WorldWideScience

Sample records for bilateral osteological characters

  1. Holistic neural coding of Chinese character forms in bilateral ventral visual system.

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    Mo, Ce; Yu, Mengxia; Seger, Carol; Mo, Lei

    2015-02-01

    How are Chinese characters recognized and represented in the brain of skilled readers? Functional MRI fast adaptation technique was used to address this question. We found that neural adaptation effects were limited to identical characters in bilateral ventral visual system while no activation reduction was observed for partially overlapping characters regardless of the spatial location of the shared sub-character components, suggesting highly selective neuronal tuning to whole characters. The consistent neural profile across the entire ventral visual cortex indicates that Chinese characters are represented as mutually distinctive wholes rather than combinations of sub-character components, which presents a salient contrast to the left-lateralized, simple-to-complex neural representations of alphabetic words. Our findings thus revealed the cultural modulation effect on both local neuronal activity patterns and functional anatomical regions associated with written symbol recognition. Moreover, the cross-language discrepancy in written symbol recognition mechanism might stem from the language-specific early-stage learning experience.

  2. [Osteology--100 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götte, S

    2001-10-01

    As is the case for many other subspecialties of medical science, osteology has developed in tandem with technological progress over the last 100 years. The discover of X-rays made visualization of the skeletal system possible. Progress in surgery and hygiene permitted examination and treatment of bones in vivo. Optical techniques made it possible to gain insight into the microarchitecture of the bone. Chemistry and biochemistry opened the door for pathophysiology and microcellular assessment of the bone so that modern osteology deals with interventions in cellular mechanisms, in particular for the treatment of bone diseases. The realization that the bone represents a dynamic tissue, characterized by processes of generation and degeneration, was decisive. These events have a profound influence on the treatment of osteoporosis. Questions pertaining to osteology have been subject to heightened interdisciplinary debate in the past few years, which is reflected in interdisciplinary associations and co-operative groups, and ultimately the umbrella Society of Osteology. Contemplation of the subject from an interdisciplinary viewpoint shows what a significant and natural role orthopedics plays in research on bone metabolism, but also in the treatment of bone diseases. Interdisciplinary cooperation aids quality control and is also reflected in the formulation of common guidelines for the clinical picture of osteoporosis, which constitutes a major epidemiological disease.

  3. Osteological differentiation among Iberian Pelodytes (Anura, Pelodytidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The morphological differentiation among Pelodytes species is analysed based on a sample of disarticulated bones from the main osteological regions of the male adult skeleton. A set of 35 interspecifically diagnostic characters, analysed under different outgroup hypotheses, clearly shows that P. ibericus and P. punctatus are a sister-group with respect to P. caucasicus. The Caucasian species retains a very primitive morphology, with only 17-23 % derived character-states, while both living Iber...

  4. The osteology of Camarasaurus lewisi (Jensen, 1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, J.S.; Miller, W.E.; Stadtman, K.L.; Gillette, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Preparation of an approximately two-thirds complete, well-preserved Camarasaurus skeleton has recently been finished. Its detailed osteological description presented here provides a number of interesting characters, some not previously reported for the genus. This specimen (BYU 9047) was earlier named Cathetosaurus lewisi, n. gen. et sp., based on seven characters cited by Jensen (1988). Of these characters, four appear to be age related (this skeleton represents a very old individual) and not of taxonomic significance. Nevertheless, they are useful in advancing our understanding of the ligamentation associated with the sacral and posterior dorsal regions, not only of Camarasaurus but of the sauropods in general. These characters also contribute to a greater knowledge of the ontogenetic development and fusion of the sacral elements. Camarasaurus lewisi (Jensen, 1988) is a valid species whose diagnostic characters include (1) a deep but narrow cleft in the neural spines of presacral vertebrae, which most significantly persists to the sacrum rather than ending in the mid-dorsal region, as in all other species of Camarasaurus; (2) a forward rotation of the ilium with respect to the long axis of the sacrum, a hitherto unreported major character of the genus Camarasaurus; and (3) a steep angle that the posterior chevron articulating facets make with the horizontal plane.

  5. [Diagnostics in osteology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, F; Genest, F; Seefried, L; Tsourdi, E; Lapa, C; Hofbauer, L C

    2016-07-01

    Clinical diagnostics in metabolic bone diseases cover a broad spectrum of conventional and state of the art methods ranging from the medical history and clinical examination to molecular imaging. Patient treatment is carried out in an interdisciplinary team due to the multiple interactions of bone with other organ systems. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is supported by high level national guidelines. A paradigm shift concerning the clinical relevance of bone mineral density measurement renders this now to be a strong risk factor rather than a diagnostic parameter, while strengthening the value of other clinical factors for risk assessment. The impact of parameters for muscle mass, structure and function is steadily increasing in all age groups. In order to identify underlying diseases that influence bone metabolism a panel of general laboratory diagnostic parameters is recommended. Markers for bone formation and resorption and specific parameters for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism should be evaluated by specialists because they require diligence in preanalytics and experience in interpretation. Genetic diagnosis is well established for rare bone diseases while diagnostic panels are not yet available for routine diagnostics in polygenetic diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiology is still very important to identify, e. g. fractures, osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions and extraosseous calcifications; however tomography-based methods which combine, e. g. scintigraphy or positron emission technologies with anatomical imaging are of increasing significance. Clinical diagnostics in osteology require profound knowledge and are subject to a dynamic evolution.

  6. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-09

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species. 

  7. Osteology and postmetamorphic development of Telmatobius oxycephalus (Anura: Telmatobiidae) with an analysis of skeletal variation in the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, J Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    The osteological diversity among species of Telmatobius has been considered conservative. Nonetheless, the degree of ossification of several features varies both intraspecifically and interspecifically. Herein, intraspecific osteological variation and postmetamorphic ontogenetic changes in osteological features are described in Telmatobius oxycephalus. These data are compared with published descriptions of congeners. There is a considerable intraspecific osteological variation in T. oxycephalus, with cranial characters varying polymorphically, and the hyoid and postcranial characters being sexually dimorphic. This intraspecific variation is expressed by subtle differences in the degree of ossification or mineralization. Interspecific variation also can be described in terms of differential development of osteological features; these differences are more obvious than intraspecifically variable characters. The adult skeletons of several species of Telmatobius resemble the morphology observed in early stages of postmetamorphic development of T. oxycephalus. This is especially evident in the neopalatines, parasphenoid, sphenethmoid, exoccipitals, prootics, vomers, nasals, and plectra. These results suggest that within the conservative osteological architecture of Telmatobius, the variation observed is the result of heterochronic changes during the ossification process.

  8. Osteología de Astyanax aurocaudatus Eigenmann, 1913 (Pisces, Characidae, con notas sobre la validez de Carlastyanax Géry, 1972

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    Ruiz-C., R. I.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteology of Astyanax aurocaudatus, Eigenmann, 1913 (Pisces, Characidae, with notes on the validity of Carlastyanax, Géry, 1972. The taxonomic status of Astyanax aurocaudatus is difficult to interpret as no relevant osteological data are available to date. In the present paper we studied the osteological, morphometric and meristic characters of this species. The osteological characters of A. aurocaudatus found include the number and shape of premaxilla, maxilla and dentary teeth, second infraorbital separate from the preopercle, anal fins with pterygiophores that differ as towards the anterior, and presence of supra–orbital. These and other characters, body shape and coloring pattern, coincide with descriptions for the genus Astyanax. The characters describing the genus Carlastyanax therefore correspond to incorrect observations and the studied species is situated in the genus Astyanax. Carlastyanax is here considered a synonym of Astyanax.

  9. Osteology and chondrocranial morphology of Gastrophryne carolinensis (Anura: Microhylidae, with a review of the osteological diversity of New World microhylids

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    Linda Trueb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Microhylidae is a large, cosmopolitan anuran family. Recent molecular analyses have demonstrated the monophyly of the family—a conclusion that is supported by the larval morphology, coupled with the unique mode of tongue protrusion in adults, and a suite of osteological and myological characters seemingly associated with this innovation in feeding. Despite this functional constraint, osteological diversity probably exceeds that of any other anuran family, and this diversity is especially evident in the New Worldmicrohylids that comprise two clades, Gastrophryninae and Otophryninae. To facilitate comparisons among these clades, we describe the larval chondrocranium, skeletal development, and adult osteology of Gastrophryne carolinensis. We provide a phylogeneticcontext for these comparisons through a novel phylogenetic analysis of 45 microhylid genera based on data for one mitochondrial and three nuclear loci from previously published studies. Nearly all relationships within the monophyletic Gastrophryninae are resolvedwith robust support. Based on these results, we found that the larval chondrocrania of gastrophrynines share morphological features that distinguish them from Otophryne and other anurans. Among the adults, all gastrophrynines show evidence of an anterior shift ofthe jaws that is correlated with specializations in the otic region, and with the alignment of the planum antorbitale, the cartilage wall separating the nasal capsule from the orbits. The larval infrarostral and the adult mandibles lack a typical anuran mandibular symphysis, and the mentomeckelian bone of the adult is modified with a special process. The most variable part of the skull is the palate in which a neopalatine usually is absent and the vomer may be single or divided. The posteromedial processes of the hyoids of gastrophynines tend to be elaborated, and some taxa bear a peculiar transverse slit in the posterior part of the hyoid corpus. The anterior zonal

  10. Osteological differentiation among Iberian Pelodytes (Anura, Pelodytidae

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    Sánchez-Herráiz, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological differentiation among Pelodytes species is analysed based on a sample of disarticulated bones from the main osteological regions of the male adult skeleton. A set of 35 interspecifically diagnostic characters, analysed under different outgroup hypotheses, clearly shows that P. ibericus and P. punctatus are a sister-group with respect to P. caucasicus. The Caucasian species retains a very primitive morphology, with only 17-23 % derived character-states, while both living Iberian species reach percentages of derivation over 68 %. There is little difference between P. ibericus and P. punctatus in their relative degree of evolutionary transformation, and when using P. caucasicus as the outgroup the percentage of derived character-states is 45 and 60 % respectively. Differentiation rates are calculated in darwin units for several characters, and we show that the skull components have higher rates than the traits directly related with locomotion. Several adult growth trajectories, different between species, are described and identified as diverse allometric heterochronies. Three factors have been detected that might have grouped several characters as coevolutionary units. These factors are: a an ontogenetic factor, operating through heterochronic processes, expressed as a tendency to reduce ossification; b a functional morphological integration, detected in the elements involved in skull size and proportions; and c an ecomorphological factor, presumably an adaptive response, can be assumed for characters related to limb shape.Se analiza la diferenciación morfológica en Pelodytes mediante el análisis comparado de una muestra de elementos óseos desarticulados procedentes de las principales regiones del esqueleto macho adulto. Un conjunto de 35 rasgos interespecíficamente diferenciales, analizada bajo diversos grupos externos, permite inferir que P. ibericus y P. punctatus forman un grupo hermano frente a P. caucasicus. La especie

  11. Skeletal development and adult osteology of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae

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    Julio M. Hoyos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteological and skeletal characters have long been proven to be particularly informative in taxonomic and systematic research. Furthermore, ossification sequences are assumed to be a potential tool to investigate developmental states and developmental modes of fossil and extant skeletal specimens. Herein, we provide a detailed account on adult osteology and skeletogenesis in the Montevideo treefrog, Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae based on evaluation of a series of cleared and stained specimens. A consensus sequence of ossification, i.e., the order of appearance of mineralized elements until early metamorphosis could be determined as (parasphenoid, presacral vertebrae I-VII, frontoparietal, exoccipital – transverse processes of presacral vertebrae I-VIII – sacral vertebra – (humerus, radioulna, ilium, femur, tibiofibula, scapula – (cleithrum, clavicle, coracoids, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, hypochord – (prootic, angulosplenial, dentary, maxilla, premaxilla, squamosal. Comparing the state of mineralized elements in individual specimens, a number of skeletal elements, including the exoccipital, frontoparietal, parasphenoid and prootic, as well as elements of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and the phalanges, were found to vary intraspecifically regarding the relative time of their ossification within the ossification sequence.

  12. Cranial osteology in Momotidae (Aves: Coraciiformes).

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    Pascotto, Márcia C; Donatelli, Reginaldo J

    2003-10-01

    Momotidae (motmots) is found throughout Latin America between Mexico and northern Argentina. Given the absence of detailed studies of cranial osteology of Momotidae in the literature, this article presents a comprehensive description of the variation of the cranial osteology in all nine species of Momotidae and compares the results with published studies of other families of Coraciiformes and families in other orders. In addition, the cranial structures described are related to ecological and behavioral aspects of Momotidae. The cranial osteology of Baryphthengus ruficapillus is described in detail and compared with other species of Momotidae. The results indicate the presence in Momotidae of modified cranial structures, among which the most conspicuous are the frontal, lacrimal, squamosal, orbital, and laterosphenoid regions, as well as the palatine, upper jaw, pterygoid, and mandible.

  13. Revision of Notoglanidium and related genera (Siluriformes: Claroteidae) based on morphology and osteology.

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    Geerinckx, Tom; Vreven, Emmanuel; Dierick, Manuel; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Adriaens, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Apart from the well-demarcated genera Auchenoglanis and Parauchenoglanis, Auchenoglanidinae, one of the two sub-families of the African catfish family Claroteidae, suffers from poor resolution at the generic level. For the remaining genera, Notoglanidium, Liauchenoglanis, Platyglanis and Anaspidoglanis, generic discriminations are rudimentary. In addition, several included species are poorly defined and barely represented in scientific collections. Until now, no study has included morphological data for all currently known species, and for many species osteological data were non-existent. Molecular data for most species are lacking as well. Here, a comprehensive account of the morphology and osteology is given of all species included in these four genera. Using computed tomography (CT scanning) as well as clearing and staining, osteological characters were combined with biometric, meristic and other morphological data to revise the status of these genera and included species. Morphological and osteological data, submitted to a phylogenetic analysis, agree with metric and meristic data that all Liauchenoglanis, Platyglanis and Anaspidoglanis cannot be discerned from Notoglanidium; their genus and type species descriptions fail to be distinguished from Notoglanidium. Here their synonymy is proposed, resulting in a single valid genus, including nine species of which the validity is confirmed. A key to the genus and included species, as well as a diagnosis and description for each of them, are provided.

  14. Osteological guide of songbirds from Central Europe

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    Kessler Jenő (Eugen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an osteological guide to songbirds, based on 11 skeletal parts of 51 genera, at the genus level for ornithologists studying owl pellets, paleontologists and archaezoologists. The mandible, the coracoid bone, the scapula, the humerus, the ulna, the carpometacarp, the first phalanx bone of the second finger, the femur, the tibiotars, the tarsometatars and the claw bone are presented.

  15. Cranial Osteology of Meiglyptini (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae

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    Reginaldo José Donatelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Meiglyptini comprise eight species grouped into three genera: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1 a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2 the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3 the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4 the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds’ diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.

  16. Cranial osteology of meiglyptini (aves: piciformes: picidae).

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    Donatelli, Reginaldo José

    2012-01-01

    THE MEIGLYPTINI COMPRISE EIGHT SPECIES GROUPED INTO THREE GENERA: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1) a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2) the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3) the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4) the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds' diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.

  17. Bilateral asymmetry in certain morphological characters of Sarotherodon melanotheron Rüppell 1852 and Coptodon guineensis (Günther 1862) collected from Lake Ahémé and Porto-Novo Lagoon Bénin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Laith; Gnohossou, Pierre; Tossou, Ayoko Géraldine

    2016-02-15

    Asymmetry analysis was carried out for three bilateral characters of two cichlid fish species, Sarotherodon melanotheron and Coptodon guineensis collected from two localities, Lake Ahémé and Porto-Novo lagoon, Republic of Bénin, West Africa. For both S. melanotheron and C. guineensis snout length (SL), eye diameter (ED) and number of scales on lateral line (LLS), bilateral asymmetry was higher in the fish specimens collected from Porto-Novo lagoon compared with that of specimens from Lake Ahémé. Bilateral asymmetry in S. melanotheron and C. guineensis increased with the fish size at all localities. The possible causes of bilateral asymmetry in the two cichlid species are discussed in relation to different pollutants in both water bodies.

  18. Evaluating osteological ageing from digital data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Buckberry, Jo; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    to assess qualitatively or quantitatively the changes of the trabecular bones, the thickness of the cortical bones, and to perform morphometric analyses. Lastly, the most innovative approach has been the mathematical quantification of the changes of the pelvic joints, calculating the complexity...... on how the osteological age-related changes have been evaluated in digital data. First, the 3D virtual copies of the bones have been used to mimic the appearance of the dry bones and the application of the traditional methods. Secondly, the information directly extrapolated from CT scans has been used...

  19. Osteology and cranial musculature of Caiman latirostris (crocodylia: Alligatoridae).

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    Bona, Paula; Desojo, Julia Brenda

    2011-07-01

    Caiman latirostris Daudin is one of the extant species of Caimaninae alligatorids characterized taxonomically only by external morphological features. In the present contribution, we describe the cranial osteology and myology of this species and its morphological variation. Several skull dissections and comparisons with other caimans were made. Although jaw muscles of living crocodiles show the same general "Bauplan" and alligatorids seem to have a similar cranial musculature pattern, we describe some morphological variations (e.g., in C. latirostris the superficial portion of the M. adductor mandibulae externus did not reach the postorbital; the M. adductor mandibulae internus pars pterygoideus dorsalis did not reach the pterygoid and lacrimal and contrary to the case of C. crocodilus the M. adductor mandibulae internus pars pterygoideus ventralis attaches to the posterodorsal surface of the pterygoid and the pterygoid aponeurosis, without contacting the dorsal and ventral surface of the pterygoid margin; the M. intermandibularis is attached to the anterior half of the splenial and posteriorly inserts medially by a medial raphe that serves as attachment zone for M. constrictor colli, and the M. constrictor colli profundus presents a medial notch in its anterior margin). In addition, the skull of C. latirostris differs from that of other caimans and possesses several characters that are potential diagnostic features of this species (e.g., outline of glenoid cavity in dorsal view, extension of the rostral ridges, and occlusion of the first dentary tooth). Nevertheless, these characters should be analyzed within the phylogenetic context of the Caimaninae to evaluate its evolutionary implications for the history of the group.

  20. Osteology and relationships of Acrorhinichthys poyatoi gen. et sp. nov. (Pycnodontiformes from the marine Late Cretaceous of Lebanon

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    Louis Taverne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The osteology of Acrorhinichthys poyatoi gen. et sp. nov., a pycnodontid fish from the marine Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous of Lebanon, is studied in detail. The new fossil genus belongs to the order Pycnodontiformes, but is less evolved than the Pycnodontidae. It still exhibits a few bony plates (= tesserae in the gular region, 3 teeth on the premaxilla and 5 teeth on the dentary, and its parietal is devoid of a brush-like process. It shares a few characters with Akromystax, the most primitive taxon within Pycnodontidae, characters lost in the other members of the family.

  1. [Calcium and vitamin D in osteology].

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    Amling, M; Barvencik, F

    2015-06-01

    Calcium homeostasis is of paramount physiological and pathophysiological importance in health and disease. This article focuses on the skeletal relevance of calcium and vitamin D in daily clinical practice. Against the background of an endemic vitamin D deficiency in Germany and the increasing number of patients with drug-induced (proton pump inhibitor) enteral calcium uptake problems, it is of critical importance to understand that a vitamin D level of > 30 µg/l (> 75 nmol/l) is required for intact skeletal mineralization and that furthermore, a physiological gastric acid production is essential for a normal enteral uptake of calcium from foodstuffs. Therefore, a guideline-conform handling of vitamin D and calcium substitution is required not only for patients with rheumatoid diseases but also for any osteological therapy.

  2. Description of Specimens in the Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  3. CRANIAL OSTEOLOGY OF CYCLARHIS GUJANENSIS (AVES: VIREONIDAE

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    DIEGO MATIUSSI PREVIATTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The small passerine Cyclaris gujanensis can tear into small pieces large or heavy-bodied preys that could not be swallowed whole such as frogs, snakes, bats and birds. However there are few studies on the cranial anatomy of this species. Thus, we focused on the description of the cranial osteology to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of this species and to make some assumptions about functional anatomy. The fossa temporalis is shallow but broad and the fossa of os palatinum is deepened. The os quadratum processes are long and thick. The os pterygoideum is enlarged and the upper jaw is strongly inclined ventrally (140° with reference to the skull. The rostral extremity of rhamphotheca is hooked with ventral concavity to fit the mandible (pincer form. The mandible fossae are deepened and broad and its bulky medial process probably provides mandible stability and strong support to the muscles attached on it. All these peculiar characteristics probably indicate a considerable force in the C. gujanensis jaws and partially explain its distinctive feeding habit compared with the other Vireonidae. Nevertheless, new studies with functional approaches to analysis the forces of the muscle fibers and the cranial kinesis are needed to prove the hypotheses mentioned above.

  4. Osteoarthritis and bone: Osteologic types of osteoarthritis of the hip

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    Oettmeier, R.; Abendroth, K.

    1989-05-01

    To assess prognosis and indications for allografting articular surfaces, osteological examination is of increasing importance. In this study 93 femoral heads of patients with primary osteoarthritis could be differentiated into three osteologic types using histomorphometry: (1) the osteosclerotic type (77% of cases), (2) the hyperostotic type, with excessive neogenesis of bone all over the femoral head and increased formation of osteophytes (10% of cases), and (3) the osteopenic type, with decreased bone mass and features of bone remodelling, a greater occurrence of subchondral cysts, and small osteophytes (8% of cases). Radiological and clinical features to distinguish these groups are given. The consequences for pathogenesis and clinical practice are discussed. (orig.).

  5. Osteology of the basal hadrosauroid Eolambia caroljonesa (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah.

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    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eolambia caroljonesa is known from copious remains from the lower Cenomanian Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation in eastern Utah; however, the taxon has been only briefly described. Thus, we present herein a complete osteological description of Eolambia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The description of Eolambia presented here is based upon the holotype partial skeleton (CEUM 9758, paratype partial skull (CEUM 5212, and abundant disarticulated elements from two bonebeds that contain juvenile individuals. These remains allow the skeletal anatomy of Eolambia to be documented almost fully and a revised diagnosis to be proposed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The description provided here facilitates comparisons between Eolambia and other iguanodontians and allows Eolambia to be coded for additional characters in phylogenetic analyses. The close affinity between Eolambia and Probactrosaurus gobiensis from the Early Cretaceous of China supports previous hypotheses of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous.

  6. Principle features of the cranial osteology of Milvago chimango (Vieillot, 1816 and Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 (Aves: Falconidae

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    Anderson Guzzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of details of the cranial osteology of Milvago chimango and M. chimachima helps to ensure the monophyly of genus when compared to other birds and falcons. We conducted a study using skulls of three Milvago chimango and three Milvago chimachima specimens from the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History's Division of Birds. The cranial descriptions were comparative and illustrated by photos from the dorsal, ventral, and lateral flow perspectives. The studied species were then compared with falcons and other birds. Milvago chimango possesses several unique characters, including: the ratio of the distance from the distal portion of the lacrimal bone to the orbital arc, and from the orbital arc to the buccal arc is (1/5; absence of transpalate processes; lack of dorsal process on the pterygoid bone; more robust skull; paraoccipital bone more developed laterally; lacrimal bone smaller and more rostral; palatine bone approximately twice as wide; ethmoide bone more robust and long. In M. chimachima, the distinguishing features are: presence of projections at the caudal end of the palatine bone; developed dorsal process of the pterygoid bone; temporal fossa more tapered dorsoventrally; transverse nuchal crest outlined and visible; nostril closer to the frontonasal suture. Cranial osteology successfully provided diagnostic characters of each species and gender compared to other birds and falcons.

  7. The comparative osteology of the petrotympanic complex (ear region) of extant baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G; Berta, Annalisa; Deméré, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical comparisons of the ear region of baleen whales (Mysticeti) are provided through detailed osteological descriptions and high-resolution photographs of the petrotympanic complex (tympanic bulla and petrosal bone) of all extant species of mysticete cetaceans. Salient morphological features are illustrated and identified, including overall shape of the bulla, size of the conical process of the bulla, morphology of the promontorium, and the size and shape of the anterior process of the petrosal. We place our comparative osteological observations into a phylogenetic context in order to initiate an exploration into petrotympanic evolution within Mysticeti. The morphology of the petrotympanic complex is diagnostic for individual species of baleen whale (e.g., sigmoid and conical processes positioned at midline of bulla in Balaenoptera musculus; confluence of fenestra cochleae and perilymphatic foramen in Eschrichtius robustus), and several mysticete clades are united by derived characteristics. Balaenids and neobalaenids share derived features of the bulla, such as a rhomboid shape and a reduced anterior lobe (swelling) in ventral aspect, and eschrichtiids share derived morphologies of the petrosal with balaenopterids, including loss of a medial promontory groove and dorsomedial elongation of the promontorium. Monophyly of Balaenoidea (Balaenidae and Neobalaenidae) and Balaenopteroidea (Balaenopteridae and Eschrichtiidae) was recovered in phylogenetic analyses utilizing data exclusively from the petrotympanic complex. This study fills a major gap in our knowledge of the complex structures of the mysticete petrotympanic complex, which is an important anatomical region for the interpretation of the evolutionary history of mammals. In addition, we introduce a novel body of phylogenetically informative characters from the ear region of mysticetes. Our detailed anatomical descriptions, illustrations, and comparisons provide valuable data for current and future

  8. The comparative osteology of the petrotympanic complex (ear region of extant baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G Ekdale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anatomical comparisons of the ear region of baleen whales (Mysticeti are provided through detailed osteological descriptions and high-resolution photographs of the petrotympanic complex (tympanic bulla and petrosal bone of all extant species of mysticete cetaceans. Salient morphological features are illustrated and identified, including overall shape of the bulla, size of the conical process of the bulla, morphology of the promontorium, and the size and shape of the anterior process of the petrosal. We place our comparative osteological observations into a phylogenetic context in order to initiate an exploration into petrotympanic evolution within Mysticeti. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The morphology of the petrotympanic complex is diagnostic for individual species of baleen whale (e.g., sigmoid and conical processes positioned at midline of bulla in Balaenoptera musculus; confluence of fenestra cochleae and perilymphatic foramen in Eschrichtius robustus, and several mysticete clades are united by derived characteristics. Balaenids and neobalaenids share derived features of the bulla, such as a rhomboid shape and a reduced anterior lobe (swelling in ventral aspect, and eschrichtiids share derived morphologies of the petrosal with balaenopterids, including loss of a medial promontory groove and dorsomedial elongation of the promontorium. Monophyly of Balaenoidea (Balaenidae and Neobalaenidae and Balaenopteroidea (Balaenopteridae and Eschrichtiidae was recovered in phylogenetic analyses utilizing data exclusively from the petrotympanic complex. SIGNIFICANCE: This study fills a major gap in our knowledge of the complex structures of the mysticete petrotympanic complex, which is an important anatomical region for the interpretation of the evolutionary history of mammals. In addition, we introduce a novel body of phylogenetically informative characters from the ear region of mysticetes. Our detailed anatomical descriptions, illustrations, and

  9. [The choice of the study method in forensic medical osteological identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, S S

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the problems related to the theoretical validation of selecting a method of investigation, its application with due consideration for the algorithm of osteological identification, and assessment of the results of this or that method from the viewpoint of the objectiveness and informative value of the method for osteological identification.

  10. Tuberculosis in early medieval Switzerland--osteological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christine; Fellner, Robert; Heubi, Olivier; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Lösch, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Lesions consistent with skeletal tuberculosis were found in 13 individuals from an early medieval skeletal sample from Courroux (Switzerland). One case of Pott's disease as well as lytic lesions in vertebrae and joints, rib lesions and endocranial new bone formation were identified. Three individuals with lesions and one without were tested for the presence of Myobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) ancient DNA (aDNA), and in two cases, evidence for MTBC aDNA was detected. Our results suggest the presence of tuberculosis in the analysed material, which is in accordance with other osteological and biomolecular research that reported a high prevalence of tuberculosis in medieval skeletons.

  11. Osteology and Cartilaginous Elements of Trilepida salgueiroi (Amaral, 1954) (Scolecophidia: Leptotyphlopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Roberta R; Martins, Angele R; Curcio, Felipe; Ramos, Luciana de O

    2015-10-01

    Morphological and anatomical studies on the Leptotyphlopidae have increased in the past 10 years, providing important data on the systematics of this group, mainly focused on the skull and lower jaw morphology. However, most studies are based on a single specimen, rarely combining more than one single method of assessing morphological information. Therefore, several data on postcranial morphology, sexual dimorphism, and ontogenetic and intraspecific variation of leptotyphlopids remain poorly understood. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the cranial and postcranial skeleton of Trilepida salgueiroi based on more than 20 specimens (including males, females and juveniles), as well as a description of osteology and cartilaginous elements through the use of combined methodologies such as X-ray scanning, high resolution CT-scanning, and clearing and staining of articulated and disarticulated specimens. We also provide data on the presence/absence of dimorphic and intraspecific variation of the observed characters. The presence of a statolithic mass in the cavum vestibuli differs from the pattern found in other scolecophidians. A correlation of dorsal vertebrae with ventral and subcaudal scales was found (1:1), as well as total number of vertebrae with middorsal scales (1:1), thoracolumbar vertebrae and ventral scales (1:1), and a higher number of caudal vertebra with subcaudal scales (1.23:1). Intraspecific variation was found in several elements of the skull, lower jaw, pelvic girdle and vertebral number, but no evidence of sexual dimorphism was found in any of the species characters analysed. The homologies of several elements are discussed, although still remaining poorly understood and unknown.

  12. OSTEOLOGICAL KEY CHARACTERS OF THE PERUVIAN DIVING PETREL PELECANOIDES GARNOTII (PROCELLARIIFORMES, PELECANOIDIDAE

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    Stucchi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative measurements and photographs of the skeleton of Peruvian diving petrel Pelecanoides garnotii (Lesson, 1828 are presented as a field guide for identification. Also, the skeleton's locomotory functionality in relation to flight and diving are discussed.

  13. Osteology of Carnufex carolinensis (Archosauria: Psuedosuchia from the Pekin Formation of North Carolina and Its Implications for Early Crocodylomorph Evolution.

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    Susan M Drymala

    Full Text Available Crocodylomorphs originated in the Late Triassic and were the only crocodile-line archosaurs to survive the end-Triassic extinction. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that the closest relatives of these generally gracile, small-bodied taxa were a group of robust, large-bodied predators known as rauisuchids implying a problematic morphological gap between early crocodylomorphs and their closest relatives. Here we provide a detailed osteological description of the recently named early diverging crocodylomorph Carnufex carolinensis from the Upper Triassic Pekin Formation of North Carolina and assess its phylogenetic position within the Paracrocodylomorpha. Carnufex displays a mosaic of crocodylomorph, rauisuchid, and dinosaurian characters, as well as highly laminar cranial elements and vertebrae, ornamented dermal skull bones, a large, subtriangular antorbital fenestra, and a reduced forelimb. A phylogenetic analysis utilizing a comprehensive dataset of early paracrocodylomorphs and including seven new characters and numerous modifications to characters culled from the literature recovers Carnufex carolinensis as one of the most basal members of Crocodylomorpha, in a polytomy with two other large bodied taxa (CM 73372 and Redondavenator. The analysis also resulted in increased resolution within Crocodylomorpha and a monophyletic clade containing the holotype and two referred specimens of Hesperosuchus as well as Dromicosuchus. Carnufex occupies a key transition at the origin of Crocodylomorpha, indicating that the morphology typifying early crocodylomorphs appeared before the shift to small body size.

  14. Osteology of Carnufex carolinensis (Archosauria: Psuedosuchia) from the Pekin Formation of North Carolina and Its Implications for Early Crocodylomorph Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymala, Susan M; Zanno, Lindsay E

    2016-01-01

    Crocodylomorphs originated in the Late Triassic and were the only crocodile-line archosaurs to survive the end-Triassic extinction. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that the closest relatives of these generally gracile, small-bodied taxa were a group of robust, large-bodied predators known as rauisuchids implying a problematic morphological gap between early crocodylomorphs and their closest relatives. Here we provide a detailed osteological description of the recently named early diverging crocodylomorph Carnufex carolinensis from the Upper Triassic Pekin Formation of North Carolina and assess its phylogenetic position within the Paracrocodylomorpha. Carnufex displays a mosaic of crocodylomorph, rauisuchid, and dinosaurian characters, as well as highly laminar cranial elements and vertebrae, ornamented dermal skull bones, a large, subtriangular antorbital fenestra, and a reduced forelimb. A phylogenetic analysis utilizing a comprehensive dataset of early paracrocodylomorphs and including seven new characters and numerous modifications to characters culled from the literature recovers Carnufex carolinensis as one of the most basal members of Crocodylomorpha, in a polytomy with two other large bodied taxa (CM 73372 and Redondavenator). The analysis also resulted in increased resolution within Crocodylomorpha and a monophyletic clade containing the holotype and two referred specimens of Hesperosuchus as well as Dromicosuchus. Carnufex occupies a key transition at the origin of Crocodylomorpha, indicating that the morphology typifying early crocodylomorphs appeared before the shift to small body size.

  15. Osteología, taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas de las ranas del género Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae Osteology, taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the frog genus Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae

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    J. RAMÓN FORMAS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un análisis osteológico de las especies del género Telmatobufo (T. australis, T. bullocki, T. venustus, el que completa la definición genérica fundamentada exclusivamente en la osteología de T. bullocki y caracteres larvarios. Para cada especie se entrega nueva información distribucional, ecológica, reproductiva, morfométrica, cromosómica, alozímica y molecular. Se presenta una clave para identificar individuos adultos de las tres especies de Telmatobufo. Se publica por primera vez una lámina de Philippi perdida por casi un siglo, lo que permite aclarar de manera definitiva la identidad taxonómica de T. venustus. Con las distancias de Mahalanobis y las distancias genéticas de Rogers se determinan las similitudes morfológicas y genéticas entre las especies de Telmatobufo. Usando las secuencias para ARN 12S mitocondrial, frecuencias alélicas polarizadas de genes estructurales y caracteres morfológicos (osteológicos y morfológicos externos se propone una hipótesis de relaciones filogenéticas basada en los principios de máxima parsimonia y máxima probabilidad. Finalmente se entrega una proposición acerca de la especiación e historia evolutiva de este grupo de ranas endémicas de los bosques templados del centro-sur de ChileAn osteological analysis of the three species of the genus Telmatobufo (T. australis, T. bullocki, and T. venustus was done. That analysis completes the generic definition based mainly on the osteology of T. bullocki and on morphological larval characters. New information on morphometry, chromosomes, reproductive biology, ecology, geographical range, allozymes, and molecular data is provided for each species. A key for the taxonomic determination of adult specimens of Telmatobufo is also presented. An unedited original plate by R.A. Philippi, lost for almost a century, is published for the first time; this plate allowed the restatement of the taxonomical identity of T. venustus. Mahalanobis

  16. Postcranial osteogenesis of the helmeted water toad Calyptocephalella gayi (Neobatrachia: Calyptocephalellidae) with comments on the osteology of australobatrachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzopappa, Paula; Pugener, L Analía; Báez, Ana María

    2016-02-01

    Calyptocephalella gayi is one of over 6,000 neobatrachians arranged into two main groups, Hyloides and Ranoides. Phylogenetically, C. gayi is placed in Australobatrachia, a Gondwanan clade that is either the most basal clade of Hyloides or the sister group of Hyloidea, depending on the cladistic hypothesis; as such, this species is a key taxon in the study of the early evolution of Neobatrachia. The ontogeny of the postcranial skeleton of C. gayi is described in this article. The description is based on pattern of chondrification and ossification of skeletal elements in a growth series of tadpoles, on juveniles and adult individuals. Particular attention was devoted to some developmental aspects and morphological traits of the adult skeleton. The body of Presacral Vertebra VIII is formed from three centers of ossification, in contrast to the usual two dorsolateral centers observed in the remaining vertebrae of C. gayi, as well as in most anuran taxa for which the development of the axial skeleton is known. Each half of the pelvic girdle arises from a single cartilaginous element. The early development of the autopodia of both the forelimb and hindlimb includes the presence of an additional chondral element, which occurs during the formation of Distal Carpal 5 and the transient formation of Distal Tarsal 4 before the latter is incorporated in the cartilaginous distal end of the fibular. Some osteological aspects of other australobatrachian anurans also are reviewed (e.g., presence of intervertebral discs) based on reports in the literature, as well as first hand observations. In the course of this study, it became evident that further osteological studies are needed to formulate a clear picture of the evolution of skeletal characters not only within Australobatrachia, but also within Neobatrachia.

  17. Qualitative comparison of the cranio-dental osteology of the extant elephants, Elephas Maximus (Asian elephant) and Loxodonta africana (African elephant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nancy E

    2010-01-01

    Few osteological descriptions of the extant elephants and no detailed morphological comparison of the two genera, Elephas and Loxodonta, have been done in recent years. In this study, 786 specimens of extant elephants (crania, mandibles, and molars) were examined for characters unique to each species. Differences between sexes in each species were described, as well as differences between subspecies of each species. Striking differences in morphology were noted between sexes of both elephants and between subspecies, which may complement current genetic studies, the focus of which is to determine division at the subspecies or species level, particularly differences between the savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) and the forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis). In addition, examination of the two living elephants provides an excellent dataset for identifying phylogenetic characters for use in examining evolutionary relationships within and between fossil lineages of elephantids.

  18. Osteology of the crescent gunnel Pholis laeta and the phylogeny of the family Pholidae (Cottiformes, Zoarcoidei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, P W; Hilton, E J

    2016-09-01

    This study provides a complete description of the osteology of the crescent gunnel Pholis laeta based on cleared-and-stained specimens and X-rays to help provide sufficient morphological data to generate a robust phylogeny for the family Pholidae. Pholis laeta exhibits high variation in the structure of its caudal skeleton. The length of the preural (pu)2 neural spine is variably reduced (most common) or elongated (i.e. of similar length to that of pu3). Additionally, the neural spine of pu3 is either bifurcated or single. These results document and describe characters useful for phylogenetic inference of the family, including the insertion pattern of anal-fin pterygiophores between haemal spines. Pholidae was recovered as monophyletic (synapomorphies: ribs absent, haemonephropophyses present, gill membranes broadly joined, first neural arch fused to centrum, first anal-fin spine very robust, the dorsal fin comprises only spines and the presence of five branchiostegals), with monophyletic genera Pholis and Apodichthys (Rhodymenichthys is monotypic) and Apodichthys and Rhodymenichthys as sister taxa. The elongation of its pu2 neural spine defines Pholis and synapomorphies for Apodichthys include five infraorbital bones, no pelvic fin, a hypertrophied first anal-fin spine, the presence of two or three empty interhaemal spaces after the anteriormost anal-fin spine and having 35-46 abdominal vertebrae. Apodichthys and Rhodymenichthys are sister taxa based on the continuity of the caudal fin with the dorsal and anal fins and uniform colouration. Future study is needed to more fully resolve the interrelationships of species within Pholidae (especially the genus Pholis) and solidify the position of Pholidae within the Zoarcoidei.

  19. Differential characters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Providing a systematic introduction to differential characters as introduced by Cheeger and Simons, this text describes important concepts such as fiber integration, higher dimensional holonomy, transgression, and the product structure in a geometric manner. Differential characters form a model of what is nowadays called differential cohomology, which is the mathematical structure behind the higher gauge theories in physics.  

  20. The Cervical Osteology of Okapia johnstoni and Giraffa camelopardalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowitz, Melinda; Solounias, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Giraffidae is the only family of ruminants that is represented by two extant species; Okapia johnstoni and Giraffa camelopardalis. Of these taxa, O. johnstoni represents a typical short-necked ungulate, and G. camelopardalis exemplifies the most extreme cervical elongation seen in any ruminant. We utilize these two species to provide a comprehensive anatomic description of the cervical vertebrae. In addition, we compare the serial morphologic characteristics of the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebrae, and report on several osteologic differences seen between the two taxa. The giraffe neck appears to exhibit homogenization of C3-C7; the position of the dorsal tubercle, thickness of the cranial articular process, shape of the ventral vertebral body, and orientation of the ventral tubercle are constant throughout these vertebrae, whereas these features are serially variable in the okapi. We also report on several specializations of the giraffe C7, which we believe relates to an atypical cervico-thoracic junction, corresponding to the substantial neck lengthening. The morphologic differences exhibited between the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebrae have implications on the function of the necks relating to both fighting and feeding.

  1. Osteology of the prowfish, Zaprora silenus (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei: Zaproridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Eric J; Stevenson, Duane E

    2013-10-01

    The prowfish, Zaprora silenus, is the sole member of the family Zaproridae. It is a large, relatively elongate species with a robust head and body, and it feeds primarily on jellyfishes. Although the larvae and juveniles are pelagic, the adults are demersal, and the species is widely distributed from Southern California around the Pacific Rim to Hokkaido, Japan. The stichaeid affinities of this species have long been recognized, and the family is currently placed, along with the Stichaeidae, in the Zoarcoidei. Previous anatomical studies of Zaprora have been based on relatively few specimens from a limited geographic range and have not included cleared and stained (c&s) specimens. Here, we provide a complete description of the osteology of the prowfish, based on a large series of specimens representing a broad ontogenetic range, including a series of c&s specimens. Our results contradict the findings of previous authors in the structure of the pharyngeal teeth, presence of the pelvic girdle, and the placement of the first dorsal pterygiophore. However, we concur with the findings of previous morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies, which indicate that the prowfish is probably most closely related to at least some members of the Stichaeidae.

  2. The Cervical Osteology of Okapia johnstoni and Giraffa camelopardalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Danowitz

    Full Text Available Giraffidae is the only family of ruminants that is represented by two extant species; Okapia johnstoni and Giraffa camelopardalis. Of these taxa, O. johnstoni represents a typical short-necked ungulate, and G. camelopardalis exemplifies the most extreme cervical elongation seen in any ruminant. We utilize these two species to provide a comprehensive anatomic description of the cervical vertebrae. In addition, we compare the serial morphologic characteristics of the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebrae, and report on several osteologic differences seen between the two taxa. The giraffe neck appears to exhibit homogenization of C3-C7; the position of the dorsal tubercle, thickness of the cranial articular process, shape of the ventral vertebral body, and orientation of the ventral tubercle are constant throughout these vertebrae, whereas these features are serially variable in the okapi. We also report on several specializations of the giraffe C7, which we believe relates to an atypical cervico-thoracic junction, corresponding to the substantial neck lengthening. The morphologic differences exhibited between the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebrae have implications on the function of the necks relating to both fighting and feeding.

  3. Cranial skeletogenesis and osteology of the redeye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B E

    2013-01-01

    The skeletogenesis and osteology of the syncranium of the redeye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae is described. Skeletal development is rapid, with many elements of the chondrocranium and splanchnocranium well formed prior to the onset of ossification. The chondrocranium develops from an initial set of cartilaginous precursors, and continued elaboration proceeds from a series of processes which expand and converge to form the floor of the cranial vault, the otic capsule, the supraorbital bridge and the ethmoid region. Prodigious growth is observed for a number of splanchnocranial elements, including the Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyal cartilage. Ossification occurs in overlapping phases with initial ossification of the jaws and neurocranial floor followed by the splanchnocranium, the supraorbital bridges and the ethmoid and cranial vault. Teeth are observed primarily on the premaxilla and dentary, while a single tooth is present on the maxilla. Particular cartilages, which had originally formed in the early larva, appear to degenerate and have no ossified representative in the adult syncranium. The cranial development for M. sanctaefilomenae is compared to those of other characiforms.

  4. An osteological and histological investigation of cranial joints in geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Samantha L; Holliday, Casey M; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2011-03-01

    Cranial kinesis is a widespread feature of gekkotan lizards. Previous studies of kinesis in lizards often described the relevant, mobile joints as synovial, thus characterized by the presence of a synovial cavity lined with articular cartilage. To date however, detailed investigations of cranial joint histology are lacking. We examined eight cranial joints (quadrate-articular, quadrate-pterygoid, quadrate-otooccipital, quadrate-squamosal, epipterygoid-prootic, epipterygoid-pterygoid, basisphenoid-pterygoid, and frontal-parietal) in five gekkotan species (Oedura lesueuerii, Eublepharis macularius, Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, Tarentola annularis, and Chondrodactylous bibronii) using microcomputed tomography and serial histology. Particular focus was given to the relationship between the bony and soft-tissue components of the joint. Our results demonstrate that only three of these joints are synovial: the quadrate-articular, epipterygoid-pterygoid, and basisphenoid-pterygoid joints. The frontal-parietal and quadrate-pterygoid joints are syndesmosis (fibrous), the epipterygoid-prootic and quadrate-otooccipital joints are synchondroses (cartilaginous without a synovial cavity) and the quadrate-squamosal joint was not present. Based on previous descriptions, we determine that the structure of some cranial joints is variable among lizard taxa. We caution that osteology does not necessarily predict cranial joint histology. Although the functional implications of these findings remain to be explored we note that the development of synovial joints appears to be associated with a neural crest origin for the elements involved.

  5. Review of Dactyl: an Interactive 3D Osteology App [iPad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Alison Atkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of human osteology has always relied on access to real skeletal remains from collections for teaching, learning, and reference. it has long been supplemented by representational and replica materials, some two-dimensional, such as illustrations and photographs, and others three-dimensional, such as casts and, more recently, 3D digital objects. All are important aids in the study of osteology; however, some of the most exciting advances have recently been made in interactive 3D digital osteology objects. In recent years with the adoption of 3D scanning technology in osteology, such as CT, MRI, laser, and structured light scanners, these 3D digital objects are no longer limited to computer-generated representations, and now include replicas of real human skeletal remains. These can be presented with photo-realistic colours, dynamic textures, and detailed features, and as such they represent a major shift forward in interactive 3D digital osteology. Dactyl, the focus of this review, is the newest addition to this area and is the first to incorporate all of the key advances into one resource: an app that uses tactile response to interact with high-quality replica 3D digital objects.

  6. Analysis of Human Osteological Remains from Knox County, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    spina bifida ........ .. 18 12. Ribs showing possible evidence of trauma .. ........ .. 18 .1 t .6 .5...scapula is present, but the acromial portion of the scapular spine and acromial process is missing. The left scapular infraspinous fossa portion from...culation. In addition, there is a sacral hiatus or spina bifida (P1. 11). 9 Lumbar vertebra #5 showing accessory articulation (bilaterally * betveen

  7. Picidae in the European fossil, subfossil and recent bird faunas and their osteological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Jenő (Eugen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the European fossil, subfossil and recent representatives of the Picidae family. Following the list of fossil and subfossil remains, the author analyzes and presents images of the osteological characteristics of the order’s 10 recent European species.

  8. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  9. Osteology of the Basal Hadrosauroid Eolambia caroljonesa (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Andrew T.; John Bird; Kirkland, James I.; Peter Dodson

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eolambia caroljonesa is known from copious remains from the lower Cenomanian Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation in eastern Utah; however, the taxon has been only briefly described. Thus, we present herein a complete osteological description of Eolambia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The description of Eolambia presented here is based upon the holotype partial skeleton (CEUM 9758), paratype partial skull (CEUM 5212), and abundant disarticulated elements from two ...

  10. Bilateral ankle edema with bilateral iritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil

    2007-07-01

    I report two patient presented to me with bilateral symmetrical ankle edema and bilateral acute iritis. A 42-year-old female of Indian origin and 30-year-old female from Somalia both presented with bilateral acute iritis. In the first patient, bilateral ankle edema preceded the onset of bilateral acute iritis. Bilateral ankle edema developed during the course of disease after onset of ocular symptoms in the second patient. Both patients did not suffer any significant ocular problem in the past, and on systemic examination, all clinical parameters were within normal limit. Lacrimal gland and conjunctival nodule biopsy established the final diagnosis of sarcoidosis in both cases, although the chest x-rays were normal.

  11. Bilateral Duane syndrome and bilateral aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O; Aldahmesh, Mohammad

    2006-06-01

    Duane retraction syndrome has been reported in association with structural abnormalities of the eye, including epibulbar dermoid, keratoconus, iris dysplasia, heterochromia iridis, persistent fetal vasculature, cataract, choroidal coloboma, microphthalmia, and optic nerve dysplasia. A novel association, that of bilateral Duane syndrome with bilateral aniridia, is the subject of this report.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of pelecaniformes (aves based on osteological data: implications for waterbird phylogeny and fossil calibration studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Debate regarding the monophyly and relationships of the avian order Pelecaniformes represents a classic example of discord between morphological and molecular estimates of phylogeny. This lack of consensus hampers interpretation of the group's fossil record, which has major implications for understanding patterns of character evolution (e.g., the evolution of wing-propelled diving and temporal diversification (e.g., the origins of modern families. Relationships of the Pelecaniformes were inferred through parsimony analyses of an osteological dataset encompassing 59 taxa and 464 characters. The relationships of the Plotopteridae, an extinct family of wing-propelled divers, and several other fossil pelecaniforms (Limnofregata, Prophaethon, Lithoptila, ?Borvocarbo stoeffelensis were also assessed. The antiquity of these taxa and their purported status as stem members of extant families makes them valuable for studies of higher-level avian diversification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pelecaniform monophyly is not recovered, with Phaethontidae recovered as distantly related to all other pelecaniforms, which are supported as a monophyletic Steganopodes. Some anatomical partitions of the dataset possess different phylogenetic signals, and partitioned analyses reveal that these discrepancies are localized outside of Steganopodes, and primarily due to a few labile taxa. The Plotopteridae are recovered as the sister taxon to Phalacrocoracoidea, and the relationships of other fossil pelecaniforms representing key calibration points are well supported, including Limnofregata (sister taxon to Fregatidae, Prophaethon and Lithoptila (successive sister taxa to Phaethontidae, and ?Borvocarbo stoeffelensis (sister taxon to Phalacrocoracidae. These relationships are invariant when 'backbone' constraints based on recent avian phylogenies are imposed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Relationships of extant pelecaniforms inferred from morphology are more

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of pelecaniformes (aves) based on osteological data: implications for waterbird phylogeny and fossil calibration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan D

    2010-10-14

    Debate regarding the monophyly and relationships of the avian order Pelecaniformes represents a classic example of discord between morphological and molecular estimates of phylogeny. This lack of consensus hampers interpretation of the group's fossil record, which has major implications for understanding patterns of character evolution (e.g., the evolution of wing-propelled diving) and temporal diversification (e.g., the origins of modern families). Relationships of the Pelecaniformes were inferred through parsimony analyses of an osteological dataset encompassing 59 taxa and 464 characters. The relationships of the Plotopteridae, an extinct family of wing-propelled divers, and several other fossil pelecaniforms (Limnofregata, Prophaethon, Lithoptila, ?Borvocarbo stoeffelensis) were also assessed. The antiquity of these taxa and their purported status as stem members of extant families makes them valuable for studies of higher-level avian diversification. Pelecaniform monophyly is not recovered, with Phaethontidae recovered as distantly related to all other pelecaniforms, which are supported as a monophyletic Steganopodes. Some anatomical partitions of the dataset possess different phylogenetic signals, and partitioned analyses reveal that these discrepancies are localized outside of Steganopodes, and primarily due to a few labile taxa. The Plotopteridae are recovered as the sister taxon to Phalacrocoracoidea, and the relationships of other fossil pelecaniforms representing key calibration points are well supported, including Limnofregata (sister taxon to Fregatidae), Prophaethon and Lithoptila (successive sister taxa to Phaethontidae), and ?Borvocarbo stoeffelensis (sister taxon to Phalacrocoracidae). These relationships are invariant when 'backbone' constraints based on recent avian phylogenies are imposed. Relationships of extant pelecaniforms inferred from morphology are more congruent with molecular phylogenies than previously assumed, though notable conflicts

  14. Bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, P D; Char, D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral orbital lesions are rare. The differential diagnosis includes orbital pseudotumour, metastasis, leukaemia, lymphoma, Wegener's granulomatosis, and neurofibromatosis. We report what we believe to be the first case of bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

  15. Bilateral otogenic cerebellar abscesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadkarni T

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual presentation of bilateral otogenic cerebellar abscesses observed in two of our patients is reported. Both gave a history of otorrhoea, fever, headache, vomiting and had bilateral cerebellar signs and conductive hearing loss. The abscesses were detected on computerised tomography. X-rays revealed bilateral mastoiditis. The therapy followed was excision of abscesses, mastoidectomy and antibiotic therapy.

  16. Studies on the cranial osteology of the blind catfish Horoglanis krishnai Menon (Pisces, Clariidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy T.V. Anna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Horaglanis krishnai Menon is a blind catfish inhabiting the dug- out wells at Kottayam, Kerala, South India. Studies on the cranial osteology of the fish show that the bones on the skull are firmly articulated. The frontoparietal fontanella is very large so that the cranium virtually lacks a roof. The sphenotics and alisphenoids are hardly recognizable and the orbital bones are entirely lacking. In osteological features H. krishnai closely resembles Uegitglanis zammaroni. But in H. krishnai the orbital bones are further reduced or even absent. The fontanella is larger than that of any other known catfish. These two species must have evolved from the same ancester and have taken up nearly identical ways of life. The difference between the skeletons of these two appears to be largely dependent on the relative size of the frontoparietal fontanella. Its greater development in H. krishnai brought about a suppression or reduction of some of the bones clearly visible in Uegitglanis. It would appear that the modification initiated in Uegitglanis gatered momentum in Horaglanis. These two fishes form a group distinct from clariids and bagrids but form a connecting link between the two.

  17. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-07-15

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  18. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-07-15

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  19. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens evidenced by osteology and radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesta Makungu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  20. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  1. Bilateral ekstrauterin graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Kruse, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral tubal pregnancies are extremely rare and they are usually found after assisted reproductive techniques have been applied. A rare case of bilateral tubal pregnancy after natural conception, occurring in a woman without any predisposing factors for ectopic pregnancy, is presented....... The condition was diagnosed during laparoscopic surgery, and she was optimally treated with conservative tubal surgery. A short review of the literature is provided and discussed along with the clinical features, diagnostic difficulties and treatment options of bilateral tubal pregnancy. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  2. Character Recognition (Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Karia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Character Recognition is has found major interest in field of research and practical application to analyze and study characters in different languages using image as their input. In this paper the user writes the Devanagari character using mouse as a plotter and then the corresponding character is saved in the form of image. This image is processed using Optical Character Recognition in which location, segmentation, pre-processing of image is done. Later Neural Networks is used to identify all the characters by the further process of OCR i.e. by using feature extraction and post-processing of image. This entire process is done using MATLAB.

  3. Bilateralism and free trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Goyal (Sanjeev); S. Joshi

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been a great deal of research on the relative merits of multilateralism and bilateralism and their implications for the nature of the trading regime between countries. In this paper we explore the scope of bilateral free-trade agreements as a foundation for

  4. [Hemorrhagic bilateral renal angiomyolipoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, Mohamed; Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Joual, Abdenbi; Bennani, Saâd; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumour, often associated with congenital diseases especially de Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis. Bilateral angiomyolipoma is exceptional. The authors report a case of bilateral renal angiomyolipoma in a 33-year-old patient presenting with haemorrhagic shock. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this disease.

  5. Bilateral microform cleft lip

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, David; Attard Montalto, Simon; Grech, Victor E.

    2006-01-01

    Microform cleft lip (MCL), also called congenital healed cleft lip or cleft lip "frustré", is a rare congenital anomaly. MCL has been described as having the characteristic appearance of a typical cleft lip which has been corrected in utero. We present a girl with bilateral microform cleft lip associated with a preauricular sinus and bilateral camptodactyly.

  6. Bilateral assymetric epidural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Luis Rodrigues Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute bilateral extradural hematoma is a rare presentation of head trauma injury. In sporadic cases, they represent 0.5-10% of all extradural hematomas. However, higher mortality rates have been reported in previous series. Case Description: The authors described the case of a 28-year-old male presenting head injury, comatose, Glasgow Coma Scale of 6, anisocoric pupils without puppilary light reflex. Computed tomography showed asymmetric bilateral epidural hematomas, effacement of the lateral ventricles and sulci, midline shift and a bilateral skull fracture reaching the vertex. Surgical evacuation was performed with simultaneous hematoma drainage. Patient was discharged on the 29 th postoperative day with no neurological deficit. Conclusion: The correct approach on bilateral epidural hematomas depends on the volume, moment of diagnosis, and neurological deficit level. Simultaneous drainage of bilateral hematomas has been demonstrated to be an effective technique for it, which soon decreases the intracranial pressure and promotes an efficient resolution to the neurological damage.

  7. Digital preparation and osteology of the skull of Lesothosaurus diagnosticus (Ornithischia: Dinosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Laura B; Witmer, Lawrence M; Barrett, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Several skulls of the ornithischian dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus (Lower Jurassic, southern Africa) are known, but all are either incomplete, deformed, or incompletely prepared. This has hampered attempts to provide a comprehensive description of skull osteology in this crucial early dinosaurian taxon. Using visualization software, computed tomographic scans of the Lesothosaurus syntypes were digitally segmented to remove matrix, and identify and separate individual cranial and mandibular bones, revealing new anatomical details such as sutural morphology and the presence of several previously undescribed elements. Together with visual inspection of exposed skull bones, these CT data enable a complete description of skull anatomy in this taxon. Comparisons with our new data suggest that two specimens previously identified as Lesothosaurus sp. (MNHN LES 17 and MNHN LES 18) probably represent additional individuals of Lesothosaurus diagnosticus.

  8. Osteology and ontogeny of the wrymouths, genus Cryptacanthodes (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei: Cryptacanthodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Nalani K; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    The four species included in the family Cryptacanthodidae are eel-like, burrowing fishes distributed in the cold-temperate coastal waters of the North Pacific and the western North Atlantic. This study describes the osteology and aspects of the ontogenetic skeletal development of two species, Cryptacanthodes maculatus from the western North Atlantic and C. aleutensis from the eastern North Pacific. We discuss the relationships of Cryptacanthodidae among other zoarcoid families. The Cryptacanthodidae have been previously included in the Stichaeidae, but removed and classified as a separate family based on the skull, pectoral radial, and cephalic lateral-line morphology. Our observations (similarities in gill arch and pectoral girdle morphology; specifically, a thin sheet-like flange of bone from the posterior margin of the supracleithrum) suggest a close relationship to at least some of the members of the family Stichaeidae.

  9. Research Network Osteology Vienna: Hochauflösende und Mikro-Computertomographie in der Wiener Osteologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutschmann J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Spektrum bildgebender Verfahren zur Diagnostik osteologischer Fragestellungen wurde in den vergangenen Jahren vor allem durch verschiedene Techniken der hochauflösenden und der Mikro-Computertomographie (µCT erheblich erweitert. Das „Research Network Osteology“ (RNO Vienna hat es sich zum Ziel gesetzt, diese modernen bildgebenden Verfahren neben anderen osteologisch orientierten Forschungsrichtungen wie Molekularbiologie und Biomechanik interdisziplinär zu verbinden. Derzeit sind in das RNO 3 Mikro-CTGeräte unterschiedlicher Bauart, ein HR-pQCT-, ein 64-Zeilen-Multidetektor-CT- und ein Dual- Source-CT-Gerät, 2 Knochendichtemessgeräte (DXA unterschiedlicher Bauart, ein hochauflösender digitaler Röntgenaufnahmeplatz (in Mammographiequalität sowie 2 3-Tesla- und ein 7-Tesla- MR-Gerät integriert. Verbunden durch ein dediziertes wissenschaftliches Kommunikations- und Bildarchivierungssystem werden diese Systeme im Rahmen wissenschaftlicher Studien und neuerdings auch zur gezielten klinischen Anwendung eingesetzt.

  10. Early Osteological Development of Larvae and Juveniles in Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara (Pisces: Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Myeong, Jeong In; Park, Jae Min

    2016-06-01

    We observed the osteological development of larval and juvenile red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in order to generate data for the assessment of skeletal deformities and to inform phylogenetic systematics research. Larvae and juveniles were obtained from a aquafarm in Muan-gun, Jeolla-namdo Province, Korea. The average water temperature at the time of breeding was 23.0°C and average water salinity was 33.0 psu. Freshly hatched fish larvae had not undergone any ossification, but ossification of the parasphenoid bone, which forms the base of the cranium, occurred as the juveniles reached an average body length (BL) of 2.49 mm. At the same time, ossification of the preopercle and opercle occurred in the operculum, and ossification of the maxilla, which forms the upper jaw, and the dentary bones, which form the lower jaw, began. In addition, ossification of the vertebra occurred by formation of 7 vertebral centra and the neural spine in the abdominal vertebra. When the juveniles reached an average (BL) of 5.22 mm, ossification of the nasal, lateral ethmoid, and alisphenoid bones occurred in the cranium; ossification of the endopterygoid and metapterygoid bones began in the palatine region; and ossification of the hypohyal and interhyal bones occurred in the hyoid arch. At an average (BL) of 20.9 mm, ossification of the basisphenoid bone in the cranium and the suborbital bone in the orbital region occurred. Ossification of the vertebra then occurred by the formation of long pairs of ribs from the third to the ninth abdominal vertebrae, completing osteological development.

  11. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  12. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  13. Bilateral Control - Operational enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    Altınışık, Ahmet; Altinisik, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    A succinct definition of the word bilateral is having two sides [1]. In robotics the term bilateral control is used to define the specific interaction of two systems by means of position and/or force. Bilateral systems are composed of two sides named master and slave side. The aim of such an arrangement is such that position command dictated by master side is followed by a slave side, and at the same time the force sensation of the remote environment experienced by slave is transferred to the...

  14. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy...... was unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  15. A new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae from Peru, with comments on the osteology of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Trueb

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new, small species of Phrynopus is described from the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental just north of the Río Huallaga in central Peru. The species resembles P. montium, but is distinguished from it and other congeners by its spatulate snout. The anterior end of the maxillary arcade is broadly rounded in dorsal view, and composed of wide premaxillae that bear extraordinarily large alary processes that are deflected posteriorly at an acute angle. The configuration of the premaxillae accounts for the wide, depressed snout in this species, which in other osteological features resembles P. montium. The osteology of Phrynopus montium is described in some detail in comparison to the new species, with theintention of establishing a baseline for future morphological studies and taxonomic descriptions of strabomantine anurans of this and related genera.

  16. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...

  17. Bilateral guaifenesin ureteral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Chris; Schwartz, Bradley F

    2004-01-01

    We report on a patient with bilateral ureteral calculi composed of guaifenesin metabolite as determined by infrared spectroscopy. These stones may be associated with excessive guaifenesin intake related to the current popularity of ephedrine preparations.

  18. Comparative developmental osteology of the seahorse skeleton reveals heterochrony amongst Hippocampus sp. and progressive caudal fin loss

    OpenAIRE

    Franz-Odendaal, Tamara Anne; Adriaens, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Background: Seahorses are well known for their highly derived head shape, prehensile tail and armoured body. They belong to the family of teleosts known as Syngnathidae, which also includes the pipefishes, pipehorses and seadragons. Very few studies have investigated the development of the skeleton of seahorses because larvae are extremely difficult to obtain in the wild and breeding in captivity is rarely successful. Here we compare the developmental osteology of Hippocampus reidi over an on...

  19. Comparative developmental osteology of the seahorse skeleton reveals heterochrony amongst Hippocampus sp. and progressive caudal fin loss

    OpenAIRE

    Franz-Odendaal, T A; Adriaens, D.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundSeahorses are well known for their highly derived head shape, prehensile tail and armoured body. They belong to the family of teleosts known as Syngnathidae, which also includes the pipefishes, pipehorses and seadragons. Very few studies have investigated the development of the skeleton of seahorses because larvae are extremely difficult to obtain in the wild and breeding in captivity is rarely successful. Here we compare the developmental osteology of Hippocampus reidi over an onto...

  20. Echinoderms have bilateral tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chengcheng; Wu, Liang; Zhao, Wenchan; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult starfish is, to some extent, bilaterian because it displays some bilateral propensity and has a definite behavioral symmetric plane. The remainder of bilateral symmetry may have benefited echinoderms during their evolution from the Cambrian period to the present.

  1. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy G. Leahey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station near Richmond, preliminarily referred to a possible new species of Minmi. The Marathon specimen represents one of the world’s most complete ankylosaurian skeletons and the best-preserved dinosaurian fossil from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, among ankylosaurians, its skull is one of only a few in which the majority of sutures have not been obliterated by dermal ossifications or surface remodelling. Recent preparation of the Marathon specimen has revealed new details of the palate and narial regions, permitting a comprehensive description and thus providing new insights cranial osteology of a basal ankylosaurian. The skull has also undergone computed tomography, digital segmentation and 3D computer visualisation enabling the reconstruction of its nasal cavity and endocranium. The airways of the Marathon specimen are more complicated than non-ankylosaurian dinosaurs but less so than derived ankylosaurians. The cranial (brain endocast is superficially similar to those of other ankylosaurians but is strongly divergent in many important respects. The inner ear is extremely large and unlike that of any dinosaur yet known. Based on a high number of diagnostic differences between the skull of the Marathon specimen and other ankylosaurians, we consider it prudent to assign this specimen to a new genus and species of ankylosaurian. Kunbarrasaurus ieversi gen. et sp. nov. represents the second genus of ankylosaurian from Australia and is characterised by an unusual melange of both primitive and derived characters, shedding new light on the evolution of the ankylosaurian skull.

  2. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Lucy G; Molnar, Ralph E; Carpenter, Kenneth; Witmer, Lawrence M; Salisbury, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station near Richmond, preliminarily referred to a possible new species of Minmi. The Marathon specimen represents one of the world's most complete ankylosaurian skeletons and the best-preserved dinosaurian fossil from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, among ankylosaurians, its skull is one of only a few in which the majority of sutures have not been obliterated by dermal ossifications or surface remodelling. Recent preparation of the Marathon specimen has revealed new details of the palate and narial regions, permitting a comprehensive description and thus providing new insights cranial osteology of a basal ankylosaurian. The skull has also undergone computed tomography, digital segmentation and 3D computer visualisation enabling the reconstruction of its nasal cavity and endocranium. The airways of the Marathon specimen are more complicated than non-ankylosaurian dinosaurs but less so than derived ankylosaurians. The cranial (brain) endocast is superficially similar to those of other ankylosaurians but is strongly divergent in many important respects. The inner ear is extremely large and unlike that of any dinosaur yet known. Based on a high number of diagnostic differences between the skull of the Marathon specimen and other ankylosaurians, we consider it prudent to assign this specimen to a new genus and species of ankylosaurian. Kunbarrasaurus ieversi gen. et sp. nov. represents the second genus of ankylosaurian from Australia and is characterised by an unusual melange of both primitive and derived characters, shedding new light on the evolution of the ankylosaurian skull.

  3. Escleritis posterior bilateral Bilateral posterior scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zurutuza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática.Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

  4. Cranial osteology and taxonomy of albatrosses of genus Dimedea linneaus, 1758 and Thalassarche reichenbach, 1853 (procellariformes: Diomeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. Dénes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently accepted albatross taxonomy, based on characters of external morphology, plumage patterns, tail shape, bill size and coloration, organization of the plates of the bill, and, more recently, molecular data such as cytochrome-b gene sequences, resulted in a division of the family Diomedeidae into four genera: Diomedea, comprising the great albatrosses; Phoebastria, the North Pacific albatrosses; Thalassarche, the mollymawks; and Phoebetria, the sooty mollymawks. However, there are only a few, old studies on albatross osteology, which focused mostly on supra-generic relationships. Research on the group's taxonomy and anatomy is important in order to establish a secure basis for the identification of each species, including the differences between males, females and specimens of different ages, and also to verify anatomic characters which might be found useful for phylogenetic analysis based on morphological markers. In the present study, 63 skulls of Diomedea and Thalassarche albatrosses were analyzed and compared, thus establishing topographic correspondences and determining primary homologies, these resulting in: (a the finding of no pattern of anatomical variation related to sex and age for both T. melanophris and for T. chlororhynchos; (b the assessment of eight cranial landmarks separating the genera Diomedea and Thalassarche; (c the recognition of 13 cranial landmarks differing among T. melanophris, T. chlororhynchos and T. cauta; (d the re-identification of several specimens based on skull characters. The characters here presented for the genera and species, along with further anatomical research on the skull of the Diomedeidae, including the genera Phoebetria and Phoebastria, may help to enlighten relationships within the family.A atual taxonomia dos albatrozes consiste na divisão da família Diomedeidae em quatro gêneros: Diomedea, que inclui os grandes albatrozes; Phoebastria, formado pelos albatrozes do norte do Pac

  5. Bilaterally Incarcerated Morgagni Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Demirhan Yananli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a rare congenital diaphragmatic hernia. It is seen rarely bilaterally. Patients are usually asymptomatic. Therefore, diagnosis may be delayed until adulthood. Significant morbidity can occur in case complications arise and diagnosis is delayed. The patient, a 74 year-old female, presented in this article, was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain, vomiting, and shortness of breath. The plain abdominal radiograph of the patient revealed bowel obstruction and suspicious appearence in favor of the diaphragmatic hernia on both sides of the sternum. Computed tomography revealed bilaterally incarcerated Morgagni hernia with strangulated omentum in the right side of the sternum and a part of colon in the left side of sternum. Incarcerated organs were withdrawn to peritoneal cavity and defects of hernia were sutured primarily on laparatomy. Because bilateral incarcerated Morgagni hernia can be seen rarely, this case was reported.

  6. Bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahemey, R.; Warfield, A.T.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas are the most common benign osteoclastic tumours of the paranasal sinuses. However, nasal cavity and turbinate osteomas are extremely rare. Only nine middle turbinate, three inferior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported to date. The present case report describes the management and follow-up of symptomatic bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. A 60-year-old female presented with symptoms of bilateral nasal obstruction and right-sided epiphora. Radiological investigation found hypertrophic bony changes involving both inferior turbinates. The patient was managed successfully by endoscopic inferior turbinectomies in order to achieve a patent airway, with no further recurrence of tumour after 3 months postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. We describe a safe and minimally invasive method of tumour resection, which has a better cosmetic outcome compared with other approaches. PMID:27534890

  7. Osteological, Biomolecular and Geochemical Examination of an Early Anglo-Saxon Case of Lepromatous Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Sarah A.; Taylor, G. Michael; Zakrzewski, Sonia R.; Mays, Simon A.; Pike, Alistair W. G.; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M.; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Minnikin, David E.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Stewart, Graham R.

    2015-01-01

    We have examined a 5th to 6th century inhumation from Great Chesterford, Essex, UK. The incomplete remains are those of a young male, aged around 21–35 years at death. The remains show osteological evidence of lepromatous leprosy (LL) and this was confirmed by lipid biomarker analysis and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, which provided evidence for both multi-copy and single copy loci from the Mycobacterium leprae genome. Genotyping showed the strain belonged to the 3I lineage, but the Great Chesterford isolate appeared to be ancestral to 3I strains found in later medieval cases in southern Britain and also continental Europe. While a number of contemporaneous cases exist, at present, this case of leprosy is the earliest radiocarbon dated case in Britain confirmed by both aDNA and lipid biomarkers. Importantly, Strontium and Oxygen isotope analysis suggest that the individual is likely to have originated from outside Britain. This potentially sheds light on the origins of the strain in Britain and its subsequent spread to other parts of the world, including the Americas where the 3I lineage of M. leprae is still found in some southern states of America. PMID:25970602

  8. Anatomical knowledge among medieval folk artists: osteological interpretation of two Dance of Death motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Culina, Tatjana; Suran, Andrea; Skrobonja, Ante

    2013-08-01

    Anatomy has a long history that started with dissection of animals and then expanded and flourished thanks to dissections performed on human bodies. Artists had a crucial role in uncovering the secrets of human anatomy. While most studies have focused on the influence of famous Renaissance artists on human anatomy studies, the anatomical drawings by pre-Renaissance artists and local craftsmen have remained in their shadow. One of the most popular artistic genres in which complete or parts of human skeletons appear is the Dance of Death (Danse Macabre). This article is an anthropological study of two medieval Dance of Death frescoes that are unusual in being relatively early as well as accurately datable. A comparative morphological analysis of the two late 15th century works present in Istria has been conducted. The two works were painted by two local masters and show how the artists filled the gaps in their knowledge of human anatomy mostly with insights into animal bones and imagination. Their artworks, even though only 16 years apart, demonstrate substantial differences in the representation of the skeletons. The article argues that the history of medicine and of art could make good use of osteology and physical anthropology in attempts to define and understand how anatomical knowledge developed among pre-Renaissance and post-Renaissance artists and local people.

  9. Osteology and taxonomic revision of Hyphalosaurus (Diapsida: Choristodera) from the Lower Cretaceous of Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ke-Qin; Ksepka, Daniel T

    2008-06-01

    Although the long-necked choristodere Hyphalosaurus is the most abundant tetrapod fossil in the renowned Yixian Formation fossil beds of Liaoning Province, China, the genus has only been briefly described from largely unprepared specimens. This paper provides a thorough osteological description of the type species Hyphalosaurus lingyuanensis and the con-generic species Hyphalosaurus baitaigouensis based on the study of fossils from several research institutions in China. The diagnoses for these two species are revised based on comparison of a large sample of specimens from the type area and horizon of each of the two species. The skull, better known in H. baitaigouensis, exhibits key choristodere synapomorphies including an elongate contact between the prefrontals and posteriorly expanded supratemporal fenestrae that strongly support the placement of the highly derived hyphalosaurids within Choristodera. Both species of Hyphalosaurus share a proportionally small head, an elongate neck, a relatively unspecialized appendicular skeleton and a long, dorsoventrally heightened tail. Soft tissue preservation in several specimens provides rare insight into the integument of an extinct group. The integument of Hyphalosaurus is made up of small polygonal scales with several parasagittal rows of large, keeled, ovoid scutes. These possibly ornamental scutes bear a strong resemblance to the rows of large scutes in the monjurosuchid choristodere Monjurosuchus splendens. Observations from a variety of growth stages reveal that significant ontogenetic change in the proportions of the body and limb bones occurred in both species of Hyphalosaurus.

  10. Osteological, biomolecular and geochemical examination of an early anglo-saxon case of lepromatous leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Sarah A; Taylor, G Michael; Zakrzewski, Sonia R; Mays, Simon A; Pike, Alistair W G; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Stewart, Graham R

    2015-01-01

    We have examined a 5th to 6th century inhumation from Great Chesterford, Essex, UK. The incomplete remains are those of a young male, aged around 21-35 years at death. The remains show osteological evidence of lepromatous leprosy (LL) and this was confirmed by lipid biomarker analysis and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, which provided evidence for both multi-copy and single copy loci from the Mycobacterium leprae genome. Genotyping showed the strain belonged to the 3I lineage, but the Great Chesterford isolate appeared to be ancestral to 3I strains found in later medieval cases in southern Britain and also continental Europe. While a number of contemporaneous cases exist, at present, this case of leprosy is the earliest radiocarbon dated case in Britain confirmed by both aDNA and lipid biomarkers. Importantly, Strontium and Oxygen isotope analysis suggest that the individual is likely to have originated from outside Britain. This potentially sheds light on the origins of the strain in Britain and its subsequent spread to other parts of the world, including the Americas where the 3I lineage of M. leprae is still found in some southern states of America.

  11. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The character "力" li (strength) was originally written "(?)" The curving " (?) " indicates bulging muscles, while the "(?)" component represents skin. Despite its evolution over the centuries, "力" still symbolizes a strong arm.In combination with other characters "力" conveys the meaning "力量" liliang (strength), "力气"liqi (strength), "力求" liqiu (pursue) and "力争" lizheng (strive).

  12. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  13. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  14. Bilateral Naevus Of OTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Qazi Masood

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Naevus of Ota is a type of dermal melanocytic naevus characterized by extensive blue patch of dermal melanocytic pigmentation of the sclera and the skin adjacent to the eye. The condition is usually unilateral. Here we report a patient with bilateral naevus of Ota in view of the rarity of this condition.

  15. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Bergholt, Bo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (bCSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition frequently associated with the need for retreatment. The reason for the high rate of retreatment has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the authors focused on determining which independent predictors ar...

  16. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  17. Bilateral Symmetrical Parietal Extradural Hematoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had multiple episodes of vomiting. ... careful planning, adequate exposure, judicious surgical approach, and time ... Key words: Bilateral extradural hematoma, CT scan, double ... Figure 4: Intraoperative photograph showing bilateral trephine.

  18. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  19. The thoracic limb of the suricate (Suricata suricatta): osteology, radiologic anatomy, and functional morphologic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staden, Sheryl L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify unique features of the normal osteology and radiologic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the meerkat or suricate (Suricata suricatta), as no comprehensive information has been published. Bone specimens of 19 suricates were studied. Individual bones of the manus of one preserved carcass were studied in situ. Radiographic evaluation was performed in six animals. Comparisons to domestic carnivores were made and functional morphologic changes were identified. A suprahamate process was present on the scapula spine. Both supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina were present in the distal humerus, with a small Fossa coronoidea seen cranially. The medial epicondyle was markedly larger than the lateral epicondyle. The Tuberositas radii was located caudally. The proximal end of the olecranon was prominent medially. The large medial coronoid process had an extensive proximal articulation facet for the humeral trochlea. The ulna styloid process articulated with the ulnar and accessory carpal bones. The manus was similar to that of domestic carnivores; however, Os metacarpalis I was markedly reduced with the absence of the first digit. There were seven carpal bones. Os carpi radiale was the largest, with a large palmaro-medial process and a small sesamoid bone present medially. Ossa metacarpalia II-V and corresponding phalanges were slender, with an elongated Processus unguicularis (third phalanx) present. Radiologic findings demonstrated increased mobility of the scapula and shoulder joint, with ease of abduction. On the cranio-caudal view of the humerus and elbow joint, the distal radius and manus were consistently rotated in a supinated position. Morphologic changes were identified for the enhanced, predominant function of the shoulder, elbow, carpal, and digital flexor muscles associated with superior digging ability, and supination of the antebrachium and manus. Reference values for size parameters of the long bones are reported. The

  20. Osteology of Priocharax and remarkable developmental truncation in a miniature Amazonian fish (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, George M T; Britz, Ralf; Toledo-Piza, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Establishing phylogenetic relationships of miniature fishes is challenging in taxa with developmental truncation. Within the Characiformes, developmental truncation appears to be relatively rare, with the Neotropical genus Priocharax being an example. Priocharax includes three miniature species among the smallest of the order and has been hypothesized to belong to the Heterocharacinae. The pronounced reduction in its skeleton, however, prevented a clearer evaluation of its relationships. The present detailed osteological study was designed to address this question and revealed that 21 bones are absent and nine other skeletal structures are simplified in Priocharax when compared to other characids. Comparison of the skeleton of adult Priocharax with early developmental stages of other characids demonstrated that most of the absences and simplifications can be interpreted as developmental truncations. The most striking developmental truncations are in the pectoral girdle, in which the endoskeleton remains entirely cartilaginous. Other interesting truncations are in the ethmoid region of the skull, infraorbital series, and Weberian apparatus, in which the claustrum is absent. Our study also revealed some unusual sexual dimorphisms in the pelvic girdle. Two cladistic analyses were performed to assess the relationships of Priocharax within the Heterocharacinae. The first consisted of a traditional analysis in which all absences and reductions of Priocharax were coded in the same way as in the remaining taxa. This resulted in three equally most parsimonious topologies, all of which have Priocharax as the most basal taxon of the Heterocharacinae. The second analysis incorporated ontogenetic information, and most absences and reductions of Priocharax were reinterpreted as apomorphic conditions and thus, coded differently from similar conditions in outgroups. This resulted in a single phylogenetic hypothesis with Priocharax and Gnathocharax as sister groups based on seven

  1. Osteology and relationships of Rhinopycnodus gabriellae gen. et sp. nov. (Pycnodontiformes from the marine Late Cretaceous of Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Taverne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The osteology of Rhinopycnodus gabriellae gen. and sp. nov., a pycnodontiform fish from the marine Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous of Lebanon, is studied in detail. This new fossil genus belongs to the family Pycnodontidae, as shown by the presence of a posterior brush-like process on its parietal. Its long and broad premaxilla, bearing one short and very broad tooth is the principal autapomorphy of this fish. Within the phylogeny of Pycnodontidae, Rhinopycnodus occupies an intermediate position between Ocloedus and Tepexichthys.

  2. Cuando los huesos hablan : Un recorrido por la Sala de Osteología Comparada del Museo de La Plata

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Aquellos visitantes que hayan recorrido la sala de Osteología Comparada del Museo de La Plata ya sea en varias oportunidades o por única vez seguramente pudieron identificar los esqueletos de las especies más características (por ejemplo: elefantes, jirafa, murciélagos, ballenas, etcétera.) por su particular anatomía. Otros quizás se hayan ayudado con las referencias escritas; los más apasionados incluso, recordará la ubicación exacta de muchos de ellos. Pero desde sus respectivas vitrinas y ...

  3. Bilateral tibial hemimelia I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthy, J; Rassau, Marina; Koshi, Rachel; Battacharjee, Suranjan

    2007-05-01

    Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly. We report a case of bilateral tibial hemimelia born to phenotypically normal parents. The two amputated legs with tibial dysplasia obtained from a 3-year-old boy were studied by radiography and anatomical dissection. The radiological evaluation revealed a normal hip joint. The lower end of femur was normal without any bifurcation, shortening or bowing. Fibula was present on both legs and there was no sign of bowing or doubling. Both right and left tibiae were absent. In addition, on the right side, five tarsal bones, two metatarsals and the corresponding digital rays were absent. On the left side, three tarsal bones were absent. Dissection of the amputated segments showed the presence of extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius, peroneus longus and brevis, gastrocnemius, and soleus. Following bilateral knee disarticulation the patient was fitted with prosthesis and is doing well.

  4. Acute bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surur, John

    2011-01-01

    The author reports the case of a well and fit patient who presented herself to the emergency department and was found to have bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis. She was admitted to the intensive care where she was initially treated conservatively with antibiotics, percutaneous drainage and continuous renal replacement therapy, but her condition deteriorated. She underwent a left total nephrectomy and a partial right nephrectomy that resulted in remarkable improvement. The patient started passing urine spontaneously, so no haemofiltration was required. She was discharged home and her case was followed-up by an urologist and nephrologist. This case lays emphasis on thoroughly investigating and managing a patient with bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis and, in relation to its management, on the dilemma of whether the treatment of choice should be conservative or surgical. PMID:22707665

  5. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1]...

  6. Bilateral akillesseneruptur hos nyretransplanterede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Nimb, L

    1996-01-01

    Increased incidence of tendinitis and tendon ruptures is reported in recipients of a kidney transplant. Two cases of bilateral achilles tendon rupture after minimal trauma are described. Tendon ruptures are more frequent in individuals with kidney disease in dialysis or after transplantation...... compared with patients receiving other organ transplantations. It is therefore more likely that tendon ruptures are related to metabolic changes associated with kidney disease rather than with transplantation or with glucocorticoid treatment per se. Clinical symptoms of achilles tendinitis should...

  7. Ischemic Bilateral Opercular Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel Milanlioglu; Mehmet Nuri Aydın; Alper Gökgül; Mehmet Hamamcı; Mehmet Atilla Erkuzu; Temel Tombul

    2013-01-01

    Opercular syndrome, also known as Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, is a paralysis of the facial, pharyngeal, masticatory, tongue, laryngeal, and brachial muscles. It is a rare cortical form of pseudobulbar palsies caused by vascular insults to bilateral operculum. Its clinical presentations include anarthria, weakness of voluntary muscles involving face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, and masticatory muscles. However, autonomic reflexes and emotional activities of these structures are preserved. In the...

  8. Bilateral lunate intraosseous ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablos, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Seville (Spain); Valdes, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Cemedi, Seville (Spain); Gavilan, F. [Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Seville (Spain)

    1998-12-01

    An intraosseous ganglion is a relatively uncommon, benign, cyst-like lesion that occurs in young and middle-aged adults. Most commonly seen adjacent to the hip, ankle, knee, or wrist, they are histologically identical to their soft tissue counterparts. A review of the literature revealed only two previously reported examples of bilateral symmetrical ganglia of the lunate bones. (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  9. [Spontaneous bilateral Petit hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, Rodrigo Dias; Araújo, Emerson Silveira de; Oliveira, Gustavo Alves de; Sarmenghi Filho, Deolindo; Kalil, Mitre

    2011-01-01

    Petit's lumbar hernia is an uncommon defect of the posterior abdominal wall that represents less than 1% of all abdominal wall hernias. It is more often unilateral and founded in young females, rarely containing a real herniated sac. There are two different approaches to repair: laparoscopy and open surgery. The goal of this article is to report one case of spontaneous bilateral lumbar Petit's hernia treated with open surgery.

  10. Bilateral Malignant Brenner Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser D Choudhary, S.Manzoor Kadri, Ruby Reshi, S. Besina, Mansoor A. Laharwal, Reyaz tasleem, Qurrat A. Chowdhary

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral malignant Brenner tumour ofovary is extremely rate. A case ofmalignant Brenner tumourinvolving both the ovaries with mctastasis to mesentery in a 48 year femalc is presented. Grosslyo'arian masses were firm with soft areas, encapsulated and having bosselated external surfaces.Cut sections showed yellowish white surface with peripheral cysts (in both tumours. Microscopyrevealed transitional cell carcinoma with squamoid differentiation at places. Metastatic deposits werefound in the mesentery. Endometrium showed cystic glandular hyperplasia.

  11. Osteología craneal del género Philodryas (Serpentes: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the skulls of eleven species of Philodryas. The skull of Philodryas patagoniensis is described, and some characters that show interspecific variation are recognized. These characters are used for phylogenetic inferences. We obtained three trees using Hennig86. The pair of sister species wich is presented in the three cladograms is P. mattogrossensis - P. varius: in only ene tree: P. buroni - P. burmeisteri.

  12. Evaluation of discriminant functions for sexing skulls from visually assessed traits applied in the Rainer Osteological Collection (Bucharest, Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soficaru, A; Constantinescu, M; Culea, M; Ionică, C

    2014-12-01

    The sexing of human skeletal remains based on visual scoring of descriptive traits on the skull is useful for both forensic and bioarchaeological studies, given that many such features preserve well in the field and can be assessed quickly. The goal of our work is to evaluate the accuracy of this method on an age-balanced, known sex, random sample of 360 modern adult crania in the Rainer Osteological Collection. Consistent with Walker (2008), we scored glabella area (G), the mastoid process (Ma), the mental eminence (M), the orbital edge (O) and the nuchal crest (N), on a five-point scale. We generated sex discriminant functions (logistic), selected the most accurate of them, and subsequently applied them to archaeological samples from Romania. Each skull feature showed significant score differences by sex. Eight out of 31 discriminant functions passed criteria of high accuracy (∼90%), sex bias (±2%), and ease of use (direct calculation of sex). The best estimates were obtained for the 30-60 age groups. Further testing these functions on six archaeological samples showed high percentages of agreement with the sex assessed on the coxal bone. The study also indicated that, although easy to learn by novices, the method of visually scoring the skull traits depends on prior experience with human osteology. The accuracy of the method may be influenced by geographical and historical differences which are bound to exist between populations.

  13. Osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of healthy ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2014-06-01

    In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Ischemic Bilateral Opercular Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Milanlioglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opercular syndrome, also known as Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, is a paralysis of the facial, pharyngeal, masticatory, tongue, laryngeal, and brachial muscles. It is a rare cortical form of pseudobulbar palsies caused by vascular insults to bilateral operculum. Its clinical presentations include anarthria, weakness of voluntary muscles involving face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, and masticatory muscles. However, autonomic reflexes and emotional activities of these structures are preserved. In the present case, an 81-year-old male presented with acute onset of anarthria with difficulties in chewing, speaking, and swallowing that was diagnosed with opercular syndrome.

  15. Ischemic bilateral opercular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanlioglu, Aysel; Aydın, Mehmet Nuri; Gökgül, Alper; Hamamcı, Mehmet; Erkuzu, Mehmet Atilla; Tombul, Temel

    2013-01-01

    Opercular syndrome, also known as Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, is a paralysis of the facial, pharyngeal, masticatory, tongue, laryngeal, and brachial muscles. It is a rare cortical form of pseudobulbar palsies caused by vascular insults to bilateral operculum. Its clinical presentations include anarthria, weakness of voluntary muscles involving face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, and masticatory muscles. However, autonomic reflexes and emotional activities of these structures are preserved. In the present case, an 81-year-old male presented with acute onset of anarthria with difficulties in chewing, speaking, and swallowing that was diagnosed with opercular syndrome.

  16. Osteological evidence for the evolution of activity pattern and visual acuity in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, R F; Kirk, E C

    2000-10-01

    Examination of orbit size and optic foramen size in living primates reveals two adaptive phenomena. First, as noted by many authors, orbit size is strongly correlated with activity pattern. Comparisons of large samples of extant primates consistently reveal that nocturnal species exhibit proportionately larger orbits than diurnal species. Furthermore, nocturnal haplorhines (Tarsius and Aotus) have considerably larger orbits than similar-sized nocturnal strepsirrhines. Orbital hypertrophy in Tarsius and Aotus accommodates the enormously enlarged eyes of these taxa. This extreme ocular hypertrophy seen in extant nocturnal haplorhines is an adaptation for both enhanced visual acuity and sensitivity in conditions of low light intensity. Second, the relative size of the optic foramen is highly correlated with the degree of retinal summation and inferred visual acuity. Diurnal haplorhines exhibit proportionately larger optic foramina, less central retinal summation, and much higher visual acuity than do all other primates. Diurnal strepsirrhines exhibit a more subtle but significant parallel enlargement of the optic foramen and a decrease in retinal summation relative to the condition seen in nocturnal primates. These twin osteological variables of orbit size and optic foramen size may be used to draw inferences regarding the activity pattern, retinal anatomy, and visual acuity of fossil primates. Our measurements demonstrate that the omomyiforms Microchoerus, Necrolemur, Shoshonius, and Tetonius, adapiform Pronycticebus, and the possible lorisiform Plesiopithecus were likely nocturnal on the basis of orbit diameter. The adapiforms Leptadapis, Adapis, and Notharctus, the phylogenetically enigmatic Rooneyia, the early anthropoids Proteopithecus, Catopithecus, and Aegyptopithecus, and early platyrrhine Dolichocebus were likely diurnal. The activity pattern of the platyrrhine Tremacebus is obscure. Plesiopithecus, Pronycticebus, Microchoerus, and Necrolemur probably had

  17. Bilateral optic neuropathy with bilateral putaminal lesions: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togawa, Jumpei; Ohi, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral optic neuropathy with bilateral putaminal lesions may be caused by methanol or cyanide poisoning or mitochondrial disorders including Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and Leigh syndrome. We report the case of a 34-year-old Japanese man who developed bilateral visual loss 5 days after the development of gastrointestinal symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain on admission revealed high-intensity signal areas in the bilateral putamina on diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted images as well as a high-intensity signal area in the left middle cerebellar peduncle that had been identified 3 years previously. We diagnosed bilateral optic neuropathy with bilateral putaminal lesions caused by preceding infection-triggered demyelination. We administered methylprednisolone, but his vision did not recover.

  18. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  19. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  20. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention...

  1. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sheep generally have a cute and docile appearance, which isrepresented by the Chinese character "羊" yang (sheep). The originalform of "羊" was "(?)" , representing a sheep’s head. Later, combinedwith other parts representing sheep’s horns, ears, legs, and tail, it evolvedinto "(?)"、"(?)"、"(?)" and "羊".

  2. Character and Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Johnnie

    1997-01-01

    Reflects on the ways in which children develop character as well as ways to foster moral development in elementary education communities. Includes a brief discussion of Robert Coles' documentation of moral intelligence in children, and lists several ways to aid the moral life of children in Montessori classrooms. (EV)

  3. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  4. Etiologies of bilateral pleural effusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Jonathan T.; Argento, A. Christine; Murphy, Terrence E.; Araujo, Katy L.B.; Oliva, Isabel B.; Rubinowitz, Ami N.; Pisani, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background To evaluate the safety, etiology and outcomes of patients undergoing bilateral thoracentesis. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 100 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral thoracenteses in an academic medical center from July 2009 through November 2010. Pleural fluid characteristics and etiologies of the effusions were assessed. Mean differences in levels of fluid characteristics between right and left lungs were tested. Associations between fluid characteristics and occurrence of bilateral malignant effusions were evaluated. The rate of pneumothorax and other complications subsequent to bilateral thoracentesis was determined. Results Exudates were more common than transudates, and most effusions had multiple etiologies, with 83% having two or more etiologies. Bilateral malignant effusions occurred in 19 patients, were the most common single etiology of exudative effusions, and were associated with higher levels of protein and LDH in the pleural fluid. Among 200 thoracenteses performed with a bilateral procedure, seven resulted in pneumothoraces, three of which required chest tube drainage and four were ex vacuo. Conclusions More often than not, there are multiple etiologies that contribute to pleural fluid formation, and of the combinations of etiologies observed congestive heart failure was the most frequent contributor. Exudative effusions are more common than transudates when bilateral effusions are present. Malignancy is a common etiology of exudative effusions. This study suggests that the overall complication rate following bilateral thoracentesis is low and the rate of pneumothorax subsequent to bilateral thoracentesis is comparable to unilateral thoracentesis. PMID:23219348

  5. [Osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of Lujanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) larvae under rearing conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ibarra, Luz Estela; Abdo-de la Parra, María Isabel; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Valasco-Blanco, Gabriela; Ibarra-Castro, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) is an important commercial species in Mexico with good culture potential. The osteological study at early stages in this species is an important tool to confirm normal bone structure and for the detection of malformations that may occur during early development. This study was carried out in order to evaluate and describe the normal osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of this species grown under controlled conditions. For this, a total of 540 larvae of L. guttatus, between 2.1 and 17.5 mm of total length (TL), were cultured during 36 days; culture conditions were 28 degrees C, 5.74 mg/L oxygen and 32.2 ups salinity with standard feeding rates. To detect growth changes, a sample of 15 organisms was daily taken from day one until day 36 of post-hatch (DPH). Samples were processed following standard techniques of clearing, and cartilage (alcian blue) and bone staining (alizarin red). Results showed that the vertebral column is composed of ten vertebrae in the abdominal region, and 14 vertebrae including the urostyle in the caudal region. The development of the axial skeleton starts with the neural arches and haemal arches at 3.8 mm TL. Caudal elements such as the hypurals and parahypural began to develop at 4.1 mm TL. Pre-flexion and flexion of the notochord and the formation of all hypurals were observed between 5.3 and 5.8 mm TL. Ossification of the vertebrae in the abdominal region and in some neural arches initiated at 9.5mm TL. In the caudal region, all the neural and haemal arches ossified at 10.2 mm TL. All the abdominal vertebrae and their respective neural arches and parapophyses ossified at 11.2 mm TL, while the elements of the caudal complex that ossified were the hypurals, parahypurals and modified haemal spines. All caudal fm rays, 12 neural spines and 3 haemal arches were ossified by 15.5 mm. The complete ossification process of this specie under laboratory culture conditions

  6. A phylogeny of the tinamous (aves: palaeognathiformes) based on integumentary characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Sara; Giannini, Norberto P; Goloboff, Pablo A

    2002-12-01

    A cladistic analysis of the tinamous, including the 47 currently recognized species and some distinct subspecies, was conducted based on 80 integumentary characters from adult and natal plumage, ramphoteca (corneum sheath of bill), and podoteca (horny scales of legs). For the adult plumage (50 characters), we studied feather pigmentation patterns from different pterylae (feather tracts). A criterion of overlap of basic pigmentation elements was used to assign costs to the transformation between the states in most of these characters in such a way that transformations between more similar conditions were less costly. The consensus tree was almost fully resolved, and about 50% of its groups were relatively well supported. Because the only outgroup that could be used provided a poor root, two possible rootings of the ingroup subtree were considered; in both cases, only one of the two traditional subfamilies (the steppe tinamous) was recovered, and the other (the forest tinamous) appeared as paraphyletic. The results of the present analysis are compared with those from an osteological data set, using a strict supertree technique. The combined tree has a large number of nodes, indicating a high degree of congruence between the two data sets.

  7. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon.

  8. [Bilateral cochlear implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Jona; Migirov, Lela; Taitelbaum-Swead, Rikey; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2010-06-01

    Cochlear implant surgery became the standard of care in hearing rehabilitation of patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. This procedure may alter the lives of children and adults enabling them to integrate with the hearing population. In the past, implantation was performed only in one ear, despite the fact that binaural hearing is superior to unilateral, especially in noisy conditions. Cochlear implantation may be performed sequentially or simultaneously. The "sensitive period" of time between hearing loss and implantation and between the two implantations, when performed sequentially, significantly influences the results. Shorter time spans between implantations improve the hearing results after implantation. Hearing success after implantation is highly dependent on the rehabilitation process which includes mapping, implant adjustments and hearing training. Bilateral cochlear implantation in children is recommended as the proposed procedure in spite of the additional financial burden.

  9. Bilateral acute corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, T F; Leibowitz, H M

    1985-04-01

    A 38-year-old man with brittle, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral severe dry eyes with recurrent corneal ulcers developed atypical band-shaped calcifications of both corneas during a 24-hour period. Serum calcium, phosphate, and carbon dioxide levels all were within normal limits. The patient was mildly uremic but was not in renal failure. When EDTA chelation failed to clear the deposits, partial keratectomies were performed in both eyes and the specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy, including energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Microscopic studies revealed an atypical calcific keratopathy which involved neither Bowman's layer nor the most superficial stromal lamellae. The deposits were confined to deeper lamellae in the anterior stroma and by electron microscopy were composed of extracellular crystalline aggregates. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis of these aggregates confirmed the presence of calcium and phosphate. Corneal dessication appeared to be a major contributing factor in the rapid formation of these deposits.

  10. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Alibeigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

  11. Character strengths and virtues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that l...

  12. Osteology and myology of the wing of the Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), and its bearing on the evolution of vestigial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Erin E; Larsson, Hans C E

    2007-05-01

    Emus have reduced their wing skeleton to only a single functional digit, but the myological changes associated with this reduction have never been properly described. Moreover, the intraspecific variability associated with these changes has not previously been examined, dissections having been restricted in the past to only one or two individuals. In this paper, the myology and osteology of the Emu wing is described for a sample of five female birds. The Emu showed a marked reduction in the number of muscles in the wing, even compared with other ratites. Many wing muscles showed diversity in structure, origin and insertion sites, number of heads, as well as presence-absence variation. This variability dramatically exceeds that found in flying birds. Evolutionary theory predicts that relaxed selection on vestigial organs should allow more variation to persist in the population, and corresponds to what is observed here. A large amount of fluctuating asymmetry was also detected, indicating reduced canalization of the wing during development.

  13. When two equals three: developmental osteology and homology of the caudal skeleton in carangid fishes (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Eric J; Johnson, G David

    2007-01-01

    Ontogeny often provides the most compelling evidence for primary homology in evolutionary developmental studies and is critical to interpreting complex structures in a phylogenetic context. As an example of this, we document the ontogenetic development of the caudal skeleton of Caranx crysos by examining a series of cleared and stained larval and postlarval specimens. By studying ontogeny, we are able to more accurately identify some elements of the adult caudal skeleton than is possible when studying the adult stage alone. The presence of two epurals has been used as a synapomorphy of Caranginae (homoplastically present in the scomberoidine genera Scomberoides and Oligoplites). Here we find that three epurals (ep) are present in larvae and small postlarval juveniles (i.e.,osteology of the caudal skeleton of carangoid fishes generally and emphasize the power and importance of ontogeny in the identification of primary homology.

  14. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae. Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero, Ricardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como "iguana roja" o "caraguay" pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993. Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento detallado de su anatomía. Es por ello que aquí presentamos en un Atlas fotográfico la morfología externa y osteología de Tupinambis rufescens.

  15. Descriptions of marine mammal specimens in Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1938-01-01 to 2015-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0140937)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  16. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  17. An Osteologic Study of Cranial Opening of Optic Canal in Gujarat Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Praveen R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Optic canal is a bony canal situated in between the roots of lesser wings of sphenoid, lateral to body of sphenoid. It transmits optic nerve and ophthalmic artery, surrounded by meninges. Various authors have studied variations in skull foramina and correlated clinically, as variants in the body structures have been found to be associated with many inherited or acquired diseases. Aim The present study aimed to examine morphologic and morphometric variations in cranial openings of optic canals. Materials and Methods The study was undertaken in total 150 dry adult human skulls. The variations in size, shape, presence or absence and duplication or multiplication if any, in optic canal were observed bilaterally. Unusual features such as recess, fissure and notch were also observed bilaterally. Student’s t-test was applied to compare size of cranial openings of optic canal on both sides. Similarly, morphologic features related with the canal were studied by calculating frequency and proportions of various parameters. Results Optic canal was present in all 150 skulls studied bilaterally. The mean maximum dimension of the canal at cranial opening was 5.03±0.72 mm on right side and 5.02±0.76 mm on left side. The shape of the canal was ovoid at cranial opening in all the skulls studied. Duplication of optic canal was present in one skull on left side. Recess was found in 105(35%) sides of total skulls observed. Fissure was found in 20(6.67%) sides and notch was observed in 30(10%) sides of total skulls. Conclusion The optic canal showed variability in various parameters. Knowledge regarding variations in size, shape and unusual features on cranial opening of optic canal can be helpful to clinicians while approaching optic canal for various invasive procedures such as optic nerve decompression. PMID:28050353

  18. Large even order character sums

    CERN Document Server

    Goldmakher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    A classical theorem of Paley asserts the existence of an infinite family of quadratic characters whose character sums become exceptionally large. In this paper, we establish an analogous result for characters of any fixed even order. Previously our bounds were only known under the assumption of the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis.

  19. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  20. Closed surfaces and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chesebro, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The powerful character variety techniques of Culler and Shalen can be used to find essential surfaces in knot manifolds. We show that module structures on the coordinate ring of the character variety can be used to identify detected boundary slopes as well as when closed surfaces are detected. This approach also yields new number theoretic invariants for the character varieties of knot manifolds.

  1. Periods of Hecke characters

    CERN Document Server

    Schappacher, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    The starting point of this Lecture Notes volume is Deligne's theorem about absolute Hodge cycles on abelian varieties. Its applications to the theory of motives with complex multiplication are systematically reviewed. In particular, algebraic relations between values of the gamma function, the so-called formula of Chowla and Selberg and its generalization and Shimura's monomial relations among periods of CM abelian varieties are all presented in a unified way, namely as the analytic reflections of arithmetic identities beetween Hecke characters, with gamma values corresponding to Jacobi sums. The last chapter contains a special case in which Deligne's theorem does not apply.

  2. Bilateral Transport Cost, Infrastructure, Common Bilateral Ties and Political Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danielken Molina

    2008-01-01

    .... Using these new indexes we find that not only distance but infrastructure, political stability, common bilateral ties and open sky agreements as well are other important channels through which...

  3. Traumatic bilateral hip dislocation with bilateral sciatic nerve palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal Singh; Amarjit Singh Sidhu; Arun Pal Singh

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral hip dislocation rarely occurs.In this paper, a case of bilateral hip dislocation associated with bilateral sciatic nerve palsy resulted from a road traffic acci-dent is reported.Both hips were emergently reduced under general anaesthesia.Acetabular reconstruction was done bilaterally due to the unstable hips.The patient subsequently developed heterotopic ossification and avascular necrosis on the left hip and underwent total hip arthroplasty.The sciatic nerve on the right side achieved complete recovery but that on the left side only partly recovered and was aug-mented by tendon transfer.Such injuries are serious and one should be aware of the complications because they can resurface and so patients should be followed up for a long time.To the best of our knowledge, this kind of injury has not been reported in the English .language literature.

  4. Bilateral trade, openness and asset holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between bilateral trade flows, trade openness, and asset holdings in a three-country stochastic general equilibrium model. The threecountry model set-up enables me to disentangle and separate the effects bilateral trade flows and trade openness have on bilateral portfolio patterns. I find that both factors independently influence bilateral asset holdings. Higher bilateral trade as well as higher trade openness lead to a higher bilateral foreign asset posit...

  5. Phylogenetic position and osteology of Pethia setnai (Chhapgar and Sane, 1992, an endemic barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae of the Western Ghats, India, with notes on its distribution and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pethia setnai is an endemic and threatened freshwater fish of the Western Ghats of India. It has a restricted distribution in the west flowing rivers in the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We clarify the phylogenetic position of Pethia setnai, provide osteological details of topotypic material, and morphometric data of specimens from Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We also provide details on micro-level distribution, habitat and threats to the species in its native range.

  6. Chacarita Project: conformation and analysis of a modern and documented human osteological collection from Buenos Aires City--theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, L A; García Guraieb, S; Luna, L H; Aranda, C

    2012-12-01

    Osteological reference collections play a key role in bioanthropological research; they allow the development and testing of methods for sexing and ageing individuals using various bone and dental attributes. This paper presents the first stage results of the ongoing Chacarita Research Project, which aims to generate and study a reference collection of adult skeletons representative of the contemporary population of Buenos Aires city. The Chacarita Collection consists of unclaimed human remains of individuals of known nationality, sex, age, cause and date of death from the Chacarita Public Cemetery. Unlike other similar endeavours, this sample has been completely exhumed using archaeological techniques. So far, a total of 146 adult skeletons have been recovered (60 females - 41.1% and 86 males - 58.90%), the majority of which have ages-at-death in the range of 71-90 years. They were born primarily in Argentina (n=133; 91.1%), although other nationalities are also represented. Dates of death range between 1987 and 2000. In the short term, the osteological study of this collection will allow assessment of the performance of classical methods of sex determination and age-at-death estimation in a local setting. A special priority will be given to the study of osteological changes in individuals over 50 years. As the sample is being retrieved by exhumation, the impact of taphonomic agents on the most diagnostic bone structures is also being assessed. In the long term, this osteological collection will be available to generate new population-specific techniques and to develop comparative biological studies.

  7. Phylogenetic position and osteology of Pethia setnai (Chhapgar and Sane, 1992, an endemic barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae of the Western Ghats, India, with notes on its distribution and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pethia setnai is an endemic and threatened freshwater fish of the Western Ghats of India. It has a restricted distribution in the west flowing rivers in the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We clarify the phylogenetic position of Pethia setnai, provide osteological details of topotypic material, and morphometric data of specimens from Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We also provide details on micro-level distribution, habitat and threats to the species in its native range.

  8. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  9. Bilateral Olecranon Tophaceous Gout Bursitis

    OpenAIRE

    Güzelali Özdemir; Alper Deveci; Kemal Andıç; Niyazi Erdem Yaşar

    2017-01-01

    In this case, we present a patient with the diagnosis of bilateral olecranon tophaceous gout. After the surgical treatment, there was no limitation of range of motion or wound problem at 6th month control.

  10. Bilateral Olecranon Tophaceous Gout Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güzelali Özdemir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this case, we present a patient with the diagnosis of bilateral olecranon tophaceous gout. After the surgical treatment, there was no limitation of range of motion or wound problem at 6th month control.

  11. Bilateral Morgagni Hernia in Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Celik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available       Morgagni hernia is a congenital anterior diaphragma hernias. Although it generally seen in childhood and on the right side, rarely seen bilaterally and adult. Computarize tomography is helpful in diagnosis for this lesions asymptomatic in adult. In this article, bilaterally morgagni hernia diagnosed a sixty-five year old male patient looked for due to dyspne was presented.

  12. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Arun; Nandini R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the li...

  14. Bilateral sarkoidose i glandula parotis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Pernille; Krogdahl, Annelise; Godballe, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of sarcoidosis in which the patient presented with a bilateral swelling of the parotid salivary glands and no other manifestation of the disease. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown cause in which there may be multiple exocrine involvement......, including the salivary glands. This case emphasises the importance of including sarcoidosis in the differential diagnosis of bilateral parotid swelling....

  15. [Tooth macromorphological and ultrastructural analysis of osteological material from the medieval locality of St. Panteleimon Church in Nis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Nadica; Mitić, Aleksandar; Mitić, Vladimir; Savić, Vojin; Nikolić, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of macromorphological and ultrastructural tooth characteristics of osteological material from the medieval site of St. Pantaleimon Church in Nis provides us with insight on the life, nutrition and habits of medieval population, as well as the structure and composition of their teeth. The aim of this research, based on the tooth inspection of skeletal remains from the medieval site of St. Pantaleimon Church in Nis, was to analyze macromorphological characteristics, ultrastructure of the dental tissue of maxillary and mandibular molars, canines and incisors, as well as their chemical composition. Macromorphological and ultrastructural analysis of the dental tissue of osteological material dating from the 12th century included 1312 teeth with advanced abrasion. Macromorphological changes were detected by using a dental mirror, probe and radiography. After irrigation, the teeth were prepared using the standard procedure and analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (JEOL-JSM-5300). Chemical analysis was done by expanded downscaling (EDS) method for Mg, P, Ca. The analysis detected second degree abrasions of all teeth in individuals aged 20-25 years. Third and fourth degree abrasions of teeth were detected in individuals aged over 40 years. Ultrastructural analysis showed a complete obliteration of dentin tubules and pulp of the lower incisors, the apposition of intratubular dentin inside the tubules, as well as extensive deformity and loss of dentin structure on molars with preserved pulp volume and nerve fiber calcification. The calcification of nerve fibers showed that the formation of intratubular dentin was proportional with the biological potential of pulp and the degree of abrasion, and inversely proportional with the size of dentin surface. Chemical analysis showed that in the analyzed teeth Ca composition was slightly lower than that in the control group, P composition was almost identical, while Mg composition was multiply increased in comparison to

  16. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  17. Bounds for Certain Character Sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦; 郑志勇

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows a connection between exponential sums and character sums. In particular, we introduce a character sum that is an analog of the classical Kloosterman sums and establish the analogous Weil-Estermann's upper bound for it. The paper also analyzes a generalized Hardy-Littlewood example for character sums, which shows that the upper bounds given here are the best possible. The analysis makes use of local bounds for the exponential sums and character sums. The basic theorems have been previously established.

  18. Osteology of Paedocypris, a miniature and highly developmentally truncated fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, R; Conway, K W

    2009-04-01

    Species of the cyprinid genus Paedocypris are among the smallest and most developmentally truncated fishes and vertebrates. Our analysis of their skeletal structure reveals a puzzling combination of extreme developmental truncation and an increased morphological complexity in sexually dimorphic characters. The skeleton of Paedocypris is characterized by reduction and loss and resembles in many aspects that of a larval/early juvenile stage of its close relatives. We found 61 characters that have been affected by developmental truncation. A comparison with the skeletal development of a close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, demonstrates that the majority of the absent bones or skeletal structures in Paedocypris are those that appear late in the ossification trajectory of the zebrafish. Thus, their absence in Paedocypris seems to be due to the simple developmental truncation of terminal stages in the ossification sequence. Our study of the sexually dimorphic structures in Paedocypris demonstrates that predominantly the male exhibits the more complex state. In relation to the female, male Paedocypris uniquely possess a cleithrum with a pointed posterior process that covers the scapula laterally, and a more medially situated posterior flange that contacts the dorsal area of the coracoid; a massive and heavily ossified uppermost pectoral radial tightly bound to the scapula; thickened and enlarged three uppermost pectoral-fin rays; a large triangular, dorsolaterally directed process on the outer arm of the massive os suspensorium; and a enlarged and shovel-like anterodorsally directed basipterygium; and a hypertrophied first pelvic-fin ray with additional anterior flanges that support keratinized pads of skin. Female Paedocypris show only one structure that is better developed than in males: the first proximal-middle radial and the anteriormost fin ray of the dorsal fin are more massive and more heavily ossified. Although the function and biological role of these

  19. Character strengths and virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gancedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004. This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003, a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the superposition of implicit paradigms. It also takes notice of a causal and elementary logic -which goes against today’s scientific paradigm-, and the strong American culture zeitgeist present in the principles of Positive Psychology. Finally, some ethic problems are displayed, in particular the step taken from a descriptive attitude –characteristic of science- toward a prescriptive attitude –characteristic of moral codes-. 

  20. Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

  1. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  2. COMPLETE FUSION OF FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA WITH SACRUM: AN OSTEOLOGICAL CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiksha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral region of the body not only protects the spinal cord and related structures but also transmit the body weight to lower extremity and maintains the body posture. Sacralization of the 5 th lumbar vertebrae, is a congenital vertebral anomaly of the lumbosacral region and may be unilateral or bilateral. Although, sacralization is not a serious anomaly, perhaps no more than an anatomical variant, the fusion of the lumbrosacral joint may cause low back pain, disc herniation, cervical ribs, Bertollotti’ s syndrome and difficulty during labor. To highlight the complication of sacralization and its related impact on the body, we report a case of complete fusion of 5 th lumbar vertebra with sacrum ( sacralization . The relationship between incidence of sacrali zation with low back pain is debatable but still the present study may help anatomists, clinicians and surgeons to know the complications of sacralization and its impact on the body that in turn help in diagnostic and therapeutic management of illness arou nd lumbosacral region. Future studies need to focus on identifying other parameters that are relevant to distinguishing lumbosacral variations and associated disorders.

  3. Bilateral zeta functions and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shibukawa, Genki

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new type of multiple zeta functions, which we call bilateral zeta functions, analogous to the Barnes zeta functions. The bilateral zeta function is a periodic function and shares certain basic properties of Barnes zeta function. Especially, we prove that the bilateral zeta function has a nice Fourier series expansion and the Barnes zeta function can be expressed as a finite sum of bilateral zeta functions. By these properties of the bilateral zeta functions, We obtain simple pr...

  4. Research trends in human osteology: a content analysis of papers published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Buikstra, Jane E

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores recent research trends in human osteology, based on articles published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (AJPA) during two 5-year intervals: 1980--1984 and 1996--2000. Topical "visibility" is measured in terms of article counts; "impact" is estimated through citation indices. Our results indicate that human osteologists continue to publish a range of methodological, analytical, and descriptive research papers that address a broad array of subjects. Analytical articles are cited more frequently than descriptive articles and thus have higher impact, reflecting the discipline's continued commitment to problem-oriented research. Differences in publication patterns exist between scholars during early and later stages of their careers. Articles published by students and Ph.D.s within 2 years of their doctoral degree are more frequently descriptive than analytical, when compared to people with longer career histories. Topics such as pathology, forensic anthropology, and biodistance modeling remain highly visible, while articles on the dentition have waned. An increase in functional research directed toward the postcranial skeleton is also reflected in our data. While continued visibility for morphological investigations is apparent, the impact of recently developed applications in bone chemistry and molecular anthropology is amply documented in our data, particularly during the more recent survey years.

  5. Cranial arterial pattern of the Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain, Moschiola memmina, and comparative basicranial osteology of the Tragulidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Haley D

    2015-01-01

    The cranial arterial pattern of artiodactyls deviates significantly from the typical mammalian pattern. One of the most striking atypical features is the rete mirabile epidurale: a subdural arterial meshwork that functionally and anatomically replaces the arteria carotis interna. This meshwork facilitates an exceptional ability to cool the brain, and was thought to be present in all artiodactyls. Recent research, however, has found that species of mouse deer (Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) endemic to the Malay Archipelago possess a complete a. carotis interna instead of a rete mirabile epidurale. As tragulids are the sister group to pecoran ruminants, the lack of a rete mirabile epidurale in these species raises intriguing evolutionary questions about the origin and nature of artiodactyl thermoregulatory cranial vasculature. In this study, cranial arterial patterns are documented for the remaining species within the Tragulidae. Radiopaque latex vascular injection, computed tomography (CT-scanning), and digital 3-dimensional anatomical reconstruction are used to image the cranial arteries of a Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain, Moschiola meminna. Sites of hard and soft tissue interaction were identified, and these osteological correlates were then sought in nine skulls representative of the remaining tragulid species. Both hard and soft tissue surveys confirm that the presence of an a. carotis interna is the common condition for tragulids. Moreover, the use of a 3-D, radiographic anatomical imaging technique enabled identification of a carotico-maxillary anastomosis that may have implications for the evolution of the artiodactyl rete mirabile epidurale.

  6. Skull and mandible formation in the cuckoo (Aves, Cuculidae): contributions to the nomenclature in avian osteology and systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posso, Sérgio Roberto; Donatelli, Reginaldo José

    2005-01-01

    The study of the contributions of different bones to the formation of the skeleton in birds is necessary: (1) to establish homologies in comparative anatomy; (2) to delimit each bone structure correctly, mainly in relation to the skull and mandible where the bones are fused to each other in adults; and (3) to standardize nomenclature in avian osteology. In this paper at least one young specimen belonging to each sub-family of Cuculidae was examined in order to identify each bone in terms of boundaries and contributions to skull and mandible formation. These cuckoos specimens were also compared with adults and young of turacos and hoatzin. The results show little variation of skull and jaw among the young cuckoos studied compared with the variations among adult specimens. However, it provides new suggestions for the boundaries and nomenclature of certain osseous structures in the skull and mandible of birds, specifically fissura zona flexoria craniofacialis, prominetia frontoparietalis, crista temporalis transversa, processus squamosalis, fossa laterosphenoidalis, tuberculum laterosphenoidale and processus retroangularis. This study also provides more reliable homologies for use in cladistic analysis and above all it contributes to the phylogenetic position of Cuculidae within Neognathae, specifically the skull formation suggest that turacos and hoatzin are more similar to each other than either is to the cuckoos.

  7. Thoracic Limb Morphology of the Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Evidenced by Gross Osteology and Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-08-01

    There is limited information available on the morphology of the thoracic limb of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). This study describes the morphology of the thoracic limb of captive ring-tailed lemurs evidenced by gross osteology and radiography as a guide for clinical use. Radiographic findings of 12 captive ring-tailed lemurs are correlated with bone specimens of three adult animals. The clavicle is well developed. The scapula has a large area for the origin of the m. teres major. The coracoid and hamate processes are well developed. The lateral supracondylar crest and medial epicondyle are prominent. The metacarpal bones are widely spread, and the radial tuberosity is prominent. These features indicate the presence of strong flexor muscles and flexibility of thoracic limb joints, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Furthermore, an ovoid ossicle is always seen at the inter-phalangeal joint of the first digit. Areas of increased soft tissue opacity are superimposed over the proximal half of the humerus and distal half of the antebrachium in male animals as a result of the scent gland. Knowledge of the morphology of the thoracic limb of individual species is important for accurate interpretation and diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Character Education: Christian Education Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Gretchen M.; Firmin, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Character is defined broadly by leading authorities, including concepts such as practicing apt behavior and teaching right from wrong. Virtue and moral undertones tend to pervade most experts' use of character, although in secular settings, the notion of ethics is more prominent. Overall, developing in students a desire for the good is how most…

  9. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  10. Neurocranial osteology and neuroanatomy of a late Cretaceous titanosaurian sauropod from Spain (Ampelosaurus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Fabien; Ridgely, Ryan C; Ortega, Francisco; Sanz, Jose Luis; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2013-01-01

    Titanosaurians were a flourishing group of sauropod dinosaurs during Cretaceous times. Fossils of titanosaurians have been found on all continents and their remains are abundant in a number of Late Cretaceous sites. Nonetheless, the cranial anatomy of titanosaurians is still very poorly known. The Spanish latest Cretaceous locality of "Lo Hueco" yielded a relatively well preserved, titanosaurian braincase, which shares a number of phylogenetically restricted characters with Ampelosaurus atacis from France such as a flat occipital region. However, it appears to differ from A. atacis in some traits such as the greater degree of dorsoventral compression and the presence of proatlas facets. The specimen is, therefore, provisionally identified as Ampelosaurus sp. It was CT scanned, and 3D renderings of the cranial endocast and inner-ear system were generated. Our investigation highlights that, although titanosaurs were derived sauropods with a successful evolutionary history, they present a remarkably modest level of paleoneurological organization. Compared with the condition in the basal titanosauriform Giraffatitan brancai, the labyrinth of Ampelosaurus sp. shows a reduced morphology. The latter feature is possibly related to a restricted range of head-turning movements.

  11. Neurocranial Osteology and Neuroanatomy of a Late Cretaceous Titanosaurian Sauropod from Spain (Ampelosaurus sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Fabien; Ridgely, Ryan C.; Ortega, Francisco; Sanz, Jose Luis; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Titanosaurians were a flourishing group of sauropod dinosaurs during Cretaceous times. Fossils of titanosaurians have been found on all continents and their remains are abundant in a number of Late Cretaceous sites. Nonetheless, the cranial anatomy of titanosaurians is still very poorly known. The Spanish latest Cretaceous locality of “Lo Hueco” yielded a relatively well preserved, titanosaurian braincase, which shares a number of phylogenetically restricted characters with Ampelosaurus atacis from France such as a flat occipital region. However, it appears to differ from A. atacis in some traits such as the greater degree of dorsoventral compression and the presence of proatlas facets. The specimen is, therefore, provisionally identified as Ampelosaurus sp. It was CT scanned, and 3D renderings of the cranial endocast and inner-ear system were generated. Our investigation highlights that, although titanosaurs were derived sauropods with a successful evolutionary history, they present a remarkably modest level of paleoneurological organization. Compared with the condition in the basal titanosauriform Giraffatitan brancai, the labyrinth of Ampelosaurus sp. shows a reduced morphology. The latter feature is possibly related to a restricted range of head-turning movements. PMID:23355905

  12. Bilateral breast in brothers - abreast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamash Mohammed Yusuf Shaikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is a common occurrence in pubertal age group, and is physiological in up to 65 percent of cases. When occurs in the family it should be investigated in order not to miss on a treatable etiology. Two brothers within the same family, presenting with bilateral gynecomastia of different causes and requiring different treatment are presented.

  13. Bilateral acetabular fracture without trauma

    OpenAIRE

    De Rosa, M. A.; G. Maccauro; D’Arienzo, M.

    1999-01-01

     In the absence of trauma fracture of the acetabulum is an extremely rare injury. We describe a 70 year old man who spontaneously developed fractures in both acetabulae due to bony insufficiency. It was successfully treated by bilateral total hip replacement.

  14. Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, N; Lee, K; Yegappan, M

    2007-11-01

    Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 30-year-old man with end-stage renal failure, who sustained this injury, and subsequently had surgical repair of both tendons on separate occasions. He has since regained full range of movement of both knees.

  15. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  16. Bilateral familial nevus of Ota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sunali; Uwaydat, Sami H; Phillips, Paul H; Schaefer, G Bradley

    2014-12-01

    Nevus of Ota is a benign congenital melanocytic lesion found most commonly in people of Asian ancestry. It is associated with an increased risk of glaucoma and uveal melanomas. Most cases are sporadic and unilateral. We present the first reported case of a brother and sister with familial, bilateral nevus of Ota.

  17. Character theory of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacs, I Martin

    2006-01-01

    Character theory is a powerful tool for understanding finite groups. In particular, the theory has been a key ingredient in the classification of finite simple groups. Characters are also of interest in their own right, and their properties are closely related to properties of the structure of the underlying group. The book begins by developing the module theory of complex group algebras. After the module-theoretic foundations are laid in the first chapter, the focus is primarily on characters. This enhances the accessibility of the material for students, which was a major consideration in the

  18. Elementary Character Education: Local Perspectives, Echoed Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Pat; Field, Sherry L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents information based on a yearlong study of character education in an elementary school that was implementing "Kids with Character." Offers an analysis of the responses by students, teachers, and parents about character, development of character, and the program. Indicates that contemporary character education programs are similar to…

  19. Character as the Aim of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light

    2011-01-01

    The aim of education should be developing intellectual character, moral character, civic character, and performance character. That does not mean that schools should ignore teaching content, but that the dispositions and habits of mind that come from developing these four forms of character will remain with students throughout their lives.…

  20. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  1. Mining and modeling character networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, Anthony; Elenberg, Ethan R; Gleich, David F; Hou, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate social networks of characters found in cultural works such as novels and films. These character networks exhibit many of the properties of complex networks such as skewed degree distribution and community structure, but may be of relatively small order with a high multiplicity of edges. Building on recent work of beveridge, we consider graph extraction, visualization, and network statistics for three novels: Twilight by Stephanie Meyer, Steven King's The Stand, and J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Coupling with 800 character networks from films found in the http://moviegalaxies.com/ database, we compare the data sets to simulations from various stochastic complex networks models including random graphs with given expected degrees (also known as the Chung-Lu model), the configuration model, and the preferential attachment model. Using machine learning techniques based on motif (or small subgraph) counts, we determine that the Chung-Lu model best fits character networks and we ...

  2. The cranial osteology and feeding ecology of the metriorhynchid crocodylomorph genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the late Jurassic of Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus are characteristic genera of aquatic, large-bodied, macrophagous metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. Recent studies show that these genera were apex predators in marine ecosystems during the latter part of the Late Jurassic, with robust skulls and strong bite forces optimized for feeding on large prey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present comprehensive osteological descriptions and systematic revisions of the type species of both genera, and in doing so we resurrect the genus Plesiosuchus for the species Dakosaurus manselii. Both species are diagnosed with numerous autapomorphies. Dakosaurus maximus has premaxillary 'lateral plates'; strongly ornamented maxillae; macroziphodont dentition; tightly fitting tooth-to-tooth occlusion; and extensive macrowear on the mesial and distal margins. Plesiosuchus manselii is distinct in having: non-amblygnathous rostrum; long mandibular symphysis; microziphodont teeth; tooth-crown apices that lack spalled surfaces or breaks; and no evidence for occlusal wear facets. Our phylogenetic analysis finds Dakosaurus maximus to be the sister taxon of the South American Dakosaurus andiniensis, and Plesiosuchus manselii in a polytomy at the base of Geosaurini (the subclade of macrophagous metriorhynchids that includes Dakosaurus, Geosaurus and Torvoneustes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sympatry of Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus is curiously similar to North Atlantic killer whales, which have one larger 'type' that lacks tooth-crown breakage being sympatric with a smaller 'type' that has extensive crown breakage. Assuming this morphofunctional complex is indicative of diet, then Plesiosuchus would be a specialist feeding on other marine reptiles while Dakosaurus would be a generalist and possible suction-feeder. This hypothesis is supported by Plesiosuchus manselii having a very large optimum gape (gape at which multiple teeth come into contact with a prey-item, while

  3. Tooth pathology analysis of osteological material from the medieval locality of Saint Pantelejmon church in Niš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Nadica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Medieval necropolis at the porch of St. Panteleimon church in Niš, from 12th century represents a typical Serbian necropolis, which has its analogies in several areas in Serbia. Preservation of the skeletal remains belongs to category of good and medium preservation. OBJECTIVE The aim of the work was to study the skeletal remains for the prevalence of tooth caries, localization of caries lesions, presence of abrasion, supragingival tartar and resorption of alveolar bone as the indicator of periodontal disease. METHOD The analyses included 42 skeletal remains. The anthropological analyses involved paleopathological findings on 954 teeth of 22 men and 20 women. The pathological changes of teeth were determined by inspection, dental probe, dental mirror and x-ray examination. Epidemiological research was done using average caries index. RESULTS The antropological tooth pathology research of osteological material from the medieval localization of St. Pantaleimon Church in Niš showed the presence of caries in 7.86% cases, 9.93% women and 6.07% men. In 76% caries were localized on the approximal surfaces of teeth. Abrasion of the second and third degree was registered on the side and front teeth with transformation of contact points into contact surfaces and the creation of approximal, interstitial, scolded surfaces. A large quantity of supragingival tartar was found in all individuals aged over 25 years. Expressed alveolar bone resorption is the indicator of generalized periodontal disease. CONCLUSION The prevalence of caries in the studied medieval population from the 12th century was sporadic, with localization on secondary predilection places. The abrasion of the second and third degree was present, and the resorption of the alveolar bone was registered in all the examined skeletal remains, which was the indicator of spread periodontal disease in this period.

  4. The Cranial Osteology and Feeding Ecology of the Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph Genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark T.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; de Andrade, Marco Brandalise; Desojo, Julia B.; Beatty, Brian L.; Steel, Lorna; Fernández, Marta S.; Sakamoto, Manabu; Ruiz-Omeñaca, Jose Ignacio; Schoch, Rainer R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus are characteristic genera of aquatic, large-bodied, macrophagous metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. Recent studies show that these genera were apex predators in marine ecosystems during the latter part of the Late Jurassic, with robust skulls and strong bite forces optimized for feeding on large prey. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present comprehensive osteological descriptions and systematic revisions of the type species of both genera, and in doing so we resurrect the genus Plesiosuchus for the species Dakosaurus manselii. Both species are diagnosed with numerous autapomorphies. Dakosaurus maximus has premaxillary ‘lateral plates’; strongly ornamented maxillae; macroziphodont dentition; tightly fitting tooth-to-tooth occlusion; and extensive macrowear on the mesial and distal margins. Plesiosuchus manselii is distinct in having: non-amblygnathous rostrum; long mandibular symphysis; microziphodont teeth; tooth-crown apices that lack spalled surfaces or breaks; and no evidence for occlusal wear facets. Our phylogenetic analysis finds Dakosaurus maximus to be the sister taxon of the South American Dakosaurus andiniensis, and Plesiosuchus manselii in a polytomy at the base of Geosaurini (the subclade of macrophagous metriorhynchids that includes Dakosaurus, Geosaurus and Torvoneustes). Conclusions/Significance The sympatry of Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus is curiously similar to North Atlantic killer whales, which have one larger ‘type’ that lacks tooth-crown breakage being sympatric with a smaller ‘type’ that has extensive crown breakage. Assuming this morphofunctional complex is indicative of diet, then Plesiosuchus would be a specialist feeding on other marine reptiles while Dakosaurus would be a generalist and possible suction-feeder. This hypothesis is supported by Plesiosuchus manselii having a very large optimum gape (gape at which multiple teeth come into contact with a prey-item), while Dakosaurus

  5. Osteological histology of the Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): correlates of wing-propelled diving and flightlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N Adam; Clarke, Julia A

    2014-02-01

    Although studies of osteological morphology, gross myology, myological histology, neuroanatomy, and wing-scaling have all documented anatomical modifications associated with wing-propelled diving, the osteohistological study of this highly derived method of locomotion has been limited to penguins. Herein we present the first osteohistological study of the derived forelimbs and hind limbs of wing-propelled diving Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes). In addition to detailing differences between wing-propelled diving charadriiforms and nondiving charadriiforms, microstructural modifications to the humeri, ulnae and femora of extinct flightless pan-alcids are contrasted with those of volant alcids. Histological thin-sections of four species of pan-alcids (Alca torda, †Alca grandis, †Pinguinus impennis, †Mancalla cedrosensis) and one outgroup charadriiform (Stercorarius longicaudus) were compared. The forelimb bones of wing-propelled diving charadriiforms were found to have significantly thicker (∼22%) cortical bone walls. Additionally, as in penguins, the forelimbs of flightless pan-alcids are found to be osteosclerotic. However, unlike the pattern documented in penguins that display thickened cortices in both forelimbs and hind limbs, the forelimb and hind limb elements of pan-alcids display contrasting microstructural morphologies with thickened forelimb cortices and relatively thinner femoral cortices. Additionally, the identification of medullary bone in the sampled †Pinguinus impennis specimen suggests that further osteohistological investigation could provide an answer to longstanding questions regarding sexual dimorphism of Great Auks. Finally, these results suggest that it is possible to discern volant from flightless wing-propelled divers from fragmentary fossil remains.

  6. Differential diagnosis of bilateral thalamic lesions; Differenzialdiagnose bilateral Thalamuslaesionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, J.; Brueckmann, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenchen (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hoffmann, L.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Neuroimmunologie; Danek, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    2007-03-15

    A multitude of different diseases can result in bilateral thalamic lesions. These include vascular pathologies requiring prompt therapeutic intervention, such as basilar thrombosis or thrombosis of the internal cerebral veins, as well as tumors, infectious or demyelinating diseases, and toxic-metabolic lesions. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the typical radiological findings for the various diseases is essential for determining the correct diagnosis. This review provides a synopsis of the radiological findings for the most important bithalamic lesions and an overview of the literature.

  7. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. External morphology and osteology of Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886), with a taxonomic revision of the Pontic and Small-Caucasus populations (Squamata: Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Oscar; Ilgaz, Çetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Avci, Aziz; Üzüm, Nazan

    2013-01-01

    A broad sample of Darevskia rudis from the main part of its range was reviewed with regard to external morphology (discriminant, UPGMA, MST and ANOVA analyses) and osteology. Darevskia bithynica is raised to species rank, with two subspecies: D. b. bithynica and D. b. tristis. The other subspecies are fairly similar (D. r. rudis being the most different). Two singular populations are described as subspecies: D. r. mirabilis ssp. nov. from Kaçkar Mountains, geographically adjoins the otherwise different D. r. bischoffi and D. r. bolkardaghica ssp. nov., which is geographically isolated but that seems to be very closely related to D. r. obscura.

  9. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  10. Text vectorization based on character recognition and character stroke modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhigang; Zhou, Bingfeng; Tse, Francis; Mu, Yadong; He, Tao

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a text vectorization method is proposed using OCR (Optical Character Recognition) and character stroke modeling. This is based on the observation that for a particular character, its font glyphs may have different shapes, but often share same stroke structures. Like many other methods, the proposed algorithm contains two procedures, dominant point determination and data fitting. The first one partitions the outlines into segments and second one fits a curve to each segment. In the proposed method, the dominant points are classified as "major" (specifying stroke structures) and "minor" (specifying serif shapes). A set of rules (parameters) are determined offline specifying for each character the number of major and minor dominant points and for each dominant point the detection and fitting parameters (projection directions, boundary conditions and smoothness). For minor points, multiple sets of parameters could be used for different fonts. During operation, OCR is performed and the parameters associated with the recognized character are selected. Both major and minor dominant points are detected as a maximization process as specified by the parameter set. For minor points, an additional step could be performed to test the competing hypothesis and detect degenerated cases.

  11. Bilateral pallidotomy for generalized dystonia Palidotomia bilateral para distonias generalizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bilateral pallidotomies in five patients with generalized dystonia. BACKGROUND: Generalized dystonias are frequently a therapeutic challenge, with poor responses to pharmacological treatment. GPi (globus pallidus internus pallidotomies for Parkinson's disease ameliorate all kinds of dyskinesias/dystonia, and recent studies reported a marked improvement of refractory dystonias with this procedure. METHODS: Five patients with generalized dystonias refractory to medical treatment were selected; one posttraumatic and four idiopathic. The decision to perform bilateral procedures was based on the predominant axial involvement in these patients. Dystonia severity was assessed with the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Scale (BFM. Simultaneous procedures were performed in all but one patient, who had a staged procedure. They were reevaluated with the same scale (BFM by an unblinded rater at 1, 2, 3, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days post-operatively. RESULTS: The four patients with idiopathic dystonia showed a progressive improvement up to three months; the patient with posttraumatic dystonia relapsed at three months. One patient had a marked improvement, being able to discontinue all the medications. A mean decrease in the BFM scores of 52,58% was noted. One patient had a trans-operative motor seizure followed by a transient hemiparesis secondary to rack hemorrhage; other was lethargic up to three days after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that bilateral GPi pallidotomies may be a safe and effective approach to medically refractory generalized dystonias; it can also be speculated that the posttraumatic subgroup may not benefit with this procedure.As distonias generalizadas são freqüentemente um desafio terapêutico, com pobres respostas aos tratamentos farmacológicos. As cirurgias estereotáxicas, como a palidotomia, têm sido utilizadas com êxito no tratamento da doença de Parkinson e estudos

  12. Bilateral Lhermitte-Duclos disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozbuga Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD is a pathologic entity with progrediating, diffuse hypertrophy chiefly of the stratum granulosum of the cerebellum. Typically LDD is a unilateral lesion of the cerebellum or in vermis. Here we report a case of LDD with bilateral lesions of cerebellar hemispheres managed surgically. A 28-year-old woman presented with one-year history of progressive headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision. Neurologic examination revealed a bilateral mild papilledema, mild dysmetria, and dysdiadochokinesia. The cerebellar lesions caused moderate mass effect in posterior fossa with hydrocephalus, and Chiari type I malformation. We performed the suboccipital-retrosigmoid approach, and removed completely the left intracerebellar mass. Symptoms related to elevated intracranial pressure disappeared in a short period postoperatively.

  13. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  14. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  15. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  16. Spontaneous bilateral fracture of patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Biagio; Speciale, Domenico; Garofalo, Raffaele; Moretti, Lorenzo; Patella, Silvio; Patella, Vittorio

    2008-03-01

    Bilateral patellae fractures represent a rare entity, accounting for approximately 2.9% of all lesions interesting in this anatomical district. In most cases found in the published work, they are described as stress fractures or as complications of chronic diseases such as osteoporosis, renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Although many pathogenetic mechanisms have been supposed, none have been proved for certain. Insufficiency fractures of the patellae are rare events and no data has been published on their incidence. We present a case of bilateral fracture of the patellae due to an indirect trauma occurring in an 85-year-old patient affected by Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis and diffuse degenerative osteoarthritis. X-ray of the knees (anteroposterior and lateral) and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation confirmed the fractures. The patient was treated conservatively. She had a good result, returning to her previous autonomous ambulation. This case is unusual because there was no direct trauma to the knees because of bilaterality, but confirmed previous observations about insufficiency fractures of patellae in the presence of comorbidity. Insufficiency fractures of patellae can be an insidious condition in elderly people. Prepatellar pain, a common symptom in the relapse phase of degenerative arthritis of the knee, should not be underestimated, particularly in patients with diseases influencing metabolism of bone and with an elevated risk of fall. A periodical clinical and instrumental follow up should be done in these patient. Moreover, we underline the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach.

  17. CHARACTER RECOGNITION OF VIDEO SUBTITLES\\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S Hiremath

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An important task in content based video indexing is to extract text information from videos. The challenges involved in text extraction and recognition are variation of illumination on each video frame with text, the text present on the complex background and different font size of the text. Using various image processing algorithms like morphological operations, blob detection and histogram of oriented gradients the character recognition of video subtitles is implemented. Segmentation, feature extraction and classification are the major steps of character recognition. Several experimental results are shown to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm

  18. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  19. Constructing Pairs of Compatible Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias Kratzer

    2003-01-01

    Given a finite group X such that both the conjugacy of elements in X and the length of any conjugacy class in X can be decided/computed efficiently,the first algorithm described in this article constructs a uniquely determined sequence of representatives for all the conjugacy classes of X. In particular, based on this sequence, any two characters of different groups isomorphic to X become comparable against each other which is utilized by a second algorithm designed to construct so-called compatible characters of given finite groups G and H having isomorphic subgroups U ≤ G and V ≤ H, respectively.

  20. Kaks luustikku Tartu toomkirikust: arheoloogia ja osteoloogia andmed / Two skeletons from the Tartu Cathedral Cemetery: archaeological and osteological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two case studies based on the osteological obtained in the rescue excavations in the Cathedral of Tartu in 2001 and 2008 (fig. 1. The first case study focuses on the skeleton of the child who suffered from congenital syphilis. The grave has been dated to the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The child had been buried in the eighth nave of the northern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave was, according to the Christian burial traditions, west-oriented with the head facing towards the east. A Swedish 1/6 öre, minted during the reign of King Charles XI (1600–1697, was recovered from the grave. The skeleton was relatively complete and well preserved (fig. 2. Based on the dental eruption, the age at death was 9 years ± 24 months. Sexually distinctive characteristics had not developed, and thus it was impossible to determine the sex of the child. Both the microscopical and radiological analyses revealed that the skeleton had indicators of congenital syphilis. Damage from gummatous osteomyelitis and periostitis were visible on the skull and on the axial and appendicular skeleton (fig. 6, while Hutchinson’s incisors and Mulberry molars were present among the teeth. Deformations and damage on the bones suggest that the child had suffered from the disease for quite a long time.The second case study discusses a beheaded man found from the eighth nave in the southern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave pit had a depth of 80 cm from the medieval floor surface of the church, which indicates that the burial dates from the Middle Ages. Also, the head of the deceased pointed to the west.The bones were well preserved (fig. 6. Sex was determined from the characteristics of the skull and the length of the right humerus. Calcification of the cranial sutures and cartilages suggests that the age of the man at death was probably 50+. Macroscopic examination of the skeleton revealed that the man had suffered

  1. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews…

  2. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  3. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  4. Amelogenesis imperfecta with bilateral nephrocalcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, P; Katkade, Shashikant; Mohamed, Roshan Noor; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-05-24

    A 12-year-old patient presented with a severe delay of eruption in permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors. On examination, there was over-retained primary teeth and delayed eruption of permanent teeth. Retained primary teeth showed light yellow discolouration whereas permanent teeth were distinct yellow with thin or little enamel. Subsequent imaging revealed all the premolars except maxillary left first premolar showed signs of intra-alveolar coronal resorption, nephrocalcinosis with bilateral multiple calculi and small papillary tip calcifications, marked increase in alkaline phosphatase. Subsequent dental treatment for restoring the functional and aesthetic requirement followed by appropriate treatment for renal problem was undertaken.

  5. Character Analysis of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis analyses Jane Eyre' s character. No matter what Jane met, no matter where she was, she always rebelled against that unfair society, she never gave up to try her best to get free, independent, fair life and true love. By unremitting efforts she finally got dignity, freedom and true love.

  6. THE THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTER OF INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova T.M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article includes data concerning application of one of the universal method of the modern science based on fundamental thermodynamic laws to analyze the efficiency of the information processes. The comparison of the information and thermodynamic processes brought the author to the basic conclusion of the energetic character of information.

  7. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  8. Hamlet and His Melancholy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2007-01-01

    @@ What's the theme of hamlet?His tragedies often portray some noble hero who faces the injustice of human life and is caught in a difficult situation whose fate is closely connected with the fate of the whole nation.The heroes have some weaknesses in their characters,which finally lead to their tragic thin falls.

  9. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  10. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  11. Moral Character and Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  12. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  13. Bilateral Monteggia fracture in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 1814 Giovanni Monteggia first described two cases of fractures of the proximal third of ulna with dislocation of the radial head. These fractures are more common in children than in adults, and mutual Monteggia fracture is a rare complication. This study presents a treatment course of a patient with bilateral Monteggia fracture. Case report. A 55- year-old patient was injured by falling in the yard. Radiography showed bilateral Monteggia fracture type II (by the Badon classification. Operative treatment of fracture was done by a compression plate on the right side and by the zuggurtung technique on the left one. Closed repositioning of the radial head was done on both sides. The patient was wearing a plaster splint for the upper arm for 21 days. After removing the fixation, the function of the elbow was determined by the Broberg Morrey score (BM which was on the right side 45.5 and on the left side 47.5. After the proper physical therapy, four months after the surgery, BM score was 100 on the right side, and 93 on the left one. Conclusion. Surgical treatment and early rehabilitation is the key for the return of good function of both elbows.

  14. Bilateral zosteriform extragenital lichen sclerosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Piyush; Jha, Abhijeet Kumar; Mallik, Sambeet Kumar; Raihan, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with asymptomatic eruption on both forearms and lower aspects of the legs for 6 months. The lesions first appeared on his inner aspects of the wrist, the dorsal surface of the hands, and legs and progressed to involve proximal aspects of the extremities. There was no significant past history. On examination, multiple pearly white papules and depigmented atrophic plaques were found bilaterally on the flexors of the arms and the extensors of the legs. The lesions were arranged in a linear manner, following the lines of Blaschko (Figures 1 and 2). The surface of the atrophic plaques was notable for prominent telangiectasia, giving an erythematous appearance. The genitalia, oral cavity, palms, and soles were spared. Systemic examination was noncontributory. Lichen striatus and extragenital lichen sclerosus (ELS) were considered the differential diagnosis. Clinically, the age of the patient, the absence of scaling, and the presence of atrophic plaques and telangiectasia were in favor of ELS. A punch biopsy from an atrophic plaque was performed, and it revealed hyperkeratosis, atrophic epidermis, basal layer vacuolar degeneration, mild lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis, edema, and homogenization of collagen of the upper portion of the dermis (Figures 3 and Figure 4). Histopathologic findings were consistent with lichen sclerosus. A diagnosis of bilateral zosteriform ELS was made.

  15. A Case of Erdheim-Chester Disease with Bilateral Orbital Involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyao Wu; Jianhua Yan; Wende Hong; Yaoxian Yuan; Lijun Dai

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of Erdheim-Chester disease with bilateral orbital involvement.Methods: A 43-year-old female with bilateral proptosis was presented. Its clinical features, image findings, pathological character and therapeutic effect were evaluated.Results: CT demonstrated bilateral, diffuse orbital mass. Histopathologic assessment revealed a diffuse xanthogranulomatous process with clusters of lipidladen histocytes. Numerous Touton giant cells were scattered throughout the lesion. Renal and heart failure happened during a 6-year follow-up period. Long bones roentgenogram demonstrated diffuse symmetrical sclerosis with extensive, lytic lesions. Systemicadministration of corticosteroids, chemotherapy, immunoglobulin and traditional Chinese medicine showed good therapeutic result. Conclusions: An administration of systemic corticosteroids, chemotherapy, immuno- globin and traditional Chinese medicine can control Erdheim-Chester disease. Further exploration of its pathogenesis and collection of useful clinical data are required.

  16. CHARACTERS THAT SUFFERED DUE TO SHORTAGE IN THE CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the theories about motif and type will be used for analyzing the very types ofcharacters that suffered because of the shortages. To begin with, the analyzing of the differences andsimilarities of the shortages of each character will be counted on the inside and outside parts of theirsufferings. Then the theories of Nietzsche’s and of some myths will be used for analyzing the furtherreason of the sufferings. At last, investigating the special value those sufferings have brought forliteratures and for TV series. Multi-angle perspective is useful for investigating the unique charms ofthe shortages of characters as well as for finding out new understandings for the types of sufferings.

  17. New Curious Bilateral q-Series Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Jouhet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By applying a classical method, already employed by Cauchy, to a terminating curious summation by one of the authors, a new curious bilateral q-series identity is derived. We also apply the same method to a quadratic summation by Gessel and Stanton, and to a cubic summation by Gasper, respectively, to derive a bilateral quadratic and a bilateral cubic summation formula.

  18. [Our experience with bilateral cochlear implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Eldar; Taitelbaum-Swead, Ricky; Migirov, Lela; Hildesheimer, Minka; Kronenberg, Jona

    2008-03-01

    Cochlear implantation is a standard method of hearing rehabilitation among patients with severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. In recent years there have been an increasing number of studies showing superior hearing with bilateral cochlear implantation in comparison with a unilateral procedure. In this study we present our experience with 15 patients, children and adults, who had bilateral cochlear implant surgery. Speech perception test results demonstrated a hearing benefit in bilateral cochlear implantation in comparison with a unilateral device, mainly by improvement in the identification of speech in noise tests.

  19. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  20. Cushing syndrome after bilateral lensectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Karin Sofia; Weitz, Marcus; Eisenack, Johannes; Truffer, Béatrice; Konrad, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome induced by oral and parenteral corticosteroid administration is a well-known complication, and necessary precautions have to be taken. Cushing syndrome, however, following treatment with glucocorticoid-containing eye drops is a very rare complication. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only four reported cases in the literature. Herein, we present an infant boy who developed Cushing syndrome after receiving dexamethasone-containing eye drops after bilateral cataract extraction to prevent postoperative inflammatory complications. At the age of 5 months, after approx. 3 months of dexamethasone therapy, the patient presented with cushingoid facies, nephrocalcinosis and failure to grow. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome was diagnosed and dexamethasone-containing eye drops were reduced and eventually stopped. Follow-up examinations revealed catch-up growth. Ocularly administered corticosteroids may have substantial systemic side effects in infants.

  1. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...... is usually too large but can be reduced automatically by the use of a predictive code length or predictive error criterion...

  2. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  3. Character virtues in psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radden, Jennifer; Sadler, John Z

    2008-01-01

    The character-focused approach known as virtue ethics is especially well suited to understanding and promoting ethical psychiatric practice. Virtues are stable dispositions and responses attributed to character, and a virtue-based ethics is one in which people's selves or characters are at the center of moral assessment. In this discussion by a clinician and a philosopher, clinical scenarios using exchanges and inner monologue illustrate key aspects of virtues. Virtues are acquired through habituation; they are habits of mind as much as behavior; they are as a group heterogeneous, and individually composite; they involve affective responses; they are not impartial; they are compatible with the "role morality" required of professionals; they are responses to particular temptations and weaknesses; and they include, in the capacity for practical judgment known as phronesis, a way of resolving many of the conflicts and dilemmas that arise in practice. The virtue approach to ethics will likely be most useful in the educational setting where practitioners are learning clinical skills and socialized into the broad ethos of professional practice. Aspects of this educational effort are briefly reviewed, including whether it ought to be undertaken at all, whether the effort to teach virtues is possible, and, if so, how it can be achieved.

  4. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Nehete; Anita Nehete; Sandeep Singla; Harshad Adhav

    2012-01-01

    In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally s...

  5. Bilateral metachronous breast cancer with bilateral recurrences: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The incidence of bilateral breast cancer has been reported to range from 0.4% to 14%, and it increases gradually as a result of improved early detection capabilities and longer survival times. We report a rare case where the bilateral breast cancers occurred as a metachronous bilateral breast cancer with bilateral recurrences, detected by mammography, and the rapid growth of tumor that manifested as microcalcification and skin thickening within 3 months.

  6. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin Gulbahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  7. Practical study of full English teaching in osteology%骨科学全英语教学的实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查振刚; 王双利

    2008-01-01

    全英语教学是培养高素质复合型人才的需要,是高等教育与国际接轨的必然趋势.骨科学全英语教学对教师、教材和学生都提出了更高的要求.骨科学的全英语教学一定要强调前后延续和连贯性,应当贯穿于课前预习、课堂学习、课后复习的各个环节以及基础课、临床课及临床实习的整个过程,从而使学生始终处于英语教学的氛围中.只有这样,骨科学全英语教学才会取得较好的教学效果.%Full English teaching is the request of culturing high qualified, combinational talents and it is the necessity of education abutting bail with internationalization. Because of adopting the textbooks of English version, the full English teaching in osteology has set new requirements for both the teachers and the students. It is important for it to be conducted consistently during preview, study in class and review, also in basic, clinical subjects and clinical practice. As a result, the students are always made in English atmosphere. Only in this way, can full English teaching in osteology obtain satisfactory results.

  8. Character Analysis: Up Close and Personal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carla J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a class activity which gives students practice in character analysis based on characters' dialog in plays. Offers a version of this activity as applied to Caryl Churchill's play "Top Girls." (SR)

  9. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  10. CONFUCIANISM AND CHARACTER EDUCATION: A CHINESE VIEW

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mei-Ju Chou; Yi-Chan Tu; Kai-Ping Huang

    2013-01-01

    .... Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius...

  11. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  12. Bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Willems; Braakman, R. (Reinder); B. van Linge (Bert)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractTwo cases of traumatic bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine are reported. Both patients had only minor neurological signs. They both made a full neurological recovery after surgical reduction of the locked facets. Bilateral locked facets are very uncommon in the thoracic spine.

  13. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin.

  14. Acral osteolysis in bilateral compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Saeed

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common neurological condition with rare yet potentially serious cutaneous and skeletal complications. We present a case of mutilating/ulcerating bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a 63 year old female. Radiographs showed symmetrical acral osteolysis in the index and middle fingers distal phalanges bilaterally. Carpal tunnel decompressions provided symptomatic relief.

  15. Concurrent bilateral ectopic pregnancy: a rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhleen Kaur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare twin gestation with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report a 30 year old woman without any high risk factor for ectopic pregnancy, who had concurrent bilateral ectopic pregnancy. A 30 year old female presented to the Gynecology emergency department complaining of vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. The presumptive diagnosis of ruptured left sided ectopic pregnancy was made on basis of clinical findings and ultrasound finings. An emergency laparotomy was done revealed a hemoperitoneum of 1.5 liters, a ruptured left tubal pregnancy with active bleeding and right tubal un-ruptured ectopic was found. A bilateral salpingectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed presence of chorionic villi in both tubes. In theory, laparoscopic salpingostomy is the best surgical approach in bilateral tubal pregnancy. However, bilateral salpingectomy may be necessary when both tubes are extensively damaged or are actively bleeding. Successful pregnancies have been reported after conservative surgical treatment of bilateral ectopic, but the risk of recurrence is high. Our decision for an emergency laparotomy followed by bilateral salpingectomy was based on the fact that the patient presented with acute abdomen and was haemodynamically unstable and there was extensive bilateral tubal damage. As the incidence of ectopic pregnancies is increasing concurrently with the incidences of pelvic inflammatory disease and use of assisted fertility techniques; it may be that these and ldquo;rare ectopics and rdquo; will become less uncommon. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1197-1199

  16. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady; Azoulay, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment.

  17. Differential Hemispheric Processing in the Recognition of Chinese Characters with Different Structures in Foveal and Parafoveal Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Hsiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether foveal representation in reading is initially split and contralaterally projected to different hemispheres or bilaterally projected remains a controversial issue. Here we examine visual field asymmetry effects in naming Chinese characters with different structures, with characters presented either to the left visual field or the right visual field (RVF, and either within or outside foveal vision (eccentricity. We show that overall the RVF advantage in naming characters was significant in both eccentricity conditions (fovea vs. parafovea, with a stronger effect in parafoveal vision. This suggests that foveal splitting may not be an all-or-none phenomenon but has a graded effect. When examining characters with different structures separately, this interaction between visual field and eccentricity was significant only in the dominant, right-heavy character structure type, but not in the minority left-heavy or symmetric structure types, suggesting a modulation of character structure or type frequency on the eccentricity effect. In addition, existence of a phonetic radical modulated the visual field asymmetry effect differentially in different character structure types; however this effect did not interact with eccentricity. This result thus suggests that character structure and existence of a phonetic radical have differential modulation on character processing in the foveal and parafoveal vision.

  18. Danish Exports and Danish Bilateral Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    countries. This Evaluation Study presents an econometric analysis of Danish exports to 144 countries over the period from 1981 to 2010. The analysis is based on the gravity model of bilateral trade; a structural model developed over decades and now the central model in analyses of bilateral trade flows...... and trade policies. The main result of the study is that Danish bilateral aid has a positive and statistically significant impact on Danish exports to the recipient countries. Bilateral development assistance may affect exports through several channels. Three of the main channels are direct aid tying......; increasing recipient income where higher income leads to higher imports, and decreased trade costs, say due to improved information about cultural and administrative customs and practices. Thus, as for preferential trade arrangements, bilateral aid has two potential economic effects; trade creation working...

  19. Bilateral zeta functions and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shibukawa, Genki

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new type of multiple zeta functions, which we call bilateral zeta functions, analogous to the Barnes zeta functions. The bilateral zeta function is a periodic function and shares certain basic properties of Barnes zeta function. Especially, we prove that the bilateral zeta function has a nice Fourier series expansion and the Barnes zeta function can be expressed as a finite sum of bilateral zeta functions. By these properties of the bilateral zeta functions, We obtain simple proofs of some formulas, for example the reflection formula for the multiple gamma function, the inversion formula of the Dedekind eta function, Ramanujan's formula, Fourier expansion of the Barnes zeta function and multiple Iseki's formula.

  20. Rapid Naming Speed and Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between rapid naming speed (RAN) and Chinese character recognition accuracy and fluency. Sixty-three grade 2 and 54 grade 4 Taiwanese children were administered four RAN tasks (colors, digits, Zhu-Yin-Fu-Hao, characters), and two character recognition tasks. RAN tasks accounted for more reading variance in grade 4 than…

  1. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  2. A Note on Generalized Characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt; H V Dedania

    2005-11-01

    For a compactly generated LCA group , it is shown that the set $H(G)$ of all generalized characters on equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and $H(G)=\\hat{G}$ (the dual group of ) if and only if is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if is second countable, then the Gel’fand space of the commutative convolution algebra $C_c(G)$ equipped with the inductive limit topology is topologically homeomorphic to $H(G)$.

  3. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  4. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  5. System and method for character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A character recognition system is disclosed in which each character in a retina, defining a scanning raster, is scanned with random lines uniformly distributed over the retina. For each type of character to be recognized the system stores a probability density function (PDF) of the random line intersection lengths and/or a PDF of the random line number of intersections. As an unknown character is scanned, the random line intersection lengths and/or the random line number of intersections are accumulated and based on a comparison with the prestored PDFs a classification of the unknown character is performed.

  6. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  7. Extending Characters on Fix Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A dynamical system is a triple $(A,G,\\alpha)$, consisting of a unital locally convex algebra $A$, a topological group $G$ and a group homomorphism $\\alpha:G\\rightarrow\\Aut(A)$, which induces a continuous action of $G$ on $A$. Further, a unital locally convex algebra $A$ is called continuous inverse algebra, or CIA for short, if its group of units $A^{\\times}$ is open in $A$ and the inversion $\\iota:A^{\\times}\\rightarrow A^{\\times},\\,\\,\\,a\\mapsto a^{-1}$ is continuous at $1_A$. For a compact manifold $M$, the Fr\\'echet algebra of smooth functions $C^{\\infty}(M)$ is the prototype of such a continuous inverse algebra. We show that if $A$ is a complete commutative CIA, $G$ a compact group and $(A,G,\\alpha)$ a dynamical system, then each character of $B:=A^G$ can be extended to a character of $A$. In particular, the natural map on the level of the corresponding spectra $\\Gamma_A\\rightarrow\\Gamma_B$, $\\chi\\mapsto\\chi_{\\mid B}$ is surjective.

  8. Heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after ovulation induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Xu, Gu-feng; Liu, Yi-feng; Qu, Fan; Yao, Wei-miao; Zhu, Yi-min; Gao, Hui-juan; Zhang, Dan

    2014-08-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is identified with the widely-applied assisted reproductive technology (ART). Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which is difficult to be diagnosed at the pre-operation stage. In this paper, we presented an unusual case of heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI), where there has been a delay of 22 d between the diagnoses of the two ectopic pregnancies. Literature was reviewed on the occurrence of bilateral ectopic pregnancy during the past four years in the MEDLINE database. We found 16 cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy reported since 2008, and analyzed the characteristics of those cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. We emphasize that ovulation induction and other ARTs may increase the risk of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. Because of the difficulty in identification of bilateral ectopic pregnancy by ultrasonography, the clinician should be aware that the treatment of one ectopic pregnancy does not preclude the occurrence of a second ectopic pregnancy in the same patient and should pay attention to the intra-operation inspection of both side fallopian tubes in any ectopic pregnancy case.

  9. Bilateral optic neuropathy in acute cryptococcal meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhe Ngoo; Li Min Evelyn Tai; Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam; John Tharakan

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of cryptococcal meningitis presenting with bilateral optic neuropathy in an immunocompetent patient. A 64-year-old Malay gentleman with no medical comorbidities presented with acute bilateral blurring of vision for a week, which was associated with generalised throbbing headache and low grade fever. He also had som-nolence and altered consciousness. Visual acuity in both eyes was no perception of light with poor pupillary reflexes. Extraocular muscle movements were normal. Anterior segments were unremarkable bilaterally. Fundoscopy revealed bilateral optic disc swelling. CT scan of the brain showed multifocal infarct, but no meningeal enhancement or mass. Cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure was normal, while its culture grew Cryptococcus neoformans. A diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis with bilateral optic neuropathy was made. Patient was treated with a six-week course of intravenous flu-conazole and started concomitantly on a fortnight's course of intravenous amphotericin B. After that, his general condition improved, but there was still no improvement in his visual acuity. On reviewing at two months post-initiation of treatment, fundi showed bilateral optic atrophy. Bilateral optic neuropathy secondary to cryptococcal meningitis was rare. The prognosis was guarded due to the sequelae of optic atrophy. Anti-fungal medication alone may not be sufficient to manage this condition. However, evidence for other treatment modalities is still lacking and further clinical studies are required.

  10. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  11. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  12. Kannada character recognition system using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh D. S.; Kamalapuram, Srinivasa K.; Kumar, Ajay B. R.

    2013-03-01

    Handwriting recognition has been one of the active and challenging research areas in the field of pattern recognition. It has numerous applications which include, reading aid for blind, bank cheques and conversion of any hand written document into structural text form. As there is no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 15 major scripts in India. In this paper an attempt is made to recognize handwritten Kannada characters using Feed Forward neural networks. A handwritten Kannada character is resized into 20x30 Pixel. The resized character is used for training the neural network. Once the training process is completed the same character is given as input to the neural network with different set of neurons in hidden layer and their recognition accuracy rate for different Kannada characters has been calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system yields good recognition accuracy rates comparable to that of other handwritten character recognition systems.

  13. Character evolution in Hydrozoa (phylum Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Nawrocki, Annalise M

    2010-09-01

    The diversity of hydrozoan life cycles, as manifested in the wide range of polyp, colony, and medusa morphologies, has been appreciated for centuries. Unraveling the complex history of characters involved in this diversity is critical for understanding the processes driving hydrozoan evolution. In this study, we use a phylogenetic approach to investigate the evolution of morphological characters in Hydrozoa. A molecular phylogeny is reconstructed using ribosomal DNA sequence data. Several characters involving polyp, colony, and medusa morphology are coded in the terminal taxa. These characters are mapped onto the phylogeny and then the ancestral character states are reconstructed. This study confirms the complex evolutionary history of hydrozoan morphological characters. Many of the characters involving polyp, colony, and medusa morphology appear as synapomorphies for major hydrozoan clades, yet homoplasy is commonplace. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  15. Sound localization ability of young children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, J.W.; Snik, A.F.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of bilateral cochlear implantation in young children. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical trial comparing a group of bilaterally implanted children with a group of unilaterally implanted children. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Five bilaterally implanted children

  16. Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma and on exploration it turned out to be rarest extra peritoneal bilateral Petit’s trianglehernia, fat as contents.

  17. [Bilateral persistent hyaloid artery. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbolla-Pertierra, A M; Martínez-Hernández, C K; Juárez-Echenique, J C

    2014-06-01

    A 5-year-old male presented with bilateral poor vision, esotropia and a previous diagnosis of cataract since he was 1 year old. The physical examination revealed bilateral posterior paracentric capsule opacification, vitreous cavity with a permeable pulsatile blood filled hyaloid artery in both eyes. He was kept under observation. Persistent hyaloid artery is an uncommon faulty primary vitreous regression, often unilateral (although it may be bilateral) and sporadic, associated with microphthalmos. It may be complicated with glaucoma and phthisis bulbi. Vitrectomy plus lensectomy or simple observation are the accepted treatment options. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The Slothful Claw: Osteology and Taphonomy of Nothronychus mckinleyi and N. graffami (Dinosauria: Theropoda) and Anatomical Considerations for Derived Therizinosaurids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Brandon P; Zanno, Lindsay E; Wolfe, Douglas G; Dodson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nothronychus was the first definitive therizinosaurian discovered in North America and currently represents the most specialized North American therizinosaurian genus. It is known from two species, No. mckinleyi from the Moreno Hill Formation (middle Turonian) in west-central New Mexico, and No. graffami from the Tropic Shale (early Turonian) in south-central Utah. Both species are represented by partial to nearly complete skeletons that have helped elucidate evolutionary trends in Therizinosauria. In spite of the biogeographical and evolutionary importance of these two taxa, neither has received a detailed description. Here, we present comprehensive descriptions of No. mckinleyi and No. graffami, the latter of which represents the most complete therizinosaurid skeleton known to date. We amend previous preliminary descriptions of No. mckinleyi and No. graffami based on these new data and modify previous character states based on an in-depth morphological analysis. Additionally, we review the depositional history of both specimens of Nothronychus and compare their taphonomic modes. We demonstrate that the species were not only separated geographically, but also temporally. Based on ammonoid biozones, the species appear to have been separated by at least 1.5 million years and up to 3 million years. We then discuss the impacts of diagenetic deformation on morphology and reevaluate potentially diagnostic characters in light of these new data. For example, the ulna of No. mckinleyi is curved whereas the ulna of No. graffami was considered straight, a character originally separating the two species. However, here we present the difference as much more likely related to diagenetic compression in No. graffami rather than as a true biologic difference. Finally, we include copies of three-dimensional surface scans of all major bones for both taxa for reference.

  19. Character design for soccer commmentary

    CERN Document Server

    Binsted, K

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present early work on an animated talking head commentary system called {\\bf Byrne}\\footnote{David Byrne is the lead singer of the Talking Heads.}. The goal of this project is to develop a system which can take the output from the RoboCup soccer simulator, and generate appropriate affective speech and facial expressions, based on the character's personality, emotional state, and the state of play. Here we describe a system which takes pre-analysed simulator output as input, and which generates text marked-up for use by a speech generator and a face animation system. We make heavy use of inter-system standards, so that future versions of Byrne will be able to take advantage of advances in the technologies that it incorporates.

  20. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  1. The Contingent Character of Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent criticisms raised against Hegel has to do with the totalizing aspect of his system, which determines what is as absolutely necessary. The Science of Logic, being the conceptual edifice upon which his whole system is built, is the appropriate place to determine the specific meaning of the Hegelian concepts. The following paper offers a detailed analysis on the chapter on Actuality (Wirklichkeit in the Science of Logic, in order to show how the concept of absolute necessity not only includes within it, but also contains as a structural element, the concept of contingency. In this manner a deflationary interpretation is generated in which the absolutely necessary character of actuality should not be understood as grounded on a pre-established end that inexorably determines actuality, but rather as an interpretive movement, in recollection, of its process.

  2. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenoma of breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Madhumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old girl with rapidly enlarging bilateral breast lumps is reported. It was diagnosed as a case of juvenile fibroadenoma following fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed on histopathological examination of the excised specimens.

  3. Genetics of Infantile Bilateral Striatal Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The gene mutation causing autosomal recessive infantile bilateral striatal necrosis (IBSN was identified in eight consanguineous Israeli Bedouin families, in a study at Schneider Children’s Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel, and other centers.

  4. Extensive Bilateral Naevus Comedonicus Exacerbating During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao M.V

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Naevus comedonicus is a rare developmental anomaly of the pilosebaceous apparatus. It occurred bilaterally in a 23 year old pregnant woman. She noted exacerbations during two pregnancies, hitherto unreported in the literature.

  5. Anaesthetic management of laparoscopic assisted bilateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-13

    Apr 13, 2011 ... assisted bilateral adrenalectomy in a five-year-old child with Cushing's ... and her vocal cords visualised and sprayed with 2 ml 2% lignocaine. .... crossmatched. Medical therapy of Cushing's disease includes the drugs,.

  6. FLOWING BILATERAL FILTER: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Moreaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral filter plays a key role in image processing applications due to its intuitive parameterization and its high quality filter result, smoothing homogeneous regions while preserving the edges of the objects. Considering the image as a topological relief, seeing pixel intensities as peaks and valleys, we introduce a way to control the tonal weighting coefficients, the flowing bilateral filter, reducing "halo" artifacts typically produced by the regular bilateral filter around a large peak surrounded by two valleys of lower values. In this paper we propose to investigate exact and approximated versions of CPU and parallel GPU (Graphical Processing Unit based implementations of the regular and flowing bilateral filter using the NVidia CUDA API. Fast implementations of these filters are important for the processing of large 3D volumes up to several GB acquired by x-ray or electron tomography.

  7. Bilateral areolar and periareolar pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárdy, Miklós; Korting, Hans Christian; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolff, Hans

    2010-08-01

    An adolescent boy presented with isolated, symmetrical, bilateral areolar and periareolar pityriasis versicolor. This extremely rare condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of light brown patches on the areolae.

  8. Bilateral Shoulder Dislocations Following a Motocross Accident

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H J Schroepfer; B M Martin; P J Millett

    2017-01-01

    .... A professional motocross racer experienced a high speed traumatic accident which resulted in bilateral shoulder dislocations with a rare associated complete anterosuperior RC tear due to a posterior dislocation...

  9. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S BILATERAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The EU is a world economic power and a major trading partner for most countries. All the time, this region has been interested and has acted towards a free and fair trade. The decrease and even the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers in the world trade are among the main objectives of the EU strategy for international trade. At the moment, the elusive outcome of the WTO Doha Round has led to the proliferation of bilateral trade agreements worldwide. Although the EU remains committed to further development of the multilateral trading system, however, the EU still has appealed also to the development of bilateral trade relations. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the current bilateral dimension of the common commercial policy of the EU. In conclusion, to describe this bilateral approach of the EU we are using one word, namely “diversity”.

  10. BILATERAL TESSIER CLEFT 3: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tessier cleft 3 is a very rare congenital anomaly, (2 especially the bilateral form. Very few cases have been reported worldwide. (1,2 I report a case of bilateral Tessier cleft 3 presenting at the age of three months with clefts extending from philtral regions, undermining the nasal alar bases to the medial canthal areas bilaterally. There were bilateral complete alveolar clefts with mild protrusion of the pre-maxilla, but the rest of the maxilla including the palate was not involved. Surgical correction was started at the age of three months and completed at the age of one and half years in three stages. There was no intra-operative or postoperative complications and the final result was satisfactory.

  11. Case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth presenting as sudden, bilateral deafness, without temporal bone fracture, after a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E J; Yang, Y S; Yoon, Y J

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth presenting as sudden, bilateral deafness, without temporal bone fracture, after a fall. A 49-year-old man presented with sudden, bilateral deafness and whirling vertigo, without any other neurological manifestations. Temporal bone computed tomography clearly demonstrated the presence of air in the vestibule and cochlea on both sides. However, there was no definite fracture line, ossicular chain anomaly or soft tissue density in the temporal bone or middle-ear cavity. The patient was treated conservatively. Unfortunately, there was no improvement in his hearing. Pneumolabyrinth is an uncommon condition in which air is present in the vestibule or cochlea. It is rarely found, even with fractures violating the otic capsule or with transverse fractures of the temporal bone. In addition, its bilateral occurrence is extremely rare. In this article, we describe a case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth presenting as sudden, bilateral deafness, without temporal bone fracture, an occurrence which has not previously been reported.

  12. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  13. Clinical subgroups in bilateral Meniere disease

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Meniere disease (MD) is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, episodic vestibular symptoms and tinnitus associated with several comorbidities such as migraine or autoimmune disorders (AD). The frequency of bilateral involvement may range from 5-50% and it depends on the duration of the disease. We have performed a two-step cluster analysis in 398 patients with bilateral MD to identify the best predictors to define clinical subgroups with a potential d...

  14. Bilateral anophthalmia with septo-optic dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral anophthalmia is a rare entity and association with septo-optic dysplasia is an even rare condition. The condition is characterized by absent eyeballs in the presence of eyelids, conjunctiva or lacrimal apparatus. Though anophthalmia can be diagnosed clinically, imaging plays a crucial role in delineating the associated anomalies. In addition, often clinical anophthalmia may prove to be severe microphthalmia on imaging. We describe the imaging findings in an infant with bilateral anophthalmia and septo-optic dysplasia.

  15. Bilateral Keratectasia 34 Years after Corneal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Valldeperas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 µm in the right eye and of 710 µm in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 µm in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus.

  16. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  17. Integration of morphological data sets for phylogenetic analysis of Amniota: the importance of integumentary characters and increased taxonomic sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert V

    2005-08-01

    Several mutually exclusive hypotheses have been advanced to explain the phylogenetic position of turtles among amniotes. Traditional morphology-based analyses place turtles among extinct anapsids (reptiles with a solid skull roof), whereas more recent studies of both morphological and molecular data support an origin of turtles from within Diapsida (reptiles with a doubly fenestrated skull roof). Evaluation of these conflicting hypotheses has been hampered by nonoverlapping taxonomic samples and the exclusion of significant taxa from published analyses. Furthermore, although data from soft tissues and anatomical systems such as the integument may be particularly relevant to this problem, they are often excluded from large-scale analyses of morphological systematics. Here, conflicting hypotheses of turtle relationships are tested by (1) combining published data into a supermatrix of morphological characters to address issues of character conflict and missing data; (2) increasing taxonomic sampling by more than doubling the number of operational taxonomic units to test internal relationships within suprageneric ingroup taxa; and (3) increasing character sampling by approximately 25% by adding new data on the osteology and histology of the integument, an anatomical system that has been historically underrepresented in morphological systematics. The morphological data set assembled here represents the largest yet compiled for Amniota. Reevaluation of character data from prior studies of amniote phylogeny favors the hypothesis that turtles indeed have diapsid affinities. Addition of new ingroup taxa alone leads to a decrease in overall phylogenetic resolution, indicating that existing characters used for amniote phylogeny are insufficient to explain the evolution of more highly nested taxa. Incorporation of new data from the soft and osseous components of the integument, however, helps resolve relationships among both basal and highly nested amniote taxa. Analysis of a

  18. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  19. Prevalence of sacral spina bifida occulta and its relationship to age, sex, race, and the sacral table angle: an anatomic, osteologic study of three thousand one hundred specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Jason David; Cheruvu, Vinay K

    2009-07-01

    An anatomic, osteologic study of spina bifida occulta (SBO). To determine the prevalence and patterns of SBO in a large population and examine its relationship to age, sex, and race; then to evaluate SBOs relationship to the sacral table angle (STA) when compared with an age-matched control group. SBO has a reported prevalence of 1.2% to 50% and has been implicated in various pathologic problems. SBO is often associated with spondylolysis or spondylolithesis. The STA has been implicated as an etiologic or predictive factor in the presence of pars defects. Three thousand one hundred osteologic specimens were evaluated for the presence of SBO. SBO was graded on a scale from 0 to III. Information on the age, sex, race, and STA of each specimen was recorded and measured, respectively. Prevalence and patterns of SBO were enumerated. The STAs of an age-matched control group of 355 specimens were examined. The SBO group and control groups were compared in regards to STA, controlling for age, sex, and race. Overall, 355 specimens displayed SBO, for an overall prevalence of 12.4%. Of the SBO specimens, 68.7% were white, 88.2% were men, 53% were grade I, 37% II, and 10% III. All 3 grades of SBO were more common in men than women (88.2% vs. 11.8%) and more prevalent in whites than blacks (68.7% vs. 31.3%) (P = 0.01). SBO decreased in prevalence with increasing age. The average STA in SBO specimens was 95.9 degrees . This differed from an age-matched control group, 92.1 degrees (P < 0.0001). Every 1 degrees increase in STA resulted in a 6% increased likelihood of SBO. In SBO specimens, the STA decreased with increasing age, contrary to age-matched controls. SBO has an overall prevalence of 12.4% in a large, diverse population. SBO is more common in men and whites and decreases in prevalence with increasing age. The STA is greater in SBO when compared with controls and an increased STA predicts SBO. In SBO, the STA decreases with increasing age.

  20. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehete, Rajendra; Nehete, Anita; Singla, Sandeep; Adhav, Harshad

    2012-01-01

    In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.

  1. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nehete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.

  2. Handwritten Javanese Character Recognition Using Several Artificial Neural Network Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorius Satia Budhi; Rudy Adipranata

    2015-01-01

    Javanese characters are traditional characters that are used to write the Javanese language. The Javanese language is a language used by many people on the island of Java, Indonesia. The use of Javanese characters is diminishing more and more because of the difficulty of studying the Javanese characters themselves. The Javanese character set consists of basic characters, numbers, complementary characters, and so on. In this research we have developed a system to recognize Javanese characters....

  3. Cohomological Hall algebras and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Davison, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between twisted and untwisted character varieties via a specific instance of the Cohomological Hall algebra for moduli of objects in 3-Calabi-Yau categories introduced by Kontsevich and Soibelman. In terms of Donaldson--Thomas theory, this relationship is completely understood via the calculations of Hausel and Villegas of the E polynomials of twisted character varieties and untwisted character stacks. We present a conjectural lift of this relationship to the cohomological Hall algebra setting.

  4. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful combinat......In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...

  5. Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament: MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoya, Maria A.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McGraw, Michael H. [Hospitalof theUniversityof Pennsylvania, Divisionof Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare. We describe a 13-year-old girl who presented with bilateral knee pain without history of trauma; she has two family members with knee instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral absence of the ACL, and medial posterior horn meniscal tears. Bilateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed. (orig.)

  6. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  7. Mandibular cortical shape index in non-standardised panoramic radiographs for identifying patients with osteoporosis as defined by the German Osteology Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dam, Ahmed; Blake, Felix; Atac, Artun; Amling, Michael; Blessmann, Marco; Assaf, Alexandre; Hanken, Henning; Smeets, Ralf; Heiland, Max

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this prospective controlled study was to determine the validity of the mandibular cortical shape index (CI) on panoramic radiographs in distinguishing patients with osteoporosis as defined by the German Osteology Organization (Dachverbands der Deutschsprachigen Osteologischen Fachgesellschaften, DVO). The study group contained 50 patients (33 female, 17 male, mean age: 74.9 years), who had a high risk of osteoporosis. 50 young patients (33 female, 17 male, mean age: 37.9 years) with no anamnestic evidence of osteoporosis served as control. Three blinded observers evaluated panoramic views of the study and the control group in a mixed manner regarding the mandibular cortical shape index. The study group underwent bone mineral density measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and received a diagnosis according to the Organization's guidelines (normal, osteopenia, osteoporosis). The CI showed a high sensitivity of 72.2% and a high specificity of 93.9% with a highly significant predictive value (Chi-square = 22.96, p < 0.001), while the observer's agreement was moderate (kappa = 0.47). We concluded that patients with a cortical shape index of the category assessed as "severe" on non-standardised panoramic radiographs have a higher risk of suffering systemic osteoporosis. The CI in panoramic radiographs is a good screening tool, which could be implemented in the routine assessment of panoramic radiographs in elder patients.

  8. Morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, M; du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-12-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle.

  9. Clinical subgroups in bilateral Meniere disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Frejo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Meniere disease (MD is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, episodic vestibular symptoms and tinnitus associated with several comorbidities such as migraine or autoimmune disorders (AD. The frequency of bilateral involvement may range from 5-50% and it depends on the duration of the disease. We have performed a two-step cluster analysis in 398 patients with bilateral MD to identify the best predictors to define clinical subgroups with a potential different etiology to improve the phenotyping of bilateral MD and to develop new treatments. We have defined five clinical variants in bilateral MD. Group 1 is the most frequently found, includes 46% of patients, and is defined by metachronic hearing loss without migraine and without AD. Group 2 is found in 17% of patients, and it is defined by synchronic hearing loss without migraine or AD. Group 3, with 13% of patients, is characterized by familial MD, while group 4, that includes 12% of patients, is associated by the presence of migraine in all cases. Group 5 is found in 11% of patients and is defined by AD. This approach can be helpful in selecting patients for genetic and clinical research. However, further studies will be required to improve the phenotyping in these clinical variants for a better understanding of the diverse etiological factors contributing to bilateral MD.

  10. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  11. Don't "Dumb Down" Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    2006-01-01

    Most character education-advocate organizations list traits that they identify as the central principles or "pillars" in character development. They usually include words like responsibility, fairness, pride, and citizenship. As so often happens in education, these words are presented as though they represented straightforward, commonly understood…

  12. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters. Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  13. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters.  Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  14. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  15. Character, Civility, and the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    As the educational community works together to improve academic achievement, the importance of character traits such as honesty, trustworthiness, self discipline, kindness, empathy, respect, responsibility, and courage must not be neglected. This guide has been designed to help educators and families in Massachusetts link character development and…

  16. Character Education, New Media, and Political Spectacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's new Character Development Initiative is analyzed to determine whether it can be characterized as political spectacle. Examination of official policy texts, media reports, speeches, web pages, webcasts, and events at the Character Development Symposium suggests that the Initiative contains many elements of political spectacle; however,…

  17. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  18. A database application for wilderness character monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Adams; Peter Landres; Simon Kingston

    2012-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Wilderness Stewardship Division, in collaboration with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, developed a database application to facilitate tracking and trend reporting in wilderness character. The Wilderness Character Monitoring Database allows consistent, scientifically based...

  19. Improving Student Achievement through Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Chip; Hansen, Cynthia; Jensen, Jane

    This report describes a program for improving moral character to increase academic achievement. Targeted population consisted of middle school students in a growing middle class community in a northern suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem, an absence of proper moral character, was documented through data collected from discipline referrals to…

  20. Wood anatomical classification using iterative character weighing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, P.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the pattern of wood anatomical variation in some groups of Rubiaceae (i.e. Cinchoneae, Rondeletieae and Condamineae) by using a numerical pattern detection method which involves character weighing (Hogeweg 1975). In this method character weights are obtained iteratively

  1. Character Development in the Catholic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Patricia H., Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the particular qualities of character education in Catholic schools. The focus of the essays is on developing Christian character in students and the envisionment of the Catholic school graduate as a Christ-like person. Specific suggestions are made for early childhood, middle school, and secondary school…

  2. Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters -- Slavic and non-Slavic languages

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1995-01-01

    Cancels and replaces the first edition (1986). Establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of Slavic and non-Slavic languages. Table 3 includes in a single sequence, listed in the Cyrillic alphabetic order, the 118 single or diacritic-carrying characters that appear in one or another of the considered alphabets.

  3. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  4. The discipline of building character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaracco, J L

    1998-01-01

    What is the difference between an ethical decision and what the author calls a defining moment? An ethical decision typically involves choosing between two options: one we know to be right and another we know to be wrong. A defining moment challenges us in a deeper way by asking us to choose between two or more ideals in which we deeply believe. Such decisions rarely have one "correct" response. Taken cumulatively over many years, they form the basis of an individual's character. Defining moments ask executives to dig below the busy surface of their lives and refocus on their core values and principles. Once uncovered, those values and principles renew their sense of purpose at the workplace and act as a springboard for shrewd, pragmatic, politically astute action. Three types of defining moments are particularly common in today's workplace. The first type is largely an issue of personal identity. It raises the question, Who am I? The second type concerns groups as well as individuals. It raises the question, Who are we? The third kind involves defining a company's role within society. It raises the question, Who is the company? By learning to identify each of those three situations, managers can learn to navigate right-versus-right decisions successfully. The author asks a series of practical questions that will help managers take time out to examine their values and then transform their beliefs into action. By engaging in this process of self-inquiry, managers will be gaining the tools to tackle their most elusive, challenging, and essential business dilemmas.

  5. Postprocessing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takatoshi; Okamoto, Masayosi; Horii, Hiroshi

    1993-04-01

    We propose a new method of post-processing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information. This method corrects errors in the recognition of handwritten Japanese sentences containing Kanji characters. This post-process method is characterized by having two types of character recognition. Improving the accuracy of the character recognition rate of Japanese characters is made difficult by the large number of characters, and the existence of characters with similar patterns. Therefore, it is not practical for a character recognition system to recognize all characters in detail. First, this post-processing method generates a candidate character table by recognizing the simplest features of characters. Then, it selects words corresponding to the character from the candidate character table by referring to a word and grammar dictionary before selecting suitable words. If the correct character is included in the candidate character table, this process can correct an error, however, if the character is not included, it cannot correct an error. Therefore, if this method can presume a character does not exist in a candidate character table by using linguistic information (word and grammar dictionary). It then can verify a presumed character by character recognition using complex features. When this method is applied to an online character recognition system, the accuracy of character recognition improves 93.5% to 94.7%. This proved to be the case when it was used for the editorials of a Japanese newspaper (Asahi Shinbun).

  6. Bilateral acute iris transillumination: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumali Degirmenci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT is a recently defined disease characterized with bilateral acute, severe pigment dispersion of iris and pupil sphincter paralysis. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is unknown, but antibiotics such as moxifloxacin, clarithromycin, viral infections, and fumigation therapies were considered as probable etiologic factors. A 33-year-old female was referred to our clinic for acute iridocyclitis refractory to azathioprine, colchicum and corticosteroid treatments. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral pigment dispersion, significant iris transillumination, heavy pigment deposition in iridocorneal angle, and elevated intraocular pressure. Upon systemic evaluation she was found to have bacterial urinary tract infection. BAIT is an important cause of pigment dispersion and clinicians must be vigilant for this condition to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests and treatment.

  7. [Bilateral pheochromocytoma: laparoscopic surgery in 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, J; Castillo, O; Bravo, J; Henríquez, R; Tagle, F

    2001-01-01

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy, if done by skilled surgeons, is now the first choice for treating most adrenal tumors, including bilateral pheochromocytoma. We report two women, aged 35 and 34 years old, with bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma successfully excised by laparoscopic surgery. Both had severe hypertension, high urinary catecholamine values (epinephrine + norepinephrine: 528 and 1083 ug/24 h) and bilateral adrenal tumors at CT scan. After 4 weeks of doxazosin treatment, a laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy was done (Gugner's technique), with surgical times of 7 and 5 hours respectively. Both patients received hydrocortisone and only the second one required one unit of packed cells. Postoperative evolution was uneventful and both patients were discharged at the fifth postoperative day. At two months of follow up, both patients are asymptomatic and normotensive.

  8. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Bilateral Mastoid Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım Bozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old male was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of headache, dizziness, nausea, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus, and hearing loss in both ears for 3 weeks. Physical examination revealed edema in the tympanic membrane and external ear canal, and pain by palpation in the mastoid area bilaterally. There was no nystagmus, and the rest of the physical examination was otherwise normal. Temporal bone high resolution computed tomography (CT showed a lesion causing erosion in the mastoid cortex, tegmen tympani, ossicles, and in the bone covering the sigmoid sinus bilaterally. There was also erosion in the superior semicircular canal and petrous bone on the left side. Cortical mastoidectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic examination of the tissue revealed Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH. In this paper a case with LCH, presenting with bilateral mastoid involvement which has been rarely reported in the literature, is discussed with the existing literature.

  9. Prognosis of synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Tjønneland, Anne; Balslev, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Currently, no consistent evidence-based guidelines for the management of synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) exist and it is uncertain how presenting with SBBC affects patients' prognosis. We conducted a review of studies analyzing the association between SBBC and prognosis. The studies...... that reported adjusted effect measures were included in meta-analyses of effect of bilaterality on breast cancer mortality. From 57 initially identified records 17 studies from 11 different countries including 8,050 SBBC patients were included. The quality of the studies varied but was generally low with small...... sample sizes, and lack of consistent, detailed histo-pathological information. When doing meta-analysis on the subgroup of studies that provided adjusted effect estimates on breast cancer mortality (nine studies including 3,631 SBBC cases), we found that bilaterality in itself had a negative impact...

  10. Quality of life after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ann M; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Herrinton, Lisa J; Rolnick, Sharon J; Greene, Sarah M; West, Carmen N; Harris, Emily L; Elmore, Joann G; Altschuler, Andrea; Liu, In-Liu A; Fletcher, Suzanne W; Emmons, Karen M

    2007-02-01

    Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with increased breast cancer risk dramatically reduces breast cancer occurrence but little is known about psychosocial outcomes. To examine long-term quality of life after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy, we mailed surveys to 195 women who had the procedure from 1979 to 1999 and to a random sample of 117 women at increased breast cancer risk who did not have the procedure. Measures were modeled on or drawn directly from validated instruments designed to assess quality of life, body image, sexuality, breast cancer concerns, depression, health perception, and demographic characteristics. We used logistic regression to examine associations between quality of life and other domains. The response rate was 58%, with 106 women with and 62 women without prophylactic mastectomy returning complete surveys. Among women who underwent bilateral prophylactic mastectomy, 84% were satisfied with their decision to have the procedure; 61% reported high contentment with quality of life compared with an identical 61% of women who did not have the procedure (P = 1.0). Among all subjects, diminished contentment with quality of life was not associated with bilateral prophylactic mastectomy but with dissatisfaction with sex life (adjusted ratio [OR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-6.2), possible depression (CES-D > 16, OR = 4.9, CI = 2.0-11.8), and poor or fair general health perception (OR = 8.3, 95% CI = 2.4-29.0). The majority of women reported satisfaction with bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and experienced psychosocial outcomes similar to women with similarly elevated breast cancer risk who did not undergo prophylactic mastectomy. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy appears to neither positively nor negatively impact long-term psychosocial outcomes.

  11. Isolated Bilateral Congenital Iris Sphincter Agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We herein report a patient with bilateral congenital total iris sphincter agenesis with no other abnormality detected on systemic examination. Methods. A 24-year-old laborer presented to us for a routine checkup with complaint of photophobia and inability to work under sunlight. Examination revealed bilateral absence of sphincter and 6.5 mm pupil in both eyes in the undilated state. Results. Accommodation was poor in both eyes. Systemic examination was within normal limits. He was prescribed bifocal photochromic glasses for constant wear. Conclusions. Congenital sphincter agenesis can occur in an isolated form without systemic abnormalities which can be managed conservatively.

  12. Sudden bilateral hearing loss after organophosphate inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Dundar, Mehmet Akif; Derin, Serhan; Aricigil, Mitat; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Sudden bilateral hearing loss are seen rarely and the toxic substance exposure constitutes a small part of etiology. A Fifty-eight-year-old woman admitted to our clinic with sudden bilateral hearing loss shortly after chlorpyrifos-ethyl exposure. Otolaryngologic examination findings were normal. The patient had 40 dB sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) on the right ear and 48 dB SNHL on the left ear. Additional diagnostic tests were normal. The conventional treatment for sudden hearing loss was...

  13. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Tiryaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  14. Bilateral Meckel's cave amyloidoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültaşli, N; van den Hauwe, L; Bruneau, M; D'Haene, N; Delpierre, I; Balériaux, D

    2012-05-01

    Primary solitary amyloidoma of Meckel's cave is rare, and a bilateral location is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 12 cases in the literature have described such a primary lesion, including one case of bilateral involvement of Meckel's cave. We report here on the case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with pseudotumor masses involving both Meckel's caves and responsible for trigeminal neuropathy. The final diagnosis of amyloidoma was made on the basis of histological examination of surgical biopsy specimens.

  15. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark ME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our knowledge this is the first case of a bilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle in the medical literature. Anatomical variations of the infrahyoid muscles may have functional, diagnostic, surgical and pathological implications.

  16. [Bilateral choroidal osteoma--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrychowska-Jamborska, Justyna; Kulig-Stochmal, Agnieszka; Markiewicz, Anna; Jakubowska, Barbara; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a an extremely rare (especially located bilaterally), benign, intraocular tumor, the type of choristoma. It occurs between 2-3 decades of life, women are particularly vulnerable. The main complication in 1/3 cases is a subretinal neovascularization which may cause bleeding. The gradually progressive decalcification develops within the tumour over time, which causes atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane deformity. The article presents a case of a 26-year-old woman with bilateral choroidal osteoma complicated by subretinal hemorrhage; the diagnosis was based on clinical examination (biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy) as well as specialised tests including: ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography.

  17. Bilateral hydronephrosis caused by vaginal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Begliomini

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Even though it is uncommon, uterine prolapse can cause compression of ureters and bilateral hydronephrosis, predisposing to arterial hypertension and renal failure. Hydronephrosis consequent to cystocele and to vaginal prolapse is even rarer. CASE REPORT: This paper reports on a 59 year-old patient, Caucasian, obese and hysterectomized who presented complete vaginal prolapse with bilateral hydronephrosis and slight alteration in serum urea and creatinine. Patient underwent correction of vaginal prolapse by endoscopic suspension technique with improvement of hydronephrosis and normalization of renal function. This work emphasizes the rarity of such case and the requirement of surgical approach.

  18. Sudden bilateral hearing loss after organophosphate inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Dundar, Mehmet Akif; Derin, Serhan; Aricigil, Mitat; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Sudden bilateral hearing loss are seen rarely and the toxic substance exposure constitutes a small part of etiology. A Fifty-eight-year-old woman admitted to our clinic with sudden bilateral hearing loss shortly after chlorpyrifos-ethyl exposure. Otolaryngologic examination findings were normal. The patient had 40 dB sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) on the right ear and 48 dB SNHL on the left ear. Additional diagnostic tests were normal. The conventional treatment for sudden hearing loss was...

  19. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  20. On Hemingway’s Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Miruna Ciocoi-Pop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a brief outline of Hemingway’s characters and the way in which they correspond to the author himself. It is known for a fact that Hemingway evinced a tendency to imitate his characters when they were coming to grips with diverse situations. Thus I have tried to briefly pinpoint the fading boundaries between reality and imagination in his work. By doing so, I have focused on both male and female characters, underlining the major dissimilarities between these two categories, as well as their main features.

  1. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...

  2. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2012-09-01

    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  3. Problems in severe bilateral urinary tract anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1989-01-01

    Management of children with severe infravesical or bilateral ureterovesical obstruction with or without reflux is difficult. Our experience over 10 years includes 29 such children, 19 of whom presented in the first 3 months of life. At the time of diagnosis, 13 had severe disturbance of renal fun...

  4. Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, P; Pavesi, G; Salaffi, F

    1987-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may be associated with endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism and acromegaly. A direct relationship between CTS and hyperthyroidism has recently been suggested. We now report a case in which bilateral CTS developed after treatment of Graves' disease, thus, questioning the possibility of a relationship between these two disease processes.

  5. Simultaneous bilateral contracture of the infraspinatus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, J; Bertran, J; Remolins, G; Fontecha, P; Díaz-Bertrana, M C; Durall, I

    2009-01-01

    A case of bilateral fibrotic contracture of the infraspinatus muscles in a five-year-old Belgian Shepherd dog is described. The dog was presented with progressive forelimb lameness with postural and gait abnormalities three months after an episode of overexertion. When walking, the lower part of both forelimbs swung in a lateral arc causing a circumduction movement and in the standing position, the dog showed elbow adduction with external rotation of the distal part of both front limbs. Orthopaedic examination revealed bilateral atrophy of both infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles and restriction in the range of motion of both shoulders, especially when attempting abduction and flexion. No specific findings were observed in the shoulder or elbow radiographs but hyperechogenic areas were evident in the ultrasonographic examination of both infraspinatus muscles. A diagnosis of fibrotic contracture of both infraspinatus muscles was established and bilateral tenectomy of the insertion tendons of the infraspinatus muscles was performed. Complete recovery of the animal was achieved after the surgery, which was confirmed in a long-term follow-up (10 months). In conclusion, physical examination and ultrasonography allowed a proper diagnosis of the condition, and tenectomy of the infraspinatus muscles resulted in a complete recovery of the patient even with bilateral involvement.

  6. Bilateral chylothorax, chylopericardium and chylous ascitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kashyap

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL can commonly present as chylothorax and rarely as chylopericardium. Here we are presenting a case of a 21-years-old female with bilateral chylothorax, chylopericardium and chylous ascites all together finally diagnosed to have NHL as the etiology. To the best of our knowledge, it has been reported very infrequently.

  7. Bilateral Diabetic Papillopathy and Metabolic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit;

    2010-01-01

    -six patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Review of clinical, photographic, and clinical chemistry records from a large diabetology and ophthalmology unit between 2001 and 2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simultaneous, bilateral diabetic papillopathy. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 4.9 years. During 10 020...

  8. Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil Pothiawala

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant.

  9. Bilateral eyelid edema : Cutis laxa or blepharochalasis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakenburg, A; Nicolai, JPA

    2000-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman with massive bilateral edema of the upper and lower eyelids is presented. The edema occurred suddenly and without provocation. No cause could be identified despite a multitude of examinations. Initially the patient was diagnosed as having blepharochalasis, but later skin biopsy

  10. Bilateral eyelid edema : Cutis laxa or blepharochalasis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakenburg, A; Nicolai, JPA

    2000-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman with massive bilateral edema of the upper and lower eyelids is presented. The edema occurred suddenly and without provocation. No cause could be identified despite a multitude of examinations. Initially the patient was diagnosed as having blepharochalasis, but later skin biopsy s

  11. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia.

  12. Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Sung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea); Koo, Ja-Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

  13. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  14. Fast and Provably Accurate Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Dabhade, Swapnil D

    2016-06-01

    The bilateral filter is a non-linear filter that uses a range filter along with a spatial filter to perform edge-preserving smoothing of images. A direct computation of the bilateral filter requires O(S) operations per pixel, where S is the size of the support of the spatial filter. In this paper, we present a fast and provably accurate algorithm for approximating the bilateral filter when the range kernel is Gaussian. In particular, for box and Gaussian spatial filters, the proposed algorithm can cut down the complexity to O(1) per pixel for any arbitrary S . The algorithm has a simple implementation involving N+1 spatial filterings, where N is the approximation order. We give a detailed analysis of the filtering accuracy that can be achieved by the proposed approximation in relation to the target bilateral filter. This allows us to estimate the order N required to obtain a given accuracy. We also present comprehensive numerical results to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of speed and accuracy.

  15. Severe Hyperkalemia and Bilateral Adrenal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nagler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal metastases are a common finding in metastatic lung and breast cancer. Often there are no clinical symptoms suggesting them. In this paper, we present a case of a 66-year-old man with metastatic lung cancer suffering from severe hyperkaliemia due to hypoaldosteronism as a result of bilateral adrenal metastasis.

  16. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A unique case of fetal goiter accompanied by bilateral ovarian cysts in a mother treated with methimazole for Graves'disease is reported. The abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound at 31 weeks of gestation. Umbilical fetal blood sampling revealed elevated serum TSH, normal concentrations o...

  17. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF BILATERAL PHEOCHROMOCYTOM A

    OpenAIRE

    Joginder Pal; Veena; Ranjana; Gurmeet Kaur; Anju

    2012-01-01

    A 27 year old female patient with bilateral pheochrom ocytoma presented with hypertension. Confirmation of diagnosis was done by CT scan and raised 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid levels. Preoperative BP was co ntrolled with prazosin, labetolol, indapamide and clonidine. The anaesthetic technique used was general anaesthesia with epidural analgesia.

  18. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF BILATERAL PHEOCHROMOCYTOM A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Pal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A 27 year old female patient with bilateral pheochrom ocytoma presented with hypertension. Confirmation of diagnosis was done by CT scan and raised 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid levels. Preoperative BP was co ntrolled with prazosin, labetolol, indapamide and clonidine. The anaesthetic technique used was general anaesthesia with epidural analgesia.

  19. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written roughly

  20. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written

  1. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written roughly

  2. Printed Arabic Character Recognition Using HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas H.Hassin; Xiang-Long Tang; Jia-Feng Liu; Wei Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Language has a very rich vocabulary.More than 200 million people speak this language as their native speaking,and over 1 billion people use it in several religion-related activities.In this paper a new technique is presented for recognizing printed Arabic characters.After a word is segmented,each character/word is entirely transformed into a feature vector.The features of printed Arabic characters include strokes and bays in various directions,endpoints,intersection points,loops,dots and zigzags.The word skeleton is decomposed into a number of links in orthographic order,and then it is transferred into a sequence of symbols using vector quantization.Single hidden Markov model has been used for recognizing the printed Arabic characters.Experimental results show that the high recognition rate depends on the number of states in each sample.

  3. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  4. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  5. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  6. Kannada Character Recognition System A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Indira, K

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research has been done on optical character recognition ocr and a large number of articles have been published on this topic during the last few decades. Many commercial OCR systems are now available in the market, but most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters. There are no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 12 major scripts in India. This paper presents a review of existing work on printed Kannada script and their results. The characteristics of Kannada script and Kannada Character Recognition System kcr are discussed in detail. Finally fusion at the classifier level is proposed to increase the recognition accuracy.

  7. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reyes Martín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81 from Málaga (Spain. All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the humanity score. Moderately significant associations were found between all character strengths and general health, happiness, and especially hope. Boys had significantly higher scores on zest, prudence, self-regulation, and hope (Student t test. The study suggests that character strengths could contribute to increased life satisfaction and health among adolescents.

  8. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  9. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  10. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  11. Amnesia Associated with Bilateral Hippocampal and Bilateral Basal Ganglia Lesions in Anoxia with Stimulant Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, Marc W.; Hogg, Jeffery P.; Marshalek, Patrick J.; Suter, Blair C.; Miller, Liv E.

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 55-year-old man with ischemic lesions of the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral basal ganglia following a myocardial infarction during an episode of multiple drug use with subsequent anoxia requiring resuscitation. He presented for a neuropsychological evaluation with an anterograde amnesia for both explicit and procedural memory. There are two main points to this case, the unique aspects of the bilateral multifocal lesions and the functional, cognitive impact of these lesions. We hypothesize that his rare focal bilateral lesions of both the hippocampus and basal ganglia are a result of anoxia acting in synergy with his stimulant drug use (cocaine and/or 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine). Second, his unique lesions produced an explicit and implicit/procedural anterograde amnesia. PMID:28228745

  12. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Şevik Eliçora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral facial paralysis caused by bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, with seven cases reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 40-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis and hearing loss that developed after an occupational accident. On physical examination, House-Brackmann (HB facial paralysis of grade 6 was observed on the right side and HB grade 5 paralysis on the left. Upon temporal bone computed tomography (CT examination, a fracture line exhibiting transverse progression was observed in both petrous temporal bones. Our patient underwent transmastoid facial decompression surgery of the right ear. The patient refused a left-side operation. Such patients require extensive monitoring in intensive care units because the presence of multiple injuries means that facial functions are often very difficult to evaluate. Therefore, delays may ensue in both diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial paralysis.

  13. Sporadic bilateral synchronous multicentric papillary renal cell carcinoma masquerading as bilateral multifocal pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, V S; Dorairajan, L N; Kumar, S; Vijayakumar, A R; Ramesh, A; Ganesh Rajesh, N; Halanaik, D; Gupta, S

    2014-07-01

    Pyelonephritis is defined as an inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis. The diagnosis is usually clinical. Acute multifocal bacterial nephritis is a rare form of pyelonephritis that is more severe and sepsis is more common. We report a patient who presented with fever and right-sided abdominal pain associated with right flank tenderness, suggesting right acute pyelonephritis. Bilateral multifocal pyelonephritis was diagnosed on ultrasonography, radionuclide renal scintigraphy and computed tomography. However, owing to non-resolution of symptoms, a biopsy was performed, which showed bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). PRCC is known to exhibit multicentricity. To our knowledge, a case of bilateral multicentric PRCC masquerading as bilateral multifocal pyelonephritis has not been reported in the English literature. This case highlights the need to be vigilant while treating patients with focal lesions of the kidney as an inflammatory condition lest a malignancy should be missed.

  14. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  15. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Reyes Martín; Marta Ferragut

    2016-01-01

    This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81) from Málaga (Spain). All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120), the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the h...

  16. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We compare the effects of these two instruments of economic diplomacy on bilateral trade by employing a gravity model for 45 African states over the period 1980-2005. The results show that bilateral d...

  17. Recognition of Telugu characters using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhaswami, M B; Seetharamulu, P; Pujari, A K

    1995-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to recognize printed and handwritten Telugu characters using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Earlier work on recognition of Telugu characters has been done using conventional pattern recognition techniques. We make an initial attempt here of using neural networks for recognition with the aim of improving upon earlier methods which do not perform effectively in the presence of noise and distortion in the characters. The Hopfield model of neural network working as an associative memory is chosen for recognition purposes initially. Due to limitation in the capacity of the Hopfield neural network, we propose a new scheme named here as the Multiple Neural Network Associative Memory (MNNAM). The limitation in storage capacity has been overcome by combining multiple neural networks which work in parallel. It is also demonstrated that the Hopfield network is suitable for recognizing noisy printed characters as well as handwritten characters written by different "hands" in a variety of styles. Detailed experiments have been carried out using several learning strategies and results are reported. It is shown here that satisfactory recognition is possible using the proposed strategy. A detailed preprocessing scheme of the Telugu characters from digitized documents is also described.

  18. Chinese character recognition :history ,status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Ruwei; LIU Chenglin; XIAO Baihua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese character recognition (CCR) is an important branch of pattern recognition.It was considered as an extremely difficult problem due to the very large number of categories,complicated structures,similarity between characters,and the variability of fonts or writing styles.Because of its unique technical challenges and great social needs,the last four decades witnessed the intensive research in this field and a rapid increase of successful applications.However,higher recognition performance is continuously needed to improve the existing applications and to exploit new applications.This paper first provides an overview of Chinese character recognition and the properties of Chinese characters.Some important methods and successful results in the history of Chinese character recognition are then summarized.As for classification methods,this article pays special attention to the syntactic-semantic approach for online Chinese character recognition,as well as the metasynthesis approach for discipline crossing.Finally,the remaining problems and the possible solutions are discussed.

  19. One-stage clipping of bilateral middle cerebral artery aneurysms via the bilateral pterional keyhole approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Keisuke; Kurita, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Ryuichi; Noguchi, Akio; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Five patients aged 55 to 73 years (mean 63 years) underwent one-stage clipping for unruptured aneurysms in the bilateral middle cerebral arteries (mean size 4.5 mm, range 2 to 7 mm) via the bilateral pterional keyhole approach in our institute. Important points are as follows: the head is affixed with no rotation; one side manipulation is started 5 minutes after the other side to avoid conflict of surgical instruments; a 5-cm curvilinear skin incision is made inside the hairline and pterional keyhole craniotomy is made bilaterally using 2 burr holes; the whole operating table is rotated 15 degrees to one side to facilitate the microsurgical trans-sylvian approach and aneurysm clipping; the operating table is rotated to the other side for the contralateral procedure; and particular care is taken to avoid bilateral brain injury. This approach provided minimum but sufficient working space required for trans-sylvian dissection. Aneurysm neck clipping was safely performed in a mean operation time of 5 hours 17 minutes. No complications occurred and satisfactory cosmetic results were obtained in all patients. Postoperative neuroimaging studies exhibited bilateral complete clipping with minimal intracranial air content and minimum consequences of brain retraction. One-stage clipping via the pterional keyhole approach is a safe and effective therapeutic option for small bilateral aneurysms.

  20. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Suárez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, entre 1997 y 2007. MÉTODO: se hizo enucleación del ojo con el tumor de mayor tamaño. En el otro ojo se hizo tratamiento con TTT, con el láser diodo (810 nm, spot amplio, solo o combinado con otras terapias. RESULTADOS: se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos: 16 pacientes (32 ojos en el grupo 1 tratados conservadoramente y 4 pacientes (8 ojos en el grupo 2 con tratamiento convencional. El rango de edad fue de 1-72 meses en el grupo 1 y de 1-12 meses en el grupo 2. El tiempo de seguimiento fue de 7-67 meses para el grupo 1 y de 13-73 meses para el grupo 2. En el grupo 1 se hizo enucleación de 16 ojos (50%, radioterapia externa de uno (3,1%, quimioterapia más termoterapia de 5 (15,6% y quimioterapia más termoterapia más crioterapia de 10 (31,3%. En todos los pacientes se logró preservar al menos un ojo. En el grupo 2, se enuclearon 7 ojos (87,5% y se hizo radioterapia externa más enucleación en un paciente (12.5%. Además, todos los pacientes recibieron quimioterapia. CONCLUSIÓN: la terapia conservadora actual consistente en tratamiento local (termoterapia, crioterapia o braquiterapia y quimiorreducción permite preservar al menos un ojo y en algunos casos de los dos, muchas veces con buena agudeza visual, en niños con retinoblastoma bilateral; se evitan así la enucleación bilateral y la radioterapia externa usada en el tratamiento convencional con todos sus efectos secundarios. La enucleación contin

  1. Bilateral cerebellar activation in unilaterally challenged essential tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Broersma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results expand on previous findings of bilateral cerebellar involvement in ET. We have identified specific areas in the bilateral somatomotor regions of the cerebellum: lobules V, VI and VIII.

  2. CETA - BILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE EU AND CANADA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borta, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    ... (under the World Trade Organisation) and a number of bilateral (preferential) trade agreements. The aim of this paper is to present an example of fully elimination of tariffs and tariff lines under a bilateral trade agreement...

  3. Bilateral internal auditory canal gangliogliomas mimicking neurofibromatosis Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher G Hooten

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This is the first reported case of bilateral IAC/CPA gangliogliomas. When evaluating bilateral IAC/CPA lesions with unusual imaging characteristics, ganglioglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  4. Staged management of giant bilateral perinephric adipocytic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Aileen Grace P; Bartlett, Edmund K; Zhang, Paul J; Cooper, Kumarasen; Naji, Ali; Roses, Robert E

    2017-05-01

    We present a patient with giant bilateral perinephric masses favored to represent liposarcoma preoperatively. Bilateral renal involvement posed a clinical challenge; careful histologic assessment and surgical planning allowed preservation of renal function.

  5. Bilateral, posterior parietal polymicrogyria as part of speech therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral, posterior parietal polymicrogyria as part of speech therapy work-up. ... units to make the diagnosis of bilateral posterior parietal polymicrogyria in a child with speech pathology. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. Gravity, Bilateral Agreements, and Trade Diversion in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Robertson; Antoni Estevadeordal

    2009-01-01

    Krishna (1998) shows that a bilateral agreement between two countries render a multilateral agreement less attractive if the bilateral agreement is trade diverting. This paper combines Krishna’s model with the empirical approach of Anderson and va

  7. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  8. On Tuning the Bad-Character Rule: the Worst-Character Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Cantone, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this note we present the worst-character rule, an efficient variation of the bad-character heuristic for the exact string matching problem, firstly introduced in the well-known Boyer-Moore algorithm. Our proposed rule selects a position relative to the current shift which yields the largest average advancement, according to the characters distribution in the text. Experimental results show that the worst-character rule achieves very good results especially in the case of long patterns or small alphabets in random texts and in the case of texts in natural languages.

  9. Acquisition of Chinese characters: The effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen eKuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su & Samuels, 2010 and dual-coding processing (Sadoski & Paivio, 2013 and investigated a the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence on character acquisition and b the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014, a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that a characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and b individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  10. Post processing for offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong

    2012-01-01

    Offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition is one of the most important research fields in pattern recognition. Due to the free writing style, large variability in character shapes and different geometric characteristics, Chinese handwritten character string recognition is a challenging problem to deal with. However, among the current methods over-segmentation and merging method which integrates geometric information, character recognition information and contextual information, shows a promising result. It is found experimentally that a large part of errors are segmentation error and mainly occur around non-Chinese characters. In a Chinese character string, there are not only wide characters namely Chinese characters, but also narrow characters like digits and letters of the alphabet. The segmentation error is mainly caused by uniform geometric model imposed on all segmented candidate characters. To solve this problem, post processing is employed to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters. On one hand, multi-geometric models are established for wide characters and narrow characters respectively. Under multi-geometric models narrow characters are not prone to be merged. On the other hand, top rank recognition results of candidate paths are integrated to boost final recognition of narrow characters. The post processing method is investigated on two datasets, in total 1405 handwritten address strings. The wide character recognition accuracy has been improved lightly and narrow character recognition accuracy has been increased up by 10.41% and 10.03% respectively. It indicates that the post processing method is effective to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters.

  11. [Bilateral eye injuries by external transversal force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidel, K; Schob, S; Unterlauft, J D; Wiedemann, P; Meier, P

    2016-12-14

    A 49-year-old female victim of violent crime with an acute bilateral loss of vision was referred to our hospital. The ophthalmological evaluation showed complete subconjunctival hemorrhage of both eyes, bilateral hemophthalmos and hypotonia of the left eye. These raised the suspicion of an occult scleral rupture. We immediately performed exploratory surgery and found a perforating scleral lesion of the left eye and a penetrating scleral lesion of the right eye. Furthermore, a small, cruciform wound was detected on the left temple. In cooperation with the department of radiology, the extraordinary injury pattern was reconstructed: a horizontal stab wound with perforation of the left eye and penetration of the right eye caused by a screwdriver. Visual rehabilitation necessitated further surgical interventions. Besides the intraoperative approach, immediate primary wound management within 100 h of trauma plays a pivotal role for long-term outcome.

  12. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  13. Sudden bilateral hearing loss after organophosphate inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Mehmet Akif; Derin, Serhan; Aricigil, Mitat; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Akif

    2016-12-01

    Sudden bilateral hearing loss are seen rarely and the toxic substance exposure constitutes a small part of etiology. A Fifty-eight-year-old woman admitted to our clinic with sudden bilateral hearing loss shortly after chlorpyrifos-ethyl exposure. Otolaryngologic examination findings were normal. The patient had 40 dB sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) on the right ear and 48 dB SNHL on the left ear. Additional diagnostic tests were normal. The conventional treatment for sudden hearing loss was performed. On the second week following organophosphate (OP) exposure the patient's hearing loss almost completely resolved. OP's are heavily used in agriculture and should be taken into consideration as an etiologic factor in sudden hearing loss.

  14. Bilateral akillesseneruptur efter behandling med ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attarzadeh, Amir Pasha; Ryge, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons following ciprofloxacin treatment. A 54-year-old man presented with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture on the left side, tendinitis and partial tear on the right side following few days of treatment with cipr......We report a case of spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons following ciprofloxacin treatment. A 54-year-old man presented with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture on the left side, tendinitis and partial tear on the right side following few days of treatment...... with ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily and long-term treatment with prednisolon 10 mg once daily. This rare side effect caused by concurrent treatment with steroids and ciprofloxacin should be kept in mind. Any signs of tendinitis following this treatment should arouse the physicians' suspicion towards ciprofloxacin....

  15. [Bilateral dependency and the minimal group paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, N; Yamagishi, T; Kiyonari, T

    1996-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of illusion of control on in-group favoritism found in the minimal group situation (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971). In bilateral dependency condition, each member made allocation decisions for in-group as well as out-group participants. It was exactly the same situation used in the original studies under the minimal group paradigm, and the subjects knew that their reward allocation too depended on others' decisions. In contrast, in unilateral dependency condition, the subjects made allocation decisions knowing that theirs were not dependent on others' decisions. In Experiment 1, an in-group bias in reward distribution was found in the bilateral dependency condition, but not in the unilateral condition. In Experiment 2, it was found that only those who felt illusion of control exhibited such an in-group bias. Results of the experiments therefore confirmed that illusion of control explained in-group favoritism, as Karp, Jin, Yamagishi, and Shinotsuka (1993) originally hypothesized.

  16. [Bilateral acetabulum fracture after suffering sport trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, P; Kollersbeck, C; Pelitz, M; Walcher, T; Genelin, F

    2013-07-01

    This case study describes a 37-year-old male who suffered a bilateral transverse acetabulum fracture with a fracture of the posterior wall and a double-sided dorsal hip dislocation in combination with a left-sided femoral head fracture (Pipkin IV) while skiing in a "fun park". The accurate diagnosis and presurgical planning was made by means of a computed tomography (CT) scan and a subsequent 3D reconstruction. After a primarily executed shielded repositioning of the bilateral hip dislocationearly secondary and anatomical reconstruction of the double-sided acetabulum fracture was possible using the Kocher-Langenbeck approach. A consistent physiotherapy as well as rehabilitation finally led to a positive clinical result for the patient.

  17. Bilateral Diabetic Papillopathy and Metabolic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of diabetic papillopathy largely is unknown, but case reports suggest that it may follow rapidly improved metabolic control. The present study was designed to investigate this hypothesis. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand sixty......-six patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Review of clinical, photographic, and clinical chemistry records from a large diabetology and ophthalmology unit between 2001 and 2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simultaneous, bilateral diabetic papillopathy. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 4.9 years. During 10 020...... patient-years of observation, bilateral diabetic papillopathy developed in 5 patients. During the year preceding this incident, all 5 patients had experienced a decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1C)) at a maximum rate of -2.5 (mean) percentage points per quarter year, which was significantly...

  18. Symptomatic bilateral xanthogranuloma of the choroid plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Tural Emon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomas (XGRs of the choroid plexus are rare, asymptomatic, and benign lesions usually found incidentally. Here, we present a case of a 47-year-old male with bilateral XGR of the choroid plexus with periventricular edema and discuss our case in relation to a review of existing literature pertaining to the radiology of XGRs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral trigonal XGR causing brain edema without ventricular dilatation. Despite the fact that they can cause hydrocephalus, XGRs are silent and benign lesions. Although the etiopathology of XGRs remains poorly understood, enhanced imaging analyses may provide additional information regarding edema and focal white matter signal changes.

  19. Bilateral hypoglossal schwannoma: a radiologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş, Devrim; Caylan, Refik

    2004-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented with a complaint of a sore throat. Examination showed a left-sided atrophy of the tongue. Upon protrusion, the tongue deviated to the left, suggestive of a unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy. Computed tomography revealed enlarged hypoglossal canals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated bilateral hypoglossal canal masses, with enhancement following gadolinium administration. Magnetic resonance angiography and MRI with fat suppression revealed nonvascular masses in both hypoglossal canals. Radiological diagnosis of bilateral hypoglossal nerve schwannoma was made and the patient was scheduled for MRI monitoring with six-month intervals. The size of the masses and the clinical manifestations remained unchanged during a two-year follow-up period.

  20. Recurrence of bilateral herpes simplex virus keratitis following bimatoprost use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Mihir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man presented with features of bilateral herpes simplex virus (HSV keratitis. It was found to be recurrence of bilateral HSV keratitis following the use of Bimatoprost eye drops for uncontrolled intraocular pressure in a case of bilateral primary open-angle glaucoma.

  1. Bilateral Severe Ectropion and Mature Cataract in Lamellar Ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyaz A. Lone, Reyaz A. Untoo, Sheikh S. Ahmad

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Lamellar ichthyosis is a rare, autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous skin disorder causedby mutations in the transglutaminase-1 gene. Eye abnormalities include bilateral ectropion of lowerlids, chronic blepharitis and rarely cataract. A case of lamellar ichthyosis with bilateral lower lidectropion and bilateral mature cataract is hereby presented for its rarity.

  2. Occipital seizures presenting with bilateral visual loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjikoutis S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient visual loss may occur with occipital seizures as an ictal or post-ictal phenomenon. Its duration varies from less than one minute to days, or can be permanent. We describe a 61-year-old man presenting with headache, vomiting and bilateral visual loss. EEG revealed persistent spike discharge in the occipital lobes suggesting occipital seizures. His vision improved with carbamazepine.

  3. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez; Sergio Bonafonte Royo

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL) implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for i...

  4. [Bilateral pleural mesothelioma--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, I; Knolle, H

    1990-08-01

    It is reported on the rare case of a 46-year-old female patient with a bilateral mesothelioma of the pleura without contact to asbest. Although the female was suspected in a malignant tumor and many diagnostic investigations were performed, diagnosis could be ensured morphologically only a short time before her death. Causes and development of mesothelioma, histological types, clinical symptoms and diagnostic procedures are described.

  5. Loss of heterozygosity in bilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, J; Man, S; Marafie, M; Carpenter, K; Pinder, S; Ellis, I O; Blamey, R W; Cross, G; Brook, J D

    2000-12-01

    Women who develop bilateral breast cancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breast cancer of young women (age < 50) with bilateral breast cancer that may suggest an inherited breast cancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used to test for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in left and right tumours for 31 women with premenopausal bilateral breast cancer. Markers adjacent to or within candidate genes on 17p (p53), 17q (BRCA1), 13q (BRCA2), 11q (Ataxia Telangiectasia-ATM) and 3p (FHIT) were chosen. Mutational testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was performed for cases where blood was available. Concordant LOH in both left and right tumours was demonstrated for at least one of the markers tested in 16/31(54%) cases. Where allelic loss was demonstrated for both left and right breast cancer, the same allele was lost on each occasion. This may suggest a common mutational event. Four cases showed concordant loss of alleles in both left and right breast cancer at D17S791 (BRCA1). BRCA1 mutations were identified in two of these cases where blood was available. Four cases showed concordant LOH at D13S155 (BRCA2). Concordant LOH was further demonstrated in seven cases for D11S1778 (ATM) and four cases for D3S1300 (which maps to the FHIT gene), suggesting a possible role for these tumour suppressor genes in this subgroup of breast cancer patients. No concordant allelic loss was demonstrated for D17S786 suggesting that germline mutations in p53 are unlikely in such cases of bilateral breast cancer.

  6. Hypersexuality following bilateral thalamic infarction: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mutarelli Eduardo G; Omuro Antonio M.P.; Adoni Tarso

    2006-01-01

    Hypersexuality is a rare but well recognized condition following brain injury. It has been described secondarily to dysfunction in the hypothalamus, the temporal and frontal lobes. We report a 63 year-old man that developed neuropsychological disturbances with hypersexuality as a prominent feature, disinhibition and moderate memory loss, hypersomnia and irritability after a bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction. A SPECT showed frontal hypoperfusion. We believe that these findings are expre...

  7. Bilateral germinoma of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Ravegnani, Marcello; Nozza, Paolo; Abbruzzese, Arturo; Giangaspero, Felice; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Germinoma arising in the bilateral basal ganglia is exceedingly rare, with only five cases reported to date. Owing to non-specific clinical findings and the frequent presence of ill-defined abnormalities without a definite tumor mass on neuroimaging, the diagnosis can be difficult. We describe a case in which magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings suggested a tumor and supported the decision to perform biopsy of the lesion.

  8. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterior uveitis. PMID:22694887

  9. Bilateral accessory cleidohyoid in a human cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Stark ME; Wu B; Bluth BE; Wisco JJ

    2009-01-01

    During routine anatomical dissection of the infrahyoid region, a muscle was found bilaterally originating from the sternal end of clavicle and inserting into the hyoid bone. The muscle coursed parallel and lateral to the sternohyoid muscle. The muscle was found in the presence of an intact omohyoid, thus being classified as an accessory cleidohyoid (cleidohyoideus accessorius) muscle. While other authors have reported the presence of a unilateral cleidohyoideus accessorius muscle, to our know...

  10. A rare case of bilateral oral carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Behal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco in different forms is an acknowledged etiologic factor in development of oral cancer. Due to the habit pattern, mostly a single malignant lesion develops. While multiple oral malignancies and second primaries are well reported in the literature, a truly bilateral oral malignancy seems to be a rare occurrence. We report such an occurrence in an individual with an unusual pattern of tobacco habit.

  11. Bilateral Pregnancy Luteoma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Annu; Gokhale, Uday A.; Pillai, G Rajasekharan

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy luteoma is a non-neoplastic lesion of the ovary occurring during pregnancy and is usually discovered incidentally at the time of a cesarean section or during postpartum tubal ligation. An accurate diagnosis is important for the mother and the fetus as it can be confused with ovarian malignancy leading to unnecessary surgery. We report a case of a pregnant female who was discovered to have bilateral enlarged ovaries at the time of emergency cesarean section. PMID:25337317

  12. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  13. Bilateral Globus Pallidus Ischemia: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizir Akdemir

    2014-03-01

    Karbonmonoksit zehirlenmesi ile iliskili serebral lezyonlar BT ve MRG ile tespit edilebilir. Karbonmonoksit zehirlenmesi sonrasi serebral korteks, derin beyaz cevher, bazal gangliyonlar ve hipokampal bölgede lezyonlar ortaya çikabilir. Radyolojik bulgularin ortaya çikisi farkli zamanlarda olabilir. Karbonmonoksit zehirlenmelerinde en sik beyaz cevher degisiklikleri görülür. Siklikla derin beyaz cevher ve sentrum semiovale düzeyinde bilateral diffüz radyolojik etkilenim saptanir.

  14. Bilateral Brodie's abscess at the proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, Halil; Bilen, Fikri Erkal; Eralp, Levent; Kocaoglu, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Brodie's abscess is a form of subacute osteomyelitis, which typically involves the metaphyses of the long tubular bones, particularly in the tibia. The diagnosis is usually made incidentally, as there are no accompanying symptoms or laboratory studies. Bilateral involvement at the proximal tibia is unusual. However, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of this entity, as it may present without symptoms. Checking the contralateral limb for concomitant Brodie's abscess is recommended.

  15. China-Pakistan Strengthen Bilateral Custom Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mr.Abdullah Yusuf,Secretary General/Chairman,Central Board Of Revenue of Pakistan,arrived Shenzhen on April 22 to meet with Mr.Sheng Guangzu,the Chinese Minister for Customs Administration for discussing the bilateral customs issues.During his two-day visit,China's Foreign Trade Magazine interviewed to Mr.Abdullah Yusuf in Beijing,he gave the high evaluation on this visit and China's great development in the recent years.

  16. Bilateral limbic system destruction in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Justin S.; Rudrauf, David; Khalsa, Sahib S.; Cassell, Martin D.; Bruss, Joel; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We report here a case study of a rare neurological patient with bilateral brain damage encompassing a substantial portion of the so-called “limbic system.” The patient, Roger, has been studied in our laboratory for over 14 years and the current article presents his complete neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profiles. The brain damage occurred in 1980 following an episode of herpes simplex encephalitis. The amount of destroyed neural tissue is extensive and includes bilateral damage to core limbic and paralimbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal poles, orbitofrontal cortex, basal forebrain, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex. The right hemisphere is more extensively affected than the left, although the lesions are largely bilateral. Despite the magnitude of his brain damage, Roger has a normal IQ, average to above average attention, working memory, and executive functioning skills, and very good speech and language abilities. In fact, his only obvious presenting deficits are a dense global amnesia and a severe anosmia and ageusia. Roger's case presents a rare opportunity to advance our understanding of the critical functions underlying the human limbic system, and the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical data presented here provide a critical foundation for such investigations. PMID:19763994

  17. Gastric metastasis of bilateral breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaïd, Asma; Mghirbi, Fahmi; Béhi, Khalil; Doghri, Raoudha; Benna, Farouk

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The most frequent metastatic sites are lung, bone, liver and brain. On the other hand, gastric metastases are rare. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) occurs rarely. Lobular carcinoma is the histological type most often associated with bilateral breast carcinomas and gastric metastases. We made a retrospective study including four patients followed in the Salah Azaiez Institute, for a bilateral breast cancer with gastric metastases. We analyzed the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and therapeutic particularities of this rare entity. Symptoms were unspecific. The diagnosis of gastric metastasis of the SBBC was confirmed by a histopathological examination of an endoscopic biopsy. The median age was 46.2 years (range, 36–51 years) and the median time until the gastric involvement was 19 months (range, 0–41 months). None of patients had a surgical treatment for the gastric location. All Patients received at least one line of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival following the detection of gastric involvement was 22 months (range, 1–56 months). Gastric metastases from breast cancer are rare and frequently associated with other distant metastasis. Symptoms are unspecific and endoscopy may not be contributive. Therefore, gastric involvement is underestimated. Lobular infiltrating carcinoma (LIC) is the most histological type incriminated in its occurrence. The supply of immunohistochemistry is crucial to distinguish between primary or metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:28280631

  18. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-06-05

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  19. Diagnosis and management of bilateral nasolabial cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Parwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial cysts are painless, submucosal, non-odontogenic jaw cysts presenting as soft tissue swellings in the maxillary anterior mucolabial fold lateral to midline, leading to elevation of nasal ala. Present case documents bilateral nasolabial cysts in a 69-year-old Asian female patient. In the present case, extraoral swelling of maxillary lip and elevation of nasal ala was observed on right side of the face. Intraorally, soft and fluctuant bilateral cysts were observed. Straw-colored fluid was aspirated from the right cyst. Radiographically, erosion of bone in a "cupping" fashion was observed in the region of left cyst. The cysts were enucleated using intraoral approach. Histopathology of the right-sided cyst revealed a cystic cavity lined by stratified squamous cells along with a few mucosal cells. At few places, stratified squamous and pseudostratified columnar epithelia with many cilia and goblet cells were also evident. Capsule was loosely arranged with fibrous tissue and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Left-sided cystic specimen showed two or more layered stratified squamous lining epithelium with thin capsule. Diagnosis of bilateral nasolabial/nasoalveolar cysts was confirmed.

  20. Bilateral ovarian fibroma associated with Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Aram

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Gorlin syndrome (GS, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is a rare inherited multisystem disorder. This paper presents a 22-years-old Iranian woman with this syndrome whose past history was multiple keratocysts of maxillary bone. She was referred to gynecology clinic with the chief complaint of irregular menses and vaginal spotting. On examination, frontal bossing and hypertelorism were detected. Physical examination of genitalia disclosed bilateral adnexal masses. Pelvic ultrasound showed two solid, echogenous and calcified masses measuring 100*50*10 & 60*50*45 mm in the left and right ovaries, respectively. The patient underwent right oophorectomy and ovarian mass resection with preservation of intact ovarian tissue on the left side. On frozen and permanent histological sections, bilateral and calcified ovarian fibromas were diagnosed. Surprisingly, during the last follow-up one year after the surgery, we found that our patient was expecting a baby. It can be concluded that in the presence of bilateral and calcified ovarian fibromas, the possibility of GS should be considered. Accurate diagnosis is only possible with close attention to the familial and past medical history and physical examination. In these patients, careful follow up for detecting malignancies and other complications is highly recommended.
    • KEY WORDS: Gorlin syndrome, ovarian fibroma, multiple keratocysts.

  1. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  2. Descripción de una nueva especie de Pseudopaludicola (Anura: Leptodactylidae, redescripción de P. falcipes (Hensel, 1867 y P. saltica (Cope, 1887 y osteología de las tres especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Pseudopaludicola de la Sierra de Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brasil. También en este trabajo se redescriben P. falcipes (Hensel, 1867 y P. saltica (Cope, 1887. P. falcipes se redescribe en base a material topotípico y se designa un lectotipo para P . saltica (uno de los sintipos de Cope. 1887. Se presentan datos sobre la distribución y osteología de las tres especies estudiadas y los resultados se comparan con otras especies consideradas en un trabajo anterior (Lobo, en prensa. Al final se presenta una clave para la identificación de las especies del género. A new frog is described from the Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Pseudopaludicola falcipes (Hensel, 1867 aud P. saltica (Cope, 1887 are redescribed. P. falcipes is redescribed using topotype material. It is designated a lectotype for P. saltica. Data on the distribution and osteology of these species are presented and the results are comparisoned to another species studied previously (Lobo, in press. A key for the identification ofilie species of the genus is also provided.

  3. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  4. CONFUCIANISM AND CHARACTER EDUCATION: A CHINESE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ju Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of Confucianism are founded on humaneness, righteousness, propriety, knowledge, integrity and filial piety. These principles have found their way to the Chinese culture since the days of Confucius. The study reviews the concept of Confucianism and its influence in Chinese context. Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius. Filial piety has strongly been conditioned within the principles of Confucianism and the respect of one’s elders. Character education has been promoted by teachers and elders who focus on the transmission of values from one generation to the next. Character education is supported by the theories and teachings set out by Confucius, mostly in relation to humaneness and integrity, as well as collectivism. The individualistic trends are discarded within character education, as the welfare of the society and the collective is prioritized.

  5. Character superimposition inpainting in surveillance video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lili; Tao, Junjie; You, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance systems play an important role in the crime scene investigation, and the digital surveillance system always requires the superimposed video data being subjected to a data compression processing. The purpose of this paper is to study the use of inpainting techniques to remove the characters and inpaint the target region. We give the efficient framework including getting Character Superimposition mask, superimposition movement and inpainting the blanks. The character region is located with the manual ROI selection and varying text extractor, such as the time. The superimposed characters usually have distinguished colors from the original background, so the edges are easily detected. We use the canny operator the get the edge image. The missing information which is effect the structure of the original image is reconstructed using a structure propagating algorithm. The experiment was done with C/C++ in the vs2010 KDE. The framework of this paper showed is powerful to recreate the character superimposition region and helpful to the crime scene investigation.

  6. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Young; Lee, In Ho; Song, Chang June [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hee Youn [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A 57-year-old woman experienced bilateral acute ischemic optic neuropathy after spine surgery. Routine MR imaging sequence, T2-weighted image, showed subtle high signal intensity on bilateral optic nerves. A contrast-enhanced T1 weighted image showed enhancement along the bilateral optic nerve sheath. Moreover, diffusion-weighted image (DWI) and an apparent diffusion coefficient map showed markedly restricted diffusion on bilateral optic nerves. Although MR findings of T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted images may be nonspecific, the DWI finding of cytotoxic edema of bilateral optic nerves will be helpful for the diagnosis of acute ischemic optic neuropathy after spine surgery.

  7. Bilateral periprosthetic stress fractures in a juvenile chronic arthritis patient secondary to bilateral genu valgum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, H; Meir, A; Singer, G C

    2007-01-01

    Lateral insufficiency fractures following total hip replacement have been reported with the femoral stems positioned in varus, together with osteopenia of the lateral femoral cortex. Any abnormal alignment of the lower limbs, such as genu valgum, will alter the load distribution across the femoral cortices, and repetitive loading during walking will predispose the bones to stress fractures at any stress riser point, such as the tip of a femoral component. Bilateral femoral stress fractures post total hip replacements have not been previously described. We present a 55-year-old woman, diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, who had undergone bilateral total hip replacements and bilateral knee replacements. The knees 15 years postoperatively were in valgus and the left knee was extremely stiff, flexing to just 5. The patient presented with bilateral thigh pain, with plain radiographs confirming bilateral periprosthetic fractures of the femur at the tip of well-fixed femoral components. There was no history of injury and her hips were functioning well up to this time. The patient required revision of both hips to long-stem uncemented components, bypassing the fractures, and revision of both knees to stemmed semi-constrained implants, thereby correcting the alignment of both lower limbs. Both fractures healed and the patient is currently pain-free and mobile with walking aids. Surgeons must remain aware that when implants are in situ, abnormal alignments will lead to abnormal forces, and stress fractures are likely to occur at any stress riser around the implant. Avoiding malalignment will avoid this complication.

  8. Balancing plot and character believability by reasoning out-of-character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    We are designing a serious game in which players need to become aware of their social behaviour by interacting with virtual characters. These characters need to behave believably while guaranteeing that the player reaches that learning goal at a certain point during the game's story. I propose to le

  9. Online Handwritten Character Recognition of Devanagari and Telugu Characters using Support Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Swethalakshmi, H.; Jayaraman, Anitha; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Sekhar, C. Chandra

    2006-01-01

    http://www.suvisoft.com; A system for recognition of online handwritten characters has been presented for Indian writing systems. A handwritten character is represented as a sequence of strokes whose features are extracted and classied. Support vector machines have been used for constructing the stroke recognition engine. The results have been presented after testing the system on Devanagari and Telugu scripts.

  10. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Hyun-Nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R; Crawford, Jarret T; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Pramila, V S; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes.

  11. Conceptual Design Scheme for Virtual Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Gino; Servidio, Rocco

    The aim of this paper is to describe some theoretical considerations about virtual character design. In recent years, many prototypes of cognitive and behavioral architectures have been developed to simulate human behavior in artificial agents. Analyzing recent studies, we assume that there exists a variety of computational models and methods in order to increase the cognitive abilities of the virtual characters. In our opinion, it is necessary to perform a synthesis of these approaches in order to improve the existing models and avoiding the application of new approaches. Considering these aspects, in this paper we describe a taxonomy that explores the principal cognitive and computational parameters involved in the design, development and evaluation of a virtual character.

  12. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  13. Online Farsi Character Recognition Using Structural Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ghods

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, grouping and recognition of online Farsi discrete characters are presented according to their structural features. The letters are divided into 9 groups based on the form and structure of their main bodies. After feature extraction, grouping is performed using a decision tree. Final recognition of letters is carried out in each group by delayed strokes. The proposed method is a rapid method in character recognition because time-consuming methods have not been used. Our proposed method was tested on TMU-OFS dataset, and a recognition rate of 94% and 92% was achieved for character grouping and recognition, respectively. The mean processing time for recognizing a letter was 3ms.

  14. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  15. Trivalent graphs, volume conjectures and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Zodinmawia,

    2014-01-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to $U_q(sl_2)$ colored quantum invariants of trivalent graphs. The SL(2,C) character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with $E$ edges in $S^3$ is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus $g=E/3+1$. The configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety. In particular, we investigate both the conjectures for the theta and tetrahedron graphs.

  16. Detecting DNS Tunnels Using Character Frequency Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Kenton

    2010-01-01

    High-bandwidth covert channels pose significant risks to sensitive and proprietary information inside company networks. Domain Name System (DNS) tunnels provide a means to covertly infiltrate and exfiltrate large amounts of information passed network boundaries. This paper explores the possibility of detecting DNS tunnels by analyzing the unigram, bigram, and trigram character frequencies of domains in DNS queries and responses. It is empirically shown how domains follow Zipf's law in a similar pattern to natural languages, whereas tunneled traffic has more evenly distributed character frequencies. This approach allows tunnels to be detected across multiple domains, whereas previous methods typically concentrate on monitoring point to point systems. Anomalies are quickly discovered when tunneled traffic is compared to the character frequency fingerprint of legitimate domain traffic.

  17. Rapid Feature Extraction for Optical Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Zahid; Yan, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Feature extraction is one of the fundamental problems of character recognition. The performance of character recognition system is depends on proper feature extraction and correct classifier selection. In this article, a rapid feature extraction method is proposed and named as Celled Projection (CP) that compute the projection of each section formed through partitioning an image. The recognition performance of the proposed method is compared with other widely used feature extraction methods that are intensively studied for many different scripts in literature. The experiments have been conducted using Bangla handwritten numerals along with three different well known classifiers which demonstrate comparable results including 94.12% recognition accuracy using celled projection.

  18. Reverse mathematics and properties of finite character

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhafarov, Damir D

    2011-01-01

    We study the reverse mathematics of the principle stating that, for every property of finite character, every set of natural numbers has a maximal subset satisfying the property. In the context of set theory, this variant of Tukey's lemma is equivalent to the axiom of choice. We study its behavior in the context of second-order arithmetic, and give a full characterization of the strength of the principle in terms of the quantifier structure of the formula defining the property. We then study the interaction between properties of finite character and finitary closure operators, and the interaction between these properties and a class of nondeterministic closure operators which we introduce.

  19. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We...... compare the effects of these two instruments of economic diplomacy on bilateral trade by employing a gravity model for 45 African states over the period 1980-2005. The results show that bilateral diplomatic exchange is a relatively more significant determinant of bilateral exports among African states...... compared to regional integration. We also find a nuanced interaction between these two instruments of economic diplomacy: the trade–stimulating effect of diplomatic exchange is less pronounced among African countries that shared membership of the same regional bloc. Generally, this could mean...

  20. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes the...

  1. An Optical Character Recognition for Handwritten Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti R. Zalke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition is process of recognition of character from scanned document and lots of OCR now available in the market. But most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters . There are no sufficient number of work on Indian language script like Devanagari so this paper present a review on optical character recognition on handwritten Devanagari script.

  2. The Contaminant Cobweb: Complex Characters and Monstrous Mashup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Albertsen, Anita Nell

    2017-01-01

    This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven into an intertext...... strategies contribute to character complexity of traditional female monsters usually seen in televisual horror-drama....

  3. A Developmental Study of Chinese Children's Word and Character Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Ying; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between Chinese children's character and word reading, 62 third and 50 fifth grade children in Hong Kong were asked to read single characters and words that were comprised of these characters. Results showed that words helped children to recognize characters for both grades of children. Compared to older children,…

  4. Iatrogenic “buffalo chest” bilateral pneumothoraces following unilateral transbronchial lung biopsies in a bilateral lung transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leith Sawalha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 54 year old male patient who had a bilateral lung transplant sixteen years ago for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency-related emphysema. He was referred for flexible bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies to evaluate new mild exertional dyspnea and worsening of his FEV1. Eight transbronchial biopsies were done from the right middle lobe and the right lower lobe. Post procedure he developed bilateral pneumothoces that required emergent bilateral pleural ‘pigtail’ catheters. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral pneumothoraces that developed after a unilateral procedure in a bilateral lung transplant recipient relatively late after the transplant.

  5. Ceratite bilateral por Acanthamoeba: relato de caso Bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nahmatallah Obeid

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A ceratite por Acanthamoeba é uma infecção ocular grave que, apesar dos recentes progressos no diagnóstico e tratamento, ainda provoca prolongada morbidade e perda da acuidade visual. Relatamos um caso de ceratite bilateral por Acanthamoeba em usuário de lentes de contato, que é o primeiro caso descrito na literatura brasileira.Acanthamoeba keratitis is a severe ocular infection which even with recent progress in diagnosis and treatment still causes long morbidity and loss of visual acuity. We describe a case of bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis in a user of contact lenses, which is the first case discussed in Brazilian literature.

  6. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kotwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS.

  7. Espasmo hemifacial bilateral: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Machado Flavia Costa Nunes; Fregni Felipe; Campos Cynthia Resende; Limongi João Carlos Papaterra

    2003-01-01

    Espasmo hemifacial bilateral é um distúrbio de movimento raro geralmente associado à compressão vascular dos nervos faciais. Caracteriza-se clinicamente por contrações assimétricas e assíncronas da musculatura facial e por longa latência entre a instalação dos movimentos em cada hemiface. Deve ser diferenciado de outras condições como blefaroespasmo, miocimia facial, tiques faciais, distonia oromandibular e espasmo hemimastigatório. O tratamento sintomático mais eficaz e menos invasivo consis...

  8. Bilateral generating functions and operational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Bilateral generating functions are those involving products of different types of polynomials. It is showed that operational methods offer a powerful tool to derive these families of generating functions. Cases relevant to products of Hermite and Laguerre, Hermite and Legendre ... polynomials and propose further extensions of the method are studied in this report. [Italian] Le funzioni generatrici bilaterali sono quelle che coinvolgono prodotti di tipi differenti di polinomi, si dimostra che i metodi operazionali offrono uno strumento potente per derivare queste nuove famiglie di funzioni speciali. Si studiano casi relativi a prodotti di polinomi di Hermite e Laguerre, Hermite e Legendre. Si propongono infine possibili estensioni del metodo.

  9. Primary amenorrhea with bilateral endometriotic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Sadaqat; Raees, Mehnaz

    2015-05-01

    Primary amenorrhea is a common problem. Diagnosis is usually by going through systematic approach of history, examination and investigations. This case had bilateral large endometriotic cysts in the adnexal region. Uterus was normal sized with well-formed endometrium. She underwent laparotomy followed by drainage of endometriotic cysts, stripping and reconstruction of ovaries was performed. Patient was given a trial of combined oral contraceptive pills for two consecutive cycles to observe withdrawal bleeding, but it failed. Till now we are unable to find out such case in literature. Exact case of primary amenorrhea could not be found.

  10. Bilateral pneumothoraces secondary to acupuncture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Theresa M; Roy, Neil K; Zlupko, George R

    2011-09-01

    Acupuncture is becoming increasingly popular in the United States for a wide variety of uses, ranging from the treatment of chronic back pain to aiding in addiction therapy. As this form of complementary and alternative medicine becomes more prevalent in certain areas of the country, it is of paramount importance that the emergency physician be familiar with its methods and potential complications. In general, acupuncture is perceived as fairly safe. However, it is not without risks or side effects. In this case report, we discuss the history, methods, and common complications of acupuncture in the context of a patient who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with bilateral pneumothoraces secondary to acupuncture therapy.

  11. Hipoacusia neurosensorial bilateral con implante coclear

    OpenAIRE

    Matallana Redondo, Noelia

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo se centra en el estudio de la discapacidad auditiva, específicamente en la hipoacusia neurosensorial bilateral con implantación coclear. Se propone una intervención individualizada que se desarrolla con un niño que presenta dicha afectación. El niño tiene 17 años de edad y tiene asociadas otras discapacidades. A través del planteamiento de objetivos y del manejo de recursos, estrategias de intervención y temporalización, se aplica la propuesta con el fin de tratar la co...

  12. Spontan bilateral ekstrauterin graviditet efter kejsersnit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper Friis; Ekelund, Charlotte; Settnes, Annette

    2015-01-01

    contralateral tube. The woman was readmitted three weeks later and had an additional salpingectomy on behalf of an unrecognized tubal pregnancy. Considering the rising caesarean section rates clinicians need to be certain of no additional ectopic pregnancy while performing the primary operation.......We describe a rare case of bilateral tubal pregnancy following natural conception in a woman with no other known risk factor than two former caesarean sections. Intraabdominal adhesions following the caesarean sections complicated the salpingectomy thus diminishing certainty of a healthy...

  13. Bilateral maculopathy associated with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Matthew T; Vasan, Ryan; Levy, Richard; Davis, Jessica; Chan, R V Paul

    2012-08-01

    Pierre Robin sequence has been associated with a number of ocular complications, including myopia, strabismus, Möbius syndrome, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, glaucoma, cataract, microphthalmos, coloboma of choroid, and retinal detachment. We report a 10-day-old boy who presented with micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate as well as multiple congenital anomalies. Ophthalmic examination was notable for bilateral maculopathy, with focal areas of retinal and retinal pigment epithelial atrophy. The association of Pierre Robin sequence and maculopathy has been reported only twice previously.

  14. Hypersexuality following bilateral thalamic infarction: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutarelli, Eduardo G; Omuro, Antonio M P; Adoni, Tarso

    2006-03-01

    Hypersexuality is a rare but well recognized condition following brain injury. It has been described secondarily to dysfunction in the hypothalamus, the temporal and frontal lobes. We report a 63 year-old man that developed neuropsychological disturbances with hypersexuality as a prominent feature, disinhibition and moderate memory loss, hypersomnia and irritability after a bilateral paramedian thalamic infarction. A SPECT showed frontal hypoperfusion. We believe that these findings are expression of frontal-subcortical circuits dysfunction, particularly the orbitofrontal circuit, secondary to dorso medial thalamic infarction which probably plays a role in the determination of human sexual behavior. This case favors a thalamic modulation of frontal function.

  15. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for it could be the only sign of secondary glaucoma.

  16. Bilateral amaurosis caused by Salmonella enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovski, Branimir; Barisić, Nina; Vidović, Tomislav; Petricek, Igor; Cerovski, Jasenka

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to show the potential of Salmonella enteritidis infection to eventually result in visual impairment. A case of salmonellosis in a 6-year-old boy, caused by intake of a cake made from eggs infected with Salmonella enteritidis, is presented. Prolonged duration of the disease was followed by complete remission of neurologic complications and persistent amaurosis with bilateral optic nerve atrophy. A severe form of Salmonella enterocolitis with neurologic involvement can lead to optic nerve lesion with consequential loss of vision.

  17. Panuveite bilateral simultânea

    OpenAIRE

    RAMALHO, M.; Coutinho, I; Pina, S.; Santos, C.; Pedrosa, C; Vaz, F.; Chang, N; Bernardo, M.

    2013-01-01

    Introdução Tem sido descrito um ressurgimento da sífilis desde o final da década de 90. Descrevem-se dois casos clínicos de um casal homossexual com panuveite bilateral sifilítica simultânea. Métodos O primeiro caso clinico é de um homem de 31 anos, homossexual, com antecedentes de Hepatite C desde há 7 anos e diagnóstico de VIH-1 realizado 3 meses antes no contexto de úlcera peniana, VDRL negativo na altura, tendo iniciado terapêutica anti-retroviral mês e meio antes. Apresentou-se ...

  18. Bilateral Nasoalveolar Cyst Causing Nasal Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir Yildizoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasoalveolar cysts, which originate from epithelial remnants of nasolacrimal duct, are nonodontogenic soft tissue lesions of the upper jaw. These cysts are thought to be developmental and are presented with fullness in the upper lip and nose, swelling on the palate, and sometimes nasal obstruction. Because of cosmetic problems, they are often diagnosed at an early stage. These lesions are mostly revealed unilaterally but also can be seen on both sides. In this case report, a patient who complained of nasal obstruction and then diagnosed with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts and treated by sublabial excision is presented and clinical features and treatment approaches are discussed with the review of literature.

  19. Bilateral Nasoalveolar Cyst Causing Nasal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizoglu, Uzeyir; Polat, Bahtiyar; Durmaz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Nasoalveolar cysts, which originate from epithelial remnants of nasolacrimal duct, are nonodontogenic soft tissue lesions of the upper jaw. These cysts are thought to be developmental and are presented with fullness in the upper lip and nose, swelling on the palate, and sometimes nasal obstruction. Because of cosmetic problems, they are often diagnosed at an early stage. These lesions are mostly revealed unilaterally but also can be seen on both sides. In this case report, a patient who complained of nasal obstruction and then diagnosed with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts and treated by sublabial excision is presented and clinical features and treatment approaches are discussed with the review of literature. PMID:27980871

  20. Nearest Neighbor Algorithm in Handwritten Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Deshmukh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character Contour. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set is then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked. There was an attempt made to develop a system that used the methods that humans use to perceive handwritten characters. Hence a system that recognizes handwritten characters using Pattern recognition was developed. Here the data generated by comparing two images was stored in excel format and then that data was called as an individual input for generation of Simulink diagram. Pattern recognition can be used to model human perception. The mathematics that Pattern recognition requires is extremely fundamental. Any algorithm developed using Pattern recognition would require relatively simple and not so lengthy calculations. Due to simplicity of calculations, they can be implemented on any hardware or software platform without worrying about the computing power. In this paper first part is about introduction to character Recognition. The second part deals with the short introduction to neural network implementation for image processing using MATLAB

  1. Character First: The Hyde School Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Joseph W.

    This book describes the 27-year-old Hyde School and its innovative family-school partnership. The school focuses on the development of character as a prerequisite to academic achievement. It strives to instill the following values in its students: courage, integrity, leadership, curiosity, and concern. The founder of the school, Joseph M. Gauld,…

  2. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  3. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  4. 28 CFR 4.5 - Character endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the duties and responsibilities thereof. The statement as to reputation shall attest to applicant's reputation in his community or in his circle of business or social acquaintances. Each letter or other form... the Chairman, U.S. Parole Commission, attesting to the character and reputation of the applicant. The...

  5. The Attractive Character of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车婧瑜; 郭文睿

    2008-01-01

    Jane Eyre,written by Charlotte Bront(e),is a story of the heroine's struggle for independent personality and perfect love.Viewed as a classic work of English literature,the author of Jane Eyre makes it valuable and popular by creating a kind of Hew imagination.This paper argues for Jane's attractive character through her life experience.

  6. Using character overlap to improve language transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, S.; Krahmer, E.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Language transformation can be defined as translating between diachronically distinct language variants. We investigate the transformation of Middle Dutch into Modern Dutch by means of machine translation. We demonstrate that by using character overlap the performance of the machine translation proce

  7. 7 CFR 52.809 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... cherries. (b) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  8. 7 CFR 52.781 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... cherries. (b) (A) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  9. 7 CFR 52.1009 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1...) classification. Whole or pitted dates that possess a good character may be given a score of 36 to 40 points... possess dry calyx ends. (b) (B) classification. If the whole or pitted dates or whole dry dates...

  10. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  11. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    CERN Document Server

    Perrot, Denis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find local representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  12. Integrated characters with dialogue and tutorial strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wißner, M.; Bühling, R.; Linnebank, F.; Beek, W.; André, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this deliverable, we introduce three new virtual character support types (Critic, Quiz and Diagnosis) which are linked to different kinds of conceptual knowledge (such as semantic feedback or multiple choice questions) generated within the DynaLearn software. We show how this knowledge is extract

  13. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  14. Seafloor character--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The raster data file is...

  15. Theoretical reflections on Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    2002-01-01

    The ideas contained in Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis, while very influential, have not been thoroughly exploited in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. These ideas, aimed particularly at producing genuine change rather than mere intellectual understanding, are reexamined. Further implications of them are discussed.

  16. Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Fethi; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views and implementations of preschool teachers in "giving character education through picture storybooks." Descriptive review method was used in the research and supported with focus group interviews. For this reason data were took from two study groups (for the descriptive study group n = 245, for the…

  17. Seafloor character--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The raster data file is...

  18. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity.

  19. Computer animation for articulated 3D characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK), contr

  20. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  1. The Unavoidable Mission of Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Character-education programs can be implemented without creating a political firestorm if planners carefully consider key process and content elements, including community involvement; core values; comprehensive, effective curricula; formal evaluation; prosocial behavior codes; communications; family outreach; and leadership from a knowledge base.…

  2. Study on Collision Characters for SPAR Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhi-qiang; CUI Wei-cheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the research on the external mechanism of collision characters for a SPAR platform. The collision characters of SPAR platform have not attracted so much attention as that of ships in the past, because short of this kind of collision accidents reported. But with the increasing number of SPAR platforms in the world, the possibility of such kind of accident also increases. Therefore, it is necessary to master the character of SPAR collision. Model test technique is employed to study the external mechanism. The collision scenario is a ship colliding with a SPAR platform moored in the site with 1500 meters water depth. The striking ship hits the SPAR platform on the hard tank near water surface in its longitudinal direction. The specifics of the SPAR's motions and the tension forces of the mooring lines are collected to summarize the hydrodynamic characters in the collision scenario. It is found that the maximal displacements and the maximal pitch angles of the SPAR platform, and the maximal tension forces of mooring lines are all linearly proportional to the initial velocity of the striking ship basically. Mooring lines play elastic roles in the collision course.

  3. [The aesthetic character of caring knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yun

    2013-08-01

    The identity of nursing is founded on caring knowledge, which is derived from our understanding of its experience-revealed essence. This purposive knowledge differs from scientific knowledge because validity guides the latter and ethics guides the former. Therefore, justifying the objectivity of caring knowledge should be based on the aesthetic character of this knowledge rather than on a general social-science explanation.

  4. Computer Animation for Articulated 3D Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK),

  5. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  6. Face of America Character Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World T.E.A.M. Sports, Charlotte, NC.

    This document presents a description of the Face of America Classroom Program, a character education program based on a mission to bridge and build communities through sports. Three language arts lesson plans are provided on three themes: achievement, stereotypes (especially of people with disabilities), and strategies for healthy minds and…

  7. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Denis

    2010-10-01

    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find "local" representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  8. Temperament and Character in Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yazici Gulec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.

  9. Sampling diverse characters improves phylogenies: Craniodental and postcranial characters of vertebrates often imply different trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross C P; Sansom, Robert; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-03-01

    Morphological cladograms of vertebrates are often inferred from greater numbers of characters describing the skull and teeth than from postcranial characters. This is either because the skull is believed to yield characters with a stronger phylogenetic signal (i.e., contain less homoplasy), because morphological variation therein is more readily atomized, or because craniodental material is more widely available (particularly in the palaeontological case). An analysis of 85 vertebrate datasets published between 2000 and 2013 confirms that craniodental characters are significantly more numerous than postcranial characters, but finds no evidence that levels of homoplasy differ in the two partitions. However, a new partition test, based on tree-to-tree distances (as measured by the Robinson Foulds metric) rather than tree length, reveals that relationships inferred from the partitions are significantly different about one time in three, much more often than expected. Such differences may reflect divergent selective pressures in different body regions, resulting in different localized patterns of homoplasy. Most systematists attempt to sample characters broadly across body regions, but this is not always possible. We conclude that trees inferred largely from either craniodental or postcranial characters in isolation may differ significantly from those that would result from a more holistic approach. We urge the latter.

  10. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information about characters'…

  11. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information about characters'…

  12. A bilateral advantage for storage in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F; Awh, Edward

    2010-10-01

    Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the bilateral advantage). For example, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2005) reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented bilaterally rather than unilaterally, suggesting that independent resources enable tracking in the two visual fields. Motivated by similarities in the apparent capacity and neural substrates that mediate tracking and visual working memory (WM), the present work examined whether or not a bilateral advantage also arises during storage in visual WM. Using a recall procedure to assess working memory for orientation information, we found a reliable bilateral advantage; recall error was smaller with bilateral sample displays than with unilateral displays. To demonstrate that the bilateral advantage influenced storage per se rather than just encoding efficiency, we replicated the observed bilateral advantage using sequentially presented stimuli. Finally, to further characterize how bilateral presentations enhanced storage in working memory, we measured both the number and the resolution of the stored items and found that bilateral presentations lead to an increased probability of storage, rather than enhanced mnemonic resolution. Thus, the bilateral advantage extends beyond the initial selection and encoding of visual information to influence online maintenance in visual working memory. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Visual language and handwriting movement: functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 tesla during generation of ideographic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Tanaka, S; Sugio, T; Matsuzawa, M; Inui, T; Moriya, T; Glover, G H; Nakai, T

    2001-07-01

    A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment at 3 tesla was performed to investigate the collaborative mechanism between visuospatial processing and motor execution in performing visual language generation tasks. Japanese Kanji, ideographic characters, were utilized to design tasks. The bilateral border portions between the inferior parietal lobule and the occipital lobe were involved during a Kanji puzzle task, which required subjects to combine several parts into a Kanji. The higher motor areas, such as the premotor areas and the pre-supplementary motor areas, were also activated bilaterally during the puzzle task. The parieto-occipital activation may be related to analysis of configuration or segmentation/integration of Kanji figures. Activation in the higher motor areas may be induced by cognitive components related to motor function to perform the visuospatial language task, such as intense reference for displayed characters and finding a proper character for puzzle solution. A collaborative mechanism in these areas may explain the effectiveness of tactile reading in letter recognition by patients with pure alexia or kinesthetic facilitation by Kanji users when recalling difficult Kanji.

  14. Timpanismo bilateral de bolsa gutural em potro Bilateral tympany of a guttural pouch in foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Araújo Valadão

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma potra da raça Quarto de Milha com dois meses de idade apresentava aumento de volume bilateral na região da parótida desde algumas horas após o nascimento. Por exame radiográfico diagnosticou-se timpanismo bilateral de bolsa gutural. Realizou-se a abertura cirúrgica da bolsa gutural esquerda e fenestrou-se o septo medial das bolsas guturais. Adicionalmente, procedeu-se à ressecção parcial da mucosa na abertura do orifício guturo-faríngeo. A afecção foi debelada, sem recidivas.A 2-month old Quarter Horse filly presented, since few hours after birth, increased bilateral volume in the parotid gland region, with progressive enlargement. The radiographic examination revealed bilateral tympany of guttural pouch. Surgery was performed by medial septal fenestration. In addition, partial ressection of mucous membrane of the pharingeal orifice was performed. The disease was healed without recurrences.

  15. Bilateral osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint treated by bilateral tendon interposition arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, A; vanderLei, B; Robinson, PH

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-four flexor carpi radialis (FCR) tendon interposition arthroplasties of the trapezium for bilateral trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis were reviewed. Pain was reduced in all cases. Function was improved in all right hands and in 92% of the left hands. FCR tendon interposition arthroplasty for

  16. Microscopic bilateral posterior cordotomy in severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with bilateral vocal cord paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıman, Nesrin; Koca, Öncel; Boyacı, Zerrin; Levent, Ender; Soylu, Akın Cem; Alparslan, Sümeyye; Saygı, Attila

    2012-03-01

    Vocal cord paralysis is a rare cause of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury after thyroid gland surgery is one of the leading causes of acquired vocal cord paralysis. A 46-year-old woman with OSAS due to bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis was presented. She had thyroidectomy 30 years ago and had a weak, breathy voice. She had been referred with a history of high-pitched snoring, apnea witnessed by her spouse, and excessive daytime sleepiness for the last 5 years. Full-night polysomnography revealed that her apnea-hypopnea index was 72/h and minimal oxygen saturation level was 81%. There was no REM and deep sleep periods. Ear-nose-throat consultation offered an endoscopic bilateral posterior cordotomy operation via microscopic suspension laryngoscopy (MLS) as a treatment option. Instead of using a nasal positive airway pressure (nCPAP) device, she was treated surgically. Her OSAS resolved completely within 5 months of the surgery. Her phonation was preserved, and symptoms such as snoring and hypersomnolance disappeared. In OSAS patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis, MLS-associated bilateral posterior cordotomy can be a choice of treatment as an alternative to nCPAP application.

  17. [Bilateral pheochromocytoma. Is there stimulation of an extra-adrenal adrenaline liberation after bilateral adrenalectomy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, K O; Krause, M

    1992-11-01

    In order to determine plasma and urine epinephrine levels after bilateral adrenalectomy, we examined a 16 year old young man with bilateral pheochromocytoma. Bilateral removal of the adrenals was performed because of a left sided pheochromocytoma relapse. An extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma could be excluded by scintigraphy. Macroscopically all adrenal tissue was removed during surgery. A modified radioenzymatic determination of the free catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine was used according to Peuler and Johnson. Sulfoconjugated catecholamines were measured after addition of 60 microU arylsulfatase type VI. Urine catecholamine levels were determined fluorometrically. The elevated plasma andurine norepinephrine levels before surgery returned to normal after surgery. In contrast, plasma epinephrine levels returned to subnormal values thereafter but increases 5-fold at the end of anesthesia suggesting an extra-adrenal source of epinephrine. Urine epinephrine levels remained in the lower normal range. An insulin induced hypoglycemia was performed resulting in adrenergic symptoms of hypoglycemia and a subnormal increase of epinephrine. We conclude, that epinephrine mediated physiological regulations occur inspite of bilateral adrenalectomy probably by a regulated extra-adrenal source of epinephrine. The kidney could be the site of extra-adrenal epinephrine production.

  18. Bilateral Free Flap Breast Reconstruction Outcomes: Do Abdominal Scars Affect Bilateral Flaps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Unukovych, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion:. Surgical outcomes of bilateral reconstructions in patients with abdominal scars are generally comparable with ones in patients without prior surgery; however, some problems have been identified. These procedures might have some intraoperative considerations and often require increased operative times. Apart from the traditional preoperative computed tomography angiography, intraoperative imaging (e.g., fluorescence angiography may be advocated in patients with abdominal scars.

  19. Bilateral Optic Neuritis After Bee Sting

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    Yusuf Türkyılmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal edema, hyphema, lens dislocation, iris atrophy, cataract and glaucoma cases due to bee sting are frequently reported. Optic neuropathy developing after a bee sting is rarely reported. A 46-year-old man applied to our clinic with visual loss. He had a history of transient loss of consciousness and bilateral severe visual loss after a bee sting 10 days ago. His first diagnosis was myocardial infarction and coronary angiography was applied in a private hospital; the angiography was found normal. In our clinic, his best-corrected visual acuity was 0.5 in the right eye and 0.7 in the left eye. The diagnosis was bilateral optic neuritis, and 64 mg/day oral methylprednisolone treatment was applied. Visual acuity improved to 1.0 in both eyes 39 days later. Optic neuritis due to bee sting is a rare case that can cause severe visual loss and responds well to systemic corticosteroid treatment. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 72-4

  20. Unusual Bilateral Rim Fracture in Femoroacetabular Impingement

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    Claudio Rafols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of one case of bilateral acetabular rim fracture in association with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI, which was treated with a hip arthroscopic procedure, performing a partial resection, a labral reinsertion, and a subsequential internal fixation with cannulated screws. Up to date, there are in the literature only two reports of rim fracture and “os acetabuli” in association with FAI. In the case we present, the pincer and cam resection were performed without complications; the technique used was published previously. With this technique the head of the screw lays hidden by the reattached labrum. We removed partially the fractured rim fragment and the internal fixation of the remaining portion was achieved with a screw. In the event of a complete resection of the fragment, it would have ended with a LCE angle of 18° and a high probability of hip instability. We believe that this bilateral case helps establish the efficacy and reproducibility of the technique described by Larson.

  1. [Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mejido, José Antonio; Delgado-Jiménez, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Palomino, Laura; Sánchez-Sevilla, Miguel; Iglesias-Bravo, Eva; Caballero-Fernández, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: el cáncer de mama en el hombre es una enfermedad con baja incidencia, que se reduce aún más cuando es bilateral sincrónica. Existen pocas publicaciones en los últimos años. Objetivo: establecer pautas para el tratamiento de este cáncer, aunque sea infrecuente. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 75 años de edad, con tumores en ambas mamas, que se le resecaron completamente con exéresis de ganglios palpables. El estudio histopatológico informó que se trataba de un carcinoma ductal infiltrante no especificado. Se indicó tratamiento adyuvante con tamoxifeno y radioterapia; en la actualidad está libre de enfermedad. Conclusiones: el carcinoma mamario bilateral sincrónico en el varón es una enfermedad poco frecuente. Su tratamiento principal es la cirugía, de ahí la importancia del diagnóstico temprano. En la mayoría de los casos se requiere quimioterapia y radioterapia adyuvante porque suelen diagnosticarse en un estadio avanzado.

  2. Clinical Subgroups in Bilateral Meniere Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frejo, Lidia; Soto-Varela, Andres; Santos-Perez, Sofía; Aran, Ismael; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Perez-Guillen, Vanesa; Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Fraile, Jesus; Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Tapia, Maria C.; Trinidad, Gabriel; García-Arumi, Ana María; González-Aguado, Rocío; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan M.; Marques, Pedro; Perez, Paz; Benitez, Jesus; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Meniere disease (MD) is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, episodic vestibular symptoms, and tinnitus associated with several comorbidities, such as migraine or autoimmune disorders (AD). The frequency of bilateral involvement may range from 5 to 50%, and it depends on the duration of the disease. We have performed a two-step cluster analysis in 398 patients with bilateral MD (BMD) to identify the best predictors to define clinical subgroups with a potential different etiology to improve the phenotyping of BMD and to develop new treatments. We have defined five clinical variants in BMD. Group 1 is the most frequently found, includes 46% of patients, and is defined by metachronic hearing loss without migraine and without AD. Group 2 is found in 17% of patients, and it is defined by synchronic hearing loss without migraine or AD. Group 3, with 13% of patients, is characterized by familial MD, while group 4, that includes 12% of patients, is associated by the presence of migraine in all cases. Group 5 is found in 11% of patients and is defined by AD. This approach can be helpful in selecting patients for genetic and clinical research. However, further studies will be required to improve the phenotyping in these clinical variants for a better understanding of the diverse etiological factors contributing to BMD. PMID:27822199

  3. Anaesthetic consideration during laparoscopic bilateral simultaneous nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha P Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective: To assess outcome from anaesthesia during laparoscopic bilateral simultaneous nephrectomy. Design: Retrospective study. Measurements: Preoperative Hb%, serum potassium, coagulation profile electrocardiography (ECG changes, 2D Echography, x-ray chest, haemodynamic changes, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 , fluid management and postoperative analgesia. Results: The mean age was 24.75 ± 14.35 years. The mean duration of surgery was 120 ± 80 minutes. The Hb%, serum creatinine and serum potassium were 9.4 ± 1.04%, 6.79 ± 4.91 meq/L and 3.61 ± 0.51 meq/L, respectively. Pulse rate mean blood pressure and EtCO 2 were recorded after creation of pneumoperitoneum and at 15, 30, 45 and after exsufflation of pneumoperitoneum. After pneumoperitoneum, there was increase in pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and EtCO 2 . After 30 minutes and throughout the surgery, these variables remained stable. Four patients required nitroglycerine infusion for intraoperative hypertention. Only one patient required packed cell volume (PCV transfusion and total intravenous fluid was 1 ± 0.5 L. At the time of exsufflation, there was decrease in pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and EtCO 2 . Conclusion: Because of advancement in anaesthetic agents and muscle relaxant, there is safe outcome from anaesthesia during laparoscopic bilateral simultaneous nephrectomy.

  4. Bilateral high division of sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shwetha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sciatic nerve is the thickest nerve in the body formed by the sacral plexus from L4 to S3 in the lesser pelvis. It emerges through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis and enter the gluteal region. Then the nerve passes on the back of the thigh and at the level of superior angle of popliteal fossa it terminates by dividing into tibial and common peroneal nerve. The knowledge of anatomical variations in the division of nerve is important for various surgical and anaesthetic procedures. During routine dissection in the department of anatomy, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore, a rare bilateral high division of sciatic nerve was observed in a female cadaver aged about 40 years. In the present case there was bilateral high division of sciatic nerve. The nerve was seen dividing into two branches before it emerges through the greater sciatic foramen. The tibial nerve was entering the gluteal region below the piriformis muscle and common peroneal nerve was entering by piercing the piriformis. The knowledge of this variation is important as the nerve may get compressed with surrounding anatomical structures resulting in non discogenic sciatica. The awareness of variations is important for surgeons during various procedures like fracture, posterior dislocation of hip joint and hip joint replacement. The anatomical variations are important during deep intramuscular injections in gluteal region and also for anaesthetists during sciatic nerve block. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1785-1787

  5. The bladder ran dry: bilateral ureteral obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Ami; Drahy, Yosef; Dubin, Ina

    2017-08-07

    A relatively young healthy man (barring obesity and distant gouty arthritis) was admitted with severe acute kidney injury (serum creatinine, 15.9 mg/dL) following acute gastroenteritis and occasional use of diclofenac. Abdominal ultrasound revealed mild left hydronephrosis due to staghorn stone and normal right kidney. Soon after, complete anuria necessitating haemodialysis developed without pain or evidence of infection. CT imaging revealed stones obstructing the right ureter. Following urological surgery, postobstructive diuresis developed and the serum creatinine came down to near normal. The stones were identified as uric acid stones.Anuria has a relatively narrow differential and painless (partially non-dilated) bilateral ureteral obstruction is a distinctly unusual cause. A review of the literature to cover all reported causes of bilateral ureteral obstruction is presented. Only a minority of cases were not associated with an underlying malignant disease or its treatment. The multifactorial aetiology of the patient's acute kidney injury (volume depletion, diclofenac and obstructive uropathy) is presented and discussed. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. A RARE CASE OF BILATERAL MICROSPHEREPHAKIA

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    Pandu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microspherophakia is rare bilateral congenital anamoly of the crystalline lens. The condition may be isolated , familial or it may be associated with systemic affections like Marfan's syndrome , Weil - Marchesani syndrome , hyperlysinemia and congenital rubella. Microspherophakia results in lenticular myopia , lens dislocation , usually inferiorly and inverse glaucoma. We present a case in a 8 year old child who presented with bilateral microspherophakia and anterior dislocation of lens of right eye. visual acuity in right eye was counting fingers close to face and i n left eye 6/60.IOP with perkins applanation tonometer was 30mmHg in right eye 22mmHg in left eye , cornea was hazy due to edema , anterior chamber was shallow in both eye patient was managed with emergency lens extraction of right eye and secondary ACIOL im plantation. Left eye was managed by laser peripheral iridotomy. IOP was within normal limits postoperatively in both eyes without any antiglaucoma medications. Postoperatively best corrected visual acuity in right was 6/18 and 6/9 in left eye.

  7. Bilateral Pneumothoraces Following Central Venous Cannulation

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    F. Pazos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of a bilateral pneumothoraces after unilateral central venous catheterization of the right subclavian vein in a 70-year-old patient. The patient had no history of pulmonary or pleural disease and no history of cardiothoracic surgery. Two days earlier, she had a median laparotomy under general and epidural anaesthesia. Prior to the procedure, the patient was hemodynamically stable and her transcutaneous oxygen saturation was 97% in room air. We punctured the right pleural space before cannulation of the right subclavian vein. After the procedure, the patient slowly became hemodynamically instable with respiratory distress. A chest radiograph revealed a complete left-side pneumothorax and a mild right-side pneumothorax. The right-side pneumothorax became under tension after left chest tube insertion. The symptoms finally resolved after insertion of a right chest tube. After a diagnostic work-up, we suspect a congenital “Buffalo chests” explaining bilateral pneumothoraces and a secondary tension pneumothorax.

  8. Bilateral parotid gland tuberculosis: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Takhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parotid gland tuberculosis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, even in countries where tuberculosis is endemic like India; however, it should be included as one of the differentials of discrete parotid swelling as it generally presents as a slow-growing mass indistinguishable from a malignancy and even imaging too, can’t differentiate these clearly. The majority of the previously reported cases were mostly unilateral and diagnosed by histopathological examination of post parotidectomy specimens. Here we are describing a case of tuberculosis of both parotid glands in a 25 year-old male who was referred to us with bilateral parotid region swelling of two month duration. Tubercular parotiditis was confirmed by demonstration of epithelioid granuloma and caseous necrosis compatible with TB on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. He was treated with four drug anti-TB regimen (2HERZ + 4HR leading to full recovery and complete disappearance of swelling and symptoms with no recurrence till one year of follow up. Apart from rarity due to bilateral involvement, this case report highlights the clinical presentation, ultrasonography and other imaging findings, and significance of FNAC in diagnosis of this uncommon entity reinforcing the fact that the diagnosis of parotid gland tuberculosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion.

  9. Bilateral Electrical Cataract: A Case Report

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    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To present a rare complication, such as bilateral cataracts, in a man who sustained a high-voltage electrical injury. A 35- year-old man was admitted with a complaint of decrease in visual acuity. He had a history of a contact with a power line carrying 30.000 volts of electricity while working at a construction site. Examination at a burn center revealed second-degree facial, neck and left foot burns. One month later, the patient underwent amputation of fourth and fifth toes of his left foot. During the next 6 months, he noted decreasing vision in both eyes. Ocular examination 1 year after the accident revealed that the patient’s visual acuity had deteriorated to 1/10 in both eyes. The cornea on the left eye showed superficial punctate opacities. The lenses in both eyes had anterior subcapsular cortical lens opacities and posterior subcapsular opacities. Uncomplicated bilateral phacoemulsification surgery with intraocular lens implantation was performed and the patient’s visual acuity returned to 10/10 in both eyes. We noted that the fundus remained normal in both eyes. Electrical cataracts are still a serious potential complication that may occur after electrical injury. Awareness of this by burn team members is important for providing optimal treatment to those who have suffered an electrical injury. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 197-9

  10. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  11. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  12. Unilateral or Bilateral Thoracocentesis for Bilateral Pleural Effusion. A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, María Esther; Gude, Francisco; Lama, Adriana; Suárez-Antelo, Juan; Golpe, Antonio; Toubes, M Elena; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Álvarez-Dobaño, José Manuel; Valdés, Luis

    2016-04-01

    In the absence of firm recommendations, we analyzed whether unilateral thoracic puncture is sufficient for bilateral pleural effusion (PE), or if the procedure needs to be performed in both sides. Prospective study of patients seen consecutively for bilateral PE during a period of 3 years and 9 months. All patients underwent simultaneous bilateral thoracocentesis. The standard protocol variables collected in our hospital served as study parameters. Size of PE, presence of chest pain or fever, or accompanying lung abnormalities, different attenuation values on chest computed tomography, presence of loculated pleural fluid, and radiological resolution in a single side were also evaluated. A total of 36 patients (19 men; mean age 68.5 ± 16.5 years) were included. The etiology of the effusion was different in each side in only 2 patients (5.6%). In 6/32 cases (18.8%), the biological analysis of the pleural fluid (in terms of transudate/exudate) from both sides did not correspond with the etiological diagnosis of the effusion. Correlation between biochemical parameters analyzed in the fluid from both sides (Pearson's correlation coefficient) ranged between 0.74 (LDH) and 0.998 (NT-proBNP). As different diagnoses in each side were found in only 2 patients, the circumstances in which bilateral diagnostic thoracocentesis would be necessary could not be determined. Simultaneous bilateral thoracocentesis does not appear to be recommendable. Larger series are needed to establish which factors might suggest the need for simultaneous puncture of both PE. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. The bilateral advantage for famous faces: interhemispheric communication or competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lyndsay M; Burton, A Mike

    2008-04-01

    The bilateral advantage for the perception of famous faces was investigated using a redundant target procedure. In experiment 1 we compared simultaneous presentation of stimuli (a) bilaterally and (b) one above the other in the central field. Results showed a redundancy advantage, but only when faces were presented bilaterally. This result lends support to the notion of interhemispheric communication using cross-hemisphere representations. Experiment 2 examined the nature of such communication by comparing bilateral presentation of identical face images, with bilateral presentation of different images of the same person. When asked to make a familiar/unfamiliar face judgement, participants showed evidence for a redundancy advantage under both bilateral conditions. This suggests that the nature of the information shared in interhemispheric communication is abstract, rather than being tied to superficial stimulus properties.

  14. Graduates of Character - Values and Character: Higher Education and Graduate Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, James; Wilson, Kenneth; Godfrey, Ray; Gray, Ben; Newton, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Graduates of Character is the product of an empirical enquiry into the values, virtues, dispositions and attitudes of a sample of students and employees who volunteered to be involved. The research team sought host sites which would offer a diverse set of interviewees in gender, ethnicity, religion and aspiration. In this study we discuss what character is taken to mean by students and employees in their years of higher education and employment. We examine what their values are, what...

  15. A feature extraction technique based on character geometry for character recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gaurav, Dinesh Dileep

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a geometry based technique for feature extraction applicable to segmentation-based word recognition systems. The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character contour. This features are based on the basic line types that forms the character skeleton. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set, were then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked.

  16. Analysis of Hamlet's Complex Character By Hamlet's Relationship with Other Major Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左欣

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reveal the complexity of the character of Hamlet in Shakespeare's tragedy-Hamlet and the importance of the role that his pretense of lunacy plays in the plot. The different sides of his personality are revealed by the analysis of some of Hamlet's behavior. The argument is also established that the hero's pretense of lunacy is a device in the plot which allows the full display of the character's complexity.

  17. Economic costs and payoffs of bilateral/regional trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Vollrath, Thomas L.; Hallahan, Charles B.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of bilateral and regional free-trade agreements since 1995 is a striking development. The proliferation of these agreements has raised questions among academicians and policymakers about whether they have, in fact, opened markets, created trade, promoted economic growth, and/or distorted trade. This study uses panel data from the 1975-2005 period and the gravity framework to identify the influence of bilateral/regional free-trade agreements on bilateral trade ...

  18. A rare case of bilateral sequential spermatocytic seminoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Spermatocytic seminoma (SS) is a rare testicular neoplasm characterized by a palpable, painless, slowly enlarging mass in the testis. Even more rare is a synchronous bilateral presentation. Only eight cases of bilateral SS have been reported in the literature, of which three cases were present with synchronous testis enlargement, and five were sequential. Here, we report an additional case of synchronous bilateral SS and present a comprehensive relevant literature review concerning clinical features, histopathology, and treatment. PMID:23915031

  19. Unilateral versus Bilateral Instrumentation in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) What is the comparative efficacy of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? (2) What is the safety of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched up to September 30, 2014, to identify studies reporting the comparative efficacy and safety of unilateral versus bilateral instrume...

  20. Influence of bilateral sequential total knee arthroplasty on functional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh N Maniar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The early functional recovery of bilateral TKA patient lags behind that of unilateral TKA patient for the first 5 days, becomes equal by the 14 th day and remains equal till 1 year after surgery. Bilateral TKA patients regain their preoperative functional status by 6 weeks against 3 months for unilateral TKA. The operative status of the contralateral knee makes no difference to early functional recovery after unilateral TKA. With bilateral TKA, there is no difference in pain and ROM parameters.