AMB while the second peak, containing all of the AMB present in the original sample, eluted in the void volume. When ND prepared with increased AMB (1:1 phospholipid:AMB molar ratio) were subjected to gel filtration chromatography, an increased proportion of phospholipid and apolipoprotein were recovered in the void volume with the AMB. Prior to gel filtration the AMB-ND sample could be passed through a 0.22 {micro}m filter without loss of AMB while the voided material was lost. Native gel electrophoresis studies corroborated the gel permeation chromatography data. Far UV circular dichroism analyses revealed that apoA-I associated with AMB-ND denatures at a lower guanidine HCl concentration than apoA-I associated with ND lacking AMB. Atomic force microscopy revealed that AMB induces compression of the ND bilayer thickness consistent with bilayer interdigitation, a phenomenon that is likely related to the ability of AMB to induce pore formation in susceptible membranes.

  4. Performance projection of bilayer graphene nanoribbon FET through quantum mechanical simulation (United States)

    Rawat, Brajesh; Paily, Roy


    A quantum transport simulator based on a self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger equation within non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism and 2D Poisson equation for a bilayer graphene nanoribbon (bilayer GNR) field-effect transistor (FET) has been developed to examine the ballistic performance of a device. It is found that the lateral confinement employed in bilayer graphene to form the bilayer GNR largely increases the ON/OFF current ({I}{{ON}}/{I}{{OFF}}) ratios of FET without significantly degrading its ON current ({I}{{ON}}). On the other hand, the interlayer coupling considerably decreases the confinement-induced energy gap of the bilayer GNR and largely increases the {I}{{ON}} of the narrow bilayer GNR FET at the cost of lower {I}{{ON}}/{I}{{OFF}} ratios in comparison with the GNR FET.

  5. TiB{sub 2}/TiSi{sub 2} bilayer fabrication by various techniques: Structure and contact properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelleg, Joshua [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Ben Gurion Str. 84105, Beer Sheva (Israel)]. E-mail:; Sade, G. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Ben Gurion Str. 84105, Beer Sheva (Israel)


    TiB{sub 2}/TiSi{sub 2} films were produced by several techniques in an attempt to evaluate the most appropriate method to fabricate this system. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicate that the best method to obtain the above system is by sequential cosputtering of the layers without exposure to air between the two cosputtering sequences. Post-deposition annealing was performed to obtain a low resistive bilayer. Schottky diodes fabricated by this method provided an average barrier height of {approx}0.68 V with an ideality factor in the range of 1.0-1.04 (excluding the as-deposited specimen). In specimens fabricated by silicidation of TiB{sub 2}/Ti films formation of TiSi{sub 2} was Ti thickness dependent [G. Sade, Ph.D. Thesis, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel, 1999]. Small amounts of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} were observed at 1123 K. The attempts to obtain a TiB{sub 2}/TiSi{sub 2} bilayer from (Ti+B) enriched with Ti at 1073 K resulted in the formation of small amounts of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, and some crystallization of the amorphous TiB{sub 2} also occurred. Diodes fabricated by this technique showed Ohmic rather than rectifying character. The shift from rectifying to Ohmic behavior is the result of B out-diffusion to the Si and the consequent change of the substrate from an n- to a p-type Si. The results place the Fermi level of TiB{sub 2} about 0.9 eV below the silicon conduction band. A remedy to this problem could result in a challenging method of fabricating a TiB{sub 2}/TiSi{sub 2} bilayer structure in a one-step process.

  6. Time-resolved photoresponse of nanometer-thick Nb/NiCu bilayers (United States)

    Parlato, L.; Pepe, G. P.; Latempa, R.; De Lisio, C.; Altucci, C.; D'Acunto, P.; Peluso, G.; Barone, A.; Taneda, T.; Sobolewski, R.


    We present femtosecond optical time-resolved pump-probe investigations of superconducting hybrids structures consisting of Nb/NiCu bilayers with various thickness. Measurements performed on pure Nb and NiCu films are also given. The photoresponse experiments provide the quasiparticle relaxation times in bilayers of different thickness ratios. The study of the photoresponse as a function of the temperature reveals the spatial evolution of the superconductor order parameter across the bilayers.

  7. Study of annealing effects in Al–Sb bilayer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Mangal; B Tripathi; M Singh; Y K Vijay


    In this paper, we present preparation and characterization of Al–Sb bilayer thin films. Thin films of thicknesses, 3000/1000 Å and 3000/1500 Å, were obtained by the thermal evaporation (resistive heating) method. Vacuum annealing and rapid thermal annealing methods were used to mix bilayer thin film structure. Results obtained from optical band gap data and Rutherford back scattering spectrometry showed mixing of Al–Sb bilayer system.

  8. The Effect of Bilayer Graphene Nanoribbon Geometry on Schottky-Barrier Diode Performance


    Meisam Rahmani; Razali Ismail; Mohammad Taghi Ahmadi; Mohammad Javad Kiani; Mehdi Saeidmanesh; F. A. Hediyeh Karimi; Elnaz Akbari; Komeil Rahmani


    Bilayer graphene nanoribbon is a promising material with outstanding physical and electrical properties that offers a wide range of opportunities for advanced applications in future nanoelectronics. In this study, the application of bilayer graphene nanoribbon in schottky-barrier diode is explored due to its different stacking arrangements. In other words, bilayer graphene nanoribbon schottky-barrier diode is proposed as a result of contact between a semiconductor (AB stacking) and metal (AA ...

  9. Permeation of halide anions through phospholipid bilayers occurs by the solubility-diffusion mechanism (United States)

    Paula, S.; Volkov, A. G.; Deamer, D. W.


    Two alternative mechanisms are frequently used to describe ionic permeation of lipid bilayers. In the first, ions partition into the hydrophobic phase and then diffuse across (the solubility-diffusion mechanism). The second mechanism assumes that ions traverse the bilayer through transient hydrophilic defects caused by thermal fluctuations (the pore mechanism). The theoretical predictions made by both models were tested for halide anions by measuring the permeability coefficients for chloride, bromide, and iodide as a function of bilayer thickness, ionic radius, and sign of charge. To vary the bilayer thickness systematically, liposomes were prepared from monounsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PC) with chain lengths between 16 and 24 carbon atoms. The fluorescent dye MQAE (N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide) served as an indicator for halide concentration inside the liposomes and was used to follow the kinetics of halide flux across the bilayer membranes. The observed permeability coefficients ranged from 10(-9) to 10(-7) cm/s and increased as the bilayer thickness was reduced. Bromide was found to permeate approximately six times faster than chloride through bilayers of identical thickness, and iodide permeated three to four times faster than bromide. The dependence of the halide permeability coefficients on bilayer thickness and on ionic size were consistent with permeation of hydrated ions by a solubility-diffusion mechanism rather than through transient pores. Halide permeation therefore differs from that of a monovalent cation such as potassium, which has been accounted for by a combination of the two mechanisms depending on bilayer thickness.

  10. The effect of calcium on the properties of charged phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U.R.; Leidy, Chad; Westh, P.


    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and dynamics of charged bilayers as well as the distribution of counterions at the bilayer interface. For this, we have considered the negatively charged di-myristoyl-phosphatidyl-glycerol (DMPG) and di-myristoyl-phosph......We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and dynamics of charged bilayers as well as the distribution of counterions at the bilayer interface. For this, we have considered the negatively charged di-myristoyl-phosphatidyl-glycerol (DMPG) and di...

  11. Superficial disposition of the N-terminal region of the surfactant protein SP-C and the absence of specific SP-B-SP-C interactions in phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Cruz, A; Casals, C;


    A dansylated form of porcine surfactant-associated protein C (Dns-SP-C), bearing a single dansyl group at its N-terminal end, has been used to characterize the lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions of SP-C reconstituted in phospholipid bilayers, using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluor......A dansylated form of porcine surfactant-associated protein C (Dns-SP-C), bearing a single dansyl group at its N-terminal end, has been used to characterize the lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions of SP-C reconstituted in phospholipid bilayers, using fluorescence spectroscopy...... of the N-terminal segment of the protein into less polar environments that originate during protein lateral segregation. This suggests that conformation and interactions of the N-terminal segment of SP-C could be important in regulating the lateral distribution of the protein in surfactant bilayers...

  12. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)


    Astrid Moser; Thomas Rötzer; Stephan Pauleit; Hans Pretzsch


    The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researc...

  13. Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Baltensperger

    Full Text Available Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future.

  14. Tethered bilayer lipid membranes studied by simultaneous attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (United States)

    Erbe, Andreas; Bushby, Richard J.; Evans, Stephen D.; Jeuken, Lars J. C.


    The formation of tethered lipid bilayer membranes (tBLMs) from unilamelar vesicles of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EggPC) on mixed self–assembled monolayers (SAMs) from varying ratios of 6-mercaptohexanol and EO3Cholesteryl on gold has been monitored by simultaneous attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The influence of the lipid orientation (and hence the anisotropy) of lipids on a gold film on the dichroic ratio was studied by simulations of spectra with a matrix method for anisotropic layers. It is shown that for certain tilt angles of the dielectric tensor of the adsorbed anisotropic layer dispersive and negative absorption bands are possible. The experimental data indicates that the structure of the assemblies obtained varies with varying SAM composition. On SAMs with a high content of EO3Cholesteryl, tBLMs with reduced fluidity are formed. For SAMs with high content of 6-mercaptohexanol, the results are consistent with the adsorption of flattened vesicles, while spherical vesicles have been found in a small range of surface compositions. The kinetics of the adsorption process is consistent with the assumption of spherical vesicles as long–living intermediates for surfaces of high 6-mercaptohexanol content. No long–living spherical vesicles have been detected for surfaces with large fraction of EO3Cholesteryl tethers. The observed differences between the surfaces suggest that for the formation of tBLMs (unlike supported BLMs) no critical surface coverage of vesicles is needed prior to lipid bilayer formation. PMID:17388505

  15. Myeloid clusters are associated with a pro-metastatic environment and poor prognosis in smoking-related early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to understand the role of myeloid cell clusters in uninvolved regional lymph nodes from early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. METHODS: Uninvolved regional lymph node sections from 67 patients with stage I-III resected non-small cell lung cancer were immunostained to detect myeloid clusters, STAT3 activity and occult metastasis. Anthracosis intensity, myeloid cluster infiltration associated with anthracosis and pSTAT3 level were scored and correlated with patient survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with prognostic variables. Human macrophages were used for in vitro nicotine treatment. RESULTS: CD68+ myeloid clusters associated with anthracosis and with an immunosuppressive and metastasis-promoting phenotype and elevated overall STAT3 activity were observed in uninvolved lymph nodes. In patients with a smoking history, myeloid cluster score significantly correlated with anthracosis intensity and pSTAT3 level (P<0.01. Nicotine activated STAT3 in macrophages in long-term culture. CD68+ myeloid clusters correlated and colocalized with occult metastasis. Myeloid cluster score was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.049 and was associated with survival by Kaplan-Maier estimate in patients with a history of smoking (P = 0.055. The combination of myeloid cluster score with either lymph node stage or pSTAT3 level defined two populations with a significant difference in survival (P = 0.024 and P = 0.004, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Myeloid clusters facilitate a pro-metastatic microenvironment in uninvolved regional lymph nodes and associate with occult metastasis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Myeloid cluster score is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with a history of smoking, and may present a novel method to inform therapy choices in the adjuvant setting. Further validation studies are warranted.

  16. Interaction of curcumin with lipid monolayers and liposomal bilayers. (United States)

    Karewicz, Anna; Bielska, Dorota; Gzyl-Malcher, Barbara; Kepczynski, Mariusz; Lach, Radosław; Nowakowska, Maria


    Curcumin shows huge potential as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent. However, to achieve a satisfactory bioavailability and stability of this compound, its liposomal form is preferable. Our detailed studies on the curcumin interaction with lipid membranes are aimed to obtain better understanding of the mechanism and eventually to improve the efficiency of curcumin delivery to cells. Egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) one-component monolayers and bilayers, as well as mixed systems containing additionally dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) and cholesterol, were studied. Curcumin binding constant to EYPC liposomes was determined based on two different methods: UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence measurements to be 4.26×10(4)M(-1) and 3.79×10(4)M(-1), respectively. The fluorescence quenching experiment revealed that curcumin locates in the hydrophobic region of EYPC liposomal bilayer. It was shown that curcumin impacts the size and stability of the liposomal carriers significantly. Loaded into the EYPC/DPH/cholesterol liposomal bilayer curcumin stabilizes the system proportionally to its content, while the EYPC/DPH system is destabilized upon drug loading. The three-component lipid composition of the liposome seems to be the most promising system for curcumin delivery. An interaction of free and liposomal curcumin with EYPC and mixed monolayers was also studied using Langmuir balance measurements. Monolayer systems were treated as a simple model of cell membrane. Condensing effect of curcumin on EYPC and EYPC/DHP monolayers and loosening influence on EYPC/DHP/chol ones were observed. It was also demonstrated that curcumin-loaded EYPC liposomes are more stable upon interaction with the model lipid membrane than the unloaded ones.

  17. Thinking on Managing Corporate Financial Statements Distortion and Optimizing Financing Environment of Small and Medium Enterprises%治理企业财务报表失真优化中小企业融资环境的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The ifnancing problem has become the biggest bottleneck in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. One of the main reason is small and medium-sized enterprises widespread ifnancial statements distortion as leading to commercial banks credit crunch. Based on the analysis of the impact on commercial bank loans to small and medium sized enterprises of small and medium-sized enterprise financial statements distortion, put forward the governance way of managing corporate ifnancial statements distortion and optimizing the environment for SME ifnancing.%我国中小企业融资难已经成为制约中小企业发展的最大的瓶颈。中小企业融资难,其中主要原因之一是中小企业普遍存在财务报表失真,导致商业银行“惧贷”。本文在分析中小企业财务报表失真,给商业银行中小企业贷款业务所带来影响的基础上,针对中小企业财务报表失真成因,提出治理企业财务报表失真,优化中小企业融资环境的思路。

  18. Band Structure Asymmetry of Bilayer Graphene Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.Q.; Henriksen, E.A.; Jiang, Z.; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C.; Kim, P.; Stormer, H.L.; Basov, Dimitri N.


    We report on infrared spectroscopy of bilayer graphene integrated in gated structures. We observe a significant asymmetry in the optical conductivity upon electrostatic doping of electrons and holes. We show that this finding arises from a marked asymmetry between the valence and conduction bands, which is mainly due to the inequivalence of the two sublattices within the graphene layer and the next-nearest-neighbor interlayer coupling. From the conductivity data, the energy difference of the two sublattices and the interlayer coupling energy are directly determined.

  19. Photoinduced electron transfer of chlorophyll in lipid bilayer system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Lee; K W Seo; Y S Kang


    Photoinduced electron transfer from chlorophyll- through the interface of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) headgroup of the lipid bilayers was studied with electron magnetic resonance (EMR). The photoproduced radicals were identified with electron spin resonance (ESR) and radical yields of chlorophyll- were determined by double integration ESR spectra. The formation of vesicles was identified by changes in measured max values from diethyl ether solutions to vesicles solutions indirectly, and observed directly with SEM and TEM images. The efficiency of photosynthesis in model system was determined by measuring the amount of chlorophyll-a radical yields which were obtained from integration of ESR spectra.

  20. Inverse Proximity Effect in Superconductor-ferromagnet Bilayer Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Jing


    Measurements of the polar Kerr effect using a zero-area-loop Sagnac magnetometer on Pb/Ni and Al/(Co-Pd) proximity-effect bilayers show unambiguous evidence for the 'inverse proximity effect,' in which the ferromagnet (F) induces a finite magnetization in the superconducting (S) layer. To avoid probing the magnetic effects in the ferromagnet, the superconducting layer was prepared much thicker than the light's optical penetration depth. The sign and size of the effect, as well as its temperature dependence agree with recent predictions by Bergeret et al.[1].

  1. Electronic Bloch oscillation in bilayer graphene gradient superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hemeng; Li, Changan; Song, Yun [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Tianxing, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Li-Gang, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Hai-Qing [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)


    We investigate the electronic Bloch oscillation in bilayer graphene gradient superlattices using transfer matrix method. By introducing two kinds of gradient potentials of square barriers along electrons propagation direction, we find that Bloch oscillations up to terahertz can occur. Wannier-Stark ladders, as the counterpart of Bloch oscillation, are obtained as a series of equidistant transmission peaks, and the localization of the electronic wave function is also signature of Bloch oscillation. Furthermore, the period of Bloch oscillation decreases linearly with increasing gradient of barrier potentials.

  2. Affinity of four polar neurotransmitters for lipid bilayer membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chunhua; Ye, Fengbin; Valardez, Gustavo F.


    interacts unfavorably with DMPC and is thus preferentially excluded from the membrane's hydration layer. Conversely, the zwitterionic neurotransmitters are attracted to membranes with 10% anionic lipid and their local concentration at the interface is 5-10 times larger than in the aqueous bulk....... The simulations suggest that this attraction mainly relies on electrostatic interactions of the amino group of the neurotransmitter and the lipid phosphate. We conclude that moderate attraction to lipid membranes occurs for some polar neurotransmitters and hence that one premise for a theory of bilayer...

  3. Phase Diagram of Antiferromagnetically Exchange-Coupled Bilayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Guang-Hua; ZHANG Guang-Fu; SUN Li-Yuan; Peter A. J. de Groot


    Magnetic hysteresis properties of antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer structures, in which the two magnetic layers have different magnetic parameters and thicknesses, are studied within the framework of the Stoner-Wohifarth model. Analytical expressions for the switching fields corresponding to the linear magnetic states are obtained. By adjusting the magnetic parameters or thicknesses of layers, nine different types of easyaxis hysteresis loops may exist. The phase diagram of easy-axis hysteresis loops is mapped in the k,1 and k,2 plane, where k,1 and k,2 are the ratios of magnetic anisotropy to the interlayer exchange coupling of the two magnetic layers, respectively.

  4. Giant Frictional Drag in Double Bilayer Graphene Heterostructures (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Xue, Jiamin; Dillen, David C.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tutuc, Emanuel


    We study the frictional drag between carriers in two bilayer graphene flakes separated by a 2-5 nm thick hexagonal boron nitride dielectric. At temperatures (T ) lower than ˜10 K , we observe a large anomalous negative drag emerging predominantly near the drag layer charge neutrality. The anomalous drag resistivity increases dramatically with reducing T , and becomes comparable to the layer resistivity at the lowest T =1.5 K . At low T the drag resistivity exhibits a breakdown of layer reciprocity. A comparison of the drag resistivity and the drag layer Peltier coefficient suggests a thermoelectric origin of this anomalous drag.

  5. Multicritical point in a diluted bilayer Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet. (United States)

    Sandvik, Anders W


    The S=1/2 Heisenberg bilayer antiferromagnet with randomly removed interlayer dimers is studied using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. A zero-temperature multicritical point (p(*),g(*)) at the classical percolation density p=p(*) and interlayer coupling g(*) approximately equal 0.16 is demonstrated. The quantum critical exponents of the percolating cluster are determined using finite-size scaling. It is argued that the associated finite-temperature quantum critical regime extends to zero interlayer coupling and could be relevant for antiferromagnetic cuprates doped with nonmagnetic impurities.

  6. Ultraviolet-induced erasable photochromism in bilayer metal oxide films (United States)

    Terakado, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Keiji; Nakazawa, Akira


    We demonstrate that the optical transmittance of bilayer samples consisting of pyrolytically coated amorphous Mg-Sn-O and metal oxide films such as In 2O 3 and SnO 2 decreases upon ultraviolet illumination, but can be recovered by annealing in air at ˜300 ∘C. Spectral, structural, and compositional studies suggest that this photochromic phenomenon is induced by photoelectronic excitation in the Mg-Sn-O film, electron injection into the metal oxide, which becomes negatively charged, and subsequent formation of metallic particles, which absorb and/or scatter visible light.

  7. Negative terahertz conductivity in remotely doped graphene bilayer heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhii, V. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics of RAS, and Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 111005 (Russian Federation); Ryzhii, M. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 1460-1920 (United States); Shur, M. S. [Departments of Electrical, Electronics, and Systems Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Otsuji, T. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)


    Injection or optical generation of electrons and holes in graphene bilayers (GBLs) can result in the interband population inversion enabling the terahertz (THz) radiation lasing. The intraband radiative processes compete with the interband transitions. We demonstrate that remote doping enhances the indirect interband generation of photons in the proposed GBL heterostructures. Therefore, such remote doping helps to surpass the intraband (Drude) absorption, and results in large absolute values of the negative dynamic THz conductivity in a wide range of frequencies at elevated (including room) temperatures. The remotely doped GBL heterostructure THz lasers are expected to achieve higher THz gain compared with previously proposed GBL-based THz lasers.

  8. Interaction of S-methyl methanethiosulfonate with DPPC bilayer (United States)

    Defonsi Lestard, María E.; Díaz, Sonia B.; Tuttolomondo, María E.; Sánchez Cortez, Santiago; Puiatti, Marcelo; Pierini, Adriana B.; Ben Altabef, Aida


    The present study is a first step towards the investigation of S-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) interaction with membrane model systems like liposomes. In this paper, the interaction of MMTS with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers was studied by FTIR and SERS spectroscopy. Lysolipid effect on vesicle stability was studied. The results show that MMTS interacts to different extents with the phosphate and carbonyl groups of membranes in the gel and the liquid crystalline states. To gain a deeper insight into MMTS properties that may be potentially helpful in the design of new drugs with therapeutic effects, we performed theoretical studies that may be the basis for the design of their mode of action.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of charge mediated magnetoelectricity in multiferroic bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Álvarez, H.H. [Universidad de Caldas, Manizales (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Bedoya-Hincapié, C.M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Universidad Santo Tomás, Bogotá (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: [Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia)


    Simulations of a bilayer ferroelectric/ferromagnetic multiferroic system were carried out, based on the Monte Carlo method and Metropolis dynamics. A generic model was implemented with a Janssen-like Hamiltonian, taking into account magnetoelectric interactions due to charge accumulation at the interface. Two different magnetic exchange constants were considered for accumulation and depletion states. Several screening lengths were also included. Simulations exhibit considerable magnetoelectric effects not only at low temperature, but also at temperature near to the transition point of the ferromagnetic layer. The results match experimental observations for this kind of structure and mechanism.

  10. Local Roots, Global aspirations: Impact of culture on work environment and organizational culture in Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises in the Information Technology Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Vandana


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of culture in hiring, team formations and workplace interactions in Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SME in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector. This research used the case study approach, with multimethod data collecting instruments like observation, interviews, and analysis of the data available on the websites of the two ICT SMEs under study. The participants selected for the study were the owners, managers and senior employees of both firms. While both firms operated in similar fields, the workforce of one consisted largely of Malaysian employees, while that of second company consisted largely of foreigners. The findings revealed a considerable bias and preference towards cultural homogeneity.

  11. Use of the parallax-quench method to determine the position of the active-site loop of cholesterol oxidase in lipid bilayers. (United States)

    Chen, X; Wolfgang, D E; Sampson, N S


    To elucidate the cholesterol oxidase-membrane bilayer interaction, a cysteine was introduced into the active site lid at position-81 using the Brevibacterium enzyme. To eliminate the possibility of labeling native cysteine, the single cysteine in the wild-type enzyme was mutated to a serine without any change in activity. The loop-cysteine mutant was then labeled with acrylodan, an environment-sensitive fluorescence probe. The fluorescence increased and blue-shifted upon binding to lipid vesicles, consistent with a change into a more hydrophobic, i.e., lipid, environment. This acrylodan-labeled cholesterol oxidase was used to explore the pH, ionic strength, and headgroup dependence of binding. Between pH 6 and 10, there was no significant change in binding affinity. Incorporation of anionic lipids (phosphatidylserine) into the vesicles did not increase the binding affinity nor did altering the ionic strength. These experiments suggested that the interactions are primarily driven by hydrophobic effects not ionic effects. Using vesicles doped with either 5-doxyl phosphatidylcholine, 10-doxyl phosphatidylcholine, or phosphatidyl-tempocholine, quenching of acrylodan fluorescence was observed upon binding. Using the parallax method of London [Chattopadhyay, A., and London, E. (1987) Biochemistry 26, 39-45], the acrylodan ring is calculated to be 8.1 +/- 2.5 A from the center of the lipid bilayer. Modeling the acrylodan-cysteine residue as an extended chain suggests that the backbone of the loop does not penetrate into the lipid bilayer but interacts with the headgroups, i.e., the choline. These results demonstrate that cholesterol oxidase interacts directly with the lipid bilayer and sits on the surface of the membrane.

  12. Regulation of membrane protein function by lipid bilayer elasticity—a single molecule technology to measure the bilayer properties experienced by an embedded protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August


    , in the general regulation of membrane protein function, is unclear. This is to a large extent due to lack of a generally accepted framework in which to understand the many observations. The present review summarizes studies which have demonstrated that the hydrophobic interactions between a membrane protein...... and the host lipid bilayer provide an energetic coupling, whereby protein function can be regulated by the bilayer elasticity. The feasibility of this ‘hydrophobic coupling mechanism’ has been demonstrated using the gramicidin channel, a model membrane protein, in planar lipid bilayers. Using voltage...... properties experienced by an embedded protein has been developed. A theoretical and technological framework, to study the regulation of membrane protein function by lipid bilayer elasticity, has been established....

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy profile of Paracetamol in DPPC and DMPC lipid bilayers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yousef Nademi; Sepideh Amjad Iranagh; Abbas Yousefpour; Seyedeh Zahra Mousavi; Hamid Modarress


    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and biased MD simulation were carried out for the neutral form of Paracetamol inserted in fully hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipid bilayers. For comparison, fully hydrated DMPC and DPPC lipid bilayers were also simulated separately without Paracetamol. The simulation time for each system was 50 ns. At two concentrations of Paracetamol, various properties of the lipid bilayer such as area per lipid, order parameter, diffusion coefficient, radial distribution function, electrostatic potential, mass density and hydrogen bonds have been calculated. Also, the convergence in time of the free energy profile of the Paracetamol along a DPPC bilayer normal was calculated by umbrella sampling method. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that neutral form of Paracetamol shows a generally similar behaviour in DPPC and DMPC lipid bilayers. It was shown that the addition of Paracetamol causes a decrease in tail order parameter of both DPPC and DMPC lipid bilayers and the tail of Paracetamol adopts an inward orientation in the lipid bilayers. Also from the free energy profile, the high penetration barrier in the bilayer centre was determined.

  14. Alginate based bilayer hydrocolloid films as potential slow-release modern wound dressing. (United States)

    Thu, Hnin-Ei; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif; Ng, Shiow-Fern


    The aims of this research were to develop a novel bilayer hydrocolloid film based on alginate and to investigate its potential as slow-release wound healing vehicle. The bilayer is composed of an upper layer impregnated with model drug (ibuprofen) and a drug-free lower layer, which acted as a rate-controlling membrane. The thickness uniformity, solvent loss, moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR), hydration rate, morphology, rheology, mechanical properties, in vitro drug release and in vivo wound healing profiles were investigated. A smooth bilayer film with two homogenous distinct layers was produced. The characterisation results showed that bilayer has superior mechanical and rheological properties than the single layer films. The bilayers also showed low MVTR, slower hydration rate and lower drug flux in vitro compared to single layer inferring that bilayer may be useful for treating low suppurating wounds and suitable for slow release application on wound surfaces. The bilayers also provided a significant higher healing rate in vivo, with well-formed epidermis with faster granulation tissue formation when compared to the controls. In conclusions, a novel alginate-based bilayer hydrocolloid film was developed and results suggested that they can be exploited as slow-release wound dressings.

  15. Sign reversal of drag in bilayer systems with in-plane periodic potential modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkauskas, A.; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang;


    We develop a theory for describing frictional drag in bilayer systems with in-plane periodic potential modulations, and use it to investigate the drag between bilayer systems in which one of the layers is modulated in one direction. At low temperatures, as the density of carriers in the modulated...

  16. Filament networks attached to membranes: cytoskeletal pressure and local bilayer deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auth, Thorsten [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Safran, S A [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gov, Nir S [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)


    Several cell types, among them red blood cells, have a cortical, two-dimensional (2D) network of filaments sparsely attached to their lipid bilayer. In many mammalian cells, this 2D polymer network is connected to an underlying 3D, more rigid cytoskeleton. In this paper, we consider the pressure exerted by the thermally fluctuating, cortical network of filaments on the bilayer and predict the bilayer deformations that are induced by this pressure. We treat the filaments as flexible polymers and calculate the pressure that a network of such linear chains exerts on the bilayer; we then minimize the bilayer shape in order to predict the resulting local deformations. We compare our predictions with membrane deformations observed in electron micrographs of red blood cells. The polymer pressure along with the resulting membrane deformation can lead to compartmentalization, regulate in-plane diffusion and may influence protein sorting as well as transmit signals to the polymerization of the underlying 3D cytoskeleton.

  17. Removal of the mechanoprotective influence of the cytoskeleton reveals PIEZO1 is gated by bilayer tension (United States)

    Cox, Charles D.; Bae, Chilman; Ziegler, Lynn; Hartley, Silas; Nikolova-Krstevski, Vesna; Rohde, Paul R.; Ng, Chai-Ann; Sachs, Frederick; Gottlieb, Philip A.; Martinac, Boris


    Mechanosensitive ion channels are force-transducing enzymes that couple mechanical stimuli to ion flux. Understanding the gating mechanism of mechanosensitive channels is challenging because the stimulus seen by the channel reflects forces shared between the membrane, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. Here we examine whether the mechanosensitive channel PIEZO1 is activated by force-transmission through the bilayer. To achieve this, we generate HEK293 cell membrane blebs largely free of cytoskeleton. Using the bacterial channel MscL, we calibrate the bilayer tension demonstrating that activation of MscL in blebs is identical to that in reconstituted bilayers. Utilizing a novel PIEZO1-GFP fusion, we then show PIEZO1 is activated by bilayer tension in bleb membranes, gating at lower pressures indicative of removal of the cortical cytoskeleton and the mechanoprotection it provides. Thus, PIEZO1 channels must sense force directly transmitted through the bilayer.

  18. X-Ray Kinematography of Temperature-Jump Relaxation Probes the Elastic Properties of Fluid Bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Pabst, G; Amenitsch, H; Bernstorff, S; Laggner, P; Pabst, Georg; Rappolt, Michael; Amenitsch, Heinz; Bernstorff, Sigrid; Laggner, Peter


    The response kinetics of liquid crystalline phosphatidylcholine bilayerstacks to rapid, IR-laser induced temperature jumps has been studied bymillisecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction. The system reacts on the fasttemperature change by a discrete bilayer compression normal to its surface anda lateral bilayer expansion. Since water cannot diffuse from the excess phaseinto the interbilayer water region within the 2 ms duration of the laser pulse,the water layer has to follow the bilayer expansion, by an anomalous thinning.Structural analysis of a 20 ms diffraction pattern from the intermediate phaseindicates that the bilayer thickness remains within the limits of isothermalequilibrium values. Both, the intermediate structure and its relaxation intothe original equilibrium L_(alpha)-phase, depend on the visco-elasticproperties of the bilayer/water system. We present an analysis of therelaxation process by an overdamped one-dimensional oscillation model revealingthe concepts of Hooke's law for phospholipid bila...

  19. Intrinsic magnetism and spontaneous band gap opening in bilayer silicene and germanene. (United States)

    Wang, Xinquan; Wu, Zhigang


    It has been long sought to create magnetism out of simple non-magnetic materials, such as silicon and germanium. Here we show that intrinsic magnetism exists in bilayer silicene and germanene with no need to cut, etch, or dope. Unlike bilayer graphene, strong covalent interlayer bonding formed in bilayer silicene and germanene breaks the original π-bonding network of each layer, leaving the unbonded electrons unpaired and localized to carry magnetic moments. These magnetic moments then couple ferromagnetically within each layer while antiferromagnetically across two layers, giving rise to an infinite magnetic sheet with structural integrity and magnetic homogeneity. Furthermore, this unique magnetic ordering results in fundamental band gaps of 0.55 eV and 0.32 eV for bilayer silicene and germanene, respectively. The integration of intrinsic magnetism and spontaneous band gap opening makes bilayer silicene and germanene attractive for future nanoelectronics as well as spin-based computation and data storage.

  20. Filament networks attached to membranes: cytoskeletal pressure and local bilayer deformation (United States)

    Auth, Thorsten; Safran, S. A.; Gov, Nir S.


    Several cell types, among them red blood cells, have a cortical, two-dimensional (2D) network of filaments sparsely attached to their lipid bilayer. In many mammalian cells, this 2D polymer network is connected to an underlying 3D, more rigid cytoskeleton. In this paper, we consider the pressure exerted by the thermally fluctuating, cortical network of filaments on the bilayer and predict the bilayer deformations that are induced by this pressure. We treat the filaments as flexible polymers and calculate the pressure that a network of such linear chains exerts on the bilayer; we then minimize the bilayer shape in order to predict the resulting local deformations. We compare our predictions with membrane deformations observed in electron micrographs of red blood cells. The polymer pressure along with the resulting membrane deformation can lead to compartmentalization, regulate in-plane diffusion and may influence protein sorting as well as transmit signals to the polymerization of the underlying 3D cytoskeleton.

  1. Ground states of bilayered and extended t-J-U models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voo, Khee-Kyun, E-mail:


    The ground states of bilayered and extended t-J-U models are investigated with renormalized mean field theory. The trial wave functions are Gutzwiller projected Hartree–Fock states, and the site double occupancies are variational parameters. It is found that a spontaneous interlayer phase separation (PS) may arise in bilayers. In electron–hole doping asymmetric systems, the propensity for PS is stronger in electron doped bands. Via a PS, superconductivity can survive to lower doping densities, and antiferromagnetism in electron doped systems may survive to higher doping densities. The result is related to the superconducting cuprates. - Highlights: • Ground states in doped bilayered t-J-U models are studied. • Variational wave functions are Gutzwiller projected wave functions. • Site double occupancies are variational parameters. • Spontaneous interlayer phase separation may occur in bilayers. • Stronger tendency toward phase separation in electron doped bilayers.

  2. Specific heat of twisted bilayer graphene: Engineering phonons by atomic plane rotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nika, Denis L. [E. Pokatilov Laboratory of Physics and Engineering of Nanomaterials, Department of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, Chisinau MD-2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California, 92521 (United States); Cocemasov, Alexandr I. [E. Pokatilov Laboratory of Physics and Engineering of Nanomaterials, Department of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, Chisinau MD-2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Balandin, Alexander A., E-mail: [Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California, 92521 (United States)


    We have studied the phonon specific heat in single-layer, bilayer, and twisted bilayer graphene. The calculations were performed using the Born-von Karman model of lattice dynamics for intralayer atomic interactions and spherically symmetric interatomic potential for interlayer interactions. We found that at temperature T < 15 K, specific heat varies with temperature as T{sup n}, where n = 1 for graphene, n = 1.6 for bilayer graphene, and n = 1.3 for the twisted bilayer graphene. The phonon specific heat reveals an intriguing dependence on the twist angle in bilayer graphene, which is particularly pronounced at low temperature. The results suggest a possibility of phonon engineering of thermal properties of layered materials by twisting the atomic planes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishikesh*, M. A. Bhuiyan, S. M. Ashraful Islam, I. Dewan, Md. A. Islam and Md. S.- Ul H. Miah


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bi-layer tablet technology for bimodal release of drug and co-administration of drugs via oral route has been engaged a significant place in the field of drug delivery technology. At present, several pharmaceutical companies are developing bilayer tablet for co-administration of drugs to improve the therapeutic efficacy as well as to reduce the chances of drug-drug interaction. This review indicates the different aspects of drug release mechanism, different strategies of drug release, various techniques for bilayer tablet, and the influence of different process and formulation parameters must be considered during the development of bilayer tablet. Bi-layer tablet is suitable for sequential release of two drugs in combination, separate two incompatible substances, and also for sustained release tablet in which one layer is immediate release as initial dose and second layer is maintenance dose.

  4. Growth and characterization of the ZnO/ZnS bilayer obtained by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.C. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Dptos Fisica Aplicada and Dpto Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Espinos, J.P. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC), Avda. Americo Vespucio s/n, E41092 Sevilla (Spain); Leinen, D.; Martin, F. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Dptos Fisica Aplicada and Dpto Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Centeno, S.P. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Romero, R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Dptos Fisica Aplicada and Dpto Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Dptos Fisica Aplicada and Dpto Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail:


    ZnO/ZnS bilayer antireflection coatings have been prepared by spray pyrolysis using aqueous solutions of zinc acetate and thiourea or zinc chloride and thiourea. The structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and optical transmittance of the bilayer have been examined as a function of the composition of the initial solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and Ar ion-beam sputter etching was carried out to obtain a depth profile of bilayer. Neither carbon nor other by-products, which could alter the optical transmittance of the bilayer were found in either the interface or bulk. The differences between the bilayers arise from the annealing of the ZnS underlayer, as well as the precursor used to prepare it.

  5. Na+/D-glucose cotransporter based bilayer lipid membrane sensor for D-glucose. (United States)

    Sugao, N; Sugawara, M; Minami, H; Uto, M; Umezawa, Y


    A new type of amperometric blosensor for glucose was fabricated using a Na+/D-glucose cotransporter as the signal-transducing sensory element that exploits the D-glucose-triggered Na+ ion current through bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). The planar BLM was formed by the folding method across a small aperture of a thin Teflon film. The Na+/D-glucose cotransporter, isolated and purified from small intestinal brush border membrane of guinea pigs, was embedded into BLMs through proteoliposomes. The number of the protein molecules thus incorporated in the present sensing membrane was estimated to be ca. 10(7). The sensor response was measured as an ionic current through the BLM arising from cotransported Na+ ion flux under a constant applied potential and was only induced by D-glucose above 10(-9) M, but not by the other monosaccharides except for D-galactose. The effect of applied potentials, Na+ and K+ ion concentrations, and the addition of a competitive inhibitor, phlorizin, were scrutinized to characterize the sensor output. The results were briefly discussed in terms of the potential use of the Na+/D-glucose cotransporter as a sensory element for D-glucose.

  6. Alkylated glass partition allows formation of solvent-free lipid bilayer by Montal-Mueller technique. (United States)

    Batishchev, Oleg V; Indenbom, Andrey V


    Formation of bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) by Montal-Mueller technique across a small aperture in a partition film traditionally requires coating of the aperture with a hydrophobic substance, often just an organic solvent. However, we demonstrate here that the most effective coating is not strictly hydrophobic but rather provides water/oil repellent properties. BLM were formed from diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) on small 0.1-0.8 mm apertures made in specially prepared alkylated glass coverslips. The coverslips were either fluorosiliconized by 3,3,3-Trifluoropropyl-trimethoxysilane, which reduces adsorption of DPhPC in addition to creation of hydrophobic surface, or silanized, which promote adsorption of DPhPC. At fluorosiliconized surfaces stable BLM were formed. Specific capacitance of these BLM was 0.86 microF/cm(2)+/-5%, while their lateral tension was estimated as 4.3+/-0.4 mN/m. BLM were stable for hours under moderate voltage applied. At silanized surfaces stable BLM were formed only in acidic medium (3 glass can be robustly used for formation of model lipid membranes under physiological conditions.

  7. Genome-wide identification of small RNAs in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis KLDS 2.0603 and their regulation role in the adaption to gastrointestinal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Quan Zhu

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria are one of the predominant bacterial species in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT and play a vital role in the host's health by acting as probiotics. However, how they regulate themselves to adapt to GIT of their host remains unknown.Eighteen bifidobacterial strains were used to analyze their adaptive capacities towards simulated GIT environment. The strain with highest survival rate and adhesion ability was selected for comparative genome as well as transcriptomic analysis.The Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis KLDS 2.0603 strain was demonstrated to have the highest survival rate and adhesion ability in simulated GIT treatments. The comparative genome analysis revealed that the KLDS 2.0603 has most similar whole genome sequence compared with BB-12 strain. Eleven intergenic sRNAs were identified after genomes prediction and transcriptomic analysis of KLDS 2.0603. Transcriptomic analysis also showed that genes (mainly sRNAs targeted genes and sRNAs were differentially expressed in different stress conditions, suggesting that sRNAs might play a crucial role in regulating genes involved in the stress resistance of this strain towards environmental changes.This study first provided deep and comprehensive insights into the regulation of KLDS 2.0603 strain at transcription and post-transcription level towards environmental.

  8. One-dimensional Topological Edge States of Bismuth Bilayers (United States)

    Drozdov, Ilya; Alexandradinata, Aris; Jeon, Sangjun; Nadj-Perge, Stevan; Ji, Huiwen; Cava, Robert; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Yazdani, Ali


    The hallmark of a time-reversal symmetry protected topologically insulating state of matter in two-dimensions (2D) is the existence of chiral edge modes propagating along the perimeter of the sample. Bilayers of bismuth (Bi), an elemental system theoretically predicted to be a Quantum Spin Hall (QSH) insulator1, has been studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and the electronic structure of its bulk and edge modes has been experimentally investigated. Spectroscopic mapping with STM reveals the presence of the state bound to the edges of the Bi-bilayer. By visualizing quantum interference of the edge state quasi-particles in confined geometries we characterize their dispersion and demonstrate that their properties are consistent with the absence of backscattering. Hybridization of the edge modes to the underlying substrate will be discussed. [1] Shuichi Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 236805 (2006). The work at Princeton and the Princeton Nanoscale Microscopy Laboratory was supported by ARO MURI program W911NF-12-1-0461, DARPA-SPWAR Meso program N6601-11-1-4110, NSF-DMR1104612, and NSF-MRSEC programs through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (DMR-0819860)

  9. Interlayer thermal conductance within a phosphorene and graphene bilayer. (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Zhang, Jingchao; Zeng, Xiao Cheng


    Monolayer graphene possesses unusual thermal properties, and is often considered as a prototype system for the study of thermal physics of low-dimensional electronic/thermal materials, despite the absence of a direct bandgap. Another two-dimensional (2D) atomic layered material, phosphorene, is a natural p-type semiconductor and it has attracted growing interest in recent years. When a graphene monolayer is overlaid on phosphorene, the hybrid van der Waals (vdW) bilayer becomes a potential candidate for high-performance thermal/electronic applications, owing to the combination of the direct-bandgap properties of phosphorene with the exceptional thermal properties of graphene. In this work, the interlayer thermal conductance at the phosphorene/graphene interface is systematically investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The transient pump-probe heating method is employed to compute the interfacial thermal resistance (R) of the bilayer. The predicted R value at the phosphorene/graphene interface is 8.41 × 10(-8) K m(2) W(-1) at room temperature. Different external and internal conditions, i.e., temperature, contact pressure, vacancy defect, and chemical functionalization, can all effectively reduce R at the interface. Numerical results of R reduction as a function of temperature, interfacial coupling strength, defect ratio, or hydrogen coverage are reported with the most R reduction amounting to 56.5%, 70.4%, 34.8% and 84.5%, respectively.

  10. Unexpected bilayer formation in Langmuir films of nucleolipids. (United States)

    Desbat, Bernard; Arazam, Nessim; Khiati, Salim; Tonelli, Giovanni; Neri, Wilfrid; Barthélémy, Philippe; Navailles, Laurence


    Langmuir monolayers have been extensively investigated by various experimental techniques. These studies allowed an in-depth understanding of the molecular conformation in the layer, phase transitions, and the structure of the multilayer. As the monolayer is compressed and the surface pressure is increased beyond a critical value, usually occurring in the minimal closely packed molecular area, the monolayer fractures and/or folds, forming multilayers in a process referred to as collapse. Various mechanisms for monolayer collapse and the resulting reorganization of the film have been proposed, and only a few studies have demonstrated the formation of a bilayer after collapse and with the use of a Ca(2+) solution. In this work, Langmuir isotherms coupled with imaging ellipsometry and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy were recorded to investigate the air-water interface properties of Langmuir films of anionic nucleolipids. We report for these new molecules the formation of a quasi-hexagonal packing of bilayer domains at a low compression rate, a singular behavior for lipids at the air-water interface that has not yet been documented.

  11. Fibonacci anyons from Abelian bilayer quantum Hall states. (United States)

    Vaezi, Abolhassan; Barkeshli, Maissam


    The possibility of realizing non-Abelian statistics and utilizing it for topological quantum computation (TQC) has generated widespread interest. However, the non-Abelian statistics that can be realized in most accessible proposals is not powerful enough for universal TQC. In this Letter, we consider a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with the 1/3 Laughlin state in each layer. We show that interlayer tunneling can drive a transition to an exotic non-Abelian state that contains the famous "Fibonacci" anyon, whose non-Abelian statistics is powerful enough for universal TQC. Our analysis rests on startling agreements from a variety of distinct methods, including thin torus limits, effective field theories, and coupled wire constructions. We provide evidence that the transition can be continuous, at which point the charge gap remains open while the neutral gap closes. This raises the question of whether these exotic phases may have already been realized at ν=2/3 in bilayers, as past experiments may not have definitively ruled them out.

  12. Bi-layer functionally gradient thick film semiconducting methane sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Banerjee; A K Haldar; J Mondal; A Sen; H S Maiti


    Gas sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors like tin dioxide are widely used for the detection of toxic and combustible gases like carbon monoxide, methane and LPG. One of the problems of such sensors is their lack of sensitivity, which to some extent, can be circumvented by using different catalysts. However, highly reactive volatile organic compounds (VOC) coming from different industrial and domestic products (e.g. paints, lacquers, varnishes etc) can play havoc on such sensors and can give rise to false alarms. Any attempt to adsorb such VOCs (e.g. by using activated charcoal) results in sorption of the detecting gases (e.g. methane) too. To get round the problem, bi-layer sensors have been developed. Such tin oxide based functionally gradient bi-layer sensors have different compositions at the top and bottom layers. Here, instead of adsorbing the VOCs, they are allowed to interact and are consumed on the top layer of the sensors and a combustible gas like methane being less reactive, penetrates the top layer and interacts with the bottom layer. By modifying the chemical compositions of the top and bottom layers and by designing the electrode-lead wire arrangement properly, the top layer can be kept electrically shunted from the bottom layer and the electrical signal generated at the bottom layer from the combustible gas is collected. Such functionally gradient sensors, being very reliable, can find applications in domestic, industrial and strategic sectors.

  13. Nonlocal Drag of Magnons in a Ferromagnetic Bilayer (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Vignale, G.; Flatté, Michael E.


    Quantized spin waves, or magnons, in a magnetic insulator are assumed to interact weakly with the surroundings, and to flow with little dissipation or drag, producing exceptionally long diffusion lengths and relaxation times. In analogy to Coulomb drag in bilayer two-dimensional electron gases, in which the contribution of the Coulomb interaction to the electric resistivity is studied by measuring the interlayer resistivity (transresistivity), we predict a nonlocal drag of magnons in a ferromagnetic bilayer structure based on semiclassical Boltzmann equations. Nonlocal magnon drag depends on magnetic dipolar interactions between the layers and manifests in the magnon current transresistivity and the magnon thermal transresistivity, whereby a magnon current in one layer induces a chemical potential gradient and/or a temperature gradient in the other layer. The largest drag effect occurs when the magnon current flows parallel to the magnetization; however, for oblique magnon currents a large transverse current of magnons emerges. We examine the effect for practical parameters, and find that the predicted induced temperature gradient is readily observable.

  14. Unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/normal metal bilayers (United States)

    Avci, Can Onur; Garello, Kevin; Ghosh, Abhijit; Gabureac, Mihai; Alvarado, Santos F.; Gambardella, Pietro


    Magnetoresistive effects are usually invariant on inversion of the magnetization direction. In non-centrosymmetric conductors, however, nonlinear resistive terms can give rise to a current dependence that is quadratic in the applied voltage and linear in the magnetization. Here we demonstrate that such conditions are realized in simple bilayer metal films where the spin-orbit interaction and spin-dependent scattering couple the current-induced spin accumulation to the electrical conductivity. We show that the longitudinal resistance of Ta|Co and Pt|Co bilayers changes when reversing the polarity of the current or the sign of the magnetization. This unidirectional magnetoresistance scales linearly with current density and has opposite sign in Ta and Pt, which we associate with the modification of the interface scattering potential induced by the spin Hall effect in these materials. Our results suggest a route to control the resistance and detect magnetization switching in spintronic devices using a two-terminal geometry, which applies also to heterostructures including topological insulators.

  15. Embedding Ba Monolayers and Bilayers in Boron Carbide Nanowires (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyang; Luo, Jian; Shi, Baiou; Zhao, Jiong; Harmer, Martin P.; Zhu, Jing


    Aberration corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) was employed to study the distribution of barium atoms on the surfaces and in the interiors of boron carbide based nanowires. Barium based dopants, which were used to control the crystal growth, adsorbed to the surfaces of the boron-rich crystals in the form of nanometer-thick surficial films (a type of surface complexion). During the crystal growth, these dopant-based surface complexions became embedded inside the single crystalline segments of fivefold boron-rich nanowires collectively, where they were converted to more ordered monolayer and bilayer modified complexions. Another form of bilayer complexion stabilized at stacking faults has also been identified. Numerous previous works suggested that dopants/impurities tended to segregate at the stacking faults or twinned boundaries. In contrast, our study revealed the previously-unrecognized possibility of incorporating dopants and impurities inside an otherwise perfect crystal without the association to any twin boundary or stacking fault. Moreover, we revealed the amount of barium dopants incorporated was non-equilibrium and far beyond the bulk solubility, which might lead to unique properties.

  16. Multiscale modeling of droplet interface bilayer membrane networks. (United States)

    Freeman, Eric C; Farimani, Amir B; Aluru, Narayana R; Philen, Michael K


    Droplet interface bilayer (DIB) networks are considered for the development of stimuli-responsive membrane-based materials inspired by cellular mechanics. These DIB networks are often modeled as combinations of electrical circuit analogues, creating complex networks of capacitors and resistors that mimic the biomolecular structures. These empirical models are capable of replicating data from electrophysiology experiments, but these models do not accurately capture the underlying physical phenomena and consequently do not allow for simulations of material functionalities beyond the voltage-clamp or current-clamp conditions. The work presented here provides a more robust description of DIB network behavior through the development of a hierarchical multiscale model, recognizing that the macroscopic network properties are functions of their underlying molecular structure. The result of this research is a modeling methodology based on controlled exchanges across the interfaces of neighboring droplets. This methodology is validated against experimental data, and an extension case is provided to demonstrate possible future applications of droplet interface bilayer networks.

  17. Modeling the Elastic Properties of Lipid Bilayer Membranes (United States)

    Barry, Edward; Gibaud, Thomas; Zakhary, Mark; Dogic, Zvonimir


    Model membranes such as lipid bilayers have been indispensable tools for our understanding of the elastic properties of biological membranes. In this talk, I will introduce a colloidal model for membranes and demonstrate that the physical properties of these colloidal membranes are identical to lipid bilayers. The model system is unique in that the constituent molecules are homogenous and non-amphiphilic, yet their self-assembly into membranes and other hierarchical assemblages, such as a lamellar type phases and chiral ribbons, proceeds spontaneously in solution. Owing to the large size of the constituent molecules, individual molecules can be directly visualized and simultaneous observations at the continuum and molecular lengthscales are used to characterize the behavior of model membranes with unprecedented detail. Moreover, once assembled in solution, molecular interactions can be controlled in situ. In particular, the strength of chiral interactions can be varied, leading to fascinating transitions in behavior that resembles the formation of starfish vesicles. These observations point towards the important role of line tension, and have potential implications for phase separated lipid mixtures or lipid rafts.

  18. Entrenched metal lift-off using a novel bilayer process (United States)

    Dubois, Thomas D.; Tranjan, Farid M.; Jones, Susan K.; Bobbio, Stephen M.; Kellam, Mark D.; Frieser, Rudolph G.; Jones, A. D.


    This paper will discuss the preparation and characterization of a modified photoresist and describe its use in a novel bilayer process. The modified photoresist solutions are prepared by dissolving enough cyclic phosphonitrilic chloride trimer, PNCT, in commercially available photoresist solutions to achieve phosphorus concentrations of 10 to 12 weight percent in the resulting films. FTNMR and FTIR data will be presented which demonstrate that the cyclic phosphonitrilic chloride trimer does not undergo chemical reaction with the components of the photoresist in the photoresist solutions or photoresist films. The exposure threshold of the PNCT modified photoresist films is 1.5 times greater than that of the unmodified films. Experimental data will be discussed which suggests the decrease in exposure threshold is the result of a relatively lower concentration of photoactive compound in the PNCT modified films. The PNCT modified films will be shown to provide resolution comparable to that of the unmodified photoresist films and yield a process window of better than 20%. A mechanism for the formation of the 02/N2 plasma resistant etch barrier formed during 02/N2 plasma etching will be discussed. Finally, a bilayer process which uses the PNCT modified photoresist in generating metal features entrenched in polyimide will be presented.

  19. Embedding Ba Monolayers and Bilayers in Boron Carbide Nanowires. (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyang; Luo, Jian; Shi, Baiou; Zhao, Jiong; Harmer, Martin P; Zhu, Jing


    Aberration corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) was employed to study the distribution of barium atoms on the surfaces and in the interiors of boron carbide based nanowires. Barium based dopants, which were used to control the crystal growth, adsorbed to the surfaces of the boron-rich crystals in the form of nanometer-thick surficial films (a type of surface complexion). During the crystal growth, these dopant-based surface complexions became embedded inside the single crystalline segments of fivefold boron-rich nanowires collectively, where they were converted to more ordered monolayer and bilayer modified complexions. Another form of bilayer complexion stabilized at stacking faults has also been identified. Numerous previous works suggested that dopants/impurities tended to segregate at the stacking faults or twinned boundaries. In contrast, our study revealed the previously-unrecognized possibility of incorporating dopants and impurities inside an otherwise perfect crystal without the association to any twin boundary or stacking fault. Moreover, we revealed the amount of barium dopants incorporated was non-equilibrium and far beyond the bulk solubility, which might lead to unique properties.

  20. From seasonal patterns to a reference situation in an estuarine environment: Example of the small fish and shrimp fauna of the Gironde estuary (SW France) (United States)

    Lobry, Jérémy; Lepage, Mario; Rochard, Eric


    Detecting changes in animal communities suggests that a reference situation exists. It is a particularly difficult task in estuarine environments that are complex and fluctuate with time. Effects of human pressures are difficult to assess due to the scarcity or even the lack of evaluation and monitoring systems. In order to detect anomalies in the functioning of the system and to identify effects of perturbations upon populations and communities, it is necessary to analyse the dynamics in order to infer a reference state. This work aims to describe an approach based on K-Tab analyses and allows to define an average situation called "compromise" which is then compared to a single year of data. In this situation, the Gironde estuary, which has been monitored monthly from the 1980s, appears to be a very relevant case study. This paper focuses on spatial and temporal variations in species composition of fish and shrimp assemblages in the mesohaline and oligohaline stretches of the estuary and demonstrates a strong downstream-upstream structuring of species composition. Seasonal structure of the biological assemblages is highlighted and a biomass transfer in the water column between summer and winter is noticed. The habitat suitability is mainly discussed in terms of hydraulic regime but could also be discussed in terms of trophic resources availability. No important differences in the spatial distribution of the fish and shrimp assemblages can be detected between the year 2000 and the reference situation however the method is probably more relevant when detecting trends rather than single anomalies in the structure of the assemblages.

  1. Super resolution microscopy of lipid bilayer phases and single molecule kinetic studies on merocyanine 540 bound lipid vesicles (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-Kuei

    Recently, observing biological process and structural details in live cell became feasible after the introduction of super-resolution microscopy. Super-resolution microscopy by single molecule localization is the method that has commonly been used for such purpose. There are mainly three approaches to it: stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), and point accumulation in nanoscale topology (PAINT). STORM and PALM rely on external laser control and use of photoactivable fluorescent protein or photoswitchable dyes and are technically challenging. The PAINT method relies on the control of thermal reaction rates to enable the switching between bright and dark states. Therefore, many conventional fluorescent probes can be applied in PAINT method and the images denote different information composed of interactions between the probe and its immediate environment by variations of probe parameters. The existence of lipid rafts has been under debates for decades due to the lack of a tool to directly visualize them in live cells. In the thesis, we combine PAINT with a phase sensitive dye, Merocyanine 540, to enable nanoscale observation of phase separation on supported lipid bilayers of mixed liquid/gel phases. The imaging results are presented in the chapter 3. Given that this is the first example of visualization of nanoscale phase separation of lipid bilayers using an optical microscope, we further looked into the kinetics of MC540 monomer dimer equilibrium in lipid bilayers using single molecule intensity time trajectory analysis and polarization dependent imaging. Our finding confirms that perpendicular monomeric MC540 (to the membrance surface) is the emitting speices in our system and it stays fluorescent for roughly 3 ms before it switches off to dark states. This part of analysis is presented in the chapter 4. All the materials, procedures to carry out experiments and data analysis, methods involved in our

  2. Electric field induced transition between spin to valley polarized ν = 0 quantum Hall state in dual-gated graphene bilayers (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Kim, Seyoung; Fallahazad, Babak; Tutuc, Emanuel


    Graphene bilayers in Bernal stacking exhibit a transverse electric field dependent energy gap, thanks to the on-site electron energy asymmetry between the two layers. In a perpendicular magnetic field, the applied transverse electric field (E) will induce a quantum Hall state (QHS) at the charge neutrality point (filling factor ν = 0) marked by a insulating behavior of the longitudinal resistance (ρxx) , and a plateau in the Hall conductivity. Using dual-gated graphene bilayers, we investigate here the E -field dependence of the ν = 0 QHS in high perpendicular magnetic fields (B) , up to 30T. The temperature dependence of ρxx measured at ν = 0 shows an insulating behavior, which is strongest in the vicinity of E = 0 as well as at large E -fields. At a fixed B -field, as a function of the applied E -field the ν = 0 QHS undergoes a transition, marked by a ρxx minimum, as well as a temperature independent ρxx at a finite E -field value. This observation can be explained by a transition from a spin polarized ν = 0 QHS at small E -fields, to a valley (layer) polarized ν = 0 QHS at large E -fields. The E -field value at which the transition occurs follows a linear dependence on the applied perpendicular magnetic field, with a slope of ~ 18 mV/ nm . T. We thank NRI and NSF for support.

  3. Off-easy-plane antiferromagnetic spin canting in coupled FePt/NiO bilayer structure with perpendicular exchange bias (United States)

    Gao, Tenghua; Itokawa, Nobuhide; Wang, Jian; Yu, Youxing; Harumoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji


    We report on the investigation of perpendicular exchange bias in FePt (001 ) /NiO (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) orthogonal exchange couple with FePt partially L 10 ordered. From initial magnetization curve measurement and magnetic domain imaging, we find that, for the as-grown bilayer structure, the FePt layer experiences a small-angle magnetization rotation when it is magnetized near to saturation in film normal direction. After field cooling, the bilayer structure shows a significant enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, indicating the field mediated coupling between the spins across the FePt/NiO interface. According to Koon's theoretical calculation on the basis of lowest energy ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupling configuration for compensated spins at antiferromagnetic side, we consider slightly slanted Ni spins at the interface off the (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) easy plane can stabilize the spin coupling between FePt and NiO and result in the observed exchange bias in this paper. This consideration was further confirmed by stripe domain width calculation.

  4. Effects of ethanol and diclofenac on the organization of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles and their ability as skin carriers. (United States)

    Castangia, Ines; Manca, Maria Letizia; Matricardi, Pietro; Catalán-Latorre, Ana; Nácher, Amparo; Diez-Sales, Octavio; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria


    In this study, the effects of ethanol and/or diclofenac on vesicle bilayer structure have been studied. Liposomes with hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and two different concentrations of diclofenac sodium (5 and 10 mg/ml) were obtained. In addition, ethanol was mixed in the water phase at different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 % v/v) to obtain ethosomes. To characterize vesicles, rehological analysis were carried out to investigate the intervesicle interactions, while bilayer structure was evaluated by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Finally, the ethanol and/or diclofenac concentration-dependent ability to improve diclofenac skin delivery was evaluated in vitro. The addition of 20 % ethanol and/or diclofenac led to solid-like ethosome dispersion due to the formation of a new intervesicle structure, as previously found in transcutol containing vesicle dispersions. However, when using 5-10 % of ethanol the induction to form vesicle interconnections was less evident but the simultaneous presence of the drug at the highest concentration facilitated this phenomenon. Ethosomes containing the highest amount of both, drug (10 mg/ml) and ethanol (20 % v/v), improved the drug deposition in the skin strata and in the receptor fluid up to 1.5-fold, relative to liposomes. Moreover this solid-like formulation can easily overcome drawbacks of traditional liquid liposome formulations which undergo a substantial loss at the application site.

  5. Decadal to seasonal evolution of small debris-covered glaciers in permafrost environments in relation to their internal structure and climatic factors (United States)

    Bosson, Jean-Baptiste; Maxime, Capt; Lambiel, Christophe


    Debris-covered zones are extending on numerous glacier systems in mountainous regions. This situation results from an increase in debris supply and from a decrease of sediment evacuation capacity in glacier systems in the negative mass balance context. The progressive covering of ice mass affects particularly small cirque glacier systems (glaciers, these systems have several characteristics (thin ice body, polythermal regime, a high debris content and glacier-permafrost interactions) that limit glacial dynamic and related sediment evacuation. Associating massive glacier ice, ice-debris mixtures and deglaciated debris under permafrost conditions, these systems are experiencing specific and complex response to climate forcing. However, despite their important role on alpine water and sediment flux systems and because they are situated at the frontier between glacial and periglacial researches, the characterisation of these systems and of their current evolution remains a challenging task. Specific needs concern especially the precise knowledge of their composition, the detection and the quantification of ongoing processes and the recognition of the main factors controlling the evolution of the different system components. Exploring and synthetizing the results of a multi-site (Rognes, Tsarmine, Entre la Reille), multi-temporal (from seasons to decades) and multi-method (ERT, GPR, dGPS, Lidar, photogrammetry, thermal monitoring, etc.) research led in the NW European Alps between 2011 and 2015, this contribution tries to enlighten and explain the different situations encountered in these complex systems. Three main zones, with specific behaviours can be distinguished according to the internal structure: - The larger zone corresponds to the strictly glacial zone. In comparison with the other zones, the responses to climate signal are rapid, illustrating the local high sensitivity to climatic and hydrologic forcing. In consequence, intense (dcm to m) ice melt, basal

  6. Multiple quantum oscillation frequencies in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{delta}} and bilayer splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aldea, David; Chakravarty, Sudip, E-mail: sudip@physics.ucla.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)


    Experiments have revealed multiple quantum oscillation frequencies in underdoped high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{delta}}, corresponding to approximately 10% doping, which contains CuO bilayers in the unit cell. These unit cells are further coupled along the c-axis by a tunneling matrix element. A model of the energy dispersion that has its roots in the previously determined electronic structure, combined with twofold commensurate density waves, reveals multiple electron and hole pockets. To the extent that quasiparticles of the reconstructed Fermi surface have finite residues, however small, the formation of Landau levels is the cause of these oscillations, and the bilayer splitting and warping of the electronic dispersion along the direction perpendicular to the CuO-planes are firm consequences. The goal here is to explore this possibility from various directions and provide a better understanding of the rapidly developing experimental situation involving multiple frequencies. An important conclusion is that bilayer splitting is considerably renormalized from the value obtained from band structure calculations. It would be extremely interesting to perform these experiments for higher values of doping. We roughly expect the splitting of the frequencies to increase with doping, but the full picture may be more complex because the density wave order parameter is also expected to decrease with doping, vanishing around the middle of the superconducting dome.

  7. Lepromatous leprosy patients produce antibodies that recognise non-bilayer lipid arrangements containing mycolic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Baeza


    Full Text Available Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements are three-dimensional structures that form when anionic phospholipids with an intermediate structure of the tubular hexagonal phase II are present in a bilayer of lipids. Antibodies that recognise these arrangements have been described in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and/or systemic lupus erythematosus and in those with preeclampsia; these antibodies have also been documented in an experimental murine model of lupus, in which they are associated with immunopathology. Here, we demonstrate the presence of antibodies against non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements containing mycolic acids in the sera of lepromatous leprosy (LL patients, but not those of healthy volunteers. The presence of antibodies that recognise these non-bilayer lipid arrangements may contribute to the hypergammaglobulinaemia observed in LL patients. We also found IgM and IgG anti-cardiolipin antibodies in 77% of the patients. This positive correlation between the anti-mycolic-non-bilayer arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies suggests that both types of antibodies are produced by a common mechanism, as was demonstrated in the experimental murine model of lupus, in which there was a correlation between the anti-non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Antibodies to non-bilayer lipid arrangements may represent a previously unrecognised pathogenic mechanism in LL and the detection of these antibodies may be a tool for the early diagnosis of LL patients.

  8. Interplay between alkyl chain asymmetry and cholesterol addition in the rigid ion pair amphiphile bilayer systems (United States)

    Huang, Fong-yin; Chiu, Chi-cheng


    Ion pair amphiphile (IPA), a molecular complex composed of a pair of cationic and anionic surfactants, has been proposed as a novel phospholipid substitute. Controlling the physical stability of IPA vesicles is important for its application developments such as cosmetic and drug deliveries. To investigate the effects of IPA alkyl chain combinations and the cholesterol additive on the structural and mechanical properties of IPA vesicular bilayers, we conducted a series of molecular dynamics studies on the hexadecyltrimethylammonium-dodecylsulfate (HTMA-DS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium-hexadecylsulfate (DTMA-HS) IPA bilayers with cholesterol. We found that both IPA bilayers are in the gel phase at 298 K, consistent with experimental observations. Compared with the HTMA-DS system, the DTMA-HS bilayer has more disordered alkyl chains in the hydrophobic region. When adding cholesterol, it induces alkyl chain ordering around its rigid sterol ring. Yet, cholesterol increases the molecular areas for all species and disturbs the molecular packing near the hydrophilic region and the bilayer core. Cholesterol also promotes the alkyl chain mismatch between the IPA moieties, especially for the DTMA-HS bilayer. The combined effects lead to non-monotonically enhancement of the membrane mechanical moduli for both IPA-cholesterol systems. Furthermore, cholesterol can form H-bonds with the alkylsulfate and thus enhance the contribution of alkylsulfate to the overall mechanical moduli. Combined results provide valuable molecular insights into the roles of each IPA component and the cholesterol on modulating the IPA bilayer properties.

  9. Cholesterol effect on water permeability through DPPC and PSM lipid bilayers: a molecular dynamics study. (United States)

    Saito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Wataru


    Water permeability of two different lipid bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) in the absence and presence of cholesterol (0-50 mol %) have been studied by molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the reduction in water leakage across the membranes by the addition of cholesterol. An enhanced free energy barrier was observed in these membranes with increased cholesterol concentration, and this was explained by the reduced cavity density around the cholesterol in the hydrophobic membrane core. There was an increase of trans conformers in the hydrophobic lipid chains adjacent to the cholesterol, which reduced the cavity density. The enhanced free energy barrier was found to be the main reason to reduce the water permeability with increased cholesterol concentration. At low cholesterol concentrations the PSM bilayer exhibited a higher free energy barrier than the DPPC bilayer for water permeation, while at greater than 30 mol % of cholesterol the difference became minor. This tendency for the PSM and DPPC bilayers to resemble each other at higher cholesterol concentrations was similar to commonly observed trends in several structural properties, such as order parameters, cross-sectional area per molecule, and cavity density profiles in the hydrophobic regions of bilayer membranes. These results demonstrate that DPPC and PSM bilayers with high cholesterol contents possess similar physical properties, which suggests that the solubility of cholesterol in these lipid bilayers has importance for an understanding of multicomponent lipid membranes with cholesterol.

  10. Corrugation of Phase-Separated Lipid Bilayers Supported by Nanoporous Silica Xerogel Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goksu, E I; Nellis, B A; Lin, W; Satcher Jr., J H; Groves, J T; Risbud, S H; Longo, M L


    Lipid bilayers supported by substrates with nanometer-scale surface corrugations holds interest in understanding both nanoparticle-membrane interactions and the challenges of constructing models of cell membranes on surfaces with desirable properties, e.g. porosity. Here, we successfully form a two-phase (gel-fluid) lipid bilayer supported by nanoporous silica xerogel. Surface topology, diffusion, and lipid density in comparison to mica-supported lipid bilayers were characterized by AFM, FRAP, FCS, and quantitative fluorescence microscopy, respectively. We found that the two-phase lipid bilayer follows the xerogel surface contours. The corrugation imparted on the lipid bilayer results in a lipid density that is twice that on a flat mica surface. In direct agreement with the doubling of actual bilayer area in a projected area, we find that the lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of lipids on xerogel ({approx}1.7 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) is predictably lower than on mica ({approx}4.1 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) by both FRAP and FCS techniques. Furthermore, the gel-phase domains on xerogel compared to mica were larger and less numerous. Overall, our results suggest the presence of a relatively defect-free continuous two-phase bilayer that penetrates approximately midway into the first layer of {approx}50 nm xerogel beads.

  11. Multi-Stacked Supported Lipid Bilayer Micropatterning through Polymer Stencil Lift-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhu


    Full Text Available Complex multi-lamellar structures play a critical role in biological systems, where they are present as lamellar bodies, and as part of biological assemblies that control energy transduction processes. Multi-lamellar lipid layers not only provide interesting systems for fundamental research on membrane structure and bilayer-associated polypeptides, but can also serve as components in bioinspired materials or devices. Although the ability to pattern stacked lipid bilayers at the micron scale is of importance for these purposes, limited work has been done in developing such patterning techniques. Here, we present a simple and direct approach to pattern stacked supported lipid bilayers (SLBs using polymer stencil lift-off and the electrostatic interactions between cationic and anionic lipids. Both homogeneous and phase-segregated stacked SLB patterns were produced, demonstrating that the stacked lipid bilayers retain lateral diffusivity. We demonstrate patterned SLB stacks of up to four bilayers, where fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET and quenching was used to probe the interactions between lipid bilayers. Furthermore, the study of lipid phase behaviour showed that gel phase domains align between adjacent layers. The proposed stacked SLB pattern platform provides a robust model for studying lipid behaviour with a controlled number of bilayers, and an attractive means towards building functional bioinspired materials or devices.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of the partitioning of benzocaine and phenytoin into a lipid bilayer. (United States)

    Martin, Lewis J; Chao, Rebecca; Corry, Ben


    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to examine the partitioning behaviour of the local anaesthetic benzocaine and the anti-epileptic phenytoin into lipid bilayers, a factor that is critical to their mode of action. Free energy methods are used to quantify the thermodynamics of drug movement between water and octanol as well as for permeation across a POPC membrane. Both drugs are shown to favourably partition into the lipid bilayer from water and are likely to accumulate just inside the lipid headgroups where they may alter bilayer properties or interact with target proteins. Phenytoin experiences a large barrier to cross the centre of the bilayer due to less favourable energetic interactions in this less dense region of the bilayer. Remarkably, in our simulations both drugs are able to pull water into the bilayer, creating water chains that extend back to bulk, and which may modify the local bilayer properties. We find that the choice of atomic partial charges can have a significant impact on the quantitative results, meaning that careful validation of parameters for new drugs, such as performed here, should be performed prior to their use in biomolecular simulations.

  13. The effect of temperature on supported dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers: structure and lubrication performance. (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zander, Thomas; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Chao; Raj, Akanksha; Wieland, D C Florian; Garamus, Vasil M; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Claesson, Per Martin; Dėdinaitė, Andra


    Phospholipids fulfill an important role in joint lubrication. They, together with hyaluronan and glycoproteins, are the biolubricants that sustain low friction between cartilage surfaces bathed in synovial fluid. In this work we have investigated how the friction force and load bearing capacity of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers on silica surfaces are affected by temperature, covering the temperature range 25-52°C. Friction forces have been determined utilizing the AFM colloidal probe technique, which showed that DPPC bilayers are able to provide low friction forces over the whole temperature interval. However, the load bearing capacity is improved at higher temperatures. We interpret this finding as being a consequence of lower rigidity and higher self-healing capacity of the DPPC bilayer in the liquid disordered state compared to the gel state. The corresponding structure of solid supported DPPC bilayers at the silica-liquid interface has been followed using X-ray reflectivity measurements, which suggests that the DPPC bilayer is in the gel phase at 25°C and 39°C and in the liquid disordered state at 55°C. Well-defined bilayer structures were observed for both phases. The deposited DPPC bilayers were also imaged using AFM PeakForce Tapping mode, and these measurements indicated a less homogeneous layer at temperatures below 37°C.

  14. Effect of monoglyceride structure and cholesterol content on water permeability of the droplet bilayer. (United States)

    Michalak, Zuzanna; Muzzio, Michelle; Milianta, Peter J; Giacomini, Rosario; Lee, Sunghee


    The process of water permeation across lipid membranes has significant implications for cellular physiology and homeostasis, and its study may lead to a greater understanding of the relationship between the structure of lipid bilayer and the role that lipid structure plays in water permeation. In this study, we formed a droplet interface bilayer (DIB) by contacting two aqueous droplets together in an immiscible solvent (squalane) containing bilayer-forming surfactant (monoglycerides). Using the DIB model, we present our results on osmotic water permeabilities and activation energy for water permeation of an associated series of unsaturated monoglycerides as the principal component of droplet bilayers, each having the same chain length but differing in the position and number of double bonds, in the absence and presence of a varying concentration of cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the tailgroup structure in a series of monoglyceride bilayers is seen to affect the permeability and activation energy for the water permeation process. Moreover, we have also established the insertion of cholesterol into the droplet bilayer, and have detected its presence via its effect on water permeability. The effect of cholesterol differs depending on the type of monoglyceride. We demonstrate that the DIB can be employed as a convenient model membrane to rapidly explore subtle structural effects on bilayer water permeability.

  15. Studying the lateral chain packing in a ceramide bilayer with molecular dynamics simulations (United States)

    Papadimitriou, N. I.; Karozis, S. N.; Kainourgiakis, M. E.; Charalambopoulou, G. Ch


    In this work, we present a novel technique, based on molecular dynamics simulations, that allows the study of the lateral chain packing in a lipid bilayer. It utilizes the radial distribution function of the alkyl chains to determine the arrangement of the chains along the bilayer plane. The positions of the mass centres of the chains are projected onto the bilayer plane and a 2D radial distribution function is calculated for these projections. The proposed technique can be particularly useful for lipid bilayers in the gel (solid) phase where the chains present a limited degree of mobility. As a case study, we have examined a bilayer that consists of ceramide NS 24:0. Ceramide bilayers can be found in the lipid domain of the skin where they have a significant role in its barrier function. The specific bilayer was found (at 300 K) to adopt a strictly hexagonal chain packing with a separation distance between the chains of 0.466 nm, in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  16. Fluorescence of Supported Phospholipid Bilayers Recorded in a Conventional Horizontal-Beam Spectrofluorometer. (United States)

    Kovrigina, Elizaveta A; Kovrigin, Evgenii L


    Supported phospholipid bilayers are a convenient model of cellular membranes in studies of membrane biophysics and protein-lipid interactions. Traditionally, supported lipid bilayers are formed on a flat surface of a glass slide to be observed through fluorescence microscopes. This paper describes a method to enable fluorescence detection from the supported lipid bilayers using standard horizontal-beam spectrofluorometers instead of the microscopes. In the proposed approach, the supported lipid bilayers are formed on the inner optical surfaces of the standard fluorescence microcell. To enable observation of the bilayer absorbed on the cell wall, the microcell is placed in a standard fluorometer cell holder and specifically oriented to expose the inner cell walls to both excitation and emission channels with a help of the custom cell adaptor. The signal intensity from supported bilayers doped with 1 % (mol) of rhodamine-labeled lipid in the standard 3-mm optical microcell was equivalent to fluorescence of the 70-80 nM reference solution of rhodamine recorded in a commercial microcell adaptor. Because no modifications to the instruments are required in this method, a variety of steady-state and time-domain fluorescence measurements of the supported phospholipid bilayers may be performed with the spectral resolution using standard horizontal-beam spectrofluorometers.

  17. Analysis of the Economic Environment of Our Country Small and Medium -sized Enterprise in Post Crisis%后危机时代我国中小实体企业经济环境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The post crisis era , China is in the economic growthspeed shift , structural adjustment pains period , the stimulus policy digestion period three period superimposed section ,complexity ,the macroeconomic operation dif-ficulty and uncertainty beyond expectations .At the same time,USA,EU and other major economies have put for-ward the slogan enterprises return to the real economy ,the implementation of the “re-industrialization” “strategy . Have a great influence ,the international domestic economic and social situation of small and medium -sized enter-prise economic environment .This paper analyzes the current economic environment , small and medium-sized en-terprise entities and the deep -seated reasons of small and medium -sized enterprise entities economic environment from two aspects of social and economic situation and national economic policy , and put forwards countermeasures and suggestions .%后危机时代,我国正处于经济增长速度换挡期、结构调整阵痛期、前期刺激政策消化期三期叠加的区段,宏观经济运行的复杂性、艰巨性和不确定性超乎各方预期。同时,美国、欧盟等主要经济体都纷纷提出将企业回归实体经济的口号,实施“再工业化”战略。这些国际、国内经济社会形势均对中小实体企业的经济环境产生巨大影响。从社会经济状况和国家经济政策两方面分析了当前中小实体企业的经济环境状况,以及影响中小实体企业经济环境的原因,并提出了对策建议。

  18. 基于内、外部环境分析的小微企业竞争力研究%Analysis of the Competitiveness of Small and Micro Businesses Based on the Internal and External Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹樵; 席雪


    目前,我国约有6000万中小微企业,占全国企业总数的99%。影响小微企业竞争力的因素主要来自内部与外部环境方面。提升我国小微企业市场竞争力,在外部环境方面,我国应完善国家技术创新体系,优化技术创新投入机制;进一步改善小微企业融资机制;建立小微企业人力资源培训平台;降低小微企业税费负担。在内部环境方面:小微企业应转变企业发展观念,找准市场定位;建立小微企业组织变动机制;规范小微企业经营行为,增强小微企业信用强度;提高企业领导者的素质;重视人才建设,建立企业机动用人机制;提高企业技术创新能力;发展企业文化。%China now has about 60 million small and micro businesses, accounting for 99%of the state-owned enterprises. The main fac-tors influencing the competitiveness of these businesses are from both internal and external environments. With respect to the external en-vironment, China should improve the innovation system, optimizing investment mechanism for technology innovation;make a more friendly financing mechanism;build human resource training platforms for small and micro businesses;and lessen their tax and fee burden. As to the internal environment, small and micro businesses should transform the development conception, targeting on correct markets;set up a business organization alteration mechanism; normalize their operations to enhance the credit. In addition, they should select qualified business leaders, focus on talent training with a flexible employment mechanism, raise the technology innovation ability, and develop en-terprise culture as well.

  19. Large-area, continuous and high electrical performances of bilayer to few layers MoS2 fabricated by RF sputtering via post-deposition annealing method. (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Singh, Jai; Vikraman, Dhanasekaran; Singh, Arun Kumar; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Kumar, Pushpendra; Choi, Dong-Chul; Song, Wooseok; An, Ki-Seok; Eom, Jonghwa; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan


    We report a simple and mass-scalable approach for thin MoS2 films via RF sputtering combined with the post-deposition annealing process. We have prepared as-sputtered film using a MoS2 target in the sputtering system. The as-sputtered film was subjected to post-deposition annealing to improve crystalline quality at 700 °C in a sulfur and argon environment. The analysis confirmed the growth of continuous bilayer to few-layer MoS2 film. The mobility value of ~29 cm(2)/Vs and current on/off ratio on the order of ~10(4) were obtained for bilayer MoS2. The mobility increased up to ~173-181 cm(2)/Vs, respectively, for few-layer MoS2. The mobility of our bilayer MoS2 FETs is larger than any previously reported values of single to bilayer MoS2 grown on SiO2/Si substrate with a SiO2 gate oxide. Moreover, our few-layer MoS2 FETs exhibited the highest mobility value ever reported for any MoS2 FETs with a SiO2 gate oxide. It is presumed that the high mobility behavior of our film could be attributed to low charged impurities of our film and dielectric screening effect by an interfacial MoOxSiy layer. The combined preparation route of RF sputtering and post-deposition annealing process opens up the novel possibility of mass and batch production of MoS2 film.

  20. Large-area, continuous and high electrical performances of bilayer to few layers MoS2 fabricated by RF sputtering via post-deposition annealing method (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Singh, Jai; Vikraman, Dhanasekaran; Singh, Arun Kumar; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Kumar, Pushpendra; Choi, Dong-Chul; Song, Wooseok; An, Ki-Seok; Eom, Jonghwa; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan


    We report a simple and mass-scalable approach for thin MoS2 films via RF sputtering combined with the post-deposition annealing process. We have prepared as-sputtered film using a MoS2 target in the sputtering system. The as-sputtered film was subjected to post-deposition annealing to improve crystalline quality at 700 °C in a sulfur and argon environment. The analysis confirmed the growth of continuous bilayer to few-layer MoS2 film. The mobility value of ~29 cm2/Vs and current on/off ratio on the order of ~104 were obtained for bilayer MoS2. The mobility increased up to ~173-181 cm2/Vs, respectively, for few-layer MoS2. The mobility of our bilayer MoS2 FETs is larger than any previously reported values of single to bilayer MoS2 grown on SiO2/Si substrate with a SiO2 gate oxide. Moreover, our few-layer MoS2 FETs exhibited the highest mobility value ever reported for any MoS2 FETs with a SiO2 gate oxide. It is presumed that the high mobility behavior of our film could be attributed to low charged impurities of our film and dielectric screening effect by an interfacial MoOxSiy layer. The combined preparation route of RF sputtering and post-deposition annealing process opens up the novel possibility of mass and batch production of MoS2 film.

  1. Effect of Ag/Au bilayer assisted etching on the strongly enhanced photoluminescence and visible light photocatalysis by Si nanowire arrays. (United States)

    Ghosh, Ramesh; Imakita, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru; Giri, P K


    We report on the strongly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) and visible light photocatalysis by arrays of vertically aligned single crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) grown by Ag/Au bilayer assisted etching. High resolution FESEM and TEM imaging reveals that the Si NWs are decorated with ultra-small size arbitrary shaped Si nanocrystals (NCs) due to the lateral etching of the NWs. A strong broad band and tunable visible to near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) in the range 1.3-2.4 eV are observed for these Si NWs/NCs at room temperature, depending on the etching conditions. Our studies reveal that the visible-NIR PL intensity is about two orders of magnitude higher and it exhibits faster decay dynamics in the bilayer assisted etching case as compared to the Ag or Au single layer etching case. The enhanced PL in the bimetal case is attributed to the longer length and higher density of the Si NWs/NCs, surface plasmon resonance enhanced absorption by residual bimetal NPs and the enhanced radiative recombination rate. Studies on the time evolution of PL spectral features with laser exposure under ambient conditions and laser power dependence reveal that both the quantum confinement of carriers in Si NCs and the nonbridging oxygen hole defects in the SiOx layer contribute to the tunable PL. Interestingly, Si NWs grown by Ag/Au bilayer assisted etching exhibit enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in comparison to Si NWs grown by single layer Ag or Au assisted etching. The Schottky barrier present between bimetallic NPs and nanoporous Si NWs with Si-H bonds facilitates the photocatalytic activity by efficient separation of photogenerated e-h pairs. Our results demonstrate the superiority of the Si NW array grown by bilayer assisted etching for their cutting edge applications in optoelectronics and environmental cleaning.

  2. A dilute Cu(Ni) alloy for synthesis of large-area Bernal stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madito, M. J.; Bello, A.; Dangbegnon, J. K.; Momodu, D. Y.; Masikhwa, T. M.; Barzegar, F.; Manyala, N., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARCHI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Oliphant, C. J.; Jordaan, W. A. [National Metrology Institute of South Africa, Private Bag X34, Lynwood Ridge, Pretoria 0040 (South Africa); Fabiane, M. [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARCHI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Department of Physics, National University of Lesotho, P.O. Roma 180 (Lesotho)


    A bilayer graphene film obtained on copper (Cu) foil is known to have a significant fraction of non-Bernal (AB) stacking and on copper/nickel (Cu/Ni) thin films is known to grow over a large-area with AB stacking. In this study, annealed Cu foils for graphene growth were doped with small concentrations of Ni to obtain dilute Cu(Ni) alloys in which the hydrocarbon decomposition rate of Cu will be enhanced by Ni during synthesis of large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. The Ni doped concentration and the Ni homogeneous distribution in Cu foil were confirmed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and proton-induced X-ray emission. An electron backscatter diffraction map showed that Cu foils have a single (001) surface orientation which leads to a uniform growth rate on Cu surface in early stages of graphene growth and also leads to a uniform Ni surface concentration distribution through segregation kinetics. The increase in Ni surface concentration in foils was investigated with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The quality of graphene, the number of graphene layers, and the layers stacking order in synthesized bilayer graphene films were confirmed by Raman and electron diffraction measurements. A four point probe station was used to measure the sheet resistance of graphene films. As compared to Cu foil, the prepared dilute Cu(Ni) alloy demonstrated the good capability of growing large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene film by increasing Ni content in Cu surface layer.

  3. 美国小企业技术创新政策环境分析%Analysis on the Policy Environment for Promoting Small Business Technology Innovation in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The U.S. government is committed to establish excellent policy environment for promoting small business technology innovation. In 1953, the U.S. set up the Small Business Administration to drive small-sized enterprises to join the innovation program granted by the federal government, then has developed a series of policies to support small-sized enterprises’ innovation. This article deeply studied the policy system in the U.S. to boost technology innovation in small businesses. It is discovered that the U.S. has already build a uniifed system integrating laws, fiscal and taxation policies, government procurement and innovation service systems. In this network, a close relationship among governments, non-government organizations, private investors and small businesses has been maintained, which is devoted to improve the U.S. innovation and economy.%美国政府十分重视小企业技术创新政策环境建设。1953 年,美国成立了小企业管理局,鼓励小企业参与联邦层面的技术创新活动,并相继出台了一系列支持小企业技术创新的政策和措施。目前,美国已经形成了一个集法律、财税政策、政府采购、配套服务体系为一体的小企业创新体系。在这套体系下,美国政府和非政府组织、私人投资者及小企业形成了良好的合作关系,共同推动美国创新能力的提高和经济发展。美国政府为小企业技术创新创造良好环境的做法和经验,值得我们深入研究和学习借鉴。

  4. Comparative Study of Monolayer and Bilayer Epitaxial Graphene Field-Effect Transistors on SiC Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Zhao He; Ke-Wu Yang; Cui Yu; Qing-Bin Liu; Jing-Jing Wang; Xu-Bo Song; Ting-Ting Han


    Monolayer and bilayer graphenes have generated tremendous excitement as the potentially useful electronic materials due to their unique features.We report on monolayer and bilayer epitaxial graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) fabricated on SiC substrates.Compared with monolayer GFETs,the bilayer GFETs exhibit a significant improvement in dc characteristics,including increasing current density IDS,improved transconductance gm,reduced sheet resistance Ron,and current saturation.The improved electrical properties and tunable bandgap in the bilayer graphene lead to the excellent dc performance of the bilayer GFETs.Furthermore,the improved dc characteristics enhance a better rf performance for bilayer graphene devices,demonstrating that the quasifree-standing bilayer graphene on SiC substrates has a great application potential for the future graphene-based electronics.

  5. Ultra-high vacuum surface analysis study of rhodopsin incorporation into supported lipid bilayers. (United States)

    Michel, Roger; Subramaniam, Varuni; McArthur, Sally L; Bondurant, Bruce; D'Ambruoso, Gemma D; Hall, Henry K; Brown, Michael F; Ross, Eric E; Saavedra, S Scott; Castner, David G


    Planar supported lipid bilayers that are stable under ambient atmospheric and ultra-high-vacuum conditions were prepared by cross-linking polymerization of bis-sorbylphosphatidylcholine (bis-SorbPC). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to investigate bilayers that were cross-linked using either redox-initiated radical polymerization or ultraviolet photopolymerization. The redox method yields a more structurally intact bilayer; however, the UV method is more compatible with incorporation of transmembrane proteins. UV polymerization was therefore used to prepare cross-linked bilayers with incorporated bovine rhodopsin, a light-activated, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). A previous study (Subramaniam, V.; Alves, I. D.; Salgado, G. F. J.; Lau, P. W.; Wysocki, R. J.; Salamon, Z.; Tollin, G.; Hruby, V. J.; Brown, M. F.; Saavedra, S. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 5320-5321) showed that rhodopsin retains photoactivity after incorporation into UV-polymerized bis-SorbPC, but did not address how the protein is associated with the bilayer. In this study, we show that rhodopsin is retained in supported bilayers of poly(bis-SorbPC) under ultra-high-vacuum conditions, on the basis of the increase in the XPS nitrogen concentration and the presence of characteristic amino acid peaks in the ToF-SIMS data. Angle-resolved XPS data show that the protein is inserted into the bilayer, rather than adsorbed on the bilayer surface. This is the first study to demonstrate the use of ultra-high-vacuum techniques for structural studies of supported proteolipid bilayers.

  6. Structure and functional dynamics characterization of the ion channel of the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) small hydrophobic protein (SH) transmembrane domain by combining molecular dynamics with excited normal modes. (United States)

    Araujo, Gabriela C; Silva, Ricardo H T; Scott, Luis P B; Araujo, Alexandre S; Souza, Fatima P; de Oliveira, Ronaldo Junio


    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children and elderly people worldwide. Its genome encodes 11 proteins including SH protein, whose functions are not well known. Studies show that SH protein increases RSV virulence degree and permeability to small compounds, suggesting it is involved in the formation of ion channels. The knowledge of SH structure and function is fundamental for a better understanding of its infection mechanism. The aim of this study was to model, characterize, and analyze the structural behavior of SH protein in the phospholipids bilayer environment. Molecular modeling of SH pentameric structure was performed, followed by traditional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the protein immersed in the lipid bilayer. Molecular dynamics with excited normal modes (MDeNM) was applied in the resulting system in order to investigate long time scale pore dynamics. MD simulations support that SH protein is stable in its pentameric form. Simulations also showed the presence of water molecules within the bilayer by density distribution, thus confirming that SH protein is a viroporin. This water transport was also observed in MDeNM studies with histidine residues of five chains (His22 and His51), playing a key role in pore permeability. The combination of traditional MD and MDeNM was a very efficient protocol to investigate functional conformational changes of transmembrane proteins that act as molecular channels. This protocol can support future investigations of drug candidates by acting on SH protein to inhibit viral infection. Graphical Abstract The ion channel of the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) small hydrophobic protein (SH) transmembrane domainᅟ.

  7. Ghost Fano Resonance of Excitons in Twisted Bilayer Graphene (United States)

    Liang, Yufeng


    Metallic systems are generally considered to be unable to harbor tightly bound excitons because of the strong screening effect as well as the absence of a finite band gap. Previously, exception has only been found in one-dimensional metallic carbon nanotubes due to the depressed screening effects and the symmetry gap. We explore the exciton spectra of twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) and predict the existence of even more strongly bound exciton (with binding energy as large as 0.5eV) in this system despite of its higher dimensionality. Based on our results from first-principles simulations and effective model calculations, a mechanism known as the ghost Fano resonance is proposed for the bound exciton formation in metallic systems beyond the dimensonality-related argument. Our results shed light on engineering the e-h excitations in the few-layer van der Waals heterojunction. NSF Grant No. DMR-1207141.

  8. Spin-Swapping Transport and Torques in Ultrathin Magnetic Bilayers (United States)

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Manchon, A.


    Planar spin transport in disordered ultrathin magnetic bilayers comprising a ferromagnet and a normal metal (typically used for spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin-orbit torque experiments) is investigated theoretically. Using a tight-binding model that puts the extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin swapping on equal footing, we show that the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport dramatically depends on the ratio between the layer thickness d and the mean free path λ . While the spin Hall effect dominates in the diffusive limit (d ≫λ ), spin swapping dominates in the Knudsen regime (d ≲λ ). A remarkable consequence is that spin swapping induces a substantial fieldlike torque in the Knudsen regime.

  9. Effects of butanol isomers on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes. (United States)

    Reeves, Megan D; Schawel, Adam K; Wang, Weidong; Dea, Phoebe


    Differential scanning calorimetry and (31)P-NMR were used to study the effects of butanol isomers on the thermotropic phase behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers. The threshold concentration for the onset of interdigitation for each isomer was determined by the disappearance of the pretransition and the onset of a large hysteresis between the heating and cooling scans of the gel-to-liquid main transition. The threshold concentration was found to correlate with increased solubility of the isomers in the aqueous phase, led by tert-butanol. However, as the solution concentration of tert-butanol increased, there was an abrupt shrinking of the hysteresis, initially with well-resolved shoulder peaks indicating mixed phases. The eventual disappearance of the shoulder peaks was correlated with a breakdown of the multilamellar structure identified using (31)P-NMR.

  10. Stacking transition in bilayer graphene caused by thermally activated rotation (United States)

    Zhu, Mengjian; Ghazaryan, Davit; Son, Seok-Kyun; Woods, Colin R.; Misra, Abhishek; He, Lin; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Cao, Yang; Mishchenko, Artem


    Crystallographic alignment between two-dimensional crystals in van der Waals heterostructures brought a number of profound physical phenomena, including observation of Hofstadter butterfly and topological currents, and promising novel applications, such as resonant tunnelling transistors. Here, by probing the electronic density of states in graphene using graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene tunnelling transistors, we demonstrate a structural transition of bilayer graphene from incommensurate twisted stacking state into a commensurate AB stacking due to a macroscopic graphene self-rotation. This structural transition is accompanied by a topological transition in the reciprocal space and by pseudospin texturing. The stacking transition is driven by van der Waals interaction energy of the two graphene layers and is thermally activated by unpinning the microscopic chemical adsorbents which are then removed by the self-cleaning of graphene.

  11. Magnetic bilayer-skyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect (United States)

    Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko


    Magnetic skyrmions might be used as information carriers in future advanced memories, logic gates and computing devices. However, there exists an obstacle known as the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE), that is, the skyrmion trajectories bend away from the driving current direction due to the Magnus force. Consequently, the skyrmions in constricted geometries may be destroyed by touching the sample edges. Here we theoretically propose that the SkHE can be suppressed in the antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer system, since the Magnus forces in the top and bottom layers are exactly cancelled. We show that such a pair of SkHE-free magnetic skyrmions can be nucleated and be driven by the current-induced torque. Our proposal provides a promising means to move magnetic skyrmions in a perfectly straight trajectory in ultra-dense devices with ultra-fast processing speed.

  12. The enhancement of vortex pinning in ferromagnet/superconductor bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplak, Marta Z.; Adamus, Z.; Abal' oshev, A.; Abal' osheva, I.; Berkowski, M. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikw 32/46, 02668 Warsaw (Poland); Cheng, X.M.; Sang, Hai; Chien, C.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md 21218 (United States)


    The magnetic-domain induced vortex pinning is studied in the ferromagnet/superconductor bilayers (FSB's), in which the F layers are Co/Pt multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and the S layers are either niobium or high temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO). The magnetization measurements reveal the enhancement of the flux pinning in both types of FSB's during the reversal of the magnetization of the F layer, but the details of the behavior depend on the type of the S layer. In the case of niobium FSB the maximum of pinning appears when the F layer is in the final stage of the magnetic reversal process, while the FSB with YBCO shows the maximum when the F layer is saturated. The possible origins of these differences are discussed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Probing the position of resveratrol in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Ghellinck, Alexis; Shen, Chen; Fragneto, Giovanna;


    The effect of the natural antioxidant resveratrol on the structure of solid supported di-palmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (DPPC) bilayers in their fluid state was investigated by neutron reflectometry. Results reveal an accumulation of resveratrol (up to 25%, mol/mol) inside the headgroups...... and they exclude its presence in the hydrophobic core. The presence of resveratrol induces an increase of the average thickness and of the interfacial roughness of the headgroup layer. This may be due to a change of the tilt angle of the phosphocholine headgroups residing next to the resveratrol to a more upright...... orientation and leading to a reduction of the projected area per headgroup. This effect is propagated into the hydrophobic core, where the chain packing is modified despite the absence of resveratrol. When interacting with a DPPC/cholesterol membrane, resveratrol has a similar effect on the neighboring PC...

  14. Spin-Swapping Transport and Torques in Ultrathin Magnetic Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed


    Planar spin transport in disordered ultrathin magnetic bilayers comprising a ferromagnet and a normal metal (typically used for spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin-orbit torque experiments) is investigated theoretically. Using a tight-binding model that puts the extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin swapping on equal footing, we show that the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport dramatically depends on the ratio between the layer thickness d and the mean free path λ. While the spin Hall effect dominates in the diffusive limit (d≫λ), spin swapping dominates in the Knudsen regime (d≲λ). A remarkable consequence is that spin swapping induces a substantial fieldlike torque in the Knudsen regime.

  15. Topological states in two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayers (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Ming; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun


    We investigate the topological states of the two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayer. The system exhibits a quantum valley Hall (QVH) state when the interlayer interaction t⊥ is smaller than the nearest neighbor hopping energy t, and then translates to a trivial band insulator state when t⊥ / t > 1. Interestingly, the system is found to be a single-edge QVH state with t⊥ / t = 1. The topological phase transition also can be presented via changing bias voltage and sublattice potential in the system. The QVH states have different edge modes carrying valley current but no net charge current. The bias voltage and external electric field can be tuned easily in experiments, so the present results will provide potential application in valleytronics based on the two-dimensional hexagon lattice.

  16. Butterfly micro bilayer thermal energy harvester geometry with improved performances (United States)

    Trioux, E.; Monfray, S.; Basrour, S.


    This paper reports the recent progress of a new technology to scavenge thermal energy, implying a double-step transduction through thermal buckling of a bilayer aluminum nitride / aluminum bridge and piezoelectric transduction. A completely new scavenger design is presented, improving greatly its final performance. The butterfly shape reduces the overall device mechanical rigidity, which leads to a decrease of buckling temperatures compared to previously studied rectangular plates. In a first time we compared performances of rectangular and butterfly plates with an equal thickness of Al and AlN. In a second time, with a thicker Al layer than AlN layer, we will study only butterfly structure in terms of output power and buckling temperatures, and compare it to the previous stack.

  17. Modeling Kinetics of Distortion in Porous Bi-layered Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Bjørk, Rasmus;


    Shape distortions during constrained sintering experiment of bi-layer porous and dense cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) structures have been modeled. Technologies like solid oxide fuel cells require co-firing thin layers with different green densities, which often exhibit differential shrinkage...... because of different sintering rates of the materials resulting in undesired distortions of the component. An analytical model based on the continuum theory of sintering has been developed to describe the kinetics of densification and distortion in the sintering processes. A new approach is used...... to extract the material parameters controlling shape distortion through optimizing the model to experimental data of free shrinkage strains. The significant influence of weight of the sample (gravity) on the kinetics of distortion is taken in to consideration. The modeling predictions indicate good agreement...

  18. Superconducting properties of lithium-decorated bilayer graphene (United States)

    Szczȩśniak, Dominik


    The present study provides a comprehensive theoretical analysis of the superconducting phase in selected lithium-decorated bilayer graphene nanostructures. The numerical calculations, conducted within the Eliashberg formalism, give quantitative estimations of the most important thermodynamic properties such as the critical temperature, specific heat, critical field and others. It is shown that discussed lithium-graphene systems present enhancement of their thermodynamic properties comparing to the monolayer case, e.g., the critical temperature can be raised to ∼15 \\text{K} . Furthermore, estimated characteristic thermodynamic ratios exceed predictions of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory suggesting that the considered lithium-graphene systems can be properly analyzed only within the strong-coupling regime.

  19. Resonant tunnelling in a Fibonacci bilayer graphene superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Sinha, C. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Biswas, R. [Department of Physics, PK College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)


    The transmission coefficients (TCs) and angularly averaged conductance for quasi-particle transport are studied for a bilayer graphene superlattice arranged according to the Fibonacci sequence. The transmission is found to be symmetric around the superlattice growth direction and highly sensitive to the direction of the quasi-particle incidence. The transmission spectra are fragmented and appear in groups due to the quasi-periodicity of the system. The average conductance shows interesting structures sharply dependent on the height of the potential barriers between two graphene strips. The low-energy conductance due to Klein transmission is substantially modified by the inclusion of quasi-periodicity in the system. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Protein-induced bilayer Perturbations: Lipid ordering and hydrophobic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Laursen, Ib; Bohr, Henrik;


    The host lipid bilayer is increasingly being recognized as an important non-specific regulator of membrane protein function. Despite considerable progress the interplay between hydrophobic coupling and lipid ordering is still elusive. We use electron spin resonance (ESR) to study the interaction...... and hydrophobic mismatch. Our findings also show that at high protein:lipid ratios the lipids are motionally restricted but not completely immobilized. Both exchange on and off rate values for the lipid ↔ gramicidin interaction are lowest at optimal hydrophobic matching. Hydrophobic mismatch of few Å results...... in up to 10-fold increased exchange rates as compared to the ‘optimal’ match situation pointing to the regulatory role of hydrophobic coupling in lipid–protein interactions....

  1. Phosphatidyl-hydroxytyrosol and phosphatidyl-tyrosol bilayer properties. (United States)

    Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L


    Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol phospholipids were enzymatically synthesized and investigated for their bilayer properties. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that hand extrusion at 100nm consistently resulted in liposomes of nearly 85nm diameter for both phosphatidyl-hydroxytyrosol (DOPHT) and phosphatidyl-tyrosol (DOPT). Transmission electron microscopy showed DOPT and DOPHT liposomes extruded at 100-nm to be spherical and non-distinctive from one another. Zeta potential measurements resulted in surface charges<-25mV, demonstrating both DOPT and DOPHT form highly stable liposomes. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring measurements demonstrated that liposomal adsorption was dependent on a combination of DOPT (or DOPHT) mole-percent and calcium ions concentration. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicated that melting temperatures of DOPT and DOPHT were below 4°C, suggesting that adsorption behavior and liposome formation was limited by electrostatic interactions and not gel-state formation.

  2. Thickness dependence of the exchange bias in epitaxial manganite bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobrinskii, A. L. [University of Minnesota; Goldman, A. M. [University of Minnesota; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL


    Exchange bias has been studied in a series of La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}/La{sub 1/3}Ca{sub 2/3}MnO{sub 3} bilayers grown on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by ozone-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. The high crystalline quality of the samples and interfaces has been verified using high-resolution x-ray diffractometry and Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. The dependence of exchange bias on the thickness of the antiferromagnetic layer has been investigated. A critical value for the onset of the hysteresis loop shift has been determined. An antiferromagnetic anisotropy constant has been obtained by fitting the results to the generalized Meiklejohn-Bean model.

  3. Thickness dependence of the exchange bias in epitaxial manganite bilayers (United States)

    Kobrinskii, A. L.; Goldman, A. M.; Varela, Maria; Pennycook, S. J.


    Exchange bias has been studied in a series of La2/3Ca1/3MnO3/La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 bilayers grown on (001) SrTiO3 substrates by ozone-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. The high crystalline quality of the samples and interfaces has been verified using high-resolution x-ray diffractometry and Z -contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. The dependence of exchange bias on the thickness of the antiferromagnetic layer has been investigated. A critical value for the onset of the hysteresis loop shift has been determined. An antiferromagnetic anisotropy constant has been obtained by fitting the results to the generalized Meiklejohn-Bean model.

  4. Phase Transition of MoS2 Bilayer Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Bothra, Pallavi; Pati, Swapan K.


    In the present study, using density functional calculations we have investigated a possible mechanism for the structural phase transition of the semiconducting bilayer 2H-MoS2 via lithiation. The results indicate that the addition of lithium to the bilayer 2H-MoS2 transforms the bilayer to a hete...... microscopic mechanism of the phase transition in MoS2 and enriches the atomic scale understanding of the interaction of MoS2 with the alkali ions and other transition metal dichalcogenides manifesting a similar phase transition....

  5. The interaction of new piroxicam analogues with lipid bilayers--a calorimetric and fluorescence spectroscopic study. (United States)

    Maniewska, Jadwiga; Szczęśniak-Sięga, Berenika; Poła, Andrzej; Sroda-Pomianek, Kamila; Malinka, Wiesław; Michalak, Krystyna


    The purpose of the present paper was to assess the ability of new piroxicam analogues to interact with the lipid bilayers. The results of calorimetric and fluorescence spectroscopic experiments of two new synthesized analogues of piroxicam, named PR17 and PR18 on the phase behavior of phospholipid bilayers and fluorescence quenching of fluorescent probes (Laurdan and Prodan), which molecular location within membranes is known with certainty, are shown in present work. The presented results revealed that, depending on the details of chemical structure, the studied compounds penetrated the lipid bilayers.

  6. Failure modes and fracture origins of porcelain veneers on bilayer dental crowns. (United States)

    Liu, Yihong; Liu, Guanghua; Wang, Yong; Shen, James Zhijian; Feng, Hailan


    The aims of this study were to determine the fracture origins and crack paths in the porcelain of clinically failed bilayer ceramic restorations and to reveal the correlation between the porcelain failures and material properties. Three clinically failed crowns of each material (bilayer zirconia crowns, galvano-ceramic crowns, and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns) were collected and underwent failure analysis. The fractures found in porcelain veneers showed several characteristics including wear, Hertzian cone crack, chipping off, and delamination. The results indicated that the fracture origins and features of the porcelain in bilayer ceramic restorations might be affected by the rigidity of core materials and thickness of copings.

  7. Finite element modeling of camber evolution during sintering of bi-layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Ni, De Wei; Bulatova, Regina;


    The need for understanding the mechanisms and optimization of shape distortions during sintering of bilayers is necessary while producing structures with functionally graded architectures. A finite element model based on the continuum theory of sintering was developed to understand the camber...... and friction as well as the initial geometric parameters of the bilayers were made using optical dilatometry experiments and the model. The developed models were able to capture the observed behaviors of the bilayers’ distortions during sintering. Finally, we present the importance of understanding and hence...... making use of the effect of gravity and friction to minimize the shape distortions during sintering of bilayers....

  8. Addressing Raman features of individual layers in isotopically labeled Bernal stacked bilayer graphene (United States)

    Costa, Sara D.; Weis, Johan Ek; Frank, Otakar; Fridrichová, Michaela; Kalbac, Martin


    In this report important Raman modes for the evaluation of strain in graphene (the 2D and 2D‧) are analyzed. The isotope labeling is used to disentangle contribution of individual graphene layers of graphene bilayer to the studied Raman modes. It is shown that for Bernal-stacked bilayers, the 2D and the 2D‧ Raman modes have three distinct components that can be assigned to processes originating solely from the top graphene layer, bottom graphene layer, and from a combination of processes originating both from the top and bottom layers. The reported results thus enable addressing the properties of individual graphene layers in graphene bilayer by Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol esters partitioning into, location within, and effect on DOPC liposome bilayer behavior. (United States)

    Evans, Kervin O; Laszlo, Joseph A; Compton, David L


    The phenols hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol made abundantly available through olive oil processing were enzymatically transesterified into effective lipophilic antioxidants with cuphea oil. The hydroxytyrosyl and tyrosyl esters made from cuphea oil were assessed for their ability to partition into, locate within and effect the bilayer behavior of 1,2-dioloeoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes and compared to their counterparts made from decanoic acid. Partitioning into liposomes was on the same scale for both hydroxytyrosyl derivatives and both tyrosyl derivatives. All were found to locate nearly at the same depth within the bilayer. Each was found to affect bilayer behavior in a distinct manner.

  10. Hexagonal-shaped monolayer-bilayer quantum disks in graphene: A tight-binding approach (United States)

    da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Pereira, J. M.; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.


    Using the tight-binding approach, we investigate confined states in two different hybrid monolayer-bilayer systems: (i) a hexagonal monolayer area surrounded by bilayer graphene in the presence of a perpendicularly applied electric field and (ii) a hexagonal bilayer graphene dot surrounded by monolayer graphene. The dependence of the energy levels on dot size and external magnetic field is calculated. We find that the energy spectrum for quantum dots with zigzag edges consists of states inside the gap which range from dot-localized states, edge states, to mixed states coexisting together, whereas for dots with armchair edges, only dot-localized states are observed.

  11. Boundary potential of lipid bilayers: methods and interpretations (United States)

    Ermakov, Yu A.; Nesterenko, A. M.


    The electric field distribution at the boundaries of cell membrane consists of diffuse part of the electrical double layer and the potential drop over polar area inside the membrane itself. The latter is generally attributed to the dipole effect, which depends on the lipid hydration and phase state. This report focuses on the experimental approaches developed to detect the relation between dipole effects and the bilayer structure, and to study their molecular nature. The total boundary potential (BP) of planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) can be controlled by Intramembranous Field Compensation (IFC) method developed in our laboratory. When combined with electrokinetic measurements in liposome suspension it allows detecting the changes of the dipole potential due to adsorption of inorganic cations and charged molecules. Multivalent inorganic cations increase the dipole potential up to 100-150 mV and make the membrane rigid. Most of these observations were simulated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) in order to visualize the relationship of electric field with the different structural factors (lipid structure, water orientation, ion adsorption etc.) responsible for its dipole component. Two principal contributors to BP – water and lipid molecules – create the opposite effects. The negative contribution with respect to the bulk is due to lipid itself and the inorganic cation penetration into the polar area of membrane. The positive contribution is caused by water orientation. Particularly, in the case of lysine adsorption, the contribution of water includes the rearrangement of H-bonds with the lipid phosphate group. This fact explains well the unusual kinetic phenomena registered by IFC in the case of polylysine adsorption at the BLM surface.

  12. Hydrocarbon chain conformation in an intercalated surfactant monolayer and bilayer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N V Venkataraman; S Vasudevan


    Cetyl trimethyl ammonium (CTA) ions have been confined within galleries of layered CdPS3 at two different grafting densities. Low grafting densities are obtained on direct intercalation of CTA ions into CdPS3 to give Cd0.93PS3(CTA)0.14. Intercalation occurs with a lattice expansion of 4.8 Å with the interlamellar surfactant ion lying flat forming a monolayer. Intercalation at higher grafting densities was effected by a two-step ion-exchange process to give Cd0.83PS3(CTA)0.34, with a lattice expansion of 26.5 Å. At higher grafting densities the interlamellar surfactant ions adopt a tilted bilayer structure. 13C NMR and orientation-dependent IR vibrational spectroscopy on single crystals have been used to probe the conformation and orientation of the methylene ‘tail’ of the intercalated surfactant in the two phases. In the monolayer phase, the confined methylene chain adopts an essentially all-trans conformation with most of the trans chain aligned parallel to the gallery walls. On lowering the temperature, molecular plane aligns parallel, so that the methylene chain lies flat, rigid and aligned to the confining surface. In the bilayer phase, most bonds in the methylene chain are in trans conformation. It is possible to identify specific conformational sequences containing a gauche bond, in the interior and termini of the intercalated methylene. These high energy conformers disappear on cooling leaving all fifteen methylene units of the intercalated cetyl trimethyl ammonium ion in trans conformational registry at 40 K.

  13. Incorporation of Amphipathic Diblock Copolymer in Lipid Bilayer for Improving pH Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xia


    Full Text Available Diblock copolymers (mPEG-b-PDPA, which were designed to possess pH-sensitivity as well as amphipathy, were used as an intelligent lock in the liposomal membrane. The so-called pH-sensitive liposomes were prepared by simple mixing of the synthesized mPEG-b-PDPA with phospholipids and cholesterol. Fluorescence polarization at pH 7.4 showed that the membrane stability of the hybrid liposome was significantly increased compared with the pure liposome. Therefore, in the neutral environment, the leakage of doxorubicin (DOX was inhibited. However, when pH decreased to 6.0, DOX release rate increased by 60% due to the escape of copolymer. The effects of the membrane composition and the PDPA segment length on bilayer membrane functions were investigated. These results revealed that the synthesized copolymers increased the difference in DOX cumulative release between pH 7.4 and 6.0, that is, improved the pH-controllability of the drug release from hybrid liposomes.

  14. Di- and tri-oxalkyl derivatives of a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) rotor dye in lipid bilayers. (United States)

    Olšinová, Marie; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Pozník, Michal; Šachl, Radek; Prausová, Tereza; Hof, Martin; Kozmík, Václav; Teplý, Filip; Svoboda, Jiří; Cebecauer, Marek


    The environment-sensitive fluorescent probes provide excellent tools for studying membranes in their native state. We have modified the BODIPY-based fluorescent molecular rotor by increasing the number of alkyl moieties from one to two or three to achieve a more defined and deeper positioning of the probe in membranes. Detailed characterisation of fluorescence properties and localisation/orientation of probes was performed using a variety of fluorescence techniques and model membranes composed of different lipids. As expected, additional alkyls attached to the fluorophore moiety led to a deeper and more defined localisation of the probe in the lipid bilayer. The results strongly indicate that fluorescence properties of such probes are influenced not only by lipid packing but also by the orientation of the probe in membranes. The orientation of rotors studied herein was significantly altered by changes in the lipid composition of membranes. Our observations demonstrate the limits of BODIPY-based molecular rotors as environmental sensors in cellular membranes with complex lipid composition. The results presented herein also underline the importance of the detailed characterisation of fluorescent membrane dyes and provide a guide for future testing.

  15. Porous nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) for targeted delivery and methods of using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Carnes, Eric C.; Ashley, Carlee Erin; Willman, Cheryl L.


    The present invention is directed to protocells for specific targeting of hepatocellular and other cancer cells which comprise a nanoporous silica core with a supported lipid bilayer; at least one agent which facilitates cancer cell death (such as a traditional small molecule, a macromolecular cargo (e.g. siRNA or a protein toxin such as ricin toxin A-chain or diphtheria toxin A-chain) and/or a histone-packaged plasmid DNA disposed within the nanoporous silica core (preferably supercoiled in order to more efficiently package the DNA into protocells) which is optionally modified with a nuclear localization sequence to assist in localizing protocells within the nucleus of the cancer cell and the ability to express peptides involved in therapy (apoptosis/cell death) of the cancer cell or as a reporter, a targeting peptide which targets cancer cells in tissue to be treated such that binding of the protocell to the targeted cells is specific and enhanced and a fusogenic peptide that promotes endosomal escape of protocells and encapsulated DNA. Protocells according to the present invention may be used to treat cancer, especially including hepatocellular (liver) cancer using novel binding peptides (c-MET peptides) which selectively bind to hepatocellular tissue or to function in diagnosis of cancer, including cancer treatment and drug discovery.

  16. Bilayer membrane permeability of ionic liquid-filled block copolymer vesicles in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Bai, Zhifeng; Zhao, Bin; Lodge, Timothy P


    The bilayer membrane permeability of block copolymer vesicles ("polymersomes") with ionic liquid interiors dispersed in water is quantified using fluorescence quenching. Poly((1,2-butadiene)-b-ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO) block copolymer vesicles in water with their interiors filled with a common hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, were prepared containing a hydrophobic dye, Nile Red, by intact migration of dye-encapsulated vesicles from the ionic liquid to water at room temperature. A small quencher molecule, dichloroacetamide, was added to the aqueous solution of the dye-loaded vesicles, and the permeation of the quencher passing through the membrane into the interior was determined from the fluorescence quenching kinetics. Rapid permeation of the quencher across the nanoscale membrane was observed, consistent with the high fluidity of the liquid polybutadiene membrane. Two different PB-PEO copolymers were employed, in order to vary the thickness of the solvophobic membrane. A significant increase in membrane permeability was also observed with decreasing membrane thickness, which is tentatively attributable to differences in quencher solubility in the membranes. Quantitative migration of the vesicles from the aqueous phase back to an ionic liquid phase was achieved upon heating. These microscopically heterogeneous and thermoresponsive vesicles with permeable and robust membranes have potential as recyclable nanoreactors, in which the high viscosity and capital expense of an ionic liquid reaction medium can be mitigated, while retaining the desirable features of ionic liquids as reaction media, and facile catalyst recovery.

  17. Non-equilibrium dynamics and state preparation in bilayer optical lattices (United States)

    Langer, Stephan; Daley, Andrew J.


    We study dynamical schemes to obtain low entropy ground states of strongly interacting many body systems. The focus of our work is on ultra-cold Bose and Fermi gases in bilayer optical lattice systems with separately tunable interlayer coupling, energy offset between the layers and repulsive interactions. The case of two coupled one-dimensional chains is treated in a numerically exact manner using the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group which allows us to study the change of offset and interlayer coupling in real time. We identify parameter regimes where the ground state of the coupled system in the limit of small interlayer coupling consists of a Mott insulator in one layer and a superfluid/metallic state in the other layer can serve as an entropy reservoir. We then investigate the time-dependent dynamics of this system, studying entropy transfer between layers and the emergence of characteristic many-body correlations as we change the layer offset energy and coupling strength. In addition to applications as a preparation scheme for fully interacting Mott-insulator states, feasible with available experimental techniques, the investigated protocols could be easily adapted to also allow for a controlled preparation of highly excited states.

  18. Oriented bilayers of a proteolipid complex, Annexin V phospholipids, for solid state NMR analyses (United States)

    Saurel, O.; Demange, P.; Milon, A.


    We were able to obtain oriented bilayers in the presence of annexin V (35 kDa) and to measure structural and dynamic parameters. NMR results obtained so far show that annexin does not affect the structure of the membrane but modifies the dynamics of the phospholipids (T2e decrease). Our new method to prepare oriented biological samples, based on the preparation of small unilamellar proteolipid vesicles in biological buffers, should be suitable for any membrane protein phospholipid complex and for solid state NMR or neutron diffraction experiments. La préparation de petites vésicules protéo-lipidiques dans un tampon physiologique, nous a permis d'obtenir des bicouches orientées en présence d'annexine V (35 kDa) et de mesurer les paramètres structuraux et dynamiques de ce complexe protéolipidique. Les résultats obtenus par RMN du solide montrent que l'annexine n'affecte pas la structure en bicouche de la membrane mais modifie la dynamique des phospholipides (diminution du temps de relaxation T2e). Cette nouvelle méthode de préparation d'échantillons orientés peut être applicable à tout complexe protéine-phospholipides pour des études par RMN à l'état solide ou par diffraction des neutrons.

  19. Composite bosons in bilayer ν=1 system: An application of the Murthy-Shankar formalism (United States)

    Stanić, Ivan; Milovanović, Milica V.


    We calculate the dispersion of the out-of-phase mode characteristic for the bilayer ν=1 quantum Hall system applying the version of Chern-Simons theory of Murthy and Shankar that cures the unwanted bare electron mass dependence in the low-energy description of quantum Hall systems. The obtained value for the mode when d , distance between the layers, is zero is in a good agreement with the existing pseudospin picture of the system. For d nonzero but small we find that the mode is linearly dispersing and its velocity to a good approximation depends linearly on d . This is in agreement with the Hartree-Fock calculations of the pseudospin picture that predicts a linear dependence on d , and contrary to the naive Hartree predictions with dependence on the square root of d . We set up a formalism that enables one to consider fluctuations around the found stationary point values. In addition we address the case of imbalanced layers in the Murthy-Shankar formalism.

  20. Sandwich beam model for free vibration analysis of bilayer graphene nanoribbons with interlayer shear effect (United States)

    Nazemnezhad, Reza; Shokrollahi, Hassan; Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh


    In this study, sandwich beam model (SM) is proposed for free vibration analysis of bilayer graphene nanoribbons (BLGNRs) with interlayer shear effect. This model also takes into account the intralayer (in-plane) stretch of graphene nanoribbons. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the software LAMMPS and Adaptive Intermolecular Reactive Empirical Bond Order (AIREBO) potential are done to validate the accuracy of the sandwich model results. The MD simulation results include the two first frequencies of cantilever BLGNRs with different lengths and two interlayer shear moduli, i.e., 0.25 and 4.6 GPa. These two interlayer shear moduli, 0.25 and 4.6 GPa, can be obtained by sliding a small flake of graphene on a large graphene substrate when the parameter of E_LJ term in AIREBO potential, epsilon_CC, is set to be 2.84 and 45.44 meV, respectively. The SM results for a wide range of bending rigidity values show that the proposed model, i.e., the SM, predicts much better than the previous beam model in which the intralayer stretch is ignored. In addition, it is observed that the model can properly predict the natural frequencies of BLGNRs for various values of the bending rigidity and the interlayer shear modulus.